Science.gov

Sample records for 13-year-old children categorized

  1. Diverse Food Items Are Similarly Categorized by 8- to 13-year-old Children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to assess how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labeled food items, for possible use as part of a food search strategy in a computerized 24-hour dietary recall. A set of 62 cards with pictures and names of food items from 18 professionally defined food groups was sor...

  2. Diverse Food Items Are Similarly Categorized by 8- to 13-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alicia; Knight Sepulveda, Karina; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Islam, Noemi; Missaghian, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Assess how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labeled food items for possible use as part of a food search strategy in a computerized 24-hour dietary recall. Design: A set of 62 cards with pictures and names of food items from 18 professionally defined food groups was sorted by each child into piles of similar food items.…

  3. MIXED FOODS ARE SIMILARLY CATEGORIZED BY 8 – 13 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Alicia; Sepulveda, Karina Knight; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Islam, Noemi; Missaghian, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    Food search in a computerized 24 hour recall (24hdr) for children should be easiest when the categories reflect children’s categorization of foods, in contrast to professional categories. This study assessed how 8–13 year old children categorized and labeled mixed foods (e.g. fried rice, lasagna), and how these were influenced by child characteristics. A set of 48 cards with pictures and names of mixed foods from 14 professionally defined food groups was sorted by each child into piles of similar foods. Participants (n= 146), including 8 to13 year old 130 English speaking, and 16 Spanish speaking children, attended data collection in the summer, 2006. One way ANOVA, pairwise comparisons and Robinson matrices for identification of clusters were used. Children created an average of 10.5 (± 5.5) piles with 6.0 (±4.1) cards per pile. No substantial differences in Robinson clustering were detected across subcategories for each of the demographic characteristics, body mass index, or 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity. For the majority of the piles, children provided “Taxonomic-Professional” (26.0%) labels, such as Vegetables, Sandwiches and Drinks, or “Specific-food item” (23.0%) labels, i.e. the name of the food. These categories may be used to facilitate mixed food search in a computerized 24hdr for children in this age group. PMID:17936412

  4. ICT Use among 13-Year-Old Swedish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ulli

    2010-01-01

    Swedish children have grown up in a digital culture, but have internalized information and communication technology (ICT) in different ways and gained most of their knowledge by peer-based learning. The aim of this study is to give an empirical understanding of patterns of ICT use among Swedish children. The data are collected through a survey…

  5. Prevalence of dental caries among 5-13-year-old children of Mangalore city.

    PubMed

    Sudha, P; Bhasin, S; Anegundi, R T

    2005-06-01

    A study of prevalence of dental caries was undertaken in 5-13-year-old children from Mangalore city. A total of 524 children were examined. The sample consisted of 193, 160, and 171 children in the 5-7, 8-10 and 11-13 years of age group, respectively. Dental caries was examined visually and observations were recorded. Silness and L phie plaque index, L phie and Silness gingival index were used to record the periodontal status. The prevalence of dental caries was highest in 5-7-year-age group compared to 8-10 years and 11-13 years age groups. The increasing prevalence of dental caries needs dental health programmes, which target the specific segments of the population.

  6. Fruit and vegetables are similarly categorised by 8–13-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Karina Knight; Beltran, Alicia; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Islam, Noemi; Missaghian, Mariam

    2009-01-01

    Objective This exploratory study assessed how 8–13-year-old children categorised and labelled fruit and vegetables (FaV), and how these were influenced by child characteristics, to specify second-level categories in a hierarchical food search system for a computerised 24 h dietary recall (hdr). Design Two sets of food cards, sixty-seven for fruit (F) and sixty-four for vegetables (V), with pictures and names of FaV from ten professionally defined food categories were sorted, separately, by each child into piles of similar foods. Demographic data, BMI and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status were obtained. Setting Participants attended the Children’s Nutrition Research Center in the summer of 2006. Subjects In all, 152 8–13-year-old children, predominantly English-speaking, of whom sixteen were predominantly Spanish-speaking. Results Children created an average of 8.5 (5.3) piles with 7.9 (11.4) cards per pile for the F, and an average of 10.1 (4.8) piles with 6.2 (7.9) cards per pile for the V. No substantial differences in Robinson clustering were detected across subcategories for each of the demographic characteristics, BMI or PROP sensitivity. Children provided clusters names that were mostly ‘Taxonomic – Professional’ labels, such as salads, berries, peppers, for both F (51.8%) and V (52.1 %). Conclusions These categories should be tested to assess their ability to facilitate search of FaV items in a computerised 24 hdr for children in this age group. PMID:18561864

  7. Brain Activation and Deactivation during Location and Color Working Memory Tasks in 11-13-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuontela, Virve; Steenari, Maija-Riikka; Aronen, Eeva T.; Korvenoja, Antti; Aronen, Hannu J.; Carlson, Synnove

    2009-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and n-back tasks we investigated whether, in 11-13-year-old children, spatial (location) and nonspatial (color) information is differentially processed during visual attention (0-back) and working memory (WM) (2-back) tasks and whether such cognitive task performance, compared to a resting state,…

  8. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2015-01-01

    Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC) has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old). Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i) EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii) EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old); and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii) EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv) EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old), then Chinese

  9. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2015-01-01

    Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC) has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old). Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i) EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii) EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old); and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii) EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv) EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old), then Chinese

  10. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2015-01-01

    Children’s emotion word comprehension (EWC) has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2–13 years old). Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children’s EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children’s EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i) EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2–13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6–8 years old; (ii) EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2–13 years old); and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii) EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv) EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4–6 years old

  11. Overweight in Children: The Perspectives of 9-13 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen; Birch, David; Teufel, James; Kancherla, Viajava

    2006-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States are increasingly overweight at younger ages. Many studies have investigated the issue from the perspective of professionals and other adults. This study assessed early adolescents' perceptions regarding the magnitude of, effects of, causes of, solutions for, and learning preferences related to…

  12. Lifetime Paid Work and Mental Health Problems among Poor Urban 9-to-13-Year-Old Children in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Ivens H.; Paula, Cristiane S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To verify if emotional/behavioral problems are associated with lifetime paid work in poor urban children, when taking into account other potential correlates. Methods. Cross-sectional study focused on 9-to-13-year-old children (n = 212). In a probabilistic sample of clusters of eligible households (women 15–49 years and son/daughter <18 years), one mother-child pair was randomly selected per household (n = 813; response rate = 82.4%). CBCL/6-18 identified child emotional/behavioral problems. Potential correlates include child gender and age, socioeconomic status/SES, maternal education, parental working status, and family social isolation, among others. Multivariate analysis examined the relationship between emotional/behavioral problems and lifetime paid work in the presence of significant correlates. Findings. All work activities were non-harmful (e.g., selling fruits, helping parents at their small business, and baby sitting). Children with lower SES and socially isolated were more involved in paid work than less disadvantaged peers. Children ever exposed to paid work were four times more likely to present anxiety/depression symptoms at a clinical level compared to non-exposed children. Multivariate modeling identified three independent correlates: child pure internalizing problems, social isolation, and low SES. Conclusion. There is an association between lifetime exposure to exclusively non-harmful paid work activities and pure internalizing problems even when considering SES variability and family social isolation. PMID:24302872

  13. The Relationship between the Personality Dimensions of Extraversion and Field-Independence and Art Performance in 13-year-old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riding, R. J.; Pearson, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The pictorial art work of 13-year-old children was assessed by three experienced art teachers on each of six aspects of artistic performance (color, space, pattern, imagery, affect and composition). A significant interaction was found between field-independence, extraversion, and art measure in their effect on art performance. (Author/SJL)

  14. An Experimental Study of Spider-Related Covariation Bias in 8- to 13-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; de Jong, Peter J.; Meesters, Cor; Waterreus, Bregje; van Lubeck, Jenet

    2005-01-01

    Covariation bias can be defined as phobic subjects' tendency to overestimate the association between phobic stimuli and aversive outcomes. The current study presents two experiments that examined this type of cognitive bias in children aged 8-13 years (N=147 in Experiment 1, N=240 in Experiment 2). Children completed a self-report questionnaire…

  15. Healthy eating among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children: understanding choice using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the role of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Allison M; Stephens, Christine

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the roles of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and parental influence in predicting healthy eating intentions and behaviour among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children. Two hundred and sixty-one children completed questionnaires designed to measure the components of the TPB. In addition, their parents or caregivers completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. Subjective norm, behavioural belief, attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted intentions, which, in turn, predicted self-reported dietary behaviour. Parental influence did not increase the model's explanatory power. Results support the application of the TPB to the prediction of food choice-related intention and behaviour among children; however, the role of parental influence requires further examination.

  16. Healthy eating among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children: understanding choice using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the role of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Allison M; Stephens, Christine

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the roles of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and parental influence in predicting healthy eating intentions and behaviour among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children. Two hundred and sixty-one children completed questionnaires designed to measure the components of the TPB. In addition, their parents or caregivers completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. Subjective norm, behavioural belief, attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted intentions, which, in turn, predicted self-reported dietary behaviour. Parental influence did not increase the model's explanatory power. Results support the application of the TPB to the prediction of food choice-related intention and behaviour among children; however, the role of parental influence requires further examination. PMID:17828673

  17. An experimental study of spider-related covariation bias in 8- to 13-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; de Jong, Peter J; Meesters, Cor; Waterreus, Bregje; Vanlubeck, Jenet

    2005-01-01

    Covariation bias can be defined as phobic subjects' tendency to overestimate the association between phobic stimuli and aversive outcomes. The current study presents two experiments that examined this type of cognitive bias in children aged 8-13 years (N=147 in Experiment 1, N=240 in Experiment 2). Children completed a self-report questionnaire for measuring spider fear and then participated in a card game in which fear-relevant (i.e., spider) and fear-irrelevant (i.e., weapon and Pokémon) pictures were equally paired with negative and positive outcomes (respectively losing and winning candy). No evidence was found for a relationship between children's level of spider fear and the tendency to link negative consequences to fear-relevant pictures. Various methodological and theoretical explanations for this null finding are discussed. PMID:15731886

  18. An experimental study of spider-related covariation bias in 8- to 13-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; de Jong, Peter J; Meesters, Cor; Waterreus, Bregje; Vanlubeck, Jenet

    2005-01-01

    Covariation bias can be defined as phobic subjects' tendency to overestimate the association between phobic stimuli and aversive outcomes. The current study presents two experiments that examined this type of cognitive bias in children aged 8-13 years (N=147 in Experiment 1, N=240 in Experiment 2). Children completed a self-report questionnaire for measuring spider fear and then participated in a card game in which fear-relevant (i.e., spider) and fear-irrelevant (i.e., weapon and Pokémon) pictures were equally paired with negative and positive outcomes (respectively losing and winning candy). No evidence was found for a relationship between children's level of spider fear and the tendency to link negative consequences to fear-relevant pictures. Various methodological and theoretical explanations for this null finding are discussed.

  19. Appreciation and Implementation of a School-Based Intervention Are Associated with Changes in Fruit and Vegetable Intake in 10- to 13-Year Old Schoolchildren--The Pro Children Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, M.; Bjelland, M.; Perez-Rodrigo, C.; te Velde, S. J.; Hildonen, C.; Bere, E.; Klepp, K.-I.; Brug, J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the degree of implementation and appreciation of a comprehensive school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention program and to what extent these factors were associated with changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake. The study was conducted among 10- to 13-year old children exposed to the intervention during…

  20. Food-Related Attitudes and Behaviors at Home, School, and Restaurants: Perspectives from Racially Diverse, Urban, Low-Income 9- to 13-Year-Old Children in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammann, Kristen; Smith, Chery

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This qualitative study explored low-income children's food-related attitudes and behaviors, and current weight status. Design: Two researchers conducted 14 audiotaped, 60-minute focus groups. Height and weight were measured. Setting: Libraries, homeless shelters, and a community center. Participants: Ninety-two low-income children aged…

  1. Associations between general self-efficacy and health-related quality of life among 12-13-year-old school children: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Haraldstad, Kristin; Helseth, Sølvi; Sørum, Ragnhild; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2009-01-01

    Background While research on school children's health has mainly focused on risk factors and illness, few studies have examined aspects of health promotion. Thus, this study focuses on health promotional factors including general self-efficacy (GSE) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). GSE refers to a global confidence in coping ability across a wide range of demanding situations, and is related to health. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between GSE and HRQOL, and associations between HRQOL and socio-demographic characteristics. Knowledge of these associations in healthy school children is currently lacking. Methods During 2006 and 2007, 279 school children in the seventh grade across eastern Norway completed a survey assessing their GSE and HRQOL. The children were from schools that had been randomly selected using cluster sampling. T-tests were computed to compare mean subscale values between HRQOL and socio-demographic variables. Single and multiple regression analyses were performed to explore associations among GSE, HRQOL and socio-demographic variables. Results Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between increasing degrees of GSE and increasing degrees of HRQOL. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, boys scored higher than girls on self-esteem. School children from single-parent families had lower scores on HRQOL than those from two-parent families, and children who had relocated within the last five years had lower scores on HRQOL than those who had not relocated. Conclusion The strong relationship between GSE and HRQOL indicates that GSE might be a resource for increasing the HRQOL for school children. PMID:19772673

  2. Food Marketing towards Children: Brand Logo Recognition, Food-Related Behavior and BMI among 3–13-Year-Olds in a South Indian Town

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Peter; Tong, Leilei; Viedma, Cristobal; Chandy, Sujith J.; Marrone, Gaetano; Simon, Anna; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess exposure to marketing of unhealthy food products and its relation to food related behavior and BMI in children aged 3–13, from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a south Indian town. Methods Child-parent pairs (n = 306) were recruited at pediatric clinics. Exposure to food marketing was assessed by a digital logo recognition test. Children matched 18 logos of unhealthy food (high in fat/sugar/salt) featured in promotion material from the food industry to pictures of corresponding products. Children's nutritional knowledge, food preferences, purchase requests, eating behavior and socioeconomic characteristics were assessed by a digital game and parental questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results Recognition rates for the brand logos ranged from 30% to 80%. Logo recognition ability increased with age (p<0.001) and socioeconomic level (p<0.001 comparing children in the highest and lowest of three socioeconomic groups). Adjusted for gender, age and socioeconomic group, logo recognition was associated with higher BMI (p = 0.022) and nutritional knowledge (p<0.001) but not to unhealthy food preferences or purchase requests. Conclusions Children from higher socioeconomic groups in the region had higher brand logo recognition ability and are possibly exposed to more food marketing. The study did not lend support to a link between exposure to marketing and poor eating behavior, distorted nutritional knowledge or increased purchase requests. The correlation between logo recognition and BMI warrants further investigation on food marketing towards children and its potential role in the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in this part of India. PMID:23082137

  3. Effects of low birth weight in 8- to 13-year-old children: implications in endothelial function and uric acid levels.

    PubMed

    Franco, Maria C P; Christofalo, Dejaldo M J; Sawaya, Ana Lydia; Ajzen, Sérgio A; Sesso, Ricardo

    2006-07-01

    Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of adult cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction and high levels of serum uric acid are associated with hypertension. In this study, we have determined whether uric acid is related to blood pressure and vascular function in children with low birth weight. We evaluated vascular function using high-resolution ultrasound, blood pressure, and uric acid levels in 78 children (35 girls, 43 boys, aged 8 to 13 years). Increasing levels of uric acid and systolic blood pressure were observed in children with low birth weight. Birth weight was inversely associated with both systolic blood pressure and uric acid; on the other hand, uric acid levels were directly correlated with systolic blood pressure in children of the entire cohort. Low birth weight was associated with reduced flow-mediated dilation (r=0.427, P<0.001). Because the children with low birth weight had elevated uric acid as well as higher systolic blood pressure levels, we evaluated the correlation between these variables. In the low birth weight group, multiple regression analysis revealed that uric acid (beta=-2.886; SE=1.393; P=0.040) had a graded inverse relationship with flow-mediated dilation, which was not affected in a model adjusting for race and gender. We conclude that children with a history of low birth weight show impaired endothelial function and increased blood pressure and uric acid levels. These findings may be early expressions of vascular compromise, contributing to susceptibility to disease in adult life. PMID:16682609

  4. Prompts to eat novel and familiar fruits and vegetables in families with 1-3 year-old children: Relationships with food acceptance and intake.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Lisa R; Mokdad, Cassandra; Martin, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Toddlers often go through a picky eating phase, which can make it difficult to introduce new foods into the diet. A better understanding of how parents' prompts to eat fruits and vegetables are related to children's intake of these foods will help promote healthy eating habits. 60 families recorded all toddler meals over one day, plus a meal in which parents introduced a novel fruit/vegetable to the child. Videos were coded for parent and child behaviors. Parents completed a feeding style questionnaire and three 24-h dietary recalls about their children's intake. Parents made, on average, 48 prompts for their children to eat more during the main meals in a typical day, mostly of the neutral type. Authoritarian parents made the most prompts, and used pressure the most often. In the novel food situation, it took an average of 2.5 prompts before the child tasted the new food. The most immediately successful prompt for regular meals across food types was modeling. There was a trend for using another food as a reward to work less well than a neutral prompt for encouraging children to try a novel fruit or vegetable. More frequent prompts to eat fruits and vegetables during typical meals were associated with higher overall intake of these food groups. More prompts for children to try a novel vegetable was associated with higher overall vegetable intake, but this pattern was not seen for fruits, suggesting that vegetable variety may be more strongly associated with intake. Children who ate the most vegetables had parents who used more "reasoning" prompts, which may have become an internalized motivation to eat these foods, but this needs to be tested explicitly using longer-term longitudinal studies. PMID:26792770

  5. Prompts to eat novel and familiar fruits and vegetables in families with 1-3 year-old children: Relationships with food acceptance and intake.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Lisa R; Mokdad, Cassandra; Martin, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Toddlers often go through a picky eating phase, which can make it difficult to introduce new foods into the diet. A better understanding of how parents' prompts to eat fruits and vegetables are related to children's intake of these foods will help promote healthy eating habits. 60 families recorded all toddler meals over one day, plus a meal in which parents introduced a novel fruit/vegetable to the child. Videos were coded for parent and child behaviors. Parents completed a feeding style questionnaire and three 24-h dietary recalls about their children's intake. Parents made, on average, 48 prompts for their children to eat more during the main meals in a typical day, mostly of the neutral type. Authoritarian parents made the most prompts, and used pressure the most often. In the novel food situation, it took an average of 2.5 prompts before the child tasted the new food. The most immediately successful prompt for regular meals across food types was modeling. There was a trend for using another food as a reward to work less well than a neutral prompt for encouraging children to try a novel fruit or vegetable. More frequent prompts to eat fruits and vegetables during typical meals were associated with higher overall intake of these food groups. More prompts for children to try a novel vegetable was associated with higher overall vegetable intake, but this pattern was not seen for fruits, suggesting that vegetable variety may be more strongly associated with intake. Children who ate the most vegetables had parents who used more "reasoning" prompts, which may have become an internalized motivation to eat these foods, but this needs to be tested explicitly using longer-term longitudinal studies.

  6. Foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance accurately tracks direction of adiposity change in overweight and obese 7- to 13-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Kasvis, Popi; Cohen, Tamara R; Loiselle, Sarah-Ève; Kim, Nicolas; Hazell, Tom J; Vanstone, Catherine A; Rodd, Celia; Plourde, Hugues; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-03-01

    Body composition measurements are valuable when evaluating pediatric obesity interventions. We hypothesized that foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) will accurately track the direction of adiposity change, but not magnitude, in part due to differences in fat patterning. The purposes of this study were to examine the accuracy of body composition measurements of overweight and obese children over time using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BIA and to determine if BIA accuracy was affected by fat patterning. Eighty-nine overweight or obese children (48 girls, 41 boys, age 7-13 years) participating in a randomized controlled trial providing a family-centered, lifestyle intervention, underwent DXA and BIA measurements every 3 months. Bland-Altman plots showed a poor level of agreement between devices for baseline percent body fat (%BF; mean, 0.398%; +2SD, 8.685%; -2SD, -7.889%). There was overall agreement between DXA and BIA in the direction of change over time for %BF (difference between visits 3 and 1: DXA -0.8 ± 0.5%, BIA -0.7 ± 0.5%; P = 1.000) and fat mass (FM; difference between visits 3 and 1: DXA 0.7 ± 0.5 kg, BIA 0.6 ± 0.5 kg; P = 1.000). Bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements of %BF and FM at baseline were significantly different in those with android and gynoid fat (%BF: 35.9% ± 1.4%, 32.2% ± 1.4%, P < .003; FM: 20.1 ± 0.8 kg, 18.4 ± 0.8, P < .013). Bioelectrical impedance analysis accurately reports the direction of change in FM and FFM in overweight and obese children; inaccuracy in the magnitude of BIA measurements may be a result of fat patterning differences.

  7. Foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance accurately tracks direction of adiposity change in overweight and obese 7- to 13-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Kasvis, Popi; Cohen, Tamara R; Loiselle, Sarah-Ève; Kim, Nicolas; Hazell, Tom J; Vanstone, Catherine A; Rodd, Celia; Plourde, Hugues; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-03-01

    Body composition measurements are valuable when evaluating pediatric obesity interventions. We hypothesized that foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) will accurately track the direction of adiposity change, but not magnitude, in part due to differences in fat patterning. The purposes of this study were to examine the accuracy of body composition measurements of overweight and obese children over time using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BIA and to determine if BIA accuracy was affected by fat patterning. Eighty-nine overweight or obese children (48 girls, 41 boys, age 7-13 years) participating in a randomized controlled trial providing a family-centered, lifestyle intervention, underwent DXA and BIA measurements every 3 months. Bland-Altman plots showed a poor level of agreement between devices for baseline percent body fat (%BF; mean, 0.398%; +2SD, 8.685%; -2SD, -7.889%). There was overall agreement between DXA and BIA in the direction of change over time for %BF (difference between visits 3 and 1: DXA -0.8 ± 0.5%, BIA -0.7 ± 0.5%; P = 1.000) and fat mass (FM; difference between visits 3 and 1: DXA 0.7 ± 0.5 kg, BIA 0.6 ± 0.5 kg; P = 1.000). Bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements of %BF and FM at baseline were significantly different in those with android and gynoid fat (%BF: 35.9% ± 1.4%, 32.2% ± 1.4%, P < .003; FM: 20.1 ± 0.8 kg, 18.4 ± 0.8, P < .013). Bioelectrical impedance analysis accurately reports the direction of change in FM and FFM in overweight and obese children; inaccuracy in the magnitude of BIA measurements may be a result of fat patterning differences. PMID:25697463

  8. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11-13 year old children. A mixed methods study in four Danish public schools.

    PubMed

    He, Chen; Breiting, Soren; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils' attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods, organic foods and healthy eating habits.

  9. Estimation of percentage body fat in 6- to 13-year-old children by skinfold thickness, body mass index and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Kriemler, Susi; Puder, Jardena; Zahner, Lukas; Roth, Ralf; Meyer, Ursina; Bedogni, Giorgio

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of skinfold thicknesses, BMI and waist circumference for the prediction of percentage body fat (PBF) in a representative sample of 372 Swiss children aged 6-13 years. PBF was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. On the basis of a preliminary bootstrap selection of predictors, seven regression models were evaluated. All models included sex, age and pubertal stage plus one of the following predictors: (1) log-transformed triceps skinfold (logTSF); (2) logTSF and waist circumference; (3) log-transformed sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds (logSF2); (4) log-transformed sum of triceps, biceps, subscapular and supra-iliac skinfolds (logSF4); (5) BMI; (6) waist circumference; (7) BMI and waist circumference. The adjusted determination coefficient (R² adj) and the root mean squared error (RMSE; kg) were calculated for each model. LogSF4 (R² adj 0.85; RMSE 2.35) and logSF2 (R² adj 0.82; RMSE 2.54) were similarly accurate at predicting PBF and superior to logTSF (R² adj 0.75; RMSE 3.02), logTSF combined with waist circumference (R² adj 0.78; RMSE 2.85), BMI (R² adj 0.62; RMSE 3.73), waist circumference (R² adj 0.58; RMSE 3.89), and BMI combined with waist circumference (R² adj 0.63; RMSE 3.66) (P < 0.001 for all values of R² adj). The finding that logSF4 was only modestly superior to logSF2 and that logTSF was better than BMI and waist circumference at predicting PBF has important implications for paediatric epidemiological studies aimed at disentangling the effect of body fat on health outcomes.

  10. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female.

    PubMed

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S; Lodish, Maya B; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J; Quezado, Martha M; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2014-03-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI.

  11. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female

    PubMed Central

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S.; Lodish, Maya B.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Quezado, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI. PMID:24129100

  12. Endometrial adenocarcinoma in a 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Mee; Shin, So Jin; Bae, Jin Gon; Kwon, Kun Young; Rhee, Jeong Ho

    2016-03-01

    Endometrial cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer in the Korea and occurs mainly in menopausal women. Although it can develop in young premenopausal women cancer as well, an attack in the adolescent girl is very rare. A 13-year-old girl visited gynecology department with the complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. An endometrial biopsy revealed FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) grade II endometrial adenocarcinoma. In the treatment of endometrial cancer, conservative management should be considered if the patient is nulliparous or wants the fertility preservation. Therefore, we decided to perform a hormonal therapy and a follow-up endometrial biopsy after progestin administration for eight months revealed no residual tumor. We report a case of endometrial cancer occurred in a 13-year-old girl with a brief review of the literature.

  13. Endometrial adenocarcinoma in a 13-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Mee; Shin, So Jin; Bae, Jin Gon; Kwon, Kun Young

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer in the Korea and occurs mainly in menopausal women. Although it can develop in young premenopausal women cancer as well, an attack in the adolescent girl is very rare. A 13-year-old girl visited gynecology department with the complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. An endometrial biopsy revealed FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) grade II endometrial adenocarcinoma. In the treatment of endometrial cancer, conservative management should be considered if the patient is nulliparous or wants the fertility preservation. Therefore, we decided to perform a hormonal therapy and a follow-up endometrial biopsy after progestin administration for eight months revealed no residual tumor. We report a case of endometrial cancer occurred in a 13-year-old girl with a brief review of the literature. PMID:27004208

  14. Endometrial adenocarcinoma in a 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Mee; Shin, So Jin; Bae, Jin Gon; Kwon, Kun Young; Rhee, Jeong Ho

    2016-03-01

    Endometrial cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer in the Korea and occurs mainly in menopausal women. Although it can develop in young premenopausal women cancer as well, an attack in the adolescent girl is very rare. A 13-year-old girl visited gynecology department with the complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. An endometrial biopsy revealed FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) grade II endometrial adenocarcinoma. In the treatment of endometrial cancer, conservative management should be considered if the patient is nulliparous or wants the fertility preservation. Therefore, we decided to perform a hormonal therapy and a follow-up endometrial biopsy after progestin administration for eight months revealed no residual tumor. We report a case of endometrial cancer occurred in a 13-year-old girl with a brief review of the literature. PMID:27004208

  15. Dietary Habits of Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Graham, Mike; Boobier, Wyndham; Baker, Julien; Davies, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the dietary habits of Welsh 12-13 year olds. A cohort of 84 boys and 81 girls, age 12.9 SD 0.3 years; body mass 51.3 SD 12.6kg; and stature 1.54 SD 0.08m, completed a food frequency questionnaire and seven-day food diary. Mean daily kilocalories (kcal/d), and percentages of total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, and protein,…

  16. A 13-year-old girl with a cystic cerebellar lesion: consider the hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Is, Merih; Gezen, Ferruh; Akyuz, Fevzullah; Aytekin, Hikmet; Dosoglu, Murat

    2009-05-01

    We report a 13-year-old girl with a hydatid cyst located in the posterior fossa. The pre-operative diagnosis was a cerebellar tumour; the cyst was operated on using puncture, aspiration, irrigation and resection. Sixteen months post-operatively, the patient is in a good health. A hydatid cyst must always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the cranium, especially for those children living in rural areas.

  17. Surgical stabilisation in a 13-year-old boy with traumatic flail chest.

    PubMed

    Leenstra, Bernard Simon; Stolwijk, Antoinette; Poeze, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Flail chest after blunt trauma to the chest has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Traumatic flail chest in children rarely occurs due to flexibility of the ribcage. We describe the case of a 13-year-old boy sustaining a flail chest after a high-energy trauma. Conservative treatment with proper mechanical ventilation and pain management was unsuccessful, and was followed by operative rib fixation. The patient was discharged home 17 days after surgery and, at 4 months follow-up, had fully recovered. This case report shows the possibility of operative rib fixation as treatment for flail chest in children. PMID:26370635

  18. Test-Taking Strategies of 12 -and 13-Year-Old Hungarian Learners of EFL: Why Whales Have Migraines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolov, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a project exploring 12- and 13-year-old children's uses of strategies while solving reading and writing test tasks in English as a foreign language EFL. The study was conducted to provide insights into how learners go about solving tasks and what they think and rely on while doing them. The first part provides an…

  19. Asymptomatic complete atrioventricular block in a 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Joseph Anthony; Lubega, Joseph; Ezetendu, Chidibere; Verma, Rajiv; O'Connor, Brian; Kalyanaraman, Meena

    2011-11-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) block is a delay or an interruption in the transmission of an impulse from atria to ventricles due to an anatomic or a functional impairment in the conduction system. Atrioventricular block may be congenital or acquired. Electrocardiographic screening of asymptomatic school-aged children (median, 12.4 years) in Japan found the prevalence of a third-degree AV block to be 2 per 100,000. We report a case of asymptomatic complete AV block of unknown etiology in a 13-year-old child who did not require pacemaker placement. The importance of recognizing an asymptomatic complete AV block in the pediatric population, the classification and controversies of pacemaker placement, and the complications of pacemaker placement are discussed.

  20. Early onset of colorectal cancer in a 13-year-old girl with Lynch syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Do Hee; Rho, Jung Hee; Tchah, Hann

    2016-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited colon cancer syndrome. Patients with Lynch syndrome develop a range of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) and carry a mutation on one of the mismatched repair (MMR) genes. Although CRC usually occurs after the fourth decade in patients with Lynch syndrome harboring a heterozygous MMR gene mutation, it can occur in children with Lynch syndrome who have a compound heterozygous or homozygous MMR gene mutation. We report a case of CRC in a 13-year-old patient with Lynch syndrome and congenital heart disease. This patient had a heterozygous mutation in MLH1 (an MMR gene), but no compound MMR gene defects, and a K-RAS somatic mutation in the cancer cells. PMID:26893603

  1. Toxic epidermal necrolysis triggered by clobazam: a case report in a 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Dang, Chuong D; Beets-Shay, Linda; Kahn, Estelle C

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) triggered by clobazam in a 13-year-old girl who was subsequently treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. In December 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released a warning that clobazam might cause "serious skin reactions" such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or TEN and approved label changes. PMID:25690725

  2. Who Says You Need to Teach Reading to 11-13-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkhill, Faye Fiona; Fletcher, Jo Florence; Greenwood, Janinka; Grimley, Michael; Bridges, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that as students move through the school system, many begin to experience difficulties with reading. With this mind, this study explored current practices and perceptions about reading programmes for 11-13-year-old students in New Zealand schools. The study employed an online survey designed to investigate current reading…

  3. 13-Year-Olds' Perception of Bullying: Definitions, Reasons for Victimisation and Experience of Adults' Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Holmqvist, Kristina; Oscarsson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This study formed the second wave of a longitudinal research project examining bullying from the students' perspective. A sample of 877 Swedish 13-year-olds filled out a questionnaire regarding the definition of bullying, reasons for why some students are bullied and the experience of adults' response to bullying. In their definitions, girls were…

  4. Relationship between Malnutrition and the Number of Permanent Teeth in Filipino 10- to 13-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Monse, Bella

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we determined whether there is a delay in the eruption of permanent teeth (PT) among Filipino adolescents with stunting or thinness. Height, weight, and number of PT were recorded in 1554 Filipino 10- to 13-year-olds (711 boys; 843 girls). z-scores for height (HAZ) and body mass index (BMI) were calculated according to the WHO growth reference, and their correlations to the number of PT were assessed. 54.9% of the children have at least one form of malnutrition. Significantly, more boys (22.9%) than girls (16.5%) were thin, while no sex difference in stunting was noted (boys 48.5%; girls 44.0%). The number of PT was significantly correlated to HAZ and BMI-z-score. Stunted and thin students had significantly fewer PT than their nonaffected peers. These differences tended to be the result of delay in tooth eruption in thin and stunted adolescents. In 13-year-old girls, all PT were erupted regardless of their nutritional status indicating a catch-up. Thin and stunted boys had one tooth less than normal boys at this age. Impaired physical growth and dental development seem to have common risk factors. Therefore, regular monitoring of growth and dental development might be helpful for targeting support programmes in developing countries. PMID:24069590

  5. Gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with thromboembolism in a 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Wendy L M

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal pain is a frequent complaint in the pediatric emergency department. A 13-year-old boy presented with complaints of abdominal pain, hematemesis, headache, and leg pain. Further investigation revealed an advanced-stage gastric adenocarcinoma with multiple thromboembolism including the greater saphenous vein and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. This case points out the challenges of diagnosing this rare condition and treating the primary tumor and thromboembolism in the setting of both hypercoagulable state and gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25738239

  6. Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Previously Healthy 13-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Rayment, Jonathan H.; Narang, Indra

    2016-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare, polygenic primary immunodeficiency. In this case report, we describe a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with multifocal pulmonary aspergillosis and was subsequently diagnosed with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease. CGD has a variable natural history and age of presentation and should be considered when investigating a patient with recurrent or severe infections with catalase-positive organisms. PMID:27445540

  7. Development of the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire for caregivers of 5-13 year olds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the “Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire” (CGPQ) was systematically developed. Such a measure is frequently requested in the area of childhood overweight. Methods First, an item bank of existing parenting measures was created assessing five key parenting constructs that have been identified across multiple theoretical approaches to parenting (Nurturance, Overprotection, Coercive control, Behavioral control, and Structure). Caregivers of 5- to 13-year-olds were asked to complete the online survey in the Netherlands (N = 821), Belgium (N = 435) and the United States (N = 241). In addition, a questionnaire regarding personality characteristics (“Big Five”) of the caregiver was administered and parents were asked to report about their child’s height and weight. Factor analyses and Item-Response Modeling (IRM) techniques were used to assess the underlying parenting constructs and for item reduction. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relations between general parenting and personality of the caregivers, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) indicators, to establish criterion validity. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the associations of SES indicators and parenting with child BMI z-scores. Additionally, we assessed whether scores on the parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores differed depending on SES indicators. Results The reduced questionnaire (62 items) revealed acceptable fit of our parenting model and acceptable IRM item fit statistics. Caregiver personality was related as hypothesized with the GCPQ parenting constructs. While correcting for SES, overprotection was positively related to child BMI. The negative relationship between structure and BMI was

  8. Cytogenetic and clinical features of a 13 year old male with trisomy 8.

    PubMed

    Balkan, Mahmut; Fidanboy, Mehmet; Özmen, Cihan; Özbek, M Nuri; Otçu, Selçuk; Kapı, Emin; Budak, Turgay

    2012-09-01

    Trisomy 8 is a relatively rare chromosomal abnormality. The majority of cases present with the mosaic form. Regular trisomy 8 is usually lethal and frequently results in miscarriage, while those with "trisomy 8 mosaicism" are more likely to survive. We report clinical observations and cytogenetic studies of a 13-year-old male with regular trisomy 8 and compared with those of other known cases of trisomy 8. The most discriminating findings for this condition are skeletal anomalies, restricted articular function, and speech problems. Our results are in agreement with those of previous studies for trisomy 8. PMID:27625824

  9. Ethics and the proposed treatment for a 13-year-old with atypical gender identity.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Merle P

    2004-09-20

    The case of a 13-year-old girl given permission by the Family Court of Australia to begin a sex-change process involves complex issues. Nevertheless, the ethical justification for the decision is not complicated. In this case, it can be argued that the net benefit eclipses concerns about competence, autonomy and the appropriateness of the intervention. The debate this case generated in the media reminds us that one of the essential tasks in ethics debates is to get our facts straight. PMID:15377242

  10. Complex Hallucinations and Panic Attacks in a 13-Year-Old with Migraines

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes a 13-year-old girl whose family requested a referral from the pediatrician for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services in order to understand her recent onset of bizarre behavior. On assessment, she was found to have episodes of complex audiovisual hallucinations and panic attacks with intervals of complete recovery associated with episodes of migraine headaches. The “Alice in Wonderland Syndrome,” which is intimately associated with migraine and epilepsy, as well as a number of other neurological conditions, could explain her episodic neurobehavioral disturbance. PMID:23441026

  11. Cytogenetic and clinical features of a 13 year old male with trisomy 8

    PubMed Central

    Balkan, Mahmut; Fidanboy, Mehmet; Özmen, Cihan; Özbek, M. Nuri; Otçu, Selçuk; Kapı, Emin; Budak, Turgay

    2012-01-01

    Trisomy 8 is a relatively rare chromosomal abnormality. The majority of cases present with the mosaic form. Regular trisomy 8 is usually lethal and frequently results in miscarriage, while those with “trisomy 8 mosaicism” are more likely to survive. We report clinical observations and cytogenetic studies of a 13-year-old male with regular trisomy 8 and compared with those of other known cases of trisomy 8. The most discriminating findings for this condition are skeletal anomalies, restricted articular function, and speech problems. Our results are in agreement with those of previous studies for trisomy 8.

  12. A 13-year-old girl with proximal weakness and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with Danon disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hunmin; Cho, Anna; Lim, Byung Chan; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Ki Joong; Nishino, Ichizo; Hwang, Yong Seung; Chae, Jong-Hee

    2010-06-01

    Danon disease is caused by deficiency of lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2). It is characterized clinically by cardiomyopathy, myopathy, and mental retardation in boys. Herein we report a 13-year-old female patient with Danon disease who presented with early-onset skeletal myopathy and cardiomyopathy. She had a de novo novel mutation in the LAMP2 gene, and her muscles showed many autophagic vacuoles with sarcolemmal features and complete absence of LAMP-2 expression. To the best of our knowledge, this girl is one of the earliest-onset manifesting carriers of Danon disease with typical muscle pathology.

  13. Renal artery thrombosis and hypertension in a 13 year old girl with antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ostuni, P A; Lazzarin, P; Pengo, V; Ruffatti, A; Schiavon, F; Gambari, P

    1990-01-01

    The case of a 13 year old girl with renal artery thrombosis and hypertension is described. A cerebrovascular accident and a probable occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery also occurred. Very high levels of 'lupus anticoagulant', anticardiolipin antibodies as well as false positive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory tests were repeatedly shown. Moreover, the patient fulfilled at least four classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus, but only a slight positivity for antinucleolar antibodies was present. The striking relation between antiphospholipid antibody levels and clinical events and the treatment of this complex syndrome are discussed. Images PMID:2108619

  14. Sebaceous lymphadenoma of the parotid gland in a 13-year-old girl: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rawlinson, Neil J; Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Nicol, Kathleen

    2010-06-01

    Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a benign rare tumor of the salivary gland. It typically presents in the 6th decade of life as a slowly growing parotid mass. Pathologic examination reveals a well circumscribed mass composed of epithelial islands set in a lymphoid background. The epithelial nests are composed of sebaceous cells and ductal structures. Surgical excision is curative. Prognosis is good with rare recurrence or malignant transformation. Currently, there are less than 50 reported cases in the English literature. We report the second case of sebaceous lymphadenoma in the pediatric population and the youngest reported so far that presented in a 13 year old girl with a parotid mass.

  15. XYY syndrome: a 13-year-old boy with tall stature.

    PubMed

    Jo, Won Ha; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2015-09-01

    When evaluating the underlying causes of tall stature, it is important to differentiate pathologic tall stature from familial tall stature. Various pathologic conditions leading to adult tall stature include excess growth hormone secretion, Marfan syndrome, androgen or estrogen deficiency, testicular feminization, and sex chromosome anomaly, such as Klinefelter syndrome and XYY syndrome. Men with 47,XYY syndrome can exhibit multiple phenotypes. A 13-year-old boy visited the hospital for evaluation of tall stature. The boy had no other physical abnormalities except tall stature. All biochemical and imaging studies were within the normal ranges. He was diagnosed with XYY syndrome in this chromosome study. When evaluating men with tall stature, XYY syndrome should be ruled out.

  16. Posttraumatic Nonunion of the Clavicle in a 13-Year-Old Boy Causing an Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feiran; Marriage, Nicholas; Ismaeel, Adil; Smyth, Vince; Kaleem, Musa; Khan, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Context: Fractures of the clavicle are one of the most common injuries to the bone in childhood, but posttraumatic nonunion of pediatric clavicle fractures are extremely rare, with only isolated reports in literature. Case Report: We report a case of a posttraumatic painful nonunion of a clavicle fracture in a 13-year-old boy that caused symptomatic compression of the external jugular vein (EJV) and the formation of an arteriovenous fistula. The fracture was treated successfully with open reduction and internal fixation with a contoured recon plate 6 months following the injury. The fistula was treated by ligation and closure. Conclusion: The patient made a full recovery 6 months following surgery and was asymptomatic with full range of shoulder movement. Fracture union was confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scanning and no residual fistula was found. PMID:24404546

  17. Selective ligation of portal vein and hepatic artery for ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma in a 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideaki; Honna, Toshiro; Muto, Mitsuru; Fujino, Akihiro; Kasahara, Mureo; Kitano, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Tatso

    2011-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in children is rare, and the prognosis has been poor because of its advanced stage at diagnosis and unresponsiveness to chemotherapy. We report a 13-year-old boy with ruptured HCC in the left trisegment. When hemostasis of the ruptured surface was achieved in the emergency operation, the left branch of the portal vein and the left hepatic artery were ligated at the same time. The volume of the future liver remnant (FLR), that is, his right posterior sector, increased from 56% on admission to 70% of his standard liver volume on day 2. Blood level of serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist ІІ started to decrease immediately. Left trisegmentectomy was successfully performed 10 days later, followed by chemotherapy. He has been well with a 2-year survival without recurrence. When the FLR is considered relatively small for a major hepatic resection, the selective ligation of the portal vein and the hepatic artery, which feed HCC, seems to be beneficial. This is because it may induce enlargement of the FLR, increasing the safety of the hepatectomy as preoperative portal vein embolization does before a major hepatectomy in adult patients with HCC, and the latter suppresses the tumor while waiting for the planned hepatectomy.

  18. Case report of an epidural cervical Onchocerca lupi infection in a 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsinsue; Moon, Karam; deMello, Daphne E; Feiz-Erfan, Iman; Theodore, Nicholas; Bhardwaj, Ratan D

    2015-08-01

    A 13-year-old boy presented with fever and neck pain and stiffness, which was initially misdiagnosed as culture-negative meningitis. Magnetic resonance images of the brain and cervical spine demonstrated what appeared to be an intradural extramedullary mass at the C1-3 level, resulting in moderate cord compression, and a Chiari Type I malformation. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniectomy and a C1-3 laminectomy with intradural exploration for excisional biopsy and resection. The lesion containing the parasite was extradural, extending laterally through the C2-3 foramina. Inflammatory tissue secondary to Onchocerca lupi infection was identified, and treatment with steroids and doxycycline was initiated. At the 6-month follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic, with MR images demonstrating a significant reduction in lesional size. However, 10 weeks postoperatively, the infection recurred, necessitating a second operation. The patient was treated with an additional course of doxycycline and is currently maintained on ivermectin therapy. This is the second reported case of cervical O. lupi infection in a human. In the authors' experience, oral doxycycline alone was insufficient in controlling the disease, and the addition of ivermectin therapy was necessary.

  19. FIRO-BC Normative and Psychometric Data on 9- through 13-year-old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Stephen A.; Goggin, William C.

    1984-01-01

    Addressed the need to provide normative and psychometric data for the FIRO-BC questionnaire. Reported are the means, standard deviations, test-retest reliability coefficients, and interscale correlation coefficients. Data are reported separately for boys and girls (N=282). In addition, techniques of FIRO-BC data analyses are reviewed and…

  20. FIRO-BC normative and psychometric data on 9- through 13-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Burton, S A; Goggin, W C

    1984-05-01

    Study concerned principally with the need to provide normative and psychometric data for the FIRO-BC questionnaire. Reported are the means, standard deviations, test-retest reliability coefficients, and interscale correlation coefficients. Data are reported separately for boys and girls (N = 282). In addition, techniques of FIRO-BC data analyses are reviewed and alternatives are discussed.

  1. Seasonal variation in the distribution of daily stepping in 11-13 year old school children

    PubMed Central

    McCrorie, P.R.W.; Duncan, E.; Granat, M.H.; Stansfield, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Seasonality studies in adolescent’s physical activity (PA) tend to report total PA (e.g. steps/day) rather than more specific detail such as steps/hour. This study compared the detailed changes in PA between seasons. Methods Thirty three adolescents (baseline age 12.2 ± 0.3y) wore the activPAL activity monitor for 8 days on two occasions. Results Steps/day were higher in summer (Mdn = 12,879) than winter (Mdn = 10,512), p<.001. Steps/hour were significantly higher in summer compared to winter between 17:00 and 21:00 (p<. 044). No steps/day differences were found between boys and girls at either time point (p>.05), however, boys had significantly higher step counts in summer between ’13:00-14:00’ (p=.023), ’19:00-20:00’ (p=.032) and ‘20:00-21:00’ (p=.023). Conclusion Total steps/day masked sex differences within specific hours of the day, particularly evening times. Detailed daily patterns of PA are required to fully understand differences between sexes and across seasons. PMID:26550098

  2. Moved to Tears: Technical Considerations and Dilemmas Encountered in Working with a 13-Year-Old Boy with Acquired Quadriplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about therapeutic work with David, a 13-year-old boy who, at the age of 5, was the victim of a hit-and-run road traffic accident resulting in quadriplegia. The circumstances leading to the accident and its sequelae reveal a particularly complex picture, which combines early emotional deprivation and trauma. Although cognitively…

  3. Identifying with Science: A Case Study of Two 13-Year-Old "High Achieving Working Class" British Asian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Billy

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth, "case study" style analysis of the experiences of two 13-year-old British Asian girls from a larger qualitative study investigating minority ethnic students' aspirations in science. Through the lens of identity as performativity and Bourdieu's notions of "habitus" and capital, the ways in which two girls engage…

  4. Gender, Popularity and Notions of In/Authenticity amongst 12-Year-Old to 13-Year-Old School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Barbara; Francis, Becky; Skelton, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a research project investigating gendered identities and interactions of high-achieving students in Year Eight in England (12-13 years old), particularly in relation to students' "popularity" amongst their peers. As part of this study 71 students were interviewed from nine different schools in urban, rural and small…

  5. Backstroke Technical Characterization of 11-13 Year-Old Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Filipa; Figueiredo, Pedro; Seifert, Ludovic; Soares, Susana; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the backstroke swimming technique of 11-13 year-old swimmers when performing at very high intensity. A sample of 114 swimmers was divided into four groups regarding maturational and gender effect, who performed 25- m backstroke swimming at 50-m pace. Using two underwater cameras the general biomechanical parameters (speed, stroke rate, stroke length and stroke index), the arm stroke phases and two indexes of arm coordination (Index of Coordination 1, which characterizes the continuity between propulsive phases of each arm and Index of Coordination 2 that evaluates the simultaneity between the beginning of the pull of one arm and of the recovery of the other arm) were measured. Post- pubertal swimmers achieved higher values of speed (1.06 ± 0.14 and 1.18 ± 0.14 m·s-1 for pubertal and 1.13 ± 0.14 and 1.24 ± 0.12 m·s-1 for post-pubertal girl and boy swimmers, respectively), stroke length (1.64 ± 0.26 and 1.68 ± 0.25 m·cycle-1 for pubertal and 1.79 ± 0.22 and 1.75 ± 0.27 m·cycle-1 for post-pubertal girls and boys, respectively) and stroke index. Regar-ding genders, male were faster than female swimmers. Boys also showed a higher stroke rate and stroke index than girls, who achieved higher results in the ratio between stroke length and arm span. As it was expected, no hand lag time was noticed in young swimmers. Although no differences were noticed between genders, the Index of Coordination 1 was in catch-up mode (-9.89 ± 3.16 and -10.16 ± 3.60 % for girls and -9.77 ± 2.93 and -10.39 ± 2.44 % for boys pubertal and post-pubertal, respectively) and the Index of Coordination 2 was in superposition mode (1.86 ± 4.39 and 2.25 ± 2.25 % from girls and 1.72 ± 2.62 and 1.95 ± 2.95 % for boys, pubertal and post-pubertal, respectively). Key Points Young swimmers adopt the catch-up arm coordina-tion when swimming backstroke. These swimmers present lower stroking parameters then those published for older and higher level

  6. Backstroke technical characterization of 11-13 year-old swimmers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Filipa; Figueiredo, Pedro; Seifert, Ludovic; Soares, Susana; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the backstroke swimming technique of 11-13 year-old swimmers when performing at very high intensity. A sample of 114 swimmers was divided into four groups regarding maturational and gender effect, who performed 25- m backstroke swimming at 50-m pace. Using two underwater cameras the general biomechanical parameters (speed, stroke rate, stroke length and stroke index), the arm stroke phases and two indexes of arm coordination (Index of Coordination 1, which characterizes the continuity between propulsive phases of each arm and Index of Coordination 2 that evaluates the simultaneity between the beginning of the pull of one arm and of the recovery of the other arm) were measured. Post- pubertal swimmers achieved higher values of speed (1.06 ± 0.14 and 1.18 ± 0.14 m·s(-1) for pubertal and 1.13 ± 0.14 and 1.24 ± 0.12 m·s(-1) for post-pubertal girl and boy swimmers, respectively), stroke length (1.64 ± 0.26 and 1.68 ± 0.25 m·cycle(-1) for pubertal and 1.79 ± 0.22 and 1.75 ± 0.27 m·cycle(-1) for post-pubertal girls and boys, respectively) and stroke index. Regar-ding genders, male were faster than female swimmers. Boys also showed a higher stroke rate and stroke index than girls, who achieved higher results in the ratio between stroke length and arm span. As it was expected, no hand lag time was noticed in young swimmers. Although no differences were noticed between genders, the Index of Coordination 1 was in catch-up mode (-9.89 ± 3.16 and -10.16 ± 3.60 % for girls and -9.77 ± 2.93 and -10.39 ± 2.44 % for boys pubertal and post-pubertal, respectively) and the Index of Coordination 2 was in superposition mode (1.86 ± 4.39 and 2.25 ± 2.25 % from girls and 1.72 ± 2.62 and 1.95 ± 2.95 % for boys, pubertal and post-pubertal, respectively). Key PointsYoung swimmers adopt the catch-up arm coordina-tion when swimming backstroke.These swimmers present lower stroking parameters then those published for older and higher

  7. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Khater, Nabil; Zhang, Rui; Geara, Fady B.; Mahajan, Anita; Jalbout, Wassim; Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Youssef, Bassem; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2015-01-01

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care. PMID:25763928

  8. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Phillip J; Khater, Nabil; Zhang, Rui; Geara, Fady B; Mahajan, Anita; Jalbout, Wassim; Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Youssef, Bassem; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2015-01-01

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient's body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care. PMID:25763928

  9. Developmental Differences in the Naming of Contextually Non-Categorical Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the naming process of contextually non-categorical objects in children from 3 to 9 plus 13-year-olds. 112 children participated in the study. Children were asked to narrate a story individually while looking at Mercer Mayer's textless, picture book "Frog, where are you?" The narratives were audio recorded and transcribed.…

  10. Management of a Benign Phyllodes Tumor in a 13-Year-Old Girl with Trans-position of the Nipple Areola Complex and Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Erginel, B; Celet Ozden, B; Yesil Onder, S; Yuksel, S; Gun Soysal, F; Celik, A; Salman, T

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is a rare primary tumor of the breast. In children and adolescents, it is even rarer with only 20 cases, treatment of which vary in the literature. Herein we report the case of a 13-year-old female patient with a giant benign phyllodes tumor eroding the bottom of the breast skin and causing nipple retraction. We performed breast conservative surgery by mobilizing the areola, using skin flaps and inserting an implant. Breast malignancy, including phyllodes tumor (PT), is very rare in adolescents. PT, previously called cystosarcoma phylloides, consists of leaf-like fronds, from which the tumor gets its name (1, 2). Although PT is most often seen in the fourth decade of life, almost 20 cases have been reported in the adolescent period, most of which are benign. The histologic types are benign, borderline, and malignant, depending on the mitotic rate of the tumor (3, 4). PMID:26158262

  11. Structural and functional brain correlates of subclinical psychotic symptoms in 11-13 year old schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Sarah; Kelleher, Ian; Harley, Michelle; Murtagh, Aileen; Clarke, Mary; Blanchard, Mathieu; Connolly, Colm; O'Hanlon, Erik; Garavan, Hugh; Cannon, Mary

    2010-01-15

    Studying children experiencing psychotic symptoms provides a unique opportunity to examine the vulnerability to psychosis within the context of development. Using neuroimaging techniques this study investigated cognitive control functions, brain volumetrics and white matter integrity in an at-risk cohort of children. Between-subjects assessment of brain function and structure among 11 school-going, non-treatment seeking children aged 11-13 who were at symptomatic risk for psychosis (AR) and 14 healthy control children aged 11-12 without subclinical psychotic symptoms (CON). MRI assessments included functional measures of response inhibition and error-related processes, whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray matter (GM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) utilizing fractional anisotropy to probe white matter (WM) integrity. fMRI results showed reduced activity in the AR group within right frontal and bilateral temporal cortex for response inhibition and reduced activity within the anterior cingulate, insula and middle frontal gyrus for error-related processing (p<.05, corrected). VBM analysis revealed GM increases in the AR group within middle and superior temporal gyri, angular gyrus, orbitofrontal gyrus and GM decrease within the inferior temporal gyrus (p<.05, corrected). DTI analysis identified WM decreases in the AR group along the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (p<.05, corrected). This multimodal investigation revealed aberrant prefrontal-temporal dysfunction in addition to cingulate and insular dysfunctions which provide potential early neurocognitive risk markers related to the susceptibility for developing psychosis and subsequently the neurodevelopmental trajectory leading to schizophrenia. PMID:19770054

  12. Complex hallucinations and panic attacks in a 13-year-old with migraines: the alice in wonderland syndrome.

    PubMed

    George, Dimple; Bernard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes a 13-year-old girl whose family requested a referral from the pediatrician for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services in order to understand her recent onset of bizarre behavior. On assessment, she was found to have episodes of complex audiovisual hallucinations and panic attacks with intervals of complete recovery associated with episodes of migraine headaches. The "Alice in Wonderland Syndrome," which is intimately associated with migraine and epilepsy, as well as a number of other neurological conditions, could explain her episodic neurobehavioral disturbance. PMID:23441026

  13. Successful non-operative management of an iatrogenic recto-urethral fistula in a 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Zilbert, Nathan R; Sand, Matthew; Draper, Lawrence; Ricci, John; Nadler, Evan P

    2009-04-01

    Here we present a case of successful non-operative management of an iatrogenic recto-urethral fistula in a 13-year-old boy. The fistula was created when urethroscopic repair of a urethral stricture was attempted. Due to the anatomy of the lesion and previous urinary diversion, it was deemed possible to spare this patient diverting colostomy or surgical repair of the fistula. The result was successful closure of the fistula, which was confirmed on retrograde urethrogram. While we do not support the routine use of non-operative management for recto-urethral fistulas we have demonstrated that there are circumstances where it can be safely applied.

  14. The development of the concepts of heat and temperature in 10-13 year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayer, Michael; Wylam, Hugh

    A crucial issue in the theory of science education at present is the problem of how much it is possible to generalize about steps in understanding achieved by different pupils in a given topic. Many Piagetians believe that there are qualitatively different steps followed in the same succession by all pupils: some Ausubelians believe that there is no such order, and that for each pupil the best criterion for the teacher is the pupil's present knowledge. One purpose of this study is to shed light on this issue. The study to be described made use of three inputs. The development of a technique of psychometrising Piaget by an English team based at London University provided a way of extending a study by Erickson (1977) of personal conceptual inventories to testing a sample of 200 children by a 68 item demonstrated group-test. In addition a team of curriculum developers had provided a tentative list of objectives for the teaching of Heat to Middle School students. The schools in which the study was carried out wished to know which of the objectives were more suitable for 9 or for 12 year-olds. The group-test utilized descriptors both from the Erickson study and from the list of curriculum objectives. In addition to the Heat test a Piagetian group-test (NFER, 1979) in the area of Volume and Heaviness was administered to see whether the development of concepts of Heat could be mapped onto Piagetian stages of development. Test-items in nine aspects of heat were written, with some of the experiments to be demonstrated to the class. These aspects included Conduction, Expansion, Composition of Heat, Temperature Scales, Changes of State, etc. Factor analysis of the data showed that one factor was sufficient to explain the common-factor variance of the heat scales, and that the Heat test was also unifactor with the Piagetian test. It was possible to describe Early Concrete, Late Concrete and Early Formal levels of understanding in the area of Heat and Temperature. In this

  15. Identifying with Science: A case study of two 13-year-old `high achieving working class' British Asian girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Billy

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth, 'case study' style analysis of the experiences of two 13-year-old British Asian girls from a larger qualitative study investigating minority ethnic students' aspirations in science. Through the lens of identity as performativity and Bourdieu's notions of habitus and capital, the ways in which two girls engage with the field of science is examined. Samantha is British Indian and Fay is British Bangladeshi and they are both 'top set' students in science, but only one aspired to study triple science, while the other desired to be 'famous'. The experiences of the two girls are explicated in this paper, teasing out their experiences and constructions of science. It is argued that cultural discourses of family, peers and teacher expectations can shape students' perceptions of science and education.

  16. Meningioangiomatosis in an otherwise healthy 13 year-old boy: A case report with emphasis on histopathological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Motevalli, Dorna; Kamalian, Naser; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Meningioangiomatosis is regarded as a rare benign hamartomatous condition mostly involving the cerebral cortex and overlying leptomeninges. A strong association of MA with neurofibromatosis type 2 has been documented in published articles. Herein we report a case of an otherwise healthy 13-year-old boy with no family history or stigmata of neurofibromatosis who presented with intractable seizures. MRI revealed a 2x2 cm mass lesion in the frontal lobe. The patient underwent complete surgical resection of the lesion. Although the primary radiologic impression of the lesion was glioma, pathological evaluation of the resected specimen showed mainly proliferation of meningothelial cells and fibroblast-like cells with many thickened blood vessels, which are typical for diagnosis of meningioangiomatosis. After surgical removal of the lesion, the patient is free of seizures. PMID:27799981

  17. A 13-Year-Old Girl in Trigeminy During Anesthesia for Outpatient Dental Surgery: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Bryan Neil

    2015-01-01

    A 13-year-old girl presented to a private office for dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. The patient had a previous uneventful anesthetic 5 years prior in the same office by another dental anesthesiologist. The patient was highly anxious and would not allow monitors placed prior to induction. After an uneventful mask induction with sevoflurane, nitrous oxide, and oxygen, monitors were placed and a 22-gauge intravenous cannula inserted. The initial rhythm on the electrocardiogram was trigeminy interspersed with normal sinus rhythm. The volatile anesthetic sevoflurane was discontinued immediately, and intravenous anesthesia was started but still the patient was consistently entering trigeminy. The patient was always hemodynamically stable and never hypoxic. An in-depth discussion of the case and discussion of ventricular dysrhythmias is presented.

  18. Relationship of fitness, fatness, and coronary-heart-disease risk factors in 12- to 13-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen Mark; Williams, Simon P; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between aerobic fitness (AF), fatness, and coronary-heart-disease (CHD) risk factors in 12- to 13-year-olds. The data were obtained from 208 schoolchildren (100 boys; 108 girls) ages 12.9 +/- 0.3 years. Measurements included AF, indices of obesity, blood pressure, blood lipids and lipoproteins, fibrinogen, homocysteine, and C-reactive protein. An inverse relationship was found between AF and fatness (p

  19. The importance of recognizing paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction: A case report of a 13-year-old girl presenting with stridor

    PubMed Central

    Seaberg, Raewyn M; Allegro, Jennifer; Friedman, Jeremy N; Campisi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The present report details the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented to the emergency department with stridor. Treatment for presumed reactive airway disease was attempted with antibiotics, nebulized adrenaline masks and high-dose corticosteroids. Over the next month, she presented repeatedly in a similar fashion and was admitted to hospital on three separate occasions. Ultimately, she was referred to the Centre for Paediatric Voice and Laryngeal Function at The Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario) for a speech-language pathology evaluation and direct laryngoscopy. The patient was diagnosed with paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction. After a brief treatment session with a speech-language pathologist, her stridor completely resolved and paradoxical inspiratory vocal fold adduction was no longer visualized on direct laryngoscopy. The present case highlights the fact that paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction can mimic other entities that present with stridor, and misdiagnosis can result in significant morbidity. Investigation into a patient’s social history and stressors can facilitate the diagnosis, and can avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful medical and surgical interventions. PMID:19436501

  20. Superficial paramucosal clear cell sarcoma of the soft parts resembling melanoma in a 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulos, Michael; Busam, Klaus; Guitart, Joan; Laskin, William B; Wagner, Annette M; Gerami, Pedram

    2013-02-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of tendons and aponeuroses, also known as melanoma of soft parts, represents an aggressive rare malignancy that is characterized by a nested or fascicular pattern of spindled cells and a pathognomonic reciprocal translocation, t(12;22)(q13;q12), that results in the fusion of EWSR1 and ATF1 genes. Numerous recent studies have recognized the importance of a cutaneous CCS variant that can mimic a broad spectrum of entities, including spindle cell melanoma, spindle cell squamous carcinoma, cutaneous leiomyosarcoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. We report a case of a 13-year-old boy with cutaneous CCS who presented with a few months history of an asymptomatic papule on the lower lip that was suggestive of a mucocele. Biopsy of the lesion showed a wedge shaped neoplasm arranged in nests and fascicles of epithelioid- to oval-shaped cells with pale cytoplasm, open chromatin and prominent nucleolus. The superficial component was closely opposed to the basal epithelium resembling the junctional nests of a melanocytic neoplasm. The process extended into and involved the striated muscle of the lip. The cells expressed S-100, CD99 and synaptophysin by immunohistochemistry, and there was focal HMB-45 and microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF) positivity as well. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of the t(12;22) (ESWR1-ATF1) translocation. PMID:23228147

  1. Late postoperative prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis in a 13-year-old girl with repaired tetralogy of fallot.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael C; Pourmoghadam, Kamal K; DeCampli, William M

    2015-06-01

    Prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis has infrequently been described outside large cohort reviews, which have typically focused on infections of the left-sided heart valves. Hence, the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management principles of prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis have not been well differentiated from those of infected aortic and mitral valves. More patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot are reaching adulthood and will need pulmonary valve implantation. Consequently, a focus on this infrequent but serious cardiac infection is needed, to learn what characteristics might distinguish it from infections of left-sided heart valves. We report the case of a 13-year-old girl with repaired tetralogy of Fallot who presented with fever and nonspecific symptoms. The patient initially failed to meet the Duke criteria for endocarditis but was then found to have endocarditis of her prosthetic pulmonary valve. We explanted the valve and replaced it with a pulmonary homograft, after which the patient had no infectious sequelae. In addition to presenting the patient's case, we review the literature on surgically inserted prosthetic pulmonary valves and discuss the primary management concerns when those valves become infected with endocarditis.

  2. Unusual finding of a mediastinal T-cell lymphoma in a 13-year-old patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Bălănescu, Radu Ninel; Bălănescu, Laura; Cordoş, Ioan; Sfrijan, Doiniţa; Pop, Florinel; CaragaŢă, Florentina-Ruxandra; Mălăescu, Gheorghe Dan

    2015-01-01

    T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma is an aggressive malignancy that represents 85% of all lymphoblastic lymphomas. It usually occurs in late childhood, adolescence and young adulthood with a 2:1 male preponderance and it presents with pleural effusion and respiratory symptoms and in rare cases vena cava syndrome can be encountered. We present the case of a 13-year-old patient who was referred to our clinic from a local hospital where he was diagnosed with a mediastinal tumor. The patient presented with thoracic pain, fever, coughing and fatigability for a month prior to admission, after having underwent surgery for abdominal pain (appendectomy). On admission to our hospital, a thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan was performed and showed the presence of an anterior mediastinal mass measuring 109/76/140 mm, well defined, which came in close contact with the superior vena cava, the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery, right pleural effusion and a collapsed lung on the right side. The decision was taken to perform a tumor biopsy and a right pleural drain was placed. The patient's post-operative evolution was favorable with the remission of the respiratory symptoms. The histopathological result showed the presence of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma and the patient was then transferred to the oncology ward where he underwent chemotherapeutic treatment, with a favorable outcome. T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma is an aggressive type of lymphoma and it is usually hard to diagnose considering the fact that the symptoms are often vague. It is essential to establish the diagnosis without delay and start appropriate chemotherapeutic treatment. PMID:26743307

  3. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Suriawati, A. A.; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs). Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC. PMID:27783041

  4. Renal Branch Artery Occlusion in a 13-Year-Old Hypertensive Girl: Initial Treatment and Treatment of Recurrent Stenosis by Balloon Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Konez, Orhan; Burrows, Patricia E.; Harmon, William E.

    2001-09-15

    A 13-year-old girl who recently developed hypertension was diagnosed to have an occluded right renal branch artery and was treated successfully with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). To our knowledge, PTA has not been reported as a treatment for totally occluded renal branch arteries, and there is no data available regarding the success rate and possible complications.

  5. Evidence of Secular Changes in Physical Activity and Fitness, but Not Adiposity and Diet, in Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non E.; Williams, D. R. R.; Rowe, David A.; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate secular trends in selected cardiovascular disease risk factors (namely adiposity, physical activity, physical fitness and diet) in a sample of Welsh 12-13 year olds between 2002 and 2007. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A secondary school based in South West Wales. Method: Two studies in…

  6. "You Looking at Me?": Investigating 9 and 13 Year-Olds' Ability to Encode and Decode Nonverbal Communication and Demonstrate "Emotional Literacy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Esther; Burton, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This small-scale study reports the findings from an investigation into non-verbal communication. It primarily seeks to analyse whether 9 and 13 year-olds can encode and decode non-verbal communication in the context of classroom behaviour management. This research showed that, in contrast to previous published research, there were no distinct…

  7. Causes, Processes and Consequences of "Desertification": Results of a Qualitative Study about the Conceptions of 12- and 13-Year-Old Students in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Jan Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Preconceptions are a crucial factor in the educational learning process. Hence, the investigation of preconceptions is important for learning and teaching in the field of geography. This study examines the preconceptions of 12- and 13-year-old students, regarding the major environmental problem of "desertification." The students'…

  8. Absence of Widespread Psychosocial and Cognitive Effects of School-Based Music Instruction in 10-13-Year-Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Bambrick, Caroline J.; Gill, Anneliese

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that private music training has benefits which may transfer to other domains, including verbal memory, intelligence and self-esteem. The current paper reports on the impact of an increase in school-based music training on a range of cognitive and psychosocial measures for 10-13-year-olds in two independent studies. In…

  9. Observed vs. Recalled Exercise Behavior: A Validation of a Seven Day Exercise Recall for Boys 11 to 13 Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Janet P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Eleven boys at a summer camp were asked to recall the mode, duration, and intensity of their physical activity during the preceding seven days. When compared with their counselor's records, the boys were accurate enough to make seven-day recall applicable as a summary tool of children's total energy expenditure. (Author/MT)

  10. The Impact of Subcortical Band Heterotopia and Associated Complications on the Neuropsychological Functioning of a 13-Year-Old Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Beata S.; Hill, James M.; Ming, Sue X.

    2007-01-01

    Motor impairment in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high functioning autism (HFA) has been reported previously. This study presents results of a quantitative assessment of neuromotor skills in 14-22 year old HFA/AS. Sixteen HFA/AS and 16 IQ-matched controls were assessed by the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA). The HFA/AS group showed…

  11. Is the "I"generation a "We" Generation? Social Networking Use among 9- to 13-Year-Olds and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Sally; Oldmeadow, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that online communication is associated with increased closeness to friends and friendship quality. Children under 13 years of age are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs), but research with this younger age group is scarce. This study examined the relationship between SNS use and feelings of belonging among children…

  12. Pragmatic and Prescriptive Aspects of Children's Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    Categorization judgments may be right or wrong and more or less useful. When a child calls a whale "a fish," is she making an error, or just describing an interesting similarity? This chapter explores the challenges children face in learning to conform to conventions governing categorization. (Contains 1 figure.)

  13. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads.

  14. Is the igeneration a 'we' generation? Social networking use among 9- to 13-year-olds and belonging.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Sally; Oldmeadow, Julian A

    2013-03-01

    Research suggests that online communication is associated with increased closeness to friends and friendship quality. Children under 13 years of age are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs), but research with this younger age group is scarce. This study examined the relationship between SNS use and feelings of belonging among children aged 9-13 years. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 443 children (48.98% boys), asking about their SNS use and their sense of belonging to their friendship group. SNS users reported a stronger sense of belonging to their friendship group than non-users, but this was found only among older boys. Furthermore, among boy SNS users, a positive linear relationship was found between the intensity of usage and feelings of belonging. No significant relationships were found for girls. These findings suggest that boys who use these sites are gaining friendship benefits over and above those boys who are non-users or low-intensity users. Longitudinal studies should investigate the causal relationships between SNS use and social effects within this age group. PMID:23331112

  15. Parent Praise to 1-3 Year-Olds Predicts Children’s Motivational Frameworks 5 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Gripshover, Sarah J.; Romero, Carissa; Dweck, Carol S.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    In laboratory studies, praising children’s effort encourages them to adopt incremental motivational frameworks—they believe ability is malleable, attribute success to hard work, enjoy challenges, and generate strategies for improvement. In contrast, praising children’s inherent abilities encourages them to adopt fixed-ability frameworks. Does the praise parents spontaneously give children at home show the same effects? Although parents’ early praise of inherent characteristics was not associated with children’s later fixed-ability frameworks, parents’ praise of children’s effort at 14-38 months (N=53) did predict incremental frameworks at 7-8 years, suggesting that causal mechanisms identified in experimental work may be operating in home environments. PMID:23397904

  16. Developmental differences in the naming of contextually non-categorical objects.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates the naming process of contextually non-categorical objects in children from 3 to 9 plus 13-year-olds. 112 children participated in the study. Children were asked to narrate a story individually while looking at Mercer Mayer's textless, picture book Frog, where are you? The narratives were audio recorded and transcribed. Texts were analyzed to find out how children at different ages name contextually non-categorical objects, tree and its parts in this case. Our findings revealed that increasing age in children is a positive factor in naming objects that are parts or extended forms of an object which itself constitutes a basic category in a certain context. Younger children used categorical names more frequently to refer to parts or disfigured forms of the object than older children and adults while older children and adults used specified names to refer to the parts or extended forms of the categorical names.

  17. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome in a 13-year-old girl with Xp11.22-p11.23 duplication.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Sabine; Vanakker, Olivier; Mercelis, Rudy; Lipka, A F; Haerynck, Filomeen; Dullaers, Melissa; Verloo, Patrick; Van Coster, Rudy; Verhelst, Helene

    2014-05-01

    Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease of the presynaptic neuromuscular junction, typically occurring in adults as a paraneoplastic syndrome. Only rare cases have been reported in childhood. In most childhood cases, malignancies have not been detected but a propensity to autoimmune disease was noticed. Nevertheless, little is known about genetic factors that may contribute to the susceptibility of an individual to develop LEMS. We report on a 13-year-old girl, known with the Xp11.22-p11.23 duplication syndrome, who presented with severe non-paraneoplastic LEMS. The potential role of this microduplication syndrome in the development of LEMS is explored. Previous literature review of twelve Xp11.2 duplication syndrome patients showed that three of them suffered from various autoimmune diseases. The common duplicated region in those three patients and the presented case comprises 12 disease-associated genes including the FOXP3 (Forkhead Box P3) and WAS (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome) gene, both implicated in immune function. However, it is unclear whether increased gene dosage of one or both of these genes can cause susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. In conclusion, the presented case emphasizes that autoimmune disease is a recurrent feature of the Xp11.2 duplication syndrome, which should be considered in the follow-up of these patients. The exact mechanism underlying this autoimmune propensity remains to be elucidated.

  18. Intestinal tuberculosis complicated with perforation during anti-tuberculous treatment in a 13-year-old girl with defective mitogen-induced IL-12 production.

    PubMed

    Law, Siu-Tong; Chiu, Sin-Chuen; Li, Kin Kong

    2014-10-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a cytokine which is secreted by activated phagocytes and dendritic cells and promotes cell-mediated immunity to intracellular pathogens, by inducing type 1 helper T cell (TH1) responses and interferon- γ (IFN- γ) production. Defects in the IL-12 may cause selective susceptibility to intracellular pathogens, such as mycobacteria. We herein report on a 13-year-old girl with defective mitogen-induced IL-12 production, who developed intestinal tuberculosis with wide dissemination involving the lung and urinary tract. She improved gradually, but developed terminal ileal perforation approximately 6.1 months following initiation of anti-tuberculous treatment. The paradoxical response phenomenon was suspected. The girl subsequently underwent surgical resection of the affected bowel segment with a temporary double barrel stoma, and ileocolonic anastomosis was performed after the completion of the anti-tuberculous therapy. The patient remained well, with no evidence of recurrent tuberculosis in the past 5 years. This case illustrates the possibility of underlying primary immunodeficiency in a patient with disseminated tuberculosis; delayed tuberculous intestinal perforation can develop during chemotherapy for tuberculosis.

  19. Bone mineral density in 11-13-year-old boys: relative importance of the weight status and body composition factors.

    PubMed

    Ivuskans, Arturs; Lätt, Evelin; Mäestu, Jarek; Saar, Meeli; Purge, Priit; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2013-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of being overweight on bone mineral status in 11-13-year-old boys, who were divided into overweight (OW; n = 110) and normal weight (NW; n = 154) groups. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), bone mineral content (BMC) at the WB, and body composition were assessed. Calculation of the bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was completed for the WB, LS and FN. The BMC/height ratio was also computed. OW boys displayed similar values (P > 0.05) for LS and FN BMAD and lower (P < 0.05) WB BMAD, despite significantly higher values (P < 0.05) for more widely used WB and LS BMD, WB BMC and WB BMC/height in comparison with NW boys. Fat-free mass index (FFMI; kg/m(2)) had the highest correlation coefficients from the calculated body composition indices with all bone mineral values in NW boys. In OW boys, the FFMI had the highest correlation only with FN BMD, while other measured bone mineral values had highest correlations with either BMI or FMI indices. In conclusion, OW boys have higher crude WB BMD, BMC and BMC/height ratio in comparison with NW boys. However, the bone growth appears to be insufficient to compensate for the higher mechanical load applied on the bone by higher FM and also FFM values in OW boys. Excessive adiposity does not have a protective effect on the development of BMAD in growing boys reaching puberty.

  20. Rhizobial Inoculation Increases Soil Microbial Functioning and Gum Arabic Production of 13-Year-Old Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Trees in the North Part of Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Dioumacor; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Nourou Sall, Saïdou; Zoubeirou, Alzouma Mayaki; Sylla, Samba N.; Diouf, Diegane

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobial inoculation has been widely used in controlled conditions as a substitute for chemical fertilizers to increase plants growth and productivity. However, very little is known about such effects on mature trees in natural habitats. In this study, we investigated the effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil total microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen content, potential CO2 respiration, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), acid phosphatase activities, and gum arabic production by 13-year-old Senegalia senegal (synonym: Acacia senegal) under natural conditions in the north part of Senegal during two consecutive years. Rhizobial inoculation was performed at the beginning of the rainy season (July) for both years with a cocktail of four strains (CIRADF 300, CIRADF 301, CIRADF 302, and CIRADF 303). Rhizospheric soils were collected in both dry and rainy seasons to a depth of 0–25 cm under uninoculated and inoculated trees. Trees were tapped in November (beginning of dry season) using traditional tools. Gum arabic was harvested every 15 days from December to March. The results obtained from both years demonstrated that rhizobial inoculation increased significantly the percentage of trees producing gum arabic, gum arabic production per tree, soil microbial biomass, FDA, and acid phosphatase activities. However, there was no significant effect on C mineralization and mineral nitrogen (N) content. Gum arabic production was positively correlated to rainfall, soil microbial biomass, and mineral nitrogen content. Our results showed a positive effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production by mature S. senegal trees. These important findings deserve to be conducted in several contrasting sites in order to improve gum arabic production and contribute to increase rural population incomes.

  1. Rhizobial Inoculation Increases Soil Microbial Functioning and Gum Arabic Production of 13-Year-Old Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Trees in the North Part of Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Dioumacor; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Nourou Sall, Saïdou; Zoubeirou, Alzouma Mayaki; Sylla, Samba N.; Diouf, Diegane

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobial inoculation has been widely used in controlled conditions as a substitute for chemical fertilizers to increase plants growth and productivity. However, very little is known about such effects on mature trees in natural habitats. In this study, we investigated the effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil total microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen content, potential CO2 respiration, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), acid phosphatase activities, and gum arabic production by 13-year-old Senegalia senegal (synonym: Acacia senegal) under natural conditions in the north part of Senegal during two consecutive years. Rhizobial inoculation was performed at the beginning of the rainy season (July) for both years with a cocktail of four strains (CIRADF 300, CIRADF 301, CIRADF 302, and CIRADF 303). Rhizospheric soils were collected in both dry and rainy seasons to a depth of 0–25 cm under uninoculated and inoculated trees. Trees were tapped in November (beginning of dry season) using traditional tools. Gum arabic was harvested every 15 days from December to March. The results obtained from both years demonstrated that rhizobial inoculation increased significantly the percentage of trees producing gum arabic, gum arabic production per tree, soil microbial biomass, FDA, and acid phosphatase activities. However, there was no significant effect on C mineralization and mineral nitrogen (N) content. Gum arabic production was positively correlated to rainfall, soil microbial biomass, and mineral nitrogen content. Our results showed a positive effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production by mature S. senegal trees. These important findings deserve to be conducted in several contrasting sites in order to improve gum arabic production and contribute to increase rural population incomes. PMID:27656192

  2. Rhizobial Inoculation Increases Soil Microbial Functioning and Gum Arabic Production of 13-Year-Old Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Trees in the North Part of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Fall, Dioumacor; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Nourou Sall, Saïdou; Zoubeirou, Alzouma Mayaki; Sylla, Samba N; Diouf, Diegane

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobial inoculation has been widely used in controlled conditions as a substitute for chemical fertilizers to increase plants growth and productivity. However, very little is known about such effects on mature trees in natural habitats. In this study, we investigated the effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil total microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen content, potential CO2 respiration, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), acid phosphatase activities, and gum arabic production by 13-year-old Senegalia senegal (synonym: Acacia senegal) under natural conditions in the north part of Senegal during two consecutive years. Rhizobial inoculation was performed at the beginning of the rainy season (July) for both years with a cocktail of four strains (CIRADF 300, CIRADF 301, CIRADF 302, and CIRADF 303). Rhizospheric soils were collected in both dry and rainy seasons to a depth of 0-25 cm under uninoculated and inoculated trees. Trees were tapped in November (beginning of dry season) using traditional tools. Gum arabic was harvested every 15 days from December to March. The results obtained from both years demonstrated that rhizobial inoculation increased significantly the percentage of trees producing gum arabic, gum arabic production per tree, soil microbial biomass, FDA, and acid phosphatase activities. However, there was no significant effect on C mineralization and mineral nitrogen (N) content. Gum arabic production was positively correlated to rainfall, soil microbial biomass, and mineral nitrogen content. Our results showed a positive effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production by mature S. senegal trees. These important findings deserve to be conducted in several contrasting sites in order to improve gum arabic production and contribute to increase rural population incomes. PMID:27656192

  3. The prevalence of upright non-stepping time in comparison to stepping time in 11-13 year old school children across seasons.

    PubMed

    McCrorie, P Rw; Duncan, E; Granat, M H; Stansfield, B W

    2012-11-01

    Evidence suggests that behaviours such as standing are beneficial for our health. Unfortunately, little is known of the prevalence of this state, its importance in relation to time spent stepping or variation across seasons. The aim of this study was to quantify, in young adolescents, the prevalence and seasonal changes in time spent upright and not stepping (UNSt(time)) as well as time spent upright and stepping (USt(time)), and their contribution to overall upright time (U(time)). Thirty-three adolescents (12.2 ± 0.3 y) wore the activPAL activity monitor during four school days on two occasions: November/December (winter) and May/June (summer). UNSt(time) contributed 60% of daily U(time) at winter (Mean = 196 min) and 53% at summer (Mean = 171 min); a significant seasonal effect, p < 0.001. USt(time) was significantly greater in summer compared to winter (153 min versus 131 min, p < 0.001). The effects in UNSt(time) could be explained through significant seasonal differences during the school hours (09:00-16:00), whereas the effects in USt(time) could be explained through significant seasonal differences in the evening period (16:00-22:00). Adolescents spent a greater amount of time upright and not stepping than they did stepping, in both winter and summer. The observed seasonal effects for both UNSt(time) and USt(time) provide important information for behaviour change intervention programs.

  4. Atypical Categorization in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Church, Barbara A.; Krauss, Maria S.; Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Coutinho, Mariana V.; Volker, Martin A.; Mercado, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder process many perceptual and social events differently from typically developing children, suggesting that they may also form and recognize categories differently. We used a dot pattern categorization task and prototype comparison modeling to compare categorical processing in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorder and matched typical controls. We were interested in whether there were differences in how children with autism use average similarity information about a category to make decisions. During testing, the group with autism spectrum disorder endorsed prototypes less and was seemingly less sensitive to differences between to-be-categorized items and the prototype. The findings suggest that individuals with high functioning autism spectrum disorder are less likely to use overall average similarity when forming categories or making categorical decisions. Such differences in category formation and use may negatively impact processing of socially relevant information, such as facial expressions. PMID:21169581

  5. Do Children See in Black and White? Children's and Adults' Categorizations of Multiracial Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Steven O.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Categorizations of multiracial individuals provide insight into the development of racial concepts. Children's (4-13 years) and adults', both white (Study 1) and black (Study 2) (N = 387), categorizations of multiracial individuals were examined. White children (unlike black children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as black than as white in the absence of parentage information. White and black adults (unlike children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as black than as white, even when knowing the individuals' parentage. Children's rates of in-group contact predicted their categorizations. These data suggest that a tendency to categorize multiracial individuals as black relative to white emerges early in development and results from perceptual biases in white children but ideological motives in white and black adults. PMID:26315349

  6. Do Children See in Black and White? Children's and Adults' Categorizations of Multiracial Individuals.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven O; Gelman, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Categorizations of multiracial individuals provide insight into the development of racial concepts. Children's (4-13 years) and adults', both White (Study 1) and Black (Study 2; N = 387), categorizations of multiracial individuals were examined. White children (unlike Black children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as Black than as White in the absence of parentage information. White and Black adults (unlike children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as Black than as White, even when knowing the individuals' parentage. Children's rates of in-group contact predicted their categorizations. These data suggest that a tendency to categorize multiracial individuals as Black relative to White emerges early in development and results from perceptual biases in White children but ideological motives in White and Black adults.

  7. Do Children See in Black and White? Children's and Adults' Categorizations of Multiracial Individuals.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven O; Gelman, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Categorizations of multiracial individuals provide insight into the development of racial concepts. Children's (4-13 years) and adults', both White (Study 1) and Black (Study 2; N = 387), categorizations of multiracial individuals were examined. White children (unlike Black children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as Black than as White in the absence of parentage information. White and Black adults (unlike children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as Black than as White, even when knowing the individuals' parentage. Children's rates of in-group contact predicted their categorizations. These data suggest that a tendency to categorize multiracial individuals as Black relative to White emerges early in development and results from perceptual biases in White children but ideological motives in White and Black adults. PMID:26315349

  8. STYLES OF CATEGORIZATION AMONG LOWER-CLASS KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OLMSTED, PATRICIA; SIGEL, IRVING

    BASED UPON WORK WITH MIDDLE-CLASS ADULTS AND CHILDREN, THREE APPROACHES TO GROUPING HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED--(1) DESCRIPTIVE PART-WHOLE, (2) RELATIONAL-CONTEXTUAL, AND (3) CATEGORICAL-INFERENTIAL. A COMPARISON WAS MADE OF THE FREQUENCY OF THE USE OF THESE APPROACHES AMONG MIDDLE- AND LOWER-CLASS, NEGRO PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN. INITIALLY,…

  9. The Differing Roles of Comparison and Contrast in Children's Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namy, Laura L.; Clepper, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of perceptually similar exemplars from an object category encourages children to overlook compelling perceptual similarities and use relational and functional properties more relevant for taxonomic categorization. This article investigates whether showing children a contrasting object that is perceptually similar but out of kind serves…

  10. Early categorization abilities in young children with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nazzi, Thierry; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2002-07-19

    The present study investigated whether 2- to 6-year-old children with Williams syndrome can form new object categories based on either visual or verbal information alone. Children were presented with six triads of objects. In each triad, two objects either shared visual properties, or were given the same name. Following the presentation of each triad, categorization based on the shared visual or verbal property was evaluated through object manipulation. While the children categorized the objects according to visual cues, they failed to use the verbal cues. These results contrast with previous research showing that typically developing toddlers, who were much younger than the children with Williams syndrome and much less advanced in their vocabulary development, could perform both types of categorization. The present study hence supports the claim that vocabulary acquisition in Williams syndrome develops atypically. PMID:12151782

  11. The Performance of Elements of a “Level of Response to Alcohol”-Based Model of Drinking Behaviors in 13-Year-Olds in Bristol, England

    PubMed Central

    Schuckit, Marc A.; Smith, Tom L.; Trim, Ryan; Heron, Jon; Horwoo, Jeremy; Davis, John M.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.

    2008-01-01

    Aim The goals of this paper are to evaluate whether drinking practices among peers mediates the relationship between a low level of response (LR) to alcohol and a person’s heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems in 12-to-14-year-olds. Design Correlations and structural equation models (SEMs) were used to test a hypothesized model of the relationships among key variables in adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a longitudinal birth cohort study in Bristol, England. Participants These included 688 boys (40.4%) and girls who were offspring of the pregnant women who had been selected as ALSPAC participants in 1991 and 1992. The offspring were interviewed at about age 13, and those who had ever consumed a full drink filled out the Self-Report of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) questionnaire indicating the number of drinks required for up to four effects early in their drinking histories. A higher number of drinks required for effects indicated a low level of response (LR) per drink consumed. Findings The SEM explained 58% of the variance of the alcohol pattern, and had good fit characteristics. A low LR was related to heavier drinking and more alcohol problems both directly and as partially mediated by drinking in peers. The model performed well across the narrow age range, and applied equally well in boys and girls. Conclusions The perceived drinking practices of peers is a potentially important mediator of how a low LR to alcohol relates to drinking practices during early adolescence. The findings may be useful in developing approaches to prevent heavier drinking in this young group. PMID:18778389

  12. The differing roles of comparison and contrast in children's categorization.

    PubMed

    Namy, Laura L; Clepper, Lauren E

    2010-11-01

    Comparison of perceptually similar exemplars from an object category encourages children to overlook compelling perceptual similarities and use relational and functional properties more relevant for taxonomic categorization. This article investigates whether showing children a contrasting object that is perceptually similar but out of kind serves the same function as comparison in heightening children's attention to taxonomically relevant features. In this study, 4-year-olds completed a forced-choice categorization task in which they viewed exemplars from a target category and then selected among (a) a perceptually similar out-of-kind object, (b) a category member that differed perceptually from the exemplars, and (c) a thematically related object. Children were assigned to one of four conditions: No-Compare/No-Contrast, Compare/No-Contrast, No-Compare/Contrast, or Compare/Contrast. As in previous work, comparison increased the frequency of category responses, but there was no effect of contrast on categorization. However, only those in the Compare/Contrast condition displayed consistently taxonomic patterns of responding. Follow-up studies revealed that the effect of comparison plus contrast was evident only when comparison preceded, rather than followed, contrast information and that the value added by providing contrastive information is not attributable to the perceptual similarity between the category exemplars and the contrast object. Comparison and contrast make differing contributions to children's categorization. PMID:20609449

  13. A rare malignancy of the parotid gland in a 13-year-old Taiwanese boy: case report of a mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland with molecular study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Michael J; Wu, Pei Ru; Chen, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chia-Yu; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2014-03-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described malignancy of the salivary glands characterized by an ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion gene. Morphologically, MASC is sometimes difficult to distinguish from acinic cell carcinoma. Consequently, identifying the chromosomal translocation is essential for diagnosis. We present a case of parotid gland MASC in a 13-year-old boy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Histologic evaluation showed a tumor composed of microcysts, tubular structures, solid nests, or papillary architecture, with secretions within the lumens of the cysts or tubules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells showed diffuse positive staining of S-100 protein, cytokeratin 19, and vimentin. ETV6 rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and EN fusion transcripts were verified by reverse transcription (RT-PCR) assay.

  14. Semantic Categorization: A Comparison between Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen A.; Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Hermans, Daan; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2010-01-01

    Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In the present study, the quality of the semantic…

  15. Categorical Speech Perception Deficits Distinguish Language and Reading Impairments in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Desroches, Amy S.; Ng, Stella

    2009-01-01

    We examined categorical speech perception in school-age children with developmental dyslexia or Specific Language Impairment (SLI), compared to age-matched and younger controls. Stimuli consisted of synthetic speech tokens in which place of articulation varied from "b" to "d". Children were tested on categorization, categorization in noise, and…

  16. Race and Kinship: Children's Categorization Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudley, Cynthia; Wakefield, David; Scott, Whitney; Bui, Kerra; Cuellar, Marcela

    Public schooling provides an opportunity for children of various races to interact more closely. School experience can create a consistent level of cross-racial contact that may not be duplicated in other social settings. However, cross-racial contacts in schools are not always positive. Research suggests that children may differ in their racial…

  17. Categorical perception of speech by children with specific language impairments.

    PubMed

    Coady, Jeffry A; Kluender, Keith R; Evans, Julia L

    2005-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that children with specific language impairments (SLI) have deficits in basic speech perception abilities, and this may be an underlying source of their linguistic deficits. These findings have come from studies in which perception of synthetic versions of meaningless syllables was typically examined in tasks with high memory demands. In this study, 20 children with SLI (mean age = 9 years, 3 months) and 20 age-matched peers participated in a categorical perception task. Children identified and discriminated digitally edited versions of naturally spoken real words in tasks designed to minimize memory requirements. Both groups exhibited all hallmarks of categorical perception: a sharp labeling function, discontinuous discrimination performance, and discrimination predicted from identification. There were no group differences for identification data, but children with SLI showed lower peak discrimination values. Children with SLI still discriminated phonemically contrastive pairs at levels significantly better than chance, with discrimination of same-label pairs at chance. These data suggest that children with SLI perceive natural speech tokens comparably to age-matched controls when listening to words under conditions that minimize memory load. Further, poor performance on speech perception tasks may not be due to a speech perception deficit, but rather to a consequence of task demands. PMID:16378484

  18. Domain Differences in the Weights of Perceptual and Conceptual Information in Children's Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Peretz, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Visual appearance is one of the main cues children rely on when categorizing novel objects. In 3 studies, testing 128 3-year-olds and 192 5-year-olds, we investigated how various kinds of information may differentially lead children to overlook visual appearance in their categorization decisions across domains. Participants saw novel animals or…

  19. Categorization skills and recall in brain damaged children: a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Mello, Claudia Berlim de; Muszkat, Mauro; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2009-09-01

    During development, children become capable of categorically associating stimuli and of using these relationships for memory recall. Brain damage in childhood can interfere with this development. This study investigated categorical association of stimuli and recall in four children with brain damages. The etiology, topography and timing of the lesions were diverse. Tasks included naming and immediate recall of 30 perceptually and semantically related figures, free sorting, delayed recall, and cued recall of the same material. Traditional neuropsychological tests were also employed. Two children with brain damage sustained in middle childhood relied on perceptual rather than on categorical associations in making associations between figures and showed deficits in delayed or cued recall, in contrast to those with perinatal lesions. One child exhibited normal performance in recall despite categorical association deficits. The present results suggest that brain damaged children show deficits in categorization and recall that are not usually identified in traditional neuropsychological tests. PMID:19722038

  20. Children's Categorization and Evaluation of Different Types of Lies and Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussey, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Investigated 4-, 8-, and 11-year-olds' ability to categorize intentionally false and true statements as lies and truths. Found that older children were more likely to categorize false statements as lies and true statements as truths than were 4-year-olds. Antisocial lies were rated as most serious, and "white lies" as least serious. Anticipated…

  1. How Children Learn the Ins and Outs: A Training Study of Toddlers' Categorization of Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Chris A.; Fisher, Anna V.; Rakison, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Young children are able to categorize animals on the basis of unobservable features such as shared biological properties (e.g., bones). For the most part, children learn about these properties through explicit verbalizations from others. The present study examined how such input impacts children's learning about the properties of categories. In a…

  2. Residual Difficulties with Categorical Induction in Children with a History of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naigles, Letitia R.; Kelley, Elizabeth; Troyb, Eva; Fein, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, typically developing (TD) children, high-functioning children with autism (HFA) and children with a history of autism who have achieved optimal outcomes (OOs), matched on age (M = 13 years) and nonverbal IQ, were asked to extend properties of categories to new items (categorical induction). All groups demonstrated some…

  3. Analysis of the Object Categorization Test and the Picture Categorization Test for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigel, Irving E.; Olmsted, Patricia P.

    This study analyzes the Object Categorization Test (OCT) and the Picture Categorization Test (PCT) to provide (1) psychometric analysis of the tests, (2) substantive analysis detailing variation in performance level as a function of age, race, class, and sex, and (3) normative data yielding frequencies of various score patterns. Data was taken…

  4. Naming and categorization in young children: vocal tact training.

    PubMed Central

    Fergus Lowe, C; Horne, Pauline J; Harris, Fay D A; Randle, Valerie R L

    2002-01-01

    In three experiments, 2- to 4-year-old children, following pretraining with everyday objects, were presented with arbitrary stimuli of differing shapes. In Experiment 1A, 9 subjects were trained one common tact response, "zag," to three of these and a second tact, "vek," to another three. In category match-to-sample Test 1, 4 subjects sorted accurately when required only to look at the sample before selecting from five comparisons. The remaining 5 subjects succeeded in Test 2, in which they were required to tact the sample before selecting comparisons. Experiment 1B showed, for 2 of these subjects, that tact training with 12 arbitrary stimuli established two six-member classes that were still intact 6 weeks later. In Experiment 2, 3 new subjects participated in a common tact training procedure that ensured that none of the exemplars from the same class were presented together prior to the test for three-member classes. Two subjects passed category Test 1 and the third passed Test 2. Tests showed subjects' listener behavior in response to hearing /zog/ and /vek/ to be in place. These experiments indicate that common naming is effective in establishing arbitrary stimulus classes and that category match-to-sample testing provides a robust measure of categorization. PMID:12507018

  5. CATEGORIZATION BEHAVIOR AND ACHIEVEMENT IN DEAF AND HEARING CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SILVERMAN, TOBY ROSALYN

    THE TRIPLE MODE TEST OF CATEGORIZATION (TMT-CAT), A COPY OF WHICH IS INCLUDED WITH THIS DOCUMENT, WAS CONSTRUCTED AND VALIDATED TO MEASURE THREE MAJOR MODES OF CATEGORIZATION POSTULATED BY VYGOTSKY. THE TMT-CAT CONTAINS 131 TEST ITEMS WHICH ARE PICTURES IN FORCED-CHOICE-PAIR COMPARISONS. THE CHILD MUST INDICATE PLACEMENT OF A STIMULUS PICTURE IN…

  6. Categorization of Regional and Foreign Accent in 5- to 7-Year-Old British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…

  7. Lexical Categorization Modalities in Pre-School Children: Influence of Perceptual and Verbal Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallandini, Maria Anna; Roia, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates how categorical organization functions in pre-school children, focusing on the dichotomy between living and nonliving things. The variables of familiarity, frequency of word use and perceptual complexity were controlled. Sixty children aged between 4 years and 5 years 10 months were investigated. Three tasks were used: a…

  8. Learning (Not) to Talk about Race: When Older Children Underperform in Social Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R.; Norton, Michael I.

    2008-01-01

    The present research identifies an anomaly in sociocognitive development, whereby younger children (8 and 9 years) outperform their older counterparts (10 and 11 years) in a basic categorization task in which the acknowledgment of racial difference facilitates performance. Though older children exhibit superior performance on a race-neutral…

  9. Categorization of videogames: some comments on 'Children and electronic games' by Funk, et al.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M

    2000-06-01

    Comments are made on an article by Funk, et al. about children and electronic games. This author argues the cross-cultural differences and developmental effects must be taken into account and that the categorization system of videogames based on content is incomplete or too general to cover the complex actions of contemporary videogames. These factors alone may have implications for research.

  10. Is There a Relationship between Speech Identification in Noise and Categorical Perception in Children with Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calcus, Axelle; Lorenzi, Christian; Collet, Gregory; Colin, Cécile; Kolinsky, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Children with dyslexia have been suggested to experience deficits in both categorical perception (CP) and speech identification in noise (SIN) perception. However, results regarding both abilities are inconsistent, and the relationship between them is still unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between CP…

  11. Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin sisters

    PubMed Central

    Khodashenas, Ezzat; Aelami, Mohammadhassan; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26109979

  12. Social Categorization and the Formation of Intergroup Attitudes in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied effects of presence of novel social category on intergroup attitude formation in 6- to 9-year olds. Found that after four weeks of the functional use of color groups, children's attitudes showed consistent biases favoring their own group. Children with higher self-esteem showed higher intergroup stereotyping than did children with lower…

  13. Children's Categorization of Foods: Clusters for Food Search Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify categories of similar foods that are meaningful to children to facilitate their food search in a computer-administered self-completed 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr). One hundred forty-eight 8- to 13-year0old children sorted 62 cards with food pictures, from ...

  14. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR CATEGORIZING YOUNG CHILDREN'S EATING BEHAVIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies of total dietary ingestion of common indoor contaminants have demonstrated that young children's behaviors while eating can lead to a significant source of food contamination. The difference between children eating their food items with or without their hands wh...

  15. Categorization Skills and Receptive Language Development in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerer, Judy A.; Sigman, Marian

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of category knowledge and receptive language skills of 16 autistic (3-6 years old), mentally retarded, and normal children indicated that the autistic children's knowledge of function, form, and color categories was comparable to that of the mental-age-matched mentally retarded and normal comparison groups. (Author/DB)

  16. Children's Memory for Traumatic Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Bell, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Three- through 13-year olds were interviewed a few days after a hospital stay for traumatic injury, and again six months later. Children provided considerable information about the injury and hospital stay and made few commission errors; children's distress at the time of injury did not affect their recall of the event, but distress during the…

  17. A Study of ESP in Hyperkinetic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jampolsky, Gerald G.; Haight, Maryellen J.

    Evaluated with 10 hyperkinetic Ss (9- to 13-years-old) was whether hyperkinetic children have more extrasensory perception (ESP) than normal children and learn ESP skills more rapidly than other children. Ss were administered the Operational Assessment Tool ESP teaching instrument. Results did not support the hypothesis that hyperkinetic children…

  18. Attention to Low- and High-Spatial Frequencies in Categorizing Facial Identities, Emotions and Gender in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deruelle, Christine; Rondan, Cecilie; Salle-Collemiche, Xavier; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Da Fonseca, David

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating face categorization strategies in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Performance of 17 children with ASD was compared to that of 17 control children in a face-matching task, including hybrid faces (composed of two overlapping faces of different spatial bandwidths) and either low- or high-pass…

  19. Sex Categorization among Preschool Children: Increasing Utilization of Sexually Dimorphic Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kerri L.; Lurye, Leah E.; Tassinary, Louis G.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined how children between ages 4 and 6 use body shape (i.e., the waist-to-hip-ratio [WHR]) for sex categorization. In Study 1 (N = 73), 5- and 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, selected bodies with increasingly discrepant WHRs to be "most like a man" and "most like a woman." Similarly, sex category judgments made by 5- and…

  20. Equal spacing and expanding schedules in children's categorization and generalization.

    PubMed

    Vlach, Haley A; Sandhofer, Catherine M; Bjork, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    To understand how generalization develops across the lifespan, researchers have examined the factors of the learning environment that promote the acquisition and generalization of categories. One such factor is the timing of learning events, which recent findings suggest may play a particularly important role in children's generalization. In the current study, we build on these findings by examining the impact of equally spaced versus expanding learning schedules on children's ability to generalize from studied exemplars of a given category to new exemplars presented on a later test. We found no significant effects of learning schedule when the generalization test was administered immediately after the learning phase, but there was a clear difference when the generalization test was delayed by 24h, with children in the expanding condition significantly outperforming children in the equally spaced learning condition. These results suggest that forgetting and retrieval dynamics may be lower level cognitive mechanisms promoting generalization and have several implications for broad theories of learning, cognition, and development. PMID:24613074

  1. Exploring Categorical Body Mass Index Trajectories in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…

  2. Naming and Categorization in Young Children: V. Manual Sign Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Pauline J.; Lowe, C. Fergus; Harris, Fay D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Following pre-training with everyday objects, 8 children aged from 2 to 4 years learned to produce one manual sign (fists placed one above the other, in front of body) to one stimulus and an alternative manual sign (shoulders touched with ipsilateral hands) to the other stimulus, with each of three pairs of different arbitrary wooden shapes (Set…

  3. Equal Spacing and Expanding Schedules in Children's Categorization and Generalization

    PubMed Central

    Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Bjork, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand how generalization develops across the lifespan, researchers have examined the factors of the learning environment that promote the acquisition and generalization of categories. One such factor is the timing of learning events, which recent findings suggest may play a particularly important role in children's generalization. In the current study, we build upon these findings by examining the impact of equally spaced versus expanding learning schedules on children's ability to generalize from studied exemplars of a given category to new exemplars presented on a later test. We found no significant effects of learning schedule when the generalization test was administered immediately after the learning phase, but there was a clear difference when the generalization test was delayed by 24 hours: Children in the expanding condition significantly outperformed children in the equally spaced learning condition. These results suggest forgetting and retrieval dynamics may be lower-level cognitive mechanisms promoting generalization and have several implications for broad theories of learning, cognition, and development. PMID:24613074

  4. Causal Relations Drive Young Children's Induction, Naming, and Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, John E.; Bulloch, Megan J.

    2007-01-01

    A number of recent models and experiments have suggested that evidence of early category-based induction is an artifact of perceptual cues provided by experimenters. We tested these accounts against the prediction that different relations (causal versus non-causal) determine the types of perceptual similarity by which children generalize. Young…

  5. Children's Long-Term Memory for Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Parsons, Tina

    This study investigated children's memory of stressful, personally meaningful events--in this case, injury experiences. Children (2 to 13 years old) who were brought to the emergency room of a hospital were recruited as subjects if they had sustained trauma injuries such as broken bones or lacerations requiring suturing. A total of 42 were…

  6. CATEGORICAL DIAGNOSIS OF EXTREME HYPERACTIVITY, IMPULSIVITY, AND INATTENTION IN VERY YOUNG CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Humphreys, Kathryn L

    2016-09-01

    Severe hyperactivity and impulsivity are common reasons for referral to infant mental health services. Past versions of ZERO TO THREE's () diagnostic nosology, the Diagnostic Classification of Mental and Developmental Disorders in Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-3), did not address this clinical issue because it had been addressed in other nosologies. These general diagnostic nosologies describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but with little attention to developmentally specific aspects of the diagnosis in very young children. Categorical diagnosis related to hyperactivity and impulsivity in very young children warrants careful review of existing literature. Explicit attention must be paid to ensure that categorical diagnoses serve to describe syndromes that cause significant impairment to the family to allow children and families to access effective supports and ensure that behaviors typical of the developmental level are not described as pathologic. This article reviews proposed diagnostic criteria for ADHD and overactivity disorder of toddlerhood as well as the rationale for the criteria and evidence supporting validity and reliability of the diagnoses in very young children. Clinical implications also are presented. PMID:27603932

  7. Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…

  8. The Role of Expectations in Children's Experience of Novel Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Grolnick, Wendy S.; Friendly, Rachel W.

    2012-01-01

    The expectations children bring to interactions, as well as the information they receive prior to them, may be important for children's experiences of new adults. In this study, 148 children (8-13 years old) reported on their expectations of adults, received one of three types of information about a new adult (positive, realistic, or control), and…

  9. Children's Home Environments in Great Britain and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Lori Ann; Parcel, Toby L.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of human, social, and financial capital on children's home environments in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the United States with a similar sample from Britain. In both countries, the authors find weaker home environments for boys, minority children, and…

  10. South African Mixed-Race Children's and Mothers' Judgments and Reasoning about Children's Nurturance and Self-Determination Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruck, Martin D.; Tenenbaum, Harriet; Willenberg, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the understanding of children's rights in 63 (9-, 11-, and 13-year-olds) mixed-race South African children and their mothers. In individual semi-structured interviews participants responded to hypothetical vignettes in which children's nurturance and self-determination rights conflicted with parental authority in the home.…

  11. Spelling of Derivational and Inflectional Suffixes by Greek-Speaking Children with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamanti, Vassiliki; Goulandris, Nata; Stuart, Morag; Campbell, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the spelling of derivational and inflectional suffixes by 10-13-year-old Greek children. Twenty children with dyslexia (DYS), 20 spelling-level-matched (SA) and 20 age-matched (CA) children spelled adjectives, nouns, and verbs in dictated word pairs and sentences. Children spelled nouns and verbs more accurately than adjectives and…

  12. Angry facial expressions bias gender categorization in children and adults: behavioral and computational evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bayet, Laurie; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Tanaka, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Angry faces are perceived as more masculine by adults. However, the developmental course and underlying mechanism (bottom-up stimulus driven or top-down belief driven) associated with the angry-male bias remain unclear. Here we report that anger biases face gender categorization toward “male” responding in children as young as 5–6 years. The bias is observed for both own- and other-race faces, and is remarkably unchanged across development (into adulthood) as revealed by signal detection analyses (Experiments 1–2). The developmental course of the angry-male bias, along with its extension to other-race faces, combine to suggest that it is not rooted in extensive experience, e.g., observing males engaging in aggressive acts during the school years. Based on several computational simulations of gender categorization (Experiment 3), we further conclude that (1) the angry-male bias results, at least partially, from a strategy of attending to facial features or their second-order relations when categorizing face gender, and (2) any single choice of computational representation (e.g., Principal Component Analysis) is insufficient to assess resemblances between face categories, as different representations of the very same faces suggest different bases for the angry-male bias. Our findings are thus consistent with stimulus-and stereotyped-belief driven accounts of the angry-male bias. Taken together, the evidence suggests considerable stability in the interaction between some facial dimensions in social categorization that is present prior to the onset of formal schooling. PMID:25859238

  13. Angry facial expressions bias gender categorization in children and adults: behavioral and computational evidence.

    PubMed

    Bayet, Laurie; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Tanaka, James W

    2015-01-01

    Angry faces are perceived as more masculine by adults. However, the developmental course and underlying mechanism (bottom-up stimulus driven or top-down belief driven) associated with the angry-male bias remain unclear. Here we report that anger biases face gender categorization toward "male" responding in children as young as 5-6 years. The bias is observed for both own- and other-race faces, and is remarkably unchanged across development (into adulthood) as revealed by signal detection analyses (Experiments 1-2). The developmental course of the angry-male bias, along with its extension to other-race faces, combine to suggest that it is not rooted in extensive experience, e.g., observing males engaging in aggressive acts during the school years. Based on several computational simulations of gender categorization (Experiment 3), we further conclude that (1) the angry-male bias results, at least partially, from a strategy of attending to facial features or their second-order relations when categorizing face gender, and (2) any single choice of computational representation (e.g., Principal Component Analysis) is insufficient to assess resemblances between face categories, as different representations of the very same faces suggest different bases for the angry-male bias. Our findings are thus consistent with stimulus-and stereotyped-belief driven accounts of the angry-male bias. Taken together, the evidence suggests considerable stability in the interaction between some facial dimensions in social categorization that is present prior to the onset of formal schooling. PMID:25859238

  14. Civic Competence of Dutch Children in Female Same-Sex Parent Families: A Comparison With Children of Opposite-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Henny; Gartrell, Nanette; Roeleveld, Jaap; Ledoux, Guuske

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether Dutch children reared in families headed by female same-sex parents differ in civic competence from Dutch children reared by opposite-sex parents. The participants, drawn from a national sample, included 32 children (11-13 years old) parented by female same-sex couples who were matched on demographic characteristics…

  15. Children's Behavior Problems in the United States and Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcel, Toby L.; Campbell, Lori Ann; Zhong, Wenxuan

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effects of family capital on child behavior problems in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a longitudinal survey sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,864) with a similar sample of children from the 1991 National Child Development Study "British Child" (N =…

  16. An Investigation of School Violence through Turkish Children's Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtal, Filiz; Artut, Kazim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates Turkish children's perception of violence in school as represented through drawings and narratives. In all, 66 students (12 to 13 years old) from the middle socioeconomic class participated. To elicit children's perception of violence, they were asked to draw a picture of a violent incident they had heard, experienced, or…

  17. Children's Recognition of Unfamiliar Faces: Developments and Determinants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soppe, H. J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Eight- to 12-year-old primary school children and 13-year-old secondary school children were given a live and photographed face recognition task and several other figural tasks. While scores on most tasks increased with age, face recognition scores were affected by age, decreasing at age 12 (puberty onset). (Author/BB)

  18. Batter Up: Baseball for Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Dorothy K.; Fredericks, H. D. Bud

    1980-01-01

    The parents of a 13-year-old boy with moderate mental retardation (due to Down's syndrome) describe their experiences with their son's participation in Little League baseball. With much parental coaching and practice, he was able to play on a team with children one year younger and was accepted by players and coaches alike. (PHR)

  19. The Effects of Listener Training on the Emergence of Categorization and Speaker Behavior in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobari-Wright, Vissy V.; Miguel, Caio F.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of listener training on the emergence of categorization and speaker behavior (i.e., tacts) using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design. Four children with autism learned to select pictures given their dictated category names. We assessed whether they could match and tact pictures by category. After training, 3…

  20. Recognition and Sex Categorization of Adults' and Children's Faces: Examining Performance in the Absence of Sex-Stereotyped Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Heather A.; Barett, Susan E.; Spence, Melanie J.; O'Toole, Alice J.; Cheng, Yi D.; Brooke, Jessica

    2000-01-01

    Investigated 7-year-olds', 9-year-olds', and adults' ability to classify children's and adults' faces by sex using only biological based internal facial structure. Found that participants categorized adult faces by sex at accuracy levels varying from just above chance (7-year-olds) to nearly perfect (adults). All groups were less accurate for…

  1. MEASUREMENT OF CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: ANALYSIS OF URINARY METABOLITE LEVELS IN A PROBABILITY-BASED SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study is a probability-based sample of 102 children 3-13 years old who were monitored for commonly used pesticides. During the summer of 1997, first-morning-void urine samples (1-3 per child) were obtained for 88% of study children a...

  2. A Randomized Trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Children: Promoting Mindful Attention to Enhance Social-Emotional Resiliency in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Randye J.; Lee, Jennifer; Rosa, Dinelia; Miller, Lisa F.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for children (MBCT-C) is a manualized group psychotherapy for children ages 9-13 years old, which was developed specifically to increase social-emotional resiliency through the enhancement of mindful attention. Program development is described along with results of the initial randomized controlled trial. We…

  3. Reward and Punishment Sensitivity in Children with ADHD: Validating the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for Children (SPSRQ-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; van Meel, Catharina S.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2012-01-01

    This study validates the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for children (SPSRQ-C), using a Dutch sample of 1234 children between 6-13 years old. Factor analysis determined that a 4-factor and a 5-factor solution were best fitting, explaining 41% and 50% of the variance respectively. The 4-factor model was highly…

  4. Effectiveness of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment on the Social Behaviors of Children with Asperger Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Nida, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study presents preliminary data from an ongoing research project evaluating a summer treatment program for children with Asperger disorder (AD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program on the social behaviors of 6- to 13-year-old children with AD. Overall program…

  5. Emotion and Memory: Children's Long-Term Remembering, Forgetting, and Suggestibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quas, Jodi A.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Examined 3- to 13-year olds' memories for an experienced and a never-experienced medical procedure. Found that children 4 years or older at time of the procedure described it more accurately than did younger children. Longer delays between procedure and recall were related to providing fewer correct information units but not more inaccuracies.…

  6. Perceived Social Acceptance and Peer Intimacy among Children with Disabilities in Regular Schools in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendelborg, Christian; Kvello, Oyvind

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between educational arrangements, social participation during leisure time and perceived social acceptance and peer intimacy among disabled children. Methods: Eighty-five Norwegian children with disabilities, 11- to 13-year old, and their parents, participated in this study. An…

  7. Gender and Religious Tradition: The Role-Learning of British Hindu Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Eleanor

    1993-01-01

    Describes research among 8- through 13-year-old Hindu children of Punjabi and Gujarati origin in Coventry (England) between 1986 and 1989. Highlights areas of their experience in which their gender is decisive in relation to the role expectations enunciated by the children. Teachers must affirm the culture of their students. (JB)

  8. Parent-Assisted Friendship Training for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Psychotropic Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Fred; Myatt, Robert; Feinberg, David

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five 6 to 13-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders, who were high functioning, were given 12 weeks of parent-assisted children's friendship training. Thirteen were prescribed various psychotropic medications by physicians in the community prior to treatment (medicated) while 12 were not (unmedicated). Two parent-rated and three…

  9. Pupillary and Heart Rate Reactivity in Children with Minimal Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Theodore P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to replicate and extend previous findings on autonomic arousal and responsivity in children with minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), pupil size, heart rate, skin conductance, and skin temperature were recorded from 32 MBD and 45 control children (6-13 years old). (Author/CL)

  10. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  11. Families Finding the Balance: A Parent Handbook. We Can! Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    We Can! (Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition) is a new public education outreach program designed to help children 8-13 years old stay at a healthy weight through improving food choices, increasing physical activity, and reducing screen time. The program is a collaboration of four Institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH):…

  12. Number Magnitude Processing and Basic Cognitive Functions in Children with Mathematical Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ulf; Ostergren, Rickard

    2012-01-01

    The study sought out to extend our knowledge regarding the origin of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) in children by testing different hypotheses in the same samples of children. Different aspects of cognitive functions and number processing were assessed in fifth- and sixth-graders (11-13 years old) with MLD and compared to controls. The…

  13. Theory of Mind Training in Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; Gevers, Carolien; Clifford, Pamela; Verhoeve, Manja; Kat, Kirstin; Hoddenbach, Elske; Boer, Frits

    2011-01-01

    Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) participate in social skills or Theory of Mind (ToM) treatments. However, few studies have shown evidence for their effectiveness. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the effectiveness of a 16-week ToM treatment in 8-13 year old children with ASD and normal IQs (n = 40).…

  14. Prosodic Sensitivity and Morphological Awareness in Children's Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clin, Ellie; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Heggie, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among prosodic sensitivity, morphological awareness, and reading ability in a sample of 104 8- to 13-year-olds. Using a task adapted from Carlisle ("Applied Psycholinguistics," 9 (1988) 247-266), we measured children's ability to produce morphological derivations with differing levels of phonological…

  15. Parenting Style and Only Children's School Achievement in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qing; And Others

    This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…

  16. The Classroom Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed Hearing Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, T. Jordon; Trybus, Raymond J.

    The classroom behavior of 148 hearing impaired children (7-13 years old) was rated by their teachers on the School Behavior Check List. Behavioral descriptions were analyzed in terms of whether or not the student was reproted to have an emotional/behavioral problem or other educationally significant handicapping conditions, and the student's sex…

  17. Effects of Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and Cognitive Functioning on Social Acceptance and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtens, Sara; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Tillman, Carin M.; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of symptoms of ADHD and ODD and cognitive functioning on social acceptance and positive bias in children. Method: The sample consisted of 86 children (49 girls) between 7 and 13 years old, recruited to reflect a wide range of ADHD symptoms. Parents and teachers reported on ADHD and ODD symptoms and social…

  18. Helping the In-Group Feels Better: Children's Judgments and Emotion Attributions in Response to Prosocial Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Drika; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Five- to 13-year-old European American children ("N" = 76) predicted characters' decisions, emotions, and obligations in prosocial moral dilemmas. Across age, children judged that characters would feel more positive emotions helping an unfamiliar child from the racial in-group versus out-group (African American), happier ignoring the needs of a…

  19. Child categorization.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Susan A; Meyer, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Categorization is a process that spans all of development, beginning in earliest infancy yet changing as children's knowledge and cognitive skills develop. In this review article, we address three core issues regarding childhood categorization. First, we discuss the extent to which early categories are rooted in perceptual similarity versus knowledge-enriched theories. We argue for a composite perspective in which categories are steeped in commonsense theories from a young age but also are informed by low-level similarity and associative learning cues. Second, we examine the role of language in early categorization. We review evidence to suggest that language is a powerful means of expressing, communicating, shaping, and supporting category knowledge. Finally, we consider categories in context. We discuss sources of variability and flexibility in children's categories, as well as the ways in which children's categories are used within larger knowledge systems (e.g., to form analogies, make inferences, or construct theories). Categorization is a process that is intrinsically tied to nearly all aspects of cognition, and its study provides insight into cognitive development, broadly construed. PMID:23440312

  20. Children's life transition following sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hatlevig, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    The life transition of children 6 to 13 years old was studied for 1 to 3 years following sexual abuse. Data included transcripts from in-depth interviews about the children's daily living experiences and drawings were analyzed using the ADOPT analysis procedure. Implications for nursing include the use of drawings as a research technique and the effectiveness of strategies used by participants to manage the aftermath of the trauma.

  1. One- to Three-Year-Old Children's Experience of Subjective Wellbeing in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seland, Monica; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bratterud, Åse

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on which this paper is based was to explore in which situations and contexts Norwegian 1-3-year-olds experience subjective wellbeing in day care. The data in this study was collected through qualitative phenomenological observations of 18 children, and an inductive process of analysis was conducted. The results show that…

  2. Children's and Adults' Recall of Sex-Stereotyped Toy Pictures: Effects of Presentation and Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2005-01-01

    Gender schema theories predict a memory bias toward sex-congruent information. The present study examined how presentation of stimuli and encoding conditions influence gender schematic processing in children and adults. One hundred and sixty 5- to 13-year olds and adult males and females viewed 36 sex-stereotyped toy pictures that were presented…

  3. Dosing up on Food and Physical Activity: New Zealand Children's Ideas about "Health"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Lisette; Wright, Jan; McCormack, Jaleh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate New Zealand children's understandings of "health". Design: Secondary analysis of student responses to a task called "Being Healthy" in New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project. Setting: Year 4 (8-9 year-old) and Year 8 (12-13 year-old) students who took part in New Zealand's National Education Monitoring for…

  4. Strength of Default Mode Resting-State Connectivity Relates to White Matter Integrity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Evan M.; Lee, Philip S.; Maisog, Jose M.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Billington, Michael E.; VanMeter, John; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2011-01-01

    A default mode network of brain regions is known to demonstrate coordinated activity during the resting state. While the default mode network is well characterized in adults, few investigations have focused upon its development. We scanned 9-13-year-old children with diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.…

  5. Paradoxical Effects of Warning in the Production of Children's False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Prete, Francesco; Mirandola, Chiara; Konishi, Mahiko; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The effects of warning on false recognition and associated subjective experience of false recollection and familiarity were investigated in 7-to 13-year-old children and young adults (N = 259) using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two warning conditions (warning with an example of a critical lure and warning without an example of a…

  6. Peer Social Skills and Theory of Mind in Children with Autism, Deafness, or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in…

  7. Sma Barn Pa Daghem: En studie av personalens samspel med barn och foraldrar vid lamning, hamtning och fri lek (Infants at Day Care: A Study of Staff Interaction with Children and Their Parents during Leaving, Collecting and Free Play).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lothigius, Anita Holmstedt

    This thesis presents a picture of how staff interact with infants (age group 1-3 years old) and parents at three day care centers. The study focused on the situations of leaving and collecting the children and the children's time of free play both in and outdoors. The theoretical content has an attachment/psycho-dynamical perspective with emphasis…

  8. Weaving Colors into a White Landscape: Unpacking the Silences in Karen Hesse's Children's Novel "Out of the Dust"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The children's novel "Out of the Dust" (Hesse, 1997) is an evocative portrayal of the drought and dust storms that devastated Midwestern farms in the 1930s. Through the voice of her 13-year-old narrator, Karen Hesse intertwines history and free verse poetry to create what many readers find to be a moving depiction of the Oklahoma Dustbowl…

  9. Top-down control of MEG alpha-band activity in children performing Categorical N-Back Task.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Kristina T; Ahlfors, Seppo P; Bedrick, Edward J; Kerwin, Audra A; Hämäläinen, Matti S

    2010-10-01

    Top-down cognitive control has been associated in adults with the prefrontal-parietal network. In children the brain mechanisms of top-down control have rarely been studied. We examined developmental differences in top-down cognitive control by monitoring event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) of alpha-band oscillatory activity (8-13 Hz) during anticipation, target detection and post-response stages of a visual working memory task. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to record brain oscillatory activity from healthy 10-year-old children and young adults performing the Categorical N-Back Task (CNBT). Neuropsychological measures assessing frontal lobe networks were also acquired. Whereas adults showed a modulation of the ERD at the anticipatory stages of CNBT and ERS at the post-response stage, children displayed only some anticipatory modulation of ERD but no ERS at the post-response stage, with alpha-band remaining at a desynchronized state. Since neuropsychological and prior neuroimaging findings indicate that the prefrontal-parietal networks are not fully developed in 10-year olds, and since the children performed as well as the adults on CNBT and yet displayed different patterns of ERD/ERS, we suggest that children may be using different top-down cognitive strategies and, hence, different, developmentally apt neuronal networks. PMID:20713071

  10. Schools for Children: Multiple Perspectives on Meeting the Needs of the Elementary School Child. An Account of the Annual Conference (1st, New York, NY, January 24, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, Kathe, Ed.

    The conference described in this report was designed to explore fundamentally important aspects of educating 3- through 13-year-old children in a variety of school settings. A total of 250 participants, representing 17 states, attended. This volume provides the text of a conference paper by Melvin D. Levine, M.D., entitled "The Challenge of…

  11. Preschool children's attention to environmental messages about groups: social categorization and the origins of intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Meagan M; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of adults' labeling and use of social groups on preschool children's intergroup attitudes. Children (N=87, aged 3-5) attending day care were given measures of classification skill and self-esteem and assigned to membership in a novel ("red" or "blue") social group. In experimental classrooms, teachers used the color groups to label children and organize the classroom. In control classrooms, teachers ignored the color groups. After 3 weeks, children completed multiple measures of intergroup attitudes. Results indicated that children in both types of classrooms developed ingroup-biased attitudes. As expected, children in experimental classrooms showed greater ingroup bias on some measures than children in control classrooms.

  12. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an…

  13. Preschool Children's Attention to Environmental Messages about Groups: Social Categorization and the Origins of Intergroup Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of adults' labeling and use of social groups on preschool children's intergroup attitudes. Children (N=87, aged 3-5) attending day care were given measures of classification skill and self-esteem and assigned to membership in a novel ("red" or "blue") social group. In experimental classrooms, teachers…

  14. Categorical Perception of Speech Stimuli in Children at Risk for Reading Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breier, Joshua I.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Denton, Carolyn; Gray, Lincoln C.

    2004-01-01

    Children determined to be at risk (n=24) or not at risk (n=13) for reading difficulty listened to tokens from a voice onset time (VOT) (/ga/-/ka/) or tone series played in a continuous unbroken rhythm. Changes between tokens occurred at random intervals and children were asked to press a button as soon as they detected a change. For the VOT…

  15. Impact of Experiments on 13-Year-Old Pupils' Understanding of Selected Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbancic, Matej; Glazar, Sasa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish what impact experimental work has on the understanding of scientific concepts, what pupils remember about the experiments they carried out and how they are able to formulate and understand the experiment plan. A sample of 386 pupils aged 13+ participated in the research, of which 162 in the experimental…

  16. A Rare Case of Ibuprofen-Induced Eosinophilic Meningitis in a 13-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sharad; Gupta, Mukesh; Sharma, Deepak; Bansal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is based on clinical manifestations and microscopic identification of eosinophils present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is caused by a variety of helminthic infections with most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Many case reports are there in which parasites have been found responsible, but there are rare reports of CSF eosinophilia associated with the use of drugs. We report a case of drug-induced (ibuprofen) eosinophilic meningitis in a healthy female who presented to us with severe headache and improved dramatically after drug withdrawal. PMID:24596473

  17. Neuroretinitis Caused by Bartonella henselae (Cat-Scratch Disease) in a 13-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Yoldi-Petri, Maria Eugenia; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Lavilla-Oiz, Ana; Bove-Guri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease-related neuroretinitis is a relatively unusual pathology, with suspicious clinical epidemiological and serological diagnosis. We present a case of an adolescent suffering from unilateral neuroretinitis associated with Bartonella henselae infection characterized by abrupt loss of vision, optic disc swelling, and macular star exudates with optimal response to antibiotic treatment. PMID:20628521

  18. A multi-disciplinary curriculum for 11- to 13-year-olds: immunization, plus!

    PubMed

    Glik, D C; Stone, K M; McNeil, J D; Berkanovic, E; Jones, M C; Richardes, D A; Mirocha, J M

    1997-09-01

    A sixth grade curriculum entitled "Immunization, Plus!" Was developed to promote adolescent immunization. This targeted immunization curriculum utilized contemporary learning theory and innovative teaching approaches and styles to maximize acceptability among educators. Because instructional time in school was limited, a thematic curriculum was created to embed immunization and communicable disease content within mathematics, science/health, and language arts units. The curriculum, which reflected the theory of multiple intelligences among students, offered an array of different learning formats, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, and bodily-kinesthetic. The curriculum was made available free of charge to school districts in California, and its evaluation was planned to track distribution, utilization, and changes in students' knowledge, attitude, and behavior.

  19. The Rights of the Child Set: Topic Books for 8-13 Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, London (England).

    This set of guides introduces teachers and students to the "UN Convention on the Rights of the Child." The set features a teacher's handbook and project books on participation, provision, and protection. Topic webs from these three books are used to illustrate the teaching of these materials. "Teachers' Handbook: Teaching the UN Convention on the…

  20. An Arctic Child. An Active Learning Pack for 8-13 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Sue; Roberts, Maggy

    This resource packet includes: a teacher's guide; reproducible student worksheets; student activity cards; a simulation game; and a picture book, "The Gifts of 'Kaila.'" The materials are organized in three parts. Part one aims to help students understand something of the beauty and magnificence of the Arctic. Introductory activities include art…

  1. Evaluating a Concept Mapping Training Programme by 10 and 13 Year-Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habók, Anita

    2012-01-01

    The PISA 2000 study found large differences between countries in terms of quality of learning. In some countries, students prefer rote learning to meaningful learning. However, such memorisation of the material does not lead to recallable and usable knowledge in the long run. Ausubel's (1968) well-known theory serves as a basis for several…

  2. A Mountain Child: An Active Learning Pack for 9-13 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Sue; Jenkins, Alyson

    This resource packet includes a teacher's guide, reproducible student activity sheets, a simulation game: "Life with the Incas", and a poster. The resource presents a cross-curricular thematic approach to the United Kingdom's National Curriculum. The materials look at the Andes and the Andean people, the Quechuan, who live in the Peruvian…

  3. A Rainforest Child. An Active Learning Pack for 8-13 Year Olds [Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Sue; Roberts, Maggy

    This resource packet includes a teacher's guide, reproducible student worksheets, posters, activity cards, and a music audiotape: "Song of the Forest," with a booklet of lyrics. The teacher's guide suggests interdisciplinary activities which meet the United Kingdom's National Curriculum requirements and encourage active learning as students…

  4. Development of the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire for caregivers of 5-13 year olds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the "Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire" (CGPQ) was systematically dev...

  5. A multi-disciplinary curriculum for 11- to 13-year-olds: immunization, plus!

    PubMed

    Glik, D C; Stone, K M; McNeil, J D; Berkanovic, E; Jones, M C; Richardes, D A; Mirocha, J M

    1997-09-01

    A sixth grade curriculum entitled "Immunization, Plus!" Was developed to promote adolescent immunization. This targeted immunization curriculum utilized contemporary learning theory and innovative teaching approaches and styles to maximize acceptability among educators. Because instructional time in school was limited, a thematic curriculum was created to embed immunization and communicable disease content within mathematics, science/health, and language arts units. The curriculum, which reflected the theory of multiple intelligences among students, offered an array of different learning formats, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, and bodily-kinesthetic. The curriculum was made available free of charge to school districts in California, and its evaluation was planned to track distribution, utilization, and changes in students' knowledge, attitude, and behavior. PMID:9358377

  6. Osteoid osteoma mimicking Brodie's abscess in a 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Schlur, Charles; Bachy, Manon; Wajfisz, Anthony; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Josset, Patrice; Vialle, Raphaël

    2013-04-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a solitary, benign lesion of bone causing significant nocturnal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and bone scan are commonly used in this diagnosis. A case of osteoid osteoma of the distal femur mimicking chronic osteomyelitis with Brodie's abscess is reported and discussed. Initial radiographs and MRI showed a lesion of the distal femur consistent with subacute osteomyelitis with a Brodie's abscess. Because primary malignant tumor could not be eliminated, surgical biopsy was carried out. Histological examination showed a typical nidus consistent with the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Subacute osteomyelitis (Brodie's abscess) may be difficult to distinguish from other malignant or benign bone lesions as osteoid osteoma. CT usually is recommended as the best imaging procedure to identify the nidus and confirm the diagnosis. MRI also can be used for this purpose. Surgical biopsy remains mandatory for unclear lesions before deciding on appropriate treatment.

  7. Active Travel to School: Views of 10-13 Year Old Schoolchildren in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Inchley, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the views of Scottish schoolchildren on active travel to school and their ideas about promotion strategies for school-based interventions. Design/methodology/approach: Focus group discussions were conducted with 66 students from four primary and three secondary schools. Findings: The most common…

  8. Naming And Categorization In Young Children: III. Vocal Tact Training And Transfer Of Function

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, C. Fergus; Horne, Pauline J; Hughes, J. Carl

    2005-01-01

    Following pretraining with everyday objects, 10 children aged from 1 to 4 years were given common vocal tact training with a set of three pairs of arbitrary stimuli of differing shapes; Set 1. Nine children learned to tact one stimulus as “zog” and the other as “vek” in each pair, and all passed subsequent pairwise tests for the corresponding listener behavior to each listener stimulus (i.e., /zog/ and /vek/, respectively). The children were next trained to clap to one stimulus of Pair 1 and wave to the other, and all then showed name-consistent transfer of these behaviors to the stimuli of Pair 2 and Pair 3. Seven children also were given a test of listener responding to experimenter-modeled clap and wave gestures, respectively, which they all passed. Four of the children next participated in a category match-to-sample test for the Set 1 stimuli; all 4 passed. For each pair of two additional six-stimuli sets, Set 2 and Set 3, 3 children were trained to wave to one stimulus and to clap to the other. For each set, all 3 children showed perfect transfer of the vocal tacts trained to Set 1, and of listener behavior both to the auditory stimuli /zog/ and /vek/ and to experimenter-modeled clap and wave gestures. They also sorted the stimuli perfectly in category match-to-sample tests for Set 2, Sets 1 and 2 combined, Set 3, and Sets 1, 2, and 3 combined. The results show that even in very young children, naming is a powerful means of generating new category relations among as many as 18 arbitrary stimuli. PMID:15762380

  9. The relation between categorical perception of speech stimuli and reading skills in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breier, Joshua; Fletcher, Jack; Klaas, Patricia; Gray, Lincoln

    2005-09-01

    Children ages 7 to 14 years listened to seven tokens, /ga/ to /ka/ synthesized in equal steps from 0 to 60 ms along the voice onset time (VOT) continuum, played in continuous rhythm. All possible changes (21) between the seven tokens were presented seven times at random intervals, maintaining the rhythm. Children were asked to press a button as soon as they detected a change. Maps of the seven tokens, constructed from multidimensional scaling of reaction times, indicated two salient dimensions: one phonological and the other acoustic/phonetic. Better reading, spelling, and phonological processing skills were associated with greater relative weighting of the phonological as compared to the acoustic dimension, suggesting that children with reading difficulty and associated deficits may underweight the phonological and/or overweight the acoustic information in speech signals. This task required no training and only momentary memory of the tokens. That an analysis of a simple task coincides with more complex reading tests suggests a low-level deficit (or shift in listening strategy). Compared to control children, children with reading disabilities may pay more attention to subtle details in these signals and less attention to the global pattern or attribute. [Supported by NIH Grant 1 RO1 HD35938 to JIB.

  10. Simplicity and Generalization: Short-Cutting Abstraction in Children's Object Categorizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Ji Y.; Smith, Linda B.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Development in any domain is often characterized by increasingly abstract representations. Recent evidence in the domain of shape recognition provides one example; between 18 and 24 months children appear to build increasingly abstract representations of object shape [Smith, L. B. (2003). Learning to recognize objects. "Psychological Science," 14,…

  11. Categorical Effects in Children's Colour Search: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoutis, Christine A.; Franklin, Anna; Riddett, Amy; Clifford, Alexandra; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2006-01-01

    In adults, visual search for a colour target is facilitated if the target and distractors fall in different colour categories (e.g. Daoutis, Pilling, & Davies, in press). The present study explored category effects in children's colour search. The relationship between linguistic colour categories and perceptual categories was addressed by…

  12. Self-insight in probabilistic categorization - not implicit in children either.

    PubMed

    Kemény, Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    The weather prediction (WP) task is a probabilistic category learning task that was designed to be implicit/procedural. In line with this claim, early results showed that patients with amnesia perform comparably to healthy participants. On the other hand, later research on healthy adult participants drew attention to the fact that the WP task is not necessarily implicit. There have been results showing that participants can access structural information acquired during the task. Participants also report that their responses are based on memories and rule knowledge. The contradictory results may be reconciled by assuming that while explicit learning occurs on the WP task in case of adults, in children the learning process is implicit. The present study aims at testing this hypothesis. Primary school children completed the WP task; the experimental group performed the original task, whereas in the control group cues and outcomes were associated on a random basis, hence their version of the WP task lacked a predictive structure. After each item, participants were asked whether they relied on guessing, intuition, "I think I know the answer" type of knowledge, memories of previous items, or knowledge of rules. Self-insight reports of the experimental group were compared to a control group. Results showed that children learn similarly to adults: they mostly (but not completely) rely on explicit, and not on implicit processes.

  13. Children's exposure to intimate partner violence: relations between parent-child concordance and children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, Anne; Ogle, Richard L; Clements, Caroline M

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the extent to which seventy-five 5- to 13-year-old children and their mothers agreed about whether children had been exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) and the association between parent-child agreement and children's psychological adjustment. One type of disagreement (i.e., parents failed to report IPV exposure that children reported) was associated with children's perceptions of less positive family relationships. Parents of these children, however, reported fewer child adjustment problems than did parents who agreed with their children about children's IPV exposure. The findings suggest the importance of obtaining children's reports of their own exposure to IPV in addition to parental reports. Moreover, parent-child concordance with respect to children's IPV exposure may be an important variable to examine in understanding variations in children's adjustment.

  14. Use of text message abbreviations and literacy skills in children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Veater, Helen M; Plester, Beverly; Wood, Clare

    2011-02-01

    This small-scale study compared 10 to 13-year-old dyslexic children's use of text message abbreviations with that of reading age- and chronological age-matched controls. There were no significant differences in the proportion of textisms used between the dyslexic children and the two control groups, although a preference for non-phonetic text abbreviations was observed in the dyslexic group. Unlike the controls, there was little evidence of an association between phonological awareness and textism use in children with dyslexia. These results are discussed in relation to strategy use by dyslexic children when decoding text.

  15. Olfactory Categorization: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentin, Dominique; Chanquoy, Lucile

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the ability of children to classify fruit and flower odors. We asked four groups of children (4-11 years of age) and a group of adults to identify, categorize, and evaluate the edibility, liking, and typicality of 12 fruit and flower odors. Results showed an increase in interindividual agreement with age for the taxonomic…

  16. Haptic Identification of Raised-Line Drawings When Categorical Information Is Given: A Comparison between Visually Impaired and Sighted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Delphine; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Mazella, Anaïs

    2014-01-01

    Research into haptic picture perception has mostly concerned adult participants, and little is known about haptic picture perception in visually impaired and sighted children. In the present study, we compared 13 visually impaired children (early blind and low vision) aged 9-10 years and 13 agematched blindfolded sighted children on their ability…

  17. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C)-A New Measure of Children's Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7-10 years). PMID:27252661

  18. Looking for Conceptual Frameworks in History: The Accounts of Portuguese 12-13 Year-Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barca, Isabel; Castro, Julia; Amaral, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    A great deal of research in history education has focused on students' ideas about the concepts and methodology of the discipline, which is seen as central to consistent development in historical thinking. Recently, studies of adolescents' conceptual frameworks have highlighted some concerns about the coherence and substance of pictures of the…

  19. 13-year-old girl with recurrent, episodic, persistent vomiting: out of the pot and into the fire.

    PubMed

    Felton, Diana; Zitomersky, Naamah; Manzi, Shannon; Lightdale, Jenifer R

    2015-04-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a well-established cause of recurrent vomiting in the pediatric population. Severe vomiting with chronic cannabis use, known as cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, has recently been more widely recognized as an etiology of persistent episodic vomiting. In turn, patients presenting with frequent episodes of CVS are now increasingly being screened for cannabinoid use. Because patients with persistent vomiting are also frequently prescribed a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for their gastrointestinal symptoms, it is important to be aware of the potential for a PPI to cause an interaction that can lead to false-positive urine cannabinoid screening. We describe a case of a false-positive urine cannabinoid screen in a patient with CVS who received a dose of intravenous pantoprazole. The primary reference regarding drug screen interference from PPIs can be found in the pantoprazole package insert that refers to pre-Food and Drug Administration approval data. Although multiple sources on the Internet report the possibility of positive cannabinoid screens from pantoprazole, there are no known published reports of the phenomenon in the medical literature. PMID:25733759

  20. 13-year-old girl with recurrent, episodic, persistent vomiting: out of the pot and into the fire.

    PubMed

    Felton, Diana; Zitomersky, Naamah; Manzi, Shannon; Lightdale, Jenifer R

    2015-04-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a well-established cause of recurrent vomiting in the pediatric population. Severe vomiting with chronic cannabis use, known as cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, has recently been more widely recognized as an etiology of persistent episodic vomiting. In turn, patients presenting with frequent episodes of CVS are now increasingly being screened for cannabinoid use. Because patients with persistent vomiting are also frequently prescribed a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for their gastrointestinal symptoms, it is important to be aware of the potential for a PPI to cause an interaction that can lead to false-positive urine cannabinoid screening. We describe a case of a false-positive urine cannabinoid screen in a patient with CVS who received a dose of intravenous pantoprazole. The primary reference regarding drug screen interference from PPIs can be found in the pantoprazole package insert that refers to pre-Food and Drug Administration approval data. Although multiple sources on the Internet report the possibility of positive cannabinoid screens from pantoprazole, there are no known published reports of the phenomenon in the medical literature.

  1. Tropical Rainforests: A Case Study of UK, 13-Year-Olds' Knowledge and Understanding of These Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rainforests are biologically rich ecosystems, which are threatened by a variety of different human activities. This study focuses on students' knowledge and understanding of rainforest locations, their reasons for protecting these environments and their familiarity with selected concepts about rainforest vegetation and soil. These…

  2. Sensitivity to Secondhand Smoke Exposure Predicts Smoking Susceptibility in 8 to 13 Year-Old Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Wahlgren, Dennis R.; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A.; Ji, Ming; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Swan, Gary E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the sensitivity to secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) in preteens age 8 to 13 who have never smoked, and to determine whether SHSe sensitivity predicts smoking susceptibility. Methods We assessed sensitivity to SHSe using reactions commonly used for assessment of sensitivity to the first smoked cigarette (e.g., feeling dizzy), and investigated the factor structure of these reactions for the purpose of data reduction. We examined the association of each reaction measure and summary score with demographic characteristics and with smoking susceptibility, using logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression. Results One factor was identified that captured physical/unpleasant reactions. Older preteens and preteens with more highly educated parents reported fewer reactions to SHSe. More African American preteens reported feeling relaxed or calm compared to all other racial/ethnic groups. Experiencing physical/unpleasant reactions to SHSe predicted lower risk for smoking susceptibility. Conclusions This was the first study to extend analytical methodology for sensitivity to active smoking to sensitivity to SHSe in youth who have never smoked. Results suggest a desensitization process with age and lower sensitivity to some reactions in preteens from more highly educated households. Preteens who have more aversive experience s with SHSe tend to be less susceptible to smoking than those who experience fewer aversive reactions. Assessment of sensitivity to SHSe is a novel approach to the study of cigarette use etiology and may contribute to better prediction of smoking initiation. PMID:21338893

  3. Parent-Child Agreement Using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and a Thermometer in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    May, T; Cornish, K; Rinehart, N J

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience high anxiety which often prompts clinical referral and requires intervention. This study aimed to compare parent and child reports on the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and a child-reported "worry thermometer" in 88 children aged 8-13 years, 44 with ASD and 44 age, gender, and perceptual IQ matched typically developing children. There were no gender differences in child report on the SCAS and worry thermometers. Results indicated generally good correlations between parent and child self-reported SCAS symptoms for typically developing children but poor agreement in parent-child ASD dyads. The worry thermometer child-report did not reflect child or parent reports on the SCAS. Findings suggest 8-13-year-old children with ASD may have difficulties accurately reporting their anxiety levels. The clinical implications were discussed.

  4. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C)—A New Measure of Children's Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7–10 years). PMID:27252661

  5. Top-Down Control of MEG Alpha-Band Activity in Children Performing Categorical N-Back Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciesielski, Kristina T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Bedrick, Edward J.; Kerwin, Audra A.; Hamalainen, Matti S.

    2010-01-01

    Top-down cognitive control has been associated in adults with the prefrontal-parietal network. In children the brain mechanisms of top-down control have rarely been studied. We examined developmental differences in top-down cognitive control by monitoring event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) of alpha-band…

  6. An Analysis of Categorical Definitions, Diagnostic Methods, Diagnostic Criteria and Personnel Utilization in the Classification of Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Diane; And Others

    The project report provides information relevant to the status, function, and effect of currently used definitions of handicapped children and the diagnostic methods used. An initial section serves as both an introduction to and summary of the process used during the project, and includes project conclusions. Section II contains analyses of…

  7. The Development of Causal Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Brett K.; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of causal relations between features on categorization in 5- to 6-year-old children and adults. Participants learned artificial categories containing instances with causally related features and noncausal features. They then selected the most likely category member from a series of novel test pairs.…

  8. Comparison of a Web-based versus traditional diet recall among children.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Islam, Noemi; Baranowski, Janice; Martin, Shelby; Beltran, Alicia; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Adame, Su-heyla; Watson, Kathleen B; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen W; Subar, Amy F

    2012-04-01

    Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use in adult and pediatric populations. This study tested whether 8- to 13-year-old children could complete an early version of the Automated Self Administered 24-hour diet recall (ASA24) and how this compared to an interviewer-administered 24-hour diet recall. One-hundred twenty 8- to 13-year-old children were recruited in Houston from June through August 2009 and randomly assigned to complete either the ASA24 or an interviewer-administered 24-hour diet recall, followed by the other recall mode covering the same time interval. Multivariate analysis of variance, testing for differences by age, sex, and ethnic/racial group, were applied to percentages of food matches, intrusions, and omissions between reports on the ASA24 and the interviewer-administered 24-hour diet recall. For the ASA24, qualitative findings were reported regarding ease of use. Overall matches between interviewer-administered and ASA24 self-administered 24-hour diet recall was 47.8%. Matches were significantly lower among younger (8- to 9-year-old) compared with older (10- to 13-year-old) children. Omissions on ASA24 (18.9% overall) were most common among 8-year-olds and intermediate among 9-year-olds. Eight- and 9-year-olds had substantial difficulties and often required aid in completing ASA24. Findings from this study suggest that a simpler version of an Internet-based diet recall program would be easier for children to use. PMID:22717216

  9. EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL STUDY OF ATTENTION REGULATION DURING ILLUSORY FIGURE CATEGORIZATION TASK IN ADHD, AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER, AND TYPICAL CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Sokhadze, Estate M.; Baruth, Joshua M.; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Guela E.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Williams, Emily; Klapheke, Robert; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are very common developmental disorders which share some similar symptoms of social, emotional, and attentional deficits. This study is aimed to help understand the differences and similarities of these deficits using analysis of dense-array event-related potentials (ERP) during an illusory figure recognition task. Although ADHD and ASD seem very distinct, they have been shown to share some similarities in their symptoms. Our hypothesis was that children with ASD will show less pronounced differences in ERP responses to target and non-target stimuli as compared to typical children, and to a lesser extent, ADHD. Participants were children with ASD (N=16), ADHD (N=16), and controls (N=16). EEG was collected using a 128 channel EEG system. The task involved the recognition of a specific illusory shape, in this case a square or triangle, created by three or four inducer disks. There were no between group differences in reaction time (RT) to target stimuli, but both ASD and ADHD committed more errors, specifically the ASD group had statistically higher commission error rate than controls. Post-error RT in ASD group was exhibited in a post-error speeding rather than corrective RT slowing typical for the controls. The ASD group also demonstrated an attenuated error-related negativity (ERN) as compared to ADHD and controls. The fronto-central P200, N200, and P300 were enhanced and less differentiated in response to target and non-target figures in the ASD group. The same ERP components were marked by more prolonged latencies in the ADHD group as compared to both ASD and typical controls. The findings are interpreted according to the “minicolumnar” hypothesis proposing existence of neuropathological differences in ASD and ADHD, specifically minicolumnar number/width morphometry spectrum differences. In autism, a model of local hyperconnectivity and long-range hypoconnectivity explains

  10. Media exposure predicts children's reactions to crime and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined reactions to 3 news events (September 11 terrorist attacks, Summer 2002 kidnappings, and Fall 2002 sniper shootings) in a national, representative sample of children aged 2 to 17. Media exposure was related to increased worry and changes in activities, with September 11 creating the most concern and shootings the least. More signs of stress were apparent among 10- to 13-year-olds, minority children and those of low socioeconomic status, children with prior adversities, and children who lived in close geographical proximity. Girls aged 10 to 17 had more reaction to the kidnappings, suggesting that other features of target similarity may heighten a sense of risk. The results support moderating exposure for both younger and older youth.

  11. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Felicity; Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J C G; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A; Gibb, Diana M; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014-2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus-positive children 2 days-12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  12. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  13. Categorical perception.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Hendrickson, Andrew T

    2010-01-01

    Categorical perception (CP) is the phenomenon by which the categories possessed by an observer influences the observers' perception. Experimentally, CP is revealed when an observer's ability to make perceptual discriminations between things is better when those things belong to different categories rather than the same category, controlling for the physical difference between the things. We consider several core questions related to CP: Is it caused by innate and/or learned categories, how early in the information processing stream do categories influence perception, and what is the relation between ongoing linguistic processing and CP? CP for both speech and visual entities are surveyed, as are computational and mathematical models of CP. CP is an important phenomenon in cognitive science because it represents an essential adaptation of perception to support categorizations that an organism needs to make. Sensory signals that could be linearly related to physical qualities are warped in a nonlinear manner, transforming analog inputs into quasi-digital, quasi-symbolic encodings. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272840

  14. The prevalence of asthma in children of elementary school age in western New York.

    PubMed

    Lwebuga-Mukasa, J S; Dunn-Georgiou, E

    2000-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of caregiver-reported asthma in children 4 to 13 years old in metropolitan western New York State, surveys were conducted during 1997-1999 in the Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Iroquois, and Gowanda school systems. Questionnaires (3,889) were sent to the homes of elementary school children in nine schools in western New York. The caregivers were asked to complete a 13-item questionnaire for the child. Of the questionnaires, 60.5% (2,353/3,889) were completed. Of all children, 18% had physician-diagnosed asthma. Of children diagnosed with asthma, 86% were taking medication. Symptoms were consistent with suspected undiagnosed asthma for 13% of the children. Buffalo had the highest rate of diagnosed asthma (20%) for the age group. Gowanda had a prevalence of 18%, Iroquois 16%, and Niagara Falls 15%. Variations were observed in asthma prevalence rates among different racial/ethnic groups. In general, boys had a significantly (P = .001) increased odds of being asthmatic compared with girls. Overall, African-Americans and Hispanic/Latino children had significantly (P = .012 and P = .005, respectively) higher asthma prevalence rates, two to five times those of their Caucasian peers. In Gowanda, the prevalence of diagnosed asthma among Native American children was 23%, compared to 15% among Caucasian children. Of diagnosed Native American children, 71% were female. In Gowanda, a significant association (P = .007) of asthma among children in split-grade classes was observed compared to nonsplit grades. Of Native American children in split grades, 60% were diagnosed asthmatics. These observations reveal a high prevalence of asthma in the age group of 4 to 13 year olds in western New York. Local variations in potential triggers of asthma need to be considered when advising asthmatics. The results suggest that some grades have a disproportionate amount of children with asthma. The implications of asthma for children's early education need to be examined

  15. Children of Addicted Women

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review follow up studies of children with prenatal drug exposure from preschool through adolescence. Specifically, the authors focus on the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine, methamphetamine, and opiates on behavior and development. The largest number of studies have examined cocaine-exposed children. The authors identified 42 studies that suggest that there are unique effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on 4- to 13-year-old children, particularly in the areas of behavior problems, attention, language, and cognition. In addition, studies make reasonable attempts to control for possible confounding factors. Systematic research on the long-term effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure is just beginning but seems to be showing similar effects to that of cocaine. The literature on the on the long-term effects of children with prenatal opiate exposure is more substantial than the methamphetamine literature but it is still relatively sparse and surprising in that there is little recent work. Thus, there are no studies on the current concerns with opiates used for prescription mediation. There is a growing literature using neuroimaging techniques to study the effects of prenatal drug exposure that holds promise for understanding brain/behavior relationships. In addition to pharmacological and teratogenic effects, drugs can also be viewed from a prenatal stressor model. The author discuss this “fetal origins” approach that involves fetal programming and the neuroendocrine system and the potential implications for adolescent brain and behavioral development. PMID:20407981

  16. Categorically Not!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, K. C.

    2011-04-01

    The artist Bob Miller liked to say that the worst disease afflicting humankind is ``hardening of the categories'' - the tendency to cram subjects into boxes labeled ``science,'' ``art,'' ``politics,'' ``economics,'' ``play'' - labels that are as outdated and meaningless as divisions between the colors on a continuous spectrum. Over the past 10 years, KC Cole has been organizing free form events that tear down these artificial barriers, and with intriguing results: actors gain insights into character from a topologist; a choreographer solves engineering problems through her knowledge of motion; neuroscientists learn about intuition from filmmakers and string theorists. Categorically Not! - as the series is called - is not (merely) an attempt to ``popularize'' science by looking at it through unlikely lenses, but a real exploration into the deep connections that both illuminate and energize all fields of study. It is a ``people's'' salon, free and open to the general public. Cole will talk about how she overcomes ``hardening of the categories'' not just through events, but also in her popular magazine and newspaper articles, books, radio commentaries, and teaching at USC's Annenberg School of Communication and Journalism.

  17. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4-13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9-13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4-8 years old (92%-98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life. PMID:27618092

  18. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4–13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9–13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4–8 years old (92%–98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life. PMID:27618092

  19. Using Log Linear Analysis for Categorical Family Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Phyllis

    The Goodman technique of log linear analysis is ideal for family research, because it is designed for categorical (non-quantitative) variables. Variables are dichotomized (for example, married/divorced, childless/with children) or otherwise categorized (for example, level of permissiveness, life cycle stage). Contingency tables are then…

  20. THE DYNAMICS OF CATEGORIZATION: UNRAVELING RAPID CATEGORIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    We explore a puzzle of visual object categorization: Under normal viewing conditions, you spot something as a dog fastest, but at a glance, you spot it faster as an animal. During speeded category verification, a classic basic-level advantage is commonly observed (Rosch, Mervis, Gray, Johnson, & Boyes-Braem, 1976), with categorization as a dog faster than as an animal (superordinate) or Golden Retriever (subordinate). A different story emerges during ultra-rapid categorization with limited exposure duration (<30ms), with superordinate categorization faster than basic or subordinate categorization (Thorpe, Fize, & Marlot, 1996). These two widely cited findings paint contrary theoretical pictures about the time course of object categorization, yet no study has previously investigated them together. Over five experiments, we systematically examined two experimental factors that could explain the qualitative difference in categorization across the two paradigms: exposure duration and category trial context. Mapping out the time course of object categorization by manipulating exposure duration and the timing of a post-stimulus mask revealed that brief exposure durations favor superordinate-level categorization, but with more time a basic-level advantage emerges. But this superordinate advantage was modulated significantly by target category trial context. With randomized target categories, the superordinate advantage was eliminated; and with “blocks” of only four repetitions of superordinate categorization within an otherwise randomized context, the advantage for the basic-level was eliminated. Contrary to some theoretical accounts that dictate a fixed priority for certain levels of abstraction in visual processing and access to semantic knowledge, the dynamics of object categorization are flexible, depending jointly on the level of abstraction, time for perceptual encoding, and category context. PMID:25938178

  1. X-Ray Fluorescence to Determine Zn in Bolivian Children using Hair Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellería Narvaez, C. A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F. G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A. O.; Romero Bolaños, L. E.; Ramírez Ávila, G. M.

    2014-06-01

    As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8-13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.

  2. X-Ray Fluorescence to Determine Zn in Bolivian Children using Hair Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Tellería Narvaez, C.A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F.G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A.O.; Romero Bolaños, L.E.; Ramírez Ávila, G.M.

    2014-06-15

    As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8–13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.

  3. [Chikungunya in children].

    PubMed

    Mac Donald-Ottevanger, M Sigrid; Gravenberch-Ramnandanlall, Charleen I; Zijlmans, C W R Wilco

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya is a rapidly spreading infectious disease throughout the Caribbean, reaching epidemic proportions in Suriname, with more than 1200 registered cases in 2014. Similar to dengue, classic symptoms are high fever, rash and arthralgia. However, the presentation differs in adults and children. At the Academic Hospital Paramaribo in Suriname, three children had different presentations of chikungunya. An 11-year-old girl was referred to the paediatric centre with acute-onset fever of 40.5ºC, painful knees and a rash on face and arms. Koplik spots were visible on the inside of her mouth. A 13-year-old boy attended the ER with acute-onset fever and a state of reduced consciousness. Physical examination revealed hypotension, tachycardia and fever. No rash was observed. A 2.5-month-old baby with fever, vomiting, diarrhoea and a rash was brought to the ER. She was agitated and had signs of meningism. The symptoms resolved quickly in all patients after rehydration and pain medication.

  4. Evaluation of Serum Lead Levels in Children with Constipation and Normal Controls in Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maleknejad, Shohreh; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Rahbar, Morteza; Safaei, Afshin; Ghomashpasand, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Objective Constipation is a major debilitating problem in children. We aimed to assess the serum lead levels of 2-13 year-old children complaining from constipation who referred to our center in Guilan province, Northern Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was done on ninety 2-13 year-old children referring to 17th Shahrivar Hospital, complaining from constipation (case group) and 90 healthy children The demographic data as well as the children's serum lead levels were evaluated and recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Chi-square test was used as applicable. Findings Lead poisoning was significantly more frequent in the case group (37.8%) compared with the control group (8.9%). The frequency of lead poisoning in the case group compared with the control group, was significantly higher in children <7 years old (40.2% vs. 10%), boys (40.9% vs. 9.3%), girls (34.8% vs 8.3%), residents of old houses (43.1% vs. 9.7%), residents of new houses (28.1% vs. 8.5%), residents of low-traffic areas (26.8% vs. 5.3%), urban residents (40.5% vs. 9.9%), children whose fathers had low risk (33.3% vs. 10.9%) and high risk jobs (40.7% vs. 3.8%). Conclusion The frequency of lead poisoning was higher in children suffering from constipation.No significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to their sex, age, father's job, and living in urban or rural areas. PMID:24427495

  5. Emotion regulation strategies that promote learning: reappraisal enhances children's memory for educational information.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds (N = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group received no regulation instructions. Children viewed an educational film, and memory for this was later assessed. As predicted, reappraisal strategies more effectively attenuated children's self-reported emotional processing. Reappraisal enhanced memory for educational details relative to no instructions. Rumination did not lead to differences in memory from the other instructions. Memory benefits of effective instructions were pronounced for children with poorer emotion regulation skill, suggesting the utility of reappraisal in learning contexts.

  6. Semantic home video categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Young Bok; De Neve, Wesley; Ro, Yong Man

    2009-02-01

    Nowadays, a strong need exists for the efficient organization of an increasing amount of home video content. To create an efficient system for the management of home video content, it is required to categorize home video content in a semantic way. So far, a significant amount of research has already been dedicated to semantic video categorization. However, conventional categorization approaches often rely on unnecessary concepts and complicated algorithms that are not suited in the context of home video categorization. To overcome the aforementioned problem, this paper proposes a novel home video categorization method that adopts semantic home photo categorization. To use home photo categorization in the context of home video, we segment video content into shots and extract key frames that represent each shot. To extract the semantics from key frames, we divide each key frame into ten local regions and extract lowlevel features. Based on the low level features extracted for each local region, we can predict the semantics of a particular key frame. To verify the usefulness of the proposed home video categorization method, experiments were performed with home video sequences, labeled by concepts part of the MPEG-7 VCE2 dataset. To verify the usefulness of the proposed home video categorization method, experiments were performed with 70 home video sequences. For the home video sequences used, the proposed system produced a recall of 77% and an accuracy of 78%.

  7. Relationships between Categorical Perception of Phonemes, Phoneme Awareness, and Visual Attention Span in Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Collet, Gregory; Serniclaes, Willy; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants' VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition. PMID:26950210

  8. Relationships between Categorical Perception of Phonemes, Phoneme Awareness, and Visual Attention Span in Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Collet, Gregory; Serniclaes, Willy; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants' VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition.

  9. Relationships between Categorical Perception of Phonemes, Phoneme Awareness, and Visual Attention Span in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Collet, Gregory; Serniclaes, Willy; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA span correlated with reading, no significant correlations were found between either categorical perception or phoneme awareness and VA span. Mediation analyses performed on the whole dyslexic sample suggested that the effect of categorical perception on reading might be mediated by phoneme awareness. This relationship was independent of the participants’ VA span abilities. Two groups of dyslexic children with a single phoneme awareness or a single VA span deficit were then identified. The phonologically impaired group showed lower categorical perception skills than the control group but categorical perception was similar in the VA span impaired dyslexic and control children. The overall findings suggest that the link between categorical perception, phoneme awareness and reading is independent from VA span skills. These findings provide new insights on the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia. They suggest that phonological processes and VA span independently affect reading acquisition. PMID:26950210

  10. Variability for Categorical Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kader, Gary D.; Perry, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Introductory statistics textbooks rarely discuss the concept of variability for a categorical variable and thus, in this case, do not provide a measure of variability. The impression is thus given that there is no measurement of variability for a categorical variable. A measure of variability depends on the concept of variability. Research has…

  11. Prevalence of Psychopathology in Childhood Epilepsy: Categorical and Dimensional Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.; Perkins, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have utilized both categorical and dimensional measures of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. We evaluated 173 children (88 males, 85 females; mean age 11.7y [SD 1.8]; range 9-14y) who had epilepsy (generalized 36%, partial 61%) for at least 6 months. The primary caregiver completed a dimensional measure, the Child Behavior…

  12. Preschoolers' Categorical and Sequential Toy Play: Change over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, D. Michael

    1997-01-01

    Observations of 22 preschool children with cognitive delays during home-based play, made approximately 13 months apart, found no statistically significant change for the proportion of time spent in various categorical play behaviors. Children's relative ranking on play sophistication also remained stable. Significant changes were found in…

  13. FNIRS-based evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-03-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2 ± 2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger tapping task were quantified before, immediately after, and six months after CIMT. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8 ± 1.3 years old) were also imaged at the same time points to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. In children with CP the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted six months later. In contrast to this longer term improvement in localized activation response, the laterality index that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed six months later.

  14. Children's judgements and emotions about social exclusion based on weight.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Christine; Malti, Tina

    2014-09-01

    This study examined children's judgements and emotions associated with weight-based social exclusion using an ethnically diverse sample of one hundred and seventeen 9- and 13-year-old children. Children were interviewed about three scenarios depicting weight-based exclusion in athletic, academic, and social contexts. Children's judgements of exclusion, emotions attributed to the excluder and excluded targets, and justifications for judgements and emotions were examined. Overall, children judged weight-based exclusion to be wrong for moral reasons. However, they viewed weight-based exclusion in athletic contexts as less wrong compared with academic contexts, and they used more social-conventional reasoning to justify judgements and emotions attributed to excluders in athletic contexts compared with academic and social contexts. Children also expected excluded targets to feel negative emotions, whereas a range of positive and negative emotions was attributed to excluders. In addition, older children were more accepting of weight-based exclusion in athletic contexts than in academic and social contexts. We discuss the results in relation to the development of children's understanding of, and emotions associated with, exclusion based on weight.

  15. Fear conditioned responses and PTSD symptoms in children: Sex differences in fear-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gamwell, Kaitlyn; Nylocks, Maria; Cross, Dorthie; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth D; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-11-01

    Fear conditioning studies in adults have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with heightened fear responses and impaired discrimination. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between PTSD symptoms and fear conditioned responses in children from a highly traumatized urban population. Children between 8 and 13 years old participated in a fear conditioning study in addition to providing information about their trauma history and PTSD symptoms. Results showed that females showed less discrimination between danger and safety signals during conditioning compared to age-matched males. In boys, intrusive symptoms were predictive of fear responses, even after controlling for trauma exposure. However, in girls, conditioned fear to the danger cue was predictive of self-blame and fear of repeated trauma. This study suggests there are early sex differences in the patterns of fear conditioning and that these sex differences may translate to differential risk for trauma-related psychopathology.

  16. Chronic, severe onychocryptosis successfully treated with nail tube splinting in a 13-year-old girl with multiple prior failed matricectomies.

    PubMed

    Chitgopeker, Pooja; Johnson-Jahangir, Hillary

    2016-06-15

    Onychocryptosis, also known as ingrown toenail, is caused by growth of the lateral edge of the nail into the nail fold. This results in inflammation of the invaded tissue. It is a common problem with ~70% of cases occurring in people between the ages of 12-30 years and causes significant discomfort, pain, and restriction in activity [1]. There is no standard treatment for onychocryptosis and numerous methods have been used, from conservative approaches such as proper nail trimming techniques to more invasive surgical procedures. All techniques risk the possibility of damage to the nail apparatus, prolonged healing time, and recurrence of disease.We describe a successful case of bilateral nail tube splinting in a pediatric patient with recurrent, severe onychocryptosis and history of multiple matricectomies.

  17. [Promoting non-smoking behavior in 13-year-old students in primary schools and high schools. A prospective, randomized intervention study with 1,956 students].

    PubMed

    Scholz, M; Kaltenbach, M

    2000-02-01

    1956 7th grade students of high schools and secondary modern schools in three cities with 110,000 to 180,000 inhabitants were asked about cigarette, alcohol and drug consumption using questionnaires. Subsequently 1080 of the students took part in a newly invented non-smoking curriculum which was held during 8 lessons within 4 weeks (intervention group (I)). The lessons were performed by non-smoking physicians who had passed a training programme before. 876 students served as control (C) group. 2 years later the questioning was repeated. The number of students who started smoking within the two years was significantly lower in the intervention group. In the high schools a significant effect was seen in boys (I: 13.0%, K: 22.4%; p < 0.01) and girls (I: 21.4%, K: 28.4%; p < 0.05) whereas in secondary modern schools a significant effect was seen only in boys (I: 17.4%, K: 25.2%; p < 0.05) not in girls (I: 18.0%, K: 22.0%; n.s.). First-time consumers of drugs like cannabis, marihuana and organic solvents were found less often in the intervention group among boys in high schools than in the control group (I: 14.9%; K: 23.6%; p < 0.05). No effects of the intervention were seen in girls of high schools and in students of secondary modern schools. No effects of the intervention were seen on alcohol consumption. Students who drank beer, wine or liquor several times a week were found at the same rate in the intervention and control groups. We conclude that a non-smoking intervention of 8 lessons in the 7th grade of high schools and secondary modern schools may lower the rate of first-time consumers of cigarettes but not of alcohol and drugs.

  18. "I'm Being Called Names and I'm Being Hit". Challenges of Longitudinal Research on Bullying amongst 11-13-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sian Emily; Fox, Claire; Gilman, Hayley; James, Lucy; Karic, Toni; Wright-Bevans, Katie; Caines, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, a burgeoning literature has emerged which concentrates on the antecedents, experiences and effects of peer victimisation and bullying in schools. Although many advances have been made in this research area, there remain relatively few research papers in the academic literature that discuss the complexities of research (a)…

  19. "The Only 13-Year-Old on Planet Earth without a Cell Phone": Meanings of Cell Phones in Early Adolescents' Everyday Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Bethany L.; Fletcher, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular telephones have become an increasingly prevalent feature of contemporary American life, with usage often beginning during early adolescence. With this in mind, twenty 7th graders and their mothers participated in separate qualitative interviews regarding early adolescents' use of cell phones as well as perceived risks and benefits of such…

  20. [CONSUMPTION OF READY-TO-EAT CEREAL IS INVERSELY ASSOCIATED WITH BODY MASS INDEX IN 6-13 YEARS OLD CHILEAN SCHOOLCHILDREN].

    PubMed

    Castillo Valenzuela, Oscar; Liberona Zúñiga, Jéssica; Dominguez de Landa, Angélica; Thielecke, Frank; Mondragón M, Mary; Rozowski Narkunska, Jaime; Cruchet Muñoz, Sylvia

    2015-11-01

    Introducción y objetivos: la obesidad infantil en Chile es un problema serio de salud, con una prevalencia que ha ido en aumento durante las últimas décadas, a pesar de todos los esfuerzos gubernamentales por combatirla. Algunos estudios indican que el consumo de ciertos alimentos puede ayudar en el control del peso corporal. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la relación entre los cereales listos para comer (CLC), el índice de masa corporal y la ingesta de macro y micronutrientes en escolares de Santiago de Chile. Métodos y resultados: el estudio incluyó 1.477 niños con edades entre los 6-13 años que fueron evaluados por nutricionistas entrenados. Se midieron peso, talla y circunferencia de la cintura, además se aplicó una encuesta alimentaria por recordatorio de 24 horas y se preguntó por el número de horas que veían TV. Del total, el 32% de los niños y el 28% de las niñas presentaron exceso de peso, diferencia que no fue significativa. Todos los niños, independientemente del género, mostraron una asociación inversa significativa entre el consumo de CLC y el índice de masa corporal. Aquellas niñas que consumían mayores cantidades de CLC tenían menor circunferencia de cintura que aquellas que consumían menos. Un mayor consumo de CLC en todos los niños estuvo relacionado con mayor ingesta de calorías, proteínas, carbohidratos, calcio y zinc, además de con un menor consumo de calorías provenientes de las grasas. El consumo de CLC también estuvo asociado con menor riesgo de ser obeso o padecer sobrepeso. Conclusión: este estudio muestra que la ingesta de CLC es un indicador potencial de una dieta saludable. Son necesarias intervenciones más controladas para evaluar el efecto aislado de los CLC en comparación con otros factores.

  1. Less Interested after Lessons? Report on a Small-Scale Research Study into 12- to 13-Year-Old Students' Attitudes to Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetherington, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Results of a small-scale research study conducted with year 8 (ages 12-13) students suggest that although these students have generally positive attitudes towards earth science, girls tend to be less interested in it than boys. Interest in earth science was found to separate into two dominant factors, labelled "scientific" and "people and change",…

  2. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction among 13 Year Old Boys and Girls: A Multilevel Study in 35 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma; Richter, Matthias; Davies, Carolyn A.; Schnohr, Christina W.; Due, Pernille; Currie, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006…

  3. Chronic, severe onychocryptosis successfully treated with nail tube splinting in a 13-year-old girl with multiple prior failed matricectomies.

    PubMed

    Chitgopeker, Pooja; Johnson-Jahangir, Hillary

    2016-01-01

    Onychocryptosis, also known as ingrown toenail, is caused by growth of the lateral edge of the nail into the nail fold. This results in inflammation of the invaded tissue. It is a common problem with ~70% of cases occurring in people between the ages of 12-30 years and causes significant discomfort, pain, and restriction in activity [1]. There is no standard treatment for onychocryptosis and numerous methods have been used, from conservative approaches such as proper nail trimming techniques to more invasive surgical procedures. All techniques risk the possibility of damage to the nail apparatus, prolonged healing time, and recurrence of disease.We describe a successful case of bilateral nail tube splinting in a pediatric patient with recurrent, severe onychocryptosis and history of multiple matricectomies. PMID:27617604

  4. Measuring children's diets: evaluation of dietary assessment techniques in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Persson, L A; Carlgren, G

    1984-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of dietary habits in infancy and childhood face a number of difficulties, which are more or less specific for these ages. In connection with studies on dietary habits of Swedish infants and children an evaluation of different dietary assessment techniques was performed. Breastfeeding data obtained in retrospective interviews at six months had good validity. The reliability of breastfeeding and weaning data decreased over time. Short questions on food frequencies, often used in research and clinical practice, were shown to be a poor screening instrument and suffered from biases when used in groups of four- and eight-year-old children. Group mean estimations of dietary intake of four- and eight-year-old children obtained by 24-hour recalls were close to those of seven-day records from the same individuals. Dietary intake in a 13-year-old group according to 24-hour recall and dietary history differed significantly; the dietary history gave much higher estimations. The reliability of dietary history in a small group of 13-year-old boarding school children was fairly good. The internal validity of food recording was examined by use of chemical analysis of duplicate portions. Generally, there was good agreement between the records and the analysed duplicates. The intake of a number of nutrients varied during the week, often showing a maximum towards the weekend. The intake of vitamin C was higher in winter time, otherwise no seasonal variation was found. The intra-individual variation in dietary intake is illustrated and its consequences for dietary studies are discussed.

  5. Sugar intake and body weight in Cambodian and Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Shikanai, Saiko; Koung Ry, Ly; Takeichi, Hitomi; Emiko, Suzuki; San, Pann; Sarukura, Nobuko; Kamoshita, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Because of the tastiness of sugars, it is easy to consume more than an adequate amount. There are many research reports that excess sugar intake contributes to dental decay, obesity, diabetes etc. Continuing economic development in Cambodia has made it easier than before for people to consume sugars in their daily life. Currently, isomerized sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose) made from starches is commonly used in commercial beverages because of its low price. However, in Cambodia and Japan, sugar composition tables that include not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose have not been available. Prior to the present nutrition surveys, we made sugar composition tables for both countries. In this study we tried to estimate the intakes of various sugars by children in Cambodia and Japan and to determine the relationship between intake and body weight. Nutrition surveys of children aged 7, 10 and 13 years old were conducted for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method in 89 Cambodian children living in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and 151 Japanese children living in 3 prefectures from north to south. Height and weight of children in Cambodia and Japan were similar until 10 years old but at 13 years old, the Cambodians were shorter and lighter than the Japanese. We could not observe any differences in BMI in either country. The sugar intakes from beverages and snacks were not different among the different gender and age. Thus we combined the mean total sugar intake for Cambodian and Japanese, 28.42 ± 25.28 g and 25.69 ± 16.16 g respectively. These were within the range of WHO recommendations (less than 10% of energy intakes). Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugars from commercial beverages and snacks and Japanese children 26%. This means that for Cambodians half of the sugars came from isomerized sugar made from starches. Relationships between sugar intake and body weight were not observed in both countries. In

  6. Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891

  7. The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction on the Relation between Listener and Intraverbal Categorization Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechago, Sarah A.; Carr, James E.; Kisamore, April N.; Grow, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on the relation between listener and intraverbal categorization repertoires of six typically developing preschool-age children using a nonconcurrent multiple-probe design across participants. After failing to emit intraverbal categorization responses following listener categorization…

  8. The Development of Facial Gender Categorization in Individuals with and without Autism: The Impact of Typicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Mark S.; Newell, Lisa C.; Best, Catherine A.; Hannigen, Sarah F.; Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Giovannelli, Joyce L.

    2012-01-01

    While much research has examined the development of facial recognition abilities, less is known about the ability of individuals with and without autism to categorize facial gender. The current study tested gender categorization abilities in high-functioning children (5-7 and 8-12 years), adolescents (13-17 years), and adults (18-53 years) with…

  9. Deaf children's use of clear visual cues in mindreading.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jian; Su, Yanjie

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies show that typically developing 4-year old children can understand other people's false beliefs but that deaf children of hearing families have difficulty in understanding false beliefs until the age of approximately 13. Because false beliefs are implicit mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues in standard false belief tasks, the present study examines the hypothesis that the deaf children's developmental delay in understanding false beliefs may reflect their difficulty in understanding a spectrum of mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues. Nine- to 13-year-old deaf children of hearing families and 4-6-year-old typically developing children completed false belief tasks and emotion recognition tasks under different cue conditions. The results indicated that after controlling for the effect of the children's language abilities, the deaf children inferred other people's false beliefs as accurately as the typically developing children when other people's false beliefs were clearly expressed through their eye-gaze direction. However, the deaf children performed worse than the typically developing children when asked to infer false beliefs with ambiguous or no eye-gaze cues. Moreover, the deaf children were capable of recognizing other people's emotions that were clearly conveyed by their facial or body expressions. The results suggest that although theory-based or simulation-based mental state understanding is typical of hearing children's theory of mind mechanism, for deaf children of hearing families, clear cue-based mental state understanding may be their specific theory of mind mechanism.

  10. Deaf children's use of clear visual cues in mindreading.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jian; Su, Yanjie

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies show that typically developing 4-year old children can understand other people's false beliefs but that deaf children of hearing families have difficulty in understanding false beliefs until the age of approximately 13. Because false beliefs are implicit mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues in standard false belief tasks, the present study examines the hypothesis that the deaf children's developmental delay in understanding false beliefs may reflect their difficulty in understanding a spectrum of mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues. Nine- to 13-year-old deaf children of hearing families and 4-6-year-old typically developing children completed false belief tasks and emotion recognition tasks under different cue conditions. The results indicated that after controlling for the effect of the children's language abilities, the deaf children inferred other people's false beliefs as accurately as the typically developing children when other people's false beliefs were clearly expressed through their eye-gaze direction. However, the deaf children performed worse than the typically developing children when asked to infer false beliefs with ambiguous or no eye-gaze cues. Moreover, the deaf children were capable of recognizing other people's emotions that were clearly conveyed by their facial or body expressions. The results suggest that although theory-based or simulation-based mental state understanding is typical of hearing children's theory of mind mechanism, for deaf children of hearing families, clear cue-based mental state understanding may be their specific theory of mind mechanism. PMID:25104224

  11. Development of the Physical Activity Interactive Recall (PAIR) for Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret; Salsberg, Jon

    2004-03-29

    BACKGROUND: Aboriginal children in Canada are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Given that physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, prevention efforts targeting Aboriginal children include interventions to enhance physical activity involvement. These types of interventions require adequate assessment of physical activity patterns to identify determinants, detect trends, and evaluate progress towards intervention goals. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally appropriate interactive computer program to self-report physical activity for Kanien'kehá:ka (Mohawk) children that could be administered in a group setting. This was an ancillary study of the ongoing Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP). METHODS: During Phase I, focus groups were conducted to understand how children describe and graphically depict type, intensity and duration of physical activity. Sixty-six students (40 girls, 26 boys, mean age = 8.8 years, SD = 1.8) from four elementary schools in three eastern Canadian Kanien'kehá:ka communities participated in 15 focus groups. Children were asked to discuss and draw about physical activity. Content analysis of focus groups informed the development of a school-day and non-school-day version of the physical activity interactive recall (PAIR). In Phase II, pilot-tests were conducted in two waves with 17 and 28 children respectively to assess the content validity of PAIR. Observation, videotaping, and interviews were conducted to obtain children's feedback on PAIR content and format. RESULTS: Children's representations of activity type and activity intensity were used to compile a total of 30 different physical activity and 14 non-physical activity response choices with accompanying intensity options. Findings from the pilot tests revealed that Kanien'kehá:ka children between nine and 13 years old could answer PAIR without assistance. Content validity of PAIR was judged to be adequate

  12. Decoupling Object Detection and Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether there exists a behavioral dependency between object detection and categorization. Previous work (Grill-Spector & Kanwisher, 2005) suggests that object detection and basic-level categorization may be the very same perceptual mechanism: As objects are parsed from the background they are categorized at the basic level. In the…

  13. Association between Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from High Voltage Transmission Lines and Neurobehavioral Function in Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiongli; Tang, Tiantong; Hu, Guocheng; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yuyu; Wang, Qiang; Su, Jing; Zou, Yunfeng; Peng, Xiaowu

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence for a possible causal relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by high voltage transmission (HVT) lines and neurobehavioral dysfunction in children is insufficient. The present study aims to investigate the association between EMF exposure from HVT lines and neurobehavioral function in children. Methods Two primary schools were chosen based on monitoring data of ambient electromagnetic radiation. A cross-sectional study with 437 children (9 to 13 years old) was conducted. Exposure to EMF from HVT lines was monitored at each school. Information was collected on possible confounders and relevant exposure predictors using standardized questionnaires. Neurobehavioral function in children was evaluated using established computerized neurobehavioral tests. Data was analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounding factors, multivariable regression revealed that children attending a school near 500 kV HVT lines had poorer performance on the computerized neurobehavioral tests for Visual Retention and Pursuit Aiming compared to children attending a school that was not in close proximity to HVT lines. Conclusions The results suggest long-term low-level exposure to EMF from HVT lines might have a negative impact on neurobehavioral function in children. However, because of differences in results only for two of four tests achieved statistical significance and potential limitations, more studies are needed to explore the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency EMF on neurobehavioral function and development in children. PMID:23843999

  14. Kinetic Relationships between the Hip and Ankle Joints during Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Misako; Higuchi, Yumi

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate kinetic relationships between the ankle and hip joints during gait, in the late stance, in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects] The subjects were 3 ambulant children with spastic hemiplegic CP (aged 10, 13, and 14: CP group) and 3 typically developing children with the same ages (control). [Methods] A three-dimensional gait analysis including force data was performed to compare the peak moment, power, and ankle/hip power ratio between the hemiplegic (uninvolved and hemiplegic) and the control groups. In the statistical analysis, mean values from 5 gait cycles for each of 3 conditions (uninvolved, hemiplegic and control) were used. The three conditions were compared by performing a Kruskal-Wallis test and Steel-Dwass multiple comparisons. [Results] The peak moments of ankle plantar flexors in the 10-year-old case, were significantly lower on the uninvolved and hemiplegic sides compared with the control group, respectively. The peak flexion moments of the hip on the hemiplegic side were significantly higher compared with the control in the 14- and 13-year-old cases. The peak of ankle power generation (A2) in the 13- and 10-year-old cases were significantly lower on the uninvolved and hemiplegic sides, respectively, compared with the control. The peaks of hip flexor power generation (H3) in the 14- and 13-year-old cases were significantly higher on the uninvolved and hemiplegic sides, respectively. The A2/H3 ratios were significantly lower on the uninvolved and hemiplegic sides compared with the control, and the ratio for the hemiplegic side was lower than that for the uninvolved side. [Conclusion] This study shows that propulsion of walking is generated by hip, rather than the ankle, on both the hemiplegic and involved sides.

  15. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…

  16. EEG in children with spelling disabilities.

    PubMed

    Byring, R F; Salmi, T K; Sainio, K O; Orn, H P

    1991-10-01

    A total of 23 13-year-old boys with spelling disabilities and 21 matched controls were studied. EEG was recorded for visual and quantitative analysis, including FFT band powers and normalized slope descriptors (NSD). Visual analysis showed general excess of slow activity, as well as an excess of temporal slow wave activity in the index group. Quantitative analysis showed low alpha and beta powers, and low "activity" and high "complexity" (NSD) in parieto-occipital derivations in the index group. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) parameter ratios between temporal and parieto-occipital derivations were increased in the index group, implying a lack of spatial differentiation in these EEGs. In covariance analysis the qEEG parameter differences between the index group and controls were partly explained by the neurotic traits made evident in psychological tests. This implies that psychopathological artifacts should be considered in qEEG examinations of children with cognitive handicaps. Differences in anterior/posterior qEEG ratios were, however, little affected by any confounding factors. Thus these qEEG ratios seem potentially useful in clinical assessments of children with learning disabilities.

  17. Young Children's Developing Understanding of Geometric Shapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannibal, Mary Anne

    1999-01-01

    Presents research findings and suggestions on how children learn to categorize shapes. Discusses specific ways to present developmentally appropriate activities designed to enhance children's understanding of basic shapes. Contains 12 references. (ASK)

  18. Comparing Categorization Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments are presented that competitively test rule- and exemplar-based models of human categorization behavior. Participants classified stimuli that varied on a unidimensional axis into 2 categories. The stimuli did not consistently belong to a category; instead, they were probabilistically assigned. By manipulating these assignment…

  19. A study of malnourished children in children's hospital Lusaka (Zambia).

    PubMed

    Khan, A A; Gupta, B M

    1979-01-01

    The parents of 200 malnourished childred referred and admitted over the July-December 1976 period to the nutrition wing of the Children's University Teaching Hospital, Zambia, were interviewed in an effort to understand the home environment of malnourished children in Lusaka, Zambia. The 1974 incidence of malnutrition in Zambia was about 23% with higher prevalences of marasmus and moderate malnutrition. There were 9.4% severly malnourished children admitted in 1976 as compared with less than 1% in 1971. Many of these children were admitted very late in a hypothermic shocked state which is directly responsible for the increasing incidence of mortality over these years. Plasma or blood transfusion is a standard procedure in all shocked cases of kwashiorkor, yet many of the children still die within 24 hours of admission. Malnutrition incidence was found to be closely linked to the rise in price index. The majority of the children were admitted from the rainy months November to March, the time associated with a higher incidence of gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, and measles. 88% of the children were between 1-3 years old. Marasmus (33.5%) and marasmic kwashiorkor (40.5%) were more frequent. 63% of the malnourished childred had attended the child health clinics in their infancy and were immunized but discontinued attendance one vaccination was completed. The problem of malnutrition was in the toddler age group. 86% of the childred came from urban slums and periurban areas; 83% were from unitary families, living in 1 or 2 bedroom houses with no separate provision for a kitchen. Rural families (14%) were living as joint families. 32% of the children were from large families. 52% of the parents were employed as casual laborers and earning under US $35 per month. There were only 10 families with earnings in excess of US $125 per month and only 8 had good sources of income from farms. As many as 68.5% children were experiencing 1 or more adverse factors which

  20. The Role of Comparison in Preschoolers' Novel Object Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Susan A.; Namy, Laura L.; Gentner, Dedre; Meagher, Kristinn

    2010-01-01

    We examined the role of the comparison process and shared names on preschoolers' categorization of novel objects. In our studies, 4-year-olds were presented with novel object sets consisting of either one or two standards and two test objects: a shape match and a texture match. When children were presented with one standard, they extended the…

  1. Developmental and Social Determinants of Religious Social Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this…

  2. Does the Decline in Caries Prevalence of Latin American and Caribbean Children Continue in the New Century? Evidence from Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Thais; Bispo, Beatriz Albuquerque; Souza, Daniela Pereira; Viganó, Maria Eduarda; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Bönecker, Marcelo; Braga, Mariana Minatel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To carry out a systematic review with meta-analysis of prevalence of caries in Latin America and Caribbean children considering studies performed in this new century. Methods Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, LILACS and governmental databases through May 2016 to identify papers published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Studies in those countries performed with 5–6 or 11–13 year-old children and that presented separate prevalence figures from primary and permanent teeth were selected. We performed a descriptive analysis of studies and meta-analysis to calculate the overall prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in both primary and permanent teeth. We also analyzed the trends of prevalence of caries through the years and influence of other variables on caries prevalence using multilevel analysis. Results Seventy-five studies were included from the 1,306 articles initially retrieved. The meta-analysis of caries prevalence grouped for Latin American and the Caribbean countries were highly different from Brazil and other investigated countries for primary teeth (5–6 years-old—Brazil: 0.52, other countries:0.70) and permanent teeth (11–12 years-old—Brazil: 0.56, other countries: 0.63). For studies conducted only in Brazil the prevalence was significant lower for primary but not for permanent teeth. In Brazil, a downward trend of caries prevalence was observed in 11-13-year-old children. Conclusion Despite the decline of caries prevalence in permanent teeth, mainly in Brazil, the disease still affects more than half of the children population in Latin American and Caribbean countries in the 21st Century. PMID:27768737

  3. [Intelligence study on 1758 deaf children in China].

    PubMed

    Qu, C; Sun, X; Zheng, R

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the character of mental development and the influencing factors of childhood deafness in China the revised H-NTLA was applied to 1758 deaf children within the age range of 3 to 17 years. Compared with 1788 normal hearing children, the results showed that (1) the deaf children were about 20 points lower in IQ than those with normal hearing; (2) the average retardation was found to be about 6 months in 3-5 years old age, the difference became significant from 6 years old, the average retardation was found to be 36 months during 13 years old; (3) the scores were the same as those of the normal hearing children for block patterns, paper folding and puzzle blocks in 3-9 age groups; for visual attention span and spatial reasoning in 16-17 age groups. The scores were retarded significantly on picture association, picture analogies, memory for color and digits; (4) the influencing factors were found with stepwise regression model to be audiphone wearing, education fee and the beginning age of education. PMID:8762530

  4. Peer social skills and theory of mind in children with autism, deafness, or typical development.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in both ToM understanding (with late-signing deaf children especially delayed even relative to autistic children) and peer social skills (with autistic children especially delayed even relative to deaf late signers). Crucially, for the typically developing hearing children and deaf children alike, ToM understanding independently predicted peer social skills over and above age, gender, language ability, and, for deaf children, status as native- or late-signer. These novel findings offer some of the best evidence to date of the relevance of ToM cognitions to real-world social behavior for both these groups. However, for those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) the pattern was different. The apparent link of ToM to peer competence was not a direct one but instead was significantly mediated by language ability. Several possible explanations for this intriguing autism-specific result were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26524383

  5. Peer social skills and theory of mind in children with autism, deafness, or typical development.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia; Moore, Chris; Wellman, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Consequences of theory of mind (ToM) development for daily social lives of children are uncertain. Five to 13-year-olds (N = 195) with typical development, autism, or deafness (both native and late signers) took ToM tests and their teachers reported on their social skills for peer interaction (e.g., leadership, group entry). Groups differed in both ToM understanding (with late-signing deaf children especially delayed even relative to autistic children) and peer social skills (with autistic children especially delayed even relative to deaf late signers). Crucially, for the typically developing hearing children and deaf children alike, ToM understanding independently predicted peer social skills over and above age, gender, language ability, and, for deaf children, status as native- or late-signer. These novel findings offer some of the best evidence to date of the relevance of ToM cognitions to real-world social behavior for both these groups. However, for those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) the pattern was different. The apparent link of ToM to peer competence was not a direct one but instead was significantly mediated by language ability. Several possible explanations for this intriguing autism-specific result were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness in middle school children: examination of a pedometer intervention program.

    PubMed

    Manley, Dana; Cowan, Patricia; Graff, Carolyn; Perlow, Michael; Rice, Pamela; Richey, Phyllis; Sanchez, Zoila

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity in children has been associated with a number of health benefits. Unfortunately, physical inactivity continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among self-efficacy levels, physical activity, aerobic fitness, and body composition (relative body mass index [RBMI]) and to determine whether a school-based pedometer intervention program would improve those variables. The sample consisted of 116 rural 11- to 13-year-old students. Weakly positive correlations between self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness and weakly correlated inverse relationships between self-efficacy, physical activity, aerobic fitness and RBMI were found. There was no statistical significance between the intervention and control group when analyzing outcome variables. These findings suggest that those with optimal RBMI levels have higher self-efficacy, physical activity and aerobic fitness levels. Although not statistically significant, the intervention group had greater improvements in mean self-efficacy scores, aerobic fitness levels, and RBMI.

  7. Visual Search and the Collapse of Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Smith, J.; Redford, Joshua S.; Gent, Lauren C.; Washburn, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Categorization researchers typically present single objects to be categorized. But real-world categorization often involves object recognition within complex scenes. It is unknown how the processes of categorization stand up to visual complexity or why they fail facing it. The authors filled this research gap by blending the categorization and…

  8. Children's Social Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of recent developmental research on themes related to children's social identities. Initially, consideration is given to the capacity for social categorization, following which attention is given to children's developing conceptions of social identities, their identification with social groups, and the…

  9. Focal hemisphere and visuoperceptual categorization.

    PubMed Central

    Bisiach, E; Capitani, E; Spinnler, H

    1975-01-01

    Visuoperceptual categorization was investigated in patients with unilateral brain damage by a task in which meaningless shapes had to be classified with reference to a number of prototype patterns. Right brain-damaged subjects with visual field defect turned out to have a narrower categorization span. As this outcome seems to be scarcely consonant with a lower level disorder of visual processing, a major competence of the right hemisphere is suggested for visuoperceptual categorization. PMID:1206421

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Lifestyle-Related Behaviors in Children

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Lian; Xiong, Xu; Tan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with obesity in children. Lifestyle-related behaviors (external eating, screen time and physical inactivity) are well known to be associated with increased risk of obesity, but their associations with ADHD are unclear. The objectives of this study were to clarify the associations between ADHD symptoms in children and their associated lifestyle. A cross sectional study was carried out with a total of 785 primary students aged 9 to 13 years old and their parents were recruited by stratified random sampling from primary schools of China. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) test was used to examine the relationships between ADHD symptoms and health related behaviors. We found that children with ADHD symptoms were likely to spend more time using a computer during school days; they were also more likely to eat while using a computer. These children were also more likely to eat while seated in a car, using a smart phone, using a computer at bedtime, and snacking before going to sleep than children without ADHD symptoms. An increased risk of obesity in children with ADHD symptoms was associated with the overuse of electronic devices, eating while using electronic devices, and delaying bedtimes to snack and use electronic devices. PMID:27658266

  11. Low-Income, Urban Children's Perspectives on Physical Activity: A Photovoice Project.

    PubMed

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The purpose of this research was to have ethnically diverse, 9- to 13-year-olds who live in urban, low-income households use Photovoice to represent their physical activity practices and their perception of their physical activity environment. Methods Photovoice methodology was used to allow children to capture their physical activity habits and environment through photographs and interviews. The Social Cognitive Theory was used as the theoretical framework. Heights and weights were taken for all children and BMI was calculated. Photographs were analyzed by recording the content of usable photos in SPSS software. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts used the open coding method. Results Participants were 24 children (15 male, 9 female) living in inner city, low-income households. On average, children were 10.9 years old and the mean BMI-for-age percentile was 72 %. Children took a total of 377 pictures and 339 of these were usable. Three themes were identified across interviews and photographs, (a) types of activity, (b) social environment, and (c) physical environment where activity took place. Conclusions for Practice This study provides insight into low-income, urban children's physical activity habits and environment using a novel approach. Potential ways to increase moderate to high intensity activity among this population are to involve church-based organizations, create more safe places to play by increasing green space in urban areas, and to provide financial support for after-school programs and community centers.

  12. Augmenting Instructional Animations with a Body Analogy to Help Children Learn about Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Pouw, Wim T J L; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether augmenting instructional animations with a body analogy (BA) would improve 10- to 13-year-old children's learning about class-1 levers. Children with a lower level of general math skill who learned with an instructional animation that provided a BA of the physical system, showed higher accuracy on a lever problem-solving reaction time task than children studying the instructional animation without this BA. Additionally, learning with a BA led to a higher speed-accuracy trade-off during the transfer task for children with a lower math skill, which provided additional evidence that especially this group is likely to be affected by learning with a BA. However, overall accuracy and solving speed on the transfer task was not affected by learning with or without this BA. These results suggest that providing children with a BA during animation study provides a stepping-stone for understanding mechanical principles of a physical system, which may prove useful for instructional designers. Yet, because the BA does not seem effective for all children, nor for all tasks, the degree of effectiveness of body analogies should be studied further. Future research, we conclude, should be more sensitive to the necessary degree of analogous mapping between the body and physical systems, and whether this mapping is effective for reasoning about more complex instantiations of such physical systems. PMID:27375538

  13. Phonological sensitivity and memory in children with a foreign language learning difficulty.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    The phonological processing and memory skills of 12- and 13-year-old Italian children with difficulty in learning English as a foreign language (foreign language learning difficulty, FLLD) were examined and compared with those of a control group matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Three experiments were conducted. A dissociation between verbal and visuo-spatial working memory was observed when compared to the control group; children with FLLD showed a poorer performance in a phonological working memory task but performed to a comparable level in a visuo-spatial working memory task (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2 the word length and the response modality of an auditory word span task were manipulated in order to examine the efficiency of the phonological loop and the relevance of the spoken output. The FLLD group did not show sensitivity to the word length effect and showed no advantage in the picture pointing recall condition. In Experiment 3 children with FLLD were shown to be sensitive to phonological similarity but again they showed neither a word length effect nor a slower articulation speed. Furthermore, in all three experiments children with FLLD were shown to be less efficient in phonological sensitivity tasks and this deficit appeared to be independent of the phonological memory problem. All three experiments consistently showed that children with FLLD have an impairment in phonological memory and phonological processing, which appear to be independent from one other but both contribute to the children's difficulty in learning a second language.

  14. Children's intergroup helping: the role of empathy and peer group norms.

    PubMed

    Sierksma, Jellie; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examined children's (8- to 13-year-olds) intergroup helping intentions. In Study 1, 856 children indicated their intention to help national in-group or out-group peers in a high need situation and in either a public or private context. Results showed that children's empathic tendencies predicted their intention to help and that the context as well as recipients' group membership had no effects. In Study 2, 388 children indicated their intention to help in-group and out-group peers in either a low need or high need situation. Results of Study 1 were replicated. In addition, in the low need situation and when helping was public, children intended to help out-group peers more than in-group peers, particularly when they perceived an accepting descriptive classroom norm about the out-group. When the need was relatively high, empathy appeared to outweigh children's group norm considerations. In all analyses, no age differences were found.

  15. Effects of ozone on the pulmonary function of children

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, N.; Lippmann, M.; Lioy, P.; Munoz, A.; Speizer, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    Healthy active children, 7 to 13 years old, in a summer recreational camp were chosen as subjects to investigate the acute effects of exposure to ambient-air pollution. Pulmonary-function tests were administered at the camp on 16 days during a five week period in 1982. Ambient-air-pollution data were collected approximately 6 km from the camp. For each of the 39 children tested on six or more days, a linear regression was calculated between the peak one-hour ozone concentration for a given day and each of three functional parameters determined for the same day from the spirograms: forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (PEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). All mean slopes were negative, except for FVC in boys, indicating a general tendency for decreased function with increasing ozone concentration; however only PEFR mean slopes for girls and for all subjects were statistically significantly different from zero. For each of 49 children seen on four or more days, a summary weighted correlation coefficient between peak ozone level and each of the three pulmonary function parameters was calculated. As in the regression analysis, decrements in PEFR were significantly correlated with the ozone exposure. Overall, the decrements were small, approximately a 10% decrease in PEFR with an ozone exposure level of 120 ppb.

  16. Decoupling object detection and categorization.

    PubMed

    Mack, Michael L; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2010-10-01

    We investigated whether there exists a behavioral dependency between object detection and categorization. Previous work (Grill-Spector & Kanwisher, 2005) suggests that object detection and basic-level categorization may be the very same perceptual mechanism: As objects are parsed from the background they are categorized at the basic level. In the current study, we decouple object detection from categorization by manipulating the between-category contrast of the categorization decision. With a superordinate-level contrast with people as one of the target categories (e.g., cars vs. people), which replicates Grill-Spector and Kanwisher, we found that success at object detection depended on success at basic-level categorization and vice versa. But with a basic-level contrast (e.g., cars vs. boats) or superordinate-level contrast without people as a target category (e.g., dog vs. boat), success at object detection did not depend on success at basic-level categorization. Successful object detection could occur without successful basic-level categorization. Object detection and basic-level categorization do not seem to occur within the same early stage of visual processing.

  17. SOS Children's Friendly Community Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko; Lenard, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    SOS Children's Village Croatia is categorized as a children's home whose primary goal is taking care of children without an adequate parental care or parents themselves. Moreover, it aims at providing children, regardless of their racial, national or religious affiliation, with affection and love in a safe family environment. In addition, SOS…

  18. The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ): A Unidimensional Item Response Theory and Categorical Data Factor Analysis of Self-Report Ratings from a Community Sample of 7-through 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Carla; Goodyer, Ian M.; Croudace, Tim J.

    2006-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) and categorical data factor analysis (CDFA) are complementary methods for the analysis of the psychometric properties of psychiatric measures that purport to measure latent constructs. These methods have been applied to relatively few child and adolescent measures. We provide the first combined IRT and CDFA analysis of a…

  19. Students' Categorizations of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John

    2008-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…

  20. Preschool Ontology: The Role of Beliefs about Category Boundaries in Early Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.; Karuza, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    These studies examined the role of ontological beliefs about category boundaries in early categorization. Study 1 found that preschool-age children (N = 48, aged 3-4 years old) have domain-specific beliefs about the meaning of category boundaries; children judged the boundaries of natural kind categories (animal species, human gender) as discrete…

  1. Augmenting Instructional Animations with a Body Analogy to Help Children Learn about Physical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether augmenting instructional animations with a body analogy (BA) would improve 10- to 13-year-old children’s learning about class-1 levers. Children with a lower level of general math skill who learned with an instructional animation that provided a BA of the physical system, showed higher accuracy on a lever problem-solving reaction time task than children studying the instructional animation without this BA. Additionally, learning with a BA led to a higher speed–accuracy trade-off during the transfer task for children with a lower math skill, which provided additional evidence that especially this group is likely to be affected by learning with a BA. However, overall accuracy and solving speed on the transfer task was not affected by learning with or without this BA. These results suggest that providing children with a BA during animation study provides a stepping-stone for understanding mechanical principles of a physical system, which may prove useful for instructional designers. Yet, because the BA does not seem effective for all children, nor for all tasks, the degree of effectiveness of body analogies should be studied further. Future research, we conclude, should be more sensitive to the necessary degree of analogous mapping between the body and physical systems, and whether this mapping is effective for reasoning about more complex instantiations of such physical systems. PMID:27375538

  2. Aggressive behavior in children: the role of temperament and family socialization.

    PubMed

    González-Peña, Paloma; Egido, Begoña Delgado; Carrasco, Miguel Á; Tello, Francisco Pablo Holgado

    2013-01-01

    This study's objective is to analyze temperament and parenting variables as they relate to proactive and reactive aggression in children. To be specific, profiles based on these variables were analyzed in children with high levels of proactive versus reactive aggression. The sample was made up of two groups: 482 children (52.3% boys) between 1 and 3 years-old, and 422 children (42.42% boys) 3 to 6 years-old. Statistical analyses of the two age groups included: Pearson's correlations to explore the relationships among variables, Cluster Analysis to create groups with different levels of aggression, and finally discriminant analysis to determine which variables discriminate between groups. The results show that high levels of frustration/negative affect in the 1-3 year-old group and low effortful control in children 3 to 6 years old are the most relevant variables in differentiating between aggressive and non-aggressive subjects. Nevertheless, differential profiles of subjects with high levels of proactive versus reactive aggression were not observed. The implications of these different types of aggression in terms of development and prevention are discussed.

  3. Prevalence of Oral Habits among Eleven to Thirteen Years Old Children in Jaipur

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shantanu; Asopa, Kirti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: Oral habits that are prevalent well beyond the normal age frequently result in facial deformity and malocclusions. The aim of the present study was to know the prevalence of oral habits in 11 to 13 years old children of Jaipur city. Methodology: The study included 1,000 children of age 11 to 13 years, belonging to different government and private schools of Jaipur city who were screened for any deleterious habits at their school site. The statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: The result showed that 18% children had a habit of tongue thrusting, 17% mouth breathing and 3% nail biting. Sex-wise prevalence showed 18% females had oral habits and 20% of male had oral habit. Conclusion: The distribution of children aged 11 to 13 years having oral habits was evaluated with tongue thrusting being most prevalent and exhibiting minimal sexual predilection. How to cite this article: Sharma S, Bansal A, Asopa K. Prevalence of Oral Habits among Eleven to Thirteen Years Old Children in Jaipur. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):208-210. PMID:26604539

  4. Oral habits in school going children of Delhi: a prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, O P; Sidhu, S S; Sundaram, K; Shukla, D K

    2003-09-01

    This study was conducted on 5554 children aged 5-13 years old with the objectives of recording the prevalence of oral habits among North Indian children according to sex. These children were selected from the schools of Delhi. The sample represented the entire school-going population of Delhi in the age group of 5-13 years. Statistical analysis was carried out using BMDP software and sex differences were calculated by using Fisher's exact test. The results showed that the prevalence of oral habits in Delhi school going children was 25.5%. Tongue thrust was the commonest habit (18.1%) followed by mouth breathing (6.6%). Thumb sucking was relatively less common habit and seen in only 0.7% of children. There were no significant differences between boys and girls for the prevalence of oral habits. However, for the specific habit types there was a sex difference. Thumb sucking was more common in girls (1.0%) when compared with boys (0.4%) and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). There was a reverse trend for the mouth breathing, which was more common (P < 0.001) in boys (7.8%) than girls (5.3%). There were no differences for tongue thrust habit between boys (17.5%) and girls (18.6%).

  5. Development of fear acquisition and extinction in children: effects of age and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Tanja; Nylocks, Karin Maria; Gamwell, Kaitlyn L; Smith, Ami; Davis, Telsie A; Norrholm, Seth Davin; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-09-01

    Development of anxiety disorders is associated with neurobiological changes in areas that are a critical part of the fear neurocircuitry. Fear conditioning paradigms can offer insight into the mechanisms underlying the neurobiological ontogeny of anxiety. A small number of studies have focused on the effects of age and anxiety separately in school age children. The present study aimed to investigate these effects in 8-13 year old children with higher and lower trait anxiety. We examined differential fear conditioning and extinction using skin conductance responses and fear-potentiated startle in 60 children recruited from a low-income urban population. The results indicated that children under 10 years of age show poor discrimination of conditioned stimuli, and that anxiety increases fear responses during fear acquisition. After controlling for age and trauma exposure, fear-potentiated startle to the safety cue predicted child anxiety levels suggesting that impaired safety signal learning may be a risk factor for anxiety disorders in adulthood. Identifying risk phenotypes in children may provide opportunities for early intervention and prevention of illness.

  6. POSet Ontology Categorizer

    2005-03-01

    POSet Ontology Categorizer (POSOC) V1.0 The POSet Ontology Categorizer (POSOC) software package provides tools for creating and mining of poset-structured ontologies, such as the Gene Ontology (GO). Given a list of weighted query items (ex.genes,proteins, and/or phrases) and one or more focus nodes, POSOC determines the ordered set of GO nodes that summarize the query, based on selections of a scoring function, pseudo-distance measure, specificity level, and cluster determination. Pseudo-distance measures provided are minimum chainmore » length, maximum chain length, average of extreme chain lengths, and average of all chain lengths. A low specificity level, such as -1 or 0, results in a general set of clusters. Increasing the specificity results in more specific results in more specific and lighter clusters. POSOC cluster results can be compared agaist known results by calculations of precision, recall, and f-score for graph neighborhood relationships. This tool has been used in understanding the function of a set of genes, finding similar genes, and annotating new proteins. The POSOC software consists of a set of Java interfaces, classes, and programs that run on Linux or Windows platforms. It incorporates graph classes from OpenJGraph (openjgraph.sourceforge.net).« less

  7. POSet Ontology Categorizer

    SciTech Connect

    Miniszewski, Sue M.

    2005-03-01

    POSet Ontology Categorizer (POSOC) V1.0 The POSet Ontology Categorizer (POSOC) software package provides tools for creating and mining of poset-structured ontologies, such as the Gene Ontology (GO). Given a list of weighted query items (ex.genes,proteins, and/or phrases) and one or more focus nodes, POSOC determines the ordered set of GO nodes that summarize the query, based on selections of a scoring function, pseudo-distance measure, specificity level, and cluster determination. Pseudo-distance measures provided are minimum chain length, maximum chain length, average of extreme chain lengths, and average of all chain lengths. A low specificity level, such as -1 or 0, results in a general set of clusters. Increasing the specificity results in more specific results in more specific and lighter clusters. POSOC cluster results can be compared agaist known results by calculations of precision, recall, and f-score for graph neighborhood relationships. This tool has been used in understanding the function of a set of genes, finding similar genes, and annotating new proteins. The POSOC software consists of a set of Java interfaces, classes, and programs that run on Linux or Windows platforms. It incorporates graph classes from OpenJGraph (openjgraph.sourceforge.net).

  8. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Chantal N; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Vasić, Nada; Avrutin, Sergey; Blom, Elma

    2016-01-01

    When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition) task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally) significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand, use of textese does

  9. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Chantal N; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Vasić, Nada; Avrutin, Sergey; Blom, Elma

    2016-01-01

    When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition) task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally) significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand, use of textese does

  10. Strategy Acquisition and Maintenance of Gifted and Nongifted Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Seokhee; Ahn, Doehee

    2003-01-01

    A study trained 10 5-year-old typical children, 11 5-year-old gifted children, and 11 7-year-old typical children on strategy use. Several differences among groups were found, generally favoring the gifted children in terms of performance and maintenance of strategies. In addition, the gifted children seemed to use categorization strategies…

  11. Categorization of Radioxenon

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Paul E.

    2012-04-26

    This report summarizes a study into some false positive issues in the use of radioxenon as a method to verify a clandestine nuclear weapons explosion. False positives arise due to similarities between the radioxenon signature generated in medical isotope production and that generated in a nuclear weapon explosion. This report also discusses how to categorize the radioxenon by levels of urgency for manual analysis and interpretation and recommends applying machine learning and time series analysis techniques in the automation of radioxenon characterization. The literature indicates that medical isotope production is a major contributor to atmospheric radioxenon and is the main source of confusion in determining the source of radioxenon. While radioxenon emissions from nuclear power plants can be distinguished from that from nuclear weapon explosions, emissions from medical isotope production generate signatures similar to certain nuclide ratios found in nuclear weapons explosions. Different techniques for analyzing nuclide concentrations and ratios as well as including other sensing modalities via sensor fusion are discussed.

  12. Association between parenting styles and own fruit and vegetable consumption among Portuguese mothers of school children.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Bela; Poínhos, Rui; Klepp, Knut-Inge; de Almeida, Maria Daniel Vaz

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between parenting styles and own fruit and vegetable consumption among Portuguese mothers of school children. A cross-sectional study was performed in Portugal as part of the Pro Children cross-sectional European survey. Portuguese mothers (n 1601) of 11-13-year-old school children were included in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to assess fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the parenting styles. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by a validated FFQ. Parenting styles based on two dimensions - strictness and involvement - were classified into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. The higher mean intakes of fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables were observed for mothers classified as indulgent, whereas the lower mean intakes were observed for mothers classified as neglectful. Differences in intake among parenting styles were significant for fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables. When partial correlations were calculated between the two dimensions, strictness and involvement (controlled one for the other), and intakes, only involvement was positively associated with fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetable intake. Findings from the present study show that fruit and vegetable consumption of Portuguese mothers of school children seems to be related to their own parenting styles, especially with the dimension involvement. Future interventions to promote fruit and vegetable intake should take into account these variables.

  13. The perception of social situations by children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Poon, Kenneth K

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated how children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) make social judgments of social situations and provide justifications for their responses. Fifteen children with ASD and 15 typically developing children (ages from 9 to 13 years old) were presented with eight vignettes, based on the Dewey Story Test (Dewey, 1991) and developed for the purposes of this study. The participants rated the appropriateness (on a 4-point Likert scale) of the socially inappropriate event (test item) and non-social appropriate event (control item) in each vignette. Justifications for each rating were also elicited at the end of each vignette. The children with ASD rated socially inappropriate behaviors in vignettes no differently from their typically developing peers but rated control items as stranger. They also had a higher tendency to provide inappropriate/bizarre and don't know/no response justifications instead of appropriate/social justifications (that reflect social awareness). The impact of the method of eliciting social judgments of social situations and its impact on findings are discussed. PMID:20876166

  14. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children

    PubMed Central

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences. PMID:27642451

  15. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children.

    PubMed

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences. PMID:27642451

  16. Visual Categorization with Random Projection.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Rosa I; Rutter, David; Cakmak, Maya; Vempala, Santosh S

    2015-10-01

    Humans learn categories of complex objects quickly and from a few examples. Random projection has been suggested as a means to learn and categorize efficiently. We investigate how random projection affects categorization by humans and by very simple neural networks on the same stimuli and categorization tasks, and how this relates to the robustness of categories. We find that (1) drastic reduction in stimulus complexity via random projection does not degrade performance in categorization tasks by either humans or simple neural networks, (2) human accuracy and neural network accuracy are remarkably correlated, even at the level of individual stimuli, and (3) the performance of both is strongly indicated by a natural notion of category robustness.

  17. Humanizing Outgroups Through Multiple Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Prati, Francesca; Crisp, Richard J.; Meleady, Rose; Rubini, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants increased the attribution of uniquely human emotions to them. This effect was explained by the sequential mediation of increased individuation of the outgroup and reduced outgroup threat. Study 3 replicated this sequential mediation model and introduced a novel way of measuring humanization in which participants generated attributes corresponding to the outgroup in a free response format. Participants generated more uniquely human traits in the multiple versus simple categorization conditions. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and consider their role in informing and improving efforts to ameliorate contemporary forms of intergroup discrimination. PMID:26984016

  18. Scene gist categorization by pigeons.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Bilton, Tannis; Hansen, Bruce C; Loschky, Lester C

    2014-04-01

    Scene gist categorization in humans is rapid, accurate, and tuned to the statistical regularities in the visual world. However, no studies have investigated whether scene gist categorization is a general process shared across species, or whether it may be influenced by species-specific adaptive specializations relying on specific low-level scene statistical regularities of the environment. Although pigeons form many types of categorical judgments, little research has examined pigeons' scene categorization, and no studies have examined pigeons' ability to do so rapidly. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained to discriminate between either 2 basic-level categories (beach vs. mountain) or a superordinate-level natural versus a manmade scene category distinction (beach vs. street). The birds learned both tasks to a high degree of accuracy and transferred their discrimination to novel images. Furthermore, the pigeons successfully discriminated stimuli presented in the 0.2- to 0.35-s duration range. Therefore, pigeons, a highly divergent species from humans, are also capable of rapid scene categorization, but they require longer stimulus durations than humans. Experiment 2 examined whether pigeons make use of complex statistical regularities during scene gist categorization across multiple viewpoints. Pigeons were trained with the 2 natural categories from Experiment 1 (beach vs. mountain) with zenith (90°), bird's eye (45°), and terrestrial (0°) viewpoints. A sizable portion of the variability in pigeon categorization performance was explained by the systematic variation in scene category-specific statistical regularities, as with humans. Thus, rapid scene categorization is a process that is shared across pigeons and humans, but shows a degree of adaptive specialization.

  19. Context-Free Categorical Grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauderon, Michel; Chen, Rui; Ly, Olivier

    We define generic categorical notions of rewriting and grammar, using two basic operations, pullback and pushout, and show that these categorical grammars are intrinsically context-free in the sense of Courcelle. We then specialise to various settings, including classical word grammars, hyperedge replacement grammars or node-replacement grammars. We show that some languages which are classical counter-example to context-freeness become context-free within this new framework.

  20. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children.

  1. Children's Literature: Comparing Children's Choices and Critical Acclaim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Barbara A.

    A study compared children's literature which was both popular with children and had received literary awards to those works which achieved only literary awards. Seventeen works of fiction were analyzed and categorized for themes, style, and structure. One adult and one child were interviewed for each work and asked questions about their opinion…

  2. Dental age estimation in Brazilian HIV children using Willems' method.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rafael Boschetti; da Silva Assunção, Luciana Reichert; Franco, Ademir; Zaroni, Fábio Marzullo; Holderbaum, Rejane Maria; Fernandes, Ângela

    2015-12-01

    The notification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Brazilian children was first reported in 1984. Since that time more than 21 thousand children became infected. Approximately 99.6% of the children aged less than 13 years old are vertically infected. In this context, most of the children are abandoned after birth, or lose their relatives in a near future, growing with uncertain identification. The present study aims to estimate the dental age of Brazilian HIV patients in face of healthy patients paired by age and gender. The sample consisted of 160 panoramic radiographs of male (n: 80) and female (n: 80) patients aged between 4 and 15 years (mean age: 8.88 years), divided into HIV (n: 80) and control (n: 80) groups. The sample was analyzed by three trained examiners, using Willems' method, 2001. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to test intra- and inter-examiner agreement, and Student paired t-test was used to determine the age association between HIV and control groups. Intra-examiner (ICC: from 0.993 to 0.997) and inter-examiner (ICC: from 0.991 to 0.995) agreement tests indicated high reproducibility of the method between the examiners (P<0.01). Willems' method revealed discrete statistical overestimation in HIV (2.86 months; P=0.019) and control (1.90 months; P=0.039) groups. However, stratified analysis by gender indicate that overestimation were only concentrated in male HIV (3.85 months; P=0.001) and control (2.86 months; P=0.022) patients. The significant statistical differences are not clinically relevant once only few months of discrepancy are detected applying Willems' method in a Brazilian HIV sample, making this method highly recommended for dental age estimation of both HIV and healthy children with unknown age.

  3. A Look at Children's Conception of Shadows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, Archibald Peterson C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study designed to compare the gradual development of children's understanding of shadows with Piaget's stages, categorize pupil responses in the shadow tasks, identify typical pupil responses in each category, and enumerate curriculum implications from the investigation. (GS)

  4. Relations of Anxiety Sensitivity, Control Beliefs, and Maternal Over-Control to Fears in Clinic-Referred Children with Specific Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Elisabeth J; Braunstein, Kara; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Muris, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The relations of fear to anxiety sensitivity, control beliefs, and maternal overprotection were examined in 126 7- to 13-year-old clinically referred children with specific phobias. Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity and control beliefs were significant predictors of children’s fear levels, accounting for approximately 48% of the total variance. Unexpectedly, age, gender, and maternal overprotection did not emerge as significant predictors of fear in the overall sample. In subsequent analyses, anxiety sensitivity was found to be a consistent, significant predictor for both girls and boys, for both younger and older children, and for children with and without an additional anxiety disorder diagnosis. Control beliefs were only a significant predictor for girls, younger children, and children with an additional anxiety diagnosis. Maternal overprotection was not a significant predictor for any group. Children with an additional anxiety disorder diagnosis had higher levels of fear, anxiety sensitivity, and maternal overprotection, as well as lower levels of control beliefs than the non-additional anxiety disorder subgroup. Future directions and clinical implications are explored. PMID:26273182

  5. Estimating age-based antiretroviral therapy costs for HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings based on World Health Organization weight-based dosing recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected infants and children. To accurately project program costs, analysts need accurate estimations of antiretroviral drug (ARV) costs for children. However, the costing of pediatric antiretroviral therapy is complicated by weight-based dosing recommendations which change as children grow. Methods We developed a step-by-step methodology for estimating the cost of pediatric ARV regimens for children ages 0–13 years old. The costing approach incorporates weight-based dosing recommendations to provide estimated ARV doses throughout childhood development. Published unit drug costs are then used to calculate average monthly drug costs. We compared our derived monthly ARV costs to published estimates to assess the accuracy of our methodology. Results The estimates of monthly ARV costs are provided for six commonly used first-line pediatric ARV regimens, considering three possible care scenarios. The costs derived in our analysis for children were fairly comparable to or slightly higher than available published ARV drug or regimen estimates. Conclusions The methodology described here can be used to provide an accurate estimation of pediatric ARV regimen costs for cost-effectiveness analysts to project the optimum packages of care for HIV-infected children, as well as for program administrators and budget analysts who wish to assess the feasibility of increasing pediatric ART availability in constrained budget environments. PMID:24885453

  6. Children's Solutions for Figural Matrices: Developmental Differences in Strategies and Effects of Matrix Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tests seven- , 10- , and 13-year-olds for developmental differences in processes and strategies involved in geometric matrix solution and the relationship between strategy differences and item complexity. (AS)

  7. Contextual influence of highly valued rewards and penalties on delay decisions in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Marx, Ivo; Pieper, Juliane; Berger, Christoph; Hässler, Frank; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined the influence of both reward and penalty on delay decisions in subjects with ADHD. Eighteen 6- to 13-year-old boys with ADHD (combined or hyperactive-impulsive subtype) along with age- and IQ-matched control participants performed a memory game. If the children were successful at the game, they could choose between a small immediate reward (one white chip in exchange for 5 s of waiting) or a large delayed reward (two white chips in exchange for 60 s of waiting). If they failed, they could choose between a large immediate penalty (two black chips in exchange for 5 s of waiting) or a small delayed penalty (one black chip in exchange for 60 s of waiting). Subsequent to task completion, white chips were exchanged for video time and black chips were exchanged with completion of a written task. All of the participants, regardless of ADHD diagnosis, were motivated to complete the task and chose the delayed alternative most often. We conclude that under highly motivating conditions, children with ADHD are not more delay averse than children from the control group with respect to anticipation of reward and penalty.

  8. Acculturation is Associated With Higher VO2max in Overweight Hispanic Children

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Noé C.; Ball, Geoff D.C.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Cruz, Martha L.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Goran, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    Acculturation has been implicated to be associated with physical activity (PA) behaviors in adults; little is known, however, with respect to the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) and/or PA were associated with acculturation status in overweight Hispanic children. In a sample of 144 children 8–13 years old, acculturation status was determined by place of birth: foreign born (n = 17), 1st generation (n = 101), or 2nd/3rd generation (n = 26), and by questionnaire: less assimilated (n = 76) or more assimilated (n = 34). VO2max was measured using a treadmill protocol, PA was assessed by questionnaire, and body composition by DEXA. ANOVA and ANCOVA were used to determine unadjusted and adjusted group differences, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, the 2nd/3rd generation group had significantly higher VO2max compared with the 1st generation group: 2.26 ± 0.20 L/min vs. 2.15 ± 0.19 L/min, p = .03. No differences were noted for PA, however. Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with higher VO2max in overweight Hispanic children. Longitudinal analyses are needed to determine whether these fitness differences confer protective health effects in this at-risk population. PMID:25197163

  9. Disclosing food allergy status in schools: health-related stigma among school children in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jennifer; Fenton, Nancy E; Shannon, Sara; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann

    2016-09-01

    In 2006, 3 years after the tragic death of 13-year-old Sabrina Shannon, the Province of Ontario (Canada) passed Sabrina's Law ushering in a new era of focus and concern for severe food allergic children at risk of anaphylaxis. Questions were raised at the time regarding the potential of doing more harm than good with the new legislation. This paper reports the experiences of health-related stigma among food allergic children at risk of anaphylaxis who were required to disclose their health status under this new legislation. In 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 children and youth and their parents in order to explore the experiences living with a severe food allergy. This particular study explores their experiences of felt and enacted stigma in the school setting as a result of the disclosure process. Interviews were tape recorded with permission and transcribed for subsequent thematic analysis using NVIVO, a qualitative analysis software package. Results indicate that participants were stigmatised as a result of protective school policies under the law, and that created tension between their physical safety and social well-being. Sabrina's Law also led to a cultural shift in awareness of food allergies that resulted in some participants normalising their health status, offering promising directions for the future.

  10. Categorization by Schema Relations and Perceptual Similarity in 5-Year-Olds and Adults: A Study in Vision and in Audition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Carole; Donnadieu, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    This research explores the way in which young children (5 years of age) and adults use perceptual and conceptual cues for categorizing objects processed by vision or by audition. Three experiments were carried out using forced-choice categorization tasks that allowed responses based on taxonomic relations (e.g., vehicles) or on schema category…

  11. Image categorization for marketing purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almishari, Mishari I.; Lee, Haengju; Gnanasambandam, Nathan

    2011-03-01

    Images meant for marketing and promotional purposes (i.e. coupons) represent a basic component in incentivizing customers to visit shopping outlets and purchase discounted commodities. They also help department stores in attracting more customers and potentially, speeding up their cash flow. While coupons are available from various sources - print, web, etc. categorizing these monetary instruments is a benefit to the users. We are interested in an automatic categorizer system that aggregates these coupons from different sources (web, digital coupons, paper coupons, etc) and assigns a type to each of these coupons in an efficient manner. While there are several dimensions to this problem, in this paper we study the problem of accurately categorizing/classifying the coupons. We propose and evaluate four different techniques for categorizing the coupons namely, word-based model, n-gram-based model, externally weighing model, weight decaying model which take advantage of known machine learning algorithms. We evaluate these techniques and they achieve high accuracies in the range of 73.1% to 93.2%. We provide various examples of accuracy optimizations that can be performed and show a progressive increase in categorization accuracy for our test dataset.

  12. What children do on the Internet: domains visited and their relationship to socio-demographic characteristics and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Linda A; Samona, Ricky; Moomaw, Jeff; Ramsay, Lauren; Murray, Christopher; Smith, Amy; Murray, Lindsay

    2007-04-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families. Participants included 140 children, mostly 13-year-old African American (83%) boys (58%), living in single-parent households (75%) where the median annual income was $15,000 (USD). This report focuses on children's Internet activities, socio-demographic characteristics related to their Internet activities, and the relationship between academic performance and Internet activities. Overall, findings indicate that low-income children initially use the Internet primarily for entertainment. As home Internet use loses its novelty children become more focused in their Internet activities, reducing the number of websites they visit and visiting more websites targeted to their specific interests. Pornography websites are popular initially, especially among boys, but their popularity decreases dramatically after 3 months. Age, race, and sex have little influence on which websites are most popular. Academic performance predicts subsequent Internet activities, and Internet activities predict subsequent academic performance. Directions for future research to identify mechanisms that mediate the relationship between Internet activities and academic performance and implications for the digital divide are discussed.

  13. What children do on the Internet: domains visited and their relationship to socio-demographic characteristics and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Linda A; Samona, Ricky; Moomaw, Jeff; Ramsay, Lauren; Murray, Christopher; Smith, Amy; Murray, Lindsay

    2007-04-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families. Participants included 140 children, mostly 13-year-old African American (83%) boys (58%), living in single-parent households (75%) where the median annual income was $15,000 (USD). This report focuses on children's Internet activities, socio-demographic characteristics related to their Internet activities, and the relationship between academic performance and Internet activities. Overall, findings indicate that low-income children initially use the Internet primarily for entertainment. As home Internet use loses its novelty children become more focused in their Internet activities, reducing the number of websites they visit and visiting more websites targeted to their specific interests. Pornography websites are popular initially, especially among boys, but their popularity decreases dramatically after 3 months. Age, race, and sex have little influence on which websites are most popular. Academic performance predicts subsequent Internet activities, and Internet activities predict subsequent academic performance. Directions for future research to identify mechanisms that mediate the relationship between Internet activities and academic performance and implications for the digital divide are discussed. PMID:17474834

  14. Odor Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and its Relationship to Food Neophobia

    PubMed Central

    Luisier, Anne-Claude; Petitpierre, Genevieve; Ferdenzi, Camille; Clerc Bérod, Annick; Giboreau, Agnes; Rouby, Catherine; Bensafi, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    Atypical sensory functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been well documented in the last decade for the visual, tactile and auditory systems, but olfaction in ASD is still understudied. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with ASD and neuro-typically (NT) developed children differed in odor perception, at the cognitive (familiarity and identification ability), sensorimotor (olfactory exploration) and affective levels (hedonic evaluation). Because an important function of the sense of smell is its involvement in eating, from food selection to appreciation and recognition, a potential link between odor perception and food neophobia was also investigated. To these ends, 10 children between 6 and 13 years old diagnosed with ASD and 10 NT control children were tested. To compare performance, 16 stimuli were used and food neophobia was assessed by the parents on a short food neophobia scale. Results revealed that (i) significant hedonic discrimination between attractive and aversive odors was observed in NT (p = 0.005; d = 2.378) and ASD children (p = 0.042; d = 0.941), and (ii) hedonic discrimination level was negatively correlated with food neophobia scores in ASD (p = 0.007) but not NT children. In conclusion, this study offers new insights into odor perception in ASD children, highlighting a relationship between odor hedonic reactivity and eating behavior. This opens up new perspectives on both (i) the role of olfaction in the construction of eating behavior in ASD children, and (ii) the measurement and meaning of food neophobia in this population. PMID:26648891

  15. Categorical sensitivity to color differences.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2013-01-01

    Categorical perception provides a potential link between color perception and the linguistic categories that correspond to the basic color terms. We examined whether the sensory information of the second-stage chromatic mechanisms is further processed so that sensitivity for color differences yields categorical perception. In this case, sensitivity for color differences should be higher across than within category boundaries. We measured discrimination thresholds (JNDs) and color categories around an isoluminant hue circle in Derrington-Krauskopf-Lennie (DKL) color space at three levels of lightness. At isoluminant lightness, the global pattern of JNDs coarsely followed an ellipse. Deviations from the ellipse coincided with the orange-pink and the blue-green category borders, but these minima were also aligned with the second-stage cone-opponent mechanisms. No evidence for categorical perception of color was found for any other category borders. At lower lightness, categories changed substantially, but JNDs did not change accordingly. Our results point to a loose relationship between color categorization and discrimination. However, the coincidence of some boundaries with JND minima is not a general property of color categorical boundaries. Hence, our basic ability to discriminate colors cannot fully explain why we use the particular set of categories to communicate about colors. Moreover, these findings seriously challenge the idea that color naming forms the basis for the categorical perception of colors. With respect to previous studies that concentrated on the green-blue boundary, our results highlight the importance of controlling perceptual distances and examining the full set of categories when investigating category effects on color perception.

  16. Categorical sensitivity to color differences.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2013-01-01

    Categorical perception provides a potential link between color perception and the linguistic categories that correspond to the basic color terms. We examined whether the sensory information of the second-stage chromatic mechanisms is further processed so that sensitivity for color differences yields categorical perception. In this case, sensitivity for color differences should be higher across than within category boundaries. We measured discrimination thresholds (JNDs) and color categories around an isoluminant hue circle in Derrington-Krauskopf-Lennie (DKL) color space at three levels of lightness. At isoluminant lightness, the global pattern of JNDs coarsely followed an ellipse. Deviations from the ellipse coincided with the orange-pink and the blue-green category borders, but these minima were also aligned with the second-stage cone-opponent mechanisms. No evidence for categorical perception of color was found for any other category borders. At lower lightness, categories changed substantially, but JNDs did not change accordingly. Our results point to a loose relationship between color categorization and discrimination. However, the coincidence of some boundaries with JND minima is not a general property of color categorical boundaries. Hence, our basic ability to discriminate colors cannot fully explain why we use the particular set of categories to communicate about colors. Moreover, these findings seriously challenge the idea that color naming forms the basis for the categorical perception of colors. With respect to previous studies that concentrated on the green-blue boundary, our results highlight the importance of controlling perceptual distances and examining the full set of categories when investigating category effects on color perception. PMID:23732118

  17. Deaf Students and Their Classroom Communication: An Evaluation of Higher Order Categorical Interactions among School and Background Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas E.; Anderson, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigated to what extent age, use of a cochlear implant, parental hearing status, and use of sign in the home determine language of instruction for profoundly deaf children. Categorical data from 8,325 profoundly deaf students from the 2008 Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children and Youth were analyzed using chi-square…

  18. 42 CFR 493.17 - Test categorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... decision by FDA in accordance with 21 CFR 10.75. (ii) Test categorization will be effective as of the... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Test categorization. 493.17 Section 493.17 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 493.17 Test categorization....

  19. 42 CFR 493.17 - Test categorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... decision by FDA in accordance with 21 CFR 10.75. (ii) Test categorization will be effective as of the... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test categorization. 493.17 Section 493.17 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 493.17 Test categorization....

  20. Comparison and Contrast in Perceptual Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Estes, Zachary; Simmons, Claire L.

    2005-01-01

    People categorized pairs of perceptual stimuli that varied in both category membership and pairwise similarity. Experiments 1 and 2 showed categorization of 1 color of a pair to be reliably contrasted from that of the other. This similarity-based contrast effect occurred only when the context stimulus was relevant for the categorization of the…

  1. The irrationality of categorical perception.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Stephen M; Maloney, Laurence T; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2013-12-01

    Perception is often categorical: the perceptual system selects one interpretation of a stimulus even when evidence in favor of other interpretations is appreciable. Such categorization is potentially in conflict with normative decision theory, which mandates that the utility of various courses of action should depend on the probabilities of all possible states of the world, not just that of the one perceived. If these probabilities are lost as a result of categorization, choice will be suboptimal. Here we test for such irrationality in a task that requires human observers to combine perceptual evidence with the uncertain consequences of action. Observers made rapid pointing movements to targets on a touch screen, with rewards determined by perceptual and motor uncertainty. Across both visual and auditory decision tasks, observers consistently placed too much weight on perceptual uncertainty relative to action uncertainty. We show that this suboptimality can be explained as a consequence of categorical perception. Our findings indicate that normative decision making may be fundamentally constrained by the architecture of the perceptual system.

  2. Extracting Sentences To Justify Categorization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruijn, Berry; Martin, Joel; Wolting, Cheryl; Donaldson, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Examines several alternative document summarization techniques to determine which is the most effective for saving time when a human judge must certify the output of an automatic categorization system. That is, how useful is the summarization technique as compared to reading the entire document. Users in this case are molecular biologists wanting…

  3. Investigating Preschoolers' Categorical Thinking about Gender through Imitation, Attention, and the Use of Self-Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Diana M.; David, Barbara J.; Ryan, Michelle K.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas traditional theories of gender development have focused on individualistic paths, recent analyses have argued for a more social categorical approach to children's understanding of gender. Using a modeling paradigm based on K. Bussey and A. Bandura (1984), 3 experiments (N = 62, N = 32, and N = 64) examined preschoolers' (M age = 52.9…

  4. When What's Inside Counts: Sequence of Demonstrated Actions Affects Preschooler's Categorization by Nonobvious Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue--the "sequence" of demonstrated actions and events--in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property…

  5. Categorical Structure among Shared Features in Networks of Early-Learned Nouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Maouene, Mounir; Maouene, Josita; Sheya, Adam; Smith, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The shared features that characterize the noun categories that young children learn first are a formative basis of the human category system. To investigate the potential categorical information contained in the features of early-learned nouns, we examine the graph-theoretic properties of noun-feature networks. The networks are built from the…

  6. Planet Press: an EGU initiative to bring geoscientific research to children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    Planet Press (http://www.egu.eu/education/planet-press/) is an EGU educational project that aims to get children (mainly 7-13 year olds), as well as their parents and educators, interested in and engaged with up-to-date scientific research and news. Planet Press articles are short versions of EGU press releases written in child-friendly language. Because EGU press releases cover research published in the various EGU scientific journals, Planet Press focuses on topics as varied as air pollution, glaciers, climate change, earthquakes, ocean sciences, droughts and floods, or space sciences. The texts are reviewed by both scientists and educators to make sure they are accurate and clear to their target audience. By sharing new and exciting geoscientific research with young kids, we hope to inspire them to develop an interest in the Earth, planetary and space sciences. In this presentation, we describe how the Planet Press idea came about, how the project is run, and the challenges and lessons learnt since the launch of this educational initiative in 2014. Planet Press, which has the support of the EGU Committee on Education, is made possible by the work of volunteer scientists and educators who review and translate the texts. We are grateful for the help of Jane Robb, former EGU Educational Fellow, with launching the project. Planet Press is inspired by Space Scoop (http://www.spacescoop.org/), an initiative by UNAWE, the EU-Universe Awareness organisation, that brings astronomy news to children every week.

  7. Fiber-reinforced Composite Resin Bridge: A Treatment Option in Children

    PubMed Central

    Yelluri, Rama Krishna; Munshi, AK

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A number of treatment options, ranging from Maryland bridges to implants, are available for the replacement of congenitally or traumatically missing permanent anterior teeth. But, there are several limitations of these therapeutic options when they have to be used before the completion of the growth, particularly in children. Reinforcement of composite resins with polyethylene fibers significantly improves their mechanical properties. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) bridge can offer a good alternative to conventional treatment options in replacing a missing permanent anterior tooth until a more definitive prosthesis can be provided at the end of the growth period. The purpose of this article is to present a clinical case of a single tooth replacement utilizing noninvasive and metal free fixed FRC bridge in a 13 years old child as an interim treatment option. How to cite this article: Gupta A, Yelluri RK, Munshi AK. Fiber-reinforced Composite Resin Bridge: A Treatment Option in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):62-65. PMID:26124584

  8. Detecting and categorizing fleeting emotions in faces.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A

    2013-02-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d' analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms.

  9. Vaccination of schoolgirls against rubella. Assessment of serological status and a comparative trial of Wistar RA 27/3 and Cendehill strain live attenuated rubella vaccines in 13-year-old schoolgirls in Dudley.

    PubMed

    Freestone, D S; Reynolds, G M; McKinnon, J A; Prydie, J

    1975-12-01

    A total of 1525 schoolgirls aged 13 years from 21 schools in the County Borough of Dudley, were bled for titration of rubella haemagglutinating inhibiting antibody and then were immediately vaccinated with either Wistar RA 27/3 or Cendehill strain live attenuated. Both vaccines were administered subcutaneously by syringe and needle but the Wistar RA 27/3 vaccine was also given by multiple injection apparatus. Significnatly higher conversion rates and geometric mean haemagglutinating inhibiting antibody titres were obtained in girls initially seronegative given the Wister RA 27/3 than in those given the Cendehill vaccine, regardless of the method of vaccination. The RA 27/3 strain was associated with a small but significantly greater incidence of local pain immediately on injection. With this exception, differences in the occurrence of reactions were not found between vaccines, between those initially susceptible and immune or with the level of antibody response.

  10. Semantic information influences race categorization from faces.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that low-level visual features affect person categorization in a bottom-up fashion. Few studies have examined top-down influences, however, and have largely focused on how information recalled from memory or from motivation influences categorization. Here, we investigated how race categorizations are affected by the context in which targets are perceived by manipulating semantic information associated with the faces being categorized. We found that presenting faces that systematically varied in racial ambiguity with race-congruent (vs. incongruent) semantic labels shifted the threshold at which perceivers distinguished between racial groups. The semantic information offered by the labels therefore appeared to influence the categorization of race. These findings suggest that semantic information creates a context for the interpretation of perceptual cues during social categorization, highlighting an active role of top-down information in race perception. PMID:25810414

  11. Semantic information influences race categorization from faces.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that low-level visual features affect person categorization in a bottom-up fashion. Few studies have examined top-down influences, however, and have largely focused on how information recalled from memory or from motivation influences categorization. Here, we investigated how race categorizations are affected by the context in which targets are perceived by manipulating semantic information associated with the faces being categorized. We found that presenting faces that systematically varied in racial ambiguity with race-congruent (vs. incongruent) semantic labels shifted the threshold at which perceivers distinguished between racial groups. The semantic information offered by the labels therefore appeared to influence the categorization of race. These findings suggest that semantic information creates a context for the interpretation of perceptual cues during social categorization, highlighting an active role of top-down information in race perception.

  12. The development of race-based perceptual categorization: skin color dominates early category judgments.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Yarrow; Stepanova, Elena V; Dotsch, Ron; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Prior research on the development of race-based categorization has concluded that children understand the perceptual basis of race categories from as early as age 4 (e.g. Aboud, 1988). However, such work has rarely separated the influence of skin color from other physiognomic features considered by adults to be diagnostic of race categories. In two studies focusing on Black-White race categorization judgments in children between the ages of 4 and 9, as well as in adults, we find that categorization decisions in early childhood are determined almost entirely by attention to skin color, with attention to other physiognomic features exerting only a small influence on judgments as late as middle childhood. We further find that when skin color cues are largely eliminated from the stimuli, adults readily shift almost entirely to focus on other physiognomic features. However, 6- and 8-year-old children show only a limited ability to shift attention to facial physiognomy and so perform poorly on the task. These results demonstrate that attention to 'race' in younger children is better conceptualized as attention to skin color, inviting a reinterpretation of past work focusing on children's race-related cognition.

  13. 42 CFR 436.124 - Newborn children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Newborn children. 436.124 Section 436.124 Public... the Categorically Needy § 436.124 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is...

  14. 42 CFR 436.124 - Newborn children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Newborn children. 436.124 Section 436.124 Public... the Categorically Needy § 436.124 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is...

  15. 42 CFR 436.124 - Newborn children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Newborn children. 436.124 Section 436.124 Public... the Categorically Needy § 436.124 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is...

  16. 42 CFR 436.124 - Newborn children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 436.124 Section 436.124 Public... the Categorically Needy § 436.124 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is...

  17. 42 CFR 436.124 - Newborn children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Newborn children. 436.124 Section 436.124 Public... the Categorically Needy § 436.124 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is...

  18. Childism and Its Destructive Impact on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Ross

    Just as prejudicial stereotypes about race, sex, social class, and physical appearance have led to inhuman treatment, similar biased concepts exist that support inhuman and oppressive treatment of children. Various "childist" concepts categorize children as property, uncivilized devils, lumps of clay, tiny adults, or infallible angels.…

  19. Taxonomy of Foster Children in Foster Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strijker, J.; Zandberg, T.; van der Meulen, B. F.

    2002-01-01

    Used the Child Behavior Checklists to develop a classification system to categorize behavior problems of foster children and initiated its validation with 91 foster children in The Netherlands. Identified four groups: normal, aggressive- delinquent-social problems, attention-social problems, and withdrawn-social problems. Found that these taxa…

  20. Micronesian Mathematics Program, Level 1, Children's Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gring, Carolyn

    This workbook for children was prepared especially to accompany the level 1 Micronesian Mathematics Program Teacher's Guide. It is to be used to check whether children have learned concepts taught by activities and activity cards. Work is provided for such concepts as color recognition, categorizing, counting, ordering, numeration, contrasting,…

  1. Categorization: The View from Animal Cognition.

    PubMed

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Johnson, Jennifer M; Valleau, Jeanette C; Church, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Exemplar, prototype, and rule theory have organized much of the enormous literature on categorization. From this theoretical foundation have arisen the two primary debates in the literature-the prototype-exemplar debate and the single system-multiple systems debate. We review these theories and debates. Then, we examine the contribution that animal-cognition studies have made to them. Animals have been crucial behavioral ambassadors to the literature on categorization. They reveal the roots of human categorization, the basic assumptions of vertebrates entering category tasks, the surprising weakness of exemplar memory as a category-learning strategy. They show that a unitary exemplar theory of categorization is insufficient to explain human and animal categorization. They show that a multiple-systems theoretical account-encompassing exemplars, prototypes, and rules-will be required for a complete explanation. They show the value of a fitness perspective in understanding categorization, and the value of giving categorization an evolutionary depth and phylogenetic breadth. They raise important questions about the internal similarity structure of natural kinds and categories. They demonstrate strong continuities with humans in categorization, but discontinuities, too. Categorization's great debates are resolving themselves, and to these resolutions animals have made crucial contributions. PMID:27314392

  2. The Role of Individual- and Macro-Level Social Determinants on Young Adolescents' Psychosomatic Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottova, Veronika; Erhart, Michael; Vollebergh, Wilma; Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Morgan, Antony; Gobina, Inese; Jericek, Helena; Cavallo, Franco; Valimaa, Raili; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Gaspar, Tania; Schnohr, Christina W.; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the social determinants of psychosomatic complaints in young adolescents. Using data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, psychosomatic complaints are studied in 98,773 adolescents (11- and 13-year-olds; 48% 11-year-olds, 52% 13-year-olds; 52% females, 48% males) from 34 European countries.…

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Guatemalan school children

    PubMed Central

    Mbowe, Omar; Diaz, Alicia; Wallace, Jana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Jolly, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Guatemala is experiencing a nutritional and lifestyle transition. While chronic malnutrition is prevalent, overweight, obesity and chronic diseases have increased substantially in the country. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the associated cardiovascular risk factors in the pre-adolescent Guatemalan population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 302 Guatemalan children (8–13 years old) attending public and private schools in the Municipality of Chimaltenango. Demographic data and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were collected. A blood sample was taken after an 8-hour overnight fast and analyzed for glucose, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The data were analyzed to identify factors associated with metabolic syndrome and with its components. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 2.0%. However, approximately 54% of the children had at least one component of metabolic syndrome, while none had four or five of the components. The three most prevalent risk factors were high triglycerides (43.4%), low HDL cholesterol (17.2%) and obesity (12.3%). Boys were more likely to be obese than girls and rural children were more likely to have higher triglyceride levels than urban children. Conclusions Although the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is low, the fact that majority of the children already have at least one component of metabolic syndrome is cause for concern since components of metabolic syndrome can continue into adulthood and increase the risk for chronic diseases later in life. Therefore, immediate action should be taken to address the problem. PMID:24337775

  4. A comprehensive study of smoking in primary school children in Hong Kong: implications for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, J; Hedley, A J; Lam, T H; Betson, C L; Wong, C M

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with smoking behaviour in primary school children in Hong Kong. DESIGN: A cross sectional survey in which both children and parents completed questionnaires. The main outcome measure was the smoking status of the children; and risk factors (knowledge of and attitude to smoking and demographic and socioeconomic background) were identified as predictors of ever/never smoking. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Altogether 9598 primary school children, aged 8-13 years, and attending 27 schools from two districts in Hong Kong participated. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of ever-smoking was 12% (1119)-15% (760) in boys and 7% (359) in girls. It ranged from 3% in 8 year old girls to 52% in 13 year old boys. The factors associated with ever-smoking included the following: being a boy (adjusted odds ratio 2.21; 95% confidence interval 1.89, 2.59), increasing age per year (1.48; 1.40, 1.57), living in Kwai Tsing district (1.29; 1.10, 1.50), having one or more smokers at home (2.07; 1.78, 2.39), and having a father who was not working (1.41; 1.19, 1.67). Children who were ever-smokers had both seen and approved of their friends' smoking (8.79; 5.33, 14.50), had a more positive attitude towards smoking (3.35; 2.21, 5.09), and were more successful in recognising cigarette brand names and logos (1.67; 1.42, 1.96), but they lacked confidence (1.78; 1.32, 2.39). CONCLUSIONS: The influences on child smoking are multifactorial and programmes in Hong Kong are falling to curb them. The control of these risk factors must be incorporated in the smoking prevention policy of Hong Kong and supported by future enforced legislation. PMID:9229051

  5. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains.

  6. Perception and Awareness of Accents in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Frederique; Floccia, Caroline; Goslin, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This study examines children's metaphonological awareness for accent-related information in connected speech. In the first experiment, 5- to 6-year-old French-speaking children were asked to discriminate between Southern and Northern accented French in a sentence categorization task. It was found that these children were not able to reliably…

  7. Use of Acoustic Cues by Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giezen, Marcel R.; Escudero, Paola; Baker, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the use of different acoustic cues in auditory perception of consonant and vowel contrasts by profoundly deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI) in comparison to age-matched children and young adults with normal hearing. Method: A speech sound categorization task in an XAB format was administered to 15 children ages…

  8. Grey matter volumes in treatment naïve vs. chronically treated children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a combined approach.

    PubMed

    Villemonteix, Thomas; De Brito, Stéphane A; Kavec, Martin; Balériaux, Danielle; Metens, Thierry; Slama, Hichem; Baijot, Simon; Mary, Alison; Peigneux, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Psychostimulants are the first-line treatment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their effects on brain development remain poorly understood. In particular, previous structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) studies only investigated treatment effects on grey matter (GM) volumes in selected regions of interest (ROIs). In this study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess medication-related GM volume differences across the entire brain. Automated tracing measurements of selected ROIs were also obtained. Three groups (77 participants aged 7-to-13 year old) underwent MRI scans and were compared: never-medicated children with ADHD (n=33), medicated (methylphenidate) children with ADHD (n=20) and typically developing children (TD; n=24). Optimised VBM was used to investigate regional GM volumes, controlling for age and gender. Automated tracing procedures were also used to assess the average volume of the caudate nucleus, the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens. When compared to both medicated children with ADHD and TD children, never-medicated children with ADHD exhibited decreased GM volume in the insula and in the middle temporal gyrus. When compared to TD children, medicated children with ADHD had decreased GM volume in the middle frontal gyrus and in the precentral gyrus. Finally, ROI analyses revealed a significant association between duration of treatment and GM volume of the left nucleus accumbens in medicated children with ADHD. In conclusion, this study documents potential methylphenidate-related GM volume normalization and deviation in previously unexplored brain structures, and reports a positive association between treatment history and GM volume in the nucleus accumbens, a key region for reward-processing.

  9. Children's perception of dialect variation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Laura; Clopper, Cynthia G; Pate, John K

    2014-09-01

    A speaker's regional dialect is a rich source of information about that person. Two studies examined five- to six-year-old children's perception of regional dialect: Can they perceive differences among dialects? Have they made meaningful social connections to specific dialects? Experiment 1 asked children to categorize speakers into groups based on their accent; Experiment 2 asked them to match speakers to (un)familiar cultural items. Each child was tested with two of the following: the child's Home dialect, a Regional variant of that dialect, and a Second-Language variant. Results showed that children could successfully categorize only with a Home vs. Second-Language dialect contrast, but could reliably link cultural items with either a Home vs. Second-Language or a Regional vs. Second-Language dialect contrast. These results demonstrate five- to six-year-old children's developing perceptual skill with dialect, and suggest that they have a gradient representation of dialect variation.

  10. The Role of Within-Language Vocabulary Size in Children's Semantic Development: Evidence from Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Margaux; Nicoladis, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This study tested whether bilingual children show a lag in semantic development (the schematic-categorical shift) relative to monolingual children due to smaller vocabularies within a language. Twenty French-English bilingual and twenty English monolingual children (seven to ten years old) participated in a picture-naming task in English. Their…

  11. Evaluating reading and metacognitive deficits in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Jesús Ma; Puente, Aníbal; Jiménez, Virginia; Arrebillaga, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.

  12. PATHOLOGICAL FRACTURE OF LUMBAR VERTEBRA IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE NEUROLOGICAL DEFICIT: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Bortoletto, Adalberto; Rodrigues, Luiz Cláudio Lacerda; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on a case of lymphoma in a 13-year-old patient who came to a consultation with lumbar pain. The patient had suffered low-intensity trauma in the lumbar region that resulted in persistent pain of progressive nature. In an emergency evaluation, radiographic examination showed a spinal fracture. The patient was then sent to the specialist outpatient clinic of the same hospital. The initial examinations confirmed the diagnosis of a pathological fracture surrounded by a tissue mass, thus indicating the presence of a tumor. Subsequently, the patient evolved with lower-limb paresthesia and urine retention, without any pathological diagnosis for the lesion. The patient then underwent emergency surgery to achieve stabilization and neurological decompression, and material from the lesion was sent for anatomopathological examination. The result from the anatomopathological examination suggested that the lesion was a small-cell tumor, although leaving some doubt. Immunohistochemistry defined the diagnosis of lymphoma. The patient was then sent for oncological treatment. The aim of this study was to report on a rare case of lymphoma in a child with an initial diagnosis of a pathological fracture in the lumbar spine. It is important to investigate fractures associated with mild trauma in children. Precise diagnosis results in effective attendance with better results for these patients. This patient underwent chemotherapy and achieved a good response, with positive repercussions for his prognosis. PMID:27047825

  13. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender. PMID:26773898

  14. Patterns of Children's Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Emily Ellen

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation tests a new account of rapid word learning and vocabulary growth that these processes develop as the result of attentional biases to the features of a category that are relevant to labeling/categorization, built as the result of word-learning experience within each category. Study 1 demonstrated that children's vocabulary size…

  15. A Probabilistic Model of Cross-Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafto, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Mansinghka, Vikash; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    Most natural domains can be represented in multiple ways: we can categorize foods in terms of their nutritional content or social role, animals in terms of their taxonomic groupings or their ecological niches, and musical instruments in terms of their taxonomic categories or social uses. Previous approaches to modeling human categorization have…

  16. 42 CFR 493.17 - Test categorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) When categorizing previously uncategorized new technology; (B) When FDA determines it to be necessary... a change of category or for previously uncategorized new technology, PHS will receive the request.../test categorization utilizing the scoring system under § 493.17(a). (1)(i) For new commercial...

  17. 42 CFR 493.17 - Test categorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... decision by FDA in accordance with 21 CFR 10.75. (ii) Test categorization will be effective as of the... directly, and will simultaneously inform both CMS and CDC of the device/test category. FDA will consult with CDC concerning test categorization in the following three situations: (A) When...

  18. Misclassification Errors and Categorical Data Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Barry M.; McSweeney, Maryellen

    1979-01-01

    Errors of misclassification and their effects on categorical data analysis are discussed. The chi-square test for equality of two proportions is examined in the context of errorful categorical data. The effects of such errors are illustrated. A correction procedure is developed and discussed. (Author/MH)

  19. Categorical facilitation with equally discriminable colors.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of language on color perception. By categorical facilitation, we refer to an aspect of categorical perception, in which the linguistic distinction between categories affects color discrimination beyond the low-level, sensory sensitivity to color differences. According to this idea, discrimination performance for colors that cross a category border should be better than for colors that belong to the same category when controlling for low-level sensitivity. We controlled for sensitivity by using colors that were equally discriminable according to empirically measured discrimination thresholds. To test for categorical facilitation, we measured response times and error rates in a speeded discrimination task for suprathreshold stimuli. Robust categorical facilitation occurred for five out of six categories with a group of inexperienced observers, namely for pink, orange, yellow, green, and purple. Categorical facilitation was robust against individual variations of categories or the laterality of target presentation. However, contradictory effects occurred in the blue category, most probably reflecting the difficulty to control effects of sensory mechanisms at the green-blue boundary. Moreover, a group of observers who were highly familiar with the discrimination task did not show consistent categorical facilitation in the other five categories. This trained group had much faster response times than the inexperienced group without any speed-accuracy trade-off. Additional analyses suggest that categorical facilitation occurs when observers pay attention to the categorical distinction but not when they respond automatically based on sensory feed-forward information. PMID:26129860

  20. Operativity and the Superordinate Categorization of Artifacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricco, Robert B.; Beilin, Harry

    1992-01-01

    The relative consistency in categorization by age-equivalent groups of preoperational and concrete-operational first graders was assessed across two categorization tasks employing color drawings of exemplars of superordinate artifact categories. Results are discussed in terms of the utilization and acquisition of knowledge about superordinate…

  1. The Dynamics of Preschoolers' Categorization Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deak, Gedeon O.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    1996-01-01

    Three experiments explored effects of stimulus and task factors on tendency to categorize according to taxonomic relations when those relations conflict with appearances. When provided with information that constrained categorization, preschoolers and adults reliably based their decisions on taxonomic relations between physically dissimilar items.…

  2. 7 CFR 1b.3 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Categorical exclusions. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.3 Categorical exclusions... individual or cumulative effect on the human environment and are excluded from the preparation...

  3. 7 CFR 1b.3 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categorical exclusions. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.3 Categorical exclusions... individual or cumulative effect on the human environment and are excluded from the preparation...

  4. Categorization: The View from Animal Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C.; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Valleau, Jeanette C.; Church, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Exemplar, prototype, and rule theory have organized much of the enormous literature on categorization. From this theoretical foundation have arisen the two primary debates in the literature—the prototype-exemplar debate and the single system-multiple systems debate. We review these theories and debates. Then, we examine the contribution that animal-cognition studies have made to them. Animals have been crucial behavioral ambassadors to the literature on categorization. They reveal the roots of human categorization, the basic assumptions of vertebrates entering category tasks, the surprising weakness of exemplar memory as a category-learning strategy. They show that a unitary exemplar theory of categorization is insufficient to explain human and animal categorization. They show that a multiple-systems theoretical account—encompassing exemplars, prototypes, and rules—will be required for a complete explanation. They show the value of a fitness perspective in understanding categorization, and the value of giving categorization an evolutionary depth and phylogenetic breadth. They raise important questions about the internal similarity structure of natural kinds and categories. They demonstrate strong continuities with humans in categorization, but discontinuities, too. Categorization’s great debates are resolving themselves, and to these resolutions animals have made crucial contributions. PMID:27314392

  5. Categorization and Sensorimotor Interaction with Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachini, Tina; Borghi, Anna M.; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments were aimed at verifying whether the modality of interaction with objects and the goals defined by the task influences the weight of the properties used for categorization. In Experiment 1 we used everyday objects (cups and glasses). In order to exclude that the results depended on pre-stored categorical knowledge and to assess…

  6. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  7. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  8. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  9. Effect of Minimal Hearing Loss on Children's Ability to Multitask in Quiet and in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Brittany; Pittman, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of minimal hearing loss (HL) on children's ability to perform simultaneous tasks in quiet and in noise. Method: Ten children with minimal HL and 11 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. Both groups ranged in age from 8 to 12 years. The children categorized common words…

  10. Early Gesture Predicts Language Delay in Children with Pre- Or Perinatal Brain Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Eve; Levine, Susan C.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Does early gesture use predict later productive and receptive vocabulary in children with pre- or perinatal unilateral brain lesions (PL)? Eleven children with PL were categorized into 2 groups based on whether their gesture at 18 months was within or below the range of typically developing (TD) children. Children with PL whose gesture was within…

  11. The Development of White-Asian Categorization: Contributions from Skin Color and Other Physiognomic Cues.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Yarrow; Dotsch, Ron; Clark, Amelia R; Stepanova, Elena V

    2016-01-01

    We examined the development of racial categorizations of faces spanning the European-East Asian ("White-Asian") categorical continuum in children between the ages of four and nine as well as adults. We employed a stimulus set that independently varied skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, allowing the contribution of each to be assessed independently and in interaction with each other. Results demonstrated substantial development across this age range in children's ability to draw on both sorts of cue, with over twice as much variance explained by stimulus variation in adults than children. Nonetheless, children were clearly sensitive to both skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, suggesting that understanding of the White-Asian category boundary develops in a somewhat different way than understanding of the White-Black category boundary, in which attention to features other than skin color appear only somewhat later. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for theories of social categorization. PMID:27355683

  12. Endocarditis - children

    MedlinePlus

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  13. Colour categorization by domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Jones, C D; Osorio, D; Baddeley, R J

    2001-10-22

    Spectral stimuli form a physical continuum, which humans divide into discrete non-overlapping regions or categories that are designated by colour names. Little is known about whether non-verbal animals form categories on stimulus continua, but work in psychology and artificial intelligence provides models for stimulus generalization and categorization. We compare predictions of such models to the way poultry chicks (Gallus gallus) generalize to novel stimuli following appetitive training to either one or two colours. If the two training colours are (to human eyes) red and greenish-yellow or green and blue, chicks prefer intermediates, i.e. orange rather than red or yellow and turquoise rather than green or blue. The level of preference for intermediate colours implies that the chicks interpolate between the training stimuli. However, they do not extrapolate beyond the limits set by the training stimuli, at least for red and yellow training colours. Similarly, chicks trained to red and blue generalize to purple, but they do not generalize across grey after training to the complementary colours yellow and blue. These results are consistent with a modified version of a Bayesian model of generalization from multiple examples that was proposed by Shepard and show similarities to human colour categorization.

  14. Correlates of dietary energy sources with cardiovascular disease risk markers in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Monge-Urrea, Adriana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2010-02-01

    Dietary and lifestyle changes in Mexico have been linked to an increase in chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Important dietary changes such as an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods (high in oils, animal or processed fats, and sugars) have been recently reported. The objective of this study was to identify how key dietary energy sources correlated with other indexes of cardiovascular disease in a Mexican school-age population. From 2004 to 2006, a convenience sample (n=228) of 9- to 13-year-olds, 48.2% girls and 51.8% boys, from three public urban schools were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary assessment (two multiple pass 24-hour recalls) were done. More than half of children did not meet the fruit and vegetable recommended intake. High-fat dairy foods (14% of total energy intake), refined carbohydrates (13.5%), red/processed meat (8.5%), added sugars/desserts (7%), corn tortilla (6.5%), and soft drinks/sweetened beverages (5%) were the highest dietary energy sources consumed. In a subgroup of children (n=185), a fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. A positive association was observed between glucose and diastolic blood pressure with the intake of soft drinks/sweetened beverages, insulin concentrations and the intake of white bread, and triglyceride concentrations with the intake of added fats. Unhealthful dietary energy sources are frequently consumed by these children. Culturally competent nutrition counseling should be offered to Mexican-American children and their families with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts should be made to design and implement nutrition education and health promotion strategies in schools. PMID:20102853

  15. Food group and micronutrient intake adequacy among children, adults and elderly women in Greece.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  16. Origins of a stereotype: categorization of facial attractiveness by 6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Langlois, Judith H; Hoss, Rebecca A; Rubenstein, Adam J; Griffin, Angela M

    2004-04-01

    Like adults, young infants prefer attractive to unattractive faces (e.g. Langlois, Roggman, Casey, Ritter, Rieser-Danner & Jenkins, 1987; Slater, von der Schulenburg, Brown, Badenoch, Butterworth, Parsons & Samuels, 1998). Older children and adults stereotype based on facial attractiveness (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani & Longo, 1991; Langlois, Kalakanis, Rubenstein, Larson, Hallam & Smooth, 2000). How do preferences for attractive faces develop into stereotypes? Several theories of stereotyping posit that categorization of groups is necessary before positive and negative traits can become linked to the groups (e.g. Taifel, Billig, Bundy & Flament, 1971; Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1982). We investigated whether or not 6-month-old infants can categorize faces as attractive or unattractive. In Experiment 1, we familiarized infants to unattractive female faces; in Experiment 2, we familiarized infants to attractive female faces and tested both groups of infants on novel faces from the familiar or novel attractiveness category. Results showed that 6-month-olds categorized attractive and unattractive female faces into two different groups of faces. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that infants could discriminate among the faces used in Experiments 1 and 2, and therefore categorized the faces based on their similarities in attractiveness rather than because they could not differentiate among the faces. These findings suggest that categorization of facial attractiveness may underlie the development of the 'beauty is good' stereotype. PMID:15320380

  17. Origins of a stereotype: categorization of facial attractiveness by 6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Langlois, Judith H; Hoss, Rebecca A; Rubenstein, Adam J; Griffin, Angela M

    2004-04-01

    Like adults, young infants prefer attractive to unattractive faces (e.g. Langlois, Roggman, Casey, Ritter, Rieser-Danner & Jenkins, 1987; Slater, von der Schulenburg, Brown, Badenoch, Butterworth, Parsons & Samuels, 1998). Older children and adults stereotype based on facial attractiveness (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani & Longo, 1991; Langlois, Kalakanis, Rubenstein, Larson, Hallam & Smooth, 2000). How do preferences for attractive faces develop into stereotypes? Several theories of stereotyping posit that categorization of groups is necessary before positive and negative traits can become linked to the groups (e.g. Taifel, Billig, Bundy & Flament, 1971; Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1982). We investigated whether or not 6-month-old infants can categorize faces as attractive or unattractive. In Experiment 1, we familiarized infants to unattractive female faces; in Experiment 2, we familiarized infants to attractive female faces and tested both groups of infants on novel faces from the familiar or novel attractiveness category. Results showed that 6-month-olds categorized attractive and unattractive female faces into two different groups of faces. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that infants could discriminate among the faces used in Experiments 1 and 2, and therefore categorized the faces based on their similarities in attractiveness rather than because they could not differentiate among the faces. These findings suggest that categorization of facial attractiveness may underlie the development of the 'beauty is good' stereotype.

  18. Space Structure and Clustering of Categorical Data.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yuhua; Li, Feijiang; Liang, Jiye; Liu, Bing; Dang, Chuangyin

    2016-10-01

    Learning from categorical data plays a fundamental role in such areas as pattern recognition, machine learning, data mining, and knowledge discovery. To effectively discover the group structure inherent in a set of categorical objects, many categorical clustering algorithms have been developed in the literature, among which k -modes-type algorithms are very representative because of their good performance. Nevertheless, there is still much room for improving their clustering performance in comparison with the clustering algorithms for the numeric data. This may arise from the fact that the categorical data lack a clear space structure as that of the numeric data. To address this issue, we propose, in this paper, a novel data-representation scheme for the categorical data, which maps a set of categorical objects into a Euclidean space. Based on the data-representation scheme, a general framework for space structure based categorical clustering algorithms (SBC) is designed. This framework together with the applications of two kinds of dissimilarities leads two versions of the SBC-type algorithms. To verify the performance of the SBC-type algorithms, we employ as references four representative algorithms of the k -modes-type algorithms. Experiments show that the proposed SBC-type algorithms significantly outperform the k -modes-type algorithms.

  19. Population Code Dynamics in Categorical Perception

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Chihiro I.; Tajima, Satohiro; Koida, Kowa; Komatsu, Hidehiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Categorical perception is a ubiquitous function in sensory information processing, and is reported to have important influences on the recognition of presented and/or memorized stimuli. However, such complex interactions among categorical perception and other aspects of sensory processing have not been explained well in a unified manner. Here, we propose a recurrent neural network model to process categorical information of stimuli, which approximately realizes a hierarchical Bayesian estimation on stimuli. The model accounts for a wide variety of neurophysiological and cognitive phenomena in a consistent framework. In particular, the reported complexity of categorical effects, including (i) task-dependent modulation of neural response, (ii) clustering of neural population representation, (iii) temporal evolution of perceptual color memory, and (iv) a non-uniform discrimination threshold, are explained as different aspects of a single model. Moreover, we directly examine key model behaviors in the monkey visual cortex by analyzing neural population dynamics during categorization and discrimination of color stimuli. We find that the categorical task causes temporally-evolving biases in the neuronal population representations toward the focal colors, which supports the proposed model. These results suggest that categorical perception can be achieved by recurrent neural dynamics that approximates optimal probabilistic inference in the changing environment. PMID:26935275

  20. Space Structure and Clustering of Categorical Data.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yuhua; Li, Feijiang; Liang, Jiye; Liu, Bing; Dang, Chuangyin

    2016-10-01

    Learning from categorical data plays a fundamental role in such areas as pattern recognition, machine learning, data mining, and knowledge discovery. To effectively discover the group structure inherent in a set of categorical objects, many categorical clustering algorithms have been developed in the literature, among which k -modes-type algorithms are very representative because of their good performance. Nevertheless, there is still much room for improving their clustering performance in comparison with the clustering algorithms for the numeric data. This may arise from the fact that the categorical data lack a clear space structure as that of the numeric data. To address this issue, we propose, in this paper, a novel data-representation scheme for the categorical data, which maps a set of categorical objects into a Euclidean space. Based on the data-representation scheme, a general framework for space structure based categorical clustering algorithms (SBC) is designed. This framework together with the applications of two kinds of dissimilarities leads two versions of the SBC-type algorithms. To verify the performance of the SBC-type algorithms, we employ as references four representative algorithms of the k -modes-type algorithms. Experiments show that the proposed SBC-type algorithms significantly outperform the k -modes-type algorithms. PMID:26441455

  1. The effect of lower body stabilization and different writing tools on writing biomechanics in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Lien, Yueh-Ju; Yu, Yu-Chun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Wu, David Bin-Chia

    2013-04-01

    A high percentage of children with cerebral palsy (CP) have difficulty keeping up with the handwriting demands at school. Previous studies have addressed the effects of proper sitting and writing tool on writing performance, but less on body biomechanics. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of lower body stabilization and pencil design on body biomechanics in children with CP. Fourteen children (12.31±4.13 years old) with CP were recruited for this study. A crossover repeated measures design was employed, with two independent variables: lower body stabilization (with/without) and pencil (regular/assigned grip height/biaxial). The writing task was to trace the Archimedean spiral mazes. Electromyography (EMG) of the upper extremity, the wrist flexion/extension movements, and the whole body photography were recorded to quantify the changes in posture and upper extremity biomechanics. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. No significant main effects were revealed in the EMG and wrist kinematics. The lower body stabilization significantly decreased the trunk lateral and forward deviations, and the visual focus-vertical angle. The biaxial pencil and the assigned grip height design significantly decreased the head, shoulder, trunk, and pelvic deviations compared with the regular design. The results indicated that the lower body positioning was effective in improving the trunk posture. A pencil with an assigned grip height or with a biaxial design could improve head, shoulder, trunk and pelvic alignment, but did not influence the muscle exertion of the upper extremity. This study could provide guidelines for parents, teachers and clinicians regarding the selection of writing tools and the knowledge of proper positioning for the children with handwriting difficulties. Further analyses can focus on the design, modification and clinical application of assitive sitting and writing devices for the use in children with handwriting

  2. Importance of android/gynoid fat ratio in predicting metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in normal weight as well as overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Samsell, Lennie; Regier, Michael; Walton, Cheryl; Cottrell, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that android or truncal obesity is associated with a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, yet there is evidence that gynoid fat distribution may be protective. However, these studies have focused on adults and obese children. The purpose of our study was to determine if the android/gynoid fat ratio is positively correlated with insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR, and dislipidemia in a child sample of varying body sizes. In 7-13-year-old children with BMI percentiles ranging from 0.1 to 99.6, the android/gynoid ratio was closely associated with insulin resistance and combined LDL + VLDL-cholesterol. When separated by sex, it became clear that these relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. For boys, the android/gynoid ratio was significantly related to insulin resistance regardless of BMI tertile with and LDL + VLDL in tertiles 1 and 3. For girls, only LDL + VLDL showed any significance with android/gynoid ratio and only in tertile 2. We conclude that the android/gynoid fat ratio is closely associated with insulin resistance and LDL + VLDL-, "bad," cholesterol in normal weight boys and may provide a measurement of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in that population.

  3. Evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R; Clegg, Nancy J; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2±2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger-tapping task and the resting-state functional connectivity were quantified before, immediately after, and 6 months after CIMT. These fNIRS-based metrics were used to help explain changes in clinical scores of manual performance obtained concurrently with imaging time points. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8±1.3 years old) were also imaged to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. Interestingly, the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted 6 months later. In contrast to this improved localized activation response, the laterality index and resting-state connectivity metrics that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed 6 months later. In addition, for the subjects measured in this work, there was either a trade-off between improving unimanual versus bimanual performance when sensorimotor activation patterns normalized after CIMT, or an improvement occurred in both unimanual and bimanual performance but at the cost of very abnormal plastic changes in sensorimotor activity.

  4. Importance of Android/Gynoid Fat Ratio in Predicting Metabolic and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Normal Weight as well as Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that android or truncal obesity is associated with a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, yet there is evidence that gynoid fat distribution may be protective. However, these studies have focused on adults and obese children. The purpose of our study was to determine if the android/gynoid fat ratio is positively correlated with insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR, and dislipidemia in a child sample of varying body sizes. In 7–13-year-old children with BMI percentiles ranging from 0.1 to 99.6, the android/gynoid ratio was closely associated with insulin resistance and combined LDL + VLDL-cholesterol. When separated by sex, it became clear that these relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. For boys, the android/gynoid ratio was significantly related to insulin resistance regardless of BMI tertile with and LDL + VLDL in tertiles 1 and 3. For girls, only LDL + VLDL showed any significance with android/gynoid ratio and only in tertile 2. We conclude that the android/gynoid fat ratio is closely associated with insulin resistance and LDL + VLDL-, “bad,” cholesterol in normal weight boys and may provide a measurement of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in that population. PMID:25302115

  5. Evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2±2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger-tapping task and the resting-state functional connectivity were quantified before, immediately after, and 6 months after CIMT. These fNIRS-based metrics were used to help explain changes in clinical scores of manual performance obtained concurrently with imaging time points. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8±1.3 years old) were also imaged to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. Interestingly, the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted 6 months later. In contrast to this improved localized activation response, the laterality index and resting-state connectivity metrics that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed 6 months later. In addition, for the subjects measured in this work, there was either a trade-off between improving unimanual versus bimanual performance when sensorimotor activation patterns normalized after CIMT, or an improvement occurred in both unimanual and bimanual performance but at the cost of very abnormal plastic changes in sensorimotor activity.

  6. Evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2±2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger-tapping task and the resting-state functional connectivity were quantified before, immediately after, and 6 months after CIMT. These fNIRS-based metrics were used to help explain changes in clinical scores of manual performance obtained concurrently with imaging time points. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8±1.3 years old) were also imaged to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. Interestingly, the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted 6 months later. In contrast to this improved localized activation response, the laterality index and resting-state connectivity metrics that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed 6 months later. In addition, for the subjects measured in this work, there was either a trade-off between improving unimanual versus bimanual performance when sensorimotor activation patterns normalized after CIMT, or an improvement occurred in both unimanual and bimanual performance but at the cost of very abnormal plastic changes in sensorimotor activity. PMID:25900145

  7. Essentializing race: its implications on racial categorization.

    PubMed

    Chao, Melody Manchi; Hong, Ying-yi; Chiu, Chi-yue

    2013-04-01

    Racial classification has drawn increasing attention in public discourse; it intertwines with issues related to racialized perceptions. However, few social psychological studies have systematically examined racial categorization processes and their implications for interracial relations. In 5 studies, we investigated the role of racial essentialism in influencing several important psychological aspects of racial categorization. Results linked the belief in racial essentialism to an increased tendency to engage in race-based categorization (Studies 1-3) and greater sensitivity in discerning racial group membership (Studies 4-5). These results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding and managing interracial relations in the United States.

  8. The role of within-language vocabulary size in children's semantic development: evidence from bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Keith, Margaux; Nicoladis, Elena

    2013-09-01

    This study tested whether bilingual children show a lag in semantic development (the schematic-categorical shift) relative to monolingual children due to smaller vocabularies within a language. Twenty French-English bilingual and twenty English monolingual children (seven to ten years old) participated in a picture-naming task in English. Their errors were coded for schematic or categorical relations. The bilingual children made more schematic errors than monolinguals, a difference that was accounted for statistically by vocabulary score differences. This result suggests that within-language vocabulary size is one important factor in semantic development and may explain why bilingual children sometimes show a lag relative to monolingual children in one of their languages, perhaps the language in which they have received less formal instruction.

  9. Default mode network segregation and social deficits in autism spectrum disorder: Evidence from non-medicated children.

    PubMed

    Yerys, Benjamin E; Gordon, Evan M; Abrams, Danielle N; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Weinblatt, Rachel; Jankowski, Kathryn F; Strang, John; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gaillard, William D; Vaidya, Chandan J

    2015-01-01

    Functional pathology of the default mode network is posited to be central to social-cognitive impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Altered functional connectivity of the default mode network's midline core may be a potential endophenotype for social deficits in ASD. Generalizability from prior studies is limited by inclusion of medicated participants and by methods favoring restricted examination of network function. This study measured resting-state functional connectivity in 22 8-13 year-old non-medicated children with ASD and 22 typically developing controls using seed-based and network segregation functional connectivity methods. Relative to controls the ASD group showed both under- and over-functional connectivity within default mode and non-default mode regions, respectively. ASD symptoms correlated negatively with the connection strength of the default mode midline core-medial prefrontal cortex-posterior cingulate cortex. Network segregation analysis with the participation coefficient showed a higher area under the curve for the ASD group. Our findings demonstrate that the default mode network in ASD shows a pattern of poor segregation with both functional connectivity metrics. This study confirms the potential for the functional connection of the midline core as an endophenotype for social deficits. Poor segregation of the default mode network is consistent with an excitation/inhibition imbalance model of ASD.

  10. Cross-sectional study of phoneme and rhyme monitoring abilities in children between 7 and 13 years

    PubMed Central

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2011-01-01

    We investigated phonemic competence in production in three age groups of children – 7 and 8 years, 10 and 11 years, 12 and 13 years—using rhyme and phoneme monitoring. Participants were required to name target pictures silently while monitoring covert speech for the presence or absence of a rhyme or phoneme match. Performance in the verbal tasks was compared to a nonverbal control task in which participants monitored tone sequence pairs for a pattern match. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between the three age groups in phoneme monitoring while similar differences were limited to the younger age groups in rhyme monitoring. This finding supported early and on-going acquisition of rhyme- and later acquisition of segment-level units. In addition, the 7 and 8-year-olds were significantly slower in monitoring phonemes within consonant clusters compared to the 10 and 11-year-olds and in monitoring both singleton phonemes and phonemes within clusters compared to the 12 and 13-year-olds. Regression analysis revealed that age accounted for approximately 30% variance in the nonverbal and 60% variance in the verbal monitoring tasks. We attribute the observed differences to the emergence of cognitive processes such as segmentation skills that are critical to performing the verbal monitoring tasks. PMID:23204597

  11. Dietary exposure of children and teenagers to benzoates, sulphites, butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluen (BHT) in Beirut (Lebanon).

    PubMed

    Soubra, L; Sarkis, D; Hilan, C; Verger, Ph

    2007-02-01

    The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for a considered chemical is by definition the amount of that substance which can be ingested every day during the life time without appreciable health risk. The theoretical risk of exceeding the ADI for benzoates, sulphites, butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluen (BHT) has often been examined on the basis of worst case scenario. The aim of this paper is to assess the actual intake of the food additives listed above for a group of the Lebanese population (students aged between 9 and 18 years old) likely to be highly exposed to food additives through the consumption of processed foods. Dietary exposure was obtained by combining food consumption data with food additives levels determined by chemical analysis. Food products available in Lebanon and containing added benzoates, sulphites, BHA and BHT were identified. Overall 420 samples of foods and beverages were analysed. The determination of food additives residue levels was carried out according to the official methods adopted in "Lebanese Institute for agronomic research" (IRAL) on food as consumed. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) could be exceeded for sulphites and BHT by a fraction of the population, in particular within children of 9-13 years old. Among all food additive-containing foods, the highest contributors were: soft drinks to benzoates intake, nuts and canned juices to sulphites intake, bread and biscuits to BHA intake and chewing gum to BHT intake.

  12. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Chantal N.; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Vasić, Nada; Avrutin, Sergey; Blom, Elma

    2016-01-01

    When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children’s literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children’s grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children’s grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children’s cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children’s executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition) task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children’s messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children’s grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally) significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children’s grammar performance. On the other hand, use

  13. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    PubMed

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  14. White-Matter Development is Different in Bilingual and Monolingual Children: A Longitudinal DTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10–13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways. PMID:25706865

  15. The Development of White-Asian Categorization: Contributions from Skin Color and Other Physiognomic Cues

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Yarrow; Dotsch, Ron; Clark, Amelia R.; Stepanova, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the development of racial categorizations of faces spanning the European–East Asian (“White–Asian”) categorical continuum in children between the ages of four and nine as well as adults. We employed a stimulus set that independently varied skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, allowing the contribution of each to be assessed independently and in interaction with each other. Results demonstrated substantial development across this age range in children’s ability to draw on both sorts of cue, with over twice as much variance explained by stimulus variation in adults than children. Nonetheless, children were clearly sensitive to both skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, suggesting that understanding of the White-Asian category boundary develops in a somewhat different way than understanding of the White-Black category boundary, in which attention to features other than skin color appear only somewhat later. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for theories of social categorization. PMID:27355683

  16. From perceptual to language-mediated categorization

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Gert; Mareschal, Denis

    2014-01-01

    From at least two months onwards, infants can form perceptual categories. During the first year of life, object knowledge develops from the ability to represent individual object features to representing correlations between attributes and to integrate information from different sources. At the end of the first year, these representations are shaped by labels, opening the way to conceptual knowledge. Here, we review the development of object knowledge and object categorization over the first year of life. We then present an artificial neural network model that models the transition from early perceptual categorization to categories mediated by labels. The model informs a current debate on the role of labels in object categorization by suggesting that although labels do not act as object features they nevertheless affect perceived similarity of perceptually distinct objects sharing the same label. The model presents the first step of an integrated account from early perceptual categorization to language-based concept learning. PMID:24324235

  17. EFFECTS OF TALKER GENDER ON DIALECT CATEGORIZATION.

    PubMed

    Clopper, Cynthia G; Conrey, Brianna; Pisoni, David B

    2005-06-01

    The identification of the gender of an unfamiliar talker is an easy and automatic process for naïve adult listeners. Sociolinguistic research has consistently revealed gender differences in the production of linguistic variables. Research on the perception of dialect variation, however, has been limited almost exclusively to male talkers. In the present study, naïve participants were asked to categorize unfamiliar talkers by dialect using sentence-length utterances under three presentation conditions: male talkers only, female talkers only, and a mixed gender condition. The results revealed no significant differences in categorization performance across the three presentation conditions. However, a clustering analysis of the listeners' categorization errors revealed significant effects of talker gender on the underlying perceptual similarity spaces. The present findings suggest that naïve listeners are sensitive to gender differences in speech production and are able to use those differences to reliably categorize unfamiliar male and female talkers by dialect.

  18. 7 CFR 520.5 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Department of Agriculture categorical exclusions (7 CFR 1b.3). (1) Policy development, planning and... environment; (iii) Testing outside of the laboratory, such as in small isolated field plots, which does...

  19. 7 CFR 520.5 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Department of Agriculture categorical exclusions (7 CFR 1b.3). (1) Policy development, planning and... environment; (iii) Testing outside of the laboratory, such as in small isolated field plots, which does...

  20. Random matrix approach to categorical data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Aashay; Santhanam, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    Correlation and similarity measures are widely used in all the areas of sciences and social sciences. Often the variables are not numbers but are instead qualitative descriptors called categorical data. We define and study similarity matrix, as a measure of similarity, for the case of categorical data. This is of interest due to a deluge of categorical data, such as movie ratings, top-10 rankings, and data from social media, in the public domain that require analysis. We show that the statistical properties of the spectra of similarity matrices, constructed from categorical data, follow random matrix predictions with the dominant eigenvalue being an exception. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the data for Indian general elections and sea level pressures in the North Atlantic ocean.

  1. Knee Muscle Strength at Varying Angular Velocities and Associations with Gross Motor Function in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hseih-Ching; Shen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chung-Yao; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of muscle strength at different angular velocities and gross motor functions in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study included 33 ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-15 years and 15 children with normal development. Children with CP were categorized into level I (n =…

  2. Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial on additional long-term weight effects of parent training.

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kroeller, Katja; Haerting, Johannes; Unverzagt, Susanne; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances 'obesity-specific' parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7-13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects.

  3. Council for Exceptional Children: Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TEACHING Exceptional Children, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the "Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)" presents Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. The statement presents an approach for categorizing the evidence base of practices in special education. The quality indicators and the criteria for categorizing the evidence base of special education…

  4. Children's Subjective Identification with Social Groups: A Self-Stereotyping Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Mark; Sani, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    We contend that previous work on children's identification with social groups has looked at the mere categorization of the self in group terms and not subjective identification properly conceived. Drawing upon self-categorization theory, the present research operationalizes identification as self-stereotyping (i.e. the ability to conceive of the…

  5. Toddlers Can Adaptively Change How They Categorize: Same Objects, Same Session, Two Different Categorical Distinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Jessica S.; Ellis, Ann E.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Trejo, Erika; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Peltan, Jessica R.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrate that 14- to 18-month-old toddlers can adaptively change how they categorize a set of objects within a single session, and that this ability is related to vocabulary size. In both experiments, toddlers were presented with a sequential touching task with objects that could be categorized either according to some…

  6. Relative cue encoding in the context of sophisticated models of categorization: Separating information from categorization

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Traditional studies of human categorization often treat the processes of encoding features and cues as peripheral to the question of how stimuli are categorized. However, in domains where the features and cues are less transparent, how information is encoded prior to categorization may constrain our understanding of the architecture of categorization. This is particularly true in speech perception, where acoustic cues to phonological categories are ambiguous and influenced by multiple factors. Here, it is crucial to consider the joint contributions of the information in the input and the categorization architecture. We contrasted accounts that argue for raw acoustic information encoding with accounts that posit that cues are encoded relative to expectations, and investigated how two categorization architectures—exemplar models and back-propagation parallel distributed processing models—deal with each kind of information. Relative encoding, akin to predictive coding, is a form of noise reduction, so it can be expected to improve model accuracy; however, like predictive coding, the use of relative encoding in speech perception by humans is controversial, so results are compared to patterns of human performance, rather than on the basis of overall accuracy. We found that, for both classes of models, in the vast majority of parameter settings, relative cues greatly helped the models approximate human performance. This suggests that expectation-relative processing is a crucial precursor step in phoneme categorization, and that understanding the information content is essential to understanding categorization processes. PMID:25475048

  7. Stimulus Type, Level of Categorization, and Spatial-Frequencies Utilization: Implications for Perceptual Categorization Hierarchies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Assaf; Bentin, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    The type of visual information needed for categorizing faces and nonface objects was investigated by manipulating spatial frequency scales available in the image during a category verification task addressing basic and subordinate levels. Spatial filtering had opposite effects on faces and airplanes that were modulated by categorization level. The…

  8. Gender identity in a group of retarded children.

    PubMed

    Abelson, G; Paluszny, M

    1978-12-01

    The Michigan Gender Identity Test (MGIT) was administered to 52 retarded and 36 normal children to assess the acquisition of gender identity. This instrument required the ability to sort and categorize photographs of boys and girls wearing conventional clothing and with conventional hair-styles. As part of the test, each child was expected to recognize a self-photo and to be able to categorize it as a boy or a girl. In general, a significant correlation was found between MGIT performance and mental age for the retarded children. The performance of the normal children correlated significantly with both chronological age and mental age.

  9. Children's Book Preferences: Patterns, Particulars, and Possible Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boraks, Nancy; Hoffman, Amy; Bauer, David

    1997-01-01

    Surveys 315 fourth- and fifth-grade inner city and suburban children from Virginia and Ohio about their "most favorite" book, with titles categorized by literary genre. Finds little overlap with individual titles but emergence of some genre patterns--girls favoring realistic fiction and boys selecting fantasy; inner city children selecting fantasy…

  10. Young Chinese Children's Justifications of Plants as Living Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to explore how Chinese preschool children categorize plants into either living or nonliving things. The research was framed within the interpretive paradigm and was designed as a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Participants were children 4 to 6 years of age from 3 kindergartens in Jiangsu…

  11. Characterizing Children's Spontaneous Interests in Science and Technology. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Yarden, Anat

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of 1676 science and technology questions submitted by Israeli children to a series of television programmes. It categorizes the children's questions with reference to five different coding schemes: field of interest, motivation for asking the question, type of information requested, country-specific…

  12. Children's Perception of Dialect Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Laura; Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pate, John K.

    2014-01-01

    A speaker's regional dialect is a rich source of information about that person. Two studies examined five- to six-year-old children's perception of regional dialect: Can they perceive differences among dialects? Have they made meaningful social connections to specific dialects? Experiment 1 asked children to categorize speakers into…

  13. Young Children's Reasoning and Recall in an Object Manipulation Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junn, Ellen; Sugarman, Susan

    A study investigated developments in reasoning and memory as reflected by the discovery strategies of children taking part in a manipulative categorization and recall task. A total of 40 children (8 each of 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 months of age) participated. Stimulus materials consisting of blocks, toy plates, discs, and plastic trees were…

  14. A Multi-Component Day-Camp Weight-Loss Program Is Effective in Reducing BMI in Children after One Year: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Andersen, Lars Bo; Heidemann, Malene; Møller, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year multi-component immersive day-camp weight-loss intervention for children with overweight and obesity. The study design was a parallel-group randomized controlled trial. One hundred fifteen 11-13-year-old children with overweight and obesity were randomized into either: A six-week day-camp intervention arm focusing on increased physical activity, and healthy diet followed by a subsequent one-year family-based intervention, or a standard intervention arm consisting of one weekly exercise session for six weeks. Body mass index (BMI) was the primary outcome. BMI z-score, clustered cardiovascular risk z-score, and body composition were secondary outcomes. All outcomes were measured at baseline, six week-, and 52 week follow-up. After six weeks, children from the day-camp intervention arm had improved their BMI (-2.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -2.6 to -1.7, P<0.001)) and all secondary outcomes when compared to the children from the standard intervention arm. After 52 weeks, the day-camp intervention arm had a lower BMI (-1.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -1.8 to -0.5, P = 0.001)), and BMI z-score (-0.20 (95% CI -0.35 to -0.05, P = 0.008)), and clustered cardiovascular risk z-score (-0.23 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.08, P = 0.002)) compared to the standard intervention arm. No group differences were detected in body composition after 52 weeks. This study shows that the day-camp intervention arm is effective in reducing BMI and improving the metabolic health of children with overweight and obesity. However, the effects seem to be diminishing over time. PMID:27362497

  15. Are short normal children at a disadvantage? The Wessex growth study.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, A. B.; Mulligan, J.; Stratford, R. J.; Betts, P. R.; Voss, L. D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether short stature through childhood represents a disadvantage at around 12 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal non-intervention study of the physical and psychological development of children recruited from the community in 1986-7 after entry into primary school at age 5-6 years; this is the second psychometric assessment made in 1994-5 after entry into secondary school at age 11-13 years. SETTING: Southampton and Winchester health districts. SUBJECTS: 106 short normal children (< 3rd centile for height when recruited) and 119 controls of average stature (10th-90th centile). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychometric measures of cognitive development, self concept development, behaviour, and locus of control. RESULTS: The short children did not differ significantly from the control children on measures of self esteem (19.4 v 20.2), self perception (104.2 v 102.4), parents' perception (46.9 v 47.0), or behaviour (6.8 v 5.3). The short children achieved significantly lower scores on measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) (102.6 v 108.6; P < 0.005), reading attainment (44.3 v 47.9; P < 0.002), and basic number skills (40.2 v 43.5; P < 0.003) and displayed less internalisation of control (16.6 v 14.3; P < 0.001) and less satisfaction with their height (P < 0.0001). More short than control children, however, came from working class homes (P < 0.05). Social class was a better predictor than height of all measures except that of body satisfaction. Attainment scores were predicted by class and IQ together rather than by height. Height accounted for some of the variance in IQ and locus of control scores. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide only limited support for the hypothesis that short children are disadvantaged, at least up until 11-13 years old. Social class seems to have more influence than height on children's psychological development. PMID:9006466

  16. Causal structure in categorical quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Raymond Ashwin

    Categorical quantum mechanics is a way of formalising the structural features of quantum theory using category theory. It uses compound systems as the primitive notion, which is formalised by using symmetric monoidal categories. This leads to an elegant formalism for describing quantum protocols such as quantum teleportation. In particular, categorical quantum mechanics provides a graphical calculus that exposes the information flow of such protocols in an intuitive way. However, the graphical calculus also reveals surprising features of these protocols; for example, in the quantum teleportation protocol, information appears to flow `backwards-in-time'. This leads to question of how causal structure can be described within categorical quantum mechanics, and how this might lead to insight regarding the structural compatibility between quantum theory and relativity. This thesis is concerned with the project of formalising causal structure in categorical quantum mechanics. We begin by studying an abstract view of Bell-type experiments, as described by `no-signalling boxes', and we show that under time-reversal no-signalling boxes generically become signalling. This conflicts with the underlying symmetry of relativistic causal structure. This leads us to consider the framework of categorical quantum mechanics from the perspective of relativistic causal structure. We derive the properties that a symmetric monoidal category must satisfy in order to describe systems in such a background causal structure. We use these properties to define a new type of category, and this provides a formal framework for describing protocols in spacetime. We explore this new structure, showing how it leads to an understanding of the counter-intuitive information flow of protocols in categorical quantum mechanics. We then find that the formal properties of our new structure are naturally related to axioms for reconstructing quantum theory, and we show how a reconstruction scheme based on

  17. Children's Performance in Complex Listening Conditions: Effects of Hearing Loss and Digital Noise Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of hearing loss (HL) on children's performance for an auditory task under demanding listening conditions and to determine the effect of digital noise reduction (DNR) on that performance. Method: Fifty children with normal hearing (NH) and 30 children with HL (8-12 years of age) categorized words in the presence of…

  18. The Vulnerable Child: What Really Hurts America's Children and What We Can Do about It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard

    This book examines the stereotypes and superficial categorizations of America's children in crisis, and discusses the nature of childhood disadvantage. Findings from interviews with children and professionals, and a reexamination of past and present research, reveal that most children at risk are not poor. The evidence suggests that factors such…

  19. Are the Competent the Morally Good? Perspective Taking and Moral Motivation of Children Involved in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Keller, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis of the cognitively competent but morally insensitive bully. On the basis of teacher and peer ratings, 212 young elementary school children were selected and categorized as bullies, bully-victims, victims, and prosocial children. Children's perspective-taking skills were assessed using theory-of-mind tasks,…

  20. Memory Strategies and Retrieval Success in Preschool Children: Relations to Maternal Behavior over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guler, O. Evren; Larkina, Marina; Kleinknecht, Erica; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined how maternal strategic behaviors during a mother-child collaborative sort-recall task of categorically similar items related to children's recall and children's strategic behavior in a sort-recall task that they completed independently. Mother-child dyads participated in the collaborative sort-recall task when children were 40 months…

  1. Development of Refractive Error in Individual Children With Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyun; Ren, Xiaowei; Shen, Li; Yanni, Susan E.; Leffler, Joel N.; Birch, Eileen E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated longitudinally the refraction development in children with regressed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), including those with and those without a history of peripheral retinal laser photocoagulation. Methods. Longitudinal (0–7 years) cycloplegic refraction data were collected prospectively for two groups of preterm children: severe ROP group included those with regressed ROP following bilateral panretinal laser photocoagulation (n = 37; median gestational age [GA] = 25.2; range, 22.7–27.9 weeks) and mild/no ROP group included those with spontaneously regressed ROP or no ROP (n = 27; median GA = 27.1; range, 23.1–32.0 weeks). Analyses were based on spherical equivalent (SEQ), anisometropia, astigmatism, and age (corrected for gestation). Results. The prevalence, magnitude, and rate of myopic progression all were significantly higher in the severe ROP group than in the mild/no ROP group. Longitudinal SEQ in the severe ROP group were best fit with a bilinear model. Before 1.3 years old, the rate of myopic shift was −4.7 diopters (D)/y; after 1.3 years, the rate slowed to −0.15 D/y. Longitudinal SEQ in the mild/no ROP group was best fit with a linear model, with a rate of −0.004 D/y. Anisometropia in the severe ROP group increased approximately three times faster than in the mild/no ROP group. In the severe ROP group, with-the-rule astigmatism increased significantly with age. Conclusions. The severe ROP group progressed rapidly toward myopia, particularly during the first 1.3 years; anisometropia and astigmatism also increased with age. The mild/no ROP group showed little change in refraction. Infants treated with laser photocoagulation for severe ROP should be monitored with periodic cycloplegic refractions and provided with early optical correction. PMID:23920368

  2. CATEGORIZATION OF EVENT SEQUENCES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    G.E. Ragan; P. Mecheret; D. Dexheimer

    2005-04-14

    The purposes of this analysis are: (1) Categorize (as Category 1, Category 2, or Beyond Category 2) internal event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. (2) Categorize external event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. This includes examining DBGM-1 seismic classifications and upgrading to DBGM-2, if appropriate, to ensure Beyond Category 2 categorization. (3) State the design and operational requirements that are invoked to make the categorization assignments valid. (4) Indicate the amount of material put at risk by Category 1 and Category 2 event sequences. (5) Estimate frequencies of Category 1 event sequences at the maximum capacity and receipt rate of the repository. (6) Distinguish occurrences associated with normal operations from event sequences. It is beyond the scope of the analysis to propose design requirements that may be required to control radiological exposure associated with normal operations. (7) Provide a convenient compilation of the results of the analysis in tabular form. The results of this analysis are used as inputs to the consequence analyses in an iterative design process that is depicted in Figure 1. Categorization of event sequences for permanent retrieval of waste from the repository is beyond the scope of this analysis. Cleanup activities that take place after an event sequence and other responses to abnormal events are also beyond the scope of the analysis.

  3. Nutritional status of children and adolescents based on body mass index: agreement between World Health Organization and International Obesity Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Cavazzotto, Timothy Gustavo; Brasil, Marcos Roberto; Oliveira, Vinicius Machado; da Silva, Schelyne Ribas; Ronque, Enio Ricardo V.; Queiroga, Marcos Roberto; Serassuelo, Helio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the agreement between two international criteria for classification of children and adolescents nutritional status. Methods: The study included 778 girls and 863 boys aged from six to 13 years old. Body mass and height were measured and used to calculate the body mass index. Nutritional status was classified according to the cut-off points defined by the World Health Organization and the International Obesity Task Force. The agreement was evaluated using Kappa statistic and weighted Kappa. Results: In order to classify the nutritional status, the agreement between the criteria was higher for the boys (Kappa 0.77) compared to girls (Kappa 0.61). The weighted Kappa was also higher for boys (0.85) in comparison to girls (0.77). Kappa index varied according to age. When the nutritional status was classified in only two categories - appropriate (thinness + accentuated thinness + eutrophy) and overweight (overweight + obesity + severe obesity) -, the Kappa index presented higher values than those related to the classification in six categories. Conclusions: A substantial agreement was observed between the criteria, being higher in males and varying according to the age. PMID:24676189

  4. Young Children's Block Play and Mathematical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Boyoung; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Boyd, Barbara Foulks

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated young children's mathematical engagement in play with wooden unit blocks. Two boys, ages 6 and 7, were independently observed completing the task of filling outlined regions with the various sets of blocks. Three major mathematical actions were observed: categorizing geometric shapes, composing a larger shape…

  5. The Research of Tax Text Categorization based on Rough Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Guang; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Nan

    To solve the problem of effective of categorization of text data in taxation system, the paper analyses the text data and the size calculation of key issues first, then designs text categorization based on rough set model.

  6. [Perceptual categorization of emotional expression cued by ones back posture].

    PubMed

    Sogon, S; Doi, K

    1986-04-01

    Subjects looked at 8 mm motion pictures of the bodily movement from rear view perspective of male and female communicators, who faced to emotionally-toned scenes. If the subjects detected some sign of emotional expression, they rated the relevance of expression on five point scale. Varimax rotated factor analysis yielded three factors: F1 rejection-acceptance, F2 avoidance-approach, and F3 sadness. Rejection was categorized as expressions of anger, disgust, and contempt, while anger was categorized when a clenched fist with forward and extended arm were observed. Disgust and contempt were categorized when stationary posture was observed. Acceptance was categorized when the signs of affection, anticipation, and acceptance were observed. Avoidance was categorized when signs of fear and surprise were observed. A typical fear was categorized when signs of freezing was observed, surprise was categorized by stepping back, and sadness was categorized by crouching and self attachment.

  7. Hazard categorization of 105-KE basin debris removal project

    SciTech Connect

    Meichle, R.H.

    1996-01-25

    This supporting document provides the hazard categorization for 105-KE Basin Debris Removal Project activities planned in the K east Basin. All activities are categorized as less than Hazard Category 3.

  8. Tough and tender: embodied categorization of gender.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L; Weisbuch, Max; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that human thought can be embodied within physical sensations and actions. Indeed, abstract concepts such as morality, time, and interpersonal warmth can be based on metaphors that are grounded in bodily experiences (e.g., physical temperature can signal interpersonal warmth). We hypothesized that social-category knowledge is similarly embodied, and we tested this hypothesis by examining a sensory metaphor related to categorical judgments of gender. We chose the dimension of "toughness" (ranging from tough to tender), which is often used to characterize differences between males and females. Across two studies, the proprioceptive experience of toughness (vs. tenderness) was manipulated as participants categorized sex-ambiguous faces as male or female. Two different manipulations of proprioceptive toughness predictably biased the categorization of faces toward "male." These findings suggest that social-category knowledge is at least partially embodied. PMID:21106884

  9. A model of visual recognition and categorization.

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, S; Duvdevani-Bar, S

    1997-01-01

    To recognize a previously seen object, the visual system must overcome the variability in the object's appearance caused by factors such as illumination and pose. Developments in computer vision suggest that it may be possible to counter the influence of these factors, by learning to interpolate between stored views of the target object, taken under representative combinations of viewing conditions. Daily life situations, however, typically require categorization, rather than recognition, of objects. Due to the open-ended character of both natural and artificial categories, categorization cannot rely on interpolation between stored examples. Nonetheless, knowledge of several representative members, or prototypes, of each of the categories of interest can still provide the necessary computational substrate for the categorization of new instances. The resulting representational scheme based on similarities to prototypes appears to be computationally viable, and is readily mapped onto the mechanisms of biological vision revealed by recent psychophysical and physiological studies. PMID:9304686

  10. Tough and tender: embodied categorization of gender.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L; Weisbuch, Max; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that human thought can be embodied within physical sensations and actions. Indeed, abstract concepts such as morality, time, and interpersonal warmth can be based on metaphors that are grounded in bodily experiences (e.g., physical temperature can signal interpersonal warmth). We hypothesized that social-category knowledge is similarly embodied, and we tested this hypothesis by examining a sensory metaphor related to categorical judgments of gender. We chose the dimension of "toughness" (ranging from tough to tender), which is often used to characterize differences between males and females. Across two studies, the proprioceptive experience of toughness (vs. tenderness) was manipulated as participants categorized sex-ambiguous faces as male or female. Two different manipulations of proprioceptive toughness predictably biased the categorization of faces toward "male." These findings suggest that social-category knowledge is at least partially embodied.

  11. Categorization of Quantum Mechanics Problems by Professors and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the categorization of 20 quantum mechanics problems by physics professors and undergraduate students from two honours-level quantum mechanics courses. Professors and students were asked to categorize the problems based upon similarity of solution. We also had individual discussions with professors who categorized the problems. Faculty…

  12. The Curious Case of Orthographic Distinctiveness: Disruption of Categorical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Cahill, Michael J.; Bugg, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    How does orthographic distinctiveness affect recall of structured (categorized) word lists? On one theory, enhanced item-specific information (e.g., more distinct encoding) in concert with robust relational information (e.g., categorical information) optimally supports free recall. This predicts that for categorically structured lists,…

  13. Tumor Stage Mycosis Fungoides in a Child.

    PubMed

    Dulmage, Brittany O'Neill; Villaseñor-Park, Jennifer; Ho, Jonhan; Geskin, Larisa J; Grandinetti, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides is uncommon in children and most often presents as stage IA/IB. We present a case of stage IIB mycosis fungoides in a 13-year-old boy and discuss diagnostic examination and treatment considerations.

  14. The effects of potatoes and other carbohydrate side dishes consumed with meat on food intake, glycemia and satiety response in children

    PubMed Central

    Akilen, R; Deljoomanesh, N; Hunschede, S; Smith, C E; Arshad, M U; Kubant, R; Anderson, G H

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) foods on blood glucose (BG) is ranked by their glycemic index (GI). Boiled and mashed potatoes (BMPs) are ranked as high GI foods, whereas pasta and rice have moderate GI rankings. The objective of this study was to compare ad libitum consumption of common CHO dishes consumed with meat on meal-time food intake and post-meal satiety, BG, insulin and gut hormones in 11- to 13-year-old normal weight children. Methods: Two randomized crossover studies were conducted. At weekly intervals, children (experiment 1: 12 males (M), 8 females (F); experiment 2: 6M, 6 F) received in random order 1 of 5 CHO side dishes of rice, pasta, BMP, fried French fries (FFF) or baked French fries (BFF) eaten freely together with a fixed amount of lean beef (100 g). In experiment-1, food intake over 30 min and subjective appetite were measured for 120 min. In experiment-2, the same outcomes were measured along with BG, plasma insulin and gut hormones. Results: The results for boys and girls were pooled as sex was not a factor. In both experiments, children consumed 30–40% less calories at meals with BMP (P<0.0001) compared with all other treatments, which were similar. BMP increased satiety, expressed as a change in appetite per kilocalorie, more than all other treatments (P<0.0001). FFF resulted in the lowest (P<0.0001) glucose and insulin at meal end and post-meal and peptide YY (PYY) post-meal. Blood measures were similar among all other treatments. Conclusions: The physiological functions of CHO foods consumed ad libitum at meal time on food intake, appetite, BG, insulin and gut hormone responses in children is not predicted by the GI. PMID:26878318

  15. High proportion of 6 to 18-year-old children and adolescents in the United Arab Emirates are not meeting dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Ali, Habiba I; Ng, Shu Wen; Zaghloul, Sahar; Harrison, Gail G; Qazaq, Hussain S; El Sadig, Mohamed; Yeatts, Karin

    2013-06-01

    In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), overweight, obesity, and associated chronic diseases have recently emerged as major public health concerns among all age groups, including children and adolescents. We hypothesized that although energy needs might be met by the majority of Emirati children and adolescents, their diet quality and intakes of certain micronutrients may not meet recommendations. A cross-sectional design was used to assess dietary intakes of 253 children (6-10 years of age) and 276 adolescents (11-18 years of age) in the UAE. Trained dietitians collected a 24-hour food recall in the homes of the participants. Nutrient intakes were compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes, and food group consumption was compared with MyPyramid recommendations. Results showed that 9 to 13-year-old females consumed 206 kcal/d from candy and sweets and nearly 264 cal/d from sugar-sweetened beverages. The proportion of participants with percentage energy from saturated fat greater than the recommendation ranged from 27.6% (males 9-13 years) to 45.9% (males 6-8 years). Mean intakes of vitamins A, D, and E were lower than the Estimated Average Requirements for all the subgroups. Mean calcium intake was lower than recommendations for all age and sex subgroups. The proportions of participants whose intakes were less than the recommended number of servings from the food groups were substantial: more than 90% of each of the 6 subgroups for the milk group and 100% among 9 to 18-year-old males for vegetables. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate the need for interventions targeting 6 to 18-year-old children and adolescents in the UAE to improve their diet quality. PMID:23746560

  16. 7 CFR 520.5 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Department of Agriculture categorical exclusions (7 CFR 1b.3). (1) Policy development, planning and... with only short-term effects on the environment. Examples are: (i) Research operations conducted within any laboratory, greenhouse or other contained facility where research practices and safeguards...

  17. 7 CFR 3407.6 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... only short-term effects on the environment: (A) Research conducted within any laboratory, greenhouse... significant environmental effect prior to recommending to the official responsible for approving a formula... Categorical Exclusions (7 CFR 1b.3). (i) Policy development, planning and implementation which are related...

  18. Same-Different Categorization in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…

  19. Categorical Points of View in Social Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castel, Philippe; Lacassagne, Marie-Francoise; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2002-01-01

    Shows that the categorical processes brought to light by MacLaury (1995, 1997) make it possible to account for differentiated activations of social representation. Considers the issue of unified versus dichotomized interpretations of data when these foster more than one view of a topic, and suggests that vantage theory settles the question in…

  20. Categorically Defined Targets Trigger Spatiotemporal Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Bowman, Howard; Potter, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    Transient attention to a visually salient cue enhances processing of a subsequent target in the same spatial location between 50 to 150 ms after cue onset (K. Nakayama & M. Mackeben, 1989). Do stimuli from a categorically defined target set, such as letters or digits, also generate transient attention? Participants reported digit targets among…

  1. Development of Categorical Exclusivity in Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimas, Peter D.; And Others

    Previous research has shown that 3- to 4-month-old infants form a global categorical representation for cats that includes female lions, whereas 6- to 7-month-old infants differentiate between cats and lions. Three experiments using familiarization-novelty preference procedures attempted to determine whether the differentiation of a global…

  2. Neurophysiological Evidence for Categorical Perception of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Amanda; Franklin, Anna; Clifford, Alexandra; Davies, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the time course and the relative contributions of perceptual and post-perceptual processes to categorical perception (CP) of color. A visual oddball task was used with standard and deviant stimuli from same (within-category) or different (between-category) categories, with chromatic separations for…

  3. 32 CFR 651.55 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...

  4. How experimental trial context affects perceptual categorization

    PubMed Central

    Palmeri, Thomas J.; Mack, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    To understand object categorization, participants are tested in experiments often quite different from how people experience object categories in the real world. Learning and knowledge of categories is measured in discrete experimental trials, those trials may or may not provide feedback, trials appear one after another, after some fixed inter-trial interval, with hundreds of trials in a row, within experimental blocks with some structure dictated by the experimental design. In the real world, outside of certain educational and vocational contexts, opportunities to learn and use categories are intermixed over time with a whole multitude of intervening experiences. It is clear from any elementary understanding of human cognition that sequential effects matter, yet this understanding is often ignored, and categorization trials are often instead treated as independent events, immune to local trial context. In this perspective, we use some of our work to illustrate some of the consequences of the fact that categorization experiments have a particular trial structure. Experimental trial context can affect performance in category learning and categorization experiments in ways that can profoundly affect theoretical conclusions. PMID:25745412

  5. 40 CFR 1508.4 - Categorical exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and which have been found to have no such... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...

  6. 40 CFR 1508.4 - Categorical exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and which have been found to have no such... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...

  7. 40 CFR 1508.4 - Categorical exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and which have been found to have no such... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...

  8. 36 CFR 907.10 - Categorical exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (40 CFR 1508.4) of actions that do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement... environment and are therefore categorically excluded from the preparation of environmental impact...

  9. 40 CFR 1508.4 - Categorical exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and which have been found to have no such... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...

  10. 36 CFR 907.10 - Categorical exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (40 CFR 1508.4) of actions that do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement... environment and are therefore categorically excluded from the preparation of environmental impact...

  11. The Education of the Categorical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, James Scott

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I examine anew the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant and its contributions to educational theory. I make four claims. First, that Kant should be read as having the Categorical Imperative develop out of subjective maxims. Second, that moral self-perfection is the aim of moral education. Third, that moral self-perfection develops by…

  12. 7 CFR 3407.6 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... whether the project under consideration will have a significant environmental effect prior to recommending... categories of actions: (1) Department of Agriculture Categorical Exclusions (7 CFR 1b.3). (i) Policy... or projects of limited size and magnitude or with only short-term effects on the environment:...

  13. 7 CFR 3407.6 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the project under consideration will have a significant environmental effect prior to recommending to... categories of actions: (1) Department of Agriculture Categorical Exclusions (7 CFR 1b.3). (i) Policy... projects of limited size and magnitude or with only short-term effects on the environment: (A)...

  14. 7 CFR 520.5 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Department of Agriculture categorical exclusions (7 CFR 1b.3). (1) Policy development, planning and... with only short-term effects on the environment. Examples are: (i) Research operations conducted within any laboratory, greenhouse or other contained facility where research practices and safeguards...

  15. 7 CFR 3407.6 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the project under consideration will have a significant environmental effect prior to recommending to... categories of actions: (1) Department of Agriculture Categorical Exclusions (7 CFR 1b.3). (i) Policy... projects of limited size and magnitude or with only short-term effects on the environment: (A)...

  16. 7 CFR 3407.6 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the project under consideration will have a significant environmental effect prior to recommending to... categories of actions: (1) Department of Agriculture Categorical Exclusions (7 CFR 1b.3). (i) Policy... projects of limited size and magnitude or with only short-term effects on the environment: (A)...

  17. 7 CFR 520.5 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Department of Agriculture categorical exclusions (7 CFR 1b.3). (1) Policy development, planning and... with only short-term effects on the environment. Examples are: (i) Research operations conducted within any laboratory, greenhouse or other contained facility where research practices and safeguards...

  18. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization

    PubMed Central

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. PMID:26245316

  19. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. PMID:26245316

  20. Categorizing and Promoting Reversibility of Mathematical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.; Kara, Melike; Placa, Nicora; Sandir, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Reversibility of concepts, a key aspect of mathematical development, is often problematic for learners. In this theoretical paper, we present a typology we have developed for categorizing the different reverse concepts that can be related to a particular initial concept and explicate the relationship among these different reverse concepts. We…

  1. Categorical encoding of color in the brain.

    PubMed

    Bird, Chris M; Berens, Samuel C; Horner, Aidan J; Franklin, Anna

    2014-03-25

    The areas of the brain that encode color categorically have not yet been reliably identified. Here, we used functional MRI adaptation to identify neuronal populations that represent color categories irrespective of metric differences in color. Two colors were successively presented within a block of trials. The two colors were either from the same or different categories (e.g., "blue 1 and blue 2" or "blue 1 and green 1"), and the size of the hue difference was varied. Participants performed a target detection task unrelated to the difference in color. In the middle frontal gyrus of both hemispheres and to a lesser extent, the cerebellum, blood-oxygen level-dependent response was greater for colors from different categories relative to colors from the same category. Importantly, activation in these regions was not modulated by the size of the hue difference, suggesting that neurons in these regions represent color categorically, regardless of metric color difference. Representational similarity analyses, which investigated the similarity of the pattern of activity across local groups of voxels, identified other regions of the brain (including the visual cortex), which responded to metric but not categorical color differences. Therefore, categorical and metric hue differences appear to be coded in qualitatively different ways and in different brain regions. These findings have implications for the long-standing debate on the origin and nature of color categories, and also further our understanding of how color is processed by the brain.

  2. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  3. 32 CFR 651.55 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...

  4. 32 CFR 651.55 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...

  5. 32 CFR 651.55 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...

  6. 32 CFR 651.55 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...

  7. 14 CFR 1216.304 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...., the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). (7) May adversely affect known...) Specific NASA actions meeting the criteria for being categorically excluded from the requirements for EAs...) Information-gathering exercises, such as inventories, audits, studies, and field studies, including...

  8. Infant Object Categorization Transcends Diverse Object-Context Relations

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Arterberry, Martha E.; Mash, Clay

    2010-01-01

    Infants’ categorization of objects in different object-context relations was investigated. The experiment used a multiple-exemplar habituation-categorization procedure where 92 6-month-olds formed categories of animals and vehicles embedded in congruent, incongruent, and homogeneous object-context relations. Across diverse object-context relations, infants habituated to multiple exemplars within a category and categorized novel members of both animal and vehicle categories. Infants showed a slight advantage for categorizing animals. Infant object categorization appears to be robust to diversity in object-context relations. PMID:20031232

  9. Ultra Rapid Object Categorization: Effects of Level, Animacy and Context

    PubMed Central

    Praß, Maren; Grimsen, Cathleen; König, Martina; Fahle, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    It is widely agreed that in object categorization bottom-up and top-down influences interact. How top-down processes affect categorization has been primarily investigated in isolation, with only one higher level process at a time being manipulated. Here, we investigate the combination of different top-down influences (by varying the level of category, the animacy and the background of the object) and their effect on rapid object categorization. Subjects participated in a two-alternative forced choice rapid categorization task, while we measured accuracy and reaction times. Subjects had to categorize objects on the superordinate, basic or subordinate level. Objects belonged to the category animal or vehicle and each object was presented on a gray, congruent (upright) or incongruent (inverted) background. The results show that each top-down manipulation impacts object categorization and that they interact strongly. The best categorization was achieved on the superordinate level, providing no advantage for basic level in rapid categorization. Categorization between vehicles was faster than between animals on the basic level and vice versa on the subordinate level. Objects in homogenous gray background (context) yielded better overall performance than objects embedded in complex scenes, an effect most prominent on the subordinate level. An inverted background had no negative effect on object categorization compared to upright scenes. These results show how different top-down manipulations, such as category level, category type and background information, are related. We discuss the implications of top-down interactions on the interpretation of categorization results. PMID:23840810

  10. Neural Correlates of Categorical Perception in Learned Vocal Communication

    PubMed Central

    Prather, JF; Nowicki, S; Anderson, RC; Peters, S; Mooney, R

    2009-01-01

    The division of continuously variable acoustic signals into discrete perceptual categories is a fundamental feature of vocal communication, including human speech. Despite the importance of categorical perception to learned vocal communication, the neural correlates underlying this phenomenon await identification. Here we report that individual sensorimotor neurons in freely behaving swamp sparrows express categorical auditory responses to changes in note duration, a learned feature of their songs, and that the neural response boundary accurately predicts the categorical perceptual boundary measured in field studies of the same sparrow population. Furthermore, swamp sparrow populations that learn different song dialects exhibit different categorical perceptual boundaries, consistent with the boundary being learned. Our results extend the analysis of the neural basis of perceptual categorization into the realm of vocal communication, while advancing the learned vocalizations of songbirds as a model for investigating how experience shapes categorical perception and the activity of categorically responsive neurons. PMID:19136972

  11. Protein Intake as a Risk Factor of Overweight/Obesity in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Tur, Josep A; Morandi, Anita; Tommasi, Mara; Tomasselli, Francesca; Maffeis, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and/or body fat (BF) with macronutrient composition of the diet have suggested that dietary composition may play an important role to overweight/obesity in childhood, but its relation remains inconclusive. The aim was to assess the association between energy intake (EI) and macronutrient diet composition with overweight/obesity among children.Nonrandomized cohort study including 396 Italian children and preadolescents (9-13 years old), 200 overweight/obese and 196 normal-weight. The children's weight, height, WC, and food intake were measured.Reported EI was higher in overweight/obese than in nonoverweight children; however, after body weight was considered, the overweight/obese children had less EI than their leaner counterparts. Percentages of EI from proteins, SFA, MUFA and PUFA (in males), and dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) were higher in the overweight/obese children than in the leaner ones. EI from carbohydrates and fats was lower in overweight/obese males and females, respectively. Positive correlations between BMI and waist-to-height ratio with EI from proteins were found in males (r = 0.296, P < 0.01 and r = 0.326, P < 0.01; respectively) and females (r = 0.374, P < 0.01 and r = 0.405, P < 0.01; respectively), but negative correlations with fats were found in females (r = -0.240, P < 0.01 and r = -0.188, P < 0.05; respectively). Using binary logistic regression, the highest EI from proteins were associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity, while the lowest EI from carbohydrates was associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity in males.Reported EI of overweight/obese children was higher than nonoverweight peers. Overweight/obese children had higher intakes of proteins compared with nonoverweight ones. Overweight/obese males and females showed lower EI from carbohydrates and fats

  12. Protein Intake as a Risk Factor of Overweight/Obesity in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Tur, Josep A; Morandi, Anita; Tommasi, Mara; Tomasselli, Francesca; Maffeis, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and/or body fat (BF) with macronutrient composition of the diet have suggested that dietary composition may play an important role to overweight/obesity in childhood, but its relation remains inconclusive. The aim was to assess the association between energy intake (EI) and macronutrient diet composition with overweight/obesity among children.Nonrandomized cohort study including 396 Italian children and preadolescents (9-13 years old), 200 overweight/obese and 196 normal-weight. The children's weight, height, WC, and food intake were measured.Reported EI was higher in overweight/obese than in nonoverweight children; however, after body weight was considered, the overweight/obese children had less EI than their leaner counterparts. Percentages of EI from proteins, SFA, MUFA and PUFA (in males), and dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) were higher in the overweight/obese children than in the leaner ones. EI from carbohydrates and fats was lower in overweight/obese males and females, respectively. Positive correlations between BMI and waist-to-height ratio with EI from proteins were found in males (r = 0.296, P < 0.01 and r = 0.326, P < 0.01; respectively) and females (r = 0.374, P < 0.01 and r = 0.405, P < 0.01; respectively), but negative correlations with fats were found in females (r = -0.240, P < 0.01 and r = -0.188, P < 0.05; respectively). Using binary logistic regression, the highest EI from proteins were associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity, while the lowest EI from carbohydrates was associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity in males.Reported EI of overweight/obese children was higher than nonoverweight peers. Overweight/obese children had higher intakes of proteins compared with nonoverweight ones. Overweight/obese males and females showed lower EI from carbohydrates and fats

  13. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Coverage of the Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments...

  14. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Coverage of the Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments...

  15. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    PubMed

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed. PMID:18462745

  16. Individual differences in nonlinguistic event categorization predict later motion verb comprehension.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Haruka; Stahl, Aimee E; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2016-11-01

    This study probes how individual differences in early event perception predict later verb knowledge. At Time 1, when infants were 13 to 15months of age, they saw videotaped silent scenes performed by a human actor. The goal was to see whether infants could form categories of path (a figure's trajectory with respect to a ground object) and manner (how an action is performed). Infants either saw the same manner (e.g., jogging) taking place across three different paths (around, through, and behind) or saw the same path (e.g., around a tent) taking place across three different manners (running, crawling, and walking). After familiarization, either the path or the manner was changed and visual fixation was monitored using preferential looking. At Time 2, the same children were tested on their comprehension of verbs in a two-choice pointing task showing two simultaneous actions (e.g., running vs. jumping). Success at categorization of path and manner at Time 1 predicted verb comprehension at Time 2, even when taking language knowledge at both time points into account. These preliminary results represent headway in identifying the factors that may contribute to children's language learning. They suggest that skill in categorizing semantic components present in nonlinguistic events is predictive of children's later verb vocabulary. PMID:27139436

  17. Micronutrient intakes among children and adults in Greece: the role of age, sex and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cécile

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. PMID:25285410

  18. Fabricated or induced illness in the oral cavity in children. A systematic review and personal experience

    PubMed Central

    Wolska-Kusnierz, Beata; Bernatowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Münchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) describes a pattern in which a caregiver induces a disease in a child. The symptoms may manifest in the oral cavity. Material and methods PubMed was researched for articles between 1990-2014, presenting manifestations of MSPB, following PRISMA 2009 guidelines, and an in-house case of MSBP with oral manifestations was presented. Review Among 66 articles presenting MSBP symptoms, four included descriptions of oral lesions in five children. They included: tooth loss, ulcerations and ulcers on oral mucosa, scars due to old, healed lesions, bleeding, black tongue, polysialia, and discolouration and swelling in the lips. Münchausen syndrome by proxy with participation of the mother was diagnosed in four cases. Case A 13-year-old girl was hospitalised because of a non-healing ulcer of the septum, loose and lost mandibular teeth, skin lesions, and suspected immunodeficiency. She had been hospitalised numerous times at other facilities. Consultations and diagnostic tests did not confirm an organic disease. The patient and her mother agreed to undergo all examinations, and some symptoms ‘went away’ during the examinations. The behaviour of the patient and her mother during hospital stays, ambulatory care, and the psychiatric observations all pointed towards MPSB. They refused further treatment at the present facility. Conclusions A dentist should take into account the potential ‘fabrication’ of symptoms in a child by the latter or by a caregiver. Consultations with a paediatrician or psychiatrist enable a diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26155192

  19. Trace elements in scalp hair of children chronically exposed to volcanic activity (Mt. Etna, Italy).

    PubMed

    Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; Dongarrà, G; Sposito, F

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this survey was to use scalp hair as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental exposure to metals and metalloids of schoolchildren living around the Mt. Etna area, and to verify whether the degree of human exposure to trace elements is subject to changes in local environmental factors. Twenty trace elements were determined in 376 samples of scalp hair from schoolboys (11-13 years old) of both genders, living in ten towns located around the volcanic area of Mt. Etna (Sicily). The results were compared with those (215 samples) from children living in areas of Sicily characterized by a different geological setting (reference site). As, U and V showed much higher concentrations at the volcanic site whereas Sr was particularly more abundant at the reference site. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) indicated an Etna factor, made up of V, U and Mn, and a second factor, concerning the reference site, characterized by Ni and Sr, and to a lesser extent by Mo and Cd. Significant differences in element concentrations were also observed among three different sectors of Mt. Etna area. Young people living in the Mt. Etna area are naturally exposed to enhanced intakes of some metals (V, U, Mn) and non-metals (e.g., As) than individuals of the same age residing in other areas of Sicily, characterized by different lithologies and not influenced by volcanic activity. The petrographic nature of local rocks and the dispersion of the volcanic plume explain the differences, with ingestion of water and local food as the most probable exposure pathways.

  20. Development of Cultural Strategies of Attention in North American and Japanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Toriyama, Rie; Itakura, Shoji; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that North American adults exhibit a focused strategy of attention that emphasizes focal information about objects, whereas Japanese adults exhibit a divided strategy of attention that emphasizes contextual information about objects. The current study investigated whether 4- and 5-, 6- to 8-, and 9- to 13-year-old North…