Food search in a computerized 24-h dietary recall (24hdr) for children should be easiest when the categories reflect children's categorization of foods, in contrast to professional categories. This study assessed how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labeled mixed foods (e.g., fried rice, l...
This study assessed how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labeled grain foods and how these categories and labels were influenced by child characteristics. The main hypotheses were that children categorized foods in consistent ways and these food categories differed from the professional fo...
The study objective was to assess how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labeled food items, for possible use as part of a food search strategy in a computerized 24-hour dietary recall. A set of 62 cards with pictures and names of food items from 18 professionally defined food groups was sor...
Beltran, Alicia; Knight Sepulveda, Karina; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Islam, Noemi; Missaghian, Mariam
Objective: Assess how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labeled food items for possible use as part of a food search strategy in a computerized 24-hour dietary recall. Design: A set of 62 cards with pictures and names of food items from 18 professionally defined food groups was sorted by each child into piles of similar food items.…
This exploratory study assessed how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labelled fruit and vegetables (FaV), and how these were influenced by child characteristics, to specify second-level categories in a hierarchical food search system for a computerised 24-h dietary recall (hdr). Two sets o...
Yee, R; David, J; Khadka, R
The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant (P < 0.005). In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant (P < 0.005). The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.
Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan
Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC) has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old). Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i) EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii) EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old); and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii) EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv) EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old), then Chinese
Dželajlija, Darko D.; Spasić, Slavica S.; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Nataša B.
Summary Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which starts early in life and depends on many factors, an important one being dyslipoproteinemia. According to several studies, atherosclerotic plaques or their precursors could be seen in children younger than 10 years. During later life, interaction with a sedentary way of life, as well as unhealthy nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and family history of cardiovascular disease cause the burden of atherosclerotic disease. Methods Study included 624 children (316 boys, 308 girls), aged from 7–13 years. We analysed socio-demographic data (BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular family history, smoking status), as well as lipid status with lipoprotein little a-Lp(a), and apolipoproteins: Apo AI, Apo B-100 for all children. This enabled us to calculate new atherogenic indices Tg/HDL-c, lipid tetrad index (LTI) and lipid pentad index (LPI). Cardiovascular risk for later life was estimated by using modified Risk Score for Young Individuals (RS), which divided the subjects according to the score level: low, medium and higher risk. Results The older children (13 y) had better lipid status than the younger children, i.e. significantly lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and non-HDL-C concentration and significantly higher HDL-C concentration than the younger children and this was in accordance with the RS level. Children with a positive family history of CV disease had significantly higher Lp(a) concentration and blood pressure. LPI was significantly higher in children with a higher RS. Conclusions The results of our work could be used for cardiovascular risk assessment in apparently healthy children to provide preventive measures which could control the changeable risk factors. PMID:28356880
Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan
Children’s emotion word comprehension (EWC) has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2–13 years old). Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children’s EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children’s EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i) EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2–13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6–8 years old; (ii) EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2–13 years old); and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii) EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv) EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4–6 years old
Farris, R P; Cresanta, J L; Frank, G C; Webber, L S; Berenson, G S
Dietary intakes of carbohydrate (CHO) and fiber were examined in children randomly selected from a biracial community-Bogalusa, LA. Intakes of CHO per 1,000 kcal were similar for both sexes and both races at ages 10 and 13 years. No group or race differences were found for nine components assessed in two cohorts of 10-year-old children examined three years apart. There were sex differences in sucrose (boys less than girls) and lactose (boys greater than girls) intakes. Comparison of 10- and 13-year-olds examined in 1976 showed a racial difference in fiber and starch intakes (black greater than white). Longitudinal comparisons of a cohort of 148 children examined at both 10 and 13 years showed lower lactose intakes over time. At both ages starch, fiber, and glucose intakes per 1,000 kcal were higher in black children, with higher sucrose/starch ratios in white children. The percent of calories from CHO and sugars was higher in Bogalusa children than values for US adults, but starch intakes were lower. None of the children's intakes was compatible with prudent dietary recommendations. Dietary CHO patterns of Bogalusa children reflect food market trends of increased use of simple CHO and decreased use of complex CHO.
Pires, Ivens H.; Paula, Cristiane S.
Objective. To verify if emotional/behavioral problems are associated with lifetime paid work in poor urban children, when taking into account other potential correlates. Methods. Cross-sectional study focused on 9-to-13-year-old children (n = 212). In a probabilistic sample of clusters of eligible households (women 15–49 years and son/daughter <18 years), one mother-child pair was randomly selected per household (n = 813; response rate = 82.4%). CBCL/6-18 identified child emotional/behavioral problems. Potential correlates include child gender and age, socioeconomic status/SES, maternal education, parental working status, and family social isolation, among others. Multivariate analysis examined the relationship between emotional/behavioral problems and lifetime paid work in the presence of significant correlates. Findings. All work activities were non-harmful (e.g., selling fruits, helping parents at their small business, and baby sitting). Children with lower SES and socially isolated were more involved in paid work than less disadvantaged peers. Children ever exposed to paid work were four times more likely to present anxiety/depression symptoms at a clinical level compared to non-exposed children. Multivariate modeling identified three independent correlates: child pure internalizing problems, social isolation, and low SES. Conclusion. There is an association between lifetime exposure to exclusively non-harmful paid work activities and pure internalizing problems even when considering SES variability and family social isolation. PMID:24302872
Muris, Peter; de Jong, Peter J.; Meesters, Cor; Waterreus, Bregje; van Lubeck, Jenet
Covariation bias can be defined as phobic subjects' tendency to overestimate the association between phobic stimuli and aversive outcomes. The current study presents two experiments that examined this type of cognitive bias in children aged 8-13 years (N=147 in Experiment 1, N=240 in Experiment 2). Children completed a self-report questionnaire…
Završnik, Jernej; Pišot, Rado; Šimunič, Boštjan; Kokol, Peter; Blažun Vošner, Helena
Objective To investigate associations between running speeds and contraction times in 8- to 13-year-old children. Method This longitudinal study analyzed tensiomyographic measurements of vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles' contraction times and maximum running speeds in 107 children (53 boys, 54 girls). Data were evaluated using multiple correspondence analysis. Results A gender difference existed between the vastus lateralis contraction times and running speeds. The running speed was less dependent on vastus lateralis contraction times in boys than in girls. Analysis of biceps femoris contraction times and running speeds revealed that running speeds of boys were much more structurally associated with contraction times than those of girls, for whom the association seemed chaotic. Conclusion Joint category plots showed that contraction times of biceps femoris were associated much more closely with running speed than those of the vastus lateralis muscle. These results provide insight into a new dimension of children's development.
Northstone, Kate; Smith, Andrew D A C; Newby, P K; Emmett, Pauline M
Little is known about changes in dietary patterns over time. The present study aims to derive dietary patterns using cluster analysis at three ages in children and track these patterns over time. In all, 3 d diet diaries were completed for children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at 7, 10 and 13 years. Children were grouped based on the similarities between average weight consumed (g/d) of sixty-two food groups using k-means cluster analysis. A total of four clusters were obtained at each age, with very similar patterns being described at each time point: Processed (high consumption of processed foods, chips and soft drinks), Healthy (high consumption of high-fibre bread, fruit, vegetables and water), Traditional (high consumption of meat, potatoes and vegetables) and Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings and snacks). The number of children remaining in the same cluster at different ages was reasonably high: 50 and 43% of children in the Healthy and Processed clusters, respectively, at age 7 years were in the same clusters at age 13 years. Maternal education was the strongest predictor of remaining in the Healthy cluster at each time point – children whose mothers had the highest level of education were nine times more likely to remain in that cluster compared to those with the lowest. Cluster analysis provides a simple way of examining changes in dietary patterns over time, and similar underlying patterns of diet at two ages during late childhood, that persisted through to early adolescence.
Thomassen, Irene; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; van de Poll, Marcel C G
A 13-year old boy presents with pain in the lower right abdomen, showing clinical signs of appendicitis. During McBurney' incision an appendix sana was seen. Histologic examination showed penetrating enterobiasis. This was treated with mebendazol.
Dammann, Kristen; Smith, Chery
Objective: This qualitative study explored low-income children's food-related attitudes and behaviors, and current weight status. Design: Two researchers conducted 14 audiotaped, 60-minute focus groups. Height and weight were measured. Setting: Libraries, homeless shelters, and a community center. Participants: Ninety-two low-income children aged…
Muris, Peter; Vermeer, Esther; Horselenberg, Robert
The present study examined developmental patterns in children's interpretation of anxiety-related physical symptoms and emotional reasoning (i.e., the tendency to infer danger on the basis of physical response information). A sample of 171 children aged between 4 and 13 years were interviewed after listening to a number of vignettes in which the presence and absence of physical symptoms was systematically varied. Results revealed the expected developmental pattern for anxiety-related interpretations of physical symptoms. More precisely, from age 7, children were increasingly capable of linking physical symptoms to the emotion of anxiety. Furthermore, support was obtained for an emotional reasoning effect. That is, children rated vignettes with physical symptoms as more dangerous than vignettes without such symptoms. While the emotional reasoning effect was present in children of all ages, this phenomenon was more salient among older children. Finally, cognitive development as measured by Piagetian conservation tasks appeared to influence children's anxiety-related interpretations of physical symptoms and emotional reasoning. Altogether, these findings are relevant for researchers who are interested in "physical symptoms-based" theories of childhood anxiety.
Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Haraldstad, Kristin; Helseth, Sølvi; Sørum, Ragnhild; Natvig, Gerd Karin
Background While research on school children's health has mainly focused on risk factors and illness, few studies have examined aspects of health promotion. Thus, this study focuses on health promotional factors including general self-efficacy (GSE) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). GSE refers to a global confidence in coping ability across a wide range of demanding situations, and is related to health. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between GSE and HRQOL, and associations between HRQOL and socio-demographic characteristics. Knowledge of these associations in healthy school children is currently lacking. Methods During 2006 and 2007, 279 school children in the seventh grade across eastern Norway completed a survey assessing their GSE and HRQOL. The children were from schools that had been randomly selected using cluster sampling. T-tests were computed to compare mean subscale values between HRQOL and socio-demographic variables. Single and multiple regression analyses were performed to explore associations among GSE, HRQOL and socio-demographic variables. Results Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between increasing degrees of GSE and increasing degrees of HRQOL. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, boys scored higher than girls on self-esteem. School children from single-parent families had lower scores on HRQOL than those from two-parent families, and children who had relocated within the last five years had lower scores on HRQOL than those who had not relocated. Conclusion The strong relationship between GSE and HRQOL indicates that GSE might be a resource for increasing the HRQOL for school children. PMID:19772673
Ueda, Peter; Tong, Leilei; Viedma, Cristobal; Chandy, Sujith J.; Marrone, Gaetano; Simon, Anna; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia
Objectives To assess exposure to marketing of unhealthy food products and its relation to food related behavior and BMI in children aged 3–13, from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a south Indian town. Methods Child-parent pairs (n = 306) were recruited at pediatric clinics. Exposure to food marketing was assessed by a digital logo recognition test. Children matched 18 logos of unhealthy food (high in fat/sugar/salt) featured in promotion material from the food industry to pictures of corresponding products. Children's nutritional knowledge, food preferences, purchase requests, eating behavior and socioeconomic characteristics were assessed by a digital game and parental questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results Recognition rates for the brand logos ranged from 30% to 80%. Logo recognition ability increased with age (p<0.001) and socioeconomic level (p<0.001 comparing children in the highest and lowest of three socioeconomic groups). Adjusted for gender, age and socioeconomic group, logo recognition was associated with higher BMI (p = 0.022) and nutritional knowledge (p<0.001) but not to unhealthy food preferences or purchase requests. Conclusions Children from higher socioeconomic groups in the region had higher brand logo recognition ability and are possibly exposed to more food marketing. The study did not lend support to a link between exposure to marketing and poor eating behavior, distorted nutritional knowledge or increased purchase requests. The correlation between logo recognition and BMI warrants further investigation on food marketing towards children and its potential role in the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in this part of India. PMID:23082137
Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery; Richards, Rickelle
The purpose of this study was to examine low-income mothers' perceptions of their children's height and weight in relation to actual measures, and perceptions of dietary quality and health status. Demographic, anthropometric, and dietary quality/health status data were collected during a multi-phase nutrition research project with low-income Minnesotans, and a sub-set of non-pregnant mother-child dyads (mothers ages ≥ 18 years, children ages 9-13 years) were analyzed (n = 257). Participants were Caucasian, African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Asian, or Other/mixed race, and most were homeless. Relationships between maternal perceptions of their child's height and weight and the actual measures, and maternal perceptions of dietary quality and health status for the dyad, were examined using independent and paired samples t-tests, ANOVA, and paired samples correlations. Comparisons were also made by maternal and child body mass index (BMI) status and living situation. Mothers significantly underestimated their child's height and weight (-4.8 ± 13.9 cm, P = 0.000; -5.3 ± 8.5 kg, P = 0.000); greatest misperceptions of weight were among mothers of overweight/obese children (P = 0.000). Mothers not reporting estimates of their child's height and weight (n = 53) had higher BMIs (P = 0.029), and their children were younger (P = 0.000) and lighter (P = 0.021) compared to mothers who provided estimates. Inability to objectify children's weight status may contribute to the obesity epidemic affecting low-income minority populations. Underestimation of weight status may be influenced by cultural perceptions of body image and socioeconomic status.
Kasvis, Popi; Cohen, Tamara R; Loiselle, Sarah-Ève; Kim, Nicolas; Hazell, Tom J; Vanstone, Catherine A; Rodd, Celia; Plourde, Hugues; Weiler, Hope A
Body composition measurements are valuable when evaluating pediatric obesity interventions. We hypothesized that foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) will accurately track the direction of adiposity change, but not magnitude, in part due to differences in fat patterning. The purposes of this study were to examine the accuracy of body composition measurements of overweight and obese children over time using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BIA and to determine if BIA accuracy was affected by fat patterning. Eighty-nine overweight or obese children (48 girls, 41 boys, age 7-13 years) participating in a randomized controlled trial providing a family-centered, lifestyle intervention, underwent DXA and BIA measurements every 3 months. Bland-Altman plots showed a poor level of agreement between devices for baseline percent body fat (%BF; mean, 0.398%; +2SD, 8.685%; -2SD, -7.889%). There was overall agreement between DXA and BIA in the direction of change over time for %BF (difference between visits 3 and 1: DXA -0.8 ± 0.5%, BIA -0.7 ± 0.5%; P = 1.000) and fat mass (FM; difference between visits 3 and 1: DXA 0.7 ± 0.5 kg, BIA 0.6 ± 0.5 kg; P = 1.000). Bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements of %BF and FM at baseline were significantly different in those with android and gynoid fat (%BF: 35.9% ± 1.4%, 32.2% ± 1.4%, P < .003; FM: 20.1 ± 0.8 kg, 18.4 ± 0.8, P < .013). Bioelectrical impedance analysis accurately reports the direction of change in FM and FFM in overweight and obese children; inaccuracy in the magnitude of BIA measurements may be a result of fat patterning differences.
Kim, Sung Mee; Shin, So Jin; Bae, Jin Gon; Kwon, Kun Young
Endometrial cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer in the Korea and occurs mainly in menopausal women. Although it can develop in young premenopausal women cancer as well, an attack in the adolescent girl is very rare. A 13-year-old girl visited gynecology department with the complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. An endometrial biopsy revealed FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) grade II endometrial adenocarcinoma. In the treatment of endometrial cancer, conservative management should be considered if the patient is nulliparous or wants the fertility preservation. Therefore, we decided to perform a hormonal therapy and a follow-up endometrial biopsy after progestin administration for eight months revealed no residual tumor. We report a case of endometrial cancer occurred in a 13-year-old girl with a brief review of the literature. PMID:27004208
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Graham, Mike; Boobier, Wyndham; Baker, Julien; Davies, Bruce
This study examined the dietary habits of Welsh 12-13 year olds. A cohort of 84 boys and 81 girls, age 12.9 SD 0.3 years; body mass 51.3 SD 12.6kg; and stature 1.54 SD 0.08m, completed a food frequency questionnaire and seven-day food diary. Mean daily kilocalories (kcal/d), and percentages of total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, and protein,…
Chappell, Ava G; Chase, Elizabeth P; Chang, Beverly; Cunningham, Eric; Mihm, Fred; Calame, Antoanella; Fudem, Gary; Cunningham, Bari
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare, autosomal recessive disease involving a defect in DNA repair leading to the premature development of numerous aggressive cutaneous malignancies. Although atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a neoplasm typically found in the setting of extensive sun exposure or therapeutic radiation, AFXs are rarely associated with children with XP. We report the case of a 13-year-old Guatemalan girl with the XP type C variant who developed one of the largest AFXs reported on a child's finger.
Whelan-Johnson, Sophie; Isaacs, John; Pullan, Rupert D
Appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain in children and is treated by an open or laparoscopic appendicectomy. Well documented post-operative complications include wound infection, intra-abdominal collection, and adhesional bowel obstruction. We present the rare case of right sacro-iliitis and iliac bone osteomyelitis in a 13 year old boy following an open appendicectomy for a perforated appendicitis.
This paper gives an account of a project exploring 12- and 13-year-old children's uses of strategies while solving reading and writing test tasks in English as a foreign language EFL. The study was conducted to provide insights into how learners go about solving tasks and what they think and rely on while doing them. The first part provides an…
Baniak, Nick; Podberezin, Mark; Kanthan, Selliah C; Kanthan, Rani
Melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults is uncommon and reported almost exclusively as cutaneous melanoma. Melanoma presenting as a pleural effusion is very rare in adults and not reported in the pediatric population. Additionally, primary pulmonary melanoma is overall very rare and undocumented in pediatric patients. Furthermore, the distinction between a primary pulmonary/pleural melanoma versus a regressed cutaneous melanoma with pulmonary/pleural metastases remains extremely challenging. We discuss a case of a previously healthy 13-year-old girl that presented with a left-sided pleural effusion. Investigations revealed a large mediastinal mass, left-sided pleural and pulmonary nodules, a sacral mass, and bone marrow infiltration. The neoplasm was subsequently diagnosed by morphology and immunocytochemistry with histological correlation as malignant melanoma. As no mucosal, eye, or cutaneous lesions were identified, we deliberate the likelihood of a regressed cutaneous melanoma with metastases versus primary pulmonary/pleural melanoma with pleural effusion and discuss its diagnostic approach.
Glenn, Catherine R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Lissek, Shmuel; Britton, Jennifer C.; Pine, Daniel S.; Hajcak, Greg
The current study examined developmental changes in fear learning and generalization in 40 healthy 8–13 year-olds using an aversive conditioning paradigm adapted from Lau and colleagues (2008). In this task, the conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS−) are two neutral female faces, and the unconditioned stimulus is a fearful, screaming face. The second phase of the study also included a generalization stimulus (GS): a 50% blend of the CS+/− faces. The eye-blink startle reflex was utilized to measure defensive responding. Patterns of fear learning and generalization were qualified by child age. Older children demonstrated greater fear learning (i.e., larger startle during CS+ than CS−) than younger children. In addition, older children exhibited the typical pattern of generalization observed in adults, whereas younger children did not. Finally, fear learning also related to contingency awareness; only children who correctly identified the CS+ demonstrated fear-potentiated startle to the CS+. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:22072276
Parkhill, Faye Fiona; Fletcher, Jo Florence; Greenwood, Janinka; Grimley, Michael; Bridges, Sue
Research indicates that as students move through the school system, many begin to experience difficulties with reading. With this mind, this study explored current practices and perceptions about reading programmes for 11-13-year-old students in New Zealand schools. The study employed an online survey designed to investigate current reading…
Frisen, Ann; Holmqvist, Kristina; Oscarsson, Daniel
This study formed the second wave of a longitudinal research project examining bullying from the students' perspective. A sample of 877 Swedish 13-year-olds filled out a questionnaire regarding the definition of bullying, reasons for why some students are bullied and the experience of adults' response to bullying. In their definitions, girls were…
Rayment, Jonathan H.; Narang, Indra
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare, polygenic primary immunodeficiency. In this case report, we describe a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with multifocal pulmonary aspergillosis and was subsequently diagnosed with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease. CGD has a variable natural history and age of presentation and should be considered when investigating a patient with recurrent or severe infections with catalase-positive organisms. PMID:27445540
Background Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the “Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire” (CGPQ) was systematically developed. Such a measure is frequently requested in the area of childhood overweight. Methods First, an item bank of existing parenting measures was created assessing five key parenting constructs that have been identified across multiple theoretical approaches to parenting (Nurturance, Overprotection, Coercive control, Behavioral control, and Structure). Caregivers of 5- to 13-year-olds were asked to complete the online survey in the Netherlands (N = 821), Belgium (N = 435) and the United States (N = 241). In addition, a questionnaire regarding personality characteristics (“Big Five”) of the caregiver was administered and parents were asked to report about their child’s height and weight. Factor analyses and Item-Response Modeling (IRM) techniques were used to assess the underlying parenting constructs and for item reduction. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relations between general parenting and personality of the caregivers, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) indicators, to establish criterion validity. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the associations of SES indicators and parenting with child BMI z-scores. Additionally, we assessed whether scores on the parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores differed depending on SES indicators. Results The reduced questionnaire (62 items) revealed acceptable fit of our parenting model and acceptable IRM item fit statistics. Caregiver personality was related as hypothesized with the GCPQ parenting constructs. While correcting for SES, overprotection was positively related to child BMI. The negative relationship between structure and BMI was
Spriggs, Merle P
The case of a 13-year-old girl given permission by the Family Court of Australia to begin a sex-change process involves complex issues. Nevertheless, the ethical justification for the decision is not complicated. In this case, it can be argued that the net benefit eclipses concerns about competence, autonomy and the appropriateness of the intervention. The debate this case generated in the media reminds us that one of the essential tasks in ethics debates is to get our facts straight.
Repetto, Paolo; Bianchini, Maria Anastasia; Ceccarelli, Pier Luca; Roncati, Luca; Durante, Viviana; Biondini, Diego; Maiorana, Antonio; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Cacciari, Alfredo
Xanthogranulomatous orchitis is an extremely rare inflammatory nonneoplastic lesion of the testis. We report a case of a 13-year-old adolescent boy who presented a painless left hemiscrotal swelling. The subsequent ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of abnormal expanding tissue located in both testes and spermatic cord, reaching the internal inguinal ring. Testicular tumor markers were normal. The frozen section examination of the surgical specimen showed only inflammatory tissue and not neoplastic tissue. No orchiectomy was performed. Definitive histopathologic diagnosis was xanthogranulomatous inflammation. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case of xanthogranulomatous orchiepididymitis and funiculitis found in medical literature.
Orion, Camille; Sfecci, Alicia; Tisseau, Laurent; Darrieux, Laure; Safa, Gilles
Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG) is a rare, benign pediatric dermatological lesion that occurs in children between 8 months and 13 years of age. The pathogenesis of IFAG is still unclear but it is likely to be associated with granulomatous rosacea in childhood. Here we describe a case of IFAG in a 13-year-old boy who showed a dramatic response to oral doxycycline and topical metronidazole, which supports the hypothesis that IFAG may belong to the spectrum of rosacea. PMID:27920676
Jo, Won Ha; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee; Kwon, Ah Reum
When evaluating the underlying causes of tall stature, it is important to differentiate pathologic tall stature from familial tall stature. Various pathologic conditions leading to adult tall stature include excess growth hormone secretion, Marfan syndrome, androgen or estrogen deficiency, testicular feminization, and sex chromosome anomaly, such as Klinefelter syndrome and XYY syndrome. Men with 47,XYY syndrome can exhibit multiple phenotypes. A 13-year-old boy visited the hospital for evaluation of tall stature. The boy had no other physical abnormalities except tall stature. All biochemical and imaging studies were within the normal ranges. He was diagnosed with XYY syndrome in this chromosome study. When evaluating men with tall stature, XYY syndrome should be ruled out. PMID:26512355
Jo, Won Ha; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ho-Seong
When evaluating the underlying causes of tall stature, it is important to differentiate pathologic tall stature from familial tall stature. Various pathologic conditions leading to adult tall stature include excess growth hormone secretion, Marfan syndrome, androgen or estrogen deficiency, testicular feminization, and sex chromosome anomaly, such as Klinefelter syndrome and XYY syndrome. Men with 47,XYY syndrome can exhibit multiple phenotypes. A 13-year-old boy visited the hospital for evaluation of tall stature. The boy had no other physical abnormalities except tall stature. All biochemical and imaging studies were within the normal ranges. He was diagnosed with XYY syndrome in this chromosome study. When evaluating men with tall stature, XYY syndrome should be ruled out.
Leutgeb, Verena; Schäfer, Axel; Köchel, Angelika; Schienle, Anne
Neurobiological studies have demonstrated that psychotherapy is able to alter brain function in adults, however little exists on this topic with respect to children. This waiting-list controlled investigation focused on therapy-related changes of the P300 and the late positive potential (LPP) in 8- to 13-year-old spider phobic girls. Thirty-two patients were presented with phobia-relevant, generally disgust-inducing, fear-inducing, and affectively neutral pictures while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Participants received one session of up to 4h of cognitive-behavioral exposure therapy. Treated children showed enhanced amplitudes of the LPP at frontal sites in response to spider pictures. This result is interpreted to reflect an improvement in controlled attentional engagement and is in line with already existing data for adult females. Moreover, the girls showed a therapy-specific reduction in overall disgust proneness, as well as in experienced arousal and disgust when viewing disgust pictures. Thus, exposure therapy seems to have broad effects in children.
This study investigates the naming process of contextually non-categorical objects in children from 3 to 9 plus 13-year-olds. 112 children participated in the study. Children were asked to narrate a story individually while looking at Mercer Mayer's textless, picture book "Frog, where are you?" The narratives were audio recorded and transcribed.…
Kalish, Charles W.
Categorization judgments may be right or wrong and more or less useful. When a child calls a whale "a fish," is she making an error, or just describing an interesting similarity? This chapter explores the challenges children face in learning to conform to conventions governing categorization. (Contains 1 figure.)
Chen, Tsinsue; Moon, Karam; deMello, Daphne E; Feiz-Erfan, Iman; Theodore, Nicholas; Bhardwaj, Ratan D
A 13-year-old boy presented with fever and neck pain and stiffness, which was initially misdiagnosed as culture-negative meningitis. Magnetic resonance images of the brain and cervical spine demonstrated what appeared to be an intradural extramedullary mass at the C1-3 level, resulting in moderate cord compression, and a Chiari Type I malformation. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniectomy and a C1-3 laminectomy with intradural exploration for excisional biopsy and resection. The lesion containing the parasite was extradural, extending laterally through the C2-3 foramina. Inflammatory tissue secondary to Onchocerca lupi infection was identified, and treatment with steroids and doxycycline was initiated. At the 6-month follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic, with MR images demonstrating a significant reduction in lesional size. However, 10 weeks postoperatively, the infection recurred, necessitating a second operation. The patient was treated with an additional course of doxycycline and is currently maintained on ivermectin therapy. This is the second reported case of cervical O. lupi infection in a human. In the authors' experience, oral doxycycline alone was insufficient in controlling the disease, and the addition of ivermectin therapy was necessary.
Najada, A S; Dahabreh, M M
A 13-year-old girl with controlled coeliac disease who had been on a gluten-free diet for the past 3 months was admitted with respiratory distress and hypoxia for the past week. Chest radiograph and CT scan showed bilateral widespread alveolar shadowing suggestive of a hypersensitive pneumonitis. There was a dramatic radiological and clinical response to oral corticosteroids. Bronchial lavage was suggestive of recurrent aspiration and histology of a transbronchial biopsy showed pulmonary haemosiderosis. We conclude that pulmonary haemosiderosis may occur in children with coeliac disease who are on a gluten-free diet.
Talathi, Saurabh; Gupta, Neha; Reddivalla, Naresh; Prokhorov, Sergey; Gold, Menachem
Astrocytoma is the most common childhood brain tumor. Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) are high grade gliomas (HGG), found very rarely in pediatric patients. AA mainly results from a dedifferentiation of a low grade astrocytoma. Clinical features of supra-tentorial tumors vary according to their anatomic location, biologic aggressiveness and age of the patient. They can be either completely asymptomatic or present with signs of raised intracranial pressure, seizures (about 40% of cases), behavior changes, speech disorders, declining school performance, or hemiparesis. There have been published adult cases of brain tumor misdiagnosed as viral encephalitis. Due to variety of clinical presentations, diagnosis of AA can be challenging. Here we report a case of a 13 year old girl who presented with clinical features suggestive of viral encephalitis, such as fever, headache, dizziness, and first seizure with postictal sleep and prolonged drowsiness. However, her brain MRI findings were consistent with long standing mass effect from the underlying intracranial contents and that coupled with her history of unusual taste led to further investigations and the diagnosis of the AA. In retrospect, this presentation could have been a temporal epileptic aura. High grade astrocytomas are particularly difficult to treat with a two-year survival rates range from 10% to 30%. The treatment is multimodal with gross total surgical resection of the tumor, followed by radiotherapy with or without nitrosourea-containing chemotherapy regimen. Recent promising results seen with the use of temozolamide in adults has not been yet demonstrated in the pediatric patients. The extent of tumor resection remains the most significant indicator of survival and early recognition of this tumor is essential. This case report emphasizes the fact that mass lesions in the temporal lobe, including high-grade astrocytoma, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of suspected herpes simplex encephalitis
Adegboye, Olasunkanmi Abdulrasheed
Lymphomas are malignant neoplasms of the lymphoid lineage. They are broadly classified as either Hodgkin disease or as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Burkitt's lymphoma, a variety of NHL, is significantly most common in sub-Saharan Africa, where it accounts for approximately one half of childhood cancers. Lymphoblastic lymphoma is less common. A case of paravertebral high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (lymphoblastic lymphoma) “masquerading” as Pott's disease in a 13-year-old child is reported. The present report was informed by the unusual presentation of this case and the intent of increasing the index of diagnostic suspicion. A brief appraisal is provided of the clinical parameters, management strategies and challenges. AT was a 13-year boy that presented on account of a slowly evolving and progressively increasing hunch on the back and inability to walk over 4 and 8 months duration, respectively. There was subsequent inability to control defecation and urination. There was no history of cough. He and his twin brother lived with their paternal grandfather who had chronic cough with associated weight loss. The grandfather died shortly before the child's admission. The child had no BCG immunization. The essential findings on examination were in keeping with lower motor neurons (LMN) paralysis of the lower limbs. The upper limbs appeared normal. There was loss of cutaneous sensation from the umbilicus (T10) downward. There was a firm, (rather tense), non-tender non-pulsatile, smooth swelling over the mid-third of the back (T6-L1) the mass had no differential warmth. It measures about 20×12 cm. Chest radiograph showed no active focal lung lesion, but the thoraco-lumbar spine showed a vertebral planner at L1 and a wedged collapse of T11-T12 vertebrae. There was sclerosis of the end plates of all the vertebral bodies with associated reduction in the bone density. He had an excision biopsy on the 90th day on admission, following which his clinical state rapidly
Center for Education Statistics (ED/OERI), Washington, DC.
The Second International Mathematics Study compared 13-year-old students from 20 countries in five mathematics content areas. Japanese students ranked first in all five areas. This report compares Japan and the United States on three factors potentially related to student performance on mathematics tests. These include: (1) time spent on…
Read, Barbara; Francis, Becky; Skelton, Christine
This paper draws on data from a research project investigating gendered identities and interactions of high-achieving students in Year Eight in England (12-13 years old), particularly in relation to students' "popularity" amongst their peers. As part of this study 71 students were interviewed from nine different schools in urban, rural…
This paper is about therapeutic work with David, a 13-year-old boy who, at the age of 5, was the victim of a hit-and-run road traffic accident resulting in quadriplegia. The circumstances leading to the accident and its sequelae reveal a particularly complex picture, which combines early emotional deprivation and trauma. Although cognitively…
Silva, Ana Filipa; Figueiredo, Pedro; Seifert, Ludovic; Soares, Susana; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J
The aim of this study was to characterize the backstroke swimming technique of 11-13 year-old swimmers when performing at very high intensity. A sample of 114 swimmers was divided into four groups regarding maturational and gender effect, who performed 25- m backstroke swimming at 50-m pace. Using two underwater cameras the general biomechanical parameters (speed, stroke rate, stroke length and stroke index), the arm stroke phases and two indexes of arm coordination (Index of Coordination 1, which characterizes the continuity between propulsive phases of each arm and Index of Coordination 2 that evaluates the simultaneity between the beginning of the pull of one arm and of the recovery of the other arm) were measured. Post- pubertal swimmers achieved higher values of speed (1.06 ± 0.14 and 1.18 ± 0.14 m·s(-1) for pubertal and 1.13 ± 0.14 and 1.24 ± 0.12 m·s(-1) for post-pubertal girl and boy swimmers, respectively), stroke length (1.64 ± 0.26 and 1.68 ± 0.25 m·cycle(-1) for pubertal and 1.79 ± 0.22 and 1.75 ± 0.27 m·cycle(-1) for post-pubertal girls and boys, respectively) and stroke index. Regar-ding genders, male were faster than female swimmers. Boys also showed a higher stroke rate and stroke index than girls, who achieved higher results in the ratio between stroke length and arm span. As it was expected, no hand lag time was noticed in young swimmers. Although no differences were noticed between genders, the Index of Coordination 1 was in catch-up mode (-9.89 ± 3.16 and -10.16 ± 3.60 % for girls and -9.77 ± 2.93 and -10.39 ± 2.44 % for boys pubertal and post-pubertal, respectively) and the Index of Coordination 2 was in superposition mode (1.86 ± 4.39 and 2.25 ± 2.25 % from girls and 1.72 ± 2.62 and 1.95 ± 2.95 % for boys, pubertal and post-pubertal, respectively). Key PointsYoung swimmers adopt the catch-up arm coordina-tion when swimming backstroke.These swimmers present lower stroking parameters then those published for older and higher
Taddei, Phillip J.; Khater, Nabil; Zhang, Rui; Geara, Fady B.; Mahajan, Anita; Jalbout, Wassim; Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Youssef, Bassem; Newhauser, Wayne D.
Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care. PMID:25763928
Erginel, B; Celet Ozden, B; Yesil Onder, S; Yuksel, S; Gun Soysal, F; Celik, A; Salman, T
Phyllodes tumor is a rare primary tumor of the breast. In children and adolescents, it is even rarer with only 20 cases, treatment of which vary in the literature. Herein we report the case of a 13-year-old female patient with a giant benign phyllodes tumor eroding the bottom of the breast skin and causing nipple retraction. We performed breast conservative surgery by mobilizing the areola, using skin flaps and inserting an implant. Breast malignancy, including phyllodes tumor (PT), is very rare in adolescents. PT, previously called cystosarcoma phylloides, consists of leaf-like fronds, from which the tumor gets its name (1, 2). Although PT is most often seen in the fourth decade of life, almost 20 cases have been reported in the adolescent period, most of which are benign. The histologic types are benign, borderline, and malignant, depending on the mitotic rate of the tumor (3, 4).
Goyal, Lata; Bey, Afshan; Gupta, N. D.; Varshney, Amitabh
Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a rare condition characterized by various degree of gingival overgrowth. It usually develops as an isolated disorder but can manifest with multisystem syndrome. We are here presenting a case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with severe enlargement of gingiva covering all most the entire crown involving both maxillary and mandibular arches. Differential diagnosis includes drug-induced and idiopathic gingival enlargement. Excess gingival tissue was removed by full mouth gingivectomy and sent for histopathological examination. Postoperative course was uneventful and patient's esthetics improved significantly. A 12 month postoperative period shows no recurrence. PMID:23230366
Nielsen, Vance G; Steenwyk, Brad L; Burch, Thomas M; King, Colin K; McGiffin, David C
Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune thrombophilic disorder that is uncommon in adults and remarkably rare in children. Thrombotic etiological factors are variable in antiphospholipid syndrome, including antibody-antigen complex-mediated platelet activation, inhibition of anticoagulants, or attenuation of fibrinolysis. We present the case of a child with antiphospholipid syndrome presenting with syncope, constrictive pericarditis and hepatic enlargement that was found to have platelet-mediated hypercoagulability and marked clot lysis via thrombelastography in the preoperative period. Restoration of circulation following pericardectomy and inotropic support was associated with attenuation of hypercoagulability and fibrinolysis. It is concluded that the etiological factors responsible for antiphospholipid syndrome-mediated hemostatic abnormalities and the probable effects of hepatic hypoperfusion on clot lysis in this patient were detected with thrombelastography, and similar thrombelastographic analyses are recommended to compliment standard coagulation assessments of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.
Shayer, Michael; Wylam, Hugh
A crucial issue in the theory of science education at present is the problem of how much it is possible to generalize about steps in understanding achieved by different pupils in a given topic. Many Piagetians believe that there are qualitatively different steps followed in the same succession by all pupils: some Ausubelians believe that there is no such order, and that for each pupil the best criterion for the teacher is the pupil's present knowledge. One purpose of this study is to shed light on this issue. The study to be described made use of three inputs. The development of a technique of psychometrising Piaget by an English team based at London University provided a way of extending a study by Erickson (1977) of personal conceptual inventories to testing a sample of 200 children by a 68 item demonstrated group-test. In addition a team of curriculum developers had provided a tentative list of objectives for the teaching of Heat to Middle School students. The schools in which the study was carried out wished to know which of the objectives were more suitable for 9 or for 12 year-olds. The group-test utilized descriptors both from the Erickson study and from the list of curriculum objectives. In addition to the Heat test a Piagetian group-test (NFER, 1979) in the area of Volume and Heaviness was administered to see whether the development of concepts of Heat could be mapped onto Piagetian stages of development. Test-items in nine aspects of heat were written, with some of the experiments to be demonstrated to the class. These aspects included Conduction, Expansion, Composition of Heat, Temperature Scales, Changes of State, etc. Factor analysis of the data showed that one factor was sufficient to explain the common-factor variance of the heat scales, and that the Heat test was also unifactor with the Piagetian test. It was possible to describe Early Concrete, Late Concrete and Early Formal levels of understanding in the area of Heat and Temperature. In this
Krauthamer Ewing, E. Stephanie; Levy, Suzanne A.; Boamah-Wiafe, Linda; Kobak, Roger; Diamond, Guy
This paper describes the application of Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) to the treatment of a 13-year old female adolescent presenting with high risk of suicide, complicated by a history of depression and sexual trauma. The paper begins with an overview of ABFT, including 1) how attachment theory guides treatment; 2) the structure of the clinical model; and 3) the data that provide empirical support. A case example is then presented that exemplifies the primary clinical procedures used to reach therapeutic goals in ABFT, including attachment repair and autonomy/competence promotion. Weekly changes in suicide ideation and depression scores are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion about implications for family-based treatment of suicidal youth. PMID:25329356
Krauthamer Ewing, E Stephanie; Levy, Suzanne A; Boamah-Wiafe, Linda; Kobak, Roger; Diamond, Guy
This article describes the application of Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) to the treatment of a 13-year-old female adolescent presenting with high risk of suicide, complicated by a history of depression and sexual trauma. The article begins with an overview of ABFT, including (a) how attachment theory guides treatment; (b) the structure of the clinical model; and (c) the data that provide empirical support. A case example is then presented that exemplifies the primary clinical procedures used to reach therapeutic goals in ABFT, including attachment repair and autonomy/competence promotion. Weekly changes in suicide ideation and depression scores are presented. The article concludes with a discussion about implications for family-based treatment of suicidal youth.
ZHANG, HUI; HAO, JING; LI, CHUN-YAN; LI, TAO; MU, YU-LAN
Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary, also known as androblastoma, is a rare neoplasm from the group of sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary. The tumor accounts for <0.5% of all primary ovarian neoplasms. The clinical signs and symptoms of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors can be associated with either hormonal production or the presence of a mass-occupying lesion. In the current study, a 13-year-old female was diagnosed with a stage Ic ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor following abdominal pain and distension. One month after a right oophorectomy, the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scan was negative for residual or recurrent tumor. The overall 5-year survival rate for moderately-differentiated (grade 2) and poorly-differentiated (grade 3) Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors is 80%, and long-term follow-up is therefore highly advised in this patient. PMID:26893701
Sood, Neelam; Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Goyal, Geetika; Ranjan, Reeta
Fibrothecoma accounts for 3-4% of all ovarian neoplasms; it is usually hormonally inactive, but can be estrogenic or sometimes androgenic (11%); it is rare under 30 years. In a very few cases, minor sex cord elements (less than 10% of the tumor area) are present; therefore, it is considered as a separate subgroup of stromal tumors. The importance of immunohistochemistry in recognizing this kind of tumor has been fully documented, with variable results on inhibin staining, but specific positivity for calretenin in such cases. We report here the rare case of a 13-year-old child with ovarian fibrothecoma and minor sex cord stromal elements, who showed negativity for inhibin and positivity for calretenin.
Roberts, Steven O.; Gelman, Susan A.
Research has explored how multiracial individuals are categorized by monoracial individuals, but it has not yet explored how they are categorized by multiracial individuals themselves. We examined how multiracial children (aged 4-9 years old) and adults categorized multiracial targets (presented with and without parentage information). When…
In Germany, an increasing number of children live with one parent alone and have to cope with the separation or divorce of their parents. Emotional drawbacks have frequently been hypothesized for these children. Thus, we studied if such experiences are reflected in speech behavior. Twenty-eight 10- to 13-year-old boys from separated parents (physical separation of the parents was 2 years before the investigation) were compared with 26 boys from parents living together in an interview focusing on attachment-related themes and everyday situations. The interviews were analyzed with regard to coherence of speech, coping with emotional problems, reflectivity, child representation of both parents, and verbal and nonverbal expression of feelings. Boys from separated parents had incoherent speech, difficulties in coping with emotional problems, a poorer reflectivity (thinking about their own mental states and those of others), they represented neither parent supportively and did not show their feelings openly. These results can be traced back to an insecure attachment representation of the boys with separated parents.
Vranjesević, D; Jović, N; Milovanović, D; Djukić, A
Cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a clinical entity characterized by stenotic or occlusive lesions around the terminal portions of the internal carotid arteries (ICA) and the formation of abnormal vascular networks at the base or convexity. This condition is sporadic, and there are no pathological explanations for this cause. A case with unilateral juvenile MMD is reported. A 13-year-old girl with sudden episode of left limbs weakness, accompanied by transient dysphasia and seizures attack, was admitted to our hospital for further investigation. Computed tomography scanning showed an area of localized brain swelling in the right capsular-thalamic region. Angiographic findings demonstra-ted unilateral involvement. Cerebral panangiography reve-aled a high grade stenosis of the right supraclinoid ICA and a peculiar network (moyamoya phenomenon) formed by dilated basal collateral perforating arteries and produced a cloudy image resembling "a puff of smoke". Left carotid angiogram showed a collateral circulation through the anterior communicant artery and apportioned to the right cerebral hemisphere. The vertebrobasilar system was normal. An ultrasoud Doppler study demonstrated a severely decreased blood flow gradient (0.1 l/min) through the right hypoplastic ICA, while the left common and the left ICA showed remarkable increased blood flow, partly due to abondant collateral vessels. Acquired, non-progressive vitiligo with areas of complete pigment loss appeared on flexor wrists, extensor distal extremities, superior eyelids and especially on joints regions (elbow, knee and small joints of the hands and fret). This association has not been reported previosly.
Suriawati, A. A.; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid
Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs). Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC. PMID:27783041
Bakker, M R; Jolicoeur, E; Trichet, P; Augusto, L; Plassard, C; Guinberteau, J; Loustau, D
Effects of fertilization and irrigation on fine roots and fungal hyphae were studied in 13-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aït. in Soland), 7 years after the initiation of the treatments. The fertilization trials consisted of a phosphorus treatment, a complete fertilizer treatment (N, P, K, Ca and Mg), and an unfertilized treatment (control). Fertilizers were applied annually and were adjusted according to foliar target values. Two irrigation regimes (no irrigation and irrigation of a set amount each day) were applied from May to October. Root samples to depths of 120 cm were collected in summer of 2005, and the biomass of small roots (diameter 2-20 mm) and fine roots (diameter = 2 mm) and fine root morphology were assessed. Biomass and length of hyphae were studied by a mesh ingrowth bag technique. Total fine root biomass in the litter and in the 0-120 cm soil profile ranged between 111 and 296 g m(-2). Results derived from the measurements of biomass and root length, or root area, showed that both fertilizer treatments reduced the size of the fine root system, especially in the top soil layers, but did not affect small roots. Compared with control treatments, fine root morphology was affected by both fertilizer treatments with the fine roots having increased specific root length/area, and irrigation tended to reinforce this finer morphology. The amount of hyphae in the mesh ingrowth bags was higher in the fertilization and irrigation treatments than in the controls, suggesting further extension of the root system (ectomycorrhizal infection) and thus of the uptake system. Irrigation had no significant effect on the size of the fine root system, but resulted in a shallower rooting system. Total root to shoot ratios were unaffected by the treatments, but fine root mass:needle mass and fine root area index:leaf area index ratios decreased with increasing nutrient supply. Overall, compared with the control fine roots, increased nutrient supply resulted in a
Rickard, Nikki S.; Bambrick, Caroline J.; Gill, Anneliese
Previous studies demonstrate that private music training has benefits which may transfer to other domains, including verbal memory, intelligence and self-esteem. The current paper reports on the impact of an increase in school-based music training on a range of cognitive and psychosocial measures for 10-13-year-olds in two independent studies. In…
Dickson, Esther; Burton, Neil
This small-scale study reports the findings from an investigation into non-verbal communication. It primarily seeks to analyse whether 9 and 13 year-olds can encode and decode non-verbal communication in the context of classroom behaviour management. This research showed that, in contrast to previous published research, there were no distinct…
Thomas, Non E.; Williams, D. R. R.; Rowe, David A.; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate secular trends in selected cardiovascular disease risk factors (namely adiposity, physical activity, physical fitness and diet) in a sample of Welsh 12-13 year olds between 2002 and 2007. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A secondary school based in South West Wales. Method: Two studies in…
Konez, Orhan; Burrows, Patricia E.; Harmon, William E.
A 13-year-old girl who recently developed hypertension was diagnosed to have an occluded right renal branch artery and was treated successfully with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). To our knowledge, PTA has not been reported as a treatment for totally occluded renal branch arteries, and there is no data available regarding the success rate and possible complications.
Schubert, Jan Christoph
Preconceptions are a crucial factor in the educational learning process. Hence, the investigation of preconceptions is important for learning and teaching in the field of geography. This study examines the preconceptions of 12- and 13-year-old students, regarding the major environmental problem of "desertification." The students'…
This study investigates the naming process of contextually non-categorical objects in children from 3 to 9 plus 13-year-olds. 112 children participated in the study. Children were asked to narrate a story individually while looking at Mercer Mayer's textless, picture book Frog, where are you? The narratives were audio recorded and transcribed. Texts were analyzed to find out how children at different ages name contextually non-categorical objects, tree and its parts in this case. Our findings revealed that increasing age in children is a positive factor in naming objects that are parts or extended forms of an object which itself constitutes a basic category in a certain context. Younger children used categorical names more frequently to refer to parts or disfigured forms of the object than older children and adults while older children and adults used specified names to refer to the parts or extended forms of the categorical names.
Namy, Laura L.; Clepper, Lauren E.
Comparison of perceptually similar exemplars from an object category encourages children to overlook compelling perceptual similarities and use relational and functional properties more relevant for taxonomic categorization. This article investigates whether showing children a contrasting object that is perceptually similar but out of kind serves…
Roberts, Steven O.; Gelman, Susan A.
Categorizations of multiracial individuals provide insight into the development of racial concepts. Children's (4-13 years) and adults', both white (Study 1) and black (Study 2) (N = 387), categorizations of multiracial individuals were examined. White children (unlike black children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as black than as white in the absence of parentage information. White and black adults (unlike children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as black than as white, even when knowing the individuals' parentage. Children's rates of in-group contact predicted their categorizations. These data suggest that a tendency to categorize multiracial individuals as black relative to white emerges early in development and results from perceptual biases in white children but ideological motives in white and black adults. PMID:26315349
Ormel, Ellen A.; Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Hermans, Daan; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo
Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In the present study, the quality of the semantic…
Nicholas, Karen; Fletcher, Jo
The steepest decline in achievement in New Zealand primary schools occurs in Years 7 and 8, with the greatest decline in the subject area of mathematics. The cohort that achieves at the lowest level in New Zealand schools is Pasifika. This study considers the views of those stakeholders involved in the teaching of these children. It seeks to…
Quinn, Sally; Oldmeadow, Julian A.
Research suggests that online communication is associated with increased closeness to friends and friendship quality. Children under 13 years of age are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs), but research with this younger age group is scarce. This study examined the relationship between SNS use and feelings of belonging among children…
Beaudoin, Beata S.; Hill, James M.; Ming, Sue X.
Motor impairment in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high functioning autism (HFA) has been reported previously. This study presents results of a quantitative assessment of neuromotor skills in 14-22 year old HFA/AS. Sixteen HFA/AS and 16 IQ-matched controls were assessed by the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA). The HFA/AS group showed…
Healy, Sean; Haegele, Justin A.; Grenier, Michelle; Garcia, Jeanette M.
The primary purposes of this study were to compare (a) physical activity participation, screen-time habits, obesity, and (b) reported reasons for lack of participation in sport, between a nationally representative sample of Irish children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participation in moderate to vigorous activity, light…
Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R
Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads.
Quinn, Sally; Oldmeadow, Julian A
Research suggests that online communication is associated with increased closeness to friends and friendship quality. Children under 13 years of age are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs), but research with this younger age group is scarce. This study examined the relationship between SNS use and feelings of belonging among children aged 9-13 years. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 443 children (48.98% boys), asking about their SNS use and their sense of belonging to their friendship group. SNS users reported a stronger sense of belonging to their friendship group than non-users, but this was found only among older boys. Furthermore, among boy SNS users, a positive linear relationship was found between the intensity of usage and feelings of belonging. No significant relationships were found for girls. These findings suggest that boys who use these sites are gaining friendship benefits over and above those boys who are non-users or low-intensity users. Longitudinal studies should investigate the causal relationships between SNS use and social effects within this age group.
Zahir, Shokouh Taghipour; Sharahjin, Naser Sefidrokh; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein
Synovial sarcoma is a rare form of malignant tumour and accounting approximately for 8% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Head and neck synovial sarcomas are uncommon and parapharyngeal space involvement is extremely rare. We report a case of synovial sarcoma in the parapharyngeal space of a 13-year-old boy with a history of neurofibromatosis presented with odynophagia, ptosis and left submandibular mass. The lesion extended from retrostyloid parapharyngeal space to the skull base and foramen jugular superiorly. The first clinical and radiological impressions were carotid jugular related tumours such as schwannoma and paraganglioma.
De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Yngve, Agneta; te Velde, Saskia J; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Rasmussen, Mette; Thorsdottir, Inga; Wolf, Alexandra; Brug, Johannes
Background The first aim of the present study was to investigate differences in correlates of vegetable intake between the normal weight and the overweight boys in the Pro Children Cross Sectional Study. The second aim was to explore whether the association between vegetable intake and potential correlates is different in overweight boys compared with normal weight boys. Methods Random samples of mainly 11-year old children were recruited in 9 European countries. The total sample size consisted of 3960 boys (16.5% overweight). A validated self-report questionnaire was used to measure vegetable intake, and personal, social and environmental factors related to vegetable intake in the classroom. Weight and height were reported by the parents of the children in parents' questionnaires. Results Regression analyses explained 23% to 28% of the variance in vegetable intake by potential correlates. Liking, self-efficacy and bringing vegetables to school were related to intake in both normal weight and overweight boys (β's>0.10). Active parental encouragement and availability at home was only related to intake in overweight boys (β's>0.10), whereas knowledge about recommendations was only related to vegetable consumption in normal weight boys (β>0.10) Conclusion Intervention strategies to increase vegetable intake should focus on increase in liking and preferences, increase in self-efficacy, and increase in bringing vegetables to school in both normal weight and overweight boys. Further research should investigate whether advising parents of overweight boys to encourage their child to eat vegetables every day, to insist as far as possible that their child eats vegetables regularly and to make vegetables easily available at home is effective in changing vegetable intake. PMID:17064409
Bauer, Stefan; Dunne, Ben; Whitewood, Colin
Bilateral simultaneous elbow dislocations are extremely rare and have only been described in 12 cases. In the paediatric population unilateral elbow dislocations are rare with 3-6% of all elbow injuries and there are only few studies describing this injury exclusively in children. There is only one case report of a paediatric patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with medial epicondyle fractures. We present a second paediatric case of simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with associated displaced bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a gymnast with joint hyperlaxity (3 of 5 Wynne-Davies criteria) treated with closed reduction and short-term immobilisation (3 weeks). The patient returned to full trampoline gymnastics between 4 and 5 months postinjury and made an uneventful recovery.
Bauer, Stefan; Dunne, Ben; Whitewood, Colin
Bilateral simultaneous elbow dislocations are extremely rare and have only been described in 12 cases. In the paediatric population unilateral elbow dislocations are rare with 3–6% of all elbow injuries and there are only few studies describing this injury exclusively in children. There is only one case report of a paediatric patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with medial epicondyle fractures. We present a second paediatric case of simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with associated displaced bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a gymnast with joint hyperlaxity (3 of 5 Wynne-Davies criteria) treated with closed reduction and short-term immobilisation (3 weeks). The patient returned to full trampoline gymnastics between 4 and 5 months postinjury and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:23234820
Blanco, A; Bonduel, M; Peñalva, L; Hepner, M; Lazzari, M
We report a 13-year-old boy with hereditary deficiency of protein S, who developed a deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb after a varicella with severe cutaneous lesions. Hereditary protein S deficiency is an established cause of thrombophilia; however thrombotic events are seldom described in pediatric patients. A review of previous literature revealed 35 cases, 16 girls and 19 boys, with a first episode below of the age of 18 years old (x = 10y). The 57% of the patients had venous thrombosis, 20% arterial thrombosis, and 14% both and in 9% the type of thrombosis was not reported. Predisposing factors were referred in only 12 cases. The deficiencies can be classified as type I in 25 patients and type III in 8.
Hyohyeon, Cha; Lee, Cha Gon
Relatively little is known about 7q terminal deletion contiguous gene deletion syndrome. The deleted region includes more than 40 OMIM genes. We here report on a 13-year-old boy with 7q terminal deletion syndrome, a 6.89-Mb sized deletion on 7q36.1q36.3, identified by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). He showed microform holoprosencephaly with microcephaly, distinctive facial features, severe intellectual disabilities, behavior problems, seizures, short stature, penoscrotal transposition, and ulnar ray deficiency. To date, no case of penoscrotal transposition or ulnar ray deficiency has been reported in 7q terminal syndrome. The majority of our patient presentations were attributed to dosage expression of the SHH gene with contributions from deleted genes within 7q.
Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Desroches, Amy S.; Ng, Stella
We examined categorical speech perception in school-age children with developmental dyslexia or Specific Language Impairment (SLI), compared to age-matched and younger controls. Stimuli consisted of synthetic speech tokens in which place of articulation varied from "b" to "d". Children were tested on categorization, categorization in noise, and…
Sigel, Irving E.; Olmsted, Patricia P.
This study analyzes the Object Categorization Test (OCT) and the Picture Categorization Test (PCT) to provide (1) psychometric analysis of the tests, (2) substantive analysis detailing variation in performance level as a function of age, race, class, and sex, and (3) normative data yielding frequencies of various score patterns. Data was taken…
Biselli, J M; Machado, F B; Zampieri, B L; Alves da Silva, A F; Goloni-Bertollo, E M; Haddad, R; Eberlin, M N; Vannucchi, H; Carvalho, V M; Medina-Acosta, E; Pavarino-Bertelli, E C
The occurrence of non-mosaic double trisomy is exceptional in newborns. In this paper, a 48,XXY,+21 child, the parental origin of the extra chromosomes and the evaluation of the maternal folate metabolism are presented. The infant was born to a 13-year-old mother and presented with the typical clinical features of Down syndrome (DS). The origin of the additional chromosomes was maternal and most likely resulted from errors during the first meiotic division. Molecular analysis of 12 genetic polymorphisms involved in the folate metabolism revealed that the mother is heterozygous for the MTHFR C677T and TC2 A67G polymorphisms, and homozygous for the mutant MTRR A66G polymorphism. The maternal homocysteine concentration was 4.7 miromol/L, a value close to the one considered as a risk factor for DS in our previous study. Plasma methylmalonic acid and serum folate concentrations were 0.17 micromol/L and 18.4 ng/mL, respectively. It is possible that the presence of allelic variants for the folate metabolism and Hey concentration might have favored errors in chromosomal disjunction during gametogenesis in this young mother. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with non-mosaic Down-Klinefelter born to a teenage mother, resulting from a rare fertilization event combining an abnormal 25,XX,+21 oocyte and a 23,Y spermatozoon.
Krasuska-Sławińska, Ewa; Minko-Chojnowska, Izabela; Pawłowska, Joanna; Dembowska-Bagińska, Bożenna; Pronicki, Maciej; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota
BACKGROUND Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a potential complication of solid organ or bone marrow transplants. The main PTLD risk factors are: the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), transplant type, and use of immunosuppressants. It mainly consists of an uncontrolled growth of lymphocytes in transplant recipients under chronic immunosuppressive therapy. About 85% of PTLDs are EBV-containing B-cell proliferations; 14% are T-cell proliferations, of which only 40% contain EBV; and the remaining 1% is NK-cell or plasmocyte proliferations. PTLD may present various clinical manifestations, from non-specific mononucleosis-like syndrome to graft or other organ damage resulting from pathologic lymphocyte infiltration. PTLD may manifest in the oral cavity. CASE REPORT The objective of this study was to present the case of a 13-year-old female living-donor liver transplant recipient, resulting from biliary cirrhosis caused by congenital biliary atresia, with exophytic fibrous lesions on buccal mucosa and tongue. Exophytic and hyperplastic lesion of oral mucosa were removed and histopathological examination revealed polymorphic PTLD. The patient underwent 6 cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and all the oral lesions regressed completely. CONCLUSIONS All oral pathological lesions in organ transplant recipients need to be surgically removed and histopathologically examined because they present an increased risk of neoplastic transformations such as PTLD.
Fall, Dioumacor; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Nourou Sall, Saïdou; Zoubeirou, Alzouma Mayaki; Sylla, Samba N; Diouf, Diegane
Rhizobial inoculation has been widely used in controlled conditions as a substitute for chemical fertilizers to increase plants growth and productivity. However, very little is known about such effects on mature trees in natural habitats. In this study, we investigated the effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil total microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen content, potential CO2 respiration, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), acid phosphatase activities, and gum arabic production by 13-year-old Senegalia senegal (synonym: Acacia senegal) under natural conditions in the north part of Senegal during two consecutive years. Rhizobial inoculation was performed at the beginning of the rainy season (July) for both years with a cocktail of four strains (CIRADF 300, CIRADF 301, CIRADF 302, and CIRADF 303). Rhizospheric soils were collected in both dry and rainy seasons to a depth of 0-25 cm under uninoculated and inoculated trees. Trees were tapped in November (beginning of dry season) using traditional tools. Gum arabic was harvested every 15 days from December to March. The results obtained from both years demonstrated that rhizobial inoculation increased significantly the percentage of trees producing gum arabic, gum arabic production per tree, soil microbial biomass, FDA, and acid phosphatase activities. However, there was no significant effect on C mineralization and mineral nitrogen (N) content. Gum arabic production was positively correlated to rainfall, soil microbial biomass, and mineral nitrogen content. Our results showed a positive effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production by mature S. senegal trees. These important findings deserve to be conducted in several contrasting sites in order to improve gum arabic production and contribute to increase rural population incomes.
Fall, Dioumacor; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Nourou Sall, Saïdou; Zoubeirou, Alzouma Mayaki; Sylla, Samba N.; Diouf, Diegane
Rhizobial inoculation has been widely used in controlled conditions as a substitute for chemical fertilizers to increase plants growth and productivity. However, very little is known about such effects on mature trees in natural habitats. In this study, we investigated the effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil total microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen content, potential CO2 respiration, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), acid phosphatase activities, and gum arabic production by 13-year-old Senegalia senegal (synonym: Acacia senegal) under natural conditions in the north part of Senegal during two consecutive years. Rhizobial inoculation was performed at the beginning of the rainy season (July) for both years with a cocktail of four strains (CIRADF 300, CIRADF 301, CIRADF 302, and CIRADF 303). Rhizospheric soils were collected in both dry and rainy seasons to a depth of 0–25 cm under uninoculated and inoculated trees. Trees were tapped in November (beginning of dry season) using traditional tools. Gum arabic was harvested every 15 days from December to March. The results obtained from both years demonstrated that rhizobial inoculation increased significantly the percentage of trees producing gum arabic, gum arabic production per tree, soil microbial biomass, FDA, and acid phosphatase activities. However, there was no significant effect on C mineralization and mineral nitrogen (N) content. Gum arabic production was positively correlated to rainfall, soil microbial biomass, and mineral nitrogen content. Our results showed a positive effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production by mature S. senegal trees. These important findings deserve to be conducted in several contrasting sites in order to improve gum arabic production and contribute to increase rural population incomes. PMID:27656192
Diesendruck, Gil; Peretz, Shimon
Visual appearance is one of the main cues children rely on when categorizing novel objects. In 3 studies, testing 128 3-year-olds and 192 5-year-olds, we investigated how various kinds of information may differentially lead children to overlook visual appearance in their categorization decisions across domains. Participants saw novel animals or…
Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt H; Butnor, John; Kress, Lance W; Anderson, Peter H
We used whole-tree, open-top chambers to expose 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees, growing in soil with high or low nutrient availability, to either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 micromol mol-1) carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) for 28 months. Branch growth and morphology, foliar chemistry and gas exchange characteristics were measured periodically in the upper, middle and lower crown during the 2 years of exposure. Fertilization and elevated [CO2] increased branch leaf area by 38 and 13%, respectively, and the combined effects were additive. Fertilization and elevated [CO2] differentially altered needle lengths, number of fascicles and flush length such that flush density (leaf area/flush length) increased with improved nutrition but decreased in response to elevated [CO2]. These results suggest that changes in nitrogen availability and atmospheric [CO2] may alter canopy structure, resulting in greater foliage retention and deeper crowns in loblolly pine forests. Fertilization increased foliar nitrogen concentration (N(M)), but had no consistent effect on foliar leaf mass (W(A)) or light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(sat)). However, the correlation between A(sat) and leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(A) = W(A)N(M)) ranged from strong to weak depending on the time of year, possibly reflecting seasonal shifts in the form and pools of leaf nitrogen. Elevated [CO2] had no effect on W(A), N(M) or N(A), but increased A(sat) on average by 82%. Elevated [CO2] also increased photosynthetic quantum efficiency and lowered the light compensation point, but had no effect on the photosynthetic response to intercellular [CO2], hence there was no acclimation to elevated [CO2]. Daily photosynthetic photon flux density at the upper, middle and lower canopy position was 60, 54 and 33%, respectively, of full sun incident to the top of the canopy. Despite the relatively high light penetration, W(A), N(A), A(sat) and R(d) decreased with crown depth. Although
McCrorie, P Rw; Duncan, E; Granat, M H; Stansfield, B W
Evidence suggests that behaviours such as standing are beneficial for our health. Unfortunately, little is known of the prevalence of this state, its importance in relation to time spent stepping or variation across seasons. The aim of this study was to quantify, in young adolescents, the prevalence and seasonal changes in time spent upright and not stepping (UNSt(time)) as well as time spent upright and stepping (USt(time)), and their contribution to overall upright time (U(time)). Thirty-three adolescents (12.2 ± 0.3 y) wore the activPAL activity monitor during four school days on two occasions: November/December (winter) and May/June (summer). UNSt(time) contributed 60% of daily U(time) at winter (Mean = 196 min) and 53% at summer (Mean = 171 min); a significant seasonal effect, p < 0.001. USt(time) was significantly greater in summer compared to winter (153 min versus 131 min, p < 0.001). The effects in UNSt(time) could be explained through significant seasonal differences during the school hours (09:00-16:00), whereas the effects in USt(time) could be explained through significant seasonal differences in the evening period (16:00-22:00). Adolescents spent a greater amount of time upright and not stepping than they did stepping, in both winter and summer. The observed seasonal effects for both UNSt(time) and USt(time) provide important information for behaviour change intervention programs.
Dixon, Mark R.; Belisle, Jordan; Stanley, Caleb R.; Speelman, Ryan C.; Rowsey, Kyle E.; Kime, Dena; Daar, Jacob H.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate a procedure to generate derived categorical responding by three children with disabilities and to promote the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responses. In the study, three 4-member equivalence classes including three stimuli (A, B, and C) and a category name (D) for each class were trained…
Lawson, Chris A.; Fisher, Anna V.; Rakison, David H.
Young children are able to categorize animals on the basis of unobservable features such as shared biological properties (e.g., bones). For the most part, children learn about these properties through explicit verbalizations from others. The present study examined how such input impacts children's learning about the properties of categories. In a…
Naigles, Letitia R.; Kelley, Elizabeth; Troyb, Eva; Fein, Deborah
In two experiments, typically developing (TD) children, high-functioning children with autism (HFA) and children with a history of autism who have achieved optimal outcomes (OOs), matched on age (M = 13 years) and nonverbal IQ, were asked to extend properties of categories to new items (categorical induction). All groups demonstrated some…
Thibodeau, Linda M.; Sussman, Harvey M.
Assesses the relationship between production deficits and speech perception abilities. A categorical perception paradigm was administered to a group of communication disordered children and to a matched control group. Group results are tentatively interpreted as showing a moderate perceptual deficit in the communication disordered children of this…
Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy
This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…
Ungerer, Judy A.; Sigman, Marian
Assessment of category knowledge and receptive language skills of 16 autistic (3-6 years old), mentally retarded, and normal children indicated that the autistic children's knowledge of function, form, and color categories was comparable to that of the mental-age-matched mentally retarded and normal comparison groups. (Author/DB)
The purpose of this study was to identify categories of similar foods that are meaningful to children to facilitate their food search in a computer-administered self-completed 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr). One hundred forty-eight 8- to 13-year0old children sorted 62 cards with food pictures, from ...
Recent studies of total dietary ingestion of common indoor contaminants have demonstrated that young children's behaviors while eating can lead to a significant source of food contamination. The difference between children eating their food items with or without their hands wh...
Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Bjork, Robert A.
In order to understand how generalization develops across the lifespan, researchers have examined the factors of the learning environment that promote the acquisition and generalization of categories. One such factor is the timing of learning events, which recent findings suggest may play a particularly important role in children's generalization. In the current study, we build upon these findings by examining the impact of equally spaced versus expanding learning schedules on children's ability to generalize from studied exemplars of a given category to new exemplars presented on a later test. We found no significant effects of learning schedule when the generalization test was administered immediately after the learning phase, but there was a clear difference when the generalization test was delayed by 24 hours: Children in the expanding condition significantly outperformed children in the equally spaced learning condition. These results suggest forgetting and retrieval dynamics may be lower-level cognitive mechanisms promoting generalization and have several implications for broad theories of learning, cognition, and development. PMID:24613074
Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody
Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…
Wang, Michala; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Petersen, Klaus K
The incidence and severity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing and cause high mortality and morbidity. We describe the first pediatric case in Scandinavia with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) positive MRSA septicemia who developed bilateral pneumonia, arthritis of the knee, and osteomyelitis of the tibia. Radiological investigation and interpretation directed the treatment, especially the surgical debridement, and combined with clinical and biochemical findings lead to close interdisciplinary treatment with frequent surgical interventions and antimicrobial combination therapy. The outcome was a healthy patient without sequelae, a favorable course unlike those previously described in the literature. This case underlines the necessity of a close interdisciplinary cooperation in children with severe MRSA infection encompassing pneumonia, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis, using different imaging modalities to guide the surgical and antibiotic treatment. PMID:27867536
Calcus, Axelle; Lorenzi, Christian; Collet, Gregory; Colin, Cécile; Kolinsky, Régine
Purpose: Children with dyslexia have been suggested to experience deficits in both categorical perception (CP) and speech identification in noise (SIN) perception. However, results regarding both abilities are inconsistent, and the relationship between them is still unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between CP…
Johanson, Megan; Papafragou, Anna
Language has been assumed to influence categorization for both adults and children but the precise role and potency of linguistic labels in category formation remains open. Here we explore how linguistic labels help fit objects into categories when relevant perceptual information is either ambiguous or inconsistent with the labels. We also ask how the effects of labels compare to those of other types of information such as facts. We presented 4-year-old children and adults with tasks in which they had to categorize a perceptually ambiguous natural-kind stimulus with one of two equidistant standards (Exp. 1 and 2) or group an ambiguous natural-kind stimulus into a category with a perceptually dissimilar standard (Exp. 3). Participants had access to labels (e.g., "This one is a lorp/pim"), observable facts (e.g., "This one has a long/short beak"), or unobservable facts (e.g., "This one drinks water/milk") that grouped the ambiguous stimulus with one of the standards. Both children and adults followed label- and fact-driven category boundaries for perceptually ambiguous stimuli (Exp. 1 and 2), and continued to do so even when the labels or facts pointed to perceptually incongruent categories (Exp. 3). These findings suggest a strong causal role for both labels and facts in categorization and have implications about theories of how categorization develops in children.
Comments are made on an article by Funk, et al. about children and electronic games. This author argues the cross-cultural differences and developmental effects must be taken into account and that the categorization system of videogames based on content is incomplete or too general to cover the complex actions of contemporary videogames. These factors alone may have implications for research.
Sobel, David M.; Buchanan, David W.
Previous research has shown that preschoolers extend labels and internal properties of objects based on those objects' causal properties, even when the causal properties conflict with the objects' perceptual appearance [Nazzi, T., & Gopnik, A. (2000). "A shift in children's use of perceptual and causal cues to categorization." "Developmental…
Hwang, Michael J; Wu, Pei Ru; Chen, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chia-Yu; Chen, Chih-Jung
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described malignancy of the salivary glands characterized by an ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion gene. Morphologically, MASC is sometimes difficult to distinguish from acinic cell carcinoma. Consequently, identifying the chromosomal translocation is essential for diagnosis. We present a case of parotid gland MASC in a 13-year-old boy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Histologic evaluation showed a tumor composed of microcysts, tubular structures, solid nests, or papillary architecture, with secretions within the lumens of the cysts or tubules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells showed diffuse positive staining of S-100 protein, cytokeratin 19, and vimentin. ETV6 rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and EN fusion transcripts were verified by reverse transcription (RT-PCR) assay.
Bovet, Dalila; Vauclair, Jacques; Blaye, Agnès
Three-year-old children were tested on three categorization tasks of increasing levels of abstraction (used with adult baboons in an earlier study): the first was a conceptual categorization task (food vs toys), the second a perceptual matching task (same vs different objects), and the third a relational matching task in which the children had to sort pairs according to whether or not the two items belonged to the same or different categories. The children were tested using two different procedures, the first a replication of the procedure used with the baboons (pulling one rope for a category or a relationship between two objects, and another rope for the other category or relationship), the second a task based upon children's prior experiences with sorting objects (putting in the same box objects belonging to the same category or a pair of objects exemplifying the same relation). The children were able to solve the first task (conceptual categorization) when tested with the sorting into boxes procedure, and the second task (perceptual matching) when tested with both procedures. The children were able to master the third task (relational matching) only when the rules were clearly explained to them, but not when they could only watch sorting examples. In fact, the relational matching task without explanation requires analogy abilities that do not seem to be fully developed at 3 years of age. The discrepancies in performances between children tested with the two procedures, with the task explained or not, and the discrepancies observed between children and baboons are discussed in relation to differences between species and/or problem-solving strategies.
Kobari-Wright, Vissy V; Miguel, Caio F
We evaluated the effects of listener training on the emergence of categorization and speaker behavior (i.e., tacts) using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design. Four children with autism learned to select pictures given their dictated category names. We assessed whether they could match and tact pictures by category. After training, 3 participants tacted and categorized all pictures, and 1 participant failed both tests. After tact training, this participant categorized. These results suggest that listener training may be an efficient way to produce speaker behavior and categorization in children who have been diagnosed with autism.
Mahoney, Amanda M; Miguel, Caio F; Ahearn, William H; Bell, Julianne
The purpose of this study was to assess the role of common motor responses as the “speaker” behavior on stimulus class formation, and the emergence of functional classes. Experiment 1 examined whether training one motor response to a set of three stimuli and a second motor response to another set of three stimuli would result in correct category-sort responses for 5 typically developing preschool children. Three of the children passed the categorization tests. Experiment 2 examined whether the classes formed in Experiment 1 were functional classes, and whether participants who did not pass categorization tests in Experiment 1 would do so following common vocal tact training. The 2 participants who failed categorization tests in Experiment 1 passed these tests in Experiment 2, although none of the participants passed the tests for functional classes. The results of the current study did not unequivocally support the naming hypothesis. Future research should therefore evaluate other possible sources of control that aid in stimulus categorization. PMID:21541124
Johnson, Kerri L.; Lurye, Leah E.; Tassinary, Louis G.
Two studies examined how children between ages 4 and 6 use body shape (i.e., the waist-to-hip-ratio [WHR]) for sex categorization. In Study 1 (N = 73), 5- and 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, selected bodies with increasingly discrepant WHRs to be "most like a man" and "most like a woman." Similarly, sex category judgments made by 5- and…
Chen, Fei; Peng, Gang; Yan, Nan; Wang, Lan
To track the course of development in children's fine-grained perception of Mandarin tones, the present study explored how categorical perception (CP) of Mandarin tones emerges along age among 70 four- to seven-year-old children and 16 adults. Prominent discrimination peaks were found for both the child and the adult groups, and they were well aligned with the corresponding identification crossovers. Moreover, six-year-olds showed a much narrower width (i.e. a sharper slope) compared to younger children, and have already acquired adult-like identification competence of Mandarin high-level and mid-rising tones. Although the ability to discriminate within-category tone pairs did not change, the between-category discrimination accuracies were positively correlated with chronological ages among child participants. We assume that the perceptual refinement of Mandarin tones in young children may be driven by an accumulation of perceptual development from the tonal information of the ambient sound input.
Kemler Nelson, D G; Frankenfield, A; Morris, C; Blair, E
Three experiments addressed factors that might influence whether or not young children take into account function, as opposed to overall appearance or shape, when they extend the names of novel artifacts. Experiment 1 showed that 4-year-olds more often extend a name on the basis of a demonstrated function when that function provides a plausible causal account of perceptible object structure. Experiment 2 showed that they more often extend a name by function when they respond slowly, and hence thoughtfully. Experiment 3 demonstrated that they are more likely to take function into account when they extend names than when they judge similarities. Comparisons of lexical and non-lexical conditions in younger children failed to show any differences. Overall, the findings suggest that by 4 years of age, children may learn names as labels for novel artifact kinds rather than perceptual classes, and that the processes by which they categorize may be mindful and reflective, as in adults.
Bayet, Laurie; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Tanaka, James W.
Angry faces are perceived as more masculine by adults. However, the developmental course and underlying mechanism (bottom-up stimulus driven or top-down belief driven) associated with the angry-male bias remain unclear. Here we report that anger biases face gender categorization toward “male” responding in children as young as 5–6 years. The bias is observed for both own- and other-race faces, and is remarkably unchanged across development (into adulthood) as revealed by signal detection analyses (Experiments 1–2). The developmental course of the angry-male bias, along with its extension to other-race faces, combine to suggest that it is not rooted in extensive experience, e.g., observing males engaging in aggressive acts during the school years. Based on several computational simulations of gender categorization (Experiment 3), we further conclude that (1) the angry-male bias results, at least partially, from a strategy of attending to facial features or their second-order relations when categorizing face gender, and (2) any single choice of computational representation (e.g., Principal Component Analysis) is insufficient to assess resemblances between face categories, as different representations of the very same faces suggest different bases for the angry-male bias. Our findings are thus consistent with stimulus-and stereotyped-belief driven accounts of the angry-male bias. Taken together, the evidence suggests considerable stability in the interaction between some facial dimensions in social categorization that is present prior to the onset of formal schooling. PMID:25859238
Behre, Ulrich; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Crasta, Priya; Hanssens, Linda; Mesaros, Narcisa
Abstract Background: Vaccinating infants against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most effective way of preventing the disease. However, since HBV exposure can increase during adolescence, it is essential that antibody persistence is maintained. We evaluated the antibody persistence and immune memory against hepatitis B, in 12-13 y olds who had received complete primary + booster vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenza type b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine in infancy. Methods: Open phase-IV study conducted at 12 centers in Germany [NCT02052661]. Adolescents aged 12-13 y, vaccinated with 4 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix hexa™, GSK Vaccines) in infancy, received a single challenge dose of monovalent pediatric hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix™-B Kinder; GSK Vaccines). Blood samples were taken before and 1-month post-challenge to measure anti-hepatitis B (anti-HBs) antibodies using a chemiluminescence immunoassay (seroprotection cut-off: ≥10 mIU/ml). Post-challenge adverse events (AEs) were monitored. Results: 300 subjects were vaccinated; of 293 subjects in the ATP immunogenicity cohort, 60.5% had pre-challenge anti-HBs antibodies ≥10 mIU/ml, which rose to 97.6% post-challenge (≥100 mIU/ml in 94.1%). An anamnestic response was seen in 96.5% subjects. A 150-fold increase in antibody geometric mean concentrations was observed (22.4 to 3502.6 mIU/ml). Pain (44%) and fatigue (24.3%) were the most frequent solicited local and general AEs, respectively; 14.7% subjects reported unsolicited symptoms during the 31-day post-vaccination period. Two vaccine-unrelated serious AEs occurred. Conclusion: Vaccination with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in infancy induces sustained seroprotection and immune memory against HBV, as shown by the strong anamnestic response to the hepatitis B vaccine challenge in 12-13 year-old adolescents. PMID:27653771
Bornstein, Marc H.; Arterberry, Martha E.
Multiple levels of category inclusiveness in 4 object domains (animals, vehicles, fruit, and furniture) were examined using a sequential touching procedure and assessed in both individual and group analyses in 80 12-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month-olds. The roles of stimulus discriminability and child motor development, fatigue, and actions were also investigated. More inclusive levels of categorization systematically emerged before less inclusive levels, and a consistent advantage for categorizing high versus low perceptual contrasts was found. Group and individual analyses generally converged, but individual analyses added information about child categorization over group analyses. The development of object categorization in young children is discussed in light of efficiency of processing and similarity/differentiation theories. PMID:20210495
Bornstein, Marc H; Arterberry, Martha E
Multiple levels of category inclusiveness in 4 object domains (animals, vehicles, fruit, and furniture) were examined using a sequential touching procedure and assessed in both individual and group analyses in eighty 12-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month-olds. The roles of stimulus discriminability and child motor development, fatigue, and actions were also investigated. More inclusive levels of categorization systematically emerged before less inclusive levels, and a consistent advantage for categorizing high versus low perceptual contrasts was found. Group and individual analyses generally converged, but individual analyses added information about child categorization over group analyses. The development of object categorization in young children is discussed in light of efficiency of processing and similarity-differentiation theories.
Kobari-Wright, Vissy V.; Miguel, Caio F.
We evaluated the effects of listener training on the emergence of categorization and speaker behavior (i.e., tacts) using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design. Four children with autism learned to select pictures given their dictated category names. We assessed whether they could match and tact pictures by category. After training, 3…
Hakvoort, Britt; de Bree, Elise; van der Leij, Aryan; Maassen, Ben; van Setten, Ellie; Maurits, Natasha; van Zuijen, Titia L.
Purpose: This study assessed whether a categorical speech perception (CP) deficit is associated with dyslexia or familial risk for dyslexia, by exploring a possible cascading relation from speech perception to phonology to reading and by identifying whether speech perception distinguishes familial risk (FR) children with dyslexia (FRD) from those…
Meunier, Benjamin; Cordier, Francoise
The present study investigated the role of the causal status of features and feature type in biological categorizations by young children. Study 1 showed that 5-year-olds are more strongly influenced by causal features than effect features; 4-year-olds exhibit no such tendency. There therefore appears to be a conceptual change between the ages of…
Deruelle, Christine; Rondan, Cécilie; Salle-Collemiche, Xavier; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Da Fonséca, David
This study was aimed at investigating face categorization strategies in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Performance of 17 children with ASD was compared to that of 17 control children in a face-matching task, including hybrid faces (composed of two overlapping faces of different spatial bandwidths) and either low- or high-pass filtered faces. Participants were asked to match faces on the basis of identity, emotion or gender. Results revealed that children with ASD used the same strategies as controls when matching faces by gender. By contrast, in the identity and the emotion conditions, children with ASD showed a high-pass bias (i.e., preference for local information), contrary to controls. Consistent with previous studies on autism, these findings suggest that children with ASD do use atypical (local-oriented) strategies to process faces.
Gualtieri, C. Thomas C.; And Others
The use of the diagnosis "borderline" was evaluated with 16 children (6 to 13 years old) who were referred for comprehensive evaluation. None met DSM III criteria for borderline personality disorder. The borderline label had a negative impact on some children and was not helpful for treatment planning or disposition. (Author/SEW)
Green, James A.; Whitney, Pamela G.; Potegal, Michael
Young children's temper tantrums offer a unique window into the expression and regulation of strong emotions. Previous work, largely based on parental report, suggests that two emotions, anger and sadness, have different behavioral manifestations and different time courses within tantrums. Individual motor and vocal behaviors, reported by parents, have been interpreted as representing different levels of intensity within each emotion category. The present study used high fidelity audio recordings to capture the acoustic features of children's vocalizations during tantrums. Results indicated that perceptually categorized screaming, yelling, crying, whining, and fussing each have distinct acoustic features. Screaming and yelling form a group with similar acoustic features while crying, whining, and fussing form a second acoustically related group. Within these groups, screaming may reflect a higher intensity of anger than yelling while fussing, whining and crying may reflect an increasing intensity of sadness. PMID:21707157
Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Luts, Heleen; Poelmans, Hanne; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol
Auditory processing problems in persons with dyslexia are still subject to debate, and one central issue concerns the specific nature of the deficit. In particular, it is questioned whether the deficit is specific to speech and/or specific to temporal processing. To resolve this issue, a categorical perception identification task was administered in thirteen 11-year old dyslexic readers and 25 matched normal readers using 4 sound continua: (1) a speech contrast exploiting temporal cues (/bA/-/dA/), (2) a speech contrast defined by nontemporal spectral cues (/u/-/y/), (3) a nonspeech temporal contrast (spectrally rotated/bA/-/da/), and (4) a nonspeech nontemporal contrast (spectrally rotated/u/-/y/). Results indicate that children with dyslexia are less consistent in classifying speech and nonspeech sounds on the basis of rapidly changing (i.e., temporal) information whereas they are unimpaired in steady-state speech and nonspeech sounds. The deficit is thus restricted to categorizing sounds on the basis of temporal cues and is independent of the speech status of the stimuli. The finding of a temporal-specific but not speech-specific deficit in children with dyslexia is in line with findings obtained in adults using the same paradigm (Vandermosten et al., 2010, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107: 10389-10394). Comparison of the child and adult data indicates that the consistency of categorization considerably improves between late childhood and adulthood, particularly for the continua with temporal cues. Dyslexic and normal readers show a similar developmental progress with the dyslexic readers lagging behind both in late childhood and in adulthood.
Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.
This study was designed to examine the effects of adults' labeling and use of social groups on preschool children's intergroup attitudes. Children (N=87, aged 3-5) attending day care were given measures of classification skill and self-esteem and assigned to membership in a novel ("red" or "blue") social group. In experimental classrooms, teachers…
Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang
This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an…
Kisamore, April N; Carr, James E; LeBlanc, Linda A
It has been suggested that verbally sophisticated individuals engage in a series of precurrent behaviors (e.g., covert intraverbal behavior, grouping stimuli, visual imagining) to solve problems such as answering questions (Palmer, 1991; Skinner, 1953). We examined the effects of one problem solving strategy—visual imagining—on increasing responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Participants were 4 typically developing preschoolers between the ages of 4 and 5 years. Visual imagining training was insufficient to produce a substantial increase in target responses. It was not until the children were prompted to use the visual imagining strategy that a large and immediate increase in the number of target responses was observed. The number of prompts did not decrease until the children were given a rule describing the use of the visual imagining strategy. Within-session response patterns indicated that none of the children used visual imagining prior to being prompted to do so and that use of the strategy continued after introduction of the rule. These results were consistent for 3 of 4 children. Within-session response patterns suggested that the 4th child occasionally imagined when prompted to do so, but the gains were not maintained. The results are discussed in terms of Skinner's analysis of problem solving and the development of visual imagining. PMID:21709783
Khodashenas, Ezzat; Aelami, Mohammadhassan; Balali-Mood, Mahdi
Mercury (Hg) is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26109979
Khodashenas, Ezzat; Aelami, Mohammadhassan; Balali-Mood, Mahdi
Mercury (Hg) is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis.
Breier, Joshua; Fletcher, Jack; Klaas, Patricia; Gray, Lincoln
Children ages 7 to 14 years listened to seven tokens, /ga/ to /ka/ synthesized in equal steps from 0 to 60 ms along the voice onset time (VOT) continuum, played in continuous rhythm. All possible changes (21) between the seven tokens were presented seven times at random intervals, maintaining the rhythm. Children were asked to press a button as soon as they detected a change. Maps of the seven tokens, constructed from multidimensional scaling of reaction times, indicated two salient dimensions: one phonological and the other acoustic/phonetic. Better reading, spelling, and phonological processing skills were associated with greater relative weighting of the phonological as compared to the acoustic dimension, suggesting that children with reading difficulty and associated deficits may underweight the phonological and/or overweight the acoustic information in speech signals. This task required no training and only momentary memory of the tokens. That an analysis of a simple task coincides with more complex reading tests suggests a low-level deficit (or shift in listening strategy). Compared to control children, children with reading disabilities may pay more attention to subtle details in these signals and less attention to the global pattern or attribute. [Supported by NIH Grant 1 RO1 HD35938 to JIB.
Birckmayer, Jennifer; And Others
Group leaders of 10- to 13-year-olds may use this program guide to help the preteens interact with young children through six discussion meetings and five visits with a preschool child at home. Discussion topics concern (1) the family environment of young children, (2) children's play; (3) children's play areas at home, (4) safety at home, (5)…
Lippeveld, Marie; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko
Using an observational task followed by an experimental task with an Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm, we examined the effect of input on children's acquisition of class extension rules by investigating the relationship between the amount of polysemous noun-verb pairs in French-speaking 2-year-olds' input and both their spontaneous…
Turnbull, J.; Jenvey, V. B.
Play subtypes of Activity and Pretend have been proposed yet no empirical study has determined the criteria that identify and differentiate these two play subtypes. Children (n=98) and adults (n=38) were shown 10 video examples of human and other primate. Activity and Pretend play and asked to identify which of six criteria (positive affect,…
Anandalakshmy, S.; Davidson, Robert E.
Originating from an interest in the language-cognition relationship as reflected in the cognitive abilities of children, this study was planned to examine the differing theoretical implications of Piaget and Vygotsky regarding categorization. The instrument designed for this study, the Question Game, based on the game of Twenty Questions, was made…
This research tested whether children could categorize foods more accurately and speedily when presented with child-generated rather than professionally-generated food categories; and whether a graphically appealing browse procedure similar to the Apple, Inc, "cover flow" graphical user interface ac...
Peterson, Carole; Bell, Michael
Three- through 13-year olds were interviewed a few days after a hospital stay for traumatic injury, and again six months later. Children provided considerable information about the injury and hospital stay and made few commission errors; children's distress at the time of injury did not affect their recall of the event, but distress during the…
Jampolsky, Gerald G.; Haight, Maryellen J.
Evaluated with 10 hyperkinetic Ss (9- to 13-years-old) was whether hyperkinetic children have more extrasensory perception (ESP) than normal children and learn ESP skills more rapidly than other children. Ss were administered the Operational Assessment Tool ESP teaching instrument. Results did not support the hypothesis that hyperkinetic children…
Windsor, Jennifer; Kohnert, Kathryn; Loxtercamp, Amanda L.; Kan, Pui-Fong
The performance of 8- to 13-year-old monolingual English-speaking children with language impairment (LI) on seven nonlinguistic tasks was compared with two groups of typically developing children, monolingual English-speaking children, and proficient Spanish-English sequential bilingual children. Group differences were apparent, with a key finding…
Peterson, Carole; Parsons, Tina
This study investigated children's memory of stressful, personally meaningful events--in this case, injury experiences. Children (2 to 13 years old) who were brought to the emergency room of a hospital were recruited as subjects if they had sustained trauma injuries such as broken bones or lacerations requiring suturing. A total of 42 were…
Gurland, Suzanne T.; Grolnick, Wendy S.; Friendly, Rachel W.
The expectations children bring to interactions, as well as the information they receive prior to them, may be important for children's experiences of new adults. In this study, 148 children (8-13 years old) reported on their expectations of adults, received one of three types of information about a new adult (positive, realistic, or control), and…
Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari
This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…
Campbell, Lori Ann; Parcel, Toby L.
This study analyzes the effects of human, social, and financial capital on children's home environments in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the United States with a similar sample from Britain. In both countries, the authors find weaker home environments for boys, minority children, and…
Diamanti, Vassiliki; Goulandris, Nata; Stuart, Morag; Campbell, Ruth
We investigated the spelling of derivational and inflectional suffixes by 10-13-year-old Greek children. Twenty children with dyslexia (DYS), 20 spelling-level-matched (SA) and 20 age-matched (CA) children spelled adjectives, nouns, and verbs in dictated word pairs and sentences. Children spelled nouns and verbs more accurately than adjectives and…
Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Suiping; Fan, Yuebo; Huang, Dan; Zhang, Yang
Recent studies reveal that tonal language speakers with autism have enhanced neural sensitivity to pitch changes in nonspeech stimuli but not to lexical tone contrasts in their native language. The present ERP study investigated whether the distinct pitch processing pattern for speech and nonspeech stimuli in autism was due to a speech-specific deficit in categorical perception of lexical tones. A passive oddball paradigm was adopted to examine two groups (16 in the autism group and 15 in the control group) of Chinese children’s Mismatch Responses (MMRs) to equivalent pitch deviations representing within-category and between-category differences in speech and nonspeech contexts. To further examine group-level differences in the MMRs to categorical perception of speech/nonspeech stimuli or lack thereof, neural oscillatory activities at the single trial level were further calculated with the inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) measure for the theta and beta frequency bands. The MMR and ITPC data from the children with autism showed evidence for lack of categorical perception in the lexical tone condition. In view of the important role of lexical tones in acquiring a tonal language, the results point to the necessity of early intervention for the individuals with autism who show such a speech-specific categorical perception deficit. PMID:28225070
Cole, K. C.
The artist Bob Miller liked to say that the worst disease afflicting humankind is ``hardening of the categories'' - the tendency to cram subjects into boxes labeled ``science,'' ``art,'' ``politics,'' ``economics,'' ``play'' - labels that are as outdated and meaningless as divisions between the colors on a continuous spectrum. Over the past 10 years, KC Cole has been organizing free form events that tear down these artificial barriers, and with intriguing results: actors gain insights into character from a topologist; a choreographer solves engineering problems through her knowledge of motion; neuroscientists learn about intuition from filmmakers and string theorists. Categorically Not! - as the series is called - is not (merely) an attempt to ``popularize'' science by looking at it through unlikely lenses, but a real exploration into the deep connections that both illuminate and energize all fields of study. It is a ``people's'' salon, free and open to the general public. Cole will talk about how she overcomes ``hardening of the categories'' not just through events, but also in her popular magazine and newspaper articles, books, radio commentaries, and teaching at USC's Annenberg School of Communication and Journalism.
Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Luts, Heleen; Poelmans, Hanne; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol
Auditory processing problems in persons with dyslexia are still subject to debate, and one central issue concerns the specific nature of the deficit. In particular, it is questioned whether the deficit is specific to speech and/or specific to temporal processing. To resolve this issue, a categorical perception identification task was administered…
Bos, Henny; Gartrell, Nanette; Roeleveld, Jaap; Ledoux, Guuske
This study examined whether Dutch children reared in families headed by female same-sex parents differ in civic competence from Dutch children reared by opposite-sex parents. The participants, drawn from a national sample, included 32 children (11-13 years old) parented by female same-sex couples who were matched on demographic characteristics…
Valentin, Dominique; Chanquoy, Lucile
This study examined the ability of children to classify fruit and flower odors. We asked four groups of children (4-11 years of age) and a group of adults to identify, categorize, and evaluate the edibility, liking, and typicality of 12 fruit and flower odors. Results showed an increase in interindividual agreement with age for the taxonomic…
Yurtal, Filiz; Artut, Kazim
This study investigates Turkish children's perception of violence in school as represented through drawings and narratives. In all, 66 students (12 to 13 years old) from the middle socioeconomic class participated. To elicit children's perception of violence, they were asked to draw a picture of a violent incident they had heard, experienced, or…
Parcel, Toby L.; Campbell, Lori Ann; Zhong, Wenxuan
We analyze the effects of family capital on child behavior problems in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a longitudinal survey sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,864) with a similar sample of children from the 1991 National Child Development Study "British Child"…
Ebersbach, Mirjam; Wilkening, Friedrich
This study is concerned with the development of children's intuitive understanding of nonlinear processes. The ability to estimate linear and exponential growth was examined in 7-, 9-, 11-, and 13-year-old children and adults (N=160). Whereas linear growth was judged correctly at all ages, estimations of exponential growth were in line with…
Picard, Delphine; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Mazella, Anaïs
Research into haptic picture perception has mostly concerned adult participants, and little is known about haptic picture perception in visually impaired and sighted children. In the present study, we compared 13 visually impaired children (early blind and low vision) aged 9-10 years and 13 agematched blindfolded sighted children on their ability…
The article describes the program at Beech Tree House, an experimental unit providing short-term education for multihandicapped children (9 to 13 years old) with deviant behavior. Sections address the following components: referral and duration of stay, facilities, parents, use of punishment, and research. (SBH)
The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study is a probability-based sample of 102 children 3-13 years old who were monitored for commonly used pesticides. During the summer of 1997, first-morning-void urine samples (1-3 per child) were obtained for 88% of study children a...
Collet, G.; Colin, C.; Serniclaes, W.; Hoonhorst, I.; Markessis, E.; Deltenre, P.; Leybaert, J.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of auditory training on voicing perception in French children with specific language impairment (SLI). We used an adaptive discrimination training that was centred across the French phonological boundary (0 ms voice onset time--VOT). One group of nine children with SLI attended eighteen…
Luman, Marjolein; van Meel, Catharina S.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Geurts, Hilde M.
This study validates the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for children (SPSRQ-C), using a Dutch sample of 1234 children between 6-13 years old. Factor analysis determined that a 4-factor and a 5-factor solution were best fitting, explaining 41% and 50% of the variance respectively. The 4-factor model was highly…
Semple, Randye J.; Lee, Jennifer; Rosa, Dinelia; Miller, Lisa F.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for children (MBCT-C) is a manualized group psychotherapy for children ages 9-13 years old, which was developed specifically to increase social-emotional resiliency through the enhancement of mindful attention. Program development is described along with results of the initial randomized controlled trial. We…
Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben
Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005
We Can! (Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition) is a new public education outreach program designed to help children 8-13 years old stay at a healthy weight through improving food choices, increasing physical activity, and reducing screen time. The program is a collaboration of four Institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH):…
Andersson, Ulf; Ostergren, Rickard
The study sought out to extend our knowledge regarding the origin of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) in children by testing different hypotheses in the same samples of children. Different aspects of cognitive functions and number processing were assessed in fifth- and sixth-graders (11-13 years old) with MLD and compared to controls. The…
Describes research among 8- through 13-year-old Hindu children of Punjabi and Gujarati origin in Coventry (England) between 1986 and 1989. Highlights areas of their experience in which their gender is decisive in relation to the role expectations enunciated by the children. Teachers must affirm the culture of their students. (JB)
Begeer, Sander; Gevers, Carolien; Clifford, Pamela; Verhoeve, Manja; Kat, Kirstin; Hoddenbach, Elske; Boer, Frits
Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) participate in social skills or Theory of Mind (ToM) treatments. However, few studies have shown evidence for their effectiveness. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the effectiveness of a 16-week ToM treatment in 8-13 year old children with ASD and normal IQs (n = 40).…
Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.
Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…
Frankel, Fred; Myatt, Robert; Feinberg, David
Twenty-five 6 to 13-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders, who were high functioning, were given 12 weeks of parent-assisted children's friendship training. Thirteen were prescribed various psychotropic medications by physicians in the community prior to treatment (medicated) while 12 were not (unmedicated). Two parent-rated and three…
McGee, Bernestine B; Richardson, Valerie; Johnson, Glenda; Johnson, Crystal
Purpose . To explore the nutrition and physical activity perceptions of children for planning a healthy weight curriculum to address childhood obesity in African-American children living in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Design . Six children's focus group sessions. Setting . Two Louisiana parishes in the LMD. Subjects . Seventy 8- to 13-year-old African-American children, 46 (66%) females and 24 (44%) males, participated in the focus group sessions. Measures . Interview questions were based on personal and environmental determinants and content and strategies for a healthy lifestyle program for children. Analysis . Focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed, observer recorded, and analyzed to identify recurring trends and patterns among focus groups. Content analysis consisted of coding focus group transcripts for recurrent themes and review of data by an independent reviewer to confirm the themes. Results . Emerging themes were categorized as healthy lifestyle opinions within the social cognitive theory constructs of personal and environmental determinants and curriculum content. Conclusion . LMD youth recognized a healthy eating pattern and that overweight and obesity result from poor eating habits and physical inactivity. Children's food intake pattern did not reflect this understanding, suggesting a need for culturally tailoring an intervention to impact the poor food intake and physical inactivity in two low-income African-American Delta communities.
Ciesielski, Kristina T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Bedrick, Edward J.; Kerwin, Audra A.; Hamalainen, Matti S.
Top-down cognitive control has been associated in adults with the prefrontal-parietal network. In children the brain mechanisms of top-down control have rarely been studied. We examined developmental differences in top-down cognitive control by monitoring event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) of alpha-band…
Baldwin, Jennifer S.; Dadds, Mark R.
Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), which measures physical symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic. Method: Using a community sample of Australian children (8-13 years old), the internal stability, factor structure, and convergent validity of child-…
Ranjan, Apara; Srinivasan, Narayanan
Theories of categorization need to account for ways in which people use their creativity to categorize things, especially in the context of similarity. The current three-phase study is a preliminary attempt to understand how people group concepts together as well as to explore the role of similarity between concepts in creative categorization.…
Seland, Monica; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bratterud, Åse
The aim of the study on which this paper is based was to explore in which situations and contexts Norwegian 1-3-year-olds experience subjective wellbeing in day care. The data in this study was collected through qualitative phenomenological observations of 18 children, and an inductive process of analysis was conducted. The results show that…
Burrows, Lisette; Wright, Jan; McCormack, Jaleh
Objective: To investigate New Zealand children's understandings of "health". Design: Secondary analysis of student responses to a task called "Being Healthy" in New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project. Setting: Year 4 (8-9 year-old) and Year 8 (12-13 year-old) students who took part in New Zealand's National…
Del Prete, Francesco; Mirandola, Chiara; Konishi, Mahiko; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ghetti, Simona
The effects of warning on false recognition and associated subjective experience of false recollection and familiarity were investigated in 7-to 13-year-old children and young adults (N = 259) using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two warning conditions (warning with an example of a critical lure and warning without an example of a…
Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M.
Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in…
Gordon, Evan M.; Lee, Philip S.; Maisog, Jose M.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Billington, Michael E.; VanMeter, John; Vaidya, Chandan J.
A default mode network of brain regions is known to demonstrate coordinated activity during the resting state. While the default mode network is well characterized in adults, few investigations have focused upon its development. We scanned 9-13-year-old children with diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.…
Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use in adult and pediatric populations. This study tested whether 8- to 13-year-old children could complete an early version of the Automated Self Administered 24 (ASA24) hour dietary recall and how this compared to an intervi...
Sma Barn Pa Daghem: En studie av personalens samspel med barn och foraldrar vid lamning, hamtning och fri lek (Infants at Day Care: A Study of Staff Interaction with Children and Their Parents during Leaving, Collecting and Free Play).
Lothigius, Anita Holmstedt
This thesis presents a picture of how staff interact with infants (age group 1-3 years old) and parents at three day care centers. The study focused on the situations of leaving and collecting the children and the children's time of free play both in and outdoors. The theoretical content has an attachment/psycho-dynamical perspective with emphasis…
Our objective was to simulate the effect of child-friendly (CF) adaptations of the National Cancer Institute’s Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall (ASA24) on estimates of nutrient intake. One hundred twenty children, 8–13 years old, entered their previous day’s intake using the ASA24 ...
The children's novel "Out of the Dust" (Hesse, 1997) is an evocative portrayal of the drought and dust storms that devastated Midwestern farms in the 1930s. Through the voice of her 13-year-old narrator, Karen Hesse intertwines history and free verse poetry to create what many readers find to be a moving depiction of the Oklahoma…
Waillet, Nastasya van der Straten; Roskam, Isabelle
The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this religious social categorization. Moreover, social factors play a role in the development. Religious categorization is likely to appear sooner in children attending heterogeneous schools than in those at homogeneous schools, and children from the minority religious group in the country understand religious categorization earlier than children from the majority group. However, no relation was found between the age at which religious categorization was understood and parents' religious socialization practices. This study is of both theoretical and practical interest: It complements what is already known about gender, race, and ethnic categorization by integrating developmental and social frameworks, and it can serve as a guideline for educational programs.
Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.
Speech perception (SP) most commonly refers to the perceptual mapping from the highly variable acoustic speech signal to a linguistic representation, whether it be phonemes, diphones, syllables, or words. This is an example of categorization, in that potentially discriminable speech sounds are assigned to functionally equivalent classes. In this tutorial, we present some of the main challenges to our understanding of the categorization of speech sounds and the conceptualization of SP that has resulted from these challenges. We focus here on issues and experiments that define open research questions relevant to phoneme categorization, arguing that SP is best understood as perceptual categorization, a position that places SP in direct contact with research from other areas of perception and cognition. PMID:20601702
Mou, Yi; Zhu, Liqi; Chen, Zhe
This study investigated 5- to 13-year-old children's performance in solving horizontal projectile motion problems, in which they predicted the trajectory of a carried object released from a carrier in three different contexts. The results revealed that 5- and 8-year-olds' trajectory predictions were easily distracted by salient contextual features (e.g. the relative spatial locations between objects), whereas a proportion of 11- and 13-year-olds' performance suggested the engagement of the impetus concept in trajectory prediction. The impetus concept is a typical misconception of inertial motion that assumes that motion is caused by force. Children's performance across ages suggested that their naïve knowledge of projectile motion was neither well-developed and coherent nor completely fragmented. Instead, this study presented the dynamic process in which children with age gradually overcame the influences of contextual features and consistently used the impetus concept across motion problems.
Urbancic, Matej; Glazar, Sasa A.
The purpose of this study was to establish what impact experimental work has on the understanding of scientific concepts, what pupils remember about the experiments they carried out and how they are able to formulate and understand the experiment plan. A sample of 386 pupils aged 13+ participated in the research, of which 162 in the experimental…
Lyle, Sue; Roberts, Maggy
This resource packet includes: a teacher's guide; reproducible student worksheets; student activity cards; a simulation game; and a picture book, "The Gifts of 'Kaila.'" The materials are organized in three parts. Part one aims to help students understand something of the beauty and magnificence of the Arctic. Introductory activities…
Lyle, Sue; Jenkins, Alyson
This resource packet includes a teacher's guide, reproducible student activity sheets, a simulation game: "Life with the Incas", and a poster. The resource presents a cross-curricular thematic approach to the United Kingdom's National Curriculum. The materials look at the Andes and the Andean people, the Quechuan, who live in the…
Lyle, Sue; Roberts, Maggy
This resource packet includes a teacher's guide, reproducible student worksheets, posters, activity cards, and a music audiotape: "Song of the Forest," with a booklet of lyrics. The teacher's guide suggests interdisciplinary activities which meet the United Kingdom's National Curriculum requirements and encourage active learning as…
Shayer, Michael; Wylam, Hugh
Describes the development of a Piagetian demonstration group test utilized to assess 9-12 year-old students' (N=161) understanding of heat and temperature. Findings include a unitary relationship between Piagetian stages of development and levels of understanding of heat concepts. (DS)
Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the "Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire" (CGPQ) was systematically dev...
Glik, D C; Stone, K M; McNeil, J D; Berkanovic, E; Jones, M C; Richardes, D A; Mirocha, J M
A sixth grade curriculum entitled "Immunization, Plus!" Was developed to promote adolescent immunization. This targeted immunization curriculum utilized contemporary learning theory and innovative teaching approaches and styles to maximize acceptability among educators. Because instructional time in school was limited, a thematic curriculum was created to embed immunization and communicable disease content within mathematics, science/health, and language arts units. The curriculum, which reflected the theory of multiple intelligences among students, offered an array of different learning formats, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, and bodily-kinesthetic. The curriculum was made available free of charge to school districts in California, and its evaluation was planned to track distribution, utilization, and changes in students' knowledge, attitude, and behavior.
Kirby, Joanna; Inchley, Joanna
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the views of Scottish schoolchildren on active travel to school and their ideas about promotion strategies for school-based interventions. Design/methodology/approach: Focus group discussions were conducted with 66 students from four primary and three secondary schools. Findings: The most common…
The PISA 2000 study found large differences between countries in terms of quality of learning. In some countries, students prefer rote learning to meaningful learning. However, such memorisation of the material does not lead to recallable and usable knowledge in the long run. Ausubel's (1968) well-known theory serves as a basis for several…
Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Yoldi-Petri, Maria Eugenia; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Lavilla-Oiz, Ana; Bove-Guri, Marta
Cat-scratch disease-related neuroretinitis is a relatively unusual pathology, with suspicious clinical epidemiological and serological diagnosis. We present a case of an adolescent suffering from unilateral neuroretinitis associated with Bartonella henselae infection characterized by abrupt loss of vision, optic disc swelling, and macular star exudates with optimal response to antibiotic treatment. PMID:20628521
Schlur, Charles; Bachy, Manon; Wajfisz, Anthony; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Josset, Patrice; Vialle, Raphaël
Osteoid osteoma is a solitary, benign lesion of bone causing significant nocturnal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and bone scan are commonly used in this diagnosis. A case of osteoid osteoma of the distal femur mimicking chronic osteomyelitis with Brodie's abscess is reported and discussed. Initial radiographs and MRI showed a lesion of the distal femur consistent with subacute osteomyelitis with a Brodie's abscess. Because primary malignant tumor could not be eliminated, surgical biopsy was carried out. Histological examination showed a typical nidus consistent with the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Subacute osteomyelitis (Brodie's abscess) may be difficult to distinguish from other malignant or benign bone lesions as osteoid osteoma. CT usually is recommended as the best imaging procedure to identify the nidus and confirm the diagnosis. MRI also can be used for this purpose. Surgical biopsy remains mandatory for unclear lesions before deciding on appropriate treatment.
Alymkulov, D A; Smanova, D K
Heart rate as an integral characteristic of systemic condition in rheumatism was studied in 11-13-year-old children with rheumatic heart disease. The children achieved remission by clinical and laboratory tests and were experiencing postsanatorium readaptation. Pretreatment amplitude of the fluctuations from the mean circadian values were reduced in the patients compared to healthy controls. This shows low compensatory potential of the rheumatic children. Adaptation after sanatorium treatment aggravates the above amplitude diminution, acrophases shifted to later local time.
This work presents categorization experiments performed over noisy texts. By noisy, we mean any text obtained through an extraction process (affected by errors) from media other than digital texts (e.g., transcriptions of speech recordings extracted with a recognition system). The performance of a categorization system over the clean and noisy (Word Error Rate between approximately 10 and approximately 50 percent) versions of the same documents is compared. The noisy texts are obtained through handwriting recognition and simulation of optical character recognition. The results show that the performance loss is acceptable for Recall values up to 60-70 percent depending on the noise sources. New measures of the extraction process performance, allowing a better explanation of the categorization results, are proposed.
Darmoni, Stefan J; Névéol, Aurelie; Renard, Jean-Marie; Gehanno, Jean-Francois; Soualmia, Lina F; Dahamna, Badisse; Thirion, Benoit
Background Categorization is designed to enhance resource description by organizing content description so as to enable the reader to grasp quickly and easily what are the main topics discussed in it. The objective of this work is to propose a categorization algorithm to classify a set of scientific articles indexed with the MeSH thesaurus, and in particular those of the MEDLINE bibliographic database. In a large bibliographic database such as MEDLINE, finding materials of particular interest to a specialty group, or relevant to a particular audience, can be difficult. The categorization refines the retrieval of indexed material. In the CISMeF terminology, metaterms can be considered as super-concepts. They were primarily conceived to improve recall in the CISMeF quality-controlled health gateway. Methods The MEDLINE categorization algorithm (MCA) is based on semantic links existing between MeSH terms and metaterms on the one hand and between MeSH subheadings and metaterms on the other hand. These links are used to automatically infer a list of metaterms from any MeSH term/subheading indexing. Medical librarians manually select the semantic links. Results The MEDLINE categorization algorithm lists the medical specialties relevant to a MEDLINE file by decreasing order of their importance. The MEDLINE categorization algorithm is available on a Web site. It can run on any MEDLINE file in a batch mode. As an example, the top 3 medical specialties for the set of 60 articles published in BioMed Central Medical Informatics & Decision Making, which are currently indexed in MEDLINE are: information science, organization and administration and medical informatics. Conclusion We have presented a MEDLINE categorization algorithm in order to classify the medical specialties addressed in any MEDLINE file in the form of a ranked list of relevant specialties. The categorization method introduced in this paper is based on the manual indexing of resources with MeSH (terms
Smits, Roel; Sereno, Joan; Jongman, Allard
The authors conducted 4 experiments to test the decision-bound, prototype, and distribution theories for the categorization of sounds. They used as stimuli sounds varying in either resonance frequency or duration. They created different experimental conditions by varying the variance and overlap of 2 stimulus distributions used in a training phase…
Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Ratcliff, Roger
Four experiments are presented that competitively test rule- and exemplar-based models of human categorization behavior. Participants classified stimuli that varied on a unidimensional axis into 2 categories. The stimuli did not consistently belong to a category; instead, they were probabilistically assigned. By manipulating these assignment…
The Goodman technique of log linear analysis is ideal for family research, because it is designed for categorical (non-quantitative) variables. Variables are dichotomized (for example, married/divorced, childless/with children) or otherwise categorized (for example, level of permissiveness, life cycle stage). Contingency tables are then…
Proposed categorization of pathological states of EBV-associated T/natural killer-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) in children and young adults: overlap with chronic active EBV infection and infantile fulminant EBV T-LPD.
Ohshima, Koichi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Tadashi; Kim, Chul Woo; Ko, Young H; Lee, Seung-Suk; Peh, Suat-Cheng; Chan, John K C
EBV-associated T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-T/NK LPD) of children and young adults is generally referred to with the blanket nosological term of severe chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV). This disease is rare, associated with high morbidity and mortality, and appears to be more prevalent in East Asian countries. But because there is no grading or categorization system for CAEBV, pathologists and clinicians often disagree regarding diagnosis and therapy. EBV-T/NK LPD includes polyclonal, oligoclonal, and monoclonal proliferation of cytotoxic T and/or NK cells. Moreover, a unique disease previously described as infantile fulminant EBV-associated T-LPD has been identified and overlaps with EBV-T/NK LPD. In the present review a clinicopathological categorization of EBV-T/NK LPD is proposed, based on pathological evaluation and molecular data, as follows: (i) category A1, polymorphic LPD without clonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells; (ii) category A2, polymorphic LPD with clonality; (iii) category A3, monomorphic LPD (T-cell or NK cell lymphoma/leukemia) with clonality; and (iv) category B, monomorphic LPD (T-cell lymphoma) with clonality and fulminant course. Categories A1, A2, and A3 possibly constitute a continuous spectrum and together are equivalent to CAEBV. Category B is the exact equivalent of infantile fulminant EBV-associated T-LPD. It is expected that this categorization system will provide a guide for the better understanding of this disorder. This proposal was approved at the third meeting of the Asian Hematopathology Association (Nagoya, 2006).
Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.
We investigated whether there exists a behavioral dependency between object detection and categorization. Previous work (Grill-Spector & Kanwisher, 2005) suggests that object detection and basic-level categorization may be the very same perceptual mechanism: As objects are parsed from the background they are categorized at the basic level. In…
Keller, Paul E.
This report summarizes a study into some false positive issues in the use of radioxenon as a method to verify a clandestine nuclear weapons explosion. False positives arise due to similarities between the radioxenon signature generated in medical isotope production and that generated in a nuclear weapon explosion. This report also discusses how to categorize the radioxenon by levels of urgency for manual analysis and interpretation and recommends applying machine learning and time series analysis techniques in the automation of radioxenon characterization. The literature indicates that medical isotope production is a major contributor to atmospheric radioxenon and is the main source of confusion in determining the source of radioxenon. While radioxenon emissions from nuclear power plants can be distinguished from that from nuclear weapon explosions, emissions from medical isotope production generate signatures similar to certain nuclide ratios found in nuclear weapons explosions. Different techniques for analyzing nuclide concentrations and ratios as well as including other sensing modalities via sensor fusion are discussed.
Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.; Perkins, Susan M.
Few studies have utilized both categorical and dimensional measures of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. We evaluated 173 children (88 males, 85 females; mean age 11.7y [SD 1.8]; range 9-14y) who had epilepsy (generalized 36%, partial 61%) for at least 6 months. The primary caregiver completed a dimensional measure, the Child Behavior…
Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Strauss, Mark S.
There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) differ in the way in which they cognitively process information. A critical aspect of cognitive processing that is receiving more attention in studies of ASD is categorization. The studies presented here examined the effect of typicality on categorization of objects and gender in high-functioning children, adolescents, and adults with ASD and matched controls. The ASD and control groups showed improved categorization throughout the lifespan for typical and somewhat typical object category members and typical gender faces. However, individuals with ASD took more time to categorize atypical object category members and were less accurate in categorizing atypical gender faces from 8–12 years through adulthood. The implications of these results for teaching categories and category labels to individuals with ASD will be discussed. PMID:22708002
Pugh, Richard C.; And Others
Categorizing Teacher Behavior, developed to measure acquisition of concepts portrayed in the Concepts and Patterns in Teacher-Pupil Interaction film series, measures the ability to identify and categorize instances of the specificed concepts as they are portrayed in reasonably complex filmed classroom interactions. The film series itself is based…
Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John
Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…
Frankel, Fred; Myatt, Robert; Feinberg, David
Twenty-five 6 to 13-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders, who were high functioning, were given 12 weeks of parent-assisted children's friendship training. Thirteen were prescribed various psychotropic medications by physicians in the community prior to treatment (medicated) while 12 were not (unmedicated). Two parent-rated and three teacher-rated social measures served as outcome variables. Results revealed that unmedicated subjects had greater positive change on three of these five measures when compared to children in the medicated group. It was hypothesized that being prescribed psychotropic medication was a marker for refractory psychosocial treatment response by children with autism spectrum disorders.
Beacham, Barbara L; Deatrick, Janet A
This qualitative study described children's (8-13 years old) perspectives of their chronic health conditions (e.g., asthma, diabetes, cystic fibrosis): how they perceived their condition, its management, and its implications for their future. The study used the family management style framework (FMSF) to examine child perspectives on the joint venture of condition management between the child and family. Children within this age group viewed condition management in ways similar to their parents and have developed their own routines around condition management. Future studies of this phenomenon comparing child and parent perspectives would further our understanding of the influence of family management.
Prati, Francesca; Crisp, Richard J.; Meleady, Rose; Rubini, Monica
In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants increased the attribution of uniquely human emotions to them. This effect was explained by the sequential mediation of increased individuation of the outgroup and reduced outgroup threat. Study 3 replicated this sequential mediation model and introduced a novel way of measuring humanization in which participants generated attributes corresponding to the outgroup in a free response format. Participants generated more uniquely human traits in the multiple versus simple categorization conditions. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and consider their role in informing and improving efforts to ameliorate contemporary forms of intergroup discrimination. PMID:26984016
David, Smith, J.; Redford, Joshua S.; Gent, Lauren C.; Washburn, David A.
Categorization researchers typically present single objects to be categorized. But real-world categorization often involves object recognition within complex scenes. It is unknown how the processes of categorization stand up to visual complexity or why they fail facing it. The authors filled this research gap by blending the categorization and…
Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Collet, Gregory; Serniclaes, Willy; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Valdois, Sylviane
We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants' VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition.
Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Collet, Gregory; Serniclaes, Willy; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Valdois, Sylviane
We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants’ VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition. PMID:26950210
Almishari, Mishari I.; Lee, Haengju; Gnanasambandam, Nathan
Images meant for marketing and promotional purposes (i.e. coupons) represent a basic component in incentivizing customers to visit shopping outlets and purchase discounted commodities. They also help department stores in attracting more customers and potentially, speeding up their cash flow. While coupons are available from various sources - print, web, etc. categorizing these monetary instruments is a benefit to the users. We are interested in an automatic categorizer system that aggregates these coupons from different sources (web, digital coupons, paper coupons, etc) and assigns a type to each of these coupons in an efficient manner. While there are several dimensions to this problem, in this paper we study the problem of accurately categorizing/classifying the coupons. We propose and evaluate four different techniques for categorizing the coupons namely, word-based model, n-gram-based model, externally weighing model, weight decaying model which take advantage of known machine learning algorithms. We evaluate these techniques and they achieve high accuracies in the range of 73.1% to 93.2%. We provide various examples of accuracy optimizations that can be performed and show a progressive increase in categorization accuracy for our test dataset.
Zhou, Min; Li, Shenggang; Akram, Muhammad
The present study investigates some novel categorical properties of soft sets. By combining categorical theory with soft set theory, a categorical framework of soft set theory is established. It is proved that the category SFun of soft sets and soft functions has equalizers, finite products, pullbacks, and exponential properties. It is worth mentioning that we find that SFun is both a topological construct and Cartesian closed. The category SRel of soft sets and Z-soft set relations is also characterized, which shows the existence of the zero objects, biproducts, additive identities, injective objects, projective objects, injective hulls, and projective covers. Finally, by constructing proper adjoint situations, some intrinsic connections between SFun and SRel are established.
van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle
The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this…
Knight, Frances Le Cornu; Longo, Matthew R; Bremner, Andrew J
The tactile surface forms a continuous sheet covering the body. And yet, the perceived distance between two touches varies across stimulation sites. Perceived tactile distance is larger when stimuli cross over the wrist, compared to when both fall on either the hand or the forearm. This effect could reflect a categorical distortion of tactile space across body-part boundaries (in which stimuli crossing the wrist boundary are perceptually elongated) or may simply reflect a localised increased in acuity surrounding anatomical landmarks (in which stimuli near the wrist are perceptually elongated). We tested these two interpretations across two experiments, by comparing a well-documented bias to perceive mediolateral tactile distances across the forearm/hand as larger than proximodistal ones along the forearm/hand at three different sites (hand, wrist, and forearm). According to the 'categorical' interpretation, tactile distances should be elongated selectively in the proximodistal axis thus reducing the anisotropy. According to the 'localised acuity' interpretation, distances will be perceptually elongated in the vicinity of the wrist regardless of orientation, leading to increased overall size without affecting anisotropy. Consistent with the categorical account, we found a reduction in the magnitude of anisotropy at the wrist, with no evidence of a corresponding localised increase in precision. These findings demonstrate that we reference touch to a representation of the body that is categorically segmented into discrete parts, which consequently influences the perception of tactile distance.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine associations among lactose maldigestion status, perceived milk intolerance (PMI), dietary calcium intake and bone mineral content in early adolescent females. Methodology: Subjects were 291 girls who participated in a sub-study of the multiple-...
Klapp, Alli; Cliffordson, Christina; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading of students in primary school affected achievement measured by grades one year later, and how the effect varied as a function of cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derive from The Evaluation Through Follow Up longitudinal project. Through a national curriculum…
Tropical rainforests are biologically rich ecosystems, which are threatened by a variety of different human activities. This study focuses on students' knowledge and understanding of rainforest locations, their reasons for protecting these environments and their familiarity with selected concepts about rainforest vegetation and soil. These…
Hopper, Amanda; Haff, Erin E; Barley, Oliver; Joyce, Christopher; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Haff, G Gregory
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training program on movement competency and measures of physical performance in youth female netball players. It was hypothesized that significant improvements would be found in movement competency and physical performance measures following the intervention. Twenty-three junior female netball players (age, 12.17 ± 0.94 yrs; height, 1.63 ± 0.08 m; weight, 51.81 ± 8.45 kg) completed a test battery before and after a six-week training intervention. 13 of these athletes underwent six weeks of neuromuscular training, which incorporated plyometrics and resistance training. Trained athletes showed significant improvements in 20 m sprint time, 505 agility time, countermovement jump height and peak power (p ≤ 0.05, g > 0.8). Additionally, trained athletes significantly improved their score in the Netball Movement Screening Tool (NMST) (p < 0.05, g > -1.30); while the athletes also demonstrated increased reach in the anterior and posteromedial directions for the right and left leg, and in the posterolateral direction for the left leg only in the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) (p < 0.05, g > -0.03). Control subjects did not exhibit any significant changes during the 6-week period. Significant negative correlations were found between improved score on the NMST and decreased 5 m, 10 m and 20 m sprint time, and 505 change of direction time (r > 0.4, p ≤ 0.05). Results of the study affirm the hypothesis that a six-week neuromuscular training intervention can improve performance and movement competency in youth netball players.
Yan, A C; Newman, R D
Bupivacaine is a commonly used local anesthetic in dental, ophthalmologic, and simple surgical procedures. Its current popularity derives from its potency and relatively long half-life. Widespread use of bupivacaine has resulted in sometimes severe adverse reactions when significant systemic absorption has occurred. This report documents a life-threatening event following use of bupivacaine, briefly reviews its neurotoxic and cardiotoxic effects, and raises questions about current management strategies when toxicity occurs.
Barca, Isabel; Castro, Julia; Amaral, Claudia
A great deal of research in history education has focused on students' ideas about the concepts and methodology of the discipline, which is seen as central to consistent development in historical thinking. Recently, studies of adolescents' conceptual frameworks have highlighted some concerns about the coherence and substance of pictures of the…
Wit, M A; van der Meij, E H; Hooimeijer, L H; de Vries, T W
A 13-year-old patient spontaneously lost tooth 47. In addition, he had for several weeks experienced numbness of the lower lip and the chin on the right side, fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, and weight loss. After extensive investigation he seemed to be suffering from a Burkitt lymphoma. Spontaneous loss of permanent teeth in children has an extensive differential diagnosis. Dentists should be familiar with this differential diagnosis as all possible diagnoses are related to serious pathologies. The differential diagnosis includes infectious, metabolic, naplastic, and odontogenic causes. Systematic history taking, physical examination and laboratory investigations will lead to a proper diagnosis.
Braunlich, Kurt; Seger, Carol A.
We used a temporally-extended categorization task to investigate the neural substrates underlying our ability to integrate information over time and across multiple stimulus features. Using model-based fMRI, we tracked the temporal evolution of two important variables as participants deliberated about impending choices: 1) categorical evidence, and 2) confidence (the total amount of evidence provided by the stimuli, irrespective of the particular category favored). Importantly, in each model, we also included a covariate which allowed us to differentiate signals related to information accumulation from other, evidence-independent functions that increased monotonically with time (such as urgency or cognitive load). We found that somatomotor regions tracked the temporal evolution of categorical evidence, while regions in both medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and the striatum tracked decision confidence. As both theory and experimental work suggest that patterns of activity thought to be related to information-accumulation may reflect, in whole or in part, an interaction between sensory evidence and urgency, we additionally investigated whether urgency might modulate the slopes of the two evidence-dependent functions. We found that the slopes of both functions were likely modulated by urgency such that the difference between the high and low evidence states increased as the response deadline loomed. PMID:26564532
processes that underlie the generation and evaluation of explanations might help account for performance on categorization tasks along with consequences...that this process is not normative: compare the experiment to a situation where one urn (category A) contains 3 red and 3 green balls while another...rely on category level representations to aid the process of person perception. Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 showed that people pre ferred to
Lechago, Sarah A.; Carr, James E.; Kisamore, April N.; Grow, Laura L.
We evaluated the effects of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on the relation between listener and intraverbal categorization repertoires of six typically developing preschool-age children using a nonconcurrent multiple-probe design across participants. After failing to emit intraverbal categorization responses following listener categorization…
Strauss, Mark S.; Newell, Lisa C.; Best, Catherine A.; Hannigen, Sarah F.; Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Giovannelli, Joyce L.
While much research has examined the development of facial recognition abilities, less is known about the ability of individuals with and without autism to categorize facial gender. The current study tested gender categorization abilities in high-functioning children (5-7 and 8-12 years), adolescents (13-17 years), and adults (18-53 years) with…
Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan
In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7–10 years). PMID:27252661
Poulin-Dubois, D; Graham, S; Sippola, L
In the present longitudinal study, we examined changes in parental labelling and infants' categorization skills as potential predictors of vocabulary composition, the age of the naming explosion, and the acquisition of subordinate labels. Sixteen French- and English-speaking parent-child dyads were videotaped during a 20-minute free-play session every month beginning when the child was 1;0 and ending at 2;0. The children received object-manipulation tasks every three months and their vocabulary growth was recorded. Parental labelling practices were assessed monthly using a picture-book reading task. Both parental labelling and children's categorization skills predicted the content of children's lexicon, with children with more names in their vocabulary having better categorization skills. Furthermore, the naming explosion was found to coincide with improvement of categorization skills. These findings suggest that the influence of each factor varies as a function of the stage and aspect of lexical development considered.
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.4 Categorical exclusion. Categorical exclusion means a category of actions which do not individually...
Hampton, James A.; Estes, Zachary; Simmons, Claire L.
People categorized pairs of perceptual stimuli that varied in both category membership and pairwise similarity. Experiments 1 and 2 showed categorization of 1 color of a pair to be reliably contrasted from that of the other. This similarity-based contrast effect occurred only when the context stimulus was relevant for the categorization of the…
Huberty, Carl J.; And Others
Three methods of transforming unordered categorical response variables are described: (1) analysis using dummy variables; (2) eigenanalysis of frequency patterns scaled relative to within-groups variance; (3) categorical variables analyzed separately with scale values generated so that the grouping variable and the categorical variable are…
... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test categorization. 493.17 Section 493.17 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 493.17 Test categorization. (a) Categorization by criteria. Notices will be published in the Federal Register which list each specific...
Ramsey, J.L.; Langlois, J.H.; Marti, N.C.
We review and provide empirical evidence to show that infants categorize and process male and female faces differently, with an advantage in processing female faces. To understand this asymmetry in categorization and processing of male and female faces, we evaluate three mechanisms influencing infant categorization of male and female faces:…
Chen, Stephanie Y.; Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.
Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of whether categories are relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use both was and was not appropriate. PMID:25309475
Gurland, Suzanne T; Grolnick, Wendy S; Friendly, Rachel W
The expectations children bring to interactions, as well as the information they receive prior to them, may be important for children's experiences of new adults. In this study, 148 children (8-13 years old) reported on their expectations of adults, received one of three types of information about a new adult (positive, realistic, or control), and then "interacted" with a videotaped "controlling" adult. The effect of information type depended on children's age and prior expectations, with expectancy effects emerging in the context of positive information at the younger end of our age range and in the context of realistic information at the older end of our age range. Furthermore, the more expectations exceeded perceptions (i.e., the more disappointment), the lower children's rapport, affect, and prosocial intentions were and the more internal causal attributions they made. Results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and applied contributions.
Sweeny, Timothy D; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A
Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d' analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms.
Wu, Ping; Bird, Hector R.; Liu, Xinhua; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Fuller, Cordelia; Fan, Bin; Shen, Sa; Canino, Glorisa J.
Objective: This study examined initiation of alcohol use among adolescents, in relation to their earlier traumatic experiences and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Data were from a longitudinal study of children of Puerto Rican background living in New York City's South Bronx and in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The subsample (n = 1,119; 51.7% male) of those who were 10–13 years old and alcohol naive at baseline was used in the analyses. Results: Alcohol-use initiation within 2 years after baseline was significantly more common among children reporting both trauma exposure and 5 or more of a maximum of 17 PTSD symptoms at baseline (adjusted odds ratio = 1.84, p 7 < .05) than among those without trauma exposure, even when potentially shared correlates were controlled for. Children with trauma exposure but with fewer than five PTSD symptoms, however, did not differ significantly from those without trauma exposure, with regard to later alcohol use. Conclusions: PTSD symptoms in children 10–13 years old may be associated with early onset of alcohol use. It is important to identify and treat PTSD-related symptoms in pre-adolescent children. PMID:20409425
Kail, Robert V
According to dual-process models that include analytic and heuristic modes of processing, analytic processing is often expected to become more common with development. Consistent with this view, on reasoning problems, adolescents are more likely than children to select alternatives that are backed by statistical evidence. It is shown here that this pattern depends on the quality of the statistical evidence and the quality of the testimonial that is the typical alternative to statistical evidence. In Experiment 1, 9- and 13-year-olds (N=64) were presented with scenarios in which solid statistical evidence was contrasted with casual or expert testimonial evidence. When testimony was casual, children relied on it but adolescents did not; when testimony was expert, both children and adolescents relied on it. In Experiment 2, 9- and 13-year-olds (N=83) were presented with scenarios in which casual testimonial evidence was contrasted with weak or strong statistical evidence. When statistical evidence was weak, children and adolescents relied on both testimonial and statistical evidence; when statistical evidence was strong, most children and adolescents relied on it. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for dual-process accounts of cognitive development.
Guarnaccia, Vincent J.; Vane, Julia R.
The three wishes of group-tested children, individually tested problem children, and individually tested nonproblem children were collected and categorized. Overall, there was considerable similarity in the types of wishes made by children across groups. It was concluded that wishes alone are not a good indicator of psychopathology. (Author)
Becker-Blease, Kathryn A; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather
In this study we examined reactions to 3 news events (September 11 terrorist attacks, Summer 2002 kidnappings, and Fall 2002 sniper shootings) in a national, representative sample of children aged 2 to 17. Media exposure was related to increased worry and changes in activities, with September 11 creating the most concern and shootings the least. More signs of stress were apparent among 10- to 13-year-olds, minority children and those of low socioeconomic status, children with prior adversities, and children who lived in close geographical proximity. Girls aged 10 to 17 had more reaction to the kidnappings, suggesting that other features of target similarity may heighten a sense of risk. The results support moderating exposure for both younger and older youth.
Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay
Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367
Moore, Martin A; Boymel, Paul M; Maxim, L Daniel; Turim, Jay
There is substantial interest among government agencies in categorizing fibers for hazard classification purposes, particularly the commercially important synthetic vitreous fibers (e.g., rock wool, slag wool, glass wool, and refractory ceramic fibers). The intent of this categorization is to partition the population of fibers into distinct categories, which are mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive, easy to understand and implement, and homogeneous with respect to potential biological activity. This paper identifies criteria for categorization, summarizes historical systems for categorization (e.g., by origin, chemistry and structure, physical form and morphology, and application), analyzes the current categorization schemes used by the European Community (EC) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and proposes an improved partitioning method based upon biopersistence/durability. The proposed basis for categorization incorporates the best features of the EC and IARC methods, eliminates some of their inconsistencies, exploits available knowledge of fiber toxicology (much of which was developed in recent years), and is practical to implement.
Girges, Christine; Spencer, Janine; O'Brien, Justin
Advances in marker-less motion capture technology now allow the accurate replication of facial motion and deformation in computer-generated imagery (CGI). A forced-choice discrimination paradigm using such CGI facial animations showed that human observers can categorize identity solely from facial motion cues. Animations were generated from motion captures acquired during natural speech, thus eliciting both rigid (head rotations and translations) and nonrigid (expressional changes) motion. To limit interferences from individual differences in facial form, all animations shared the same appearance. Observers were required to discriminate between different videos of facial motion and between the facial motions of different people. Performance was compared to the control condition of orientation-inverted facial motion. The results show that observers are able to make accurate discriminations of identity in the absence of all cues except facial motion. A clear inversion effect in both tasks provided consistency with previous studies, supporting the configural view of human face perception. The accuracy of this motion capture technology thus allowed stimuli to be generated that closely resembled real moving faces. Future studies may wish to implement such methodology when studying human face perception.
Lwebuga-Mukasa, J S; Dunn-Georgiou, E
To determine the prevalence of caregiver-reported asthma in children 4 to 13 years old in metropolitan western New York State, surveys were conducted during 1997-1999 in the Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Iroquois, and Gowanda school systems. Questionnaires (3,889) were sent to the homes of elementary school children in nine schools in western New York. The caregivers were asked to complete a 13-item questionnaire for the child. Of the questionnaires, 60.5% (2,353/3,889) were completed. Of all children, 18% had physician-diagnosed asthma. Of children diagnosed with asthma, 86% were taking medication. Symptoms were consistent with suspected undiagnosed asthma for 13% of the children. Buffalo had the highest rate of diagnosed asthma (20%) for the age group. Gowanda had a prevalence of 18%, Iroquois 16%, and Niagara Falls 15%. Variations were observed in asthma prevalence rates among different racial/ethnic groups. In general, boys had a significantly (P = .001) increased odds of being asthmatic compared with girls. Overall, African-Americans and Hispanic/Latino children had significantly (P = .012 and P = .005, respectively) higher asthma prevalence rates, two to five times those of their Caucasian peers. In Gowanda, the prevalence of diagnosed asthma among Native American children was 23%, compared to 15% among Caucasian children. Of diagnosed Native American children, 71% were female. In Gowanda, a significant association (P = .007) of asthma among children in split-grade classes was observed compared to nonsplit grades. Of Native American children in split grades, 60% were diagnosed asthmatics. These observations reveal a high prevalence of asthma in the age group of 4 to 13 year olds in western New York. Local variations in potential triggers of asthma need to be considered when advising asthmatics. The results suggest that some grades have a disproportionate amount of children with asthma. The implications of asthma for children's early education need to be examined
Lester, Barry M; Lagasse, Linda L
The purpose of this article was to review follow up studies of children with prenatal drug exposure from preschool through adolescence. Specifically, the authors focus on the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine, methamphetamine, and opiates on behavior and development. The largest number of studies have examined cocaine-exposed children. The authors identified 42 studies that suggest that there are unique effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on 4- to 13-year-old children, particularly in the areas of behavior problems, attention, language, and cognition. In addition, studies make reasonable attempts to control for possible confounding factors. Systematic research on the long-term effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure is just beginning but seems to be showing similar effects to that of cocaine. The literature on the on the long-term effects of children with prenatal opiate exposure is more substantial than the methamphetamine literature but it is still relatively sparse and surprising in that there is little recent work. Thus, there are no studies on the current concerns with opiates used for prescription mediation. There is a growing literature using neuroimaging techniques to study the effects of prenatal drug exposure that holds promise for understanding brain/behavior relationships. In addition to pharmacological and teratogenic effects, drugs can also be viewed from a prenatal stressor model. The author discuss this "fetal origins" approach that involves fetal programming and the neuroendocrine system and the potential implications for adolescent brain and behavioral development.
Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.; Karuza, J. Christopher
These studies examined the role of ontological beliefs about category boundaries in early categorization. Study 1 found that preschool-age children (N = 48, aged 3-4 years old) have domain-specific beliefs about the meaning of category boundaries; children judged the boundaries of natural kind categories (animal species, human gender) as discrete…
Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar
This study explores the role of a particular social cue-the sequence of demonstrated actions and events-in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property was revealed before (shake-first) or after (shake-last) categorization. Four experiments (N = 150) showed that both 4-year-olds (M(age) = 4.5 years) and 3-year-olds (M(age) = 3.5 years) shifted toward categorizing by nonobvious property after the shake-first sequence compared with the shake-last sequence (Experiment 1 and 4); 4-year-olds also generalized their categorization strategy to new objects (Experiment 2) and objects that were both labeled and categorized (Experiment 3). Results are discussed with regard to preschooler's ability to integrate social and pedagogical cues in category learning.
Shafto, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Mansinghka, Vikash; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.
Most natural domains can be represented in multiple ways: we can categorize foods in terms of their nutritional content or social role, animals in terms of their taxonomic groupings or their ecological niches, and musical instruments in terms of their taxonomic categories or social uses. Previous approaches to modeling human categorization have…
... directly, and will simultaneously inform both CMS and CDC of the device/test category. FDA will consult with CDC concerning test categorization in the following three situations: (A) When categorizing... be forwarded to CDC for evaluation; CDC will determine complexity category and notify the...
... directly, and will simultaneously inform both CMS and CDC of the device/test category. FDA will consult with CDC concerning test categorization in the following three situations: (A) When categorizing... be forwarded to CDC for evaluation; CDC will determine complexity category and notify the...
Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Perlman, Amotz; Bailey, Todd M.; Kurtz, Ken; Edwards, Darren J.; Hines, Peter; McDonnell, John V.
What makes a category seem natural or intuitive? In this paper, an unsupervised categorization task was employed to examine observer agreement concerning the categorization of nine different stimulus sets. The stimulus sets were designed to capture different intuitions about classification structure. The main empirical index of category…
A decision-theoretic approach to the question of reliability in categorically scored examinations is explored. The concepts of true scores and errors are discussed as they deviate from conventional psychometric definitions and measurement error in categorical scores is cast in terms of misclassifications. A reliability measure based on…
Deak, Gedeon O.; Bauer, Patricia J.
Three experiments explored effects of stimulus and task factors on tendency to categorize according to taxonomic relations when those relations conflict with appearances. When provided with information that constrained categorization, preschoolers and adults reliably based their decisions on taxonomic relations between physically dissimilar items.…
... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.110 Categorical exclusion. The CEQ regulations provide for the categorical..., equipment, supplies and services; space acquisition; property management; and security); (b) Actions... replacement after rehabilitation; and (4) The Project does not involve the demolition of one or more...
... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.110 Categorical exclusion. The CEQ regulations provide for the categorical..., equipment, supplies and services; space acquisition; property management; and security); (b) Actions... replacement after rehabilitation; and (4) The Project does not involve the demolition of one or more...
... Environmental Review Process: Documentation, Range of Activities, Project Aggregation and Classification § 58.35 Categorical exclusions. Categorical exclusion refers to a category of activities for which no environmental... needed with respect to environmental requirements, except where paragraph (c) of this section...
Smith, J. David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C.; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Valleau, Jeanette C.; Church, Barbara A.
Exemplar, prototype, and rule theory have organized much of the enormous literature on categorization. From this theoretical foundation have arisen the two primary debates in the literature—the prototype-exemplar debate and the single system-multiple systems debate. We review these theories and debates. Then, we examine the contribution that animal-cognition studies have made to them. Animals have been crucial behavioral ambassadors to the literature on categorization. They reveal the roots of human categorization, the basic assumptions of vertebrates entering category tasks, the surprising weakness of exemplar memory as a category-learning strategy. They show that a unitary exemplar theory of categorization is insufficient to explain human and animal categorization. They show that a multiple-systems theoretical account—encompassing exemplars, prototypes, and rules—will be required for a complete explanation. They show the value of a fitness perspective in understanding categorization, and the value of giving categorization an evolutionary depth and phylogenetic breadth. They raise important questions about the internal similarity structure of natural kinds and categories. They demonstrate strong continuities with humans in categorization, but discontinuities, too. Categorization’s great debates are resolving themselves, and to these resolutions animals have made crucial contributions. PMID:27314392
Quan, Xiaojun; Liu, Wenyin; Qiu, Bite
Term weighting has proven to be an effective way to improve the performance of text categorization. Very recently, with the development of user-interactive question answering or community question answering, there has emerged a need to accurately categorize questions into predefined categories. However, as a question is usually a piece of short text, can the existing term-weighting methods perform consistently in question categorization as they do in text categorization? The answer is not clear, since to the best of our knowledge, we have not seen any work related to this problem despite of its significance. In this study, we investigate the popular unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods for question categorization. At the same time, we propose three new supervised term-weighting methods, namely, qf*icf, iqf*qf*icf, and vrf. Comparisons of them with existing unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods are made through a series of experiments on question collections of Yahoo! Answers. The experimental results show that iqf*qf*icf achieves the best performance among all term-weighting methods, while qf*icf and vrf are also competitive for question categorization. Meanwhile, tf*OR is proven to be the most significant one among existing methods. In addition, iqf*qf*icf and vrf are also effective for long document categorization.
Tajima, Chihiro I.; Tajima, Satohiro; Koida, Kowa; Komatsu, Hidehiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki
Categorical perception is a ubiquitous function in sensory information processing, and is reported to have important influences on the recognition of presented and/or memorized stimuli. However, such complex interactions among categorical perception and other aspects of sensory processing have not been explained well in a unified manner. Here, we propose a recurrent neural network model to process categorical information of stimuli, which approximately realizes a hierarchical Bayesian estimation on stimuli. The model accounts for a wide variety of neurophysiological and cognitive phenomena in a consistent framework. In particular, the reported complexity of categorical effects, including (i) task-dependent modulation of neural response, (ii) clustering of neural population representation, (iii) temporal evolution of perceptual color memory, and (iv) a non-uniform discrimination threshold, are explained as different aspects of a single model. Moreover, we directly examine key model behaviors in the monkey visual cortex by analyzing neural population dynamics during categorization and discrimination of color stimuli. We find that the categorical task causes temporally-evolving biases in the neuronal population representations toward the focal colors, which supports the proposed model. These results suggest that categorical perception can be achieved by recurrent neural dynamics that approximates optimal probabilistic inference in the changing environment. PMID:26935275
Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara
This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9-13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4-8 years old (92%-98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life.
Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara
This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9–13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4–8 years old (92%–98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life. PMID:27618092
... human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement... environment and are therefore categorically excluded from the preparation of environmental impact statements... that normally do not require either an environmental impact statement or an environmental...
... human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement... environment and are therefore categorically excluded from the preparation of environmental impact statements... that normally do not require either an environmental impact statement or an environmental...
... human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement... environment and are therefore categorically excluded from the preparation of environmental impact statements... that normally do not require either an environmental impact statement or an environmental...
Patil, Aashay; Santhanam, M. S.
Correlation and similarity measures are widely used in all the areas of sciences and social sciences. Often the variables are not numbers but are instead qualitative descriptors called categorical data. We define and study similarity matrix, as a measure of similarity, for the case of categorical data. This is of interest due to a deluge of categorical data, such as movie ratings, top-10 rankings, and data from social media, in the public domain that require analysis. We show that the statistical properties of the spectra of similarity matrices, constructed from categorical data, follow random matrix predictions with the dominant eigenvalue being an exception. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the data for Indian general elections and sea level pressures in the North Atlantic ocean.
categorizing large amounts of documents. 36 Brucher, Heide, Knolmayer, Gerhard, Mittermayer and...Washington 6, D.C. December 1962. Brucher, Heide, Gerhard Knolmayer and Marc-Andre Mittermayer . “Document Classification Methods for Organizing
Westermann, Gert; Mareschal, Denis
From at least two months onwards, infants can form perceptual categories. During the first year of life, object knowledge develops from the ability to represent individual object features to representing correlations between attributes and to integrate information from different sources. At the end of the first year, these representations are shaped by labels, opening the way to conceptual knowledge. Here, we review the development of object knowledge and object categorization over the first year of life. We then present an artificial neural network model that models the transition from early perceptual categorization to categories mediated by labels. The model informs a current debate on the role of labels in object categorization by suggesting that although labels do not act as object features they nevertheless affect perceived similarity of perceptually distinct objects sharing the same label. The model presents the first step of an integrated account from early perceptual categorization to language-based concept learning. PMID:24324235
... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.13 Categorical exclusion. (a) CATEXs define those categories... environment and do not, therefore, require further environmental analysis in an EA or an EIS. The list of...
Wemrell, Maria; Mulinari, Shai; Merlo, Juan
Intersectionality theory can contribute to epidemiology and public health by furthering understanding of power dynamics driving production of health disparities, and increasing knowledge about heterogeneities within, and overlap between, social categories. Drawing on McCall, we relate the first of these potential contributions to categorical intersectionality and the second to anti-categorical intersectionality. Both approaches are used in study of risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), based on register data on 3.6 million adults residing in Sweden by 2010, followed for three years. Categorical intersectionality is here coupled with between-group differences in average risk calculation, as we use intersectional categorizations while estimating odds ratios through logistic regressions. The anti-categorical approach is operationalized through measurement of discriminatory accuracy (DA), i.e., capacity to accurately categorize individuals with or without a certain outcome, through computation of the area under the curve (AUC). Our results show substantial differences in average risk between intersectional groupings. The DA of social categorizations is found to be low, however, due to outcome variability within and overlap between categories. We argue that measures of DA should be used for proper interpretation of differences in average risk between social (or any other) categories. Tension between average between-group risk and the DA of categorizations, which can be related to categorical and anti-categorical intersectional analyses, should be made explicit and discussed to a larger degree in epidemiology and public health.
Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome R
Many decision making tasks in life involve a categorization process, but the effects of categorization on subsequent decision making has rarely been studied. This issue was explored in three experiments (N=721), in which participants were shown a face stimulus on each trial and performed variations of categorization-decision tasks. On C-D trials, they categorized the stimulus and then made an action decision; on X-D trials, they were told the category and then made an action decision; on D-alone trials, they only made an action decision. An interference effect emerged in some of the conditions, such that the probability of an action on the D-alone trials (i.e., when there was no explicit categorization before the decision) differed from the total probability of the same action on the C-D or X-D trials (i.e., when there was explicit categorization before the decision). Interference effects are important because they indicate a violation of the classical law of total probability, which is assumed by many cognitive models. Across all three experiments, a complex pattern of interference effects systematically occurred for different types of stimuli and for different types of categorization-decision tasks. These interference effects present a challenge for traditional cognitive models, such as Markov and signal detection models, but a quantum cognition model, called the belief-action entanglement (BAE) model, predicted that these results could occur. The BAE model employs the quantum principles of superposition and entanglement to explain the psychological mechanisms underlying the puzzling interference effects. The model can be applied to many important and practical categorization-decision situations in life.
Tellería Narvaez, C.A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F.G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A.O.; Romero Bolaños, L.E.; Ramírez Ávila, G.M.
As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8–13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.
Tellería Narvaez, C. A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F. G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A. O.; Romero Bolaños, L. E.; Ramírez Ávila, G. M.
As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8-13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.
Maleknejad, Shohreh; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Rahbar, Morteza; Safaei, Afshin; Ghomashpasand, Babak
Objective Constipation is a major debilitating problem in children. We aimed to assess the serum lead levels of 2-13 year-old children complaining from constipation who referred to our center in Guilan province, Northern Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was done on ninety 2-13 year-old children referring to 17th Shahrivar Hospital, complaining from constipation (case group) and 90 healthy children The demographic data as well as the children's serum lead levels were evaluated and recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Chi-square test was used as applicable. Findings Lead poisoning was significantly more frequent in the case group (37.8%) compared with the control group (8.9%). The frequency of lead poisoning in the case group compared with the control group, was significantly higher in children <7 years old (40.2% vs. 10%), boys (40.9% vs. 9.3%), girls (34.8% vs 8.3%), residents of old houses (43.1% vs. 9.7%), residents of new houses (28.1% vs. 8.5%), residents of low-traffic areas (26.8% vs. 5.3%), urban residents (40.5% vs. 9.9%), children whose fathers had low risk (33.3% vs. 10.9%) and high risk jobs (40.7% vs. 3.8%). Conclusion The frequency of lead poisoning was higher in children suffering from constipation.No significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to their sex, age, father's job, and living in urban or rural areas. PMID:24427495
Ware, Elizabeth A
This study bridges prior research on young children's use of taxonomic versus thematic relations to categorize objects with prior research on their use of shared shape versus shared function to categorize artifacts. Specifically, this research examined associations in children's categorization tendencies across these two dichotomies, including assessments of individual differences, developmental trends, and vocabulary level. Preschoolers (3- to 5-year-olds) completed a receptive vocabulary assessment and two match-to-sample tasks: one pitting (superordinate) taxonomic and thematic relations against each other and one pitting shape and function similarity against each other. The results revealed individual and developmental variation in children's cross-task categorization biases, with a predominant tendency to focus on both thematic and function relations that became increasingly stronger with age. In 3- and 5-year-olds, function-based categorization was also positively associated with verb vocabulary. These findings demonstrate an emerging tendency to focus on relational information during the preschool years that, among other learning effects, may benefit verb acquisition. The results are discussed in terms of the real-time processing and developmental factors that might contribute to the development of strategies for learning about objects and categories during early childhood.
G.E. Ragan; P. Mecheret; D. Dexheimer
The purposes of this analysis are: (1) Categorize (as Category 1, Category 2, or Beyond Category 2) internal event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. (2) Categorize external event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. This includes examining DBGM-1 seismic classifications and upgrading to DBGM-2, if appropriate, to ensure Beyond Category 2 categorization. (3) State the design and operational requirements that are invoked to make the categorization assignments valid. (4) Indicate the amount of material put at risk by Category 1 and Category 2 event sequences. (5) Estimate frequencies of Category 1 event sequences at the maximum capacity and receipt rate of the repository. (6) Distinguish occurrences associated with normal operations from event sequences. It is beyond the scope of the analysis to propose design requirements that may be required to control radiological exposure associated with normal operations. (7) Provide a convenient compilation of the results of the analysis in tabular form. The results of this analysis are used as inputs to the consequence analyses in an iterative design process that is depicted in Figure 1. Categorization of event sequences for permanent retrieval of waste from the repository is beyond the scope of this analysis. Cleanup activities that take place after an event sequence and other responses to abnormal events are also beyond the scope of the analysis.
Slepian, Michael L; Weisbuch, Max; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini
Emerging evidence has shown that human thought can be embodied within physical sensations and actions. Indeed, abstract concepts such as morality, time, and interpersonal warmth can be based on metaphors that are grounded in bodily experiences (e.g., physical temperature can signal interpersonal warmth). We hypothesized that social-category knowledge is similarly embodied, and we tested this hypothesis by examining a sensory metaphor related to categorical judgments of gender. We chose the dimension of "toughness" (ranging from tough to tender), which is often used to characterize differences between males and females. Across two studies, the proprioceptive experience of toughness (vs. tenderness) was manipulated as participants categorized sex-ambiguous faces as male or female. Two different manipulations of proprioceptive toughness predictably biased the categorization of faces toward "male." These findings suggest that social-category knowledge is at least partially embodied.
Traditional studies of human categorization often treat the processes of encoding features and cues as peripheral to the question of how stimuli are categorized. However, in domains where the features and cues are less transparent, how information is encoded prior to categorization may constrain our understanding of the architecture of categorization. This is particularly true in speech perception, where acoustic cues to phonological categories are ambiguous and influenced by multiple factors. Here, it is crucial to consider the joint contributions of the information in the input and the categorization architecture. We contrasted accounts that argue for raw acoustic information encoding with accounts that posit that cues are encoded relative to expectations, and investigated how two categorization architectures—exemplar models and back-propagation parallel distributed processing models—deal with each kind of information. Relative encoding, akin to predictive coding, is a form of noise reduction, so it can be expected to improve model accuracy; however, like predictive coding, the use of relative encoding in speech perception by humans is controversial, so results are compared to patterns of human performance, rather than on the basis of overall accuracy. We found that, for both classes of models, in the vast majority of parameter settings, relative cues greatly helped the models approximate human performance. This suggests that expectation-relative processing is a crucial precursor step in phoneme categorization, and that understanding the information content is essential to understanding categorization processes. PMID:25475048
Harel, Assaf; Bentin, Shlomo
The type of visual information needed for categorizing faces and nonface objects was investigated by manipulating spatial frequency scales available in the image during a category verification task addressing basic and subordinate levels. Spatial filtering had opposite effects on faces and airplanes that were modulated by categorization level. The…
Horst, Jessica S.; Ellis, Ann E.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Trejo, Erika; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Peltan, Jessica R.; Oakes, Lisa M.
Two experiments demonstrate that 14- to 18-month-old toddlers can adaptively change how they categorize a set of objects within a single session, and that this ability is related to vocabulary size. In both experiments, toddlers were presented with a sequential touching task with objects that could be categorized either according to some…
Valentini, N C; Ramalho, M H; Oliveira, M A
The Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2nd edition (MABC-2) is a well-recognized assessment used to identify children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Although researchers and practitioners across Brazil have used the MABC-2 to identify children with motor deficits, its validation for this particular population has yet to be investigated. In this study, we translated all MABC-2 items and validated them with respect to content, construct and criteria validity. The validation process involved 13 experts in Motor Development and a total of 844 children (3-13 years old) from two different states in Brazil. A cross-cultural translation method yielded a Brazilian-Portuguese version of the battery. The expert panel confirmed language clarity and pertinence of the items. High intra- and inter-rater reliability and internal consistency for the MABC-2 was established for Brazilian children. A discriminant analysis confirmed the MABC-2 power (.80) to differentiate children with DCD and those at risk for DCD from typically developing children. Predictive validity was observed for the impairment scores and a percentile main effect was found in the repeated measures ANOVA (ICC: .93 and .73, respectively). Although our data are not representative of the entire country, this study is the first to confirm that the original standardized scores established for the MABC-2 are valid in Brazilian children.
Sloutsky, Vladimir M.; Fisher, Anna V.
This article is a response to E. Heit and B. K. Hayes's comment on the target article "Induction and Categorization in Young Children: A Similarity-Based Model" (V. M. Sloutsky & A. V. Fisher, 2004a). The response discusses points of agreement and disagreement with Heit and Hayes; phenomena predicted by similarity, induction, naming, and…
Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar
This study explores the role of a particular social cue--the "sequence" of demonstrated actions and events--in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property…
Hills, Thomas T.; Maouene, Mounir; Maouene, Josita; Sheya, Adam; Smith, Linda
The shared features that characterize the noun categories that young children learn first are a formative basis of the human category system. To investigate the potential categorical information contained in the features of early-learned nouns, we examine the graph-theoretic properties of noun-feature networks. The networks are built from the…
Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J
The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds (N = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group received no regulation instructions. Children viewed an educational film, and memory for this was later assessed. As predicted, reappraisal strategies more effectively attenuated children's self-reported emotional processing. Reappraisal enhanced memory for educational details relative to no instructions. Rumination did not lead to differences in memory from the other instructions. Memory benefits of effective instructions were pronounced for children with poorer emotion regulation skill, suggesting the utility of reappraisal in learning contexts.
This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support.
Bird, Chris M.; Berens, Samuel C.; Horner, Aidan J.; Franklin, Anna
The areas of the brain that encode color categorically have not yet been reliably identified. Here, we used functional MRI adaptation to identify neuronal populations that represent color categories irrespective of metric differences in color. Two colors were successively presented within a block of trials. The two colors were either from the same or different categories (e.g., “blue 1 and blue 2” or “blue 1 and green 1”), and the size of the hue difference was varied. Participants performed a target detection task unrelated to the difference in color. In the middle frontal gyrus of both hemispheres and to a lesser extent, the cerebellum, blood-oxygen level-dependent response was greater for colors from different categories relative to colors from the same category. Importantly, activation in these regions was not modulated by the size of the hue difference, suggesting that neurons in these regions represent color categorically, regardless of metric color difference. Representational similarity analyses, which investigated the similarity of the pattern of activity across local groups of voxels, identified other regions of the brain (including the visual cortex), which responded to metric but not categorical color differences. Therefore, categorical and metric hue differences appear to be coded in qualitatively different ways and in different brain regions. These findings have implications for the long-standing debate on the origin and nature of color categories, and also further our understanding of how color is processed by the brain. PMID:24591602
..., except in extraordinary circumstances (see § 58.2(a)(3)) in which a normally excluded activity may have a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Categorical exclusions. 58.35 Section 58.35 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and...
..., except in extraordinary circumstances (see § 58.2(a)(3)) in which a normally excluded activity may have a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Categorical exclusions. 58.35 Section 58.35 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and...
..., except in extraordinary circumstances (see § 58.2(a)(3)) in which a normally excluded activity may have a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Categorical exclusions. 58.35 Section 58.35 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and...
... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and which have been found to have no such... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...
... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and which have been found to have no such... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...
... Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis Grant Program § 91.55... consistent with any of the following categories are presumed not to have a significant effect on the human environment and thus, are categorically excluded from the preparation of either an EA or an EIS....
... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and which have been found to have no such... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...
... troubleshooting and equipment maintenance—(i) Score 1. (A) Test system troubleshooting is automatic or self-correcting, or clearly described or requires minimal judgment; and (B) Equipment maintenance is provided by... system, assay, and examination categorized by complexity. Using the seven criteria specified in...
Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen
This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…
Bird, Chris M; Berens, Samuel C; Horner, Aidan J; Franklin, Anna
The areas of the brain that encode color categorically have not yet been reliably identified. Here, we used functional MRI adaptation to identify neuronal populations that represent color categories irrespective of metric differences in color. Two colors were successively presented within a block of trials. The two colors were either from the same or different categories (e.g., "blue 1 and blue 2" or "blue 1 and green 1"), and the size of the hue difference was varied. Participants performed a target detection task unrelated to the difference in color. In the middle frontal gyrus of both hemispheres and to a lesser extent, the cerebellum, blood-oxygen level-dependent response was greater for colors from different categories relative to colors from the same category. Importantly, activation in these regions was not modulated by the size of the hue difference, suggesting that neurons in these regions represent color categorically, regardless of metric color difference. Representational similarity analyses, which investigated the similarity of the pattern of activity across local groups of voxels, identified other regions of the brain (including the visual cortex), which responded to metric but not categorical color differences. Therefore, categorical and metric hue differences appear to be coded in qualitatively different ways and in different brain regions. These findings have implications for the long-standing debate on the origin and nature of color categories, and also further our understanding of how color is processed by the brain.
O'Grady, Kevin E.; Medoff, Deborah R.
Limitations of dummy coding and nonsense coding as methods of coding categorical variables for use as predictors in multiple regression analysis are discussed. The combination of these approaches often yields estimates and tests of significance that are not intended by researchers for inclusion in their models. (SLD)
Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.
Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…
Wyble, Brad; Bowman, Howard; Potter, Mary C.
Transient attention to a visually salient cue enhances processing of a subsequent target in the same spatial location between 50 to 150 ms after cue onset (K. Nakayama & M. Mackeben, 1989). Do stimuli from a categorically defined target set, such as letters or digits, also generate transient attention? Participants reported digit targets among…
Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard
Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex.
Poon, Wai-Yin; Tang, Fung-Chu
Studied a multiple group model with ordinal categorical observed variables that are manifestations of underlying normal variables. Proposed to apply across-group stochastic constraints on thresholds to identify the model and used a Bayesian approach to analyze the model. Simulation findings and the analysis of a real data set show the usefulness…
attacks into predefined categories such as Flooding Denial of Service, Distributed Denial of Service, Nukers, and Portscans . Such categorization decreases...Detection of Stealthy Portscans . Tech- nical Report, Silicon Defense, 2000. [Stevens94] Stevens, W. Richard. TCP/IP Illustrated Volume 1 . Reading: Addison
... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...
... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...
... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...
... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...
... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.4 Categorical exclusions. (a) No environmental analyses need be undertaken or environmental... effect on the quality of the human environment because they are purely ministerial actions or...
... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.4 Categorical exclusions. (a) No environmental analyses need be undertaken or environmental... effect on the quality of the human environment because they are purely ministerial actions or...
Johnston, James Scott
In this article, I examine anew the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant and its contributions to educational theory. I make four claims. First, that Kant should be read as having the Categorical Imperative develop out of subjective maxims. Second, that moral self-perfection is the aim of moral education. Third, that moral self-perfection develops by…
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1815.110 Section 1815.110 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... assessment and EIS have been prepared; (c) Actions directly related to the granting or receipt of...
Palmeri, Thomas J; Mack, Michael L
To understand object categorization, participants are tested in experiments often quite different from how people experience object categories in the real world. Learning and knowledge of categories is measured in discrete experimental trials, those trials may or may not provide feedback, trials appear one after another, after some fixed inter-trial interval, with hundreds of trials in a row, within experimental blocks with some structure dictated by the experimental design. In the real world, outside of certain educational and vocational contexts, opportunities to learn and use categories are intermixed over time with a whole multitude of intervening experiences. It is clear from any elementary understanding of human cognition that sequential effects matter, yet this understanding is often ignored, and categorization trials are often instead treated as independent events, immune to local trial context. In this perspective, we use some of our work to illustrate some of the consequences of the fact that categorization experiments have a particular trial structure. Experimental trial context can affect performance in category learning and categorization experiments in ways that can profoundly affect theoretical conclusions.
Zhang, Zhiyong; Nesselroade, John R.
Dynamic factor models have been used to analyze continuous time series behavioral data. We extend 2 main dynamic factor model variations--the direct autoregressive factor score (DAFS) model and the white noise factor score (WNFS) model--to categorical DAFS and WNFS models in the framework of the underlying variable method and illustrate them with…
Eimas, Peter D.; And Others
Previous research has shown that 3- to 4-month-old infants form a global categorical representation for cats that includes female lions, whereas 6- to 7-month-old infants differentiate between cats and lions. Three experiments using familiarization-novelty preference procedures attempted to determine whether the differentiation of a global…
Holmes, Amanda; Franklin, Anna; Clifford, Alexandra; Davies, Ian
The aim of this investigation was to examine the time course and the relative contributions of perceptual and post-perceptual processes to categorical perception (CP) of color. A visual oddball task was used with standard and deviant stimuli from same (within-category) or different (between-category) categories, with chromatic separations for…
... test; and (B) Knowledge required to perform the test may be obtained through on-the-job instruction...) When categorizing previously uncategorized new technology; (B) When FDA determines it to be necessary... a change of category or for previously uncategorized new technology, PHS will receive the...
Ye, Qun; Song, Xiaolan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Qinqin
The prospective bias is a salient feature of mind wandering in healthy adults, yet little is known about the temporal focus of children's mind wandering. In the present study, (I) we developed the temporal focus of mind wandering questionnaire for school-age children (TFMWQ-C), a 12-item scale with good test-retest reliability and construct validity. (II) The criterion validity was tested by thought sampling in both choice reaction time task and working memory task. A positive correlation was found between the temporal focus measured by the questionnaire and the one adopted during task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) by thought sampling probes, especially in the trait level of future-oriented mind wandering. At the same time, children who experienced more TUTs tended to show worse behavioral performance during tasks. (III) The children in both tasks experienced more future-oriented TUTs than past-oriented ones, which was congruent with the results observed in adults; however, in contrast with previous research on adults, the prospective bias was not influenced by task demands. Together these results indicate that the prospective bias of mind wandering has emerged since the school-age (9∼13 years old), and that the relationship between mental time travel (MTT) during mind wandering and the use of cognitive resources differs between children and adults. Our study provides new insights into how this interesting feature of mind wandering may adaptively contribute to the development of children's MTT.
Allen, Thomas E.; Anderson, Melissa L.
This article investigated to what extent age, use of a cochlear implant, parental hearing status, and use of sign in the home determine language of instruction for profoundly deaf children. Categorical data from 8,325 profoundly deaf students from the 2008 Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children and Youth were analyzed using chi-square…
Khademi, Gholam Reza; Aelami, Mohammad Hasan
Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE) is a rare demyelinating disease characterized by an acute rapidly progressive fulminant inflammation of the white matter. In this case report, we introduce a case of AHLE in children with an interesting and lengthy process and successful treatment. A previously healthy 13-year-old girl was admitted to the hospital because of fever and loss of consciousness. After 4 days, she was referred to our pediatric intensive care unit in Mashhad, Iran. On admission, she had right-sided parotiditis. With a diagnosis of AHLE, our patient was treated with methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, acyclovir, and plasmapheresis. AHLE is a rare and severe demyelinating disease, the mortality and morbidity of which can be decreased by early detection and treatment with steroid therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin, acyclovir, and plasmapheresis. PMID:27217610
Harper, Kathleen A.; Hite, Zachary D.; Freuler, Richard J.; Demel, John T.
As part of gathering baseline data for a study on problem categorization, first-year engineering honors students who had recently completed a two-quarter sequence in physics were interviewed. The primary task in this interview was much like the problem categorization study described by Chi et al. There were, however, at least two distinct modifications: 1) in addition to the problem statements, solutions were included on the cards to be sorted 2) the problems were written such that they could also be grouped according to the nature of information presented in the problem statements and/or the number of possible solutions. The students in this baseline study, although similar in background to the novices described by Chi et al., in many ways performed more like experts. Several possibilities for this behavior are discussed.
No standard categorization of quinolone antibiotics into generations may be found in either Czech or world literature. The author recommends a categorization into four groups defined according to their spectrum of action and utilization: 1) preparations for the treatment of urinary tract infections; 2) systemically acting quinolones chiefly efficacious against Gram-negative bacteria; 3) so-called respiratory quinolones; and 4) quinolones with a very broad spectrum of action suitable for the treatment of very complicated infections. The author describes the chief characteristics of the most important quinolone antibiotics, including preparations either in their development stage or whose development has been prematurely interrupted because of adverse side-effects. The list includes all preparations that are or were temporarily registered in the Czech Republic.
Holt, Lori L.
Despite a long and rich history of categorization research in cognitive psychology, very little work has addressed the issue of complex auditory category formation. This is especially unfortunate because the general underlying cognitive and perceptual mechanisms that guide auditory category formation are of great importance to understanding speech perception. I will discuss a new methodological approach to examining complex auditory category formation that specifically addresses issues relevant to speech perception. This approach utilizes novel nonspeech sound stimuli to gain full experimental control over listeners' history of experience. As such, the course of learning is readily measurable. Results from this methodology indicate that the structure and formation of auditory categories are a function of the statistical input distributions of sound that listeners hear, aspects of the operating characteristics of the auditory system, and characteristics of the perceptual categorization system. These results have important implications for phonetic acquisition and speech perception.
Slepian, Michael L
The current work examines the role of sensorimotor processes (manipulating whether visual exposure to hard and soft stimuli encourage sensorimotor simulation) and metaphor processes (assessing whether participants have understanding of a pertinent metaphor: "hard" Republicans and "soft" Democrats) in social categorization. Using new methodology to disassociate these multimodal processes (i.e., semantic, metaphoric, and sensorimotoric), the current work demonstrates that both sensorimotor and metaphor processes, combined, are needed to find an effect upon conceptual processing, providing evidence in support of the combined importance of these two theorized components. When participants comprehended the metaphor of hard Republicans and soft Democrats, and when encouraged to simulate sensorimotor experiences of hard and soft stimuli, those stimuli influenced categorization of faces as Republican and Democrat.
Ganong, W F
To investigate the interaction in speech perception of auditory information and lexical knowledge (in particular, knowledge of which phonetic sequences are words), acoustic continua varying in voice onset time were constructed so that for each acoustic continuum, one of the two possible phonetic categorizations made a word and the other did not. For example, one continuum ranged between the word dash and the nonword tash; another used the nonword dask and the word task. In two experiments, subjects showed a significant lexical effect--that is, a tendency to make phonetic categorizations that make words. This lexical effect was greater at the phoneme boundary (where auditory information is ambiguous) than at the ends of the condinua. Hence the lexical effect must arise at a stage of processing sensitive to both lexical knowledge and auditory information.
with added flexibility for representing complex 3-D objects. Leibe and Schiele  propose a new database for comparing different methods for object cat...for object class recognition. In Workshop on Learning, Snowbird, Utah, 2004.  B. Leibe and B. Schiele . Analyzing appearance and contour based...and Bernt Schiele . Analyzing appearance and contour based methods for object categorization. In CVPR (2), pages 409–415, 2003.  T. Lindeberg. Edge
Shatkay, Hagit; Chen, Nawei; Blostein, Dorothea
Categorization of biomedical articles is a central task for supporting various curation efforts. It can also form the basis for effective biomedical text mining. Automatic text classification in the biomedical domain is thus an active research area. Contests organized by the KDD Cup (2002) and the TREC Genomics track (since 2003) defined several annotation tasks that involved document classification, and provided training and test data sets. So far, these efforts focused on analyzing only the text content of documents. However, as was noted in the KDD'02 text mining contest-where figure-captions proved to be an invaluable feature for identifying documents of interest-images often provide curators with critical information. We examine the possibility of using information derived directly from image data, and of integrating it with text-based classification, for biomedical document categorization. We present a method for obtaining features from images and for using them-both alone and in combination with text-to perform the triage task introduced in the TREC Genomics track 2004. The task was to determine which documents are relevant to a given annotation task performed by the Mouse Genome Database curators. We show preliminary results, demonstrating that the method has a strong potential to enhance and complement traditional text-based categorization methods.
Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma; Richter, Matthias; Davies, Carolyn A.; Schnohr, Christina W.; Due, Pernille; Currie, Candace
Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006…
Hildebrand, Janina; Maycock, Bruce; Burns, Sharyn; Zhao, Yun; Allsop, Steve; Howat, Peter; Lobo, Roanna
Introduction Harmful drinking among young people is common in Australia and many other countries. Social norms and their influence on adolescents’ alcohol consumption behaviours have received much research attention in recent years. However, there is limited understanding of how social norms related to alcohol are developed and transmitted across social networks and a specific tool that measures these constructs has yet to be developed. This paper outlines the rationale and protocol for the design and validation of a multidimensional survey instrument which measures the development and transmission pathways of alcohol-related norms among adolescents. A longer term aim is to apply the instrument in a respondent-driven sampling study with a large adolescent cohort. Methods and analysis Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and relevant literature will guide the design of the online survey instrument. Feedback from a practitioner-based stakeholder committee, academic expert panel reviews, focus groups and interviews with adolescents aged 13–17 years in Perth, Western Australia (WA) will serve to ascertain content and face validity. A test–retest will be conducted using a purposive sample of students (n=400) at secondary schools in Perth. The instrument's psychometric properties will be analysed, including exploratory factor analyses, discriminant validity, internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Ethics and dissemination The results of this research will provide public health researchers and practitioners with a comprehensive standardised instrument to explore the characteristics of individual-level and community-level social influences and norms associated with use of alcohol by adolescents and the routes through which these norms are transmitted. The data collected by the instrument is anticipated to inform the design of youth specific interventions with the potential to reduce alcohol-related harms. The Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. The study has received approval from the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:23959761
Results of a small-scale research study conducted with year 8 (ages 12-13) students suggest that although these students have generally positive attitudes towards earth science, girls tend to be less interested in it than boys. Interest in earth science was found to separate into two dominant factors, labelled "scientific" and…
Blair, Bethany L.; Fletcher, Anne C.
Cellular telephones have become an increasingly prevalent feature of contemporary American life, with usage often beginning during early adolescence. With this in mind, twenty 7th graders and their mothers participated in separate qualitative interviews regarding early adolescents' use of cell phones as well as perceived risks and benefits of such…
Castillo Valenzuela, Oscar; Liberona Zúñiga, Jéssica; Dominguez de Landa, Angélica; Thielecke, Frank; Mondragón M, Mary; Rozowski Narkunska, Jaime; Cruchet Muñoz, Sylvia
Introducción y objetivos: la obesidad infantil en Chile es un problema serio de salud, con una prevalencia que ha ido en aumento durante las últimas décadas, a pesar de todos los esfuerzos gubernamentales por combatirla. Algunos estudios indican que el consumo de ciertos alimentos puede ayudar en el control del peso corporal. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la relación entre los cereales listos para comer (CLC), el índice de masa corporal y la ingesta de macro y micronutrientes en escolares de Santiago de Chile. Métodos y resultados: el estudio incluyó 1.477 niños con edades entre los 6-13 años que fueron evaluados por nutricionistas entrenados. Se midieron peso, talla y circunferencia de la cintura, además se aplicó una encuesta alimentaria por recordatorio de 24 horas y se preguntó por el número de horas que veían TV. Del total, el 32% de los niños y el 28% de las niñas presentaron exceso de peso, diferencia que no fue significativa. Todos los niños, independientemente del género, mostraron una asociación inversa significativa entre el consumo de CLC y el índice de masa corporal. Aquellas niñas que consumían mayores cantidades de CLC tenían menor circunferencia de cintura que aquellas que consumían menos. Un mayor consumo de CLC en todos los niños estuvo relacionado con mayor ingesta de calorías, proteínas, carbohidratos, calcio y zinc, además de con un menor consumo de calorías provenientes de las grasas. El consumo de CLC también estuvo asociado con menor riesgo de ser obeso o padecer sobrepeso. Conclusión: este estudio muestra que la ingesta de CLC es un indicador potencial de una dieta saludable. Son necesarias intervenciones más controladas para evaluar el efecto aislado de los CLC en comparación con otros factores.
Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George
Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2 ± 2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger tapping task were quantified before, immediately after, and six months after CIMT. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8 ± 1.3 years old) were also imaged at the same time points to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. In children with CP the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted six months later. In contrast to this longer term improvement in localized activation response, the laterality index that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed six months later.
Ojanen, Tiina; Grönroos, Matti; Salmivalli, Christina
The objective of the present research was to develop an assessment model for children's social goals. The aims were (a) to fit children's social goals to a circumplex model and to examine links between goals and peer-reported social behaviors (aggression, withdrawal, and prosocial behavior) in a sample of 276 participants (134 girls, 11- to 12-year-olds) and (b) to replicate these findings and examine whether social behavior mediates the relationship between goals and sociometric status in an independent cross-validation sample of 310 participants (143 girls, 11- to 13-year-olds). Results showed a satisfactory fit to the circumplex model and adequate psychometric properties of the goal scales of the new measure, the Interpersonal Goals Inventory for Children. Other findings included significant and meaningful relations between goals and peer-reported behavior. Social behavior mediated the relations between goals and sociometric status.
Ljung, Robert; Sörqvist, Patrik; Hygge, Staffan
Irrelevant speech in classrooms and road traffic noise adjacent to schools have a substantial impact on children's ability to learn. Comparing the effects of different noise sources on learning may help construct guidelines for noise abatement programs. Experimental studies are important to establish dose-response relationships and to expand our knowledge beyond correlation studies. This experiment examined effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children's reading speed, reading comprehension, basic mathematics, and mathematical reasoning. A total of 187 pupils (89 girls and 98 boys), 12-13 years old, were tested in their ordinary classrooms. Road traffic noise was found to impair reading speed (P<0.01) and basic mathematics (P<0.05). No effect was found on reading comprehension or on mathematical reasoning. Irrelevant speech did not disrupt performance on any task. These findings are related to previous research on noise in schools and the implications for noise abatement guidelines are discussed.
Nguyen, Christine; Malti, Tina
This study examined children's judgements and emotions associated with weight-based social exclusion using an ethnically diverse sample of one hundred and seventeen 9- and 13-year-old children. Children were interviewed about three scenarios depicting weight-based exclusion in athletic, academic, and social contexts. Children's judgements of exclusion, emotions attributed to the excluder and excluded targets, and justifications for judgements and emotions were examined. Overall, children judged weight-based exclusion to be wrong for moral reasons. However, they viewed weight-based exclusion in athletic contexts as less wrong compared with academic contexts, and they used more social-conventional reasoning to justify judgements and emotions attributed to excluders in athletic contexts compared with academic and social contexts. Children also expected excluded targets to feel negative emotions, whereas a range of positive and negative emotions was attributed to excluders. In addition, older children were more accepting of weight-based exclusion in athletic contexts than in academic and social contexts. We discuss the results in relation to the development of children's understanding of, and emotions associated with, exclusion based on weight.
Masyn, Katherine E.; Henderson, Craig E.; Greenbaum, Paul E.
This paper provides an introduction to a recently developed conceptual framework—the dimensional–categorical spectrum—for utilizing general factor mixture models to explore the latent structures of psychological constructs. This framework offers advantages over traditional latent variable models that usually employ either continuous latent factors or categorical latent class variables to characterize the latent structure and require an a priori assumption about the underlying nature of the construct as either purely dimension or purely categorical. The modeling process is discussed in detail and then illustrated with data on the delinquency items of Achenbach’s child behavior checklist from a sample of children in the National Adolescent and Child Treatment Study. PMID:24489441
Liu, Bin; Xu, Guang; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Nan
To solve the problem of effective of categorization of text data in taxation system, the paper analyses the text data and the size calculation of key issues first, then designs text categorization based on rough set model.
This supporting document provides the hazard categorization for 105-KE Basin Debris Removal Project activities planned in the K east Basin. All activities are categorized as less than Hazard Category 3.
Lebofsky, Larry A.
Observing, communicating, comparing, organizing, relating, and inferring are fundamental to scientific thinking processes. Teaching this way, rather than just teaching "the facts,” is also important for developing the critical thinking skills of our future generations of a scientifically literate society. Since the IAU started its discussions on a definition of a planet in 2005, I have been presenting a hands-on activity called "What is a Planet?” at the annual meeting of the DPS. This activity has been designed for short (20 minute) to long (two hour) presentations depending on the venue and the audience. This has been presented to elementary-grade students, middle school students, K-12 teachers, and scientists and educators. Depending on the amount of time available, I show students how people, as well as scientists group or categorize things such as plants and animals, cats and dog, etc. The students are then broken up into groups. Science is usually done by teams of scientists working together, not as individuals working alone. I assess their prior knowledge (how many planets, their names, their properties, etc.). They also do a hands-on group activity where they group/categorize ten spheres by their properties (size, color, etc.). Finally we discuss the process by which the IAU came up with a definition of a planet. I then discuss with them why some scientists, including myself, do not agree with this definition: as with the spheres, there may be more than one "right” answer. There are many ways to look at the properties of objects in the Solar System and group them into planets and other designations. This is the way that science should be done, to look at all of the properties of an object and categorize them in a meaningful way. There may be more than one right answer.
Greene, Michelle R.; Baldassano, Christopher; Esteva, Andre; Beck, Diane M.; Fei-Fei, Li
How do we know that a kitchen is a kitchen by looking? Traditional models posit that scene categorization is achieved through recognizing necessary and sufficient features and objects, yet there is little consensus about what these may be. However, scene categories should reflect how we use visual information. We therefore test the hypothesis that scene categories reflect functions, or the possibilities for actions within a scene. Our approach is to compare human categorization patterns with predictions made by both functions and alternative models. We collected a large-scale scene category distance matrix (5 million trials) by asking observers to simply decide whether two images were from the same or different categories. Using the actions from the American Time Use Survey, we mapped actions onto each scene (1.4 million trials). We found a strong relationship between ranked category distance and functional distance (r=0.50, or 66% of the maximum possible correlation). The function model outperformed alternative models of object-based distance (r=0.33), visual features from a convolutional neural network (r=0.39), lexical distance (r=0.27), and models of visual features. Using hierarchical linear regression, we found that functions captured 85.5% of overall explained variance, with nearly half of the explained variance captured only by functions, implying that the predictive power of alternative models was due to their shared variance with the function-based model. These results challenge the dominant school of thought that visual features and objects are sufficient for scene categorization, suggesting instead that a scene’s category may be determined by the scene’s function. PMID:26709590
Parsons, Vickie S.
While substantial research has led to theories concerning the variables that affect project success, no universal set of such variables has been acknowledged as the standard. The identification of a specific set of controllable variables is needed to minimize project failure. Much has been hypothesized about the need to match project controls and management processes to individual projects in order to increase the chance for success. However, an accepted taxonomy for facilitating this matching process does not exist. This paper surveyed existing literature on classification of project variables. After an analysis of those proposals, a simplified categorization is offered to encourage further research.
Shikanai, Saiko; Koung Ry, Ly; Takeichi, Hitomi; Emiko, Suzuki; San, Pann; Sarukura, Nobuko; Kamoshita, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru
Because of the tastiness of sugars, it is easy to consume more than an adequate amount. There are many research reports that excess sugar intake contributes to dental decay, obesity, diabetes etc. Continuing economic development in Cambodia has made it easier than before for people to consume sugars in their daily life. Currently, isomerized sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose) made from starches is commonly used in commercial beverages because of its low price. However, in Cambodia and Japan, sugar composition tables that include not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose have not been available. Prior to the present nutrition surveys, we made sugar composition tables for both countries. In this study we tried to estimate the intakes of various sugars by children in Cambodia and Japan and to determine the relationship between intake and body weight. Nutrition surveys of children aged 7, 10 and 13 years old were conducted for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method in 89 Cambodian children living in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and 151 Japanese children living in 3 prefectures from north to south. Height and weight of children in Cambodia and Japan were similar until 10 years old but at 13 years old, the Cambodians were shorter and lighter than the Japanese. We could not observe any differences in BMI in either country. The sugar intakes from beverages and snacks were not different among the different gender and age. Thus we combined the mean total sugar intake for Cambodian and Japanese, 28.42 ± 25.28 g and 25.69 ± 16.16 g respectively. These were within the range of WHO recommendations (less than 10% of energy intakes). Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugars from commercial beverages and snacks and Japanese children 26%. This means that for Cambodians half of the sugars came from isomerized sugar made from starches. Relationships between sugar intake and body weight were not observed in both countries. In
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
We discuss the categorization of 20 quantum mechanics problems by physics professors and undergraduate students from two honours-level quantum mechanics courses. Professors and students were asked to categorize the problems based upon similarity of solution. We also had individual discussions with professors who categorized the problems. Faculty…
McDaniel, Mark A.; Cahill, Michael J.; Bugg, Julie M.
How does orthographic distinctiveness affect recall of structured (categorized) word lists? On one theory, enhanced item-specific information (e.g., more distinct encoding) in concert with robust relational information (e.g., categorical information) optimally supports free recall. This predicts that for categorically structured lists,…
Long, Gayle Beam; Jacewicz, Ewa
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying phonological impairment in dyslexia is associated with a deficit in categorizing regional dialects. Method Twenty adults with dyslexia, 20 school-age children with dyslexia, and 40 corresponding control listeners with average reading ability listened to sentences produced by multiple talkers (both sexes) representing two dialects: Midland dialect in Ohio (same as listeners' dialect) and Southern dialect in Western North Carolina. Participants' responses were analyzed using signal detection theory. Results Listeners with dyslexia were less sensitive to talker dialect than listeners with average reading ability. Children were less sensitive to dialect than adults. Under stimulus uncertainty, listeners with average reading ability were biased toward Ohio dialect, whereas listeners with dyslexia were unbiased in their responses. Talker sex interacted with sensitivity and bias differently for listeners with dyslexia than for listeners with average reading ability. The correlations between dialect sensitivity and phonological memory scores were strongest for adults with dyslexia. Conclusions The results imply that the phonological deficit in dyslexia arises from impaired access to intact phonological representations rather than from poorly specified representations. It can be presumed that the impeded access to implicit long-term memory representations for indexical (dialect) information is due to less efficient operations in working memory, including deficiencies in utilizing talker normalization processes. PMID:27575597
Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Elhanan, Gai; Min, Hua; Zhang, Li; Peng, Yi
The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) integrates about 880,000 concepts from 100 biomedical terminologies. Each concept is categorized to at least one semantic type of the Semantic Network. During the integration, it is unavoidable that some categorization errors and inconsistencies will be introduced. In this paper, we present an auditing technique to find such errors and inconsistencies. Our technique is based on an expert reviewing the pure intersections of meta-semantic types of a metaschema, a compact abstract view of the UMLS Semantic Network. We use a divide and conquer approach, handling differently small pure intersections and medium to large pure intersections. By using this approach, we limit the number of concepts reviewed, for which we expect a high percentage of errors. We reviewed all concepts in 657 pure intersections containing one to 10 concepts. Various kinds of errors are identified and the analysis of the results are presented in the paper. Also, we checked the pure intersections containing more than 10 concepts for their semantic soundness, where the semantically suspicious pure intersections are presented in the paper and their concepts are reviewed.
Shao, Ling; Zhu, Fan; Li, Xuelong
Regular machine learning and data mining techniques study the training data for future inferences under a major assumption that the future data are within the same feature space or have the same distribution as the training data. However, due to the limited availability of human labeled training data, training data that stay in the same feature space or have the same distribution as the future data cannot be guaranteed to be sufficient enough to avoid the over-fitting problem. In real-world applications, apart from data in the target domain, related data in a different domain can also be included to expand the availability of our prior knowledge about the target future data. Transfer learning addresses such cross-domain learning problems by extracting useful information from data in a related domain and transferring them for being used in target tasks. In recent years, with transfer learning being applied to visual categorization, some typical problems, e.g., view divergence in action recognition tasks and concept drifting in image classification tasks, can be efficiently solved. In this paper, we survey state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms in visual categorization applications, such as object recognition, image classification, and human action recognition.
Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory
An experiment is described that tested whether stimulus-response associations or an abstract rule are automatized during extensive practice at perceptual categorization. Twenty-seven participants each completed 12,300 trials of perceptual categorization, either on rule-based (RB) categories that could be learned explicitly or information-integration (II) categories that required procedural learning. Each participant practiced predominantly on a primary category structure, but every third session they switched to a secondary structure that used the same stimuli and responses. Half the stimuli retained their same response on the primary and secondary categories (the congruent stimuli) and half switched responses (the incongruent stimuli). Several results stood out. First, performance on the primary categories met the standard criteria of automaticity by the end of training. Second, for the primary categories in the RB condition, accuracy and response time (RT) were identical on congruent and incongruent stimuli. In contrast, for the primary II categories, accuracy was higher and RT was lower for congruent than for incongruent stimuli. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rules are automatized in RB tasks, whereas stimulus-response associations are automatized in II tasks. A cognitive neuroscience theory is proposed that accounts for these results.
Bornstein, Marc H.; Arterberry, Martha E.; Mash, Clay
Infants’ categorization of objects in different object-context relations was investigated. The experiment used a multiple-exemplar habituation-categorization procedure where 92 6-month-olds formed categories of animals and vehicles embedded in congruent, incongruent, and homogeneous object-context relations. Across diverse object-context relations, infants habituated to multiple exemplars within a category and categorized novel members of both animal and vehicle categories. Infants showed a slight advantage for categorizing animals. Infant object categorization appears to be robust to diversity in object-context relations. PMID:20031232
Parzygnat, Arthur J.
2-categories provide a useful transition point between ordinary category theory and infinity-category theory where one can perform concrete computations for applications in physics and at the same time provide rigorous formalism for mathematical structures appearing in physics. We survey three such broad instances. First, we describe two-dimensional algebra as a means of constructing non-abelian parallel transport along surfaces which can be used to describe strings charged under non-abelian gauge groups in string theory. Second, we formalize the notion of convex and cone categories, provide a preliminary categorical definition of entropy, and exhibit several examples. Thirdly, we provide a universal description of the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal construction as a canonical procedure from states on C*-algebras to representations of C*-algebras equipped with pure state.
Damper, R I; Harnad, S R
Studies of the categorical perception (CP) of sensory continua have a long and rich history in psychophysics. In 1977, Macmillan, Kaplan, and Creelman introduced the use of signal detection theory to CP studies. Anderson and colleagues simultaneously proposed the first neural model for CP, yet this line of research has been less well explored. In this paper, we assess the ability of neural-network models of CP to predict the psychophysical performance of real observers with speech sounds and artificial/novel stimuli. We show that a variety of neural mechanisms are capable of generating the characteristics of CP. Hence, CP may not be a special model of perception but an emergent property of any sufficiently powerful general learning system.
Virasoro, M. A.
Prosopagnosia is a syndrome characterized by a generalized difficulty to visually recognize individual patterns among those that are similar, and can therefore be said to belong to the same category. I suggest that the existence of this disfunction may be an important clue for understanding the categorization process in the brain. In this direction the performance of neural networks under random destruction of synapses is analysed. It is found that in almost every network that stores correlated patterns the coding of the discriminating details between individuals inside a class is more sensitive to noise or to random destruction than the coding that distinguishes between classes. It follows that a process of death and/or deterioration at an intermediate level of intensity, even if it acts randomly on the network may lead to a malfunctioning of the network that resembles prosopagnosia.
Dunham, Yarrow; Dotsch, Ron; Clark, Amelia R.; Stepanova, Elena V.
We examined the development of racial categorizations of faces spanning the European–East Asian (“White–Asian”) categorical continuum in children between the ages of four and nine as well as adults. We employed a stimulus set that independently varied skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, allowing the contribution of each to be assessed independently and in interaction with each other. Results demonstrated substantial development across this age range in children’s ability to draw on both sorts of cue, with over twice as much variance explained by stimulus variation in adults than children. Nonetheless, children were clearly sensitive to both skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, suggesting that understanding of the White-Asian category boundary develops in a somewhat different way than understanding of the White-Black category boundary, in which attention to features other than skin color appear only somewhat later. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for theories of social categorization. PMID:27355683
Kranjec, Alexander; Lupyan, Gary; Chatterjee, Anjan
We investigate the effect of spatial categories on visual perception. In three experiments, participants made same/different judgments on pairs of simultaneously presented dot-cross configurations. For different trials, the position of the dot within each cross could differ with respect to either categorical spatial relations (the dots occupied different quadrants) or coordinate spatial relations (the dots occupied different positions within the same quadrant). The dot-cross configurations also varied in how readily the dot position could be lexicalized. In harder-to-name trials, crosses formed a "+" shape such that each quadrant was associated with two discrete lexicalized spatial categories (e.g., "above" and "left"). In easier-to-name trials, both crosses were rotated 45° to form an "×" shape such that quadrants were unambiguously associated with a single lexicalized spatial category (e.g., "above" or "left"). In Experiment 1, participants were more accurate when discriminating categorical information between easier-to-name categories and more accurate at discriminating coordinate spatial information within harder-to-name categories. Subsequent experiments attempted to down-regulate or up-regulate the involvement of language in task performance. Results from Experiment 2 (verbal interference) and Experiment 3 (verbal training) suggest that the observed spatial relation type-by-nameability interaction is resistant to online language manipulations previously shown to affect color and object-based perceptual processing. The results across all three experiments suggest that robust biases in the visual perception of spatial relations correlate with patterns of lexicalization, but do not appear to be modulated by language online.
Kranjec, Alexander; Lupyan, Gary; Chatterjee, Anjan
We investigate the effect of spatial categories on visual perception. In three experiments, participants made same/different judgments on pairs of simultaneously presented dot-cross configurations. For different trials, the position of the dot within each cross could differ with respect to either categorical spatial relations (the dots occupied different quadrants) or coordinate spatial relations (the dots occupied different positions within the same quadrant). The dot-cross configurations also varied in how readily the dot position could be lexicalized. In harder-to-name trials, crosses formed a “+” shape such that each quadrant was associated with two discrete lexicalized spatial categories (e.g., “above” and “left”). In easier-to-name trials, both crosses were rotated 45° to form an “×” shape such that quadrants were unambiguously associated with a single lexicalized spatial category (e.g., “above” or “left”). In Experiment 1, participants were more accurate when discriminating categorical information between easier-to-name categories and more accurate at discriminating coordinate spatial information within harder-to-name categories. Subsequent experiments attempted to down-regulate or up-regulate the involvement of language in task performance. Results from Experiment 2 (verbal interference) and Experiment 3 (verbal training) suggest that the observed spatial relation type-by-nameability interaction is resistant to online language manipulations previously shown to affect color and object-based perceptual processing. The results across all three experiments suggest that robust biases in the visual perception of spatial relations correlate with patterns of lexicalization, but do not appear to be modulated by language online. PMID:24870560
García-Hermoso, A; Aguilar, M M; Vergara, F A; Velásquez, E J A; Marina, R
The aims were to examine the association of sleep patterns with being overweight or obese and to analyze the association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with sleep patterns in children. The study involved 395 schoolchildren (12-13 years old). Sleep patterns were assessed with the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire, grouped into four subscales: sleep quality, sleep-related anxiety, bedtime refusal, and sleep routines. CRF was predicted by the 20-m shuttle-run test. Logistic regression models showed that sleep-related anxiety problems predicted being overweight or obese in both sexes, and sleep quality problems predicted being overweight or obese in girls. Also, girls who had better CRF levels were less susceptible to sleep-related anxiety problems. Studies are required to determine if increasing CRF could be a possible strategy for improving sleep quality.
Hao, Jian; Su, Yanjie
Previous studies show that typically developing 4-year old children can understand other people's false beliefs but that deaf children of hearing families have difficulty in understanding false beliefs until the age of approximately 13. Because false beliefs are implicit mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues in standard false belief tasks, the present study examines the hypothesis that the deaf children's developmental delay in understanding false beliefs may reflect their difficulty in understanding a spectrum of mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues. Nine- to 13-year-old deaf children of hearing families and 4-6-year-old typically developing children completed false belief tasks and emotion recognition tasks under different cue conditions. The results indicated that after controlling for the effect of the children's language abilities, the deaf children inferred other people's false beliefs as accurately as the typically developing children when other people's false beliefs were clearly expressed through their eye-gaze direction. However, the deaf children performed worse than the typically developing children when asked to infer false beliefs with ambiguous or no eye-gaze cues. Moreover, the deaf children were capable of recognizing other people's emotions that were clearly conveyed by their facial or body expressions. The results suggest that although theory-based or simulation-based mental state understanding is typical of hearing children's theory of mind mechanism, for deaf children of hearing families, clear cue-based mental state understanding may be their specific theory of mind mechanism.
Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Herberger, Eric R; Boomer, Joseph; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A
Contemporary theory in cognitive neuroscience distinguishes, among the processes and utilities that serve categorization, explicit and implicit systems of category learning that learn, respectively, category rules by active hypothesis testing or adaptive behaviors by association and reinforcement. Little is known about the time course of categorization within these systems. Accordingly, the present experiments contrasted tasks that fostered explicit categorization (because they had a one-dimensional, rule-based solution) or implicit categorization (because they had a two-dimensional, information-integration solution). In Experiment 1, participants learned categories under unspeeded or speeded conditions. In Experiment 2, they applied previously trained category knowledge under unspeeded or speeded conditions. Speeded conditions selectively impaired implicit category learning and implicit mature categorization. These results illuminate the processing dynamics of explicit/implicit categorization.
Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang
The present study examined whether 6- and 9-month-old Caucasian infants could categorize faces according to race. In Experiment 1, infants were familiarized with different female faces from a common ethnic background (i.e. either Caucasian or Asian) and then tested with female faces from a novel race category. Nine-month-olds were able to form discrete categories of Caucasian and Asian faces. However, 6-month-olds did not form discrete categories of faces based on race. In Experiment 2, a second group of 6- and 9-month-olds was tested to determine whether they could discriminate between different faces from the same race category. Results showed that both age groups could only discriminate between different faces from the own-race category of Caucasian faces. The findings of the two experiments taken together suggest that 9-month-olds formed a category of Caucasian faces that are further differentiated at the individual level. In contrast, although they could form a category of Asian faces, they could not discriminate between such other-race faces. This asymmetry in category formation at 9 months (i.e. categorization of own-race faces vs. categorical perception of other-race faces) suggests that differential experience with own- and other-race faces plays an important role in infants' acquisition of face processing abilities. PMID:20590720
Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G
We compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization by using forced-choice saccadic and manual response tasks. Participants viewed paired emotional and neutral scenes involving humans or animals flashed rapidly in extrafoveal vision. Participants were instructed to categorize the targets by saccading toward the location occupied by a predefined target scene. The affective task involved saccading toward an unpleasant or pleasant scene, and the semantic task involved saccading toward a scene containing an animal. Both affective and semantic target scenes could be reliably categorized in less than 220 ms, but semantic categorization was always faster than affective categorization. This finding was replicated with singly, foveally presented scenes and manual responses. In comparison with foveal presentation, extrafoveal presentation slowed down the categorization of affective targets more than that of semantic targets. Exposure threshold for accurate categorization was lower for semantic information than for affective information. Superordinate-, basic-, and subordinate-level semantic categorizations were faster than affective evaluation. We conclude that affective analysis of scenes cannot bypass object recognition. Rather, semantic categorization precedes and is required for affective evaluation.
Wais, Peter E; Gazzaley, Adam
The detrimental influence of distraction on memory and attention is well established, yet it is not as clear whether irrelevant information impacts categorization abilities and whether this impact changes in aging. We examined categorization with morphed prototype stimuli in both younger and older adults, using an adaptive staircase approach to assess participants' performance in conditions with and without visual distractors. Results showed that distraction did not affect younger adults, but produced a negative impact on older adults' categorization such that there was an interaction of age and distraction. These results suggest a relationship between the increased susceptibility to visual distraction in normal aging and impairment in categorization.
Mohan, Krithika; Arun, S. P.
How do we perform rapid visual categorization?It is widely thought that categorization involves evaluating the similarity of an object to other category items, but the underlying features and similarity relations remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that categorization performance is based on perceived similarity relations between items within and outside the category. To this end, we measured the categorization performance of human subjects on three diverse visual categories (animals, vehicles, and tools) and across three hierarchical levels (superordinate, basic, and subordinate levels among animals). For the same subjects, we measured their perceived pair-wise similarities between objects using a visual search task. Regardless of category and hierarchical level, we found that the time taken to categorize an object could be predicted using its similarity to members within and outside its category. We were able to account for several classic categorization phenomena, such as (a) the longer times required to reject category membership; (b) the longer times to categorize atypical objects; and (c) differences in performance across tasks and across hierarchical levels. These categorization times were also accounted for by a model that extracts coarse structure from an image. The striking agreement observed between categorization and visual search suggests that these two disparate tasks depend on a shared coarse object representation. PMID:23092947
Wang, Qihua; Jin, Hongxia; Nusser, Stefan
Tagging allows individuals to use whatever terms they think are appropriate to describe an item. With the growing popularity of tagging, more and more tags have been collected by a variety of applications. An item may be associated with tags describing its different aspects, such as appearance, functionality, and location. However, little attention has been paid in the organization of tags; in most tagging systems, all the tags associated with an item are listed together regardless of their meanings. When the number of tags becomes large, finding useful information with regards to a certain aspect of an item becomes difficult. Improving the organization of tags in existing tagging systems is thus highly desired. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical approach to organize tags. In our approach, tags are placed into different categories based on their meanings. To find information with respect to a certain aspect of an item, one just needs to refer to its associated tags in the corresponding category. Since existing applications have already collected a large number of tags, manually categorizing all the tags is infeasible. We propose to use data-mining and machine-learning techniques to automatically and rapidly classify tags in tagging systems. A prototype of our approaches has been developed for a real-word tagging system.
Greene, Arthur M.; Seager, Richard
We explore use of the familiar tercile framework of seasonal forecasting for the characterization of 21st-century precipitation projections over North America. Consistent with direct analyses of modeled precipitation change, in a superensemble of CMIP5 simulations an unambiguous pattern of shifted tercile population statistics develops as the globe warms. Expressed categorically, frequencies for the low (i.e., dry) tercile increase in the southwestern United States and southward into Mexico and decrease across the northern tier of North America, while counts for the high tercile shift in the opposite sense. We show that as the 21st-century proceeds, changes become statistically significant over wide regions in the pointwise sense, and also when considered as projections on model-specific climate change “fingerprints”. Background noise in the superensemble, against which significance is established, comprises both structural model uncertainty and natural climate variability. The robustness of these findings makes a compelling case for long-range planning for a dryer future in the American Southwest and southward, and wetter one to the north and especially northeast, while communication is facilitated by widespread user familiarity with the tercile format.
Fang, H; Walton, S; Delahaye, E; Harris, J; Storchak, D A; Chen, M
Mapping a set of categorical values to different colors is an elementary technique in data visualization. Users of visualization software routinely rely on the default colormaps provided by a system, or colormaps suggested by software such as ColorBrewer. In practice, users often have to select a set of colors in a semantically meaningful way (e.g., based on conventions, color metaphors, and logological associations), and consequently would like to ensure their perceptual differentiation is optimized. In this paper, we present an algorithmic approach for maximizing the perceptual distances among a set of given colors. We address two technical problems in optimization, i.e., (i) the phenomena of local maxima that halt the optimization too soon, and (ii) the arbitrary reassignment of colors that leads to the loss of the original semantic association. We paid particular attention to different types of constraints that users may wish to impose during the optimization process. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this work, we tested this technique in two case studies. To reach out to a wider range of users, we also developed a web application called Colourmap Hospital.
Depeursinge, Adrien; Iavindrasana, Jimison; Hidki, Asmâa; Cohen, Gilles; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning
We compare five common classifier families in their ability to categorize six lung tissue patterns in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of patients affected with interstitial lung diseases (ILD) but also normal tissue. The evaluated classifiers are Naive Bayes, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), J48 decision trees, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The dataset used contains 843 regions of interest (ROI) of healthy and five pathologic lung tissue patterns identified by two radiologists at the University Hospitals of Geneva. Correlation of the feature space composed of 39 texture attributes is studied. A grid search for optimal parameters is carried out for each classifier family. Two complementary metrics are used to characterize the performances of classification. Those are based on McNemar's statistical tests and global accuracy. SVM reached best values for each metric and allowed a mean correct prediction rate of 87.9% with high class-specific precision on testing sets of 423 ROIs.
Huang, Jiongli; Tang, Tiantong; Hu, Guocheng; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yuyu; Wang, Qiang; Su, Jing; Zou, Yunfeng; Peng, Xiaowu
Background Evidence for a possible causal relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by high voltage transmission (HVT) lines and neurobehavioral dysfunction in children is insufficient. The present study aims to investigate the association between EMF exposure from HVT lines and neurobehavioral function in children. Methods Two primary schools were chosen based on monitoring data of ambient electromagnetic radiation. A cross-sectional study with 437 children (9 to 13 years old) was conducted. Exposure to EMF from HVT lines was monitored at each school. Information was collected on possible confounders and relevant exposure predictors using standardized questionnaires. Neurobehavioral function in children was evaluated using established computerized neurobehavioral tests. Data was analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounding factors, multivariable regression revealed that children attending a school near 500 kV HVT lines had poorer performance on the computerized neurobehavioral tests for Visual Retention and Pursuit Aiming compared to children attending a school that was not in close proximity to HVT lines. Conclusions The results suggest long-term low-level exposure to EMF from HVT lines might have a negative impact on neurobehavioral function in children. However, because of differences in results only for two of four tests achieved statistical significance and potential limitations, more studies are needed to explore the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency EMF on neurobehavioral function and development in children. PMID:23843999
Jain, Jithesh; Haridas, Reshmi; Paliayal, Shanavas; Rodrigues, Sheela; Jose, Merrin
Introduction India has seen a large influx of refugee populations throughout history and the Tibetan immigration is one among them. Understanding the health status and needs of immigrants is imperative because of their growing numbers and their input to the health of the nation. The oral health professionals face many challenges while confronting refugees and immigrants from cultures different from their own. Earlier studies have shown that children, especially refugees and immigrants have had a higher prevalence of unmet oral health needs. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the oral health status of 11-13 year old Tibetan and non-Tibetan school children in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A stratified cluster sampling of 11-13 year old Tibetan and non-Tibetan school children (431 and 434 respectively) formed the study participants for this study. Assessment of dental caries, periodontal disease and malocclusion was done in accordance with criteria laid down by WHO in oral health assessment survey basic methods, 1997. Data was collected by a single trained examiner. The results obtained were analyzed by SPSS version 18. The data was statistically analyzed by using chi-square test and independent t test. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results The prevalence of caries was found to be higher among the Tibetan school children when compared to the non-Tibetan school children (71% and 53.9% respectively). The mean number of sextants with healthy gingiva (2.49±2.40) and calculus (1.63±2.28) was higher among the non-Tibetan school children. The mean Dental Aesthetic Index score was found to be higher for Tibetan school children than the non-Tibetan school children (26.57±4.62 and 23.52±4.36 respectively). Conclusion The prevalence of caries, periodontal disease and malocclusion were found to be higher among immigrant Tibetan school children as when compared to non-Tibetan school children. The high level of unmet needs in
Pruden, Shannon M.; Roseberry, Sarah; Goksun, Tilbe; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M.
Fundamental to amassing a lexicon of relational terms (i.e., verbs, prepositions) is the ability to abstract and categorize spatial relations such as a figure (e.g., "boy") moving along a path (e.g., "around" the barn). Three studies examine how infants learn to categorize path over changes in "manner," or how an action is performed (e.g., running…
Lewandowsky, Stephan; Yang, Lee-Xieng; Newell, Ben R.; Kalish, Michael L.
Working memory is crucial for many higher level cognitive functions, ranging from mental arithmetic to reasoning and problem solving. Likewise, the ability to learn and categorize novel concepts forms an indispensable part of human cognition. However, very little is known about the relationship between working memory and categorization. This…
Figuerola, Carlos G.; Rodriguez, Angel Francisco Zazo; Berrocal, Jose Luis Alonso
Describes an experiment in automatic categorization, which is based on the vector model, widely used in information retrieval. Shows how the construction of the class patterns was carried out. Discusses the evaluation measures adopted and results obtained in the automatic categorization of a collection of documents in Spanish. Describes the manual…
Soulieres, Isabelle; Mottron, Laurent; Saumier, Daniel; Larochelle, Serge
A diminished top-down influence has been proposed in autism, to account for enhanced performance in low-level perceptual tasks. Applied to perceptual categorization, this hypothesis predicts a diminished influence of category on discrimination. In order to test this hypothesis, we compared categorical perception in 16 individuals with and 16…
The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) was developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory to identify and categorize extraneous matter in cotton. The CTIS bark/grass categorization was evaluated with USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) extraneous matter calls assigned ...
The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory was evaluated for identification and categorization of extraneous matter in cotton. The CTIS bark/grass categorization was evaluated with USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) extraneou...
An examination of Chapter 1 services delivered in St. Louis, Missouri and Lincoln, Nebraska, the coordination of those services with other categorical programs, and the effectiveness of those services for Chapter 1 students revealed the following conclusions: (1) relatively few Chapter 1 students receive multiple categorical program services; (2)…
Little, Daniel R.; Lewandowsky, Stephan
In probabilistic categorization, also known as multiple cue probability learning (MCPL), people learn to predict a discrete outcome on the basis of imperfectly valid cues. In MCPL, normatively irrelevant cues are usually ignored, which stands in apparent conflict with recent research in deterministic categorization that has shown that people…
Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.
We compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization by using forced-choice saccadic and manual response tasks. Participants viewed paired emotional and neutral scenes involving humans or animals flashed rapidly in extrafoveal vision. Participants were instructed to categorize the targets by saccading toward the location occupied by…
Freeman, Jonathan B; Ma, Yina; Barth, Maria; Young, Steven G; Han, Shihui; Ambady, Nalini
From only brief exposure to a face, individuals spontaneously categorize another's race. Recent behavioral evidence suggests that visual context may affect such categorizations. We used fMRI to examine the neural basis of contextual influences on the race categorization of faces. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along a White-Asian morph continuum and were surrounded by American, neutral, or Chinese scene contexts. As expected, the context systematically influenced categorization responses and their efficiency (response times). Neuroimaging results indicated that the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) exhibited highly sensitive, graded responses to the compatibility of facial and contextual cues. These regions showed linearly increasing responses as a face became more White when in an American context, and linearly increasing responses as a face became more Asian when in a Chinese context. Further, RSC activity partially mediated the effect of this face-context compatibility on the efficiency of categorization responses. Together, the findings suggest a critical role of the RSC and OFC in driving contextual influences on face categorization, and highlight the impact of extraneous cues beyond the face in categorizing other people.
Leppanen, Jukka M.; Richmond, Jenny; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Nelson, Charles A.
Categorical perception, demonstrated as reduced discrimination of within-category relative to between-category differences in stimuli, has been found in a variety of perceptual domains in adults. To examine the development of categorical perception in the domain of facial expression processing, we used behavioral and event-related potential (ERP)…
Cheal, Jenna L.; Rutherford, M. D.
Adults perceive emotional facial expressions categorically. In this study, we explored categorical perception in 3.5-year-olds by creating a morphed continuum of emotional faces and tested preschoolers' discrimination and identification of them. In the discrimination task, participants indicated whether two examples from the continuum "felt the…
Working memory is crucial for many higher-level cognitive functions, ranging from mental arithmetic to reasoning and problem solving. Likewise, the ability to learn and categorize novel concepts forms an indispensable part of human cognition. However, very little is known about the relationship between working memory and categorization, and…
Anaki, David; Bentin, Shlomo
It is well established that faces, in contrast to objects, are categorized as fast or faster at the individual level (e.g., Bill Clinton) than at the basic-level (e.g., human face). This subordinate-shift from basic-level categorization has been considered an outcome of visual expertise with processing faces. However, in the present study we found…
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FDA categorization of investigational devices. 405... Coverage Decisions That Relate to Health Care Technology § 405.203 FDA categorization of investigational devices. (a) The FDA assigns a device with an FDA-approved IDE to one of two categories: (1)...
Gimenez, Thais; Bispo, Beatriz Albuquerque; Souza, Daniela Pereira; Viganó, Maria Eduarda; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Bönecker, Marcelo; Braga, Mariana Minatel
Objective To carry out a systematic review with meta-analysis of prevalence of caries in Latin America and Caribbean children considering studies performed in this new century. Methods Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, LILACS and governmental databases through May 2016 to identify papers published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Studies in those countries performed with 5–6 or 11–13 year-old children and that presented separate prevalence figures from primary and permanent teeth were selected. We performed a descriptive analysis of studies and meta-analysis to calculate the overall prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in both primary and permanent teeth. We also analyzed the trends of prevalence of caries through the years and influence of other variables on caries prevalence using multilevel analysis. Results Seventy-five studies were included from the 1,306 articles initially retrieved. The meta-analysis of caries prevalence grouped for Latin American and the Caribbean countries were highly different from Brazil and other investigated countries for primary teeth (5–6 years-old—Brazil: 0.52, other countries:0.70) and permanent teeth (11–12 years-old—Brazil: 0.56, other countries: 0.63). For studies conducted only in Brazil the prevalence was significant lower for primary but not for permanent teeth. In Brazil, a downward trend of caries prevalence was observed in 11-13-year-old children. Conclusion Despite the decline of caries prevalence in permanent teeth, mainly in Brazil, the disease still affects more than half of the children population in Latin American and Caribbean countries in the 21st Century. PMID:27768737
Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Carr, James E; Lechago, Sarah A; Almason, Season M
The effects of vocal intraverbal training and listener training on the emergence of untrained categorization skills were evaluated. Five typically developing preschool children initially learned to name a number of previously unfamiliar visual stimuli. Each child then received one of two types of training. Intraverbal training involved reinforcing vocally emitted category names by the child in the presence of a spoken exemplar name. Listener training involved reinforcing the selection of visual stimuli by the child in the presence of a spoken category name. A multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of training on each child's intraverbal category naming and stimulus selection. Pre- and posttests were used to assess additional emergent relations. Four of 5 participants did not demonstrate the emergence of any untrained relations. The current findings suggest that additional research is needed to determine the optimal sequencing of conditions in programs designed to teach categorization skills. PMID:18468279
Johnson, Kerri L.; Iida, Masumi; Tassinary, Louis G.
Social perception is among the most important tasks that occur in daily life, and perceivers readily appreciate the social affordances of others. Here, we demonstrate that sex categorizations are functionally biased towards a male percept. Perceivers judged body shapes that varied in waist-to-hip ratio to be men if they were not, in reality, exclusive to women, and male categorizations occurred more quickly than female categorizations (studies 1 and 4). This pattern was corroborated when participants identified the average body shapes of men and women (study 2) and when we assessed participants' cognitive representations (study 3). Moreover, these tendencies were modulated by emotion context (study 4). Thus, male categorizations occurred readily and rapidly, demonstrating a pronounced categorization bias and temporal advantage for male judgements. PMID:23075835
Pruden, Shannon M; Roseberry, Sarah; Göksun, Tilbe; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M
Fundamental to amassing a lexicon of relational terms (i.e., verbs, prepositions) is the ability to abstract and categorize spatial relations such as a figure (e.g., boy) moving along a path (e.g., around the barn). Three studies examine how infants learn to categorize path over changes in manner, or how an action is performed (e.g., running vs. crawling). Experiment 1 (n = 60) finds that 10- to 12-month-old English-learning infants categorize a figure's path. In Experiment 2 (n = 27) categorization is disrupted when the ground object is removed, suggesting the relation between figure and ground defines the path. Experiment 3 (n = 24) shows that language may be a mechanism guiding category formation. These studies suggest that English-learning infants can categorize path, a component lexicalized in the world's languages.
Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.
This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had an…
Pursnani, Seema K; Rausen, Aaron R; Contractor, Sohail; Nadler, Evan P
The ability to biopsy indeterminate pulmonary lesions in children has evolved with advances in minimal access surgery. Recent advances in preoperative localization including image-guided dye injection or wire implantation have expanded the types of lesions that are accessible via minimal access surgery. We present a case of a 13-year-old boy who underwent preoperative localization using both methylene blue dye and microcoil labeling, and a subsequent thoracoscopic pulmonary wedge resection under the same anesthesia. The combined use of both dye and microcoil localization provides the advantage of superior intraoperative visualization of the lesion and the ability to use fluoroscopy to confirm the presence of the nodule in the surgical specimen. We recommend this technique for the biopsy of indeterminate pulmonary lesions that would not otherwise be accessible via a minimally invasive approach.
Manley, Dana; Cowan, Patricia; Graff, Carolyn; Perlow, Michael; Rice, Pamela; Richey, Phyllis; Sanchez, Zoila
Physical activity in children has been associated with a number of health benefits. Unfortunately, physical inactivity continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among self-efficacy levels, physical activity, aerobic fitness, and body composition (relative body mass index [RBMI]) and to determine whether a school-based pedometer intervention program would improve those variables. The sample consisted of 116 rural 11- to 13-year-old students. Weakly positive correlations between self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness and weakly correlated inverse relationships between self-efficacy, physical activity, aerobic fitness and RBMI were found. There was no statistical significance between the intervention and control group when analyzing outcome variables. These findings suggest that those with optimal RBMI levels have higher self-efficacy, physical activity and aerobic fitness levels. Although not statistically significant, the intervention group had greater improvements in mean self-efficacy scores, aerobic fitness levels, and RBMI.
Bogliotti, C.; Serniclaes, W.; Messaoud-Galusi, S.; Sprenger-Charolles, L.
Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of…
Medam, Tiphaine; Marzouki, Yousri; Montant, Marie; Fagot, Joël
Humans have the capacity to use stimuli interchangeably by forming equivalence classes, and this ability seems to be supported by our language system. According to Sidman and Tailby (Conditional discrimination vs. matching to sample: an expansion of the testing paradigm. J Exp Anal Behav 37:5-22, 1982), the formation of equivalence classes require that three relations are derived among the class members, and past experiments have shown that one of these relations, i.e., symmetry, corresponding to the ability to reverse a relation (if A → B, then B → A), is extremely difficult to obtain in non-human animals. Because language development and the ability to form equivalence classes both co-occur in children with an increased ability to form categories, the current study tested the idea that category learning might promote symmetry in a nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 1, twelve Guinea baboons (Papio papio) were trained to associate 60 pictures of bears and 60 pictures of cars to two category labels, before being tested in symmetry trials. In Experiment 2, symmetry was trained and tested by reversing the association order between labels and pictures, using a new set of stimuli. In both experiments, the baboons successfully demonstrated category discrimination, but had only a weak (though significant) tendency to respond in accordance with symmetry during test trials. Altogether, our results confirm that symmetry is inherently difficult in non-human animals. We discuss possible explanations for such a limitation and give reasons for thinking that the effects of categorization on symmetry should be further investigated.
Namburu, Setu Madhavi; Tu, Haiying; Luo, Jianhui; Pattipati, Krishna R.
Modern information society is facing the challenge of handling massive volume of online documents, news, intelligence reports, and so on. How to use the information accurately and in a timely manner becomes a major concern in many areas. While the general information may also include images and voice, we focus on the categorization of text data in this paper. We provide a brief overview of the information processing flow for text categorization, and discuss two supervised learning algorithms, viz., support vector machines (SVM) and partial least squares (PLS), which have been successfully applied in other domains, e.g., fault diagnosis . While SVM has been well explored for binary classification and was reported as an efficient algorithm for text categorization, PLS has not yet been applied to text categorization. Our experiments are conducted on three data sets: Reuter's- 21578 dataset about corporate mergers and data acquisitions (ACQ), WebKB and the 20-Newsgroups. Results show that the performance of PLS is comparable to SVM in text categorization. A major drawback of SVM for multi-class categorization is that it requires a voting scheme based on the results of pair-wise classification. PLS does not have this drawback and could be a better candidate for multi-class text categorization.
Atagi, Eriko; Bent, Tessa
Enhancement of the perceptual encoding of talker characteristics (indexical information) in speech can facilitate listeners' recognition of linguistic content. The present study explored this indexical-linguistic relationship in nonnative speech processing by examining listeners' performance on two tasks: nonnative accent categorization and nonnative speech-in-noise recognition. Results indicated substantial variability across listeners in their performance on both the accent categorization and nonnative speech recognition tasks. Moreover, listeners' accent categorization performance correlated with their nonnative speech-in-noise recognition performance. These results suggest that having more robust indexical representations for nonnative accents may allow listeners to more accurately recognize the linguistic content of nonnative speech.
This paper provides a brief overview of recent developmental research on themes related to children's social identities. Initially, consideration is given to the capacity for social categorization, following which attention is given to children's developing conceptions of social identities, their identification with social groups, and the…
Czaja, Julia; Hartmann, Andrea Sabrina; Rief, Winfried; Hilbert, Anja
Experimental and self-report studies have shown that parents have a strong influence on their normal or overweight children's eating behavior, i.e. through parental feeding behavior or communication. Studies in children with loss of control (LOC) eating that have investigated this relationship are scarce, and ecologically valid observational studies are missing. This study examined family functioning at mealtimes in home environments in 43 families of a child with LOC eating and 31 families of a child without LOC eating; the children were 8-13 years old. Familial interactions, child eating behavior, and parental mealtime behavior were assessed using the Mealtime Family Interaction Coding System, observation of bite speed of the child, and self-report questionnaires. Less healthy patterns of communication (U=201.53, p<.01) and interpersonal involvement (U=207.54, p<.01) and more maladaptive overall family functioning (U=233.52, p<.05) were observed but not self-reported in families of a child with LOC eating compared to those without LOC eating. Children with LOC eating (M=4.73, SD=1.88) ate faster than controls (M=3.71, SD=1.19; p<.05), with highest bite speed in a group with high recurrent LOC eating (p<.01). The results indicate that maladaptive patterns of family functioning during family mealtimes are present in LOC eating in children and are associated with the child's eating behavior. Parent-child communication training should be tested as an intervention for children with LOC episodes.
Pouw, Wim T J L; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A; Paas, Fred
We investigated whether augmenting instructional animations with a body analogy (BA) would improve 10- to 13-year-old children's learning about class-1 levers. Children with a lower level of general math skill who learned with an instructional animation that provided a BA of the physical system, showed higher accuracy on a lever problem-solving reaction time task than children studying the instructional animation without this BA. Additionally, learning with a BA led to a higher speed-accuracy trade-off during the transfer task for children with a lower math skill, which provided additional evidence that especially this group is likely to be affected by learning with a BA. However, overall accuracy and solving speed on the transfer task was not affected by learning with or without this BA. These results suggest that providing children with a BA during animation study provides a stepping-stone for understanding mechanical principles of a physical system, which may prove useful for instructional designers. Yet, because the BA does not seem effective for all children, nor for all tasks, the degree of effectiveness of body analogies should be studied further. Future research, we conclude, should be more sensitive to the necessary degree of analogous mapping between the body and physical systems, and whether this mapping is effective for reasoning about more complex instantiations of such physical systems.
Tong, Lian; Xiong, Xu; Tan, Hui
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with obesity in children. Lifestyle-related behaviors (external eating, screen time and physical inactivity) are well known to be associated with increased risk of obesity, but their associations with ADHD are unclear. The objectives of this study were to clarify the associations between ADHD symptoms in children and their associated lifestyle. A cross sectional study was carried out with a total of 785 primary students aged 9 to 13 years old and their parents were recruited by stratified random sampling from primary schools of China. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) test was used to examine the relationships between ADHD symptoms and health related behaviors. We found that children with ADHD symptoms were likely to spend more time using a computer during school days; they were also more likely to eat while using a computer. These children were also more likely to eat while seated in a car, using a smart phone, using a computer at bedtime, and snacking before going to sleep than children without ADHD symptoms. An increased risk of obesity in children with ADHD symptoms was associated with the overuse of electronic devices, eating while using electronic devices, and delaying bedtimes to snack and use electronic devices. PMID:27658266
Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella
The phonological processing and memory skills of 12- and 13-year-old Italian children with difficulty in learning English as a foreign language (foreign language learning difficulty, FLLD) were examined and compared with those of a control group matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Three experiments were conducted. A dissociation between verbal and visuo-spatial working memory was observed when compared to the control group; children with FLLD showed a poorer performance in a phonological working memory task but performed to a comparable level in a visuo-spatial working memory task (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2 the word length and the response modality of an auditory word span task were manipulated in order to examine the efficiency of the phonological loop and the relevance of the spoken output. The FLLD group did not show sensitivity to the word length effect and showed no advantage in the picture pointing recall condition. In Experiment 3 children with FLLD were shown to be sensitive to phonological similarity but again they showed neither a word length effect nor a slower articulation speed. Furthermore, in all three experiments children with FLLD were shown to be less efficient in phonological sensitivity tasks and this deficit appeared to be independent of the phonological memory problem. All three experiments consistently showed that children with FLLD have an impairment in phonological memory and phonological processing, which appear to be independent from one other but both contribute to the children's difficulty in learning a second language.
Ertekin, Yusuf Haydar; Tekin, Murat; Uludag, Aysegul; Arikan, Sedat; Sahin, Erkan Melih
Objective: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of decreased visual acuity, strabismus, and spectacle wear in children aged 5 to 13 years. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in primary education schools. A total of 1938 participants, including 940 females (48.5%) and 998 males (51.5%) with a mean age 8.96 ± 2.31 (5-13 years old), were screened. The comparisons were performed with gender, age, and age groups. The children attended to vision screening were assigned to three age groups as 5-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-13 years. Results: The prevalence of the parameters was detected as decreased visual acuity 12.4%, strabismus 2.2%, and spectacle wear 6.9%. The prevalence of decreased visual acuity was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.013, p < 0.001). The prevalence of spectacle wear was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.019, p < 0.001). There was a visual acuity decrease in 33 of 106 (31.1%) children despite wearing own spectacle. There was no significant difference among three age groups for strabismus. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of decreased visual acuity, as well as the higher frequency of spectacle wear in children at ages of 7-9 years old may point out a threshold for visual impairment. PMID:27882020
Staton-Spicer, Ann O.; Wulff, Donald H.
Categorizes and synthesizes 186 empirical studies published from 1974-1982 in the areas of teacher characteristics, student characteristics, teaching strategies, speech criticism, student evaluation, speech communication content and programs. (PD)
Mozos, Oscar Martinez; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Kurazume, Ryo; Hasegawa, Tsutomu
The categorization of places in indoor environments is an important capability for service robots working and interacting with humans. In this paper we present a method to categorize different areas in indoor environments using a mobile robot equipped with a Kinect camera. Our approach transforms depth and grey scale images taken at each place into histograms of local binary patterns (LBPs) whose dimensionality is further reduced following a uniform criterion. The histograms are then combined into a single feature vector which is categorized using a supervised method. In this work we compare the performance of support vector machines and random forests as supervised classifiers. Finally, we apply our technique to distinguish five different place categories: corridors, laboratories, offices, kitchens, and study rooms. Experimental results show that we can categorize these places with high accuracy using our approach. PMID:22778665
Hemmer, Pernille; Persaud, Kimele
Categorical knowledge and episodic memory have traditionally been viewed as separate lines of inquiry. Here, we present a perspective on the interrelatedness of categorical knowledge and reconstruction from memory. We address three underlying questions: what knowledge do people bring to the task of remembering? How do people integrate that knowledge with episodic memory? Is this the optimal way for the memory system to work? In the review of five studies spanning four category domains (discrete, continuous, temporal, and linguistic), we evaluate the relative contribution and the structure of influence of categorical knowledge on long-term episodic memory. These studies suggest a robustness of peoples’ knowledge of the statistical regularities of the environment, and provide converging evidence of the quality and influence of category knowledge on reconstructive memory. Lastly, we argue that combining categorical knowledge and episodic memory is an efficient strategy of the memory system. PMID:24966848
Bornstein, Marc H.; And Others
The main objective of the present investigations was to determine whether or not young human infants see the physical spectrum in a categorical fashion as human adults and animals who possess color vision regularly do. (Author)
Rigoli, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Dolan, Raymond; Friston, Karl
Categorization is a fundamental ability for efficient behavioral control. It allows organisms to remember the correct responses to categorical cues and not for every stimulus encountered (hence eluding computational cost or complexity), and to generalize appropriate responses to novel stimuli dependant on category assignment. Assuming the brain performs Bayesian inference, based on a generative model of the external world and future goals, we propose a computational model of categorization in which important properties emerge. These properties comprise the ability to infer latent causes of sensory experience, a hierarchical organization of latent causes, and an explicit inclusion of context and action representations. Crucially, these aspects derive from considering the environmental statistics that are relevant to achieve goals, and from the fundamental Bayesian principle that any generative model should be preferred over alternative models based on an accuracy-complexity trade-off. Our account is a step toward elucidating computational principles of categorization and its role within the Bayesian brain hypothesis. PMID:28382008
Bandurski, Marcin; Galkowski, Tadeusz
The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a study of the development of analogical reasoning in deaf children coming from two different linguistic environments (deaf children of deaf parents--sign language, deaf children of hearing parents--spoken language) and in hearing children, as well as to compare two groups of deaf children to a group of hearing children. In order to estimate the development of children's analogical reasoning, especially the development of their understanding of different logical relations, two age groups were singled out in each population of children: younger (9- and 10-year-olds) and older (12- and 13-year-olds). In this way it is possible to assess the influence of early and consistent sign-language communication on the development of the conceptual system in deaf children and to establish whether early and consistent sign-language communication with deaf children affects their mental development to the same extent as early and consistent spoken-language communication with hearing children. The children were given three series of analogy tasks based on different logical relations: (a) a series of verbal analogy tasks (the relations of opposite, part-whole, and causality); (b) a series of numerical analogy tasks (the relations of class membership, opposite, and part-whole); and (c) a series of figural-geometric analogy tasks (the relations of opposite and part-whole). It was found that early and consistent sign-language communication with deaf children plays an almost equivalent role in the development of verbal, numerical, and spatial reasoning by analogy as early and consistent spoken-language communication with hearing children.
Chen, Wei; Lin, Bing-Sheng
In this paper, we study the categorification of the coherent states, which is equivalent to the categorification of corresponding displacement operators. Based on the categorification of Heisenberg algebras, we construct some complexes in a homotopy category which can be considered as the categorical analogues of the displacement operators. Using the diagrammatic calculus, we find that the properties of the categorical displacement operators coincide with those in normal quantum mechanics.
Chen, Wei; Lin, Bing-Sheng
In this paper, we study the categorification of the coherent states, which is equivalent to the categorification of corresponding displacement operators. Based on the categorification of Heisenberg algebras, we construct some complexes in a homotopy category which can be considered as the categorical analogues of the displacement operators. Using the diagrammatic calculus, we find that the properties of the categorical displacement operators coincide with those in normal quantum mechanics.
Lachlan, Robert F.; Nowicki, Stephen
Some of the psychological abilities that underlie human speech are shared with other species. One hallmark of speech is that linguistic context affects both how speech sounds are categorized into phonemes, and how different versions of phonemes are produced. We here confirm earlier findings that swamp sparrows categorically perceive the notes that constitute their learned songs and then investigate how categorical boundaries differ according to context. We clustered notes according to their acoustic structure, and found statistical evidence for clustering into 10 population-wide note types. Examining how three related types were perceived, we found, in both discrimination and labeling tests, that an “intermediate” note type is categorized with a “short” type when it occurs at the beginning of a song syllable, but with a “long” type at the end of a syllable. In sum, three produced note-type clusters appear to be underlain by two perceived categories. Thus, in birdsong, as in human speech, categorical perception is context-dependent, and as is the case for human phonology, there is a complex relationship between underlying categorical representations and surface forms. Our results therefore suggest that complex phonology can evolve even in the absence of rich linguistic components, like syntax and semantics. PMID:25561538
Liao, Shang-Chih; Lee, I-Nong
Some data mining (DM) methods, or software tools, require normalized data, others rely on categorized data, and some can accommodate multiple data scales. Each DM technique has a specific background theory; therefore, different results are expected when applying multiple methods. The purpose of this study is to find the data format appropriate for each DM classification technique for wider applications, and efficiently to obtain trustworthy results. Considering the nature of medical data, categorical variables are sometimes useful for making decisions and can make it easier to extrapolate knowledge. In this study, three mathematical data categorization methods (Fusinter, minimum description length principle [MDLPC] and Chi-merge) were applied to accommodate five data mining classification techniques (statistics discriminant analysis, supervised classification with Neural Networks, Decision trees, Genetic supervised clustering and Bayesian classification [probability neural networks; PNN]) using a heart disease database with four types of data (continuous data, binary data, nominal data, and ordinal data). Compared with original or normalized data, data categorized by the MDLPC categorization method was found to perform better in most of the DM classification techniques used in this study. Categorical data is good for most DM classification techniques (e.g. classification of disease and non-disease groups) and is relatively easy to use for extracting medical knowledge.
Puebla, Guillermo; Chaigneau, Sergio E
In four experiments, we tested conditions under which artifact concepts support inference and coherence in causal categorization. In all four experiments, participants categorized scenarios in which we systematically varied information about artifacts' associated design history, physical structure, user intention, user action and functional outcome, and where each property could be specified as intact, compromised or not observed. Consistently across experiments, when participants received complete information (i.e., when all properties were observed), they categorized based on individual properties and did not show evidence of using coherence to categorize. In contrast, when the state of some property was not observed, participants gave evidence of using available information to infer the state of the unobserved property, which increased the value of the available information for categorization. Our data offers answers to longstanding questions regarding artifact categorization, such as whether there are underlying causal models for artifacts, which properties are part of them, whether design history is an artifact's causal essence, and whether physical appearance or functional outcome is the most central artifact property.
Zeng, Nan; Crisman, Jill D.
This paper evaluates the accuracy of three color categorization techniques in describing vehicles colors for a system, AutoColor, which we are developing for Intelligent Transportation Systems. Color categorization is used to efficiently represent 24-bit color images with up to 8 bits of color information. Our inspiration for color categorization is based on the fact that humans typically use only a few color names to describe the numerous colors they perceive. Our Crayon color categorization technique uses a naming scheme for digitized colors which is roughly based on human names for colors. The fastest and most straight forward method for compacting a 24-bit representation into an 8-bit representation is to use the most significant bits (MSB) to represent the colors. In addition, we have developed an Adaptive color categorization technique which can derive a set of color categories for the current imaging conditions. In this paper, we detail the three color categorization techniques, Crayon, MSB, and Adaptive, and we evaluate their performance on representing vehicle colors in our AutoColor system.
Lukaš, Mirko; Lenard, Ivan
SOS Children's Village Croatia is categorized as a children's home whose primary goal is taking care of children without an adequate parental care or parents themselves. Moreover, it aims at providing children, regardless of their racial, national or religious affiliation, with affection and love in a safe family environment. In addition, SOS…
de Moraes, Leonardo Iezzi; Nicola, Thaís Coutinho; de Jesus, Julyanna Silva Araújo; Alves, Eduardo Roberty Badiani; Giovaninni, Nayara Paula Bernurdes; Marcato, Daniele Gasparini; Sampaio, Jéssica Dutra; Fuly, Jeanne Teixeira Bessa; Costalonga, Everlayny Fiorot
Background Several authors have correlated the increase of cardiovascular risk with the nutritional status, however there are different criteria for the classification of overweight and obesity in children. Objectives To evaluate the performance of three nutritional classification criteria in children, as definers of the presence of obesity and predictors of high blood pressure in schoolchildren. Methods Eight hundred and seventeen children ranging 6 to 13 years old, enrolled in public schools in the municipality of Vila Velha (ES) were submitted to anthropometric evaluation and blood pressure measurement. The classification of the nutritional status was established by two international criteria (CDC/NCHS 2000 and IOTF 2000) and one Brazilian criterion (Conde e Monteiro 2006). Results The prevalence of overweight was higher when the criterion of Conde e Monteiro (27%) was used, and inferior by the IOTF (15%) criteria. High blood pressure was observed in 7.3% of children. It was identified a strong association between the presence of overweight and the occurrence of high blood pressure, regardless of the test used (p < 0.001). The test showing the highest sensitivity in predicting elevated BP was the Conde e Monteiro (44%), while the highest specificity (94%) and greater overall accuracy (63%), was the CDC criterion. Conclusions The prevalence of overweight in Brazilian children is higher when using the classification criterion of Conde e Monteiro, and lower when the criterion used is IOTF. The Brazilian classification criterion proved to be the most sensitive predictor of high BP risk in this sample. PMID:24676372
González-Peña, Paloma; Egido, Begoña Delgado; Carrasco, Miguel Á; Tello, Francisco Pablo Holgado
This study's objective is to analyze temperament and parenting variables as they relate to proactive and reactive aggression in children. To be specific, profiles based on these variables were analyzed in children with high levels of proactive versus reactive aggression. The sample was made up of two groups: 482 children (52.3% boys) between 1 and 3 years-old, and 422 children (42.42% boys) 3 to 6 years-old. Statistical analyses of the two age groups included: Pearson's correlations to explore the relationships among variables, Cluster Analysis to create groups with different levels of aggression, and finally discriminant analysis to determine which variables discriminate between groups. The results show that high levels of frustration/negative affect in the 1-3 year-old group and low effortful control in children 3 to 6 years old are the most relevant variables in differentiating between aggressive and non-aggressive subjects. Nevertheless, differential profiles of subjects with high levels of proactive versus reactive aggression were not observed. The implications of these different types of aggression in terms of development and prevention are discussed.
Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred
We investigated whether augmenting instructional animations with a body analogy (BA) would improve 10- to 13-year-old children’s learning about class-1 levers. Children with a lower level of general math skill who learned with an instructional animation that provided a BA of the physical system, showed higher accuracy on a lever problem-solving reaction time task than children studying the instructional animation without this BA. Additionally, learning with a BA led to a higher speed–accuracy trade-off during the transfer task for children with a lower math skill, which provided additional evidence that especially this group is likely to be affected by learning with a BA. However, overall accuracy and solving speed on the transfer task was not affected by learning with or without this BA. These results suggest that providing children with a BA during animation study provides a stepping-stone for understanding mechanical principles of a physical system, which may prove useful for instructional designers. Yet, because the BA does not seem effective for all children, nor for all tasks, the degree of effectiveness of body analogies should be studied further. Future research, we conclude, should be more sensitive to the necessary degree of analogous mapping between the body and physical systems, and whether this mapping is effective for reasoning about more complex instantiations of such physical systems. PMID:27375538
Smith, J. David; Ell, Shawn W.
We explore humans’ rule-based category learning using analytic approaches that highlight their psychological transitions during learning. These approaches confirm that humans show qualitatively sudden psychological transitions during rule learning. These transitions contribute to the theoretical literature contrasting single vs. multiple category-learning systems, because they seem to reveal a distinctive learning process of explicit rule discovery. A complete psychology of categorization must describe this learning process, too. Yet extensive formal-modeling analyses confirm that a wide range of current (gradient-descent) models cannot reproduce these transitions, including influential rule-based models (e.g., COVIS) and exemplar models (e.g., ALCOVE). It is an important theoretical conclusion that existing models cannot explain humans’ rule-based category learning. The problem these models have is the incremental algorithm by which learning is simulated. Humans descend no gradient in rule-based tasks. Very different formal-modeling systems will be required to explain humans’ psychology in these tasks. An important next step will be to build a new generation of models that can do so. PMID:26332587
van Dijk, Chantal N; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Vasić, Nada; Avrutin, Sergey; Blom, Elma
When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition) task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally) significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand, use of textese does
Fang, Chuanglin; Ma, Haitao; Wang, Jing
Regional differences in the character of urbanization in China are substantial. The promotion of what has been termed "new-type urbanization" cannot, as a result of these regional differences, be expected to follow a universal approach--rather, such a development must objectively adhere to locational and category-specific principles and adopt differentiated urbanization development models. Regional categorization is often used in geography, but is rarely deployed in research addressing human and social problems relating to urbanization. In March 2014, China published the National New-type Urbanization Plan (2014-2020), which calls for the scientific and reasonable planning of "new-type urbanization," and appropriate regional categorizations are urgently needed in order to guide this reform. Responding to this challenge, this research engaged in the design of a "dominantly quantitative analysis, qualitatively supplemented" method in order to divide China into 5 main regions and 47 sub-regions in terms of new-type urbanization. The paper discusses the features and key problems of each region. This study introduces a new method for regional categorization, thereby remedying the lack of regional categorization in relation to "new-type urbanization" in China, and ultimately promoting the development of regional categorization in the humanities as a valuable reference for healthy and sustainable Chinese urbanization.
Rapley, Mark; McCarthy, David; McHoul, Alec
A central topic for social psychology is how we identify, categorize or represent ourselves to ourselves and to each other. Previous work on this topic stemming from attribution theory, social identity theory, self-categorization theory and social representations theory has tended to accept the dominant cognitivist tenet of an interior self which is (with varying degrees of success) re-presented in ordinary discourse. Against this tradition, and drawing on membership categorization analysis, we argue here for an attention to ordinary members' methods of categorizing the self. Such devices are constitutive of a culture. Accounts of the self (whether lay or professional) cannot avoid reliance on such devices. Our particular case involves a corpus of materials from the press surrounding the Port Arthur massacre: the shooting of 35 people by a lone gunman, Martin Bryant, in Tasmania in 1996. In this case, where public accountings for what 'makes up' a particular person are tied to an otherwise inexplicable but ultra-newsworthy event, we find that lay and professional methods of accounting are remarkably congruent. One of the reasons for this congruence, we suggest, is that the categorization of persons is a fundamentally moral matter. Devices for producing everyday moral accounts, in actual practical circumstances, precede and ground, for example, 'technical', 'clinical' or 'scientific' judgments. We conclude that describing such routine (but ultimately grounding) cultural devices can be a central goal of social psychology, as opposed to explaining 'the self' by tacitly relying upon those same devices in an unacknowledged and unproblematized fashion.
Li, Sheng; Mayhew, Stephen D; Kourtzi, Zoe
Learning is thought to facilitate our ability to perform complex perceptual tasks and optimize brain circuits involved in decision making. However, little is known about the experience-dependent mechanisms in the human brain that support our ability to make fine categorical judgments. Previous work has focused on identifying spatial brain patterns (i.e., areas) that change with learning. Here, we take advantage of the complementary high spatial and temporal resolution of simultaneous electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics between cortical networks involved in flexible category learning. Observers were trained to use different decision criteria (i.e., category boundaries) when making fine categorical judgments on morphed stimuli (i.e., radial vs. concentric patterns). Our findings demonstrate that learning acts on a feedback-based circuit that supports fine categorical judgments. Experience-dependent changes in the behavioral decision criterion were associated with changes in later perceptual processes engaging higher occipitotemporal and frontoparietal circuits. In contrast, category learning did not modulate early processes in a medial frontotemporal network that are thought to support the coarse interpretation of visual scenes. These findings provide evidence that learning flexible criteria for fine categorical judgments acts on distinct spatiotemporal brain circuits and shapes the readout of sensory signals that provide evidence for categorical decisions.
Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Gil, Roger
This paper studies the procedural learning of semantic categorization in 29 patients with non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated whether the PD group was able to develop semantic skill, using a cognitive procedural task developed in our laboratory, applying a manual and serial reaction time paradigm to semantic categorization. The PD group showed similar scores to those of the control group on semantic categorization. Both groups showed reaction time reduction over the semantic procedural task, but the PD group produced longer reaction times than the control subjects. Contrary to our prediction, we observed an improvement in semantic categorization reaction times with practice, even with new verbal material for the PD patients to categorize despite their motor impairments and executive deficits. By contrast, we found a significant negative correlation between axial motor signs and the ratio of semantic procedural learning, but not for lateral motor signs. The present results support the notion that non-demented PD patients may be capable of acquiring comparable semantic skill to those of the control group.
Abdelgawad, Amr A; Kanlic, Enes
Calcaneus fractures in children differ from those in adults. Most calcaneus fractures in children can be managed nonoperatively, with good long-term results expected. The width and height of the calcaneus can remodel with time in children. Recently, there has been a trend toward operative treatment of displaced intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus in children to correct the articular deformity. Studies of calcaneal fracture fixation in children used an extended lateral approach, with its possible complications. In the present report, we describe the operative treatment of 2 children (12 and 13 years old), who had a displaced intra-articular fracture of the calcaneus, using a minimally invasive sinus tarsi approach. Adequate reduction was obtained in both cases with no soft tissue complications or implant discomfort. Fixation was obtained using 3.5-mm cortical screws. Anatomic joint alignment was restored. The children were followed up until they had both resumed their full activities with no complications. We recommend this approach for operative treatment of displaced intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus, because it addresses the intra-articular displacement, which is the most important element of the deformity in children.
Hamad, Muddathir H; Alwadei, Ali H; Bashiri, Fahad A; Hassan, Hamdy H; Idris, Hiyam; Hassan, Saeed; Muayqil, Taim; Altweijri, Ikhlass; Salih, Mustafa A
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare neurological disorder in children. It is characterized by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of brain parenchymal lesion, vascular malformations, hydrocephalus, or central nervous system (CNS) infection. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by high opening pressure of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with exclusion of secondary causes of intracranial hypertension. If not treated properly, it may lead to severe visual dysfunction. Here we review the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria and management of IIH in children through illustration of the clinical and radiological presentation of a 13-year-old overweight girl who presented with severe headache, diplopia and bilateral papilledema. Otherwise, she had unremarkable neurological and systemic examinations. Lumbar puncture showed a high CSF opening pressure (360–540 mmH2O). Her investigations showed normal complete blood count (CBC), normal renal, liver, and thyroid function tests. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood chemistry were unremarkable. Magnetic resonant image (MRI) of the brain demonstrated empty sella turcica, tortuous optic nerves, and flattening of the posterior sclera. Magnetic resonant venography (MRV) showed focal narrowing of the distal transverse sinuses and absence of venous sinus thrombosis. She required treatment with acetazolamide and prednisolone. With medical treatment, weight reduction, and exercise, our patient had a remarkable improvement in her symptoms with resolution of papilledema in two months. This review highlights the importance of early recognition and management of IIH to prevent permanent visual loss. PMID:28096561
Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Lu, Chow-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Ruei
Microteaching has gained considerable attention for its effectiveness in rapid and contextual training in professional development programs. However, the interpretive quality of the teaching demonstration and peer feedback may influence individuals' attribution and self-correction, leading to ineffective learning. In this study, a microteaching workshop in a professional development program for 78 elementary school science teachers was investigated. The results showed that the effectiveness of microteaching was negatively affected by participants' perception bias due to social categorization. Moreover, it was indicated that the participants' perception of the in-group and out-group, classified by the degree of the individuals' science knowledge, fostered social categorization. Participants tended to experience perception conflicts caused by their inability to see personal faults, and a typical perception bias of "seeing one's own strengths and seeing others' shortcomings" was more frequently recognized in the out-group. These results converge to highlight the importance of social categorization in perception bias relevant to microteaching.
Digital access to large amounts of scholarly text presents both challenges and opportunities for researchers in the humanities. Meeting these challenges depends on having high-quality representations of the contents of digital resources suitable for both machines and humans to use. Different ways of categorizing these contents are appropriate for different purposes, leading to the further problem of relating the contents of different categorization schemes to each other. This essay discusses the rationale for categorizing philosophical concepts and surveys some of the main approaches to doing so for materials that are continuously changing. It describes the goals and methods of the Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) project and provides an example of the kind of analysis that is made possible by powerful modeling methods.
Bergman, Penny; Västfjäll, Daniel; Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Asutay, Erkin
Research has shown that emotion categorization plays an important role in perception and categorization in the visual domain. In the present paper, we investigated the role of auditory-induced emotions for auditory perception. We further investigated whether the emotional responses mediate other perceptual judgments of sounds. In an experiment, participants either rated general dissimilarities between sounds or dissimilarities of specific aspects of sounds. The results showed that the general perceptual salience map could be explained by both the emotional responses to, and perceptual aspects of, the sounds. Importantly, the perceptual aspects were mediated by emotional responses. Together these results show that emotions are an integral part of auditory perception that is used as the intuitive basis for categorizing everyday sounds. PMID:27790172
Provisions of DOE-STD-1021-93 on performance categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to natural phenomena hazards (NPHs) are summarized. The interrelationship among safety classification of SSCs (per DOE 6430.1A and DOE 5480.30), facility hazard categorization/classification (per DOE 5481.1B and DOE 5480.23), and NPH performance categorization of SSCs (per DOE 5480.28 and DOE-STD-1021-93) is discussed. The compatibility between the safety goals in the Department of Energy Safety Policy, SEN-35-91, and the numerical NPH performance goals of DOE 5480.28, as presented in UCRL-ID-12612 (draft), is examined.
Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Lu, Chow-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Ruei
Microteaching has gained considerable attention for its effectiveness in rapid and contextual training in professional development programs. However, the interpretive quality of the teaching demonstration and peer feedback may influence individuals' attribution and self-correction, leading to ineffective learning. In this study, a microteaching workshop in a professional development program for 78 elementary school science teachers was investigated. The results showed that the effectiveness of microteaching was negatively affected by participants' perception bias due to social categorization. Moreover, it was indicated that the participants' perception of the in-group and out-group, classified by the degree of the individuals' science knowledge, fostered social categorization. Participants tended to experience perception conflicts caused by their inability to see personal faults, and a typical perception bias of "seeing one's own strengths and seeing others' shortcomings" was more frequently recognized in the out-group. These results converge to highlight the importance of social categorization in perception bias relevant to microteaching.
Takagi, Shinichi; Hattori, Shinobu; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Kodate, Akihisa; Tominaga, Hideyoshi
In this paper, we propose a content based video categorizing method for broadcasted sports videos using camera motion parameters. We define and introduce two new features in the proposed method; "Camera motion extraction ratio" and "Camera motion transition". Camera motion parameters in the video sequence contain very significant information for categorization of broadcasted sports video, because in most of sports video, camera motions are closely related to the actions taken in the sports, which are mostly based on a certain rule depending on types of sports. Based on the charactersitics, we design a sports video categorization algorithm for identifying 6 major different sports types. In our algorithm, the features automatically extracted from videos are analysed statistically. The experimental results show a clear tendency and the applicability of the proposed method for sports genre identification.
Franchini, Bela; Poínhos, Rui; Klepp, Knut-Inge; de Almeida, Maria Daniel Vaz
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between parenting styles and own fruit and vegetable consumption among Portuguese mothers of school children. A cross-sectional study was performed in Portugal as part of the Pro Children cross-sectional European survey. Portuguese mothers (n 1601) of 11-13-year-old school children were included in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to assess fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the parenting styles. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by a validated FFQ. Parenting styles based on two dimensions - strictness and involvement - were classified into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. The higher mean intakes of fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables were observed for mothers classified as indulgent, whereas the lower mean intakes were observed for mothers classified as neglectful. Differences in intake among parenting styles were significant for fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables. When partial correlations were calculated between the two dimensions, strictness and involvement (controlled one for the other), and intakes, only involvement was positively associated with fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetable intake. Findings from the present study show that fruit and vegetable consumption of Portuguese mothers of school children seems to be related to their own parenting styles, especially with the dimension involvement. Future interventions to promote fruit and vegetable intake should take into account these variables.
Hawkins, Roxanne D; Williams, Joanne M
Nonhuman animal welfare education aims to promote positive relationships between children and animals and thus improve animal welfare, yet few scientific evaluations of these programs exist. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an education program developed by the Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) that included 4 interventions focusing on pets (companion animals), wild animals, farm animals, and general animal rescues. Knowledge, attachment to pets, and attitudes and beliefs about animal minds were assessed at pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest using a questionnaire administered to 1,217 Scottish children aged 7 to 13 years old. Results showed a significant positive impact of the program on knowledge about animals and the Scottish SPCA for all interventions. The pet and farming interventions significantly impacted children's beliefs about animal minds. There were trends toward improvements in a range of other measures. This study highlights the importance of teaching animal welfare education to children for early prevention of animal cruelty, discusses the need to base this education on theory and research to find effective change, and demonstrates how evidence-based practice can inform future education programs.
Henderson, Heather A
Shyness is associated with social-emotional maladjustment in some, but not all, children. The ability to flexibly regulate attention under conditions of potential conflict may protect shy children from developing internalizing problems. In the current study, the associations between shyness, the N2 event related potential (ERP) response, and social-emotional adjustment were examined in a sample of 36 typically developing 9- to 13-year-old children. It was hypothesized that the N2 amplitude, an ERP measure associated with aspects of cognitive and attention control, would moderate the associations between shyness and social-emotional functioning (negative attribution style, social self-perceptions, social anxiety). Shyness was unrelated to behavioral or ERP measures collected during a modified Flanker task; however, shyness and N2 amplitude were alone and in combination associated with all three measures of social adjustment. In general, shyness was associated with poor outcomes primarily among children with relatively large amplitude, or enhanced, N2 responses. The results are discussed in terms of the role of conflict sensitivity in the regulation of attention and emotions associated with shyness and the importance of studying the combined influences of reactive and self-regulatory aspects of temperament in relation to adjustment in childhood.
Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun
Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences. PMID:27642451
Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun
Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences.
Franklin, A.; Pilling, M.; Davies, I.
Infants respond categorically to color. However, the nature of infants' categorical responding to color is unclear. The current study investigated two issues. First, is infants' categorical responding more absolute than adults' categorical responding? That is, can infants discriminate two stimuli from the same color category? Second, is color…
Mislevy, Robert J.
Recent work in factor analysis of categorical variables is reviewed, emphasizing a generalized least squares solution and a maximum likelihood approach. A common factor model for dichotomous items is introduced, and the estimation of factor loadings from matrices of tetracorrelations is discussed. (LMO)
Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.
Memories for spatial locations often show systematic errors toward the central value of the surrounding region. The Category Adjustment (CA) model suggests that this bias is due to a Bayesian combination of categorical and metric information, which offers an optimal solution under conditions of uncertainty (Huttenlocher, Hedges, & Duncan,…
Noordenbos, Mark W.; Serniclaes, Willy
Speech perception in dyslexia is characterized by a categorical perception (CP) deficit, demonstrated by weaker discrimination of acoustic differences between phonemic categories in conjunction with better discrimination of acoustic differences within phonemic categories. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that examined the reliability of the…
Bao, Xiaojun; Raguet, Louise Lg; Cole, Sydni M; Howard, James D; Gottfried, Jay
Distributed neural activity patterns are widely proposed to underlie object identification and categorization in the brain. In the olfactory domain, pattern-based representations of odor objects are encoded in piriform cortex. This region receives both afferent and associative inputs, though their relative contributions to odor perception are poorly understood. Here, we combined a placebo-controlled pharmacological fMRI paradigm with multivariate pattern analyses to test the role of associative connections in sustaining olfactory categorical representations. Administration of baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist known to attenuate piriform associative inputs, interfered with within-category pattern separation in piriform cortex, and the magnitude of this drug-induced change predicted perceptual alterations in fine-odor discrimination performance. Comparatively, baclofen reduced pattern separation between odor categories in orbitofrontal cortex, and impeded within-category generalization in hippocampus. Our findings suggest that odor categorization is a dynamic process concurrently engaging stimulus discrimination and generalization at different stages of olfactory information processing, and highlight the importance of associative networks in maintaining categorical boundaries.
Althaus, Nadja; Plunkett, Kim
Recent studies with infants and adults demonstrate a facilitative role of labels in object categorization. A common interpretation is that labels highlight commonalities between objects. However, direct evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Using a novel object category with spatially separate features that are either of low or high…
Lacroix, Guy L.; Giguere, Gyslain; Larochelle, Serge
S. W. Allen and L. R. Brooks (1991) have shown that exemplar memory can affect categorization even when participants are provided with a classification rule. G. Regehr and L. R. Brooks (1993) argued that stimuli must be individuated for such effects to occur. In this study, the authors further analyze the conditions that yield exemplar effects in…
Townsend, Christopher F.
A categorical account is given of the Hofmann-Mislove theorem, describing the Scott open filters on a frame. The account is stable under an order duality and so is shown to also cover Bunge and Funk's constructive description of the points of the lower power locale.
Ribeiro-Neto, Berthier; Laender, Alberto H. F.; de Lima, Luciano R. S.
Evaluates the retrieval performance of an algorithm that automatically categorizes medical documents, which consists in assigning an International Code of Disease (ICD) based on well-known information retrieval techniques. Reports on experimental results that tested precision using a database of over 20,000 medical documents. (Author/LRW)
Traditional categorical metrics used in model evaluations are "clear-cut" measures in that the model's ability to predict an exceedance is defined by a fixed threshold concentration and the metrics are defined by observation-forecast sets that are paired both in space and time. T...
Lee, Sik-Yum; Song, Xin-Yuan; Lu, Bin
This article proposes an intuitive approach for predictive discriminant analysis with mixed continuous, dichotomous, and ordered categorical variables that are defined via an underlying multivariate normal distribution with a threshold specification. The classification rule is based on the comparison of the observed data logarithm probability…
Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul
We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque…
Craig, Tracy S.
The aim of this article is to present a scheme for coding and categorizing students' written explanations of mathematical problem-solving activities. The scheme was used successfully within a study project carried out to determine whether student problem-solving behaviour could be positively affected by writing explanatory strategies to…
Smith, J. David; Berg, Mark E.; Cook, Robert G.; Murphy, Matthew S.; Crossley, Matthew J.; Boomer, Joe; Spiering, Brian; Beran, Michael J.; Church, Barbara A.; Ashby, F. Gregory; Grace, Randolph C.
Categorization is essential for survival, and it is a widely studied cognitive adaptation in humans and animals. An influential neuroscience perspective differentiates in humans an explicit, rule-based categorization system from an implicit system that slowly associates response outputs to different regions of perceptual space. This perspective is being extended to study categorization in other vertebrate species, using category tasks that have a one-dimensional, rule-based solution or a two-dimensional, information-integration solution. Humans, macaques, and capuchin monkeys strongly dimensionalize perceptual stimuli and learn rule-based tasks more quickly. In sharp contrast, pigeons learn these two tasks equally quickly. Pigeons represent a cognitive system in which the commitment to dimensional analysis and category rules was not strongly made. Their results may reveal the character of the ancestral vertebrate categorization system from which that of primates emerged. The primate results establish continuity with human cognition, suggesting that nonhuman primates share aspects of humans' capacity for explicit cognition. The emergence of dimensional analysis and rule learning could have been an important step in primates' cognitive evolution. PMID:22981878
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 30, 150, and 153 RIN 1625-AB94 2012 Liquid Chemical Categorization... tables that list liquid hazardous materials, liquefied gases, and compressed gases that have...
Bao, Xiaojun; Raguet, Louise LG; Cole, Sydni M; Howard, James D; Gottfried, Jay A
Distributed neural activity patterns are widely proposed to underlie object identification and categorization in the brain. In the olfactory domain, pattern-based representations of odor objects are encoded in piriform cortex. This region receives both afferent and associative inputs, though their relative contributions to odor perception are poorly understood. Here, we combined a placebo-controlled pharmacological fMRI paradigm with multivariate pattern analyses to test the role of associative connections in sustaining olfactory categorical representations. Administration of baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist known to attenuate piriform associative inputs, interfered with within-category pattern separation in piriform cortex, and the magnitude of this drug-induced change predicted perceptual alterations in fine-odor discrimination performance. Comparatively, baclofen reduced pattern separation between odor categories in orbitofrontal cortex, and impeded within-category generalization in hippocampus. Our findings suggest that odor categorization is a dynamic process concurrently engaging stimulus discrimination and generalization at different stages of olfactory information processing, and highlight the importance of associative networks in maintaining categorical boundaries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13732.001 PMID:27130519
Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert
A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…
When a person is characterized categorically with a label (e.g., Linda is a feminist), people tend to think that the attributes associated with that person are central and long lasting (S. Gelman & G. D. Heyman, 1999). This bias, which is related to category-based induction and stereotyping, has been thought to arise because a category label…
The author discusses a study of gender assignment (noun categorization) in heritage Russian and presents issues in the methodology of heritage language study. To anticipate the conclusions of this article, the gender assignment data presented argue for the systematicity of what emerges under incomplete acquisition. The system is different from its…
Calvo, Manuel G.; Fernandez-Martin, Andres; Nummenmaa, Lauri
Why is a face with a smile but non-happy eyes likely to be interpreted as happy? We used blended expressions in which a smiling mouth was incongruent with the eyes (e.g., angry eyes), as well as genuine expressions with congruent eyes and mouth (e.g., both happy or angry). Tasks involved detection of a smiling mouth (perceptual), categorization of…
Brainerd, C J; Nakamura, K; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E
Overdistribution is a form of memory distortion in which an event is remembered as belonging to too many episodic states, states that are logically or empirically incompatible with each other. We investigated a response formatting method of suppressing 2 basic types of overdistribution, disjunction and conjunction illusions, which parallel some classic illusions in the judgment and decision making literature. In this method, subjects respond to memory probes by rating their confidence that test cues belong to specific episodic states (e.g., presented on List 1, presented on List 2), rather than by making the usual categorical judgments about those states. The central prediction, which was derived from the task calibration principle of fuzzy-trace theory, was that confidence ratings should reduce overdistribution by diminishing subjects' reliance on noncompensatory gist memories. The data of 3 experiments agreed with that prediction. In Experiment 1, there were reliable disjunction illusions with categorical judgments but not with confidence ratings. In Experiment 2, both response formats produced reliable disjunction illusions, but those for confidence ratings were much smaller than those for categorical judgments. In Experiment 3, there were reliable conjunction illusions with categorical judgments but not with confidence ratings. Apropos of recent controversies over confidence-accuracy correlations in memory, such correlations were positive for hits, negative for correct rejections, and the 2 types of correlations were of equal magnitude. (PsycINFO Database Record
Balz, Frank J.
The fourth edition of analyses of selected federal student assistance and categorical programs prepared by the National Institute of Independent Colleges and Universities is presented. Sections include: (1) federal student assistance--undergraduate programs (Pell Grants, Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants, State Student Incentive Grants,…
Quantitative and categorical data were digitally recorded, measured or scored on whole canopies; single plants, leaves, and siliques; and on random seed samples of 224 genotypes in a phenotyping nursery of Brassica napus. They were used to (1) develop a pyramiding phenotyping model based on multitra...
This dissertation seeks to understand the interplay between informal articulations of social categories and formal instantiations of those categories in official language. Specifically, it explores the process of social categorization as it is used to identify threats to national security. The research employed a qualitative, document-based,…
Hoffmann, Janina A.; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg
The distinction between similarity-based and rule-based strategies has instigated a large body of research in categorization and judgment. Within both domains, the task characteristics guiding strategy shifts are increasingly well documented. Across domains, past research has observed shifts from rule-based strategies in judgment to…
McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen
Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…
Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha
The ability to categorize problems based upon underlying principles, rather than surface features or contexts, is considered one of several proxy predictors of expertise in problem solving. With inspiration from the classic study by Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser, we assess the distribution of expertise among introductory physics students by asking…
Holmes, Kevin J.; Wolff, Phillip
Categorical perception (CP) refers to the influence of category knowledge on perception and is revealed by a superior ability to discriminate items across categories relative to items within a category. In recent years, the finding that CP is lateralized to the left hemisphere in adults has been interpreted as evidence for a kind of CP driven by…
... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI27 Categorical Exclusions From Environmental Review AGENCY: Nuclear... its regulations that describe the categories of actions which do not require an environmental review under the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) as the NRC has...
Wang, Xin; Forster, Kenneth I.
Four experiments are reported which were designed to test hypotheses concerning the asymmetry of masked translation priming. Experiment 1 confirmed the presence of L2-L1 priming with a semantic categorization task and demonstrated that this effect was restricted to exemplars. Experiment 2 showed that the translation priming effect was not due to…
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... and classification of United States lands as water power sites and other actions under section 24...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... and classification of United States lands as water power sites and other actions under section 24...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... and classification of United States lands as water power sites and other actions under section 24...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... and classification of United States lands as water power sites and other actions under section 24...
Zhang, Jinguang; Reid, Scott A.
The public expression of opinions (and related communicative activities) hinges upon the perception of opinion consensus. Current explanations for opinion consensus perceptions typically focus on egocentric and other biases, rather than functional cognitions. Using self-categorization theory we showed that opinion consensus perceptions flow from…
van Buuren, Stef; van Rijckevorsel, Jan L. A.
A technique is presented to transform incomplete categorical data into complete data by imputing appropriate scores into missing cells. A solution of the optimization problem is suggested, and relevant psychometric theory is discussed. The average correlation should be at least 0.50 before the method becomes practical. (SLD)
Tan, Chade-Meng; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Lee, Chan-Do
Presents an efficient text categorization (or text classification) algorithm for document retrieval of natural language texts that generates bigrams (two-word phrases) and uses the information gain metric, combined with various frequency thresholds. Experimental results suggest that the bigrams can substantially raise the quality of feature sets.…
Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Shmulevich, Ilya
Background As in many other areas of science, systems biology makes extensive use of statistical association and significance estimates in contingency tables, a type of categorical data analysis known in this field as enrichment (also over-representation or enhancement) analysis. In spite of efforts to create probabilistic annotations, especially in the Gene Ontology context, or to deal with uncertainty in high throughput-based datasets, current enrichment methods largely ignore this probabilistic information since they are mainly based on variants of the Fisher Exact Test. Results We developed an open-source R-based software to deal with probabilistic categorical data analysis, ProbCD, that does not require a static contingency table. The contingency table for the enrichment problem is built using the expectation of a Bernoulli Scheme stochastic process given the categorization probabilities. An on-line interface was created to allow usage by non-programmers and is available at: . Conclusion We present an analysis framework and software tools to address the issue of uncertainty in categorical data analysis. In particular, concerning the enrichment analysis, ProbCD can accommodate: (i) the stochastic nature of the high-throughput experimental techniques and (ii) probabilistic gene annotation. PMID:17935624
Investigated the impact of categorization on confirmatory factor analysis parameter estimates, standard errors, and five ad hoc fit indexes through simulation studies. Results replicate some previous studies but also suggest that tests of parameter estimates will be underestimated and the amount of underestimation will increase as saturation…
Morlino, Giuseppe; Gianelli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M.; Nolfi, Stefano
This study investigates the acquisition of integrated object manipulation and categorization abilities through a series of experiments in which human adults and artificial agents were asked to learn to manipulate two-dimensional objects that varied in shape, color, weight, and color intensity. The analysis of the obtained results and the…
Kurzban, Robert; Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda
Previous studies have established that people encode the race of each individual they encounter, and do so via computational processes that appear to be both automatic and mandatory. If true, this conclusion would be important, because categorizing others by their race is a precondition for treating them differently according to race. Here we report experiments, using unobtrusive measures, showing that categorizing individuals by race is not inevitable, and supporting an alternative hypothesis: that encoding by race is instead a reversible byproduct of cognitive machinery that evolved to detect coalitional alliances. The results show that subjects encode coalitional affiliations as a normal part of person representation. More importantly, when cues of coalitional affiliation no longer track or correspond to race, subjects markedly reduce the extent to which they categorize others by race, and indeed may cease doing so entirely. Despite a lifetime's experience of race as a predictor of social alliance, less than 4 min of exposure to an alternate social world was enough to deflate the tendency to categorize by race. These results suggest that racism may be a volatile and eradicable construct that persists only so long as it is actively maintained through being linked to parallel systems of social alliance. PMID:11742078
The Saltstone Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) was originally segmented into two segments: the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Based on the inventory of radionuclides available for release the SPF and SDF were categorized as Nonreactor Hazard Category (HC)-3. The hazard categorization recognized the SDF will contain contributions of radionuclides which would exceed the HC-2 Threshold Quantity (TQ) in the form of grout. However it was determined not to impact the facility hazard categorization based on the grout being in a solid, monolithic form which was not easily dispersible. But, the impact of a quantity of unset grout expected to be present at the vault following operation of the process was not addressed. A Potential Inadequacy in Safety Analysis (PISA) was later issued based on the hazard categorization determination for the facility not addressing unset grout. This initiated a re-evaluation of the accident scenarios within the hazards analysis. During this re-evaluation, the segmentation of the facility was challenged based on the potential interaction between facility segments; specifically, the leachate return line and the grout transfer line, which were considered separate segments, are located in close proximity at one point. such that for certain events (NPH as well as External Vehicle Impact) both could be damaged simultaneously and spill contents on the ground that could commingle. This would violate the guideline for segmentation. Therefore, the Hazard Categorization (HC) was reevaluated based on the facility being a single segment and including the additional unset grout as part of total inventory. This total inventory far exceeded the limit for HC-2 TQ and made the facility's initial categorization as HC-2. However, alternative analysis methodology based on credible release fractions allowed in DOE-STD-1027-92 (Ref.1) showed that the Saltstone facility could still be categorized as Hazard Category
Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula
Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children.
Altmann, Christian F; Uesaki, Maiko; Ono, Kentaro; Matsuhashi, Masao; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao
Categorical perception of phonemes describes the phenomenon that, when phonemes are classified they are often perceived to fall into distinct categories even though physically they follow a continuum along a feature dimension. While consonants such as plosives have been proposed to be perceived categorically, the representation of vowels has been described to be more continuous. We aimed at testing this difference in representation at a behavioral and neurophysiological level using human magnetoencephalography (MEG). To this end, we designed stimuli based on natural speech by morphing along a phonological continuum entailing changes of the voiced stop-consonant or the steady-state vowel of a consonant-vowel (CV) syllable. Then, while recording MEG, we presented participants with consecutive pairs of either same or different CV syllables. The differences were such that either both CV syllables were from within the same category or belonged to different categories. During the MEG experiment, the participants actively discriminated the stimulus pairs. Behaviorally, we found that discrimination was easier for the between-compared to the within-category contrast for both consonants and vowels. However, this categorical effect was significantly stronger for the consonants compared to vowels, in line with a more continuous representation of vowels. At the neural level, we observed significant repetition suppression of MEG evoked fields, i.e. lower amplitudes for physically same compared to different stimulus pairs, at around 430 to 500ms after the onset of the second stimulus. Source reconstruction revealed generating sources of this repetition suppression effect within left superior temporal sulcus and gyrus, posterior to Heschl׳s gyrus. A region-of-interest analysis within this region showed a clear categorical effect for consonants, but not for vowels, providing further evidence for the important role of left superior temporal areas in categorical representation
Mudar, Raksha A.; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Maguire, Mandy J.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Eroh, Justin; Michael, A. Kraut; Hart, John
We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study age effects of perceptual (basic-level) vs. perceptual-semantic (superordinate-level) categorization on cognitive control using the go/nogo paradigm. Twenty-two younger (11 M; 21±2.2 years) and 22 older adults (9 M; 63±5.8 years) completed two visual go/nogo tasks. In the single car task (SiC) (basic), go/nogo responses were made based on single exemplars of a car (go) and a dog (nogo). In the object animal task (ObA) (superordinate), responses were based on multiple exemplars of objects (go) and animals (nogo). Each task consisted of 200 trials: 160 (80%) ‘go’ trials that required a response through button pressing and 40 (20%) ‘nogo’ trials that required inhibition/withholding of a response. ERP data revealed significantly reduced nogo-N2 and nogo-P3 amplitudes in older compared to younger adults, whereas go-N2 and go-P3 amplitudes were comparable in both groups during both categorization tasks. Although the effects of categorization levels on behavioral data and P3 measures were similar in both groups with longer response times, lower accuracy scores, longer P3 latencies, and lower P3 amplitudes in ObA compared to SiC, N2 latency revealed age group differences moderated by the task. Older adults had longer N2 latency for ObA compared to SiC, in contrast, younger adults showed no N2 latency difference between SiC and ObA. Overall, these findings suggest that age differentially affects neural processing related to cognitive control during semantic categorization. Furthermore, in older adults, unlike in younger adults, levels of categorization modulate neural processing related to cognitive control even at the early stages (N2). PMID:25823764
Fuller, Christina D; Gaudrain, Etienne; Clarke, Jeanne N; Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Free, Rolien H; Başkent, Deniz
In normal hearing (NH), the perception of the gender of a speaker is strongly affected by two anatomically related vocal characteristics: the fundamental frequency (F0), related to vocal pitch, and the vocal tract length (VTL), related to the height of the speaker. Previous studies on gender categorization in cochlear implant (CI) users found that performance was variable, with few CI users performing at the level of NH listeners. Data collected with recorded speech produced by multiple talkers suggests that CI users might rely more on F0 and less on VTL than NH listeners. However, because VTL cannot be accurately estimated from recordings, it is difficult to know how VTL contributes to gender categorization. In the present study, speech was synthesized to systematically vary F0, VTL, or both. Gender categorization was measured in CI users, as well as in NH participants listening to unprocessed (only synthesized) and vocoded (and synthesized) speech. Perceptual weights for F0 and VTL were derived from the performance data. With unprocessed speech, NH listeners used both cues (normalized perceptual weight: F0 = 3.76, VTL = 5.56). With vocoded speech, NH listeners still made use of both cues but less efficiently (normalized perceptual weight: F0 = 1.68, VTL = 0.63). CI users relied almost exclusively on F0 while VTL perception was profoundly impaired (normalized perceptual weight: F0 = 6.88, VTL = 0.59). As a result, CI users' gender categorization was abnormal compared to NH listeners. Future CI signal processing should aim to improve the transmission of both F0 cues and VTL cues, as a normal gender categorization may benefit speech understanding in competing talker situations.
Ruggeri, Azzurra; Feufel, Markus A.
The ability to categorize information is essential to everyday tasks such as identifying the cause of an event given a set of likely explanations or pinpointing the correct from a set of possible diagnoses by sequentially probing questions. In three studies, we investigated how the level of inclusiveness at which objects are presented (basic-level vs. subordinate-level) influences children's (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults' performance in a sequential binary categorization task. Study 1 found a robust facilitating effect of basic-level objects on the ability to ask effective questions in a computerized version of the Twenty Questions game. Study 2 suggested that this facilitating effect might be due to the kinds of object-differentiating features participants generate when provided with basic-level as compared to subordinate-level objects. Study 3 ruled out the alternative hypothesis that basic-level objects facilitate the selection of the most efficient among a given set of features. PMID:26217262
Hammer, Rubi; Kloet, Jim; Booth, James R
As children start attending school they are more likely to face situations where they have to autonomously learn about novel object categories (e.g. by reading a picture book with descriptions of novel animals). Such autonomous observational category learning (OCL) gradually complements interactive feedback-based category learning (FBCL), where a child hypothesizes about the nature of a novel object, acts based on his prediction, and then receives feedback indicating the correctness of his prediction. Here we tested OCL and FBCL skills of elementary school children and adults. In both conditions, participants performed complex rule-based categorization tasks that required associating novel objects with novel category-labels. We expected children to perform better in FBCL tasks than in OCL tasks, whereas adults to be skilled in both tasks. As hypothesized, in early-phase learning children performed better in FBCL tasks than in OCL tasks. Unexpectedly, adults performed somewhat better in OCL tasks. Early-phase FBCL performance in the two age groups was matched, but the OCL performance of adults was higher than that of children. In late-phase learning there was only an age group main effect (adults > children). Moreover, performance in post-learning categorization tasks, that did not require label recollection, indicated that in FBCL tasks children were likely to directly learn the associations between an object and a category label, whereas in the OCL tasks they were likely to first learn which feature-dimensions were relevant. These findings shed light on developmental changes in cognitive control and learning mechanisms. Implications for educational settings are discussed.
de Souza, Rafael Boschetti; da Silva Assunção, Luciana Reichert; Franco, Ademir; Zaroni, Fábio Marzullo; Holderbaum, Rejane Maria; Fernandes, Ângela
The notification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Brazilian children was first reported in 1984. Since that time more than 21 thousand children became infected. Approximately 99.6% of the children aged less than 13 years old are vertically infected. In this context, most of the children are abandoned after birth, or lose their relatives in a near future, growing with uncertain identification. The present study aims to estimate the dental age of Brazilian HIV patients in face of healthy patients paired by age and gender. The sample consisted of 160 panoramic radiographs of male (n: 80) and female (n: 80) patients aged between 4 and 15 years (mean age: 8.88 years), divided into HIV (n: 80) and control (n: 80) groups. The sample was analyzed by three trained examiners, using Willems' method, 2001. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to test intra- and inter-examiner agreement, and Student paired t-test was used to determine the age association between HIV and control groups. Intra-examiner (ICC: from 0.993 to 0.997) and inter-examiner (ICC: from 0.991 to 0.995) agreement tests indicated high reproducibility of the method between the examiners (P<0.01). Willems' method revealed discrete statistical overestimation in HIV (2.86 months; P=0.019) and control (1.90 months; P=0.039) groups. However, stratified analysis by gender indicate that overestimation were only concentrated in male HIV (3.85 months; P=0.001) and control (2.86 months; P=0.022) patients. The significant statistical differences are not clinically relevant once only few months of discrepancy are detected applying Willems' method in a Brazilian HIV sample, making this method highly recommended for dental age estimation of both HIV and healthy children with unknown age.
Howe, Mark L.
The role of categorical versus associative relations in 5-, 7-, and 11-year-old children's true and false memories was examined using the Deese--Roediger--McDermott (DRM) paradigm and categorized lists of pictures or words with or without category labels as primes. For true items, recall increased with age and categorized lists were better…
Monnier, Catherine; Syssau, Arielle
FANchild (French Affective Norms for Children) provides norms of valence and arousal for a large corpus of French words (N = 720) rated by 908 French children and adolescents (ages 7, 9, 11, and 13). The ratings were made using the Self-Assessment Manikin (Lang, 1980). Because it combines evaluations of arousal and valence and includes ratings provided by 7-, 9-, 11-, and 13-year-olds, this database complements and extends existing French-language databases. Good response reliability was observed in each of the four age groups. Despite a significant level of consensus, we found age differences in both the valence and arousal ratings: Seven- and 9-year-old children gave higher mean valence and arousal ratings than did the other age groups. Moreover, the tendency to judge words positively (i.e., positive bias) decreased with age. This age- and sex-related database will enable French-speaking researchers to study how the emotional character of words influences their cognitive processing, and how this influence evolves with age. FANchild is available at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Catherine_Monnier/contributions .
Dean, Jennifer; Fenton, Nancy E; Shannon, Sara; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann
In 2006, 3 years after the tragic death of 13-year-old Sabrina Shannon, the Province of Ontario (Canada) passed Sabrina's Law ushering in a new era of focus and concern for severe food allergic children at risk of anaphylaxis. Questions were raised at the time regarding the potential of doing more harm than good with the new legislation. This paper reports the experiences of health-related stigma among food allergic children at risk of anaphylaxis who were required to disclose their health status under this new legislation. In 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 children and youth and their parents in order to explore the experiences living with a severe food allergy. This particular study explores their experiences of felt and enacted stigma in the school setting as a result of the disclosure process. Interviews were tape recorded with permission and transcribed for subsequent thematic analysis using NVIVO, a qualitative analysis software package. Results indicate that participants were stigmatised as a result of protective school policies under the law, and that created tension between their physical safety and social well-being. Sabrina's Law also led to a cultural shift in awareness of food allergies that resulted in some participants normalising their health status, offering promising directions for the future.
Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Ko, Feng-Shou; Raymund, Mahlon; Hoberman, Alejandro; Kearney, Diana H.; Block, Bruce
BACKGROUND: Minorities and those living in the inner city have a higher respiratory disease burden than other groups. Yet, influenza vaccination rates among all children with chronic medical conditions remain low. METHODS: Parents of 2-13-year-old children with high-risk medical conditions from health centers in low-income urban neighborhoods completed a mailed survey. Immunization status from medical records was used to calculate validity measures. Survey data are presented for those whose vaccination status was concordant between parental report and the medical record (n=183). RESULTS: Parent-reported influenza vaccination versus medical record review showed 84.9% sensitivity, 68.7% specificity, 49.1% positive predictive value and 92.7% negative predictive value, with a kappa of 0.43. Vaccination rate was 30.6%. Medical record-verified influenza vaccination was associated with parental beliefs that the doctor recommends a flu shot (OR, 40.9; 95% Cl, 9.0-184.9) and that relatives recommend a flu shot (OR, 4.3; 95% Cl, 1.7-10.5), and was less likely if the parent believed that the child will get the flu if a household member is infected (OR, 0.2; 95% Cl, 0.1-0.6). CONCLUSIONS: The message that influenza vaccination is important to protect children with chronic medical conditions may be relayed through physician recommendation or a relative's suggestion and may be more effective if it addresses vaccine efficacy issues. PMID:16708499
Marx, Ivo; Pieper, Juliane; Berger, Christoph; Hässler, Frank; Herpertz, Sabine C
In this study, we examined the influence of both reward and penalty on delay decisions in subjects with ADHD. Eighteen 6- to 13-year-old boys with ADHD (combined or hyperactive-impulsive subtype) along with age- and IQ-matched control participants performed a memory game. If the children were successful at the game, they could choose between a small immediate reward (one white chip in exchange for 5 s of waiting) or a large delayed reward (two white chips in exchange for 60 s of waiting). If they failed, they could choose between a large immediate penalty (two black chips in exchange for 5 s of waiting) or a small delayed penalty (one black chip in exchange for 60 s of waiting). Subsequent to task completion, white chips were exchanged for video time and black chips were exchanged with completion of a written task. All of the participants, regardless of ADHD diagnosis, were motivated to complete the task and chose the delayed alternative most often. We conclude that under highly motivating conditions, children with ADHD are not more delay averse than children from the control group with respect to anticipation of reward and penalty.
Kamp-Becker, Inge; Smidt, Judith; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Becker, Katja; Remschmidt, Helmut
There is an ongoing debate whether a differentiation of autistic subtypes, especially between Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning-autism (HFA) is possible and if so, whether it is a categorical or dimensional one. The aim of this study was to examine the possible clustering of responses in different symptom domains without making any assumption concerning diagnostic appreciation. About 140 children and adolescents, incorporating 52 with a diagnosis of AS, 44 with HFA, 8 with atypical autism and 36 with other diagnoses, were examined. Our study does not support the thesis that autistic disorders are discrete phenotypes. On the contrary, it provides evidence that e.g. AS and autism are not qualitatively distinct disorders, but rather different quantitative manifestations of the same disorder.
In October 1992, the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) requested that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) respond to a letter from EM-331 asking for completion of a survey of items in storage but not categorized as waste (Roberts 1992). The letter contained an attachment with instructions on how to fill out the attached form and what to exclude from the survey (Appendix A). This report is a summary of the information from the response issued to RL. This report primarily is for use in estimating future waste volumes that may have been overlooked because of the nature of their classification as material not categorized as waste (MNCAW) (i.e., not yet declared Waste).
King, T S; Chinchilli, V M
This paper discusses a generalized version of the concordance correlation coefficient for agreement data. The concordance correlation coefficient evaluates the accuracy and precision between two measures, and is based on the expected value of the squared function of distance. We have generalized this coefficient by applying alternative functions of distance to produce more robust versions of the concordance correlation coefficient. In this paper we extend the application of this class of estimators to categorical data as well, and demonstrate similarities to the kappa and weighted kappa statistics. We also introduce a stratified concordance correlation coefficient which adjusts for explanatory factors, and an extended concordance correlation coefficient which measures agreement among more than two responses. With these extensions, the generalized concordance correlation coefficient provides a unifying approach to assessing agreement among two or more measures that are either continuous or categorical in scale.
van der Palm, Daniël W; van der Ark, L Andries; Vermunt, Jeroen K
We studied four methods for handling incomplete categorical data in statistical modeling: (1) maximum likelihood estimation of the statistical model with incomplete data, (2) multiple imputation using a loglinear model, (3) multiple imputation using a latent class model, (4) and multivariate imputation by chained equations. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, and it is unknown which method should be recommended to practitioners. We reviewed the merits of each method and investigated their effect on the bias and stability of parameter estimates and bias of the standard errors. We found that multiple imputation using a latent class model with many latent classes was the most promising method for handling incomplete categorical data, especially when the number of variables used in the imputation model is large.
Yokoi, Kenji; Nishimori, Tomoaki; Saida, Shinya
Previous studies demonstrated that color categorical perception (CP; better cross-category than within-category discrimination) was reduced by verbal interference, suggesting that CP is mediated by verbal labeling. Here, we examined chromatic generality and experience-dependency of verbal interference in CP using the Stroop effect. We employed a simultaneous two-alternative forced choice discrimination task. Congruent or incongruent words were presented prior to discrimination. In experiment 1, incongruent color names reduced CP regardless of color boundary pairs. Next, we used noncolor words that seemed to be associated with color through experience. The results showed that the tested noncolor words did not modify CP (experiment 2). However, combined presentation of color and shape produced Stroop interference (experiment 3). Our finding suggests that familiarity or mastery of categorized information through experience may be evaluated by verbal interference.
Craig, Tracy S.
The aim of this article is to present a scheme for coding and categorizing students' written explanations of mathematical problem-solving activities. The scheme was used successfully within a study project carried out to determine whether student problem-solving behaviour could be positively affected by writing explanatory strategies to mathematical problem-solving processes. The rationale for the study was the recognized importance of mathematical problem-solving, the widely acknowledged challenge of teaching problem-solving skills directly and the evidence in the literature that writing in mathematics provides a tool for learning. The study was carried out in a first-year mathematics course at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Students' written submissions were categorized and analysed through use of an adaptation of a journal entry classification scheme. The scheme successfully observed positive changes over the experimental period in students' level of engagement with the mathematical material and with their stance towards knowledge.
Mehrotra, Abhishek; Sklar, David P; Tayal, Vivek S; Kocher, Keith E; Handel, Daniel A; Myles Riner, R
This article is drawn from a report created for the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Emergency Department (ED) Categorization Task Force and also reflects the proceedings of a breakout session, "Beyond ED Categorization-Matching Networks to Patient Needs," at the 2010 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Beyond Regionalization: Integrated Networks of Emergency Care." The authors describe a brief history of the significant national and state efforts at categorization and suggest reasons why many of these efforts failed to persevere or gain wider implementation. The history of efforts to categorize hospital (and ED) emergency services demonstrates recognition of the potential benefits of categorization, but reflects repeated failures to implement full categorization systems or limited excursions into categorization through licensing of EDs or designation of receiving and referral facilities. An understanding of the history of hospital and ED categorization could better inform current efforts to develop categorization schemes and processes.
evolutionary origin than with the hominids , and it raises the questions of when that dimensionally analytic system of categorization emerged, and why...in a sense represent or lie on the main sequence of primate-ape- hominid evolution. In addition, macaques are notoriously flexible, adaptive...for dimensional analysis and category rules may have been a premier adaptation that fostered cognitive evolution in the primate- hominid lineage
Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.
Context Patterns of genetic, environmental, and phenotypic relationships among antisocial behavior and substance use disorders indicate the presence of a common externalizing liability. However, whether this liability is relatively continuous and graded, or categorical and class-like, has not been well established. Objectives To compare the fit of categorical and continuous models of externalizing liability in a large, nationally representative sample. Design Categorical and continuous models of externalizing liability were compared using interview data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Setting Face-to-face interviews conducted in the United States. Participants Random sample of 43 093 noninstitutionalized adult civilians living in the United States. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime and current (past 12 months) diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence, cocaine dependence, and other substance dependence. Results In the entire sample, as well as for males and females separately, using either lifetime or current diagnoses, the best-fitting model of externalizing liability was a continuous normal model. Moreover, there was a general trend toward latent trait models fitting better than latent class models, indicating that externalizing liability was continuous and graded, rather than categorical and class-like. Conclusions Liability to externalizing spectrum disorders is graded and continuous normal in distribution. Research regarding etiology, assessment, and treatment of externalizing disorders should target externalizing liability over a range of severity. Current diagnoses represent extremes of this continuous liability distribution, indicating that conditions currently classified as subthreshold are likely to provide important information regarding liability to externalizing phenomena. PMID:16330723
Hayes, Brett K.; Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M.
Traditionally, memory, reasoning, and categorization have been treated as separate components of human cognition. We challenge this distinction, arguing that there is broad scope for crossover between the methods and theories developed for each task. The links between memory and reasoning are illustrated in a review of two lines of research. The first takes theoretical ideas (two-process accounts) and methodological tools (signal detection analysis, receiver operating characteristic curves) from memory research and applies them to important issues in reasoning research: relations between induction and deduction, and the belief bias effect. The second line of research introduces a task in which subjects make either memory or reasoning judgments for the same set of stimuli. Other than broader generalization for reasoning than memory, the results were similar for the two tasks, across a variety of experimental stimuli and manipulations. It was possible to simultaneously explain performance on both tasks within a single cognitive architecture, based on exemplar-based comparisons of similarity. The final sections explore evidence for empirical and processing links between inductive reasoning and categorization and between categorization and recognition. An important implication is that progress in all three of these fields will be expedited by further investigation of the many commonalities between these tasks. PMID:24987380