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Sample records for 131i activity concentrations

  1. Impact of high 131I-activities on quantitative 124I-PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braad, P. E. N.; Hansen, S. B.; Høilund-Carlsen, P. F.

    2015-07-01

    Peri-therapeutic 124 I-PET/CT is of interest as guidance for radioiodine therapy. Unfortunately, image quality is complicated by dead time effects and increased random coincidence rates from high 131 I-activities. A series of phantom experiments with clinically relevant 124 I/131 I-activities were performed on a clinical PET/CT-system. Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) curves and quantitation accuracy were determined from repeated scans performed over several weeks on a decaying NEMA NU-2 1994 cylinder phantom initially filled with 25 MBq 124 I and 1250 MBq 131 I. Six spherical inserts with diameters 10-37 mm were filled with 124 I (0.45 MBq ml-1 ) and 131 I (22 MBq ml-1 ) and placed inside the background of the NEMA/IEC torso phantom. Contrast recovery, background variability and the accuracy of scatter and attenuation corrections were assessed at sphere-to-background activity ratios of 20, 10 and 5. Results were compared to pure 124 I-acquisitions. The quality of 124 I-PET images in the presence of high 131 I-activities was good and image quantification unaffected except at very high count rates. Quantitation accuracy and contrast recovery were uninfluenced at 131 I-activities below 1000 MBq, whereas image noise was slightly increased. The NECR peaked at 550 MBq of 131 I, where it was 2.8 times lower than without 131 I in the phantom. Quantitative peri-therapeutic 124 I-PET is feasible.

  2. Active transport of 131I across the blood—brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Davson, Hugh; Hollingsworth, Jillian R.

    1973-01-01

    The ventricular space of rabbits was perfused with a low-viscosity silicone oil for the purpose of (1) collecting freshly secreted cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) uninfluenced by diffusional exchanges with the brain and (2) studying passage of solutes from the blood into the brain, uncomplicated by exchanges with c.s.f. The freshly secreted c.s.f. appeared as fine droplets suspended in the less dense silicone, and accumulated at the bottom of the collected silicone. Studies on the penetration of 24Na from blood into this fluid indicated that considerable exchanges with the brain had occurred between its secretion and collection, in spite of this method of collection. The second objective was attained, in that the exchanges between the freshly secreted fluid and the brain were quantitatively insufficient to affect the measure of kinetics of uptake by brain from the blood. In consequence, it was possible to demonstrate unequivocally that the increased uptake by brain of 131I, when treated with perchlorate, was due to inhibition of an active process occurring across the blood—brain barrier. Other studies, involving ventriculo-cisternal perfusion with artificial c.s.f., lent further support to this concept. 131I distribution is some 32% of the brain weight, a figure close to the `chloride-space'. PMID:4355804

  3. Intercomparison of 131I and 99mTc activity measurements in Brazilian nuclear medicine services.

    PubMed

    Iwahara, A; De Oliveira, A E; Tauhata, L; da Silva, C J; Lopes, R T

    2001-03-01

    This work outlines the quality assurance program for the activity measurements of the most used radionuclides at Brazilian Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). The program aims to guarantee that the patient is given the correct prescribed amount of activity in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. This accurate administration depends upon proper use and calibration of the activity meters by the NMS. Underestimation of administered activity in diagnostic practices could delay correct diagnosis disturbing the value of the investigation. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed dose would be delivered to the patient. The preliminary results of intercomparison for 131I and 99mTc showed that many activity meters used at NMS's present problems giving results up to 41% greater than the reference values determined at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) which is recognized as the Brazilian authorized metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation. These results have demonstrated that the NMS should improve the accuracy of the activity measurements of the radionuclides administered to the patients and establish the traceability to the national standards of measurements. These standards are based on a pressurized well-type ionization chamber installed at LNMRI and calibrated with reference sources standardized by absolute methods. The protocol of the intercomparison and recommendations made in order to minimize errors in measuring procedures are described and results are discussed.

  4. False-positive scalp activity in 131I imaging associated with hair coloring.

    PubMed

    Yan, Di; Doss, Mohan; Mehra, Ranee; Parsons, Rosaleen B; Milestone, Barton N; Yu, Jian Q

    2013-03-01

    A patient with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (after surgical resection of tumor and positive lymph nodes) undergoing thyroid ablation therapy with (131)I is described. Whole-body scintigraphy was performed 1 wk after ablation therapy to evaluate the presence of residual disease. The whole-body images demonstrated an artifact caused by tracer accumulation in the patient's scalp related to recent hair coloring. Common etiologies of false-positive (131)I scintigraphic findings are briefly reviewed. The importance of taking preventative measures to decrease the number of false-positive findings and recognizing these findings when they occur is discussed.

  5. Investigation of In vitro PDT Activities and In vivo Biopotential of Zinc Phthalocyanines Using (131)I Radioisotope.

    PubMed

    Ince, Mine; Er, Ozge; Ocakoglu, Kasim; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Colak, Suleyman Gokhan; Soylu, Hale Melis; Kayabasi, Cagla; Gunduz, Cumhur

    2016-02-01

    Novel octylthio-containing asymmetrically substituted Zn(II) phthalocyanine (Zn(II)Pc1) and a symmetric derivative (Zn(II)Pc2) have been prepared to investigate the biological potential and ability to photosensitize singlet oxygen for photodynamic therapy applications. In this study, the singlet oxygen generation potential and in vitro photodynamic activities of these compounds have been tested. Both ZnPcs reveal to be very efficient singlet oxygen generators and promising PSs for PDT applications. In vitro PDT activities of the compounds were evaluated in EMT-6 murine mammary carcinoma and HeLa human cervix carcinoma cell lines. Moreover, Zn(II)Pc1 displayed the phototoxic effects in the mammary cancer cell line (6.25 μm concentration at 30 J/cm(2) light dose and 12.5 μm concentration at 20 J/cm(2) light dose), while Zn(II)Pc2 did not show any phototoxic effects both in two cell lines. Zn(II)Pcs were radiolabeled with (131) I in high yields. Biodistribution studies revealed that the radiolabeled Zn(II)Pc1 showed significant uptake in l. intestine, pancreas, brain, and ovary, while Zn(II)Pc2 has significant uptake in ovary and pancreas in normal rats. Hence, these Pcs derivatives could be promising candidate for tumor nuclear imaging.

  6. Investigation of In vitro PDT Activities and In vivo Biopotential of Zinc Phthalocyanines Using (131)I Radioisotope.

    PubMed

    Ince, Mine; Er, Ozge; Ocakoglu, Kasim; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Colak, Suleyman Gokhan; Soylu, Hale Melis; Kayabasi, Cagla; Gunduz, Cumhur

    2016-02-01

    Novel octylthio-containing asymmetrically substituted Zn(II) phthalocyanine (Zn(II)Pc1) and a symmetric derivative (Zn(II)Pc2) have been prepared to investigate the biological potential and ability to photosensitize singlet oxygen for photodynamic therapy applications. In this study, the singlet oxygen generation potential and in vitro photodynamic activities of these compounds have been tested. Both ZnPcs reveal to be very efficient singlet oxygen generators and promising PSs for PDT applications. In vitro PDT activities of the compounds were evaluated in EMT-6 murine mammary carcinoma and HeLa human cervix carcinoma cell lines. Moreover, Zn(II)Pc1 displayed the phototoxic effects in the mammary cancer cell line (6.25 μm concentration at 30 J/cm(2) light dose and 12.5 μm concentration at 20 J/cm(2) light dose), while Zn(II)Pc2 did not show any phototoxic effects both in two cell lines. Zn(II)Pcs were radiolabeled with (131) I in high yields. Biodistribution studies revealed that the radiolabeled Zn(II)Pc1 showed significant uptake in l. intestine, pancreas, brain, and ovary, while Zn(II)Pc2 has significant uptake in ovary and pancreas in normal rats. Hence, these Pcs derivatives could be promising candidate for tumor nuclear imaging. PMID:26348246

  7. Feasibility of using sup 129 I concentrations in human tissue to estimate radiation dose from sup 131 I

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, W.D.

    1989-10-01

    To use data on {sup 129}I in human tissue to estimate an individual's past exposure to that radionuclide, it is necessary to know when and how the exposure occurred, and to know about any other prior and/or ongoing exposures. Moreover, to use {sup 129}I data to estimate past exposure to {sup 131}I, it is also necessary to know the relationship of the two radionuclides at the time of exposure. The relative quantities of {sup 131}I and {sup 129}I in gaseous effluents from Hanford Site facilities varied significantly because of the large variations in elapsed time between discharge of irradiated fuel from Hanford production reactors and initiation of chemical processing. The relationship of the two radionuclides also varied in the environment because the shorter-lived {sup 131}I decayed and the longer-lived {sup 129}I accumulated. Because of its extremely long half-life, {sup 129}I from both Hanford and non-Hanford sources (such as fallout from weapons testing) has accumulated in the environment. Without an associated exposure to {sup 131}I, chronic exposure to {sup 129}I deposited in the environment has contributed and continues to contribute to thyroid burdens. Based on investigations conducted to date, measured levels of {sup 129}I in human tissue will not provide a viable alternative for reconstruction of historical exposure to {sup 131}I. 5 refs.

  8. Evidence of 131I and (134,137)Cs activities in Bordeaux, France due to the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Perrot, F; Hubert, Ph; Marquet, Ch; Pravikoff, M S; Bourquin, P; Chiron, H; Guernion, P-Y; Nachab, A

    2012-12-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, low-background gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with HPGe detectors at the PRISNA platform located at the CENBG laboratory in Bordeaux, France. Different kinds of samples were collected and measured between March 26 and May 14, 2011. The first fission product observed was (131)I with maximum activity values of 2.4 mBq/m(3) in atmospheric dusts in air, 3.5 Bq/L in rain water, 15 Bq/kg in grass and 0.9 Bq/L in cow milk. The (134,137)Cs isotopes were also detected in air and in grass at a maximum level of 0.2 mBq/m(3) and 0.7 Bq/kg respectively, around one order of magnitude less than (131)I activity, but they were below detection limits in the other samples. All these activity values were consistent with others measured in France by IRSN and were well below those reported in May 1986 after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:22257694

  9. [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy after conventional therapy for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hoefnagel, C A; Voûte, P A; De Kraker, J; Valdés Olmos, R A

    1991-01-01

    [131I]Metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) is used for diagnostic scintigraphy and targeted therapy in a range of neural crest tumors, which exhibit an active uptake-1 mechanism at the cell membrane and cytoplasmatic storage in neurosecretory granules. A good and selective concentration and a long retention in the tumor, as is generally the case in neuroblastoma, are the basis for successful 131I-MIBG treatment. At The Netherlands Cancer Institute a phase II study was carried out in 53 patients with progressive recurrent disease after conventional therapy had failed. Despite the unfavorable basis for treatment, 131I-MIBG therapy induced 7 complete remissions, 23 partial remissions and arrest of disease (no change) in 10. Nine patients had progressive disease and one patient was lost to follow-up. The palliative effect of the treatment under these conditions was impressive. The duration of remissions varied from 2 to 38 months. The best results were obtained in patients with voluminous soft tissue disease. In general the treatment was well tolerated by children and the toxicity was mild, provided the bone marrow was not invaded by the disease. It is concluded that 131I-MIBG therapy has a definitive place in the treatment of neuroblastoma after conventional treatment has failed. As the invasiveness and toxicity of this therapy compare favorably with that of chemotherapy, immunotherapy and external beam radiotherapy, 131I-MIBG therapy is the best palliative treatment for patients with advanced recurrent neuroblastoma.

  10. The Study of External Dose Rate and Retained Body Activity of Patients Receiving 131I Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiying; Jiao, Ling; Cui, Songye; Wang, Liang; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; He, Yajing; Ruan, Shuzhou; Fan, Saijun; Zhang, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    Radiation safety is an integral part of targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of this work was to study the external dose rate and retained body activity as functions of time in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients receiving 131I therapy. Seventy patients were stratified into two groups: the ablation group (A) and the follow-up group (FU). The patients’ external dose rate was measured, and simultaneously, their retained body radiation activity was monitored at various time points. The equations of the external dose rate and the retained body activity, described as a function of hours post administration, were fitted. Additionally, the release time for patients was calculated. The reduction in activity in the group receiving a second or subsequent treatment was more rapid than the group receiving only the initial treatment. Most important, an expeditious method was established to indirectly evaluate the retained body activity of patients by measuring the external dose rate with a portable radiation survey meter. By this method, the calculated external dose rate limits are 19.2, 8.85, 5.08 and 2.32 μSv·h−1 at 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m, respectively, according to a patient’s released threshold level of retained body activity <400 MBq. This study is beneficial for radiation safety decision-making. PMID:25337944

  11. 131I activity in urine to the sewer system due to thyroidal treatments.

    PubMed

    Andrés, C; Barquero, R; Tortosa, R; Nuñez, C; del Castillo, A; Vega-Carrillo, H R; Alonso, D

    2011-08-01

    In nuclear medicine, estimating the radioactivity contained in the urine of patients treated with I and discharged to the environment could prevent the exposure of a population to radioactive effluents and the pollution of the aquatic environment with ionizing radiation. This can be a regulatory requirement (as in Spain) or requested by the sewer authority. Seventy-nine differentiated thyroid cancer cases (undergone as inpatients) and 187 hyperthyroidism cases (undergone as outpatients) were treated in our hospital with I throughout the year 2009. In hyperthyroidism treatments, the effective elimination constant was used to calculate the corresponding discharged activity in the urine, giving an activity level always below 0.7 GBq. In differentiated thyroid cancer treatments, patient's urine was collected in storage tanks during the hospitalization. Measurements of external exposure at 1 m made every day were used to calculate the activity contained in the urine. The tank activity was always below 15 GBq, but always higher than 2 GBq. Obtained results show that effective doses to sewage workers, received from liquid discharges, can only be reduced to less than 10 μSv if storage tanks are installed. Without tanks, 157 μSv can be reached, above the constrain dose used in nuclear installations (100 μSv). Our calculations may be helpful to the regulatory authority to review the clinical radiation waste normative, especially in countries where the discharges are released directly into public sewage plants. PMID:21709491

  12. The preparation and immunological properties of 131I-labelled adrenocorticotrophin

    PubMed Central

    Landon, J.; Livanou, Theodora; Greenwood, F. C.

    1967-01-01

    1. A procedure is described for preparing 131I-labelled adrenocorticotrophin suitable for use in radioimmunoassay. 2. Adsorption of labelled and unlabelled adrenocorticotrophin at low concentrations occurs to various surfaces despite the presence of diluent protein. Adsorption and desorption errors are minimized by low pH and by the use of polystyrene vials. 3. Preparations with low initial damage are obtained if the radioiodination is performed rapidly and the separation of 131I-labelled adrenocorticotrophin from unchanged [131I]iodide is carried out on cellulose columns by using dilute acid. 4. The immunological activity of 131I-labelled α1–24-adrenocorticotrophin, but not of 131I-labelled porcine adrenocorticotrophin, decreases with increasing specific radioactivity. The involvement of tyrosine residues in the immunological specificity of the α1–24-adrenocorticotrophin only is suggested to explain this finding. PMID:16742533

  13. Behavior of Na131I and meta(131I) iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in municipal sewerage.

    PubMed

    Fenner, F D; Martin, J E

    1997-08-01

    Behavior of 131I activity in primary sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plant was studied in relation to known radioiodine therapy events at the University of Michigan Hospital complex. The principal compounds administered are Na131I, which has widespread use, and meta (131I) iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), which is a compound unique to the University of Michigan, although labeled antibodies and other forms are also used in therapy and research. The objectives of the study were to determine the environmental fate of such discharges and to determine radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. Approximately 17% of the MIBG activity administered in a therapy was found in the primary sludge, whereas only 1.1% of the Na131I was in sludge. When land applied, the short half life of 131I in the sludge presents few radiological health concerns; however, incineration, which is done in winter months, is assumed to release organically bound 131I to the atmosphere. Radiation doses due to incineration of sludge containing measured concentrations were calculated for a maximally exposed worker to be 1.7 microSv (0.17 mrem) of which 0.48 microSv (0.048 mrem) was due to a 2-d upset condition. For a more typically exposed worker, and a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalents were 1.2 microSv (0.12 mrem) and 0.06 microSv (0.006 mrem), respectively, for a 22-wk incineration period with release of all radioiodine in the sludge. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of normal sewage, possibly due to organic material in sewer lines that absorb iodine. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected; whether other radioactive materials are held up the same way is not known but chemical form is surely a factor.

  14. Biodistribution and dosimetry of free 211At, 125I- and 131I- in rats.

    PubMed

    Spetz, Johan; Rudqvist, Nils; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2013-11-01

    131I is widely used for therapy in the clinic and 125I and 131I, and increasingly 211At, are often used in experimental studies. It is important to know the biodistribution and dosimetry for these radionuclides to determine potential risk organs when using radiopharmaceuticals containing these radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of 125I-, 131I-, and free 211At in rats and to determine absorbed doses to various organs and tissues. Male Sprague Dawley rats were injected simultaneously with 0.1-0.3 MBq 125I- and 0.1-0.3 MBq 131I-, or 0.05-0.2 MBq 211At and sacrificed 1 hour to 7 days after injection. The activities and activity concentrations in organs and tissues were determined and mean absorbed doses were calculated. The biodistribution of 125I- was similar to that of 131I- but the biodistribution of free 211At was different compared to 125I- and 131I-. The activity concentration of radioiodine was higher compared with 211At in the thyroid and lower in all extrathyroidal tissues. The mean absorbed dose per unit injected activity was highest to the thyroid. 131I gave the highest absorbed dose to the thyroid, and 211At gave the highest absorbed dose to all other tissues studied. PMID:23789969

  15. Biodistribution and dosimetry of free 211At, 125I- and 131I- in rats.

    PubMed

    Spetz, Johan; Rudqvist, Nils; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2013-11-01

    131I is widely used for therapy in the clinic and 125I and 131I, and increasingly 211At, are often used in experimental studies. It is important to know the biodistribution and dosimetry for these radionuclides to determine potential risk organs when using radiopharmaceuticals containing these radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of 125I-, 131I-, and free 211At in rats and to determine absorbed doses to various organs and tissues. Male Sprague Dawley rats were injected simultaneously with 0.1-0.3 MBq 125I- and 0.1-0.3 MBq 131I-, or 0.05-0.2 MBq 211At and sacrificed 1 hour to 7 days after injection. The activities and activity concentrations in organs and tissues were determined and mean absorbed doses were calculated. The biodistribution of 125I- was similar to that of 131I- but the biodistribution of free 211At was different compared to 125I- and 131I-. The activity concentration of radioiodine was higher compared with 211At in the thyroid and lower in all extrathyroidal tissues. The mean absorbed dose per unit injected activity was highest to the thyroid. 131I gave the highest absorbed dose to the thyroid, and 211At gave the highest absorbed dose to all other tissues studied.

  16. Circulating T-cell subsets in Graves' disease: differences between patients with active disease and in remission after /sup 131/I-therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Canonica, G.W.; Bagnasco, M.; Ferrini, S.; Biassoni, P.; Giordano, G.; Corte, G.

    1983-08-01

    In the present investigation some surface markers in peripheral blood T lymphocytes of patients with active Graves' disease and subjects in remission after /sup 131/I-therapy have been studied. We confirmed low TG levels in untreated patients and normal values in treated subjects. Increased percentages of DR+, MLR4+ (activated T cells), and 5/9+ (inducer-helper) T cells were detected in patients with active disease, thus indicating the presence of activated T cells and suggesting increased levels of helper T cells. High percentages of MLR4+ and 5/9+, but normal levels of DR+ were found in /sup 131/I-treated subjects. The different distribution of DR and MLR4 positivities on 5/9+ and 5+9-T cells confirm the different meaning of these two markers of the activation state. The imbalance of T-cell subsets found in /sup 131/I-treated subjects and the normal values observed in patients with hyperthyroidism due to toxic adenoma indicate that hyperthyroidism per se is not sufficient to explain the T-cell alterations. The possible meaning of these findings is discussed with respect to previous hypotheses on the pathogenesis of Graves' disease.

  17. Aerosol residence times and changes in radioiodine-131I and radiocaesium-137 Cs activity over Central Poland after the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Bem, Henryk

    2012-05-01

    The first detectable activities of radioiodine (131)I, and radiocaesium (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the air over Central Poland were measured in dust samples collected by the ASS-500 station in the period of 21(st) to 24(th) of March, 2011. However, the highest activity of both fission products, (131)I and (137)Cs: 8.3 mBq m(-3) and 0.75 mBq m(-3), respectively, were obtained in the samples collected on 30(th) March, i.e.∼18 days after the beginning of the fission products' discharge from the damaged units of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The simultaneously determined corrected aerosol residence time for the same samples by (210)Pb/(210)Bi and (210)Pb/(210)Po methods was equal to 10 days. Additionally, on the basis of the activity ratio of two other natural cosmogenic radionuclides, (7)Be and (22)Na in these aerosol samples, it was possible to estimate the aerosol residence time at ∼150 days for the solid particles coming from the stratospheric fallout. These data, as well as the differences in the activity size distribution of (7)Be and (131)I in the air particulate matter, show, in contrast to the Chernobyl discharge, a negligible input of stratospheric transport of Fukushima-released fission products.

  18. Therapy to target renal cell carcinoma using 131I-labeled B7-H3 monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueqin; Zhang, Guangbo; Hou, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    B7-H3 is a tumor-associated antigen that plays a critical role in potential tumor-targeted therapy. In this study, we aimed to assess the radiobiological effect of 131I-labeled B7-H3 monoclonal antibody (131I-4H7) in nude mice with human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and evaluate the effect of 131I-4H7 on RCC treatment. The radiobiological activity and tumor uptake of 131I-4H7, and its effect on tumor growth were measured. 131I-4H7 was absorbed by the tumor and reached its maximal uptake rate (3.32% injected dose [ID]/g) at 24 h, at which point the drug concentration in the tumor was 7.36-, 2.06-, 1.80-, and 2.78-fold higher than that in muscle, kidneys, liver, and heart, respectively. Measurements and positron emission tomography–computed tomography imaging showed that tumor development was significantly inhibited by 131I-4H7. HE staining revealed that 131I-4H7 significantly injures tumor cells. Our results suggest that 131I-4H7 is markedly absorbed by the tumor and did suppress the development of RCC xenografted tumors in nude mice, which might provide a new candidate for antibody-mediated targeted radiotherapy in human RCC. PMID:27058890

  19. Retrospective evaluation of 131I deposition density and thyroid dose in Poland after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak-Flis, Zofia; Krajewski, Pawel; Radwan, Irena; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2003-06-01

    The 131I deposition in Poland after the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 was evaluated from the determined 129I deposition and the estimated 129I/131I ratio at the time of the arrival of fallout. Concentrations of 129I and 127I were determined by neutron activation analysis in uncultivated soils from 16 locations in Poland. Determination of 137Cs in soils was carried out by gamma spectrometry. The atomic ratio of 129I/131I at the time of fallout arrival was estimated using the 129I/131I ratio at the time of the accident, which, on the basis of the core inventory data, was assumed to be 22.8. It was estimated from the time of fallout arrival and from the weighed mean atomic ratio that the 129I/131I ratio for Poland was 32.8. The calculated 131I deposition ranged from 63.2 to 729 kBq m(-2). High deposition of 131I occurred in the locations with rainfall but occasionally also in locations without rainfall. Committed equivalent doses from 131I were evaluated for 5-y-old children, 10-y-old children, and adults using the computer model CLRP for the situations with and without countermeasures including iodine prophylaxis. The highest thyroid doses from inhalation and ingestion without countermeasures were 178 mSv, 120 mSv, and 45 mSv for 5-y-old children, 10-y-old children, and adults, respectively. The countermeasures reduced these doses by about 30%. PMID:12822579

  20. A Study of Thyroid 131I Activity of Five Human Subjects Exposed to a Radioactive Plume at Tamura City in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Koji; Miyashita, Masami; Sato, Hitoshi; Tanishima, Yoshinobu; Maeda, Shigenobu; Yoshikawa, Jun; Kimura, Shinzo

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid 131I activities were determined for five human subjects from a disaster medical assistance team of Fukui Prefectural Hospital. The team was dispatched to the Tamura City Sports Park, 40 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. They were exposed to a radioactive plume on 15 March 2011. In vivo measurements at Fukui Prefectural Hospital were conducted around 17 h after the team left the park. A thyroid counter equipped with a 51-mm-diameter × 51-mm-thick NaI(Tl) detector with a 20-mm-thick lead collimator was used. Mock iodine (133Ba and 137Cs) with a thyroid uptake neck phantom was used for calibration. On 16 March 2011, at 11:30, thyroid activity of a member of the team age 53 y, who was never administered stable iodine, was 268 ± 38 Bq. The remaining four men, aged 49, 35, 34, and 27 y, ingested two stable iodine pills (a total of 100 mg of potassium iodide) approximately 36 h before being exposed to the plume. Their thyroid activity values were 249 ± 86 Bq, 676 ± 107 Bq, 569 ± 96 Bq, and 1,082 ± 119 Bq, respectively. An inverse relationship between age and thyroid activity was observed among those who ingested potassium iodide before exposure, indicating that stable iodine administration may have a protective effect. Thyroid 131I activity was reduced by approximately 70% in the oldest person. This can be explained by the iodine metabolism in the thyroid of younger individuals being significantly faster than that of older individuals. PMID:26509625

  1. Observation of radioactive iodine ((131)I, (129)I) in cropland soil after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2016-10-01

    During the early stages of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the temporal variations of (131)I deposited on the ground and of (131)I accumulated in cropland soil were monitored at a fixed location in Japan. Moreover, concentrations of long-lived radioactive iodine ((129)I) in atmospheric deposits and soil were measured to examine the feasibility of retrospectively reconstructing (131)I levels from the levels of accident-derived (129)I. The exceptionally high levels of (131)I in deposits and soil were attributed to rainfall-related deposition of radionuclides. In the crop field studied, the losses of deposited (131)I and (129)I due to volatilization were small. The atomic ratio (129)I/(131)I in the topsoil corresponded to the same ratio in deposits. The (131)I concentrations measured in the topsoil were very consistent with the (131)I concentrations reconstructed from the (129)I concentrations in the soil. PMID:27320744

  2. Observation of radioactive iodine ((131)I, (129)I) in cropland soil after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2016-10-01

    During the early stages of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the temporal variations of (131)I deposited on the ground and of (131)I accumulated in cropland soil were monitored at a fixed location in Japan. Moreover, concentrations of long-lived radioactive iodine ((129)I) in atmospheric deposits and soil were measured to examine the feasibility of retrospectively reconstructing (131)I levels from the levels of accident-derived (129)I. The exceptionally high levels of (131)I in deposits and soil were attributed to rainfall-related deposition of radionuclides. In the crop field studied, the losses of deposited (131)I and (129)I due to volatilization were small. The atomic ratio (129)I/(131)I in the topsoil corresponded to the same ratio in deposits. The (131)I concentrations measured in the topsoil were very consistent with the (131)I concentrations reconstructed from the (129)I concentrations in the soil.

  3. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of (131)I in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; de Lucena, Eder Augusto; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Letícia Almeida; Sousa, Wanderson Oliveira; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhão

    2015-06-01

    (131)I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of (131)I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of (131)I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of (131)I are handled. Samples were collected over 1h using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, (131)I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4Bq/m(3). This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 8.4kBq/m(3). Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during 1h, (131)I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13×10(-5)mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of (131)I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the methodology

  4. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of (131)I in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; de Lucena, Eder Augusto; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Letícia Almeida; Sousa, Wanderson Oliveira; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhão

    2015-06-01

    (131)I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of (131)I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of (131)I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of (131)I are handled. Samples were collected over 1h using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, (131)I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4Bq/m(3). This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 8.4kBq/m(3). Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during 1h, (131)I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13×10(-5)mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of (131)I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the methodology

  5. Localisation of [131I]MIBG in nude mice bearing SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma xenografts: effect of specific activity.

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, G.; Friedman, H. S.; Keir, S. T.; Zalutsky, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    The biodistribution of no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) meta-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine ([131I]MIBG) and that prepared by the standard isotopic exchange method were compared in athymic mice bearing SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma xenografts. No advantage in tumour uptake was observed for the n.c.a. preparation. BALB/c nu/nu mice exhibited lower uptake in highly innervated normal tissues (heart and adrenals) than normal BALB/c mice. In another experiment, the distribution of n.c.a. [131I]MIBG in the absence or presence (3-9 micrograms) of MIBG carrier was determined. At both 4 h and 24 h, the heart uptake was reduced by a factor of 1.5 even at a dose of 3 micrograms MIBG. Tumour uptake was not significantly altered by various amounts of unlabelled MIBG at either time point. PMID:8630274

  6. Dosimetric results in treatments of neuroblastoma and neuroendocrine tumors with {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine with implications for the activity to administer

    SciTech Connect

    Mínguez, Pablo; Genollá, José; Guayambuco, Sonía; Delgado, Alejandro; Fombellida, José Cruz

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The aim was to investigate whole-body and red marrow absorbed doses in treatments of neuroblastoma (NB) and adult neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and to propose a simple method for determining the activity to administer when dosimetric data for the individual patient are not available. Methods: Nine NB patients and six NET patients were included, giving in total 19 treatments as four patients were treated twice. Whole-body absorbed doses were determined from dose-rate measurements and planar gamma-camera imaging. For six NB and five NET treatments, red marrow absorbed doses were also determined using the blood-based method. Results: Dosimetric data from repeated administrations in the same patient were consistent. In groups of NB and NET patients, similar whole-body residence times were obtained, implying that whole-body absorbed dose per unit of administered activity could be reasonably well described as a power function of the patient mass. For NB, this functional form was found to be consistent with dosimetric data from previously published studies. The whole-body to red marrow absorbed dose ratio was similar among patients, with values of 1.4 ± 0.6–1.7 ± 0.7 (1 standard deviation) in NB treatments and between 1.5 ± 0.6 and 1.7 ± 0.7 (1 standard deviation) in NET treatments. Conclusions: The consistency of dosimetric results between administrations for the same patient supports prescription of the activity based on dosimetry performed in pretreatment studies, or during the first administration in a fractionated schedule. The expressions obtained for whole-body absorbed doses per unit of administered activity as a function of patient mass for NB and NET treatments are believed to be a useful tool to estimate the activity to administer at the stage when the individual patient biokinetics has not yet been measured.

  7. Uptake and depuration of 131I by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea: uptake from seawater.

    PubMed

    Vives i Batlle, J; Wilson, R C; McDonald, P; Parker, T G

    2005-01-01

    Uptake and depuration experiments for the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea have been performed using 131I-labelled seawater. Throughout the experimental phase the winkles were fed on unlabelled Chondrus crispus. 131I concentrations in winkles during uptake followed linear first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 11 days, whereas for depuration a triphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 4, 23 and 56 days was determined. In general, iodine turnover in winkles via labelled seawater appears to be slower than observed for other molluscs (2-3 days). Most of the activity prior to and after depuration is found to be in the shell, with indications that shell and soft parts accumulate and depurate 131I at a similar rate. The operculum displays the highest specific activity of all fractions with a concentration factor of 750 l kg(-1). Concentration factors for whole winkle, shell, soft parts and digestive gland are in the order of 40-60 l kg(-1), higher than the IAEA recommended CF value for iodine in molluscs of 10 l kg(-1). The 131I CF in winkles is closer to that of the conservative radionuclides 99Tc and 137Cs than the CF of the particle reactive radionuclides (239,240)Pu and 241Am. PMID:15465179

  8. Measurement of the /sup 129/I//sup 131/I ratio in Chernobyl fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Kutschera, W.; Fink, D.; Paul, M.; Hollos, G.; Kaufman, A.

    1986-01-01

    Rainwater collected in the Munich area approximately one week after the Chernobyl reactor accident was investigated for its content of the radioisotopes /sup 129/I (T/sub 1/2/ = 1.6 x 10/sup 7/ y) and /sup 131/I (T/sub 1/2/ = 8.04 d). For the time of release, an isotopic ratio of /sup 129/I//sup 131/I = 19 +- 5 was found. This value was obtained from a gamma-ray activity measurement of /sup 131/I with a GE detector and a concentration measurement of /sup 129/I with accelerator mass spectrometry. From the measured ratio an operating time of the reactor prior to the accident in the vicinity of two years can be estimated, which is in fair agreement with estimates from other long-lived to short-lived radioisotope ratios in the Chernobyl fallout. Some measurements of /sup 131/I activity in thyroids of persons living in the Munich area is also reported.

  9. Influence of measurement geometry on the estimate of 131(I) activity in the thyroid: Monte Carlo simulation of a detector and a phantom.

    PubMed

    Ulanovsky, A V; Minenko, V F; Korneev, S V

    1997-01-01

    An approach for evaluating the influence of measurement geometry on estimates of 131(I) in the thyroid from measurements with survey meters was developed using Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport in the human body and the radiation detector. The modified Monte Carlo code, EGS4, including a newly developed mathematical model of detector, thyroid gland, and neck, was used for the computations. The approach was tested by comparing calculated and measured differential and integral detector characteristics. This procedure was applied to estimate uncertainties in direct thyroid-measurement results due to geometrical errors.

  10. Influence of measurement geometry on the estimate of {sup 131}I activity in the thyroid: Monte Carlo simulation of a detector and a phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Ulanovsky, A.V.; Minenko, V.F.; Korneev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    An approach for evaluating the influence of measurement geometry on estimates of {sup 131}I in the thyroid from measurements with survey meters was developed using Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport in the human body and the radiation detector. The modified Monte Carlo code, EGS4, including a newly developed mathematical model of detector, thyroid gland, and neck, was used for the computations. The approach was tested by comparing calculated and measured differential and integral detector characteristics. This procedure was applied to estimate uncertainties in direct thyroid-measurement results due to geometrical errors. 14 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Predictive value of tracer studies for /sup 131/I treatment in hyperthyroid cats

    SciTech Connect

    Broome, M.R.; Turrel, J.M.; Hays, M.T.

    1988-02-01

    In 76 cats with hyperthyroidism, peak thyroidal radioiodine (/sup 131/I) uptakes and effective half-lives were determined after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I. In 6 additional hyperthyroid cats, only peak thyroidal uptakes after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I were determined. Good correlation was found between peak thyroidal uptakes of tracer and therapeutic /sup 131/I; however, only fair correlation was observed between effective half-lives. In 79% of the cats, the effective half-life for therapeutic /sup 131/I was longer than that for tracer /sup 131/I. After administration of therapeutic activity of /sup 131/I, monoexponential and biphasic decay curves were observed in 51 and 16 cats, respectively. Using therapeutic kinetic data, radiation doses to the thyroid gland were calculated retrospectively on the basis of 2 methods for determining the activity of /sup 131/I administered: (1) actual administration of tracer-compensated activity and (2) hypothetic administration of uniform activity (3 mCi). Because of the good predictive ability of tracer kinetic data for the therapeutic kinetic data, the tracer-compensated radiation doses came significantly (P = 0.008) closer to the therapeutic goal than did the uniform-activity doses. In addition, the use of tracer kinetic information reduced the extent of the tendency for consistently high uniform-activity doses. A manual method for acquiring tracer kinetic data was developed and was an acceptable alternative to computerized techniques. Adoption of this method gives individuals and institutions with limited finances the opportunity to characterize the iodine kinetics in cats before proceeding with administration of therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I.

  12. Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Inhibition Can Enhance Apoptosis of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Cells Induced by 131I

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jian; Xu, Ke; Jia, Qiang; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) during radioiodine 131 (131I) therapy and whether NF-κB inhibition could enhance 131I-induced apoptosis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) cells in a synergistic manner. Methods Three human DTC cell lines were used. NF-κB inhibition was achieved by using a NF-κB inhibitor (Bay 11-7082) or by p65 siRNA transfection. Methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay was performed for cell viability assessment. DNA-binding assay, luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot were adopted to determine function and expression changes of NF-κB. Then NF-κB regulated anti-apoptotic factors XIAP, cIAP1, and Bcl-xL were measured. Apoptosis was analyzed by Western blot for caspase 3 and PARP, and by flow cytometry as well. An iodide uptake assay was performed to determine whether NF-κB inhibition could influence radioactive iodide uptake. Results The methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay showed significant decrease of viable cells by combination therapy than by mono-therapies. The DNA-binding assay and luciferase reporter assay showed enhanced NF-κB function and reporter gene activities due to 131I, yet significant suppression was achieved by NF-κB inhibition. Western blot proved 131I could increase nuclear NF-κB concentration, while NF-κB inhibition reduced NF-κB concentration. Western blot also demonstrated significant up-regulation of XIAP, cIAP1, and Bcl-xL after 131I therapy. And inhibition of NF-κB could significantly down-regulate these factors. Finally, synergism induced by combined therapy was displayed by significant enhancements of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP from Western blot, and of Annexin V positively staining from flow cytometry. The iodine uptake assay did not show significant changes when NF-κB was inhibited. Conclusion We demonstrated that 131I could induce NF-κB activation, which would attenuate 131I efficacy in DTC cells. NF-κB inhibition by Bay 11-7082 or by p65 siRNA transfection was

  13. Radiation dosimetry of 131I-chlorotoxin for targeted radiotherapy in glioma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sui; Khazaeli, M B; Gillespie, G Yancey; Alvarez, Vernon L

    2005-01-01

    Chlorotoxin, or TM-601, is a peptide derived from the venom of the scorpionLeiurus Quinquestriatus that specifically binds to malignant brain tumors, but not to normal tissues. Targeted radiotherapy using 131I-Chlorotoxin is promising for post-surgery treatment of brain tumors. This study reports dosimetry results of 131I-Chlorotoxin in athymic nude mice with intracranially implanted human glioma xenografts and projected radiation doses in patients receiving 370 MBq of 131I-Chlorotoxin. 125I/131I-Chlorotoxin were injected into the right brain where D54 MG xenografts were implanted. Mice were sacrificed 24-96 h later. The blood, normal organs, and tumors were weighed and counted to determine 131I-Chlorotoxin concentration. The radiation dose from 131I was calculated based on non-penetrating radiation in the mouse model. Assuming similar tissue uptake in mice and patients, radiation doses for patients were extrapolated. Distributions of 125I/131I-Chlorotoxin were only significant in tumor, stomach, kidneys, and brain (injection site), reflecting non-specific uptake of Chlorotoxin in normal tissues. Mean radiation dose (cGy/37 kBq) was 58.2 for tumor, 17.9 for brains, 1.8 for marrow, 27.1 for stomach, 16.0 for kidneys in mice. For intracranial injection of 370 MBq 131I-Chlorotoxin in patients, extrapolated patient dose (cGy) was 70 for brains, 6 for marrow, 35 for stomach, 60 to kidneys, 227 to tumor, suggesting that 3.7 GBq of 131I-Chlorotoxin can be safely administrated to patients. These promising results demonstrated potential in improving patient survival using this novel targeting agent.

  14. A bioassay experience and lessons learned on the internal contamination of (131)I during a maintenance period in a Korean nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2012-08-01

    During a maintenance period at a Korean nuclear power plant, internal exposure of radiation workers occurred by the inhalation of (131)I that was released into the reactor building from a primary system opening due to defective fuels. The internal activity in radiation workers contaminated by (131)I was immediately measured using a whole body counter (WBC). A whole body counting was performed again a few days later, considering the factors of equilibrium in the body. The intake and the committed effective dose were estimated based on the WBC results. The intake was also calculated by hand, based on both the entrance records to the reactor building, and the counted results of the air concentration for (131)I were compared with the whole body counting results.

  15. Simulating 131I pathways from Fukushima to Kanto: a case study for March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee Zhi Yi, A.; Yoshimura, K.; Oki, T.

    2015-12-01

    An estimated 150PBq of 131I was released from the FDNPP accident, partially deposited into rivers and affected the water treatment plants (WTPs) of Japan. Due to the elevated 131I concentration in tap water, a restriction on drinking water was placed in 15 of 47 prefectures; of those limited, the densely populated Kanto region was significantly affected during this period. In order to better understand the existence of and to investigate the pathways of 131I for future risk and water resource management in the Kanto region, the IsoMATTRIP land surface and river model was developed. Half-life considerations of radiotracers were implemented and a river map of the Kanto region was manually created. Few simulation studies on the pathways of 131I have been conducted due to its short half-life and limited validation data. The development of the IsoMATTRIP model serves as an initial step to address this gap in knowledge. Preliminary runs on the IsoMATTRIP showed that river discharge has a significant effect on 131I concentration found in WTPs. River discharge was underestimated (by average of 55 m3/s) while 131I concentration was overestimated (by 301 Bq/kg). However, the model was able to simulate varying response of 131I concentration for fallout according to basin size. The discrepancy between observed and simulated river discharge is potentially caused by the model's usage of natural land parameters to simulate an urban environment. Effective river velocity, input precipitation, and discharge were calibrated to successfully identify optimized settings for the current model setup. The IsoMATTRIP simulated comparable values of 131I to that from the observed in WTPs of the Kanto region.

  16. The bioconcentration of {sup 131}I in fresh water fish

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, K.N.; Cheung, T.; Young, E.C.M.; Luo, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the radionuclide concentration process in fresh water fish have been studied. The experimental data for the tilapias were fitted using a simple compartment model to get characteristics parameters such as concentration factors, elimination rate constants, and initial concentration rates, which are 3.08 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}/Bq L{sup {minus}1}, 0.00573 h{sup {minus}1}, and 12.42 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The relative concentrations of {sup 131}I in different parts, i.e., head, gills, flesh, bone and internal organs, of the tilapias are also determined, which are found to be 10.8, 15.4, 26.1, 11.0, and 37.0%, respectively. The effects of different factors on the transfer of radionuclides in fresh water fishes are also discussed. Experiments on the tilapias and the common carp show that the variation of concentration factors for different species may be significant even for the same radionuclide and the same ecological system. On the other hand, the variation in the concentration factors for the flesh of the tilapias is not significant for a certain range of {sup 131}I concentrations in the water. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Uptake and localization of /sup 131/I-labeled anti-calcitonin immunoglobulins in rat medullary thyroid carcinoma tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gautvik, K.M.; Svindahl, K.; Skretting, A.; Stenberg, B.; Myhre, L.; Ekeland, A.; Johannesen, J.V.

    1982-09-15

    A medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) which has been transplanted repeatedly under the kidney capsule of Wag/Rij rats secretes calcitonin (CT) spontaneously. From 10--20 weeks after transplantation, immunoreactive serum calcitonin (iCT) is abnormally elevated and continues to rise parallel to tumor growth. The immunoglobulin fraction of the rabbit anti-CT antiserum raised against intact synthetic hormone, was purified and iodinated electrolytically. Specific activities of /sup 131/I-labeled immunoglobulin of 0.008--0.014 mCi/microgram protein were obtained with 80% preservation of CT binding activity. Wag/Rig rats with MCT tumor and increased serum iCT concentrations received intravenous injections of /sup 131/I-labeled immunoglobulins (0.054--0.811 mCi). The distribution of radioactivity in the rats was followed for 14 days using external scintigraphy in combination with radioactivity measurements of blood and different organs at the end of the observation period. The distribution of /sup 113/mIn was used as a marker for blood distribution. When the radioactivity ratios (/sup 131/I//sup 113/mIn) in tumor and different organs were related to that of blood which was set equal to unity, tumor tissue contained 3--6 times higher activity. Nonhyperimmune rabbit immunoglobulins or rabbit antirat prolactin immunoglobulins were not concentrated in MCT tissue, nor did anti-CT immunoglobulins localize in rat prolactin adenomas.

  18. Monitoring 90Sr contamination in terms of 131I contamination in imported food.

    PubMed

    Yu, K N

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes a method for monitoring 90Sr contamination in terms of 131I contamination in food imported from a country with a recent nuclear power plant accident. For imported food, the guideline levels set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will be applied, which requires that the contamination in food by beta emitters (typically strontium) be monitored. However, the measurement of strontium contamination cannot be made within a reasonably short time as it requires rather time-consuming chemical extraction and sample preparation procedures in advance. We propose here to use the contamination level of 131I in these foodstuffs as indicators of 90Sr contamination levels. Possible accident scenarios are employed to estimate the abundance ratio of 131I and 90Sr deposited on soil and intercepted by plants. Using a dynamic food chain model, we can calculate their relative activities in the food products which, when combined with the 131I levels present, give the theoretical 90Sr levels present.

  19. Behavior of 131I and 137Cs in environments released from the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.; Kubota, T.; Igarashi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The devastating tsunami that caused by the great earthquake (M = 9.0) off the coast of northeastern Honshu on 11 March 2011 destroyed large coastal areas of Tohoku and north Kanto, Japan. Radionuclides, including 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs, were released into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Daiichi plants. Concentration of levels of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, released from the Fukushima Daiichi plant were investigated in the soil and precipitation. The concentrations of 131I and 137Cs in the soil from the surface to 1 cm depth in Ibaraki Prefecture were 9360-13,400 Bq/kg and 720-3250 Bq/kg, respectively. The concentration of 137Cs at this soil observation site originating from the Fukushima plant was 8.4 to 21 times that found locally after the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion. Most of the 134Cs and 137Cs from rainwater were trapped by the surface soil and sand to a depth of 1 cm, whereas only about 30% of the 131I was collected by the surface soil, suggesting that 131I would move deeper than 137Cs and 134Cs. The 131I in the rainwater was in the anion exchangeable form, and all of it could be collected by anion exchangeable mechanisms, whereas 30% of the 131I that had passed through the soil could not be trapped by the anion exchange resin, suggesting that the chemical form of this 30% was in a changeable, organic-bound form. The 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs that were absorbed on soil were difficult to be dissolved into water. As the half-life of 131I is short and 137Cs is strongly adsorbed on the surface soil and sand, these radionuclides would be unlikely to reach the groundwater before completely decaying; contamination of groundwater with 131I and 137Cs supplied from rainwater to the surface soil is therefore exceedingly unlikely. As the 137Cs is likely to migrate only 0.6 cm in 10 years, people living in the Fukushima and Kanto areas will be exposed to radiation from 137Cs in the surface soil and sand. For protection, surface soils and sands

  20. Long-range transport of gaseous 131I and other radionuclides from Fukushima accident to Southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W.; Kierepko, Renata; Brudecki, Kamil; Janowski, Paweł; Kleszcz, Krzysztof; Tomankiewicz, Ewa

    2014-07-01

    A serious accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi NPP triggered radioactive emission to the atmosphere on 12 March 2011. The results of gamma spectrometric measurements of both gaseous and aerosol fraction of the air, collected in Krakow over the period from March 21 till the end of May 2011, as well as wet and dry deposition recorded from March till the end of October 2011, are presented in this paper. Krakow happened to be the first Polish location where radioactive isotopes characteristic for reactor releases, such as 131I, 132I, 129mTe, 132Te, 134Cs, 136Cs, and 137Cs, were detected. The maximum activity for aerosols equal to (5.73 ± 0.35) mBq/m3, (0.461 ± 0.041) mBq/m3 and (0.436 ± 0.038) mBq/m3 for 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, respectively, was recorded for March 29, 2011. The data on the fallout are also given. The results of the radiochemical analysis of aerosol samples showed no traces of plutonium or americium isotopes associated with the disaster to be detected. The results of air activity concentration from Fukushima accident observed in Central Europe, Poland, in comparison to those of Chernobyl accident observed in Japan are presented and discussed. The comparison has revealed a discrepancy in the recognized relative scale of both accidents, and important difference in long distance transport of contamination, to exist. An attempt to explain the variation in the activity ratios between the aerosol fraction for 131I and 137Cs as resulting from exchange between the gaseous and aerosol fractions of 131I while the contamination had been propagating, is made.

  1. Uptake and depuration of 131I from labelled diatoms (Skeletonema costatum) to the edible periwinkle (Littorina littorea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, R C; Vives I Batlle, J; Watts, S J; McDonald, P; Parker, T G

    2007-01-01

    Uptake and depuration of (131)I into winkles through consumption of the diatom Skeletonema costatum is described. The work follows on from previous studies that investigated the uptake of iodine into winkles from seawater and seaweed. Incorporation of (131)I in S. costatum from labelled seawater followed linear first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 0.40 days. Iodine uptake in winkles from labelled S. costatum also followed linear first-order kinetics, with a calculated equilibrium concentration (C(infinity)) of 42Bqkg(-1) and a transfer factor (TF) of 1.1x10(-4) with respect to labelled diatom food. This TF is lower than that observed for uptake of (131)I in winkles from labelled seaweed. For the depuration stage, a biphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 1.3 and 255 days was determined. The first phase is biokinetically important, given that winkles can lose two-thirds of their activity during that period. This study shows that, whilst winkles can obtain radioactive iodine from phytoplankton consumption, they do not retain the majority of that activity for very long. Hence, compared with other exposure pathways, such as uptake from seawater and macroalgae, incorporation from phytoplankton is a relatively minor exposure route. PMID:17442468

  2. Evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness of 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Ji, Yan-Hui; Li, Cheng-Xia; Liu, Zhong-Yun; Li, Ning; Fang, Lei; Chang, Jin; Tan, Jian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological effects of internal irradiation, and the therapeutic effectiveness was assessed of 131I-labeled anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) liposomes, derived from cetuximab, when used as a tumor-targeting carrier in a colorectal cancer mouse model. METHODS: We described the liposomes and characterized their EGFR-targeted binding and cellular uptake in EGFR-overexpressing LS180 colorectal cancer cells. After intra-tumor injections of 74 MBq (740 MBq/mL) 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL, we investigated the biological effects of internal irradiation and the therapeutic efficacy of 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL on colorectal cancer in a male BALB/c mouse model. Tumor size, body weight, histopathology, and SPECT imaging were monitored for 33 d post-therapy. RESULTS: The rapid radioiodine uptake of 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL and 131I-BSA-PCL reached maximum levels at 4 h after incubation, and the 131I uptake of 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL was higher than that of 131I-BSA-PCL in vitro. The 131I tissue distribution assay revealed that 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL was markedly taken up by the tumor. Furthermore, a tissue distribution assay revealed that 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL was markedly taken up by the tumor and reached its maximal uptake value of 21.0 ± 1.01 %ID/g (%ID/g is the percentage injected dose per gram of tissue) at 72 h following therapy; the drug concentration in the tumor was higher than that in the liver, heart, colon, or spleen. Tumor size measurements showed that tumor development was significantly inhibited by treatments with 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL and 131I-BSA-PCL. The volume of tumor increased, and treatment rate with 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL was 124% ± 7%, lower than that with 131I-BSA-PCL (127% ± 9%), 131I (143% ± 7%), and normal saline (146% ± 10%). The percentage losses in original body weights were 39% ± 3%, 41% ± 4%, 49% ± 5%, and 55% ± 13%, respectively. The best survival and cure rates were obtained in the group treated with 131I

  3. Radionuclide (131)I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingyi; Zhao, Lingzhou; Cheng, Yongjun; Xiong, Zhijuan; Tang, Yueqin; Shen, Mingwu; Zhao, Jinhua; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-11-21

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive (131)I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5·NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and labeling of radioactive iodine-131 ((131)I). The generated multifunctional (131)I-G5·NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers were characterized via different methods. We show that prior to (131)I labeling, the G5·NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers conjugated with approximately 9.4 HPAO moieties per dendrimer are noncytotoxic at a concentration up to 20 μM and are able to target cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors (FAR), thanks to the modified FA ligands. In the presence of a phenol group, radioactive (131)I is able to be efficiently labeled onto the dendrimer platform with good stability and high radiochemical purity, and render the platform with an ability for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of an FAR-overexpressing xenografted tumor model in vivo. The designed strategy to use the facile dendrimer nanotechnology may be extended to develop various radioactive theranostic nanoplatforms for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of different types of cancer.

  4. Monte Carlo mitochondrial dosimetry and microdosimetry of 131I.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Cázares, Tomás A; Torres-García, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    A mitochondrion is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells, which produces most of the energy needed by a living cell. It has been shown that ionising radiation causes mitochondrial damage leading to apoptosis or cell death. The aim of this work was to calculate, by Monte Carlo simulation, the specific energy (z) into the mitochondria, due to Auger electrons, conversion electrons and beta emission from (131)I, where the radionuclide was carried by a vector to the cell surface and the surrounding environment. A concentric spherical geometry represents a cell and its nucleus. Three different volumes were used to represent the mitochondria; they were placed in random positions within the cytoplasm. The z produced by a single event is due to low-energy electrons (76 %) and beta particles (24 %) and the mitochondria receive a total mean z two orders of magnitude higher than that of the cell nucleus.

  5. Monte Carlo mitochondrial dosimetry and microdosimetry of 131I.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Cázares, Tomás A; Torres-García, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    A mitochondrion is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells, which produces most of the energy needed by a living cell. It has been shown that ionising radiation causes mitochondrial damage leading to apoptosis or cell death. The aim of this work was to calculate, by Monte Carlo simulation, the specific energy (z) into the mitochondria, due to Auger electrons, conversion electrons and beta emission from (131)I, where the radionuclide was carried by a vector to the cell surface and the surrounding environment. A concentric spherical geometry represents a cell and its nucleus. Three different volumes were used to represent the mitochondria; they were placed in random positions within the cytoplasm. The z produced by a single event is due to low-energy electrons (76 %) and beta particles (24 %) and the mitochondria receive a total mean z two orders of magnitude higher than that of the cell nucleus. PMID:22826354

  6. Uncertainty of historical measurements of {sup 131}I in Hanford-area vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.; Strenge, D.L.; Miley, T.B.

    1996-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was conducted to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions to the air and water from Hanford Site operations since 1944. The largest doses were to the human thyroid gland from {sup 131}I released into the atmosphere from Hanford facilities in the 1945-1947 time period. In support of the dose reconstruction effort, a database of historical environmental radioactivity measurements was constructed. This database includes measurements of total radioactivity for vegetation samples collected from 1945-1948 and counted using a Geiger-Mueller (GM) detector system. Because the factors used at that time to convert the GM counts to {sup 131}I activity did not take all parameters into account, and because some parameter values were inaccurate, more accurate conversion factors were developed as part of the HEDR Project. These factors can be used to estimate the actual historical activity levels. This paper summarizes the Monte Carlo uncertainty and sensitivity analysis methods used to assess the uncertainty of the newly reconstructed historical vegetation {sup 131}I activities and to identify the parameters that contributed the most uncertainty to these reconstructed activities. Based on the study of two vegetation (sagebrush) samples collected in the mid-1940`s, it appears that the true {sup 131}I activity of the historical vegetation samples should be within a factor of three of the reconstructed activity. Also, the uncertainty in the parameter I{sub cf} (the fraction of the background-corrected GM measurement of a vegetation sample that resulted from {sup 131}I) was found to contribute the most uncertainty to the reconstructed {sup 131}I activities when the uncertainty in I{sub cf} was large. 30 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Uncertainty of historical measurements of 131I in Hanford-area vegetation.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, R O; Mart, E I; Denham, D H; Strenge, D L; Miley, T B

    1996-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was conducted to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions to the air and water from Hanford Site operations since 1944. The largest doses were to the human thyroid gland from 131I released into the atmosphere from Hanford facilities in the 1945-1947 time period. In support of the dose reconstruction effort, a database of historical environmental radioactivity measurements was constructed. This database includes measurements of total radioactivity for vegetation samples collected from 1945-1948 and counted using a Geiger-Mueller (GM) detector system. Because the factors used at that time to convert the GM counts to 131I activity did not take all parameters into account, and because some parameter values were inaccurate, more accurate conversion factors were developed as part of the HEDR Project. These factors can be used to estimate the actual historical activity levels. This paper summarizes the Monte Carlo uncertainty and sensitivity analysis methods used to assess the uncertainty of the newly reconstructed historical vegetation 131I activities and to identify the parameters that contributed the most uncertainty to these reconstructed activities. Based on the study of two vegetation (sagebrush) samples collected in the mid-1940's, it appears that the true 131I activity of the historical vegetation samples should be within a factor of three of the reconstructed activity. Also, the uncertainty in the parameter Icf (the fraction of the background-corrected GM measurement of a vegetation sample that resulted from 131I) was found to contribute the most uncertainty to the reconstructed 131I activities when the uncertainty in Icf was large. PMID:8567282

  8. Localized beta dosimetry of sup 131 I -labeled antibodies in follicular lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, T.E.; Fisher, D.R. ); Press, O.W.; Eary, J.F. ); Weinstein, J.N. ); Badger, C.C.; Bernstein, I.D. )

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the multicellular dosimetry of {sup 131}I -labeled antibody in follicular lymphoma based on histological measurements on human tumor biopsy tissue. Photomicrographs of lymph node specimens were analyzed by first-order treatment to determine the mean values and statistical variations of the radii of follicles (260{plus minus}90 {mu}m), interfollicular distances (740{plus minus}160 {mu}m), and the number density of follicles (60{plus minus}18 in a volume of (2{times}1480 {mu}m){sup 3}). Based on these measurements, two geometrical models were developed for localized beta dosimetry. The first, a regular cubic lattice model, assumes no variation in follicular radius of follicles and interfollicular distance. The second, a randomized distribution model, is a more complicated but more realistic representation of observed histological specimens. In this model, Monte Carlo methods were used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of follicles by simulating the distribution of the radii of follicles, interfollicular distances, and the number density of follicles. Dose calculations were performed using Berger's point kernels for absorbed-dose distribution for beta particles in water, assuming the {sup 131}I -labeled antibodies as point sources. It was assumed that the activity concentration of the labeled antibody within the follicles was ten times the activity concentration in the interfollicular spaces. The spatial distribution of localized dose was calculated for a tumor having an average dose of 40 Gy. The localized dose was found to be highly nonuniform, ranging from 20 to 90 Gy, and varying by a factor of about 2 from the average tumor dose.

  9. 131I therapy for 345 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism: Without antithyroid drug pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jialiu; Fang, Yi; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Youren; Long, Yahong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and long-term results of 131I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment. From January 2002 to December 2012, 408 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism were treated with 131I alone. Among them, 345 were followed up for 1 to 10 years for physical examination, thyroid function, and thyroid ultrasound. Complete Blood Count (CBC) liver function, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) thyroid imaging were performed as indicated. The 345 patients had concomitant conditions including thyrotoxic heart disease, severe liver dysfunction, enlarged thyroid weighing 80 to 400 g, severe cytopenia, and vasculitis. One to two weeks prior to 131I therapy, all patients were given low-iodine diet. The dose of 131I therapy was 2.59 to 6.66 MBq (70 to180 µCi) per gram of thyroid with an average of 3.83 ± 0.6 MBq (103.6 ± 16.4 µCi); and the total 131I activity administrated for the individuals was 111 to 3507.6 MBq (3.0 to 94.8 mCi, mean 444 ± 336.7 MBq (12.0 ± 9.1 mCi)). Out of the 408 patients, 283 were cured, 15 with complete remission, and 47 with incomplete remission. No treatment failure or significant clinical worsening was noted in these patients. Our data indicated that 131I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment is safe and effective. PMID:26341470

  10. Reconstruction of (131)I radioactive contamination in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident using atmospheric transport modelling.

    PubMed

    Talerko, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of (131)I air and ground contamination field formation in the territory of Ukraine was made using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The (131)I atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The airborne (131)I concentration and ground deposition fields were calculated as the database for subsequent thyroid dose reconstruction for inhabitants of radioactive contaminated regions. The small-scale deposition field variability is assessed using data of (137)Cs detailed measurements in the territory of Ukraine. The obtained results are compared with available data of radioiodine daily deposition measurements made at the network of meteorological stations in Ukraine and data of the assessments of (131)I soil contamination obtained from the (129)I measurements. PMID:16024139

  11. Prediction of groundwater contamination with 137Cs and 131I from the Fukushima nuclear accident in the Kanto district.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tomoko; Mahara, Yasunori; Kubota, Takumi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Keiko; Takamiya, Koichi; Yoshinaga, Hisao; Mizuochi, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2012-09-01

    We measured the concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs released from the Fukushima nuclear accident in soil and rainwater samples collected March 30-31, 2011, in Ibaraki Prefecture, Kanto district, bordering Fukushima Prefecture to the south. Column experiments revealed that all (131)I in rainwater samples was adsorbed onto an anion-exchange resin. However, 30% of (131)I was not retained by the resin after it passed through a soil layer, suggesting that a portion of (131)I became bound to organic matter from the soil. The (137)Cs migration rate was estimated to be approximately 0.6 mm/y in the Kanto area, which indicates that contamination of groundwater by (137)Cs is not likely to occur in rainwater infiltrating into the surface soil after the Fukushima accident.

  12. Validation of 131I ecological transfer models and thyroid dose assessments using Chernobyl fallout data from the Plavsk district, Russia.

    PubMed

    Zvonova, I; Krajewski, P; Berkovsky, V; Ammann, M; Duffa, C; Filistovic, V; Homma, T; Kanyar, B; Nedveckaite, T; Simon, S L; Vlasov, O; Webbe-Wood, D

    2010-01-01

    Within the project "Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety" (EMRAS) organized by the IAEA in 2003 experimental data of (131)I measurements following the Chernobyl accident in the Plavsk district of Tula region, Russia were used to validate the calculations of some radioecological transfer models. Nine models participated in the inter-comparison. Levels of (137)Cs soil contamination in all the settlements and (131)I/(137)Cs isotopic ratios in the depositions in some locations were used as the main input information. 370 measurements of (131)I content in thyroid of townspeople and villagers, and 90 measurements of (131)I concentration in milk were used for validation of the model predictions. A remarkable improvement in models performance comparing with previous inter-comparison exercise was demonstrated. Predictions of the various models were within a factor of three relative to the observations, discrepancies between the estimates of average doses to thyroid produced by most participant not exceeded a factor of ten.

  13. Breast cancer following /sup 131/I therapy for hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.A.; McConahey, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study of women treated for hyperthyroidism at the Mayo Clinic between 1946 and 1964 was conducted to determine if 1,005 women treated with (/sup 131/I) were at increased risk of breast cancer compared with 2,141 women traced, and a response (death certificate or questionnaire) was received for 99% of the traced women. The average duration of follow-up was 15 years for the /sup 131/I-treated women and 21 years for women treated surgically. No increased risk of breast cancer was observed in the /sup 131/I-treated women (adjusted relative risk . 0.8). No patterns were found of increased breast cancer risk by age at first treatment, by time since treatment, or by total exposure to /sup 131/I. Failure to detect an increased risk of breast cancer in the /sup 131/I-treated women was attributed to the moderately low doses from /sup 131/I therapy and the relatively small number of exposed women. The study also failed to find any increased risk of breast cancer associated with hyperthyroidism.

  14. Calculation of. beta. -ray absorbed dose rate for /sup 131/I applied to the inflorescence of Tradescantia

    SciTech Connect

    Bingo, K.; Tano, S.; Numakunai, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.

    1981-03-01

    Effects of /sup 131/I applied to the inflorescence on the induction of somatic mutations in Tradescantia stamen hairs were previously investigated, and the doubling dose (activity) was estimated to be 4 nCi. In the present paper, the absorbed dose rate in stamen hairs of Tradescantia for ..beta.. rays from the applied /sup 131/I was calculated. The doubling dose for the /sup 131/I (4 nCi) applied to the inflorescence was estimated to be higher than 0.3 rad (assuming uniform distribution of /sup 131/I on the surface of the buds and assuming that the shape of the buds was a sphere) and lower than 1.0 rad.

  15. Radiobiological effects of /sup 131/I and /sup 125/I on the DNA of the rat thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Nabi, H.; Ortman, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    One of the major disadvantages of the use of /sup 131/I in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis is the development of hypothyroidism. Alternatively, /sup 125/I has been proposed for thyrotoxicosis therapy, and was thought to be preferable to /sup 131/I because of the short range of its emitted soft electrons.Several studies have shown /sup 125/I to be as effective as /sup 131/I in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis, and equally likely to produce hupothyroidism. This work compared the radiobiological effects of /sup 131/I and /sup 125/I given in doses to deliver the same amount of radiation to the rat thyroid gland.These effects were studied by in vivo determination of single-strand DNA breaks by alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation using the DABA fluorescent technique to detect the DNA. Serum T/sub 4/ and TSH concentrations and percentage T/sub 3/ uptake were determined by RIA. The incidence of hypothyroidism following /sup 131/I and /sup 125/I therapy was found to be the same (10% in each group). The extent of DNA damage following /sup 125/I therapy was greater than the damage induced by a larger dose of /sup 131/I.

  16. Sodium-iodine symporter gene expression controlled by the EGR-1 promoter: biodistribution, imaging and in vitro radionuclide therapy with Na(131)I.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Wang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Yuanqi; Shi, Yizhen; Liu, Zengli; Yang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of radioiodine treatment for cervical cancer using the early growth response (Egr-1) promoter to control sodium-iodine symporter (hNIS) gene expression. The hNIS gene was previously transfected into Hela cells under the control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) or Egr-1 promoters. Na(125)I uptake was measured in the presence or absence of NaClO4. Na(125)I efflux was measured. The effects of external beam radiation on iodine uptake and retention were studied. The cytotoxic effects of (131)I were measured by clonogenic assay. The Na(125)I biodistribution was obtained using mice bearing control and transfected cells. The %ID/g of tumor and major organs were obtained for a range of times up to 48 hours post injection and the ratio of tumor to non-tumor activity (T/NT) was calculated. Tumors were imaged with Na(131)I and (99m)TcO4 (-), and the ratio of tumor to background activity (T/B) was calculated. Na(125)I uptake in Hela cells was minimal in the absence of hNIS. Uptake in the transfected cells was strong, and could be blocked by NaClO4. The iodine uptake of Hela-Egr-1-hNIS cells increased after the irradiation, and the magnitude of this effect approximately matched the radiation dose delivered. The efflux of 125I was affected by neither the promoter sequence nor pre-irradiation. (131)I reduced the clonogenic survival of symporter expressing cells, relative to the parental line. The effect was greatest in cells where hNIS was driven by the CMV promoter. Tumors formed from Hela-Egr-1-hNIS concentrated Na(125)I over a 12 hour period, in contrast to untransfected cells. These tumors could also be successfully imaged using either Na(131)I or (99m)TcO4 (-). (131)I uptake peaked at 4h, while (99m)TcO4 (-) accumulated over approximately 20 hours. In vivo uptake of (131)I and (99m)TcO4 (-) was slightly higher in cells transfected with the Egr-1 promoter, compared to CMV. Hela-Egr-1-hNIS cells demonstrate highly

  17. Radionuclide 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Zhao, Lingzhou; Cheng, Yongjun; Xiong, Zhijuan; Tang, Yueqin; Shen, Mingwu; Zhao, Jinhua; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and labeling of radioactive iodine-131 (131I). The generated multifunctional 131I-G5.NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers were characterized via different methods. We show that prior to 131I labeling, the G5.NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers conjugated with approximately 9.4 HPAO moieties per dendrimer are noncytotoxic at a concentration up to 20 μM and are able to target cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors (FAR), thanks to the modified FA ligands. In the presence of a phenol group, radioactive 131I is able to be efficiently labeled onto the dendrimer platform with good stability and high radiochemical purity, and render the platform with an ability for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of an FAR-overexpressing xenografted tumor model in vivo. The designed strategy to use the facile dendrimer nanotechnology may be extended to develop various radioactive theranostic nanoplatforms for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of different types of cancer.We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and

  18. Cancer risks after diagnostic doses of 131I with special reference to thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, L.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Between 1951 and 1969 a total of 35,074 patients less than 75 years of age (mean = 44 years) were examined with diagnostic doses of 131I. The mean administered activity of 131I was 52 microCi and the radiation dose to the thyroid gland was on the average of 0.5 Gy. The cohort was matched with the Swedish Cancer Register for the years 1958-1984. During this period, 3746 cancers occurred more than 5 years after the 131I examination, and the resulting standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98 to 1.04). SIR for thyroid cancer was 1.18 (95% CI = 0.88 to 1.56). The risks for both cancer of all sites and for thyroid cancer were highest 5 to 9 years after examination (SIR = 1.07 and 2.06, respectively) and did not differ from unity thereafter. With greater than or equal to 10 years of follow-up, risk was not statistically associated with the dose of 131I.

  19. Incidence and risk factors for secondary malignancy in patients with neuroblastoma after treatment with (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Kelly E; Vo, Kieuhoa T; DuBois, Steven G; Fetzko, Stephanie; Neuhaus, John; Batra, Vandana; Maris, John M; Weiss, Brian; Marachelian, Araz; Yanik, Greg A; Matthay, Katherine K

    2016-10-01

    Several reports of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) in patients with relapsed neuroblastoma after treatment with (131)I-MIBG suggest the possibility of increased risk. Incidence of and risk factors for SMN after (131)I-MIBG have not been defined. This is a multi-institutional retrospective review of patients with neuroblastoma treated with (131)I-MIBG therapy. A competing risk approach was used to calculate the cumulative incidence of SMN from time of first exposure to (131)I-MIBG. A competing risk regression was used to identify potential risk factors for SMN. The analytical cohort included 644 patients treated with (131)I-MIBG. The cumulative incidence of SMN was 7.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-13.0%) and 14.3% (95% CI, 8.3-23.9%) at 5 and 10 years from first (131)I-MIBG, respectively. No increase in SMN risk was found with increased number of (131)I-MIBG treatments or higher cumulative activity per kilogram of (131)I-MIBG received (p = 0.72 and p = 0.84, respectively). Thirteen of the 19 reported SMN were haematologic. In a multivariate analysis controlling for variables with p < 0.1 (stage, age at first (131)I-MIBG, bone disease, disease status at time of first (131)I-MIBG), patients with relapsed/progressive disease had significantly lower risk of SMN (subdistribution hazard ratio 0.3, 95% CI, 0.1-0.8, p = 0.023) compared to patients with persistent/refractory neuroblastoma. The cumulative risk of SMN after (131)I-MIBG therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma is similar to the greatest published incidence for high-risk neuroblastoma after myeloablative therapy, with no dose-dependent increase. As the number of patients treated and length of follow-up time increase, it will be important to reassess this risk.

  20. Incidence and risk factors for secondary malignancy in patients with neuroblastoma after treatment with (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Kelly E; Vo, Kieuhoa T; DuBois, Steven G; Fetzko, Stephanie; Neuhaus, John; Batra, Vandana; Maris, John M; Weiss, Brian; Marachelian, Araz; Yanik, Greg A; Matthay, Katherine K

    2016-10-01

    Several reports of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) in patients with relapsed neuroblastoma after treatment with (131)I-MIBG suggest the possibility of increased risk. Incidence of and risk factors for SMN after (131)I-MIBG have not been defined. This is a multi-institutional retrospective review of patients with neuroblastoma treated with (131)I-MIBG therapy. A competing risk approach was used to calculate the cumulative incidence of SMN from time of first exposure to (131)I-MIBG. A competing risk regression was used to identify potential risk factors for SMN. The analytical cohort included 644 patients treated with (131)I-MIBG. The cumulative incidence of SMN was 7.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-13.0%) and 14.3% (95% CI, 8.3-23.9%) at 5 and 10 years from first (131)I-MIBG, respectively. No increase in SMN risk was found with increased number of (131)I-MIBG treatments or higher cumulative activity per kilogram of (131)I-MIBG received (p = 0.72 and p = 0.84, respectively). Thirteen of the 19 reported SMN were haematologic. In a multivariate analysis controlling for variables with p < 0.1 (stage, age at first (131)I-MIBG, bone disease, disease status at time of first (131)I-MIBG), patients with relapsed/progressive disease had significantly lower risk of SMN (subdistribution hazard ratio 0.3, 95% CI, 0.1-0.8, p = 0.023) compared to patients with persistent/refractory neuroblastoma. The cumulative risk of SMN after (131)I-MIBG therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma is similar to the greatest published incidence for high-risk neuroblastoma after myeloablative therapy, with no dose-dependent increase. As the number of patients treated and length of follow-up time increase, it will be important to reassess this risk. PMID:27573428

  1. Organ Dose Estimates for Hyperthyroid Patients Treated with (131)I: An Update of the Thyrotoxicosis Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Melo, Dunstana R; Brill, Aaron B; Zanzonico, Pat; Vicini, Paolo; Moroz, Brian; Kwon, Deukwoo; Lamart, Stephanie; Brenner, Alina; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2015-12-01

    The Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-up Study (TTFUS) is comprised of 35,593 hyperthyroid patients treated from the mid-1940s through the mid-1960s. One objective of the TTFUS was to evaluate the long-term effects of high-dose iodine-131 ((131)I) treatment (1-4). In the TTFUS cohort, 23,020 patients were treated with (131)I, including 21,536 patients with Graves disease (GD), 1,203 patients with toxic nodular goiter (TNG) and 281 patients with unknown disease. The study population constituted the largest group of hyperthyroid patients ever examined in a single health risk study. The average number (± 1 standard deviation) of (131)I treatments per patient was 1.7 ± 1.4 for the GD patients and 2.1 ± 2.1 for the TNG patients. The average total (131)I administered activity was 380 ± 360 MBq for GD patients and 640 ± 550 MBq for TNG patients. In this work, a biokinetic model for iodine was developed to derive organ residence times and to reconstruct the radiation-absorbed doses to the thyroid gland and to other organs resulting from administration of (131)I to hyperthyroid patients. Based on (131)I data for a small, kinetically well-characterized sub-cohort of patients, multivariate regression equations were developed to relate the numbers of disintegrations of (131)I in more than 50 organs and tissues to anatomical (thyroid mass) and clinical (percentage thyroid uptake and pulse rate) parameters. These equations were then applied to estimate the numbers of (131)I disintegrations in the organs and tissues of all other hyperthyroid patients in the TTFUS who were treated with (131)I. The reference voxel phantoms adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were then used to calculate the absorbed doses in more than 20 organs and tissues of the body. As expected, the absorbed doses were found to be highest in the thyroid (arithmetic means of 120 and 140 Gy for GD and TNG patients, respectively). Absorbed doses in organs other than the thyroid

  2. Organ Dose Estimates for Hyperthyroid Patients Treated with (131)I: An Update of the Thyrotoxicosis Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Melo, Dunstana R; Brill, Aaron B; Zanzonico, Pat; Vicini, Paolo; Moroz, Brian; Kwon, Deukwoo; Lamart, Stephanie; Brenner, Alina; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2015-12-01

    The Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-up Study (TTFUS) is comprised of 35,593 hyperthyroid patients treated from the mid-1940s through the mid-1960s. One objective of the TTFUS was to evaluate the long-term effects of high-dose iodine-131 ((131)I) treatment (1-4). In the TTFUS cohort, 23,020 patients were treated with (131)I, including 21,536 patients with Graves disease (GD), 1,203 patients with toxic nodular goiter (TNG) and 281 patients with unknown disease. The study population constituted the largest group of hyperthyroid patients ever examined in a single health risk study. The average number (± 1 standard deviation) of (131)I treatments per patient was 1.7 ± 1.4 for the GD patients and 2.1 ± 2.1 for the TNG patients. The average total (131)I administered activity was 380 ± 360 MBq for GD patients and 640 ± 550 MBq for TNG patients. In this work, a biokinetic model for iodine was developed to derive organ residence times and to reconstruct the radiation-absorbed doses to the thyroid gland and to other organs resulting from administration of (131)I to hyperthyroid patients. Based on (131)I data for a small, kinetically well-characterized sub-cohort of patients, multivariate regression equations were developed to relate the numbers of disintegrations of (131)I in more than 50 organs and tissues to anatomical (thyroid mass) and clinical (percentage thyroid uptake and pulse rate) parameters. These equations were then applied to estimate the numbers of (131)I disintegrations in the organs and tissues of all other hyperthyroid patients in the TTFUS who were treated with (131)I. The reference voxel phantoms adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were then used to calculate the absorbed doses in more than 20 organs and tissues of the body. As expected, the absorbed doses were found to be highest in the thyroid (arithmetic means of 120 and 140 Gy for GD and TNG patients, respectively). Absorbed doses in organs other than the thyroid

  3. Credibility of Uncertainty Analyses for 131-I Pathway Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Apostoaei, A. I.; Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, A; Napier, Bruce A.; Simon, Steven L.

    2004-05-01

    We would like to make your readers aware of numerous concerns we have with respect to the paper by A. A. Simpkins and D. M. Hamby on Uncertainty in transport factors used to calculate historic dose from 131I releases at the Savannah River Site. The paper by Simpkins and Hamby concludes by saying their uncertainty analysis would add credibility to current dose reconstruction efforts of public exposures to historic releases of 131I from the operations at the Savannah River Site, yet we have found their paper to be afflicted with numerous errors in assumptions and methodology, which in turn lead to grossly misleading conclusions. Perhaps the most egregious errors are their conclusions, which state that: a. the vegetable pathway, not the ingestion of fresh milk, was the main contributor to thyroid dose for exposure to 131I (even though dietary intake of vegetables was less in the past than at present), and b. the probability distribution assigned to the fraction of iodine released in the elemental form (Uniform 0, 0.6) is responsible for 64.6% of the total uncertainty in thyroid dose, given a unit release of 131I to the atmosphere. The assumptions used in the paper by Simpkins and Hamby lead to a large overestimate of the contamination of vegetables by airborne 131I. The interception by leafy and non-leafy vegetables of freshly deposited 131I is known to be highly dependent on the growth form of the crop and the standing crop biomass of leafy material. Unrealistic assumptions are made for losses of 131I from food processing, preparation, and storage prior to human consumption. These assumptions tend to bias their conclusions toward an overestimate of the amount of 131I retained by vegetation prior to consumption. For example, the generic assumption of a 6-d hold-up time is used for the loss from radioactive decay for the time period from harvest to human consumption of fruits, vegetables, and grains. We anticipate hold-up times of many weeks, if not months, between

  4. NOTE: Monte Carlo microdosimetry of 188Re- and 131I-labelled anti-CD20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-García, E.; Garnica-Garza, H. M.; Ferro-Flores, G.

    2006-10-01

    The radiolabelled monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 has the property of binding to the CD20 antigen expressed on the cell surface of B-lymphocytes, thus making it a useful tool in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this work, the event-by-event Monte Carlo code NOREC is used to calculate the single-event distribution function f1(z) in the cell nucleus using the beta spectra of the 188Re and 131I radionuclides. The simulated geometry consists of two concentric spheres representing the nucleus and the cell surface embedded in a semi-infinite water medium. An isotropic point source was placed on the cell surface to simulate the binding of the anti-CD20 labelled with either 188Re or 131I. The simulations were carried out for two combinations of cell surface and nucleus radii. A method was devised that allows one to calculate the contribution of betas of energy greater than 1 MeV, which cannot be simulated by the NOREC code, to the single-event distribution function. It is shown that disregarding this contribution leads to an overestimation of the frequency-mean specific energy of the order of 9 12%. In general, the antibody radiolabelled with 131I produces single-event distribution functions that yield higher frequency-mean specific energies.

  5. Individualized 131I-mIBG therapy in the management of refractory and relapsed neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    George, Sally L.; Falzone, Nadia; Chittenden, Sarah; Kirk, Stephanie J.; Lancaster, Donna; Vaidya, Sucheta J.; Mandeville, Henry; Saran, Frank; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Du, Yong; Meller, Simon T.; Denis-Bacelar, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Iodine-131-labelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131I-mIBG) therapy is an established treatment modality for relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma, most frequently administered according to fixed or weight-based criteria. We evaluate response and toxicity following a dosimetry-based, individualized approach. Materials and methods A review of 44 treatments in 25 patients treated with 131I-mIBG therapy was performed. Patients received 131I-mIBG therapy following relapse (n=9), in refractory disease (n=12), or with surgically unresectable disease despite conventional treatment (n=4). Treatment schedule (including mIBG dose and number of administrations) was individualized according to the clinical status of the patient and dosimetry data from either a tracer study or previous administrations. Three-dimensional tumour dosimetry was also performed for eight patients. Results The mean administered activity was 11089±7222 MBq and the mean whole-body dose for a single administration was 1.79±0.57 Gy. Tumour-absorbed doses varied considerably (3.70±3.37 mGy/MBq). CTCAE grade 3/4 neutropenia was documented following 82% treatments and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia following 71% treatments. Further acute toxicity was found in 49% of patients. All acute toxicities resolved with appropriate therapy. The overall response rate was 58% (complete or partial response), with a further 29% of patients having stable disease. Conclusion A highly personalized approach combining patient-specific dosimetry and clinical judgement enables delivery of high activities that can be tolerated by patients, particularly with stem cell support. We report excellent response rates and acceptable toxicity following individualized 131I-mIBG therapy. PMID:26813989

  6. Vitamin a derivatives labelled with 131I — Potential agents for liver scientigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadeřávek, J.; Kozempel, J.; Štícha, M.; Petrášek, J.; Jirsa, M.; Taimr, P.; Lešetický, L.

    2006-01-01

    Two retinol derivatives, 4-[(131I)-4-iodobenzoyloxy]retinol propionate and 4-[(131I)-3-iodobenzylcarbamoyl]retinol propionate, were synthesized and their biodistribution in rats was studied in vivo by the whole body scintigraphy.

  7. 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) therapy for residual neuroblastoma: a mono-institutional experience with 43 patients

    PubMed Central

    Garaventa, A; Bellagamba, O; Piccolo, M S Lo; Milanaccio, C; Lanino, E; Bertolazzi, L; Villavecchia, G P; Cabria, M; Scopinaro, G; Claudiani, F; Bernardi, B De

    1999-01-01

    Incomplete response to therapy may compromise the outcome of children with advanced neuroblastoma. In an attempt to improve tumour response we incorporated 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) in the treatment regimens of selected stage 3 and stage 4 patients. Between 1986 and 1997, 43 neuroblastoma patients older than 1 year at diagnosis, 13 with stage 3 (group A) and 30 with stage 4 disease (group B) who had completed the first-line protocol without achieving complete response entered in this study. 131I-MIBG dose/course ranged from 2.5 to 5.5 Gbq (median, 3.7). The number of courses ranged from 1 to 5 (median 3) depending on the tumour response and toxicity. The most common acute side-effect was thrombocytopenia. Later side-effects included severe interstitial pneumonia in one patient, acute myeloid leukaemia in two, reduced thyroid reserve in 21. Complete response was documented in one stage 4 patient, partial response in 12 (two stage 3, 10 stage 4), mixed or no response in 25 (ten stage 3, 15 stage 4) and disease progression in five (one stage 3, four stage 4) Twenty-four patients (12/13 stage 3, 12/30 stage 4) are alive at 22–153 months (median, 59) from diagnosis. 131I-MIBG therapy may increase the cure rate of stage 3 and improve the response of stage 4 neuroblastoma patients with residual disease after first-line therapy. A larger number of patients should be treated to confirm these results but logistic problems hamper prospective and coordinated studies. Long-term toxicity can be severe. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10604736

  8. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with {sup 131}I thyroid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, S. Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K.; Hertel, N.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.

    2015-04-15

    specific activities of {sup 131}I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for {sup 131}I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ∼27% of administered {sup 131}I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ∼4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ∼3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with {sup 131}I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered {sup 131}I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. The method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.

  9. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Hertel, N.; Leggett, R.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.; Eckerman, K.

    2015-03-25

    specific activities of 131I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for 131I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ~27% of administered 131I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ~4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ~3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with 131I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered 131I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. Finally, the method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.« less

  10. Specific energy from Auger and conversion electrons of 131I, 188Re-anti-CD20 to a lymphocyte's nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-García, E.; Carrillo-Cazares, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The typical radionuclides used to label anti-CD20 in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are 90Y, 131I, and 188Re, with the emission of beta particles, Auger electrons, and conversion electrons for the latter two. The aim of the present work was to calculate the contribution of high linear energy transfer radiation as Auger electrons (AE) and conversion electrons (CE) of 131I and 188Re-anti-CD20 to mean specific energy into the cell nucleus by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), so as to infer therapeutic effectiveness on a dosimetric basis. MCS was used to quantify the frequency-mean specific energy into the cell nucleus, where the cell was modeled by two concentric spheres, considering two cell models. The results showed that 10% and 33% of the mean-specific energies (z¯) per disintegration imparted to the cell nucleus for both geometries are due to AE and CE; on the other hand, if the hit of AE and CE occurs, the contribution to (z¯) is about 64% and 86% for 131I and 188Re, respectively. According to the amount of specific energy from AE and CE into the cell nucleus by positive event, they can cause catastrophic effects in the nuclear DNA in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with 131I, 188Re-anti-CD20.

  11. Synergistic antitumor effects of 131I-LC-1 IgM and IL-12 vaccine on Lewis lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao Ling; Yan, Xuexian; Wen, Ming; Peng, Zhi Ping; Li, Shao Lin

    2010-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the antitumor effects of iodine-131 labeled monoclonal antibody LC-1 ((131)I-LC-1), interleukin-12 (IL-12) vaccine, or the combination of both on C57BL/6 mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumors. Tumor-bearing mice models were randomly divided into 4 groups that were respectively injected intratumorally with phosphate buffered solution (PBS), IL-12 vaccine gene therapy (GT), (131)I-LC-1 radioimmuno-therapy (RIT), or GT+RIT. Tumor volumes were measured before and after treatment. ELISA and RT-PCR determined the expression of IL-l2. LC-1 monoclonal antibody (Mab) was labeled with Na(131)I. Cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity assay, Natural Killer cell (NK) activity assay and apoptosis analysis were performed. Intratumoral (131)I-LC-1 injection leads to higher delivery of the antibody to the tumor. Tumor apoptosis occurred in the GT, RIT and GT+RIT groups. Tumor growth was inhibited in the GT, RIT and GT+RIT groups. Compared with other groups, the combination of GT+RIT up-regulated the expression of IL-l2 gene and inhibited the tumor growth more effectively than either GT or RIT alone (p<0.05). These results suggest that GT+RIT have the synergistic antitumor effects on tumor-bearing mice.

  12. Effect of 131I on the anemia of hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Perlman, J.A.; Sternthal, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the National Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-Up Study (NTTFS) are presented here to document the existence of anemia in hyperthyroidism, a mild and reversible anemia that is simultaneously ameliorated with reversal of the hyperthyroid state. Among 20,600 women entered into the NTTF study with no previous history of hematological disorders, the prevalence of anemia was found to range from 10-15%, appearing to be higher in those selected for treatment with 131I when compared to those selected for surgery. An attempt is made to verify the recent hypothesis that thyroid hormone levels in the supraphysiologic range may suppress erythrogenesis. Two statistically significant regression models are consistent with a hypothesis of thyrotoxic bone marrow suppression. However, both associations are weak enough to suggest that some other physiologic improvement underlies the amelioration of anemia when hyperthyroidism is reversed. The degree of improvement in hematological status is similar for women in both treatment groups. Among 4464 women for whom serial hematological tests are obtained, over 3/4 of anemic patients are no longer anemic after an average 6.2 yr of follow-up. Clinicians are reassured that radioactive iodine exposure causes no further insult to the bone marrow, no matter what the cumulative dosage. The highly fractionated low dose bone marrow exposures to radiation account for the minimal hematological risks of 131I treatment.

  13. Model Testing Using Data on 131I Released from Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, Kathleen M.; Napier, Bruce A.; Filistovic, Vitold; Homma, Toshimitsu; Kanyar, Bela; Krajewski, Pawel; Kryshev, Alexander I.; Nedveckaite, Tatjana; Nenyei, Arpad; Sazykina, Tatiana G.; Tveten, Ulf; Sjoblom, Kirsti-Liisa; Robinson, Carol

    2005-06-21

    The Hanford test scenario described an accidental release of 131I to the environment from the Hanford Purex Chemical Separations Plant in September 1963. Based on monitoring data collected after the release, this scenario was used by the Dose Reconstruction Working Group of BIOMASS to test models typically used in dose reconstructions. The primary exposure pathway in terms of contribution to human doses was ingestion of contaminated milk and vegetables. Predicted mean doses to the thyroid of reference individuals from ingestion of 131I ranged from 0.0001 to 0.8 mSv. Predicted doses to actual children with high milk consumption ranged from 0.006 to 2 mSv. The predicted deposition at any given location varied among participants by a factor of 5 to 80. Predicted ingestion doses for children, normalized for predicted deposition, varied by about a factor of 10. The exercise provided an opportunity for comparison of assessment methods and conceptual approaches, testing model predictions against measurements, and identifying the most important contributors to uncertainty in the assessment result. Key factors affecting predictions included the approach to handling incomplete data, interpretation of input information, selection of parameter values, adjustment of models for site-specific conditions, and treatment of uncertainties.

  14. Model testing using data on 131I released from Hanford.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, K M; Napier, B A; Filistovic, V; Homma, T; Kanyár, B; Krajewski, P; Kryshev, A I; Nedveckaite, T; Nényei, A; Sazykina, T G; Tveten, U; Sjöblom, K-L; Robinson, C

    2005-01-01

    The Hanford test scenario described an accidental release of 131I to the environment from the Hanford Purex Chemical Separations Plant in September 1963. Based on monitoring data collected after the release, this scenario was used by the Dose Reconstruction Working Group of BIOMASS to test models typically used in dose reconstructions. The primary exposure pathway in terms of contribution to human doses was ingestion of contaminated milk and vegetables. Predicted mean doses to the thyroid of reference individuals from ingestion of 131I ranged from 0.0001 to 0.8 mSv. For one location, predicted doses to the thyroids of two children with high milk consumption ranged from 0.006 to 2 mSv. The predicted deposition at any given location varied among participants by a factor of 5-80. The exercise provided an opportunity for comparison of assessment methods and conceptual approaches, testing model predictions against measurements, and identifying the most important contributors to uncertainty in the assessment result. Key factors affecting predictions included the approach to handling incomplete data, interpretation of input information, selection of parameter values, adjustment of models for site-specific conditions, and treatment of uncertainties. PMID:15975695

  15. Determination of {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I in radioisotope wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Sang Hoon Kang; Ke Chon Choi; Lee, Heung N.; Sun Ho Han; Kwang Yong Jee

    2007-07-01

    In order to measure a low activity of {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I in radioisotope wastes, we took into consideration various sample preparation and separation methods, such as an acid decomposition, an acid leaching and a combustion method. In a previous study, the maximum chemical yield of iodine by an acid leaching was found to be 78.0 %. However, in this study, the maximum chemical yield of the acid decomposition method and the combustion method with a radioiodine reference solution was found to be 99.1 % and 84.5 %, respectively. We selected the acid decomposition method for the analysis of radioisotope waste samples due to its high chemical yield and short preparation and separation time. The chemical yield of the acid decomposition method depends on the reaction time at each experimental stage, added amount of H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and the pH of the condensed solution and the condition of the AgI precipitation. The important point for the highest recovery rate from a acid decomposition method is to maintain enough reaction time and pour 10 ml of 30 % H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} before a distillation, and drop 1 ml of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} when the condensed solution is trapped in the Florence flask. Through a study of the acid decomposition method we found an optimal preparation and separation method of {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I in radioisotope wastes due to the merits of a short reaction time and high recovery rate, and a counting system was applied to LEPS for the {sup 125}I and HP Ge gamma-ray spectrometer for {sup 131}I. (authors)

  16. Aerial Survey Results for 131I Deposition on the Ground after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sugita, Takeshi; Okada, Colin E.; Reed, Michael S.; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    In March 2011 the second largest accidental release of radioactivity in history occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Response performed aerial surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. The initial results from the surveys did not report the concentration of 131I. This work reports on analyses performed on the initial survey data by a joint Japan-US collaboration to determine 131I ground concentration. This information is potentially useful in reconstruction of the inhalation and external exposure doses from this short-lived radionuclide. The deposited concentration of 134Cs is also reported.

  17. Serum thyroxine concentrations after radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Meric, S.M.; Hawkins, E.C.; Washabau, R.J.; Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.

    1986-05-01

    Thirty-one cats with hyperthyroidism were given one dose of radioactive iodine (131I) IV. Serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations were measured before treatment in all cats, at 12-hour intervals after treatment in 10 cats, and at 48-hour intervals after treatment in 21 cats. Serum T4 concentrations also were measured one month after /sup 131/I therapy in 29 cats. Activity of 131I administered was 1.5 to 6.13 mCi, resulting in a dose of 20,000 rads to the thyroid. Serum T4 concentrations before /sup 131/I administration were 5.3 to 51.0 micrograms/dl, with a median T4 concentration of 11.0 micrograms/dl. Serum T4 decreased most rapidly during the first 3 to 6 days after treatment. Sixteen cats (55%) had normal serum thyroxine concentrations by day 4 after 131I administration, and 23 cats (74%) were euthyroxinemic by day 8 after treatment. One month after administration of 131I, the 29 cats evaluated were clinically improved, and 24 (83%) of the 29 cats evaluated had normal serum T4 concentrations, 3 cats (10%) remained hyperthyroxinemic, and 2 cats (7%) were hypothyroxinemic. Therefore, administration of 131I was a safe and effective method to quickly decrease serum T4 concentrations in hyperthyroid cats.

  18. Traces of radioactive 131I in rainwater and milk samples in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mărgineanu, Romul; Mitrică, Bogdan; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of 131I (T1/2 = 8.04 days) activities have been performed in the IFIN HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering) underground laboratory situated in Unirea salt mine, Slănic-Prahova, Romania. The rainwater samples were collected starting on 27 March from Braşov and Slănic-Prahova. Also sheep and goat milk samples were collected in the Slănic, Braşov and Iaşi areas and measurements were subsequently made on them. The measurements on the samples were made at the IFIN HH's underground laboratory in an ultra-low radiation background, using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a GeHP (hyperpure) detector having a full width at half-maximum of 1.80 keV at 1332.48 keV for the second 60Co gamma ray and a relative efficiency of 22.8%. The results show a specific activity of 131I from < 0.063 to 0.75 Bq l - 1 for rain. In the milk samples the specific activity varied from < 0.12 to 5.2 Bq l - 1.

  19. sup 131 I treatment of thyroid papillary carcinoma in a patient with renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrish, D.W.; Filipow, L.J.; McEwan, A.J.; Schmidt, R.; Murland, K.R.; von Westarp, C.; Betcher, K.B. )

    1990-12-15

    Procedures for {sup 131}I ablation in renal failure are not known. In one patient receiving dialysis, detailed dosimetry and health safety aspects were obtained. The results showed insignificant contamination of equipment, but a surprisingly significant reduction in biologic half-life of {sup 131}I due to efficient dialysis extraction. The data indicate that {sup 131}I ablation can be done safely and easily during dialysis but that much higher {sup 131}I doses must be used to achieve equivalent results to those obtained in patients with normal renal function.

  20. Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City. PMID:23887080

  1. Measurement of airborne 131I, 134)Cs and 137Cs due to the Fukushima reactor incident in Milan (Italy).

    PubMed

    Clemenza, M; Fiorini, E; Previtali, E; Sala, E

    2012-12-01

    After the earthquake and the tsunami occurred in Japan on March 2011, four of the Fukushima reactors had released in air a large amount of radioactive isotopes that diffused all over the world. The presence of airborne (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs in air particulate due to this accident were detected and measured in the Low Radioactivity Laboratory operating in the Department of Environmental Sciences of the University of Milano-Bicocca. The sensitivity of the detecting apparatus is of 0.2 uBq/m(3) of air. Concentration and time distribution of these radiocontaminations ranging from a few to 400 uBq/m(3) for the (131)I and of a few tens of uBq/m(3) for the (137)Cs and (134)Cs.

  2. 131I-19-iodocholesterol scintigraphy of the adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Dige-Petersen, H; Munkner, T; Fogh, J; Blichert-Toft, M; Lund, J O

    1975-09-01

    131-I-19-iodocholesterol scintigraphy of the adrenal cortex has been carried out in 26 patients. In 4 patients with normal adrenocortical function the tracer was equally accumulated on the two sides. In 7 patients with untreated Cushing's syndrome, bilateral uptake was found in 4 patients with bilateral hyperplasia whereas unilateral visualization was obtained in three cases of cortisol producing adenomas. The side localization was confirmed at operation. Eight patients had been operated for Cushings syndrome prior to the scintigraphy. Remnant adrenocortical tissue with negligible or subnormal function (4 patients) could not be visualized. Normo- or hyperfunctioning remnant tissue was visualized in 3 patients. One patient had recurrent hypercorticism due to metastases from a previously removed adrenocortical carcinoma; a single pelvic accumulation was seen, whereas several metastases in the abdomen and thorax were not visualized. Four patients with aldosteronism were investigated. Three had primary aldosteronism due to an adrenocortical adenoma. In two of these, the site of the adrenal lesion was localized pre-operatively. In the third patient, equal bilateral accumulation of iodocholesterol was seen even after suppression with dexamethasone. At operation a small tumour was found. In 1 patient with indeterminate aldosteronism both glands were visualized and at a second examination the uptake was equally suppressed by dexamethasone.

  3. Problem on estimation of the content of 131I in milk in the ``iodine'' period of the Chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrushchinskii, A. A.; Kuten', S. A.; Budevich, N. M.; Minenko, V. F.; Zhukova, O. M.; Luk'yanov, N. K.

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of the beta-activity of milk, serving as the main source of information on the radioactive contamination of the environment by the iodine isotope 131I, carried out on a DP-100 radiometer in the early post-Chernobyl period (1986) in Belarus, have been mathematically simulated. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the indicated measurements should be analyzed again with consideration for all of the nuclides present in milk.

  4. Hepatoma-Targeted Radionuclide Immune Albumin Nanospheres: (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Zhang, Dongsheng; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Xiao, Yanhong; Shi, Yujuan; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    An effective strategy has been developed for synthesis of radionuclide immune albumin nanospheres ((131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs). In vitro as well as in vivo targeting of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs to AFP-positive hepatoma was examined. In cultured HepG2 cells, the uptake and retention rates of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were remarkably higher than those of (131)I alone. As well, the uptake rate and retention ratios of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs in AFP-positive HepG2 cells were also significantly higher than those in AFP-negative HEK293 cells. Compared to (131)I alone, (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were much more easily taken in and retained by hepatoma tissue, with a much higher T/NT. Due to good drug-loading, high encapsulation ratio, and highly selective affinity for AFP-positive tumors, the (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs are promising for further effective radiation-gene therapy of hepatoma.

  5. Hepatoma-Targeted Radionuclide Immune Albumin Nanospheres: 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Zhang, Dongsheng; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Xiao, Yanhong; Shi, Yujuan; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    An effective strategy has been developed for synthesis of radionuclide immune albumin nanospheres (131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs). In vitro as well as in vivo targeting of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs to AFP-positive hepatoma was examined. In cultured HepG2 cells, the uptake and retention rates of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were remarkably higher than those of 131I alone. As well, the uptake rate and retention ratios of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs in AFP-positive HepG2 cells were also significantly higher than those in AFP-negative HEK293 cells. Compared to 131I alone, 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were much more easily taken in and retained by hepatoma tissue, with a much higher T/NT. Due to good drug-loading, high encapsulation ratio, and highly selective affinity for AFP-positive tumors, the 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs are promising for further effective radiation-gene therapy of hepatoma. PMID:26981334

  6. Follow-up of solitary autonomous thyroid nodules treated with /sup 131/I

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Hart, I.R.

    1983-12-15

    A study was made of the long-term effects of /sup 131/I therapy for solitary autonomous thyroid nodules on the size of the nodule and on thyroid function. Twenty-three patients with autonomous thyroid adenomas that had been treated with /sup 131/I from 4 to 16.5 years earlier (mean, 8.5) were examined, and their thyroid function was tested. In 12 patients (54 per cent), the nodules were still palpable, and in 2 they had increased in size. Eight patients (36 per cent) had become hypothyroid. The incidence of hypothyroidism was not related to nodule size or the level of thyroid function before therapy with /sup 131/I or to the total dose of /sup 131/I that had been given. We conclude that /sup 131/I therapy for autonomous thyroid adenoma often causes hypothyroidism and in many cases does not eradicate the offending nodule.

  7. Behaviour of 125I-fibrinogen and 131I-albumin in experimental galactosamine-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mahn, I; Merkel, H; Sattler, E L; Müller-Berghaus, G

    1977-01-01

    The turnover of 125I-labelled fibrinogen and 131I-labelled albumin was studied in the course of galactosamine-induced hepatitis in rabbits. In addition to galactosamine, some animals were treated with epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) to inhibit the activation of the fibrinolytic system. The infusion of galactosamine and EACA caused generation of fibrin-rich microclots in the renal glomerular capillaries in seven out of 12 rabbits. Correspondingly, the incorporation of 125I-radioactivity into liver, spleen, and kidneys was pronounced in galactosamine- and EACA-treated rabbits compared with control animals treated with EACA. An acceleration of the 125I-fibrinogen elimination from the plasma was observed between eight and 12 hours after the start of the galactosamine infusion. The administration of heparin in addition to galactosamine and EACA prevented the occurrence of intravascular coagulation, but shortened the survival times of the animals because of bleeding into visceral organs. The elimination of 131I-albumin in plasma as well as the distribution of 131I-radioactivity in organs were similar in all the rabbits independent of the treatment with galactosamine, EACA, or heparin. The experiments indicate that, in addition to diminished synthesis of coagulation factors, disseminated intravascular coagulation is involved in galactosamine-induced hepatitis and contributes to the haemostatic disorder. PMID:873336

  8. Thyroid Dose Estimates for a Cohort of Belarusian Children Exposed to (131)I from the Chernobyl Accident: Assessment of Uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Victor; Golovanov, Ivan; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Kutsen, Semion; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Trofimik, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André

    2015-08-01

    Deterministic thyroid radiation doses due to iodine-131 ((131)I) intake were reconstructed in a previous article for 11,732 participants of the Belarusian-American cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in individuals exposed during childhood or adolescence to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The current article describes an assessment of uncertainties in reconstructed thyroid doses that accounts for the shared and unshared errors. Using a Monte Carlo simulation procedure, 1,000 sets of cohort thyroid doses due to (131)I intake were calculated. The arithmetic mean of the stochastic thyroid doses for the entire cohort was 0.68 Gy. For two-thirds of the cohort the arithmetic mean of individual stochastic thyroid doses was less than 0.5 Gy. The geometric standard deviation of stochastic doses varied among cohort members from 1.33 to 5.12 with an arithmetic mean of 1.76 and a geometric mean of 1.73. The uncertainties in thyroid dose were driven by the unshared errors associated with the estimates of values of thyroid mass and of the (131)I activity in the thyroid of the subject; the contribution of shared errors to the overall uncertainty was small. These multiple sets of cohort thyroid doses will be used to evaluate the radiation risks of thyroid cancer and noncancer thyroid diseases, taking into account the structure of the errors in the dose estimates.

  9. Long-term complete responses after 131I-tositumomab therapy for relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Buchegger, F; Antonescu, C; Delaloye, A Bischof; Helg, C; Kovacsovics, T; Kosinski, M; Mach, J-P; Ketterer, N

    2006-01-01

    We present the long-term results of 18 chemotherapy relapsed indolent (N=12) or transformed (N=6) NHL patients of a phase II anti-CD20 131I-tositumomab (Bexxar®) therapy study. The biphasic therapy included two injections of 450 mg unlabelled antibody combined with 131I-tositumomab once as dosimetric and once as therapeutic activity delivering 75 or 65 cGy whole-body radiation dose to patients with normal or reduced platelet counts, respectively. Two patients were not treated due to disease progression during dosimetry. The overall response rate was 81% in the 16 patients treated, including 50% CR/CRu and 31% PR. Median progression free survival of the 16 patients was 22.5 months. Median overall survival has not been reached after a median observation of 48 months. Median PFS of complete responders (CR/CRu) has not been reached and will be greater than 51 months. Short-term side effects were mainly haematological and transient. Among the relevant long-term side effects, one patient previously treated with CHOP chemotherapy died from secondary myelodysplasia. Four patients developed HAMA. In conclusion, 131I-tositumomab RIT demonstrated durable responses especially in those patients who achieved a complete response. Six of eight CR/CRu are ongoing after 46–70 months. PMID:16685263

  10. Thyroid Dose Estimates for a Cohort of Belarusian Children Exposed to 131I from the Chernobyl Accident: Assessment of Uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Victor; Golovanov, Ivan; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Kutsen, Semion; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Trofimik, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, André

    2015-01-01

    Deterministic thyroid radiation doses due to iodine-131 (131I) intake were reconstructed in a previous article for 11,732 participants of the Belarusian–American cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in individuals exposed during childhood or adolescence to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The current article describes an assessment of uncertainties in reconstructed thyroid doses that accounts for the shared and unshared errors. Using a Monte Carlo simulation procedure, 1,000 sets of cohort thyroid doses due to 131I intake were calculated. The arithmetic mean of the stochastic thyroid doses for the entire cohort was 0.68 Gy. For two-thirds of the cohort the arithmetic mean of individual stochastic thyroid doses was less than 0.5 Gy. The geometric standard deviation of stochastic doses varied among cohort members from 1.33 to 5.12 with an arithmetic mean of 1.76 and a geometric mean of 1.73. The uncertainties in thyroid dose were driven by the unshared errors associated with the estimates of values of thyroid mass and of the 131I activity in the thyroid of the subject; the contribution of shared errors to the overall uncertainty was small. These multiple sets of cohort thyroid doses will be used to evaluate the radiation risks of thyroid cancer and non-cancer thyroid diseases, taking into account the structure of the errors in the dose estimates. PMID:26207684

  11. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S.

    1994-11-01

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. [A case of malignant pheochromocytoma treated with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and CVD regimen].

    PubMed

    Ukimura, O; Kojima, M; Hosoi, S; Itoh, H; Watanabe, H; Minamikawa, T

    1994-05-01

    A 44-year-old male had multiple metastasis to the lung, liver, kidney and paraaortic lymph node from primary adrenal malignant pheochromocytoma. Radiation therapy with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG), was first performed, which was followed by chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine (CVD). A total amount of 4810 MBq of 131I-MIBG was administered then 7 cycles of CVD regimen were added. He was survived for sixteen months with tumor response in primary tumor, paraaortic lymph node and liver metastasis tumors, in addition to hormonal response. It was considered that the survival was prolonged in spite of advanced case with inoperative primary tumor.

  13. A predictive mathematical model for the calculation of the final mass of Graves' disease thyroids treated with 131I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traino, Antonio C.; Di Martino, Fabio; Grosso, Mariano; Monzani, Fabio; Dardano, Angela; Caraccio, Nadia; Mariani, Giuliano; Lazzeri, Mauro

    2005-05-01

    Substantial reductions in thyroid volume (up to 70-80%) after radioiodine therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism are common and have been reported in the literature. A relationship between thyroid volume reduction and outcome of 131I therapy of Graves' disease has been reported by some authors. This important result could be used to decide individually the optimal radioiodine activity A0 (MBq) to administer to the patient, but a predictive model relating the change in gland volume to A0 is required. Recently, a mathematical model of thyroid mass reduction during the clearance phase (30-35 days) after 131I administration to patients with Graves' disease has been published and used as the basis for prescribing the therapeutic thyroid absorbed dose. It is well known that the thyroid volume reduction goes on until 1 year after therapy. In this paper, a mathematical model to predict the final mass of Graves' diseased thyroids submitted to 131I therapy is presented. This model represents a tentative explanation of what occurs macroscopically after the end of the clearance phase of radioiodine in the gland (the so-called second-order effects). It is shown that the final thyroid mass depends on its basal mass, on the radiation dose absorbed by the gland and on a constant value α typical of thyroid tissue. α has been evaluated based on a set of measurements made in 15 reference patients affected by Graves' disease and submitted to 131I therapy. A predictive equation for the calculation of the final mass of thyroid is presented. It is based on macroscopic parameters measurable after a diagnostic 131I capsule administration (0.37-1.85 MBq), before giving the therapy. The final mass calculated using this equation is compared to the final mass of thyroid measured 1 year after therapy administration in 22 Graves' diseased patients. The final masses calculated and measured 1 year after therapy are in fairly good agreement (R = 0.81). The possibility, for the physician, to decide a

  14. Accuracy of two simple methods for estimation of thyroidal {sup 131}I kinetics for dosimetry-based treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Traino, A. C.; Xhafa, B.

    2009-04-15

    One of the major challenges to the more widespread use of individualized, dosimetry-based radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease is the development of a reasonably fast, simple, and cost-effective method to measure thyroidal {sup 131}I kinetics in patients. Even though the fixed activity administration method does not optimize the therapy, giving often too high or too low a dose to the gland, it provides effective treatment for almost 80% of patients without consuming excessive time and resources. In this article two simple methods for the evaluation of the kinetics of {sup 131}I in the thyroid gland are presented and discussed. The first is based on two measurements 4 and 24 h after a diagnostic {sup 131}I administration and the second on one measurement 4 h after such an administration and a linear correlation between this measurement and the maximum uptake in the thyroid. The thyroid absorbed dose calculated by each of the two methods is compared to that calculated by a more complete {sup 131}I kinetics evaluation, based on seven thyroid uptake measurements for 35 patients at various times after the therapy administration. There are differences in the thyroid absorbed doses between those derived by each of the two simpler methods and the ''reference'' value (derived by more complete uptake measurements following the therapeutic {sup 131}I administration), with 20% median and 40% 90-percentile differences for the first method (i.e., based on two thyroid uptake measurements at 4 and 24 h after {sup 131}I administration) and 25% median and 45% 90-percentile differences for the second method (i.e., based on one measurement at 4 h post-administration). Predictably, although relatively fast and convenient, neither of these simpler methods appears to be as accurate as thyroid dose estimates based on more complete kinetic data.

  15. Absorbed Dose in the Uterus of a Three Months Pregnant Woman Due to 131I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; Manzanares-Acuña, Eduardo; Hernández-Dávila, Víctor Martín; Arcos-Pichardo, Areli; Barquero, Raquel; Iñiguez, M. Pilar

    2006-09-01

    The use of 131I is widely used in diagnostic and treatment of patients. If the patient is pregnant the 131I presence in the thyroid it becomes a source of constant exposition to other organs and the fetus. In this study the absorbed dose in the uterus of a 3 months pregnant woman with 131I in her thyroid gland has been calculated. The dose was determined using Monte Carlo methods in which a detailed model of the woman has been developed. The dose was also calculated using a simple procedure that was refined including the photons' attenuation in the woman organs and body. To verify these results an experiment was carried out using a neck phantom with 131I. Comparing the results it was found that the simple calculation tend to overestimate the absorbed dose, by doing the corrections due to body and organs photon attenuation the dose is 0.14 times the Monte Carlo estimation.

  16. Absorbed Dose in the Uterus of a Three Months Pregnant Woman Due to 131I

    SciTech Connect

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Hernandez-Davila, Victor Martin; Arcos-Pichardo, Areli; Barquero, Raquel; Iniguez, M. Pilar

    2006-09-08

    The use of 131I is widely used in diagnostic and treatment of patients. If the patient is pregnant the 131I presence in the thyroid it becomes a source of constant exposition to other organs and the fetus. In this study the absorbed dose in the uterus of a 3 months pregnant woman with 131I in her thyroid gland has been calculated. The dose was determined using Monte Carlo methods in which a detailed model of the woman has been developed. The dose was also calculated using a simple procedure that was refined including the photons' attenuation in the woman organs and body. To verify these results an experiment was carried out using a neck phantom with 131I. Comparing the results it was found that the simple calculation tend to overestimate the absorbed dose, by doing the corrections due to body and organs photon attenuation the dose is 0.14 times the Monte Carlo estimation.

  17. Local delivery of (131)I-MIBG to treat peritoneal neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kinuya, Seigo; Li, Xiao-Feng; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Mori, Hirofumi; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Naoto; Shuke, Noriyuki; Bunko, Hisashi; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2003-09-01

    Internal radiotherapy involving systemic administration of iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-MIBG) in neural crest tumours such as neuroblastoma has shown considerable success. Although peritoneal seeding of neuroblastoma occurs less often than metastases to organs such as the liver, no effective treatments exist in this clinical setting. Previous reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of peritoneal application of chemotherapeutic drugs or radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies in several kinds of carcinomas. Local delivery of (131)I-MIBG should produce more favourable dosimetry in comparison with its systemic administration in the treatment of peritoneal neuroblastoma. In the current investigation, a peritoneal model of neuroblastoma was established in Balb/c nu/nu mice by i.p. injection of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. Two weeks after cell inoculation, comparative biodistribution studies were performed following i.v. or i.p. administration of (131)I-MIBG. Mice were treated with 55.5 MBq of (131)I-MIBG administered either i.v. or i.p. at 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal injection of (131)I-MIBG produced significantly higher tumour accumulation than did i.v. injection ( P<0.01). Therapeutic ratios of i.p. injection were 4- to 14-fold higher than those of i.v. injection. Radiotherapy with i.v. administered (131)I-MIBG failed to improve the survival of mice; mean survival of untreated mice and mice treated with i.v. administration of (131)I-MIBG was 59.3+/-3.9 days and 60.6+/-2.8 days, respectively. On the other hand, radiotherapy delivered via i.p. administration of (131)I-MIBG prolonged survival of mice to 94.7+/-17.5 days ( P<0.02 vs untreated controls and mice treated with i.v. (131)I-MIBG therapy). Radiation doses absorbed by tumours at 55.5 MBq of (131)I-MIBG were estimated to be 4,140 cGy with i.p. injection and 450 cGy with i.v. injection. These results indicate the benefits of locoregional delivery of (131)I-MIBG in the treatment of peritoneal

  18. Parameters Influencing Curative Effect of 131I Therapy on Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Liu, Qiong; Liu, Ying; Pang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the parameters influencing the effectiveness of first 131I thyroid remnant ablation and then 131I treatment of metastatic lesions in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 88 children and adolescents with DTC were divided into 2 groups: 56 in the complete-ablation group and 32 in the incomplete-ablation group for the first 131I ablation; 32 in the incomplete-ablation group were further divided: 19 in the complete-remission group and 13 in the incomplete-remission group for subsequent 131I treatment of metastatic lesions. Influential parameters were analyzed using t test, t' test, rank-sum test, χ2-test, and Fisher exact test, and logistic regression analysis was performed. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), lymph node metastases, and pulmonary metastases were selected as influential parameters. RESULTS After logistic regression analysis, RAIU, only lymph node metastases, and pulmonary metastasis were significantly associated with the complete-ablation rate. High levels of RAIU and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were not conducive to disease remission after subsequent 131I treatment of metastatic lesions. The remission rate of patients with pulmonary metastasis was lower than the rate of patients with lymph node metastases or no metastases. CONCLUSIONS Results demonstrated that a high remission rate is associated with low postoperative RAIU and Tg. Lymph node metastasis and pulmonary metastasis reduce the complete-remission rate of first 131I ablation therapy. Pulmonary metastasis reduces the remission rate of subsequent 131I treatment. Also, 131I treatment for pediatric DTC with pulmonary metastasis achieved progression-free survival. PMID:27576533

  19. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results. PMID:24930438

  20. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results.

  1. Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of (131)I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Jessica Veliscek; Hughes, Catherine E; Hoffmann, Emmy L

    2011-10-01

    Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater out falls. 131I has been detected in macroalgae,which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal out fall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, (131)I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STP's as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline out falls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from (131)I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing (131)I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 μSv/year, respectively.

  2. Chlorotoxin-Conjugated Multifunctional Dendrimers Labeled with Radionuclide 131I for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging and Radiotherapy of Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingzhou; Zhu, Jingyi; Cheng, Yongjun; Xiong, Zhijuan; Tang, Yueqin; Guo, Lilei; Shi, Xiangyang; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-09-01

    Chlorotoxin-conjugated multifunctional dendrimers labeled with radionuclide 131I were synthesized and utilized for targeted single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of cancer. In this study, generation five amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were used as a platform to be sequentially conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), targeting agent chlorotoxin (CTX), and 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO). This was followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines and radiolabeling with 131I to form the targeted theranostic dendrimeric nanoplatform. We show that the dendrimer platform possessing approximately 7.7 CTX and 21.1 HPAO moieties on each dendrimer displays excellent cytocompatibility in a given concentration range (0-20 μM) and can specifically target cancer cells overexpressing matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) due to the attached CTX. With the attached HPAO moiety having the phenol group, the dendrimer platform can be effectively labeled with radioactive 131I with good stability and high radiochemical purity. Importantly, the 131I labeling renders the dendrimer platform with an ability to be used for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of an MMP2-overexpressing glioma model in vivo. The developed radiolabeled multifunctional dendrimeric nanoplatform may hold great promise to be used for targeted theranostics of human gliomas.

  3. Therapeutic Potential of 90Y- and 131I-Labeled Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody in Treating Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma with Pulmonary Involvement: A Monte Carlo–Based Dosimetric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hong; Du, Yong; Sgouros, George; Prideaux, Andrew; Frey, Eric; Wahl, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is common in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). 90Y- and 131I-anti-CD20 antibodies (ibritumomab tiuxetan and tositumomab, respectively) have been approved for the treatment of refractory low-grade follicular NHL. In this work, we used Monte Carlo–based dosimetry to compare the potential of 90Y and 131I, based purely on their emission properties, in targeted therapy for NHL lung metastases of various nodule sizes and tumor burdens. Methods Lung metastases were simulated as spheres, with radii ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 cm, which were randomly distributed in a voxelized adult male lung phantom. Total tumor burden was varied from 0.2 to 1,641 g. Tumor uptake and retention kinetics of the 2 radionuclides were assumed equivalent; a uniform distribution of activity within tumors was assumed. Absorbed dose to tumors and lung parenchyma per unit activity in lung tumors was calculated by a Monte Carlo–based system using the MCNP4B package. Therapeutic efficacy was defined as the ratio of mean absorbed dose in the tumor to that in normal lung. Dosimetric analysis was also performed for a lung-surface distribution of tumor nodules mimicking pleural metastatic disease. Results The therapeutic efficacy of both 90Y and 131I declined with increasing tumor burden. In treating tumors with radii less than 2.0 cm, 131I targeting was more efficacious than 90Y targeting. 90Y yielded a broader distribution of tumor absorbed doses, with the minimum 54.1% lower than the average dose; for 131I, the minimum absorbed dose was 33.3% lower than the average. The absorbed dose to normal lungs was reduced when the tumors were distributed on the lung surface. For surface tumors, the reductions in normal-lung absorbed dose were greater for 90Y than for 131I, but 131I continued to provide a greater therapeutic ratio across different tumor burdens and sizes. Conclusion Monte Carlo–based dosimetry was performed to compare the therapeutic potential of 90Y and 131I

  4. National intercomparisons of 131I radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine centres in India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leena; Anuradha, R; Nathuram, R; Shaha, V V; Abani, M C

    2003-01-01

    National intercomparisons of activity measurements of 131I, a radioisotope widely used for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid related ailments, were initiated in 1979 as a quality assurance program, towards improving radiation safety procedures and related dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMCs) in India. Oral administration of a known quantity of radioiodine to patients requires accurate radioactivity measurements to be performed on a well-calibrated isotope calibrators. Under or over estimation of the activity due to a faulty or uncalibrated isotope calibrator could provide misleading results. Calibration of isotope calibrators and the traceablity of subsequent measurements to the national standards laboratory is one of the essential basic radiation safety requirement of the IAEA. In view of the stringent quality assurance requirements for activity measurements imposed by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, a National Intercomparison Program was initiated and to date ten such intercomparison programs have been conducted by the Radiation Safety Systems Division, of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. This program has benefited the participants by making their measurements traceable to the National Primary Standards. Over the years there has been a marked increase in the number of NMCs participating in the intercomparison programs. As a result, the number of institution showing large deviation from the correct value has decreased considerably over the years. This program thus, has enabled participating NMCs to check their isotope calibrators so as to ensure proper delivery of radiation dose to the patients and hence to optimise patient exposure.

  5. Dose Calculations for [131I] Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine-Induced Bystander Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gow, M. D.; Seymour, C. B.; Boyd, M.; Mairs, R. J.; Prestiwch, W. V.; Mothersill, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is a potentially useful treatment for some cancers and may be potentiated by bystander effects. However, without estimation of absorbed dose, it is difficult to compare the effects with conventional external radiation treatment. Methods: Using the Vynckier – Wambersie dose point kernel, a model for dose rate evaluation was created allowing for calculation of absorbed dose values to two cell lines transfected with the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene and treated with [131I]MIBG. Results: The mean doses required to decrease surviving fractions of UVW/NAT and EJ138/NAT cells, which received medium from [131I]MIBG-treated cells, to 25 – 30% were 1.6 and 1.7 Gy respectively. The maximum mean dose rates achieved during [131I]MIBG treatment were 0.09 – 0.75 Gy/h for UVW/NAT and 0.07 – 0.78 Gy/h for EJ138/NAT. These were significantly lower than the external beam gamma radiation dose rate of 15 Gy/h. In the case of control lines which were incapable of [131I]MIBG uptake the mean absorbed doses following radiopharmaceutical were 0.03 – 0.23 Gy for UVW and 0.03 – 0.32 Gy for EJ138. Conclusion: [131I]MIBG treatment for ICCM production elicited a bystander dose-response profile similar to that generated by external beam gamma irradiation but with significantly greater cell death. PMID:24659931

  6. NUMERICAL ASSESSMENT OF 131I DEPOSITED IN THYROID FOR NON-STANDARD SITUATIONS.

    PubMed

    Moraleda, M; Gómez-Ros, J M

    2016-09-01

    At the CIEMAT whole-body counter, a low-energy germanium detector is used for the in vivo assessment of (131)I activity in thyroid, mainly for the individual monitoring programmes of workers. The detector is calibrated with a cylindrical neck phantom made of polymethyl methacrylate that mimics the neck of an adult, containing a vial with a radioactive solution. For an accurate activity assessment, it is necessary to perform the calibration of the detector with phantoms that closely reproduce the anatomy of a real person. Nevertheless, it is not affordable to count on a variety of physical phantoms covering the different anatomical characteristics that could be found over the whole population, including children. An alternative approach to face this situation is offered by the numerical calibration procedure based on Monte Carlo calculations in conjunction with realistic voxel phantoms. A series of computational voxel phantoms of different ages and dimensions have been used in this work to simulate an internal contamination of the thyroid and to estimate the response of the detector for measurements involving individuals whose anatomical characteristics differ from the reference adult man. PMID:26705352

  7. Pulmonary sequestration: a (131)I whole body scintigraphy false-positive result.

    PubMed

    Spinapolice, Elena Giulia; Chytiris, S; Fuccio, C; Leporati, P; Volpato, G; Villani, L; Trifirò, G; Chiovato, L

    2014-08-01

    A 35-year-old woman affected by a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma was referred to our hospital to perform a (131)Iodine ((131)I) whole body scintigraphy for restaging purpose. The patient had been previously treated with total thyroidectomy and three subsequent doses of (131)I for the ablation of a remnant jugular tissue and a suspected metastatic focus at the superior left hemi-thorax. In spite of the previous treatments with (131)I, planar and tomographic images showed the persistence of an area of increased uptake at the superior left hemi-thorax. This finding prompted the surgical resection of the lesion. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed the presence of a pulmonary tissue consistent with pulmonary sequestration. Even though rare, pulmonary sequestration should be included in the potential causes of false-positive results of radioiodine scans.

  8. Transfer of /sup 131/I and /sup 95m/Tc from pasture to goat milk

    SciTech Connect

    Bondietti, E.A.; Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Field measurements were made in 1983 on the transfer of /sup 131/I and /sup 95m/Tc from spray-contaminated pasture to goat's milk. The transfer of /sup 131/I to milk was similar to that used for mathematical models in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109, which was derived from stall-feeding experiments using capsulized doses. Compared to /sup 131/I, the /sup 95m/Tc transferred to milk was about 5600 times less. The lower transfer resulted from both immobilization of technetium on pasture prior to ingestion as well as reduced gastrointestinal absorption. The results show that the food chain transfer of technetium to milk is much less than that previously expected based on inferences made from metabolism studies. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  9. S values for 131I based on the ICRP adult voxel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Lamart, Stephanie; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, Andre; Moroz, Brian E; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-01-01

    To improve the estimates of organ doses from nuclear medicine procedures using (131)I, the authors calculated a comprehensive set of (131)I S values, defined as absorbed doses in target tissues per unit of nuclear transition in source regions, for different source and target combinations. The authors used the latest reference adult male and female voxel phantoms published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 110) and the (131)I photon and electron spectra from the ICRP Publication 107 to perform Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using MCNPX2.7 to compute the S values. For each phantom, the authors simulated 55 source regions with an assumed uniform distribution of (131)I. They computed the S values for 42 target tissues directly, without calculating specific absorbed fractions. From these calculations, the authors derived a comprehensive set of S values for (131)I for 55 source regions and 42 target tissues in the ICRP male and female voxel phantoms. Compared with the stylised phantoms from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that consist of 22 source regions and 24 target regions, the new data set includes 1662 additional S values corresponding to additional combinations of source-target tissues that are not available in the stylised phantoms. In a comparison of S values derived from the ICRP and ORNL phantoms, the authors found that the S values to the radiosensitive tissues in the ICRP phantoms were 1.1 (median, female) and 1.3 (median, male) times greater than the values based on the ORNL phantoms. However, for several source-target pairs, the difference was up to 10-fold. The new set of S values can be applied prospectively or retrospectively to the calculation of radiation doses in adults internally exposed to (131)I, including nuclear medicine patients treated for thyroid cancer or hyperthyroidism.

  10. Noninvasive allograft imaging of acute rejection: evaluation of (131)I-anti-CXCL10 mAb.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dayan; Sun, Hukui; Liang, Ting; Zhang, Chao; Song, Jing; Hou, Guihua

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of iodine-131-labeled anti-CXCL10 mAb as tracer targeted at CXCL10 to detect acute rejection (AR) with mice model. Expression of CXCL10 was proved by RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunochemistry staining. All groups were submitted to whole-body autoradioimaging and ex vivo biodistribution studies after tail vein injection of (131)I-anti-CXCL10 mAb. The highest concentration/expression of CXCL10 was detected in allograft tissue compared with allograft treated with tacrolimus and isograft control. Tacrolimus could obviously inhibit the rejection of allograft. Allograft could be obviously imaged at all checking points, much clearer than the other two groups. The biodistribution results showed the highest uptake of radiotracer in allograft. T/NT (target/nontarget) ratio was 4.15 ± 0.25 at 72 h, apparently different from allograft treated with tacrolimus (2.29 ± 0.10), P < 0.05. These data suggest that CXCL10 is a promising target for early stage AR imaging and (131)I-CXCL10 mAb can successfully image AR and monitor the effect of immunosuppressant.

  11. A pioneer experience in Malaysia on In-house Radio-labelling of (131)I-rituximab in the treatment of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and a case report of high dose (131)I-rituximab-BEAM conditioning autologous transplant.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Jew Win; Law, Chiong Soon; Wong, Xiang Qi; Ko, Ching Tiong; Awang, Zool Hilmi; Chew, Lee Ping; Chang, Kian Meng

    2016-10-01

    Radioimmunotherapy is an established treatment modality in Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The only two commercially available radioimmunotherapies - (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan is expensive and (131)I-tositumomab has been discontinued from commercial production. In resource limited environment, self-labelling (131)I-rituximab might be the only viable practical option. We reported our pioneer experience in Malaysia on self-labelling (131)I-rituximab, substituting autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and a patient, the first reported case, received high dose (131)I-rituximab (6000MBq/163mCi) combined with BEAM conditioning for autologous HSCT.

  12. A pioneer experience in Malaysia on In-house Radio-labelling of (131)I-rituximab in the treatment of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and a case report of high dose (131)I-rituximab-BEAM conditioning autologous transplant.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Jew Win; Law, Chiong Soon; Wong, Xiang Qi; Ko, Ching Tiong; Awang, Zool Hilmi; Chew, Lee Ping; Chang, Kian Meng

    2016-10-01

    Radioimmunotherapy is an established treatment modality in Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The only two commercially available radioimmunotherapies - (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan is expensive and (131)I-tositumomab has been discontinued from commercial production. In resource limited environment, self-labelling (131)I-rituximab might be the only viable practical option. We reported our pioneer experience in Malaysia on self-labelling (131)I-rituximab, substituting autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and a patient, the first reported case, received high dose (131)I-rituximab (6000MBq/163mCi) combined with BEAM conditioning for autologous HSCT. PMID:27472826

  13. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for lactational transfer of Na-131I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Anita Loretta

    The excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after administration of radiopharmaceuticals is a concern as a radiation risk to nursing infants. It is not uncommon to administer radiopharmaceuticals to lactating patients due to emergency nuclear medicine investigations such as thyroid complications, kidney failure, and pulmonary embolism. There is a need to quantify the amount of radioactivity translocated into breast milk in cases of ingestion by a breast-fed infant. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) and a modified International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) model have been developed to predict iodine concentrations in breast milk after ingestion of radioiodine by the mother. In the PBPK model, all compartments are interconnected by blood flow and represent real anatomic tissue regions in the body. All parameters involved are measurable values with physiological or physiochemical meaning such as tissue masses, blood flow rates, partition coefficients and cardiac output. However, some of the parameters such as the partition coefficients and metabolic constants are not available for iodine and had to be inferred from other information. The structure of the PBPK model for the mother consists of the following tissue compartments: gastrointestinal tract, blood, kidney, thyroid, milk, and other tissues. With the exception of the milk compartment, the model for the nursing infant is structured similarly to the mother. The ICRP model describing iodine metabolism in a standard 70-kg man was modified to represent iodine metabolism in a lactating woman and nursing infant. The parameters involved in this model are transfer rates and biological half-lives which are based on experimental observations. The results of the PBPK model and the modified ICRP model describing the lactational transfer of iodine were compared. When administering 1 mCi of Na131I to the lactating mother, the concentration reaches a maximum of 0.1 mCi/liter in 24

  14. Uptake and depuration of 131I by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea: uptake from labelled seaweed (Chondrus crispus).

    PubMed

    Wilson, R C; Vives i Batlle, J; McDonald, P; Parker, T G

    2005-01-01

    Uptake and depuration experiments of (131)I from labelled seaweed (Chondrus crispus) by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea have been performed. Radioiodine concentrations in winkles during uptake followed first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 1 day, and a calculated equilibrium concentration (C(infinity)) of 21 000 Bq kg(-1) resulting in a transfer factor of 0.07 with respect to the labelled seaweed used as food. For depuration, a biphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 1 and 24 days was determined. The results suggest that in general, iodine turnover in periwinkles is slower than observed for other molluscs (monophasic biological half-lives in the order of 2-3 days). Both environmental media, food and seawater, can be significant sources of radioiodine for the winkle. PMID:15725502

  15. [Mucocele of the frontal sinus simulating metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma in an 131I scan].

    PubMed

    Duque Gallo, J J; Miguel Martínez, M B; Castillo López, L; Ruiz Pérez, E; Rubio Sanz, M J; Zamora Pérez, B; Casado Pérez, C; Rodríguez Salazar, A; Claver Criado, M; Calvo Del Castillo, J I

    1999-12-01

    The 131I scan is the preferred test in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer patients although the many unusual circumstances of radioiodine uptake that can provide false positive results must be identified. We present the case of a woman who had undergone a thyroidectomy and was being treated for follicular carcinoma with an ablative dose os radioiodine whose pre- and post-treatment scans only revealed post-surgical residual thyroid tissues. A total body scan with 131I performed at one year demonstrated the success of the ablation. However, a left supra-orbital pathological deposit was observed during a subsequent routine 131I scan. The thyroglobulin serum level was below the sensitivity level for the assay (< 1 ng/ml) and the serum antibodies against thyroglobulin were not detected. A simple x-ray and bone scintigraphy were inconclusive. The CT and MRI revealed the presence of a mucocele in the left frontal sinus which was confirmed through histological examination. The possibility of a false positive results in an 131I scan must always be kept in mind, especially in the presence of atypical uptakes and undetectable thyroglobulin serum levels. As far as we know, only one similar case has been published previously.

  16. Failure to visualize adrenal glands in a patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. [/sup 131/I

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.; Mayfield, R.K.; Levine, J.H.; Lopes-Virella, M.F.; Sagel, J.; Buse, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A patient with clinical and biochemical evidence of Cushing's disease and severe hyperlipidemia underwent an adrenal imaging procedure with NP-59 (6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol), without visualization of either gland. Correction of the hyperlipidemia followed by repeated adrenal imaging resulted in bilateral visualization. A pituitary tumor was removed at surgery, confirming the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.

  17. Limitations of /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy in locating pheochromocytomas

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, I.R.; Thompson, N.W.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.

    1985-07-01

    /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 131/I-MIBG) scintigraphy for the location of pheochromocytomas has proved to be a major advance in patient management. In combination with computerized tomographic scanning, nearly all pheochromocytomas can be located before surgery and invasive investigations are now indicated only in exceptional cases. However, there are still lessons to be learned concerning the optimal administration and interpretation of /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. With careful attention to detail and an awareness of isotope distribution, false positive studies should be extremely rare. While the incidence of false negative studies is uncommon, these certainly occur. A patient with sporadic bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia, bilateral pheochromocytomas, and additional benign pheochromocytomas arising in paraganglia tissue anterior to the abdominal aorta is presented. The right adrenal pheochromocytoma was not identified on /sup 131/I-MIBG imaging. The authors conclude that even with current locating techniques, the traditional surgical approach to pheochromocytoma should not be abandoned. This involves transabdominal exploration of both adrenal glands and careful examination of all possible sites of extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.

  18. Tumor immunotherapy in the mouse with the use of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Zalcberg, J.R.; Thompson, C.H.; Lichtenstein, M.; McKenzie, I.F.

    1984-03-01

    This report describes the use of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibodies in two experimental models for tumor immunotherapy. In vitro treatment of the radiation-induced murine thymoma ITT-1-75NS with radiolabeled anti-Ly-2.1 significantly impaired subsequent tumor growth in vivo. However, in vivo treatment of this tumor, which previously had been injected into C57BL/6 mice, was unsuccessful. By contrast, in vitro treatment of a human colorectal tumor cell line (COLO 205) with 131I-labeled 250-30.6--a monoclonal antibody directed against a secretory component of normal and malignant gastrointestinal epithelium--completely inhibited subsequent tumor growth in BALB/c nude (nu/nu) mice. Furthermore, in vivo treatment of preexisting human colorectal tumor xenografts significantly impaired progressive tumor growth. Although some tumor inhibition was also produced by unlabeled 250-30.6 antibody, this response was considerably amplified by treatment with (131I)-labeled 250-30.6 (P less than .05), suggesting that in vivo treatment of human tumors with the use of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibodies may be clinically beneficial. The antithyroid drug propylthiouracil was used to reduce dehalogenation of the radiolabeled immunoglobulins in an attempt to improve their therapeutic efficacy.

  19. Occupational exposure to 131I-a case study.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Huikari, Jussi; Korpela, Helinä; Lindholm, Carita; Paile, Wendla; Parviainen, Teuvo

    2014-10-01

    In a laboratory in a company manufacturing radiopharmaceuticals, a laboratory technician was contaminated with I. The employee was preparing I capsules for thyroid carcinoma treatment. The employee was wearing two pairs of protective gloves and, when changing gloves, noticed a rupture in the right inner glove but no visible rupture in the outer glove. Only 3-4 h later, routine monitoring revealed heavy contamination of the back of the right hand. Immediate actions to decontaminate the hand were taken on-site. Stable iodine was not administered. On the next day, besides persisting heavy contamination of the hand, I was also detected in the thyroid gland. Based on original measurements on-site and later follow-up at STUK, including surface contamination measurements and whole body counting, the original I activity on the hand was estimated at 12 MBq and the superficial skin dose at 33 Gy, affecting a skin area of about 10 cm. The thyroid dose was estimated at 430 mGy. Eleven days after the incident, the skin was dry and slightly desquamated. After 15 d, the skin was intact with no desquamation left. No further signs of skin damage have occurred. Cytogenetic analysis of circulating lymphocytes indicated a slight elevation of chromosomal aberrations.

  20. Monitoring rainwater and seaweed reveals the presence of (131)I in southwest and central British Columbia, Canada following the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chester, A; Starosta, K; Andreoiu, C; Ashley, R; Barton, A; Brodovitch, J-C; Brown, M; Domingo, T; Janusson, C; Kucera, H; Myrtle, K; Riddell, D; Scheel, K; Salomon, A; Voss, P

    2013-10-01

    Detailed analysis of (131)I levels in rainwater and in three species of seaweed (Fucus distichus Linnaeus, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Pyropia fallax) collected in southwest British Columbia and Bella Bella, B.C., Canada was performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011. Maximum (131)I activity was found to be 5.8(7) Bq/L in rainwater collected at the campus of Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, B.C. nine days after the accident. Concomitantly, maximum observed activity in the brown seaweed F. distichus Linnaeus was observed to be 130(7) Bq/kg dry weight in samples collected in North Vancouver 11 days following the accident and 67(6) Bq/kg dry weight in samples collected from the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre on Vancouver Island 17 days following the accident. The (131)I activity in seaweed samples collected in southwest B.C. following the Fukushima accident was an order of magnitude less than what was observed following Chernobyl. Iodine-131 activity in F. distichus Linnaeus remained detectable for 60 days following the accident and was detectable in each seaweed species collected. The Germanium Detector for Elemental Analysis and Radioactivity Studies (GEARS) was modeled using the Geant4 software package and developed as an analytical tool by the Nuclear Science group in the Simon Fraser University Department of Chemistry for the purpose of these measurements.

  1. Model Testing Using Data from Accidental Releases of 131I and 137Cs: 1: Model Testing Using Data on 131I Released from Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, Kathleen M.; Napier, Bruce A.; Filistovic, Vitold; Homma, Toshimitsu; Kanyar, Bela; Krajewski, Pawel; Kryshev, Alexander I.; Nedveckaite, Tatjana; Nenyei, Arpad; Sazykina, Tatiana G.; Tveten, Ulf; Sjoblom, Kirsti-Liisa; Robinson, Carol

    2002-09-01

    Two major areas of emphasis in the BIOMASS (Biosphere Modelling and Assessment Methods) programme were the improvement of the accuracy of model predictions and the improvement of modelling procedures within the general area of environmental assessment. Theme 2 of BIOMASS, Environmental Releases, focused specifically on issues of dose reconstruction and remediation assessment. Within Theme 2, the Dose Reconstruction Working Group was concerned with the evaluation of the reliability of methods and models used for dose reconstruction for specific individuals and members of specific population subgroups. The Dose Reconstruction Working Group of BIOMASS carried out model testing exercises. The present paper describes the first one, which was based on an accidental release of 131I from the Hanford Purex Chemical Separations Plant in the northwestern United States in September 1963 (BIOMASS, 1999). The scenario made use of monitoring data originally collected during the two months following the release (Soldat, 1965) and further evaluated as part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project in the 1990s (Farris et al., 1994). Radioiodine releases are important for many radiation accidents, and because data on the results of these releases are often incomplete, models for estimating 131I transport and exposure are essential in dose reconstruction efforts. The Hanford scenario therefore provided a valuable opportunity to intercompare modelling approaches and model predictions among several assessors, to compare model predictions with data, and to identify the most important sources of bias and uncertainty in the model results.

  2. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and (131)I by thermosensitive micellar-hydrogel for enhanced in situ synergetic chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pingsheng; Zhang, Yumin; Wang, Weiwei; Zhou, Junhui; Sun, Yu; Liu, Jinjian; Kong, Deling; Liu, Jianfeng; Dong, Anjie

    2015-12-28

    Combined chemoradiotherapy is potent to defeat malignant tumor. Concurrent delivery of radioisotope with chemotherapeutic drugs, which also act as the radiosensitizer, to tumor tissues by a single vehicle is essential to achieve this objective. To this end, a macroscale injectable and thermosensitive micellar-hydrogel (MHg) depot was constructed by thermo-induced self-aggregation of poly(ε-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone)-poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone) (PECT) triblock copolymer micelles (Ms), which could not only serve as a micellar drug reservoir to locally deliver concentrated nano chemotherapeutic drugs, but also immobilize radioisotopes at the internal irradiation hot focus. Doxorubicin (DOX) and iodine-131 labeled hyaluronic acid ((131)I-HA) were used as the model therapeutic agents. The aqueous mixture of drug-loaded PECT micelles and (131)I-HA exhibited sol-to-gel transition around body temperature. In vitro drug release study indicated that PECT/DOX Ms were sustainedly shed from the native PECT/DOX MHg formulation, which could be internalized by tumor cells with rapid intracellular DOX release. This hydrogel formulation demonstrated considerable in vitro antitumor effect as well as remarkable radiosensitization. In vivo subcutaneous injection of PECT MHg demonstrated that (131)I isotope was immobilized stably at the injection location and no obvious indication of damage to major organs were observed as indicated by the histopathological analysis. Furthermore, the peritumoral injection of chemo-radiation therapeutic agents-encapsulated MHg formulation on tumor-bearing nude mice resulted in the desired combined treatment effect, which significantly improved the tumor growth inhibition efficiency with minimized drug-associated side effects to major organs. Consequently, such a thermosensitive MHg formulation, which enabled the precise control over the dosage and ratio of combination

  3. Second antibody clearance of /sup 131/I-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen for improved tumor imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, R.M.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have investigated the use of a second antibody (SA) directed against the radiolabeled primary anti-tumor antibody (PA) to enhance the clearance rate of the PA from the circulation and nontarget tissues. Administration of 50 or 250 ..mu..g of anti-goat IgG (SA) hr after the administration of 10 ..mu..g of /sup 131/I-goat anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody (PA) to hamsters bearing human colonic tumor xenografts resulted in a 5-fold reduction in the level of circulating PA after 4 hr in comparison to the control group only given /sup 131/I-PA. The percentage of PA in the blood decreased rapidly over 72 hr in animals given 250 ..mu..g of the SA, but at 50 ..mu..g of SA the level of activity in the blood after 24 hr was similar to the control. Tumor accretion was identical after 4 hr, but after 24 hr the animals given 250 ..mu..g of SA had 2-3 fold less PA in the tumor than either the control group or the 50 ..mu..g dose of SA. Tumor/nontumor ratios for all major organs but the spleen improved 6-8 fold within 48 hr after injection of 250 ..mu..g of the SA with tumor/blood ratios as high as 40:1. A SA dose of 50 ..mu..g resulted in a significantly higher tumor/blood ratio after only 4 hr; tumor/nontumor ratios at later times were similar to the control group. Tumors located in the hind legs were visible in all groups by imaging 24 hr after injection of the SA, but only the 250 ..mu..g dose of SA showed a significant reduction in total body activity. These results suggest that the SA approach may be used to reduce the total background radioactivity while maintaining tumor accretion of /sup 131/I-PA to allow for selective tumor imaging.

  4. Prevention of DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by Radioiodide-131I in FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Okunyan, Armen; Rivina, Yelena; Cannon, Sophie; Hogen, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Radioiodine-131 released from nuclear reactor accidents has dramatically increased the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in exposed individuals. The deposition of ionizing radiation in cells results in double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) at fragile sites, and this early event can generate oncogenic rearrangements that eventually cause cancer. The aims of this study were to develop a method to show DNA DSBs induced by 131I in thyroid cells; to test monovalent anions that are transported by the sodium/iodide symporter to determine whether they prevent 131I-induced DSB; and to test other radioprotective agents for their effect on irradiated thyroid cells. Rat FRTL-5 thyroid cells were incubated with 131I. DSBs were measured by nuclear immunofluorescence using antibodies to p53-binding protein 1 or γH2AX. Incubation with 1–10 μCi 131I per milliliter for 90 min resulted in a dose-related increase of DSBs; the number of DSBs increased from a baseline of 4–15% before radiation to 65–90% after radiation. GH3 or CHO cells that do not transport iodide did not develop DSBs when incubated with 131I. Incubation with 20–100 μm iodide or thiocyanate markedly attenuated DSBs. Perchlorate was about 6 times more potent than iodide or thiocyanate. The effects of the anions were much greater when each was added 30–120 min before the 131I. Two natural organic compounds recently shown to provide radiation protection partially prevented DSBs caused by 131I and had an additive effect with perchlorate. In conclusion, we developed a thyroid cell model to quantify the mitogenic effect of 131I. 131I causes DNA DSBs in FRTL-5 cells and had no effect on cells that do not transport iodide. Perchlorate, iodide, and thiocyanate protect against DSBs induced by 131I. PMID:21190956

  5. Further studies of the turnover of dog antithrombin III. Study of /sup 131/I-labelled antithrombin protease complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, B.; Bies, R.; Carlson, T.; Reeve, E.B.

    1983-04-15

    Fresh plasma containing /sup 131/I-antithrombin III (*I-AT) was coagulated and incubated at 37 degrees C for 2 hr. A ''complex peak,'' separated on heparin-agarose contained AT and *I-AT antigen but no heparin cofactor activity. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis showed only AT complexes. SDS PAGE showed 80% of the *I-AT in a major band (approximately 80,000 daltons), 15% in a minor band (approximately 100,000 daltons) and the rest in trace bands (approximately 60,000 and/or 115,000 daltons). Ammonia treatment of the complex peak released alpha-thrombin. After i.v. injection 80% of the complexed *I-AT, chiefly as the major band, left the plasma with t 1/2 approximately 15 min and was almost immediately catabolized to low molecular weight breakdown products. A major catabolic site was the liver. A simple kinetic model describes the findings approximately.

  6. [Mean elimination time of the impulse radiotracer (131I-hippurate) as a marker of renal function].

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, M

    1990-01-01

    A possibility of assessment of renal excretory function using mean time of the impulse tracer (131I-hippurate) dose elimination has been shown on the basis of theoretical analysis of hippurate kinetics. Such an index was calculated during classic hippurate renography from time/activity curve over precordium. Other traces and different regions of monitoring might also be employed. The mean time of tracer elimination obtained in this manner only indirectly reflects the hippurate clearance, yet can be easily achieved. Moreover, this entity is not influenced by errors related to quantitative measurements of radioactivity and to hypothetical assumptions, which are common for more sophisticated isotope clearance methods. The enlisted characteristics seem to predispose the proposed method of renal function evaluation for application in screening isotope tests. PMID:2135901

  7. Radionuclide studies of chronic schistosomal uropathy. [/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; /sup 131/I-hippuran

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Lamki, N.

    1981-08-01

    Fifty patients with chronic urinary tract schistosomiasis were studied with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. All had a flow study, sequential analog imaging, and digital imaging for 25 to 35 min (20-sec frames). Time-activity curves (DTPA renograms) were extracted; 12 patients had /sup 131/I-Hippuran probe renograms as well. Renal changes included diminished perfusion and structural abnormalities ranging from minor calyceal dilatation to overt hydronephrosis. Ureteral changes included dilatation, tortuosity, and kinking. Marked distortion of the ureterovesical junction was seen in some patients due to periureteral and perivesicular fibrosis, which is a major factor in upper urinary tract damage. Renograms showed varying obstruction and parenchymal damage. Nuclear medicine complements excretory urography and is sometimes preferable for visualization of the ureters. After the initial urogram, sequential DTPA scanning and renography are sufficient for follow-up.

  8. A methodology for auto-monitoring of internal contamination by 131I in nuclear medicine workers.

    PubMed

    Vidal, M V S; Dantas, A L A; Dantas, B M

    2007-01-01

    The manipulation of 131I in Nuclear Medicine involves significant risks of internal contamination of the staff. In the event of an accidental contamination, or when the Radiological Protection Program includes routine individual monitoring of internal contamination, it is necessary to implement internal dose estimation through in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques. Due to the huge extension of the Brazilian country, this type of monitoring becomes unfeasible if all measurements have to be performed at the institutes of the CNEN. Thus, if the Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMC) become able to conduct the monitoring of their employees, this skill would be of great significance. The methodology proposed in this work consists in a simple and inexpensive protocol for auto-monitoring the internal contamination by 131I, using the resources available at the NMC. In order to verify the influence of the phantom in the calibration factor for the measurement of 131I in thyroid, it was performed a comparison among a variety of phantoms commercially available, including the Neck-Thyroid Phantom developed in IRD. A protocol for performing in vivo and in vitro measurements by the NMC was established. The applicability of the individual monitoring techniques was also evaluated by comparing the detection limits with the derived limits associated with the annual dose limits for workers.

  9. Potential third-party radiation exposure from outpatients treated with {sup 131}I for hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Matheoud, Roberta; Reschini, Eugenio; Canzi, Cristina; Voltini, Franco; Gerundini, Paolo

    2004-12-01

    Thirty-three hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine (mean administered activity 414 MBq, range 163-555) were studied to determine if pretreatment dosimetry could be used to give radiation protection advice that could assure compliance with the effective dose constraints suggested by the European Commission. Effective doses to travelers, co-workers, and sleeping partners were estimated by integrating the effective dose rate-versus-time curve obtained by fitting the dose rates measured several times after radioiodine administration to a biexponential function. The mean estimated effective doses to travelers, co-workers, and sleeping partners were 0.11 mSv (0.05-0.24), 0.24 mSv (0.07-0.52), and 1.8 mSv (0.6-4.1), respectively. The best correlation was found between effective dose (D) in mSv and maximum activity (AU{sub max}) in MBq taken up in the thyroid: D{sub traveler}=0.0005*(AU{sub max})+0.04 (r=0.88,p<0.01); D{sub co-worker}=0.0013*(AU{sub max})+0.03(r=0.89,p<0.01); D{sub sleepingpartners}=0.0105*(AU{sub max})+0.16 (r=0.93,p<0.01). Private/public transports are always allowed. For the co-workers the effective dose constraint of 0.3 mSv is met without restrictions and with 3 days off work if AU{sub max} is lower or higher than 185 MBq, respectively. For the sleeping partners the effective dose constraint of 3 mSv is met without restriction and with 4 nights separate sleeping arrangements if AU{sub max} is lower or higher than 185 MBq, respectively. The potential for contamination by the patients was determined from perspiration samples taken from the patient's hands, forehead, and neck and in saliva at 4, 24, and 48 h after radioiodine treatment. The mean highest {sup 131}I activity levels for hands, forehead, neck, and saliva were 4.1 Bq/cm{sup 2}, 1.9 Bq/cm{sup 2}, 0.9 Bq/cm{sup 2}, and 796 kBq/g, respectively. The results indicate that there is minimal risk of contamination from these patients.

  10. Methimazole, but not betamethasone, prevents 131I treatment-induced rises in thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies in hyperthyroid Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gamstedt, A.; Wadman, B.; Karlsson, A.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of methimazole or betamethasone therapy on the TSH receptor antibody response to radioiodine therapy were compared in a prospective randomized study of 60 patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. The patients were followed for 1 yr after treatment with 131I. Twenty-three patients received 131I alone, 17 were treated with methimazole for 2 months before and 3 months after 131I therapy, and 20 patients were treated with betamethasone for 3 weeks before and 4 weeks after 131I therapy. 131I induced a transient rise in the mean serum level of TSH receptor autoantibodies, measured as TSH binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII), but in patients receiving methimazole treatment, no such rise occurred. In the betamethasone-treated patients, TBII increased similarly to that in patients treated with 131I alone. In addition, in patients given betamethasone, there was an early decrease in total serum immunoglobulin G, which persisted throughout the follow-up period. In the other 2 groups, no changes in total immunoglobulin G were found. The results demonstrate that in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, TBII production is influenced by therapy. Methimazole abolished the 131I-induced increase in TBII, whereas betamethasone did not have such an inhibitory effect.

  11. Transcript Analysis for Internal Biodosimetry Using Peripheral Blood from Neuroblastoma Patients Treated with (131)I-mIBG, a Targeted Radionuclide.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, David A; Karski, Erin E; Kohlgruber, Ayano; Koneru, Harsha; Matthay, Katherine K; Allen, Shelly; Hartmann, Christine L; Peterson, Leif E; DuBois, Steven G; Coleman, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    Calculating internal dose from therapeutic radionuclides currently relies on estimates made from multiple radiation exposure measurements, converted to absorbed dose in specific organs using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. As an alternative biodosimetric approach, we utilized gene expression analysis of whole blood from patients receiving targeted radiotherapy. Collected blood from patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma who received (131)I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-mIBG) at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) was used to compare calculated internal dose with the modulation of chosen gene expression. A total of 40 patients, median age 9 years, had blood drawn at baseline, 72 and 96 h after (131)I-mIBG infusion. Whole-body absorbed dose was calculated for each patient based on the cumulated activity determined from injected mIBG activity and patient-specific time-activity curves combined with (131)I whole-body S factors. We then assessed transcripts that were the most significant for describing the mixed therapeutic treatments over time using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Modulation was evaluated statistically using multiple regression analysis for data at 0, 72 and 96 h. A total of 10 genes were analyzed across 40 patients: CDKN1A; FDXR; GADD45A; BCLXL; STAT5B; BAX; BCL2; DDB2; XPC; and MDM2. Six genes were significantly modulated upon exposure to (131)I-mIBG at 72 h, as well as at 96 h. Four genes varied significantly with absorbed dose when controlling for time. A gene expression biodosimetry model was developed to predict absorbed dose based on modulation of gene transcripts within whole blood. Three transcripts explained over 98% of the variance in the modulation of gene expression over the 96 h (CDKN1A, BAX and DDB2). To our knowledge, this is a novel study, which uses whole blood collected from patients treated with a radiopharmaceutical, to characterize biomarkers that may be useful

  12. 131I-tositumomab myeloablative radioimmunotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: radiation dose to the testes

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Naoya; Gopal, Ajay K.; Shields, Andrew T.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, Ted; Pagel, John M.; Press, Oliver W.; Rajendran, Joseph G.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiation doses to the testes delivered by a radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibody and its effects on male sex hormone levels. Materials and methods: Testicular uptake and retention of 131I-tositumomab were measured, and testicular absorbed doses were calculated for 67 male patients (54+/-11 years of age) with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who had undergone myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab. Time-activity curves for the major organs, testes, and whole body were generated from planar imaging studies. In a subset of patients, male sex hormones were measured before and 1 year after the therapy. Results: The absorbed dose to the testes showed considerable variability (range=4.4-70.2 Gy). Pretherapy levels of total testosterone were below the lower limit of the reference range, and post-therapy evaluation demonstrated further reduction [4.6+/-1.8 nmol/l (pre-RIT) vs. 3.8+/-2.9 nmol/l (post-RIT), P<0.05]. Patients receiving higher radiation doses to the testes (>=25 Gy) showed a greater reduction [4.7+/-1.6 nmol/l (pre-RIT) vs. 3.3+/-2.7 nmol/l (post-RIT), P<0.05] compared with patients receiving lower doses (<25 Gy), who showed no significant change in total testosterone levels. Conclusion: The testicular radiation absorbed dose varied highly among individual patients. Finally, patients receiving higher doses to the testes were more likely to show post-RIT suppression of testosterone levels.

  13. Draft guidelines regarding appropriate use of (131)I-MIBG radiotherapy for neuroendocrine tumors : Guideline Drafting Committee for Radiotherapy with (131)I-MIBG, Committee for Nuclear Oncology and Immunology, The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kinuya, Seigo; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Jinguji, Megumi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Since the 1980s when clinical therapeutic trials were initiated, (131)I-MIBG radiotherapy has been used in foreign countries for unresectable neuroendocrine tumors including malignant pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. In Japan, (131)I-MIBG radiotherapy has not been approved by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare; however, personally imported (131)I-MIBG is now available for therapeutic purposes in a limited number of institutions. These updated draft guidelines aim to provide useful information concerning (131)I-MIBG radiotherapy, to help prevent side effects and protect physicians, nurses, other health care professionals, patients and their families from radiation exposure. The committee has also provided appendices on topics such as practical guidance for attending physicians, patient management, and referring physicians.

  14. Draft guidelines regarding appropriate use of (131)I-MIBG radiotherapy for neuroendocrine tumors : Guideline Drafting Committee for Radiotherapy with (131)I-MIBG, Committee for Nuclear Oncology and Immunology, The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kinuya, Seigo; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Jinguji, Megumi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Since the 1980s when clinical therapeutic trials were initiated, (131)I-MIBG radiotherapy has been used in foreign countries for unresectable neuroendocrine tumors including malignant pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. In Japan, (131)I-MIBG radiotherapy has not been approved by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare; however, personally imported (131)I-MIBG is now available for therapeutic purposes in a limited number of institutions. These updated draft guidelines aim to provide useful information concerning (131)I-MIBG radiotherapy, to help prevent side effects and protect physicians, nurses, other health care professionals, patients and their families from radiation exposure. The committee has also provided appendices on topics such as practical guidance for attending physicians, patient management, and referring physicians. PMID:25773397

  15. Do Negative 124I Pretherapy Positron Emission Tomography Scans in Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels Predict Negative 131I Posttherapy Scans?

    PubMed Central

    Khorjekar, Gauri R.; Garcia, Carlos; O'Neil, Jeffrey; Moreau, Shari; Atkins, Francis B.; Mete, Mihriye; Orquiza, Michael H.; Burman, Kenneth; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Background: The management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who have elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and negative 131I or 123I scans is problematic, and the decision regarding whether or not to administer 131I therapy (a “blind” therapy) is also problematic. While 124I positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been shown to detect more foci of residual thyroid tissue and/or metastases secondary to DTC than planar 131I images, the utility of a negative 124I PET scan in deciding whether or not to consider performing blind 131I therapy is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether a negative 124I pretherapy PET scan in patients with elevated serum Tg levels and negative 131I or 123I scans predicts a negative 131I posttherapy scan. Methods: Several prospective studies have been performed to compare the radiopharmacokinetics of 124I PET versus 131I planar imaging in patients who 1) had histologically proven DTC, 2) were suspected to have metastatic DTC (e.g., elevated Tg, positive recent fine-needle aspiration cytology, suspicious enlarging mass), and 3) had 131I planar and 124I PET imaging performed. Using these criteria, we retrospectively identified patients who had an elevated Tg, a negative diagnostic 131I/123I scan, a negative diagnostic 124I PET scan, therapy with 131I, a post-therapy 131I scan, and a prior 131I therapy with a subsequent positive post-131I therapy scan. For each scan, two readers categorized every focus of 131I and 124I uptake as positive for thyroid tissue/metastases or physiological. Results: Twelve patients met the above criteria. Ten of these 12 patients (83%) had positive foci on 131I posttherapy scan. Conclusion: In our selected patient population, 131I posttherapy scans are frequently positive in patients with elevated serum Tg levels, a negative diagnostic 131I or 123I scan, and a negative 124I PET scan. Thus, for a patient with elevated serum Tg level, negative diagnostic 131I

  16. Radionuclide (131)I labeled reduced graphene oxide for nuclear imaging guided combined radio- and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Yi, Xuan; Huang, Min; Ning, Ping; Liu, Teng; Ge, Cuicui; Chai, Zhifang; Liu, Zhuang; Yang, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Nano-graphene and its derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine, including their applications in cancer theranostics. In this work, we develop 131I labeled, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated reduced nano-graphene oxide (RGO), obtaining 131I-RGO-PEG for nuclear imaging guided combined radiotherapy and photothermal therapy of cancer. Compared with free 131I, 131IRGO- PEG exhibits enhanced cellular uptake and thus improved radio-therapeutic efficacy against cancer cells. As revealed by gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of 131I-RGO-PEG is observed after its intravenous injection. While RGO exhibits strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and could induce effective photothermal heating of tumor under NIR light irradiation, 131I is able to emit high-energy X-ray to induce cancer killing as the result of radio ionization effect. By utilizing the combined photothermal therapy and radiotherapy, both of which are delivered by a single agent 131IRGO- PEG, effective elimination of tumors is achieved in our animal tumor model experiments. Toxicology studies further indicate that 131I-RGO-PEG induces no appreciable toxicity to mice at the treatment dose. Our work demonstrates the great promise of combing nuclear medicine and photothermal therapy as a novel therapeutic strategy to realize synergistic efficacy in cancer treatment.

  17. Radionuclide (131)I labeled reduced graphene oxide for nuclear imaging guided combined radio- and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Yi, Xuan; Huang, Min; Ning, Ping; Liu, Teng; Ge, Cuicui; Chai, Zhifang; Liu, Zhuang; Yang, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Nano-graphene and its derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine, including their applications in cancer theranostics. In this work, we develop 131I labeled, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated reduced nano-graphene oxide (RGO), obtaining 131I-RGO-PEG for nuclear imaging guided combined radiotherapy and photothermal therapy of cancer. Compared with free 131I, 131IRGO- PEG exhibits enhanced cellular uptake and thus improved radio-therapeutic efficacy against cancer cells. As revealed by gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of 131I-RGO-PEG is observed after its intravenous injection. While RGO exhibits strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and could induce effective photothermal heating of tumor under NIR light irradiation, 131I is able to emit high-energy X-ray to induce cancer killing as the result of radio ionization effect. By utilizing the combined photothermal therapy and radiotherapy, both of which are delivered by a single agent 131IRGO- PEG, effective elimination of tumors is achieved in our animal tumor model experiments. Toxicology studies further indicate that 131I-RGO-PEG induces no appreciable toxicity to mice at the treatment dose. Our work demonstrates the great promise of combing nuclear medicine and photothermal therapy as a novel therapeutic strategy to realize synergistic efficacy in cancer treatment. PMID:26188609

  18. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of 131I in the thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, S. M.; Dantas, A. L. A.; Dantas, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in vivo monitoring of 131I in the thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. Results show that all models evaluated in this work present enough sensitivity for the evaluation of accidental intakes.

  19. (/sup 131/I) iodocholesterol scintiscan and a rare functional black adenoma of the adrenal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.M.; Lieberman, L.M.; Gould, H.R.; Hafez, G.R.

    1983-06-01

    A rare functional black adenoma (FBA) of the adrenal cortex was found to be the cause of hypertension and cushingoid features in a 34-yr-old white female., Preoperative studies included (/sup 131/I)iodocholesterol scanning (ICS) of the adrenal glands, which demonstrated the increased release of cortisol from the affected adrenal gland, with the failure of the opposite adrenal gland to record. This is evidence that cortisol was suppressing adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) output by the pituitary gland. This case documents the clinical utility of functional imaging techniques in this clinical setting.

  20. Determining thyroid {sup 131}I effective half-life for the treatment planning of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Willegaignon, Jose; Sapienza, Marcelo T.; Barberio Coura Filho, George; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Traino, Antonio C.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Thyroid {sup 131}I effective half-life (T{sub eff}) is an essential parameter in patient therapy when accurate radiation dose is desirable for producing an intended therapeutic outcome. Multiple {sup 131}I uptake measurements and resources from patients themselves and from nuclear medicine facilities are requisites for determining T{sub eff}, these being limiting factors when implementing the treatment planning of Graves' disease (GD) in radionuclide therapy. With the aim of optimizing this process, this study presents a practical, propitious, and accurate method of determining T{sub eff} for dosimetric purposes. Methods: A total of 50 patients with GD were included in this prospective study. Thyroidal {sup 131}I uptake was measured at 2-h, 6-h, 24-h, 48-h, 96-h, and 220-h postradioiodine administration. T{sub eff} was calculated by considering sets of two measured points (24-48-h, 24-96-h, and 24-220-h), sets of three (24-48-96-h, 24-48-220-h, and 24-96-220-h), and sets of four (24-48-96-220-h). Results: When considering all the measured points, the representative T{sub eff} for all the patients was 6.95 ({+-}0.81) days, whereas when using such sets of points as (24-220-h), (24-96-220-h), and (24-48-220-h), this was 6.85 ({+-}0.81), 6.90 ({+-}0.81), and 6.95 ({+-}0.81) days, respectively. According to the mean deviations 2.2 ({+-}2.4)%, 2.1 ({+-}2.0)%, and 0.04 ({+-}0.09)% found in T{sub eff}, calculated based on all the measured points in time, and with methods using the (24-220-h), (24-48-220-h), and (24-96-220-h) sets, respectively, no meaningful statistical difference was noted among the three methods (p > 0.500, t test). Conclusions: T{sub eff} obtained from only two thyroid {sup 131}I uptakes measured at 24-h and 220-h, besides proving to be sufficient, accurate enough, and easily applicable, attributes additional major cost-benefits for patients, and facilitates the application of the method for dosimetric purposes in the treatment planning of

  1. Unusual Adrenal and Brain Metastases From Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Revealed by 131I SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen; Shen, Guo-hua; Liu, Bin; Kuang, An-ren

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma is uncommon. Metastatic involvement of both adrenal and brain in the same patient from differentiated thyroid carcinoma is rare. Here, we described an unusual case with iodine-avid lung, bone, adrenal, liver, and brain metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma confirmed by 131I SPECT/CT. The utilization of SPECT/CT in thyroid cancer patients can detect the presence of metastases and also exclude potential false-positive lesions. Our case demonstrates that SPECT/CT is helpful in localizing and confirming metastatic lesions from differentiated thyroid carcinoma in rare and unusual sites.

  2. Biologically effective dose in fractionated molecular radiotherapy—application to treatment of neuroblastoma with 131I-mIBG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mínguez, Pablo; Gustafsson, Johan; Flux, Glenn; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the biologically effective dose (BED) is investigated for fractionated molecular radiotherapy (MRT). A formula for the Lea-Catcheside G-factor is derived which takes the possibility of combinations of sub-lethal damage due to radiation from different administrations of activity into account. In contrast to the previous formula, the new G-factor has an explicit dependence on the time interval between administrations. The BED of tumour and liver is analysed in MRT of neuroblastoma with 131I-mIBG, following a common two-administration protocol with a mass-based activity prescription. A BED analysis is also made for modified schedules, when due to local regulations there is a maximum permitted activity for each administration. Modifications include both the simplistic approach of delivering this maximum permitted activity in each of the two administrations, and also the introduction of additional administrations while maintaining the protocol-prescribed total activity. For the cases studied with additional (i.e. more than two) administrations, BED of tumour and liver decreases at most 12% and 29%, respectively. The decrease in BED of the tumour is however modest compared to the two-administration schedule using the maximum permitted activity, where the decrease compared to the original schedule is 47%.

  3. Red marrow and blood dosimetry in 131I treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma: pre-treatment versus in-therapy results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giostra, A.; Richetta, E.; Pasquino, M.; Miranti, A.; Cutaia, C.; Brusasco, G.; Pellerito, R. E.; Stasi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Treatment with radioiodine is a standard procedure for patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer, but the main approach to the therapy is still empiric, consisting of the administration of fixed activities. A predictive individualized dosimetric study may represent an important tool for physicians to determine the best activity to prescribe. The aim of this work is to compare red marrow and blood absorbed dose values obtained in the pre-treatment (PT) dosimetry phase with those obtained in the in-treatment (IT) dosimetry phase in order to estimate the predictive power of PT trial doses and to determine if they can be used as a decision-making tool to safely administer higher 131I activity to potentially increase the efficacy of treatment. The PT and IT dosimetry for 50 patients has been evaluated using three different dosimetric approaches. In all three approaches blood and red marrow doses, are calculated as the sum of two components, the dose from 131I activity in the blood and the dose from 131I activity located in the remainder of the body (i.e. the blood and whole-body contributions to the total dose). PT and IT dose values to blood and red marrow appear to be well correlated irrespective of the dosimetric approach used. Linear regression analyses of PT and IT total doses, for blood and red marrow, and the whole-body contribution to these doses, showed consistent best fit slope and correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.9 and 0.6, respectively: analyses of the blood dose contribution to the total doses also yielded similar values for the best fit slope but with correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.4 reflecting the greater variance in these dose estimates. These findings suggest that pre-treatment red marrow dose assessments may represent an important tool to personalize metastatic thyroid cancer treatment, removing the constraints of a fixed activity approach and permitting potentially more effective higher 131I activities to be

  4. 131I-Zn-Chlorophyll derivative photosensitizer for tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ocakoglu, Kasim; Er, Ozge; Kiyak, Guven; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Gunduz, Cumhur; Kayabasi, Cagla

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, the photodynamic therapy studies have gained considerable attention as an alternative method to surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which is commonly used to fight cancer. In this study, biological potentials of a benzyloxy bearing zinc(II) pheophorbide-a (Zn-PH-A) were investigated via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Zn-PH-A was labeled with (131)I with high efficiency (95.3 ± 2.7%) and its biodistribution studies were investigated on female Albino Wistar rats. The radiolabeled photosensitizer had been intravenously injected into the tail vein, and then the animals were sacrificed at 30, 60 and 120 min post injection. The percent of radioactivity per gram of organs (%ID/g) was determined. The radiolabeled Zn-PH-A showed high uptake in ovary. In addition, photodynamic therapy studies of the photosensitizer were conducted in EMT6, murine mammary carcinoma and HeLa, human cervix carcinoma cell lines. For the photodynamic therapy studies, the cells with Zn-PH-A were exposed to red light (650 nm) at the doses of 10-30 J/cm(2). The results showed that Zn-PH-A has stronger PDT effect in EMT6 than HeLa cell. Our present work demonstrates (131)I-labeled photosensitizer as a bifunctional agent (PDT and nuclear imaging) which could be improved in future by using EMT6 growing tumor in nude mice.

  5. [131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine in the treatment of metastatic neuroblastoma. Clinical, pharmacological and dosimetric aspects.

    PubMed

    Klingebiel, T; Treuner, J; Ehninger, G; Keller, K D; Dopfer, R; Feine, U; Niethammer, D

    1989-01-01

    Ten children with stage III or IV neuroblastoma that had either relapsed or was refractory were treated with [131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) from 1984 to 1986. The total dose ranged from 4,365 to 21,900 MBq and was given in one to five courses. Two patients achieved a complete remission (CR), two, a partial remission (PR), and three, an arrest of the disease. Pharmacological studies showed that 93% of detectable radioactivity was attributable to MIBG at the beginning of the infusion. However, by the end of the infusion this had decreased to 88%. The terminal half-life of MIBG was 37.0 h, whereas that of non-MIBG-bound iodine was 71.6 h. Therefore, the radioactivity-time product of non-MIBG-bound 131I was much higher than that of MIBG. Dosimetric studies showed a mean level of absorbed radiation for the total body of 160 microGy/MBq, a liver irradiation of 540 microGy/MBq and a mean tumour radiation of 10,500 microGy/MBq.

  6. 131I-Zn-Chlorophyll derivative photosensitizer for tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ocakoglu, Kasim; Er, Ozge; Kiyak, Guven; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Gunduz, Cumhur; Kayabasi, Cagla

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, the photodynamic therapy studies have gained considerable attention as an alternative method to surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which is commonly used to fight cancer. In this study, biological potentials of a benzyloxy bearing zinc(II) pheophorbide-a (Zn-PH-A) were investigated via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Zn-PH-A was labeled with (131)I with high efficiency (95.3 ± 2.7%) and its biodistribution studies were investigated on female Albino Wistar rats. The radiolabeled photosensitizer had been intravenously injected into the tail vein, and then the animals were sacrificed at 30, 60 and 120 min post injection. The percent of radioactivity per gram of organs (%ID/g) was determined. The radiolabeled Zn-PH-A showed high uptake in ovary. In addition, photodynamic therapy studies of the photosensitizer were conducted in EMT6, murine mammary carcinoma and HeLa, human cervix carcinoma cell lines. For the photodynamic therapy studies, the cells with Zn-PH-A were exposed to red light (650 nm) at the doses of 10-30 J/cm(2). The results showed that Zn-PH-A has stronger PDT effect in EMT6 than HeLa cell. Our present work demonstrates (131)I-labeled photosensitizer as a bifunctional agent (PDT and nuclear imaging) which could be improved in future by using EMT6 growing tumor in nude mice. PMID:26226337

  7. {sup 129}I, {sup 131}I and {sup 127}I in animal thyroids after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    VanMiddleworth, L.; Handle, J.

    1997-10-01

    A small number of animal thyroids from Bad Hall, Austria; Ulm, Germany; and Steinkjer, Norway had {sup 131}I (half-life 8.06 d) measured between 21 and 72 d following the nuclear accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. Nine years later {sup 129}I (half-life 1.57 x 10{sup 7} y) fission product and natural {sup 127}I were measured in the same thyroids. The mass ratios, {sup 129}I/{sup 131}I were calculated to the date of the Chernobyl accident and they ranged between 13 and 71. These ratios are compared to the expected ratios within an operating nuclear reactor during 2 y of operation, where the {sup 129}I/{sup 131}I{sup -1} ratio never exceeded 30. The observed ratio of {sup 129}I to natural {sup 127}I in thyroids ranged from 5 to 200 times the ratio before the accident, except that the Norwegian thyroids had {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios which were less than the ratios of pre-Chernobyl thyroids from Ulm. These studies show the {sup 129}I and {sup 131}I from the Chernobyl accident were accumulated with natural {sup 127}I in animal thyroids but the isotope ratios, calculated to the release date, had wide ranges. The {sup 131}I radioactive exposure might be estimated from a fission product mixture by measuring {sup 129}I in thyroids long after the exposure to {sup 131}I, but the results would probably show a wide range of possibilities. The determining variables should be evaluated. We know of no previous data regarding both {sup 131}I and {sup 129}I in thyroid glands during the first 3 mo after the Chernobyl accident. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Microdosimetric analysis confirms similar biological effectiveness of external exposure to gamma-rays and internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Manabe, Kentaro; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The risk of internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I is of great public concern after the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE, defined herein as effectiveness of internal exposure relative to the external exposure to γ-rays) is occasionally believed to be much greater than unity due to insufficient discussions on the difference of their microdosimetric profiles. We therefore performed a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation in ideally aligned cell systems to calculate the probability densities of absorbed doses in subcellular and intranuclear scales for internal exposures to electrons emitted from 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I, as well as the external exposure to 662 keV photons. The RBE due to the inhomogeneous radioactive isotope (RI) distribution in subcellular structures and the high ionization density around the particle trajectories was then derived from the calculated microdosimetric probability density. The RBE for the bystander effect was also estimated from the probability density, considering its non-linear dose response. The RBE due to the high ionization density and that for the bystander effect were very close to 1, because the microdosimetric probability densities were nearly identical between the internal exposures and the external exposure from the 662 keV photons. On the other hand, the RBE due to the RI inhomogeneity largely depended on the intranuclear RI concentration and cell size, but their maximum possible RBE was only 1.04 even under conservative assumptions. Thus, it can be concluded from the microdosimetric viewpoint that the risk from internal exposures to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I should be nearly equivalent to that of external exposure to γ-rays at the same absorbed dose level, as suggested in the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:24919099

  9. Microdosimetric analysis confirms similar biological effectiveness of external exposure to gamma-rays and internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Manabe, Kentaro; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The risk of internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I is of great public concern after the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE, defined herein as effectiveness of internal exposure relative to the external exposure to γ-rays) is occasionally believed to be much greater than unity due to insufficient discussions on the difference of their microdosimetric profiles. We therefore performed a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation in ideally aligned cell systems to calculate the probability densities of absorbed doses in subcellular and intranuclear scales for internal exposures to electrons emitted from 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I, as well as the external exposure to 662 keV photons. The RBE due to the inhomogeneous radioactive isotope (RI) distribution in subcellular structures and the high ionization density around the particle trajectories was then derived from the calculated microdosimetric probability density. The RBE for the bystander effect was also estimated from the probability density, considering its non-linear dose response. The RBE due to the high ionization density and that for the bystander effect were very close to 1, because the microdosimetric probability densities were nearly identical between the internal exposures and the external exposure from the 662 keV photons. On the other hand, the RBE due to the RI inhomogeneity largely depended on the intranuclear RI concentration and cell size, but their maximum possible RBE was only 1.04 even under conservative assumptions. Thus, it can be concluded from the microdosimetric viewpoint that the risk from internal exposures to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I should be nearly equivalent to that of external exposure to γ-rays at the same absorbed dose level, as suggested in the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  10. Standardization of (241)Am, (124)Sb and (131)I by live-timed anti-coincidence counting with extending dead time.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carlos J; Iwahara, A; Poledna, R; de Oliveira, E M; de Prinzio, M A R R; Delgado, José U; Lopes, Ricardo T

    2008-01-01

    The National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI)/Brazil has implemented a live-timed anti-coincidence system with extending dead time to complement the existing systems in its Radionuclide Laboratory for activity measurements of radioactive sources. In this new system, the proportional counter has been replaced by a liquid-scintillation-counter for alpha and beta detection. In order to test the performance of the new system, radioactive solutions of (131)I, (124)Sb and (241)Am have been standardized. In this work the measurement method, the results and the associated uncertainties are described and discussed. PMID:18356060

  11. Comparison of Radiation Dose Estimation for Myeloablative Radioimmunotherapy for Relapsed or Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma using 131I Tositumomab to that of Other Types of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, Joseph G.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Durack, Larry; Fisher, Darrell R.; Press, Oliver W.; Eary, Janet F.

    2004-12-01

    Patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) demonstrate poor survival after standard treatment. Myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I tositumomab (anti-CD20) has the ability to deliver specific radiation absorbed dose to antigen bearing tumor. We reviewed normal organ radiation absorbed doses in MCL patients. METHODS: Records of patients with MCL (n = 25), who received myeloablative RIT between January 1996 and December 2003 were reviewed. Individual patient radiation dosimetry was performed on all patients after a trace labeled infusion of 131I tositumomab (mean = 348 MBq), to calculate the required amount of radioactivity for therapy, based on MIRD schema. RESULTS: Mean organ residence times (hr) corrected for CT derived organ volumes for MCL, were as follows: Lungs:9.0; Liver:12.4; Kidneys:1.7; Spleen:2.17; Whole Body:62.4 and mean radiation absorbed doses mGy/Mbq were: Lungs:1.2; Liver:1.1; Kidneys:0.85; Spleen:1.7; Whole Body: 0.21. This is similar to patients with other NHL. Patients received a mean activity of 21 GBq of 131I (range = 11.5 - 41.4) for therapy estimated to deliver 25 Gy to the normal organ receiving the highest radiation absorbed dose. CONCLUSION: Myeloablative RIT using 131I tositumomab results in normal organ radiation absorbed doses similar to those in patients with other non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and is suitable for treating patients with relapsed or refractory MCL.

  12. Phase I/II study of 131I-MIBG with vincristine and 5 days of irinotecan for advanced neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, S G; Allen, S; Bent, M; Hilton, J F; Hollinger, F; Hawkins, R; Courtier, J; Mosse, Y P; Matthay, K K

    2015-01-01

    Background: 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is an active radiopharmaceutical in neuroblastoma. A previous study demonstrated that MIBG could be combined with vincristine and prolonged irinotecan, although 25% of first courses had grade 3 diarrhoea. The current phase I/II study evaluated MIBG with vincristine and 5 days of higher-dose irinotecan. Methods: Patients 1–30 years old with advanced neuroblastoma were eligible. Patients received cefixime on days −1 to +6, irinotecan (50 mg m−2 per dose IV) on days 0–4, vincristine (2 mg m−2) on day 0, MIBG (555 or 666 MBq kg−1) on day 1, and peripheral blood stem cells on day 13. UGT1A1 genotyping was performed in consenting patients. Results: Thirty-two patients (12 phase I ; 20 phase II) received 42 courses. No dose-limiting toxicities were seen during dose escalation and the recommended administered activity was 666 MBq kg−1. Myelosuppression and diarrhoea were the most common toxicities, with grade 3 diarrhoea in 6% of first courses. Patients homozygous for UGT1A1*28 had more grade 4 thrombocytopenia (80% vs 37% P=0.14). Responses (five complete and four partial) occurred in 9 out of 32 (28%) patients. Conclusions: MIBG (666 MBq kg−1) with vincristine and this irinotecan schedule is tolerable and active, with less severe diarrhoea compared with a regimen using more protracted irinotecan. PMID:25602966

  13. Cytogenetic and dosimetric effects of (131)I in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison between stimulation with rhTSH and thyroid hormone withdrawal treatments.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Márcia Augusta; Valgôde, Flávia Gomes Silva; Gonzalez, Júlia Armiliato; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Guimarães, Maria Inês Calil Cury; Ribela, Maria Teresa Carvalho Pinto; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo

    2016-08-01

    A study directed to the cytogenetic and dosimetric aspects of radionuclides of medical interest is very valuable, both for an accurate evaluation of the dose received by the patients, and consequently of the genetic damage, and for the optimization of therapeutic strategies. Cytogenetic and dosimetric effects of (131)I in lymphocytes of thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients were evaluated through chromosome aberration (CA) technique: Euthyroid patients submitted to recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) therapy (group A) were compared with hypothyroid patients left without levothyroxine treatment (group B). CA analysis was carried out prior to and 24 h, 1 week, 1 month and 1 year after radioiodine administration (4995-7030 MBq) in both groups. An activity-response curve of (131)I (0.074-0.740 MBq/mL) was elaborated, comparing dicentric chromosomes in vivo and in vitro in order to estimate the absorbed dose through Monte Carlo simulations. In general, radioiodine therapy induced a higher total CA rate in hypothyroid patients as compared to euthyroid patients. The frequencies of dicentrics obtained in DTC patients 24 h after treatment were equivalent to those induced in vitro (0.2903 ± 0.1005 MBq/mL in group A and 0.2391 ± 0.1019 MBq/mL in group B), corresponding to absorbed doses of 0.65 ± 0.23 Gy and 0.53 ± 0.23 Gy, respectively. The effect on lymphocytes of internal radiation induced by (131)I therapy is minimal when based on the frequencies of CA 1 year after the treatment, maintaining a higher quality of life for DTC patients receiving rhTSH-aided therapy.

  14. Cytogenetic and dosimetric effects of (131)I in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison between stimulation with rhTSH and thyroid hormone withdrawal treatments.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Márcia Augusta; Valgôde, Flávia Gomes Silva; Gonzalez, Júlia Armiliato; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Guimarães, Maria Inês Calil Cury; Ribela, Maria Teresa Carvalho Pinto; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo

    2016-08-01

    A study directed to the cytogenetic and dosimetric aspects of radionuclides of medical interest is very valuable, both for an accurate evaluation of the dose received by the patients, and consequently of the genetic damage, and for the optimization of therapeutic strategies. Cytogenetic and dosimetric effects of (131)I in lymphocytes of thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients were evaluated through chromosome aberration (CA) technique: Euthyroid patients submitted to recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) therapy (group A) were compared with hypothyroid patients left without levothyroxine treatment (group B). CA analysis was carried out prior to and 24 h, 1 week, 1 month and 1 year after radioiodine administration (4995-7030 MBq) in both groups. An activity-response curve of (131)I (0.074-0.740 MBq/mL) was elaborated, comparing dicentric chromosomes in vivo and in vitro in order to estimate the absorbed dose through Monte Carlo simulations. In general, radioiodine therapy induced a higher total CA rate in hypothyroid patients as compared to euthyroid patients. The frequencies of dicentrics obtained in DTC patients 24 h after treatment were equivalent to those induced in vitro (0.2903 ± 0.1005 MBq/mL in group A and 0.2391 ± 0.1019 MBq/mL in group B), corresponding to absorbed doses of 0.65 ± 0.23 Gy and 0.53 ± 0.23 Gy, respectively. The effect on lymphocytes of internal radiation induced by (131)I therapy is minimal when based on the frequencies of CA 1 year after the treatment, maintaining a higher quality of life for DTC patients receiving rhTSH-aided therapy. PMID:27013085

  15. Intake ratio of 131I to 137Cs derived from thyroid and whole-body doses to Fukushima residents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjoo; Kurihara, Osamu; Tani, Kotaro; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    This study deals with the intake ratio of (131)I to (137)Cs that allows for the utilisation of late whole-body measurements to reconstruct the internal thyroid doses to Fukushima residents. The ratio was derived from the thyroid dose distribution of children and the effective dose distribution of adults based on the assumption that various age groups of persons inhaled the two nuclides at the same activity ratio and at around the same time, while taking into account age-dependent ventilation rates. The two dose distributions were obtained from residents of Iitate village and Kawamata town, located northwest of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). As a result, the intake ratios for the residents were 2-3, which was much smaller than the activity ratio observed in air sampling. A main reason for this discrepancy presumably lies in the relatively smaller thyroid uptake for iodine in the Japanese subjects than that in the reference persons on whom the biokinetic model promulgated by International Commission on Radiological Protection is based. The actual intake ratio of the two nuclides is believed to have been higher south of the FDNPP; however, this would depend on which of three significant plume events dominantly contributed to the intake for individuals. Further studies are needed to clarify this issue as a part of the reconstruction of early internal doses related to the FDNPP accident. PMID:25982788

  16. Counting efficiency of whole-body monitoring system using BOMAB and ANSI/IAEA thyroid phantom due to internal contamination of 131I.

    PubMed

    Ghare, V P; Patni, H K; Akar, D K; Rao, D D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of Indian reference BOttle MAnnikin aBsorber (BOMAB) neck with axial cavity and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) thyroid phantom using pencil sources of (133)Ba ((131)I simulant) on counting efficiency (CE) is seen experimentally in static geometry for whole-body monitoring system comprising 10.16-cm diameter and 7.62-cm-thick NaI(Tl) detector. The CE estimated using the neck part of BOMAB phantom is 50.2% lower in comparison with ANSI phantom. In rest of the studies FLUKA code is used for Monte Carlo simulations using ANSI/IAEA thyroid phantom. The simulation results are validated in static geometries with experimental CE and the differences are within 1.3%. It is observed that CE for pencil source distribution is 3.97% higher for (133)Ba in comparison with CE of (131)I source. Simulated CE for pencil source distribution is 4.7% lower in comparison with uniform source distribution in the volume of thyroid for (131)I. Since the radiation workers are of different physique; overlying tissue thickness (OTT) and neck-to-detector distance play an important role in the calculation of activity in thyroid. The CE decreases with increase in OTT and is found to be 5.5% lower if OTT is changed from 1.1 to 2 cm. Finally, the simulations are carried out to estimate the variation in CE due to variation in the neck-to-detector distance. The CE is 6.2% higher if the neck surface-to-detector distance is decreased from 21.4 to 20.4 cm and it goes on increasing up to 61.9% if the distance is decreased to 15.4 cm. In conclusion, the calibration of whole-body monitoring system for (131)I should be carried out with ANSI/IAEA thyroid phantom, the neck-to-detector distance controlled or the CE corrected for this, and the CE should be corrected for OTT. PMID:24179144

  17. High-Dose 131I-Tositumomab (Anti-CD20) Radioimmunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Adjusting Radiation Absorbed Dose to Actual Organ Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gopal, A K.; Durack, L. D.; Press, O. W.; Eary, Janet F.

    2004-06-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab has been used successfully to treat relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgin's lymphoma (NHL). Our approach to treatment planning has been to determine limits on radiation absorbed close to critical nonhematopoietic organs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using CT to adjust for actual organ volumes in calculating organ-specific absorbed dose estimates. Methods: Records of 84 patients who underwent biodistribution studies after a trace-labeled infusion of 131I-tositumomab for RIT (January 1990 and April 2003) were reviewed. Serial planar -camera images and whole-body Nal probe counts were obtained to estimate 131I-antibody source-organ residence times as recommended by the MIRD Committee. The source-organ residence times for standard man or woman were adjusted by the ratio of the MIRD phantom organ mass to the CT-derived organ mass. Results: The mean radiation absorbed doses (in mGy/MBq) for our data using the MIRD model were lungs= 1.67; liver= 1.03; kidneys= 1.08; spleen= 2.67; and whole body= 0.3; and for CT volume-adjusted organ volumes (in mGy/MBq) were lungs= 1.30; liver= 0.92; kidneys= 0.76; spleen= 1.40; and whole body= 0.22. We determined the following correlation coefficients between the 2 methods for the various organs; lungs, 0.49; (P= 0.0001); liver, 0.64 (P= 0.004); kidneys, 0.45 (P= 0.0001), for the residence times. For therapy, patients received mean 131I administered activities of 19.2 GBq (520 mCi) after adjustment for CT-derived organ mass compared with 16.0 GBq (433 mCi) that would otherwise have been given had therapy been based only using standard MIRD organ volumes--a statistically significant difference (P= 0.0001). Conclusion: We observed large variations in organ masses among our patients. Our treatments were planned to deliver the maximally tolerated radiation dose to the dose-limiting normal organ. This work provides a simplified method for calculating patient-specific radiation

  18. External radiation doses in a household from a patient receiving a therapeutic amount of {sup 131}I

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.M.

    1992-06-01

    Gamma-ray measurements were carried out during a 4-week period in a household to determine the external dose to family members from a patient who was being treated for hyperthyroidism with the administration of 220 MBq of {sup 131}I. The measured doses in air were 0.08 and 0.09 mGy for the children and 0.49 mGy for the spouse. The doses delivered at various locations within the house, the breakdown for various activities of family member, and the potential doses for other scenarios are also given. Based on these results and those of past studies, doses to individuals from such therapy are seen to be generally higher than the annual limits set for members of the general public for nuclear facility higher than the annual limits set for members of the general public for nuclear facility operations in the US and, and in certain situations, doses could even exceed 5 mGy for some family members. In terms of collective dose, this source of exposure is estimated to be about the same as the contribution from the nuclear fuel cycle and equivalent to or larger than other environmental sources, such as luminous timepieces, smoke detectors, thorium gas mantles, dental prostheses, welding rods, and opthalmic glass.

  19. External radiation doses in a household from a patient receiving a therapeutic amount of sup 131 I

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.M.

    1992-06-01

    Gamma-ray measurements were carried out during a 4-week period in a household to determine the external dose to family members from a patient who was being treated for hyperthyroidism with the administration of 220 MBq of {sup 131}I. The measured doses in air were 0.08 and 0.09 mGy for the children and 0.49 mGy for the spouse. The doses delivered at various locations within the house, the breakdown for various activities of family member, and the potential doses for other scenarios are also given. Based on these results and those of past studies, doses to individuals from such therapy are seen to be generally higher than the annual limits set for members of the general public for nuclear facility higher than the annual limits set for members of the general public for nuclear facility operations in the US and, and in certain situations, doses could even exceed 5 mGy for some family members. In terms of collective dose, this source of exposure is estimated to be about the same as the contribution from the nuclear fuel cycle and equivalent to or larger than other environmental sources, such as luminous timepieces, smoke detectors, thorium gas mantles, dental prostheses, welding rods, and opthalmic glass.

  20. Accumulation and tissue distribution of radioiodine ( sup 131 I) from algal phytoplankton by the freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis

    SciTech Connect

    Cuvin-Aralar, Ma.L.A. ); Umaly, R.C. )

    1991-12-01

    Radioactive wastes discharged from establishments involved in the use of radioisotopes such as nuclear-powered industries, tracer research and nuclear medicine are a potential public health hazard. Such wastes contain radionuclides, particularly Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I), produced in fission with a yield of about 3%. Radionuclides in waste waters are known to be taken up by molluscs such as mussels, oysters, and clams. This study aims to determine the uptake of {sup 131}I from algal phytoplankton (Chroococcus dispersus) fed to the freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis as well as the organ/tissue distribution. The results will be compared with a previous study on {sup 131}I uptake from water by the same clams.

  1. Multifocal hot spots demonstrated by whole-body 131I scintigraphy and SPECT/CT after transaxillary endoscopic thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Seong; Kim, Seok Hwi; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2015-03-01

    A 35-year-old woman received open thyroidectomy for a thyroid nodule that was confirmed as papillary carcinoma. Whole-body 131I scintigraphy during thyroid ablation demonstrated high uptake in the thyroid bed and multiple focal hot spots in the thorax. SPECT/CT localized the hot spots to the right chest wall and axilla, as well as to the left chest wall. The surgeon recognized these sites to concur with the transaxillary tract used during endoscopic thyroidectomy for nodular hyperplasia 8 years previously. Thus, this case illustrates how thyroidal tissue fragments seeded during endoscopic thyroidectomy can be mistaken for thyroid cancer metastasis on 131I scintigraphy.

  2. Effect of antilymphoma antibody, 131I-Lym-1, on peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Schillaci, Orazio; DeNardo, Gerald L; DeNardo, Sally J; Goldstein, Desiree S; Kroger, Linda A; O'Donnell, Robert T; Lamborn, Kathleen R

    2007-08-01

    Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), unlabeled rituximab (Rituxan, Biogen Idec Inc., Cambridge, MA; and Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA) or radiolabeled 90Y-ibritumomab (Zevalin, Biogen Idec Inc., Cambridge, MA) and 131I-tositumomab (Bexxar; Glaxo Smith Kline, Research Triangle Park, NC), have proven to be effective therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), but also induce immediate and persistent decreases in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Lym-1, a mAb that selectively targets malignant lymphocytes, also has induced therapeutic responses and prolonged survival in patients with NHL when labeled with iodine-131 (131I). We have retrospectively examined its effect on PBLs in 41 NHL patients that had received 131I-Lym-1 therapy. Absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs) were evaluated before and after the first and last 131I-Lym-1 infusion. Modest decreases in PBLs were observed in most of the patients. Using strict criteria to define recovery, time to recovery was determined for 19 patients, with the remainder censored because of insufficient follow-up (median follow up for censored patients: 22 days). Using Kaplan-Meier estimates, it would be predicted that 31% of patients would recover by 28 days and that median time to recovery would be 44 days after the last 131I-Lym-1 infusion. No predictors were found for time to recovery, considering such factors as the administered Lym-1 or 131I dose, spleen volume, or radiation doses to the body, marrow, or spleen. The data suggest that the effect of 131I-Lym-1 on ALC is the result of a nonspecific radiation effect, rather than a specific Lym-1 mAb effect. The shorter time required for ALC recovery after 131I-Lym-1 when compared to that reported for anti-CD20 mAbs, whether radiolabeled or otherwise, is probably related to differing mechanisms for lymphocytotoxicity and lesser Lym-1 antigenic density on normal B-lymphocytes.

  3. Pharmacodynamic study of 131I-labeled CA215 antibody on an animal model of estrogen-resistant OC-3-VGH ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIANG-YUN; SU, XIN; XIE, CHEN-JING; LI, LEI; YAN, JIAN-YAN; SUN, ZU-YUE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the inhibitory effect of 131I-labeled ovarian cancer antigen 215 (131I-CA215) antibody on human OC-3-VGH ovarian cancer. A subcutaneous transplanted tumor model of estrogen-resistant human OC-3-VGH ovarian cancer in nude mice was established. The model mice were randomly divided into seven groups, which were the negative control (NC), positive control (PC; 60 mg/kg cyclophosphamide), high-dose CA215 antibody (HA; 10 mg/kg), low-dose CA215 antibody (LA; 2 mg/kg), high-dose 131I-CA215 antibody (131I-HA; 10 mg/kg + 125 μCi), medium-dose 131I-CA215 antibody (131I-MA; 6 mg/kg + 75 μCi) and low-dose 131I-CA215 antibody (131I-LA; 2 mg/kg + 25 μCi) groups. Each group received intraperitoneal administration for 14 consecutive days. At 24 h after the final administration, the tumor was removed and weighed to calculate the tumor inhibition rate (TIR) and the relative tumor increase rate (T/C). Compared with the NC group, the HA group, as well as the 31I-HA and 131I-MA antibody groups, exhibited significantly inhibited tumor growth. The relative T/C values were 54, 30 and 48%, respectively, and the TIRs were 33.59, 64.89 and 45.80%, respectively. All differences were statistically significant. The difference between the HA and 131I-HA groups also presented statistical significance. CA215 and 131I-CA215 antibodies can markedly inhibit OC-3-VGH ovarian cancer. The high-dose 131I-CA215 antibody demonstrated a clear synergetic effect. PMID:26622356

  4. A comparison of 67Cu- and 131I-labelled forms of monoclonal antibodies SEN7 and SWA20 directed against small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Zangemeister-Wittke, U; Waibel, R; Schenker, T; Schubiger, P A; Stahel, R A

    1994-01-01

    The intact anti-SCLC monoclonal antibody (MAb) SEN7 and its F(ab')2 were labelled with the beta-emitting isotope 67Cu. Both materials retained their biological activity in vitro as determined by the Lindmo assay. In a direct comparison of in vivo distribution in a xenograph model, 131I- and 67Cu-labelled intact SEN7 showed similar absolute tumour accumulation. Blood levels were markedly lower in the case of the 67Cu-labelled antibody, resulting in improved tumour:blood ratios which reached a maximum of 13:1 compared with only 4.5:1 for 131I-SEN7. In the case of the 67Cu-labelled F(ab')2, very high accumulation of the nuclide was observed in the kidney. Levels of radio copper in liver and spleen were also found to be significantly raised when compared with radio iodine. SWA20, a MAb which had previously failed to show any selective in vivo accumulation in tumour xenografts when labelled with radio iodine showed higher and more stable tumour accumulation when labelled with 67Cu.

  5. Development of a kinetic model and calculation of radiation dose estimates for sodium iodide-{sup 131}I in athyroid individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M.

    1997-07-01

    The treatment for some thyroid carcinomas involves surgically removing the thyroid gland and administering the radiopharmaceutical Sodium iodide-{sup 131}I (NaI). A diagnostic dose of NaI is given to the patient to determine if remnant tissue from the gland remains or larger doses are administered in order to treat the malignant tissue. Past research regarding NaI uptake and retention in euthyroid individuals (normal functioning thyroid) reveal that radioiodine concentrates mainly in the thyroid tissue and the remaining material is excreted from the body. The majority of radioiodine in athyroid (without thyroid) individuals is also eliminated from the body; however, there has been recent evidence of a long-term retention phase for individuals with no radioiodine concentrating tissue. The general purpose of this study was to develop a kinetic model and estimate the absorbed dose to athyroid individuals regarding the distribution and retention of NaI.

  6. Inverse relationship between cardiac accumulation of meta-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) and circulation catecholamines in suspected pheochromocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajo, M.; Shapiro, B.; Glowniak, J.; Sisson, J.C.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1983-12-01

    Heart intensity (HI) in the 24- and 48-hr images of meta-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG), a pheochromocytoma-seeking guanethidine analog, were compared with concentrations of plasma and urinary catecholamines and their metabolites in nonpheochromocytoma and pheochromocytoma patients. HI was inversely related to plasma concentrations and urinary excretion rates of the hormones. Plasma norepinephrine had the highest inverse correlation with HI (r = -0.73 at 24 hr, -0.63 at 48 hr) and urinary metanephrine the lowest (r = -0.23 at 24 hr, -0.28 at 48 hr). A similar relationship was observed in the intensity of salivary-gland visualization, but with less marked variations. HI was much higher in ninpheochromocytoma patients than in pheochromocytoma patients. HI in an I-131 MIGB image provides useful information in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, and may provide a tool for the study of the influence of catecholamines on the heart.

  7. Long-term follow-up study of compensated low-dose /sup 131/I therapy for Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sridama, V.; McCormick, M.; Kaplan, E.L.; Fauchet, R.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1984-08-16

    We treated 187 patients who had Graves' disease with low-dose radioactive iodide (/sup 131/I), using a protocol that included a compensation for thyroid size. The incidence of early hypothyroidism (12 per cent) was acceptably low in the first year after /sup 131/I treatment, but we found a cumulative high incidence (up to 76 per cent) at the end of the 11th year. In contrast, the incidence of permanent hypothyroidism was relatively stable in 166 surgically treated patients, increasing from 19 to 27 per cent at the end of 11 years. Among 122 medically treated patients, only 40 per cent entered remission, and hypothyroidism developed in 2 per cent during the same period of follow-up. The long-term incidence of hypothyroidism in our patients treated with low-dose /sup 131/I therapy was much higher than that found in earlier studies using a comparable dose. Our study suggests that it will be difficult to modify therapy with /sup 131/I alone to produce both early control of thyrotoxicosis and a low incidence of hypothyroidism.

  8. Initial plasma disappearance and tissue uptake of 131I-albumin in normal rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Bent-Hansen, L. )

    1991-05-01

    The simultaneous plasma disappearance curves of 131I-albumin and 125I-fibrinogen were recorded in normal rabbits for 1 hr. Using fibrinogen as a plasma reference, the disappearance curves of albumin were shown to contain two separate phases of efflux: one fast from zero to 10 min. comprising 8% of the total tracer; and one slow appearing in the interval of 10 to 60 min. containing another 9% of the tracer. Total albumin escape was analyzed to yield an initial slope of 0.024 {plus minus} 0.004 min-1, corresponding to a wholebody unidirectional albumin clearance (Cl(0)) of 0.090 {plus minus} 0.009 ml(min{asterisk}100 g)-1. The distribution of efflux was assessed by biopsy uptakes using the same tracers in spleen, kidney, heart, lung, liver, intestine, skin, muscle, and brain. The disappearance curve generally reflects a biphasic pattern of uptake in peripheral tissue, predominantly by muscle and lung. The rapid phase has contributions from the fast near equilibration of liver, and intestine and skin are significant codeterminants of the slow phase. Due to their low body masses highly perfused organs such as kidney, spleen, and heart have little influence on the plasma disappearance. In accordance, the Cl(0) determined for the wholebody was higher than initial clearances found in skin (0.053 ml(min{asterisk}100 g)-1) and muscle (0.054 ml(min{asterisk}100 g)-1), but much lower than those found in the highly perfused organs. The initial (unidirectional) rates of peripheral albumin transfer demonstrated, ranged from 10 to 30 times higher than estimates of lymphatic return, suggesting that transcapillary albumin exchange is mediated by high-rate bidirectional diffusion. The rapid decrease of net albumin exchange rates suggests a second, highly significant barrier located within the interstitial matrix, which restricts plasma escape and reduces plasma to lymph albumin transport.

  9. Nothing but NET: A review of norepinephrine transporter expression and efficacy of 131I-mIBG therapy

    PubMed Central

    Streby, Keri A; Shah, Nilay; Ranalli, Mark A; Kunkler, Anne; Cripe, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is unique amongst common pediatric cancers for its expression of the norepinephrine transporter (NET), enabling tumor-selective imaging and therapy with radioactive analogues of norepinephrine. The majority of neuroblastoma tumors are avid for 123I-metaiodobenzaguanidine (mIBG) on imaging, yet the therapeutic response to 131I-mIBG is only 30% in clinical trials, and off-target effects cause short- and long-term morbidity. We review the contemporary understanding of the tumor-selective uptake, retention, and efflux of meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) and strategies currently in development for improving its efficacy. Combination treatment strategies aimed at enhancing NET are likely necessary to reach the full potential of 131I-mIBG therapy. PMID:25175627

  10. Treatment of intracranial human glioma xenografts with 131I-labeled anti-tenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y; Bullard, D E; Humphrey, P A; Colapinto, E V; Friedman, H S; Zalutsky, M R; Coleman, R E; Bigner, D D

    1988-05-15

    Lack of tumor specificity renders current modalities for treating malignant glioma ineffective. The administration of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody (Mab) 81C6, which reacts with the glioma-associated extracellular matrix antigen, tenascin, to nude mice carrying s.c. human glioma xenografts has resulted in significant tumor growth delay and tumor regression. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of 131I-labeled 81C6 in athymic rats bearing intracranial human glioma xenografts, a more appropriate model for human gliomas. Mab 81C6, an IgG2b immunoglobulin, and an isotype-matched control Mab, 45.6, were labeled at 12.5-23.6 mCi/mg with chloramine-T. The Mabs were given i.v. at 1.25 and 2.5 mCi/animal for 131I-labeled 81C6, and 1.25 mCi for 131I-labeled 45.6 control. Therapeutic response was evaluated by survival prolongation using Wilcoxon rank sum analysis. Three experiments were done. No significant survival prolongation was found in the trial in which the average tumor size at the time of Mab administration was 60 +/- 14 mm3, two-thirds the size which causes animal death. In experiment 2, Mab was given at 16 +/- 14 mm3 average intracranial tumor volume. Statistically significant (P less than or equal to 0.005) survival prolongation was found for animals treated with 2.5 mCi 131I-labeled 81C6. In that experiment, male animals with intracranial xenografts had significantly shorter survival than females (P less than or equal to 0.005). When only female animals were used in the analysis, the 1.25-mCi 81C6 group also was found to have longer survival benefit (P less than or equal to 0.01). In the third experiment, only female animals were used and the tumor size at the initiation of treatment was 20 +/- 9 mm3. Highly significant survival prolongation again was found in both 1.25 (P = 0.001) and 2.5 mCi (P less than 0.001) 131I-labeled 81C6 groups. The estimated dose to intracranial tumors from 1.25 mCi of 131I-labeled Mab was 1585 rads for 81C6 and 168

  11. The feasibility of using {sup 129}I to reconstruct {sup 131}I desposition from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Marchetti, A.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-11-01

    Radioiodine released to the atmosphere from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the spring of 1986 resulted in large-scale thyroid-gland exposure of populations in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. Because of the short half life of {sup 131}I (8.04 d), adequate data on the intensities and patterns of iodine deposition were not collected, especially in the regions where the incidence of childhood-thyroid cancer is now increasing. Results are presented from a feasibility study that show that accelerator-mass-spectrometry measurements of {sup 129}I (half life 16 {times} 10{sup 6}y) in soil can be used to reconstruct {sup 131}I-deposition density and thus help in the thyroid-dosimetry effort that is now urgently needed to support epidemiologic studies of childhood-thyroid cancer in the affected regions. 32refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) labeled with /sup 123/I//sup 131/I in neuroblastoma diagnosis and follow-up treatment with a review of the diagnostic results of the International Workshop of Pediatric Oncology held in Rome, September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Feine, U.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.T.; Treuner, J.; Klingebiel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Our experience in scintigraphic diagnosis using /sup 123/I//sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) on 37 children with neuroblastomas stage III-IV is reported and discussed, together with the results obtained by other authors on MIBG diagnosis at the International Workshop of Pediatric Oncology held in Rome in September 1986. In our own investigation, 49 examinations were undertaken with /sup 123/I-MIBG and 66 with /sup 131/I-MIBG partly under therapy conditions with high-activity doses of /sup 131/I-MIBG. There were 29 neuroblastomas, 3 ganglioneuromas, and 3 ganglioneuroblastomas. The localization of all primary tumors was over 90%; for neuroblastomas with a high level of catecholamine excretion, over 95%. The specificity was about 100%. The sensitivity with respect to tumor relapse and all localization of metastasis and bone-marrow tumor infiltration in the follow-up-phase approaches was 70% during or after therapy. What emerges from the experience of most investigators is that /sup 123/I-MIBG is the agent best suited to detect tumor relapse and metastasis, especially in the bone marrow. MIBG examinations are of great value in follow-up studies for detecting tumor relapse and bone marrow infiltrations, especially before the onset of clinical symptoms and other indications. 16 references.

  13. Biliary and duodenal drainage for reducing the radiotoxic risk of antineoplastic 131I-hypericin in rat models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Jiang, Cuihua; Jiang, Xiao; Sun, Ziping; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Liu, Wei; Ni, Yicheng

    2015-01-01

    Necrosis targeting radiopharmaceutical 131I-hypericin (131I-Hyp) has been studied for the therapy of solid malignancies. However, serious side effects may be caused by its unwanted radioactivity after being metabolized by the liver and excreted via bile in the digestive tract. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate two kinds of bile draining for reducing them. Thirty-eight normal rats were intravenously injected with 131I-Hyp, 24 of which were subjected to the common bile duct (CBD) drainage for gamma counting of collected bile and tissues during 1–6, 7–12, 13–18, and 19–24 h (n = 6 each group), 12 of which were divided into two groups (n = 6 each group) for comparison of the drainage efficiency between CBD catheterization and duodenum intubation by collecting their bile at the first 4 h. Afterwards the 12 rats together with the last two rats which were not drained were scanned via single-photon emission computerized tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) to check the differences. The images showed that almost no intestinal radioactivity can be found in those 12 drained rats while discernible radioactivity in the two undrained rats. The results also indicated that the most of the radioactivity was excreted from the bile within the first 12 h, accounting to 92% within 24 h. The radioactive metabolites in the small and large intestines peaked at 12 h and 18 h, respectively. No differences were found in those two ways of drainages. Thus bile drainage is highly recommended for the patients who were treated by 131I-Hyp if human being and rats have a similar excretion pattern. This strategy can be clinically achieved by using a nasobiliary or nasoduodenal drainage catheter. PMID:25956680

  14. [Clinical evaluation of renoscintigraphy using 123I-orthoiodohippurate--comparison with 131I-OIH and measurement of the effective renal blood flow].

    PubMed

    Ishii, K; Tadokoro, K; Nishimaki, H; Nakazawa, K; Matsubayashi, T; Ishibashi, A; Ishida, H

    1990-01-25

    Renoscintigraphy using 123I-orthoiodohipprate (123I-OIH) was conducted, and the dynamic imaging study results and the renograms were analyzed. The results using 123I-OIH were compared with those using 131I-OIH in 22 of 33 patients. Measurement of the effective renal blood flow (ERBF) was also performed using 123I-OIH by the single blood-sample method. 123I is a more suitable nuclide for gamma-camera scintigraphy than 131I in terms of physical characteristics, and a larger dose of 123I-OIH is possible than 131I-OIH because of its lesser radiation. These are the reasons why clearer dynamic images of the blood flow phase, functional phase and excretion phase can be obtained. These make possible diagnoses associated with the organic changes and functions. No essential differences could be found in the functional study results of renogram between the two drugs because on the nuclide of 131I is replaced by 123I, but a renogram with less statistical noise could be obtained using 123I-OIH than 131I-OIH. The radiation dose of 123I-OIH is less than that of 131I-OHI, and clearer dynamic images and functional indexes can be easily obtained in scintigraphy using 123I-OIH. It is concluded that 123I-OIH is a useful radiopharmaceutical for renal examination, and it should replace 131I-OIH. PMID:2330288

  15. Adrenal metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma documented on post-therapy 131I scan: A case based discussion

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Rohit; Thapa, Pradeep; Basu, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    Adrenal metastasis is an unusual site of disease involvement in the natural course of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). This paper discusses the clinical and imaging features of DTC with adrenal metastasis. An unusual case of unilateral solitary asymptomatic adrenal metastasis in the setting of DTC is described in this report with the imaging features including 131I scintigraphy and Fluorodeoxyglucose- Positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The adrenal metastasis was associated with other sites of metastatic disease involvement and was unidentified on initial pre-treatment evaluation studies. All such suspicious lesions should be further evaluated with clinicoradiological correlation by other imaging modalities. A post-radioiodine therapy scan revealed radioiodine uptake in the thyroid bed, sternum and a focus of intense radioiodine concentration in the left suprarenal region. Spot oblique images and single photon emission computed tomography of the upper abdomen was undertaken to ascertain the position and better characterization of the lesion. A subsequent whole body PET-CT (non-contrast) was done which revealed a well defined 6.5 cm × 5.0 cm left adrenal lesion with a SUVmax (standardized uptake value-maximum) of 9.5 in addition to a fluorodeoxyglucose avid osteolytic sternal lesion. The serum thyroglobulin level was significantly raised (more than 250 ng/mL) with thyroid stimulating hormone being 4.9 μΙU/mL (even following an adequate period of levothyroxine withdrawal), indicating the functioning nature of the metastases. In addition to demonstrating an atypical site of metastatic disease in DTC patients, this case emphasizes the importance of carefully interpreting and correlating a post radio-iodine therapy scan, particularly those with focal abdominal radio-iodine uptake which could aid in detecting metastatic lesions that are not characterized or identified on initial evaluation. The other important feature that can be deciphered from

  16. Effects of internal low-dose irradiation from 131I on gene expression in normal tissues in Balb/c mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the global gene expression response of normal tissues following internal low absorbed dose irradiation of 131I. Methods Balb/c mice were intravenously injected with 13 to 260 kBq of 131I and euthanized 24 h after injection. Kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen were surgically removed. The absorbed dose to the tissues was 0.1 to 9.7 mGy. Total RNA was extracted, and Illumina MouseRef-8 Whole-Genome Expression BeadChips (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, California, USA) were used to compare the gene expression of the irradiated tissues to that of non-irradiated controls. The Benjamini-Hochberg method was used to determine differentially expressed transcripts and control for false discovery rate. Only transcripts with a modulation of 1.5-fold or higher, either positively or negatively regulated, were included in the analysis. Results The number of transcripts affected ranged from 260 in the kidney cortex to 857 in the lungs. The majority of the affected transcripts were specific for the different absorbed doses delivered, and few transcripts were shared between the different tissues investigated. The response of the transcripts affected at all dose levels was generally found to be independent of dose, and only a few transcripts showed increasing or decreasing regulation with increasing absorbed dose. Few biological processes were affected at all absorbed dose levels studied or in all tissues studied. The types of biological processes affected were clearly tissue-dependent. Immune response was the only biological process affected in all tissues, and processes affected in more than three tissues were primarily associated with the response to stimuli and metabolism. Conclusion Despite the low absorbed doses delivered to the tissues investigated, a surprisingly strong response was observed. Affected biological processes were primarily associated with the normal function of the tissues, and only small deviations from the normal

  17. Relationship of serum lipids to adrenal-gland uptake of 6. beta. -(/sup 131/I) iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol in Cushing's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Valk, T.W.; Gross, M.D.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.P.; Schteingart, D.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1980-11-01

    An alteration in serum cholesterol levels has been suggested as a possible modifier of adrenal uptake of the cholesterol analog, 6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59). To assess the effect of hypercholesterolemia upon NP-59 adrenal uptake, patients with Cushing's syndrome (eight with pituitary-dependent, four with ACTH-independent, and two with ectopic-ACTH syndrome) were selected for retrospective analysis based on the availability of serum cholesterol (n = 14) and triglyceride (n = 10) concentrations obtained at the time of adrenal scintigraphy. A negative correlation (r = -0.78, p < 0.01) was found between NP-59 uptake and serum cholesterol levels in patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease. Compared with pituitary-dependent disease, the ectopic-ACTH syndrome and ACTH-independent states demonstrated equal or greater adrenal uptake of NP-59 at similar serum cholesterol concentrations. Serum triglyceride concentrations did not correlate with total adrenal uptake of NP-59 in any of the patient groups studied. Increased serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with diminished adrenal uptake of NP-59, and in some cases may limit the diagnoic efficacy of adrenal scintigraphy in Cushing's syndrome.

  18. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DIRECT MEASUREMENT TO DETERMINE THYROID 131I CONTENT OF TWO TEPCO WORKERS CONSIDERING INDIVIDUAL TISSUE THICKNESS.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences examined seven heavily exposed emergency workers and performed internal dose estimations. The largest dose contributor was found to be (131)I, which was detected by thyroid monitor with an HPGe detector. Different energy peaks from (131)I were simultaneously identified in the pulse-height spectra of the two subjects with the highest doses regardless of late measurements. A closer look at the spectra indicated that the count ratio of the two peak areas at 80.2 and 365 keV differed somewhat between the individual workers, suggesting a difference in attenuation in the overlaying soft tissue and in the thyroid itself. In this study, the relationship between the count ratio (80.2/365 keV) and the thickness of soft tissue overlying the thyroid was investigated by means of numerical simulations performed using the Japanese Male (JM) phantom varying the thickness of the overlaying tissue. From the measured count ratios, it was possible to estimate that the overlaying tissue was thinner for Worker 1 (difference from the JM phantom: -0.34±1.29 cm) and thicker for Worker 2 (diff.: 2.5±1.2 cm). The thyroid (131)I contents evaluated taking into account the individual thicknesses were 4.3 kBq for Worker 1 and 8.4 kBq for Worker 2, resulting in a significant increase for Worker 2 compared with the content based on the default counting efficiency at 365 keV of the original JM phantom. However, the results have large uncertainty factors of 1.4 for Worker 1 and 1.3 for Worker 2 and should be carefully considered together with other factors influencing the attenuation. PMID:26868011

  19. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DIRECT MEASUREMENT TO DETERMINE THYROID 131I CONTENT OF TWO TEPCO WORKERS CONSIDERING INDIVIDUAL TISSUE THICKNESS.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences examined seven heavily exposed emergency workers and performed internal dose estimations. The largest dose contributor was found to be (131)I, which was detected by thyroid monitor with an HPGe detector. Different energy peaks from (131)I were simultaneously identified in the pulse-height spectra of the two subjects with the highest doses regardless of late measurements. A closer look at the spectra indicated that the count ratio of the two peak areas at 80.2 and 365 keV differed somewhat between the individual workers, suggesting a difference in attenuation in the overlaying soft tissue and in the thyroid itself. In this study, the relationship between the count ratio (80.2/365 keV) and the thickness of soft tissue overlying the thyroid was investigated by means of numerical simulations performed using the Japanese Male (JM) phantom varying the thickness of the overlaying tissue. From the measured count ratios, it was possible to estimate that the overlaying tissue was thinner for Worker 1 (difference from the JM phantom: -0.34±1.29 cm) and thicker for Worker 2 (diff.: 2.5±1.2 cm). The thyroid (131)I contents evaluated taking into account the individual thicknesses were 4.3 kBq for Worker 1 and 8.4 kBq for Worker 2, resulting in a significant increase for Worker 2 compared with the content based on the default counting efficiency at 365 keV of the original JM phantom. However, the results have large uncertainty factors of 1.4 for Worker 1 and 1.3 for Worker 2 and should be carefully considered together with other factors influencing the attenuation.

  20. The development of a phantom to determine foetal organ doses from 131I in the foetal thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hare, N.; Murphy, D.; Malone, J. F.

    2000-09-01

    Iodine can accumulate in the foetal thyroid from the twelfth week of gestation onwards. If the iodine taken up by the foetal thyroid is in the form of 131I then the thyroid and its proximal tissues and organs will be irradiated. Several mathematical models exist in the literature on foetal/maternal iodine kinetics. However, very few studies have been performed where the foetal thyroid had been physically modelled thus allowing the determination of foetal organ dosimetry from 131I in the foetal thyroid. Here, the development of such a physical model or phantom is described and dosimetry results obtained from the phantom are discussed. The phantom is of Perspex construction, the dimensions of which are sufficient to incorporate models of the foetus at 16, 24 and 36 weeks' gestational age. The dosimetry of two organs is presented, that of the brain and the thymus. The results show that the measured absorbed dose is comparable with that calculated using modified MIRD dosimetry and traditional methods. The results also show that the dose to the thymus is greater than that of the brain by a factor of almost 30 for 16 weeks' gestational age.

  1. Thyroid tumors following /sup 131/I or localized x irradiation to the thyroid and pituitary glands in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Chiacchierini, R.P.; Shleien, B.; Telles, N.C.

    1982-11-01

    Three thousand 6-week-old female Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to 10 equal treatment groups. Three groups were injected intraperitoneally with 0.48, 1.9, and 5.4 ..mu..Ci of Na /sup 131/I yielding mean thyroid doses of 30, 330, and 850 rad, respectively. Three groups were irradiated with 94, 410, and 1060 rad from localized X ray to the thyroid. One group was irradiated with 410 rad to the pituitary, and another group was given 410 rad to both the thyroid and the pituitary with localized X rays. The remaining two groups of animals were used as separate sham-irradiated controls for the two types of radiation. All the surviving animals were killed 2 years later. Results derived from this study indicate that: (a) The proportion of animals with thyroid carcinoma is similar for /sup 131/I and X irradiation within the dose range of 0-1000 rad. (b) The thryoid carcinoma dose-response functions fitted by the least-squares method are nearly proportional to the square root of the thyroid dose. (c) Thyroid carcinoma induction appears to be independent of the dose rates resulting from the radiations used in this study. (d) A localized X-ray dose of 410 rad to the pituitary, whether the dose was administered concomitantly with thyroid irradiation or without thyroid irradiation, did not modify the risk of thyroid tumor.

  2. Comparative tissue distribution in mice of the alpha-emitter 211At and 131I as labels of a monoclonal antibody and F(ab')2 fragment.

    PubMed

    Garg, P K; Harrison, C L; Zalutsky, M R

    1990-06-15

    Because it decays by the emission of short-range, high-energy alpha-particles, the radiohalogen 211At might be a particularly useful nuclide for some types of radioimmunotherapy. However, no suitable gamma-emitting nuclide of astatine exists which would permit either imaging prior to therapy to obtain radiation dosimetry estimates or performing experiments in paired-label format. Since iodine is the halogen above astatine in the periodic table, we investigated whether the in vivo distribution of 131I could be used to mimic the biodistribution of 211At. In this study, the N-succinimidyl 3-(trialkylstannyl)benzoate method was used to label C110 IgG, an antibody directed against carcinoembryonic antigen, and its (Fab')2 fragment with 211At and 131I. Paired-label experiments were performed in normal mice comparing the tissue distribution of 211At- versus 131I-labeled C110 IgG and F(ab')2 as well as [211At]astatide versus [131I]iodide and m-[211At]astatobenzoic acid versus m-[131I]iodobenzoic acid, potential catabolites of proteins radiohalogenated via the N-succinimidyl 3-(trialkylstannyl)benzoate method. With the exception of thyroid, retention of astatide in tissues was higher than that of iodide; and, with the halobenzoic acids, uptake of 211At was higher than 135I in thyroid, stomach, and spleen. Use of the N-succinimidyl 3-(trialkylstannyl)benzoate method to label C110 IgG with 211At and 131I resulted in similar distributions of the two nuclides. In contrast, loss of 211At from the F(ab')2 fragment was considerably more rapid than 131I, suggesting that different astatination methods may be required for use with F(ab')2 fragments. PMID:2340501

  3. Values of 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile imaging after first-time large-dose 131I therapy in treating differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaomei; Duan, Dong; Zhu, Yuquan; Pang, Hua; Guan, Lili; Lv, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) imaging for evaluating the treatment response of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after the first administration of a high dose of 131I. Methods Patients with DTC who received 131I therapy underwent 99mTc-MIBI imaging after successive increases in the therapeutic dose of 131I, and the serum levels of thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured. Results A total of 191 patients were enrolled in the final analysis, including 65 metastases and/or thyroid remnant-positive patients (22 patients with metastases and 43 patients with thyroid remnants). The sensitivity of 99mTc-MIBI imaging for detecting positive cases and thyroid remnants was 56.9% and 39.5%, respectively, which was significantly lower than that of 131I imaging (92.3% and 100%, respectively, P<0.01 for both). The sensitivity of 99mTc-MIBI imaging for detecting metastases was 90.9%, which was slightly higher than that of 131I imaging (77.3%, P>0.05). The Tg levels in the positive group were significantly higher than that in the negative group (P<0.01). In addition, the Tg levels in the 99mTc-MIBI+/131I− group were significantly higher than that in the 131I+/99mTc-MIBI group (P<0.05). Conclusion After the first 131I therapy, although 99mTc-MIBI imaging was able to detect the existence of metastatic lesions in patients with DTC better, its assessment for the removal efficiency of thyroid remnants was unsatisfactory. The results of 99mTc-MIBI imaging showed good correlations with the Tg level. PMID:26929643

  4. Effective method of measuring the radioactivity of [131I]-capsule prior to radioiodine therapy with significant reduction of the radiation exposure to the medical staff.

    PubMed

    Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Marx, Malies; Imme, Thea; Assam, Isong; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Culman, Juaraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-07-08

    Radiation Protection in Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radio Oncology is of the utmost importance. Radioiodine therapy is a frequently used and effective method for the treatment of thyroid disease. Prior to each therapy the radioactivity of the [131I]-capsule must be determined to prevent misadministration. This leads to a significant radiation exposure to the staff. We describe an alternative method, allowing a considerable reduction of the radiation exposure. Two [131I]-capsules (A01 = 2818.5; A02 = 7355.0 MBq) were measured multiple times in their own delivery lead containers - that is to say, [131I]-capsules remain inside the containers during the measurements (shielded measurement) using a dose calibrator and a well-type and a thyroid uptake probe. The results of the shielded measurements were correlated linearly with the [131I]-capsules radioactivity to create calibration curves for the used devices. Additional radioactivity measurements of 50 [131I]-capsules of different radioactivities were done to validate the shielded measuring method. The personal skin dose rate (HP(0.07)) was determined using calibrated thermo luminescent dosimeters. The determination coefficients for the calibration curves were R2 > 0.9980 for all devices. The relative uncertainty of the shielded measurement was < 6.8%. At a distance of 10 cm from the unshielded capsule the HP(0.07) was 46.18 μSv/(GBq•s), and on the surface of the lead container containing the [131I]-capsule the HP(0.07) was 2.99 and 0.27 μSv/(GBq•s) for the two used container sizes. The calculated reduction of the effective dose by using the shielded measuring method was, depending on the used container size, 74.0% and 97.4%, compared to the measurement of the unshielded [131I]-capsule using a dose calibrator. The measured reduction of the effective radiation dose in the practice was 56.6% and 94.9 for size I and size II containers. The shielded [131I]-capsule measurement reduces the radiation exposure to the

  5. Radioimmunotherapy of human colon cancer xenografts by using {sup 131}I labeled-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ling; Xu Huiyun; Mi Li; Bian Huijie; Qin Jun; Xiong Hua; Feng Qiang; Wen Ning; Tian Rong; Xu Liqing; Shen Xiaomei; Tang Hao; Chen Zhinan . E-mail: znchen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Therapeutic efficacy, suitable dose, and administration times of {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2}, a new monoclonal antibody therapeutics specifically directed against a cell surface-associated glycoprotein of colon cancer, were investigated in this article. Methods and Materials: In human colon cancer xenografts, {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2} at the dose of 125 {mu}Ci, 375 {mu}Ci, and 1125 {mu}Ci were administrated intraperitoneally on Days 6 and 18 after implantation of HR8348 cells with CAb{sub 1} high reactivity. Survival time and tumor growth inhibition rate were used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2} in treatment of colon cancer xenografts. Results: Treatment of 125, 375, and 1125 {mu}Ci {sup 131}I-CAb1 F(ab'){sub 2} did not significantly decrease the mean survival time of nude mice when compared with nontreated groups (p = 0.276, 0.865, 0.582, respectively). Moreover, the mean survival times of nude mice receiving 375 {mu}Ci and 1125 {mu}Ci {sup 131}I-CAb1 F(ab'){sub 2} were significantly longer than that of 5-FU-treated groups (p 0.018 and 0.042). Tumor growth inhibition rates of the first therapy were 35.67% and 41.37%, with corresponding {sup 131}I-labeled antibody dosage of 375 {mu}Ci and 1125 {mu}Ci. After single attack dosage, second reinforcement therapy may rise efficacy significantly. Tumor growth inhibition rates of 125 {mu}Ci, 375 {mu}Ci, and 1125 {mu}Ci {sup 131}I-labeled antibody on Day 20 posttherapy were 42.65%, 56.56%, and 84.41%, respectively. Histopathology examination revealed that tissue necrosis of various degrees was found in {sup 131}I-CAb1 F(ab'){sub 2}-treated groups. Conclusion: {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2} is safe and effective for colon cancer. It may be a novel and potentially adjuvant therapeutics for colon cancer.

  6. Effective method of measuring the radioactivity of [131I]-capsule prior to radioiodine therapy with significant reduction of the radiation exposure to the medical staff.

    PubMed

    Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Marx, Malies; Imme, Thea; Assam, Isong; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Culman, Juaraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radio Oncology is of the utmost importance. Radioiodine therapy is a frequently used and effective method for the treatment of thyroid disease. Prior to each therapy the radioactivity of the [131I]-capsule must be determined to prevent misadministration. This leads to a significant radiation exposure to the staff. We describe an alternative method, allowing a considerable reduction of the radiation exposure. Two [131I]-capsules (A01 = 2818.5; A02 = 7355.0 MBq) were measured multiple times in their own delivery lead containers - that is to say, [131I]-capsules remain inside the containers during the measurements (shielded measurement) using a dose calibrator and a well-type and a thyroid uptake probe. The results of the shielded measurements were correlated linearly with the [131I]-capsules radioactivity to create calibration curves for the used devices. Additional radioactivity measurements of 50 [131I]-capsules of different radioactivities were done to validate the shielded measuring method. The personal skin dose rate (HP(0.07)) was determined using calibrated thermo luminescent dosimeters. The determination coefficients for the calibration curves were R2 > 0.9980 for all devices. The relative uncertainty of the shielded measurement was < 6.8%. At a distance of 10 cm from the unshielded capsule the HP(0.07) was 46.18 μSv/(GBq•s), and on the surface of the lead container containing the [131I]-capsule the HP(0.07) was 2.99 and 0.27 μSv/(GBq•s) for the two used container sizes. The calculated reduction of the effective dose by using the shielded measuring method was, depending on the used container size, 74.0% and 97.4%, compared to the measurement of the unshielded [131I]-capsule using a dose calibrator. The measured reduction of the effective radiation dose in the practice was 56.6% and 94.9 for size I and size II containers. The shielded [131I]-capsule measurement reduces the radiation exposure to the

  7. Unusual Presentation of Bladder Paraganglioma: Comparison of 131I MIBG SPECT/CT and 68Ga DOTANOC PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Basher, Rajender Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Shukla, Jaya; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Extraadrenal chromaffin cell-related tumors or paragangliomas are rare, especially in the bladder, accounting for less than 1% of cases. We report a 16-year-old boy who presented with hematuria and paroxysmal headache and was found to have a prostatic growth infiltrating the urinary bladder on anatomical imaging. Iodine-131 (131I) metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) whole-body scanning and subsequently gallium-68 (68Ga) DOTANOC positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were performed. The MIBG scan revealed a non-tracer-avid soft-tissue mass, while DOTANOC PET/CT revealed a tracer-avid primary soft-tissue mass involving the urinary bladder and prostate with metastasis to the iliac lymph nodes. He underwent surgical management; histopathology of the surgical specimen revealed a bladder paraganglioma, whereas the prostate was found to be free of tumor. PMID:26912984

  8. Association of cisplatin and intra-arterial injection of {sup 131}I-lipiodol in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: Results of phase II trial

    SciTech Connect

    Raoul, Jean-Luc . E-mail: raoul@rennes.fnclcc.fr; Boucher, Eveline; Olivie, Damien; Guillygomarc'h, Anne; Boudjema, Karim; Garin, Etienne

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: Intra-arterial injections of {sup 131}I-lipiodol ({sup 131}I-Lip) provide an effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. In hepatocellular carcinoma cell cultures, concurrent administration of cisplatin increases the cytotoxicity of {sup 131}I. The efficacy and tolerance of intra-arterial injections of {sup 131}I-Lip combined with systemic cisplatin was tested in a phase II trial. Methods and Materials: The inclusion criteria were proven unresectable nonmetastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, compensated liver disease, and adequate laboratory test findings. Treatment comprised the combination of intra-arterial injection of {sup 131}I-Lip (2.2 GBq) with intravenous infusion of low-dose cisplatin. The combined treatment could be repeated. Results: A total of 41 patients were included; 37 had cirrhosis and 38 had measurable tumors. One to four treatments (median, two) were given. The cisplatin dose was 75 mg for the first course and 72 mg for the second. Grade 3-4 (n/n) adverse effects were observed in 14 patients, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (3/0), platelets (5/1), asthenia (1/0), pain (1/0), and vomiting (1/0). Four patients developed pulmonary toxicity; 2 cases were likely related to {sup 131}I-Lip administration and 1 was fatal. The response rate was 47% (18 of 38), and the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 73% {+-} 7% and 48% {+-} 9%, respectively. Conclusion: This combination had a tolerable toxicity profile and provided an objective response rate, warranting a phase III trial.

  9. Tracer kinetics of 15-(ortho-123/131I-phenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (oPPA) and 15-(para-123/131I-phenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (pPPA) in animals and man

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, K.P.; Geuting, B.; Grossmann, K.; Vester, E.; Loesse, B.A.; Antar, M.A.; Machulla, H.J.; Feinendegen, L.E. )

    1990-10-01

    The human myocardium retains oPPA as opposed to pPPA. Therefore turnover of oPPA was compared with that of pPPA in rat hearts and in man, the latter by using substrates double-labeled with 123/131I and 14C. Moreover, substrate binding to coenzyme-A was tested in vitro. In rats, oPPA remained mainly in the pool of free fatty acids, as opposed to pPPA, which was metabolized by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Binding to coenzyme-A at maximum was 62% for oPPA, 81% for pPPA and 90% for palmitic acid. In man, after i.v. and intracoronary injection of double-labeled oPPA, the two radionuclides reappeared together in venous blood and in coronary sinus respectively, in an unchanged ratio but at a significantly lower rate than with pPPA. It can be concluded that oPPA is bound to coenzyme-A and is retained in the cytosolic lipid pool, while pPPA is metabolized by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. A dual-tracer application of oPPA and pPPA has the potential of being a specific probe for the function of the carnitine shuttle.

  10. Assessment of the point-source method for estimating dose rates to members of the public from exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Dewji, Shaheen Azim; Bellamy, Michael B.; Hertel, Nolan E.; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Sherbini, Sami; Saba, Mohammad S.; Eckerman, Keith F.

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated a contract with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate radiation dose rates to members of the public that may result from exposure to patients recently administered iodine-131 (131I) as part of medical therapy. The main purpose was to compare dose rate estimates based on a point source and target with values derived from more realistic simulations that considered the time-dependent distribution of 131I in the patient and attenuation of emitted photons by the patient’s tissues. The external dose rate estimates were derived using Monte Carlo methods and two representations of the Phantommore » with Movable Arms and Legs, previously developed by ORNL and the USNRC, to model the patient and a nearby member of the public. Dose rates to tissues and effective dose rates were calculated for distances ranging from 10 to 300 cm between the phantoms and compared to estimates based on the point-source method, as well as to results of previous studies that estimated exposure from 131I patients. The point-source method overestimates dose rates to members of the public in very close proximity to an 131I patient but is a broadly accurate method of dose rate estimation at separation distances of 300 cm or more at times closer to administration.« less

  11. Determination of X- and gamma-ray emission intensities in the decay of (131)I.

    PubMed

    Lépy, Marie-Christine; Brondeau, Laurine; Bobin, Christophe; Lourenço, Valérie; Thiam, Cheick; Bé, Marie-Martine

    2016-03-01

    The activity per unit mass of an iodine-131 solution was absolutely standardized by both the 4πβ-γ coincidence method and the 4πγ counting technique. The calibrated solution was used to prepare point sources after a preliminary deposit of AgNO3 to prevent the loss of volatile iodine. Relative and absolute photon emission intensities of 15 sgamma-rays and those of the two K X-rays of xenon were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry, with relative uncertainties of 0.8% for the three main emissions.

  12. Estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification*

    PubMed Central

    Willegaignon, José; Pelissoni, Rogério Alexandre; Lima, Beatriz Christine de Godoy Diniz; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Queiroz, Marcelo Araújo; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods Fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of 131I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after 131I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (Teff) and residence time of 131I in the body. Results The mean values for Teff and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the Teff (p = 0.801), residence time (p = 0.801), dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708), and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811), even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after 131I administration (p > 0.914). Conclusion There is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating 131I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is inefficacious in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of 131I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution. PMID:27403014

  13. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to 131I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuko; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Rafalsky, Ruslan; Saiko, Alexsey; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal 131I radiation. The associations between internal 131I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of 131I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs), thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0–5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1) and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2). Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb) positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb) positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively); after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the 131I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320) in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482). On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003), though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26–27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to 131I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid. PMID:27019779

  14. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to (131)I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuko; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Rafalsky, Ruslan; Saiko, Alexsey; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal (131)I radiation. The associations between internal (131)I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of (131)I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs), thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0-5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1) and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2). Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb) positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb) positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively); after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the (131)I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320) in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482). On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003), though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26-27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to (131)I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid. PMID:27019779

  15. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to (131)I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuko; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Rafalsky, Ruslan; Saiko, Alexsey; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal (131)I radiation. The associations between internal (131)I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of (131)I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs), thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0-5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1) and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2). Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb) positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb) positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively); after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the (131)I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320) in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482). On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003), though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26-27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to (131)I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid.

  16. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan: current issues with historical review and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-02-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, (131)I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of "radiophobia". There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements. PMID:22081274

  17. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan: current issues with historical review and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-02-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, (131)I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of "radiophobia". There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements.

  18. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOEpatents

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  19. Unusual False Positive Radioiodine Uptake on (131)I Whole Body Scintigraphy in Three Unrelated Organs with Different Pathologies in Patients of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Rohit; Pawar, Shwetal; Mahajan, Abhishek; Basu, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Three cases with unusual false positive radioiodine uptake in three different organs and pathologies (infective old fibrotic lesion in the lung, simple liver cyst, and benign breast lesion) on iodine-131 ((131)I) whole body scintigraphy. Clinicoradiological correlation was undertaken in all three cases and the pathologies were ascertained. In all the three cases, single-photon emission computerized tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and ancillary imaging modalities were employed and were helpful in arriving at the final diagnosis.

  20. Unusual False Positive Radioiodine Uptake on 131I Whole Body Scintigraphy in Three Unrelated Organs with Different Pathologies in Patients of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Rohit; Pawar, Shwetal; Mahajan, Abhishek; Basu, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Three cases with unusual false positive radioiodine uptake in three different organs and pathologies (infective old fibrotic lesion in the lung, simple liver cyst, and benign breast lesion) on iodine-131 (131I) whole body scintigraphy. Clinicoradiological correlation was undertaken in all three cases and the pathologies were ascertained. In all the three cases, single-photon emission computerized tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and ancillary imaging modalities were employed and were helpful in arriving at the final diagnosis. PMID:27134566

  1. Concentration profiles near an activated enzyme.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyung; Agmon, Noam

    2008-09-25

    When a resting enzyme is activated, substrate concentration profile evolves in its vicinity, ultimately tending to steady state. We use modern theories for many-body effects on diffusion-influenced reactions to derive approximate analytical expressions for the steady-state profile and the Laplace transform of the transient concentration profiles. These show excellent agreement with accurate many-particle Brownian-dynamics simulations for the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The steady-state profile has a hyperbolic dependence on the distance of the substrate from the enzyme, albeit with a prefactor containing the complexity of the many-body effects. These are most conspicuous for the substrate concentration at the surface of the enzyme. It shows an interesting transition as a function of the enzyme turnover rate. When it is high, the contact concentration decays monotonically to steady state. However, for slow turnover it is nonmonotonic, showing a minimum due to reversible substrate binding, then a maximum due to diffusion of new substrate toward the enzyme, and finally decay to steady state. Under certain conditions one can obtain a good estimate for the critical value of the turnover rate constant at the transition.

  2. Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of 211At- and 131I-labelled monoclonal antibody MOv18 in nude mice with intraperitoneal growth of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersson, H; Palm, S; Lindegren, S; Bäck, T; Jacobsson, L; Leser, G; Horvath, G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of the alpha-emitter Astatine-211 with the beta-emitter Iodine-131 bound to the specific monoclonal antibody MOv18. The measurements were performed in an ovarian cancer cell line (NIH:OVCAR 3) growing intraperitoneally in nude mice. Two weeks after the intraperitoneal inoculation of 1 x 10(7) cells of the human ovarian cancer cell line NIH:OVCAR-3 twenty mice were treated intraperitoneally with the specific monoclonal antibody MOv-18 labelled with either 211At (310-400 kBq) or 131I (5100-6200 kBq). The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of labelled antibody in tumour-free animals were studied and the resulting bone marrow dose was estimated. When the mice were treated with 211At-labelled antibody 9 out of 10 mice were free of macro- and microscopic tumour compared to 3 out of 10 when Iodine-131 was used. The equivalent dose to the bone marrow was 2.4-3.1 Sv from 211At- and 3.4-4.1 Sv from 131I-irradiation. The therapeutic efficacy of 211At-labelled specific antibody is very good and, at approximately equivalent bone marrow doses, better than that of 131I. PMID:11299770

  3. Methods For Calculating Thyroid Doses to The Residents Of Ozersk Due to 131I Releases From The Stacks of The Mayak Production Association

    SciTech Connect

    Rovny, Sergey I.; Mokrov, Y.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Beregich, D. A.; Teplyakov, I. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was established in the late 1940s in accordance with a special Decree of the USSR Government for the production of nuclear weapons. In early years of MPA operation, due to the lack of experience and absence of effective methods of RW management, the enterprise had extensive routine (designed) and non-routine (accidental) releases of gaseous radioactive wastes to the atmosphere. These practices resulted in additional technogenic radiation exposure of residents inhabiting populated areas near the MPA. The primary objective of ongoing studies under JCCRER Project 1.4 is to estimate doses to the residents of Ozersk due to releases of radioactive substances from the stacks of MPA. Preliminary scoping studies have demonstrated that releases of radioactive iodine (131I) from the stacks of the Mayak Radiochemical Plant represented the major contribution to the dose to residents of Ozersk and of other nearby populated areas. The behavior of 131I in the environment and of 131I migration through biological food chains (vegetation-cows-milk-humans) indicated a need for use of special mathematical models to perform the estimation of radiation doses to the population. The goal of this work is to select an appropriate model of the iodine migration in biological food chains and to justify numerical values of the model parameters.

  4. Experimental determination of transfer coefficients of sup 137 Cs and sup 131 I from fodder into milk of cows and sheep after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, G.; Mueller, H.P.; Proehl, G.P.; Paretzke, H.G.; Propstmeier, G.; Roehrmoser, G.H.; Hofmann, P. )

    1989-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in April 1986, the transfer of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs from feed to milk was studied under experimental and common agricultural conditions. From measurements in different dairy farms in Southern Bavaria, equilibrium transfer coefficients for cow's milk were calculated to be 0.003 d L-1 (range 0.0015 to 0.005) for {sup 131}I and 0.003 d L-1 (range 0.0025 to 0.004) for {sup 137}Cs. In feeding experiments with cows and sheep under more controlled conditions, milk transfer coefficients of 0.007 d L-1 (range 0.0055 to 0.0081) for {sup 131}I and 0.003 d L-1 (range 0.0023 to 0.0053) for {sup 137}Cs were obtained for cows, while for sheep the {sup 137}Cs transfer coefficient was higher: 0.06 d L-1. The kinetics of the Cs transfer from fodder to cow's milk can be described by two exponential terms assuming biological half-lives in milk of 1-2 d and 10-20 d. The use of a fast component with 1.5 d and a fraction of 0.8, and a slow component with 15 d, gives a good approximation to the kinetics for all cows in this experiment.

  5. Concentration and temperature effects on ovostatin activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriarity, Debra M.

    1994-01-01

    Light scattering experiments performed at Mississippi State University using MSFC ovostatin preparations indicated that at low ovostatin concentrations, below 0.2 mg/ml, the protein was dissociating from a tetramer into dimers. Since the proposed mechanism of action involved the tetrameric form of the protein, we hypothesized that perhaps under the conditions of our assays at various O/T ratios the ovostatin was becoming dissociated into an inactive dimer. To examine this possibility we assayed the ovostatin activity as a function of ovostatin concentration and of temperature of the assay. Data are presented that show the results of these assays at 23 C, 30 C, 37 C and 42 C respectively. The data are highly suggestive that there is a decrease in ovostatin activity as the concentration of the protein falls below 0.06 mg/ml. This may not be of any physiological importance, however, since the concentration of ovostatin in the egg is about 0.5 mg/ml. Curiously, the dissociation of the tetramer into dimers does not show a significant temperature dependence as would be expected for an equilibrium reaction. Whether this is in fact the case, or whether the differences are so small as to not be discerned from the current data remains to be seen. Another aspect to consider is that in the egg the primary role of the ovostatin may or may not be as a protease inhibitor. Although the inhibition of collagenase by ovostatin may be an important aspect of embryogenesis, it is also possible that it functions as a binding protein for some substance. In this regard, all ovostatin preparations from MSFC have shown an approximately 88,000 MW protein associated with the ovostatin. The identity of this protein is not currently known and may be the subject of future studies.

  6. In vivo Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide (131I) Therapy of Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells Transfected with a Lentivirus Expressing Sodium Iodide Symporter

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shuo; Zhang, Min; Guo, Rui; Miao, Ying; Hu, Jiajia; Xi, Yun; Li, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite recent improvements in the survival rates for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), novel treatment strategies are required to improve distant metastasis-free survival. The sodium iodine symporter (NIS) gene has been applied for in vivo imaging and cancer therapy. In this study, we examined the potential of NIS gene therapy as a therapeutic approach in NPC by performing non-invasive imaging using 125I and 131I therapy in vivo. Methods We constructed a lentiviral vector expressing NIS and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the human elongation factor-1α (EF1α) promoter, and stably transfected the vector into CNE-2Z NPC cells to create CNE-2Z-NIS cells. CNE-2Z and CNE-2Z-NIS tumor xenografts were established in nude mice; 125I uptake, accumulation and efflux were measured using micro-SPECT/CT imaging; the therapeutic effects of treatment with 131I were assessed over 25 days by measuring tumor volume and immunohistochemical staining of the excised tumors. Results qPCR, immunofluorescence and Western blotting confirmed that CNE-2Z-NIS cells expressed high levels of NIS mRNA and protein. CNE-2Z-NIS cells and xenografts took up and accumulated significantly more 125I than CNE-2Z cells and xenografts. In vitro, 131I significantly reduced the clonogenic survival of CNE-2Z-NIS cells. In vivo, 131I effectively inhibited the growth of CNE-2Z-NIS xenografts. At the end of 131I therapy, CNE-2Z-NIS xenograft tumor cells expressed higher levels of NIS and caspase-3 and lower levels of Ki-67. Conclusion Lentiviruses effectively delivered and mediated long-lasting expression of NIS in CNE-2Z cells which enabled uptake and accumulation of radioisotopes and provided a significant therapeutic effect in an in vivo model of NPC. NIS-mediated radioiodine treatment merits further investigation as a potentially effective, low toxicity therapeutic strategy for NPC. PMID:25621996

  7. Is it practical and cost effective to detect differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases by (18)F-FDG PET/CT, by (18)F-FDG SPET/CT or by (131)I SPET/CT?

    PubMed

    He, Xinjia; Wang, Xucai; Yu, Jinming; Ma, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Fluorine-18-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) plays an important role in detecting differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) metastases with elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) and negative radioiodine ((131)I) uptake. In conclusion, (18)F-FDG PET/CT may fail to detect all DTC metastases, while (131)I WBS combined with (131)I SPET/CT may be a better cheaper and diagnostic tool as suggested by the case we presented here. Positive metastases in both (131)I and (18)F-FDG SPET/CT may indicate worse prognosis. Future research may add more evidence as to which is the best diagnostic imaging modality and relate it to the molecular mechanism of the uptake of the radionuclide used.

  8. A combination hepatoma-targeted therapy based on nanotechnology: pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Combination targeted therapy is a promising cancer therapeutic strategy. Here, using PEI-Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (PEI-MZF-NPs) as magnetic media for MFH (magnetic fluid hyperthermia) and gene transfer vector for gene-therapy, a combined therapy, pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH, for hepatoma is developed. AntiAFPMcAb (Monoclonal antibody AFP) is exploited for targeting. The plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are achieved by incorporation of pEgr1-HSV-TK and pHRE-Egr1-EGFP. Restriction enzyme digestion and PCR confirm the recombinant plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are successfully constructed. After exposure to the magnetic field, PEI-MZF-NPs/pHRE-Egr1-EGFP fluid is warmed rapidly and then the temperature is maintained at 43 °C or so, which is quite appropriate for cancer treatment. The gene expression reaches the peak when treated with 200 μCi 131I for 24 hours, indicating that the dose of 200 μCi might be the optimal dose for irradiation and 24 h irradiation later is the best time to initiate MFH. The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH can greatly suppress hepatic tumor cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis and necrosis and effectively inhibit the tumor growth, much better than any monotherapy does alone. Furthermore, the combination therapy has few or no adverse effects. It might be applicable as a strategy to treat hepatic cancer. PMID:27642033

  9. A combination hepatoma-targeted therapy based on nanotechnology: pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-09-01

    Combination targeted therapy is a promising cancer therapeutic strategy. Here, using PEI-Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (PEI-MZF-NPs) as magnetic media for MFH (magnetic fluid hyperthermia) and gene transfer vector for gene-therapy, a combined therapy, pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH, for hepatoma is developed. AntiAFPMcAb (Monoclonal antibody AFP) is exploited for targeting. The plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are achieved by incorporation of pEgr1-HSV-TK and pHRE-Egr1-EGFP. Restriction enzyme digestion and PCR confirm the recombinant plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are successfully constructed. After exposure to the magnetic field, PEI-MZF-NPs/pHRE-Egr1-EGFP fluid is warmed rapidly and then the temperature is maintained at 43 °C or so, which is quite appropriate for cancer treatment. The gene expression reaches the peak when treated with 200 μCi 131I for 24 hours, indicating that the dose of 200 μCi might be the optimal dose for irradiation and 24 h irradiation later is the best time to initiate MFH. The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH can greatly suppress hepatic tumor cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis and necrosis and effectively inhibit the tumor growth, much better than any monotherapy does alone. Furthermore, the combination therapy has few or no adverse effects. It might be applicable as a strategy to treat hepatic cancer.

  10. Treatment of neuroblastoma stage 4 with 131I-meta-iodo-benzylguanidine, high-dose chemotherapy and immunotherapy. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Klingebiel, T; Bader, P; Bares, R; Beck, J; Hero, B; Jürgens, H; Lang, P; Niethammer, D; Rath, B; Handgretinger, R

    1998-08-01

    Disseminated neuroblastoma after infancy has a prognosis of approximately 10-20% with conventional therapy. We investigated the role of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) rescue in combination with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ([131I-m]IBG). 11 children with neuroblastoma stage 4 were pretreated within the German Neuroblastoma Trial NB90 and included in a high-dose concept for consolidation. Remission was documented by ultrasound, CT, NMR, or [123I-m]IBG scanning. HDCT was a combination of melphalan (180 mg/m2), carboplatin (1,500 mg/m2) and etoposide (40 mg/kg). All children were treated by [131I-m]IBG (0.58 GBq/kg) prior to high-dose treatment. All 11 children were additionally treated with antiGD2 murine- or chimeric-antibody (ch14.18). 4 children had no change to their remission status but three achieved a complete response (from a partial response to first line) and one a partial response (from no response to first line). The other 3 children progressed, 2 dying of their disease. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the probability of progression-free survival was 0.70 +/- 0.15 with a median observation time of 19 months. 9/11 children are alive, 8 without progression or relapse, whilst 2 have died of their disease. The combination of mIBG plus high-dose chemotherapy with PBSC support supplemented by immunotherapy with antiGD2 antibody appears to be a feasible and effective treatment regimen for disseminated neuroblastoma in this limited series. Larger numbers of patients should be treated to confirm these results.

  11. A combination hepatoma-targeted therapy based on nanotechnology: pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/(131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Combination targeted therapy is a promising cancer therapeutic strategy. Here, using PEI-Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (PEI-MZF-NPs) as magnetic media for MFH (magnetic fluid hyperthermia) and gene transfer vector for gene-therapy, a combined therapy, pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/(131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH, for hepatoma is developed. AntiAFPMcAb (Monoclonal antibody AFP) is exploited for targeting. The plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are achieved by incorporation of pEgr1-HSV-TK and pHRE-Egr1-EGFP. Restriction enzyme digestion and PCR confirm the recombinant plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are successfully constructed. After exposure to the magnetic field, PEI-MZF-NPs/pHRE-Egr1-EGFP fluid is warmed rapidly and then the temperature is maintained at 43 °C or so, which is quite appropriate for cancer treatment. The gene expression reaches the peak when treated with 200 μCi (131)I for 24 hours, indicating that the dose of 200 μCi might be the optimal dose for irradiation and 24 h irradiation later is the best time to initiate MFH. The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/(131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH can greatly suppress hepatic tumor cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis and necrosis and effectively inhibit the tumor growth, much better than any monotherapy does alone. Furthermore, the combination therapy has few or no adverse effects. It might be applicable as a strategy to treat hepatic cancer.

  12. A combination hepatoma-targeted therapy based on nanotechnology: pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/(131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Combination targeted therapy is a promising cancer therapeutic strategy. Here, using PEI-Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (PEI-MZF-NPs) as magnetic media for MFH (magnetic fluid hyperthermia) and gene transfer vector for gene-therapy, a combined therapy, pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/(131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH, for hepatoma is developed. AntiAFPMcAb (Monoclonal antibody AFP) is exploited for targeting. The plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are achieved by incorporation of pEgr1-HSV-TK and pHRE-Egr1-EGFP. Restriction enzyme digestion and PCR confirm the recombinant plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are successfully constructed. After exposure to the magnetic field, PEI-MZF-NPs/pHRE-Egr1-EGFP fluid is warmed rapidly and then the temperature is maintained at 43 °C or so, which is quite appropriate for cancer treatment. The gene expression reaches the peak when treated with 200 μCi (131)I for 24 hours, indicating that the dose of 200 μCi might be the optimal dose for irradiation and 24 h irradiation later is the best time to initiate MFH. The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/(131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH can greatly suppress hepatic tumor cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis and necrosis and effectively inhibit the tumor growth, much better than any monotherapy does alone. Furthermore, the combination therapy has few or no adverse effects. It might be applicable as a strategy to treat hepatic cancer. PMID:27642033

  13. 131I-Anti-CD45 Antibody Plus Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide before Allogeneic Hematophoietic Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Remission

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Eary, Janet F.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, Ted; Ruffner, Katherine; Nemecek, Eneida; Sickle, Eileen; Durack, Larry; Carreras, Jeanette; Horowitz, Mary; Press, Oliver W.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, Paul J.; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Matthews, Dana C.

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to improve outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we conducted a Phase I/II study in which targeted irradiation delivered by 131I-anti-CD45 antibody was combined with targeted busulfan (BU; area-under-curve, 600-900 ng/ml) and cyclophosphamide (CY; 120 mg/kg). Fifty-two of 59 patients (88%) receiving a trace 131I-labeled dose of 0.5 mg/kg anti-CD45 murine antibody had higher estimated absorbed radiation in bone marrow and spleen than in any other organ. Forty-six patients were treated with 102-298 mCi 131I delivering an estimated 5.3-19 (mean 11.3) Gy to marrow, 17-72 (mean 29.7) Gy to spleen, and 3.5 Gy (n=4) to 5.25 Gy (n=42) to the liver. The estimated 3-year non-relapse mortality and disease-free survival (DFS) were 21% and 61%, respectively. These results were compared to those from 509 similar International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry patients transplanted using BU/CY alone. After adjusting for differences in age and cytogenetics-risk, the hazard of mortality among all antibody-treated patients was 0.65 times that of the Registry patients (95% CI 0.39-1.08; p=.09). The addition of targeted hematopoietic irradiation to conventional BU/CY is feasible and well tolerated, and Phase II results are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further study.

  14. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I measured after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-11-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. The removal time of 131I is longer due to the aerosol production from gaseous 131I, thus the removal time for 137Cs serves as a better estimate for aerosol lifetime. The removal time of 131I is of interest for semi-volatile species. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols

  15. Strong Neck Accumulation of 131I Is a Predictor of Incomplete Low-Dose Radioiodine Remnant Ablation Using Recombinant Human Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Keisuke; Sakata, Yoshiharu; Izumi, Kazuyuki; Takenaka, Yukinori; Nagai, Miki; Takeda, Kazuya; Enomoto, Yukie; Uno, Atsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that predict incomplete low-dose radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) and to report the adverse events associated with this treatment. Between 2012 and 2014, 43 consecutive patients with thyroid cancer received low-dose RRA with rhTSH after total thyroidectomy. We retrospectively investigated the adverse events during low-dose RRA and during diagnostic whole body scan (DxWBS) using rhTSH, and analyzed the rate of RRA completion and the associations between RRA completion and various clinical/pathological factors. Complete RRA was seen in 33 (76.7%) patients, and incomplete RRA was observed in 10 (23.3%). Patients with incomplete RRA had stronger neck accumulation of 131I than those with complete RRA (P < 0.001). Adverse events at RRA and DxWBS were seen in 12 and 9 patients, respectively. All events at RRA were grade 1, with one exception (grade 2 vertigo after rhTSH administration). The rate of adverse events at DxWBS was significantly higher in patients with adverse events seen at RRA (risk ratio, 3.778, P = 0.008). Strong neck accumulation of 131I is significant independent predictor of incomplete low-dose RRA. The risk of adverse events at DxWBS was higher in patients who experienced adverse events at RRA than in those who did not. PMID:26426611

  16. [Treatment with (131)I of thyroid remnants in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma and end-stage chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Andres, A; Tardín, L; Santapau, A; Razola, P; Prats, E; Parra, A; Rivas, M A; Ruiz, P; Alvarez, R; Camara, A; Banzo, J

    2010-01-01

    The follow-up and treatment of thyroid cancer presents several aspects subject to discussion, such as its management in patients with End-Stage Renal Failure (ESRF). We present a patient with ESRF and papillary thyroid carcinoma, which had to be coordinated among different departments (Endocrinology, Nuclear Medicine, Nephrology and Physics and Radiation Protection). Both the diagnostic scintigraphy with (123)I and the ablative treatment with (131)I performed later were performed with the administration of rh TSH. The room in which the metabolic therapy was to be performed was prepared for the patient's periodic hemodialysis. The (131)I dose used was 80% of the usual dose. This made it possible to assure the therapeutic effect and that the patient's stay in hospital would only be for 5 days. Throughout the whole diagnostic and therapeutic process, no adverse effects attributable to rh TSH or radioiodine were observed. The coordination among the departments involved enabled an effective and safe process for the patient. PMID:20018412

  17. The standardization methods of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc, and 18F) for calibrating nuclear medicine equipment in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurdiyanto, G.; Candra, H.

    2016-03-01

    The standardization of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F) to calibrate the nuclear medicine equipment had been carried out in PTKMR-BATAN. This is necessary because the radioactive sources used in the field of nuclear medicine has a very short half-life in other that to obtain a quality measurement results require special treatment. Besides that, the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Indonesia develop rapidly. All the radioactive sources were prepared by gravimetric methods. Standardization of 125I has been carried out by photon- photon coincidence methods, while the others have been carried out by gamma spectrometry methods. The standar sources are used to calibrate a Capintec CRC-7BT radionuclide calibrator. The results shows that calibration factor for Capintec CRC-7BT dose calibrator is 1,03; 1,02; 1,06; and 1,04 for 125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F respectively, by about 5 to 6% of the expanded uncertainties.

  18. Radioimmunotherapy of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts with 131I-labelled monoclonal antibody E48 IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Gerretsen, M.; Schrijvers, A. H.; van Walsum, M.; Braakhuis, B. J.; Quak, J. J.; Meijer, C. J.; Snow, G. B.; van Dongen, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) E48 reacts with a 22 kD antigen exclusively expressed in squamous and transitional epithelia and their neoplastic counterparts. Radiolabelled with 99mTc, MAb E48 is capable of targeting metastatic and recurrent disease in patients with head and neck cancer. In this study, the capacity of 131I-labelled MAb E48 to eradicate xenografts of human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) in nude mice was examined. Experimental groups received a single i.v. bolus injection of 400 microCi MAb E48 IgG (number of mice (n = 6, number of tumours (t) = 9) or 800 microCi MAb E48 IgG (n) = 5,t = 7), whereas control groups received either diluent (n = 3,t = 5), unlabelled MAb E48 IgG (n = 4,t = 5) or 800 microCi 131I-labelled isotype-matched control MAb (n = 6,t = 9). A 4.1-fold increase in the median tumour volume doubling time and regression of two out of ten tumours (20%) was observed in mice treated with 400 microCi. In mice treated with 800 microCi. In mice treated with 800 microCi, two out of seven tumours (29%) showed complete remission without regrowth during follow-up (greater than 3 months). Median tumour volume doubling time in the remaining five tumours was increased 7.8-fold. No antitumour effects were observed in mice injected with diluent, unlabelled MAb E48 or 131I-labelled control MAb. In the same xenograft model, chemotherapy with doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, bleomycin, methotrexate or 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine yielded a less profound effect on tumour volume doubling time. Increases in tumour volume doubling time with these chemotherapeutic agents were 4, 2.2, 2.1, 1.7, 0, and 2.6 respectively. Moreover, no cures were observed with any of these chemotherapeutic agents. From the tissue distribution of 800 microCi MAb E48, the absorbed cumulative radiation doses of tumour and various organs were calculated using the trapezoid integration method for the area under the curve. To tumour xenografts, 12,170 cGy was

  19. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gómez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-01

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 ± 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 ± 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 ± 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  20. A dynamic model to estimate the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of marine biota as consequences of a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Keum, Dong-Kwon; Jun, In; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a dynamic compartment model (K-BIOTA-DYN-M) to assess the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of marine biota as a result of a nuclear accident. The model considers the transport of radioactivity between the marine biota through the food chain, and applies the first order kinetic model for the sedimentation of radionuclides from seawater onto sediment. A set of ordinary differential equations representing the model are simultaneously solved to calculate the activity concentration of the biota and the sediment, and subsequently the dose rates, given the seawater activity concentration. The model was applied to investigate the long-term effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the marine biota using (131)I, (134)Cs, and, (137)Cs activity concentrations of seawater measured for up to about 2.5 years after the accident at two locations in the port of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) which was the most highly contaminated area. The predicted results showed that the accumulated dose for 3 months after the accident was about 4-4.5Gy, indicating the possibility of occurrence of an acute radiation effect in the early phase after the Fukushima accident; however, the total dose rate for most organisms studied was usually below the UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation)'s bench mark level for chronic exposure except for the initial phase of the accident, suggesting a very limited radiological effect on the marine biota at the population level. The predicted Cs sediment activity by the first-order kinetic model for the sedimentation was in a good agreement with the measured activity concentration. By varying the ecological parameter values, the present model was able to predict the very scattered (137)Cs activity concentrations of fishes measured in the port of FDNPS. Conclusively, the present dynamic model can be usefully applied to estimate the activity concentration and whole

  1. Determination of (129)I and (127)I concentration in soil samples from the Chernobyl 30-km zone by AMS and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Rühm, Werner

    2009-07-01

    A large amount of radioiodine isotopes (mainly (131)I, t(1/2) = 8 days) was released from the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) in April-May 1986. An increase in childhood-thyroid cancer in the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine was demonstrated to be caused by radioiodine released at the time of the accident. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the (131)I levels in the local environment (e.g. air, plant, soil). At this point, a long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (t(1/2) = 15.7 million years), also released with a certain ratio to (131)I from CNPP, could be used for estimating the (131)I levels in the environment. In this paper we present analytical results of the (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in soil samples collected from the CNPP exclusion zone (30-km zone), with the aim of assessing current contamination levels and distribution patterns. For the analysis of the iodine fraction in the investigated soil samples, the pyrohydrolysis method was utilized for separation of (127)I and (129)I nuclides, and subsequently their concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), respectively. The concentration of (129)I and the (129)I/(127)I atom ratio in the surface soil samples in the 30 km-zone of CNPP ranged from 4.6 to 170 mBq/kg, and from 1.4 x 10(-6) to 13 x 10(-6), respectively. These values are significantly higher than those from global (129)I fallout, indicating that most of the measured (129)I was due to the deposition of the accident. Stable iodine concentrations in this area were found to be very low (below 1 ppm) for most of the samples, suggesting the environmental iodine levels in this area to be potentially low. The (129)I/(137)Cs activity ratio in surface and sub-surface soils was not so constant, i.e., in the range (7.3-20.2) x 10(-7). This might be due to the different behavior of deposition and/or migration

  2. Determination of (129)I and (127)I concentration in soil samples from the Chernobyl 30-km zone by AMS and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Rühm, Werner

    2009-07-01

    A large amount of radioiodine isotopes (mainly (131)I, t(1/2) = 8 days) was released from the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) in April-May 1986. An increase in childhood-thyroid cancer in the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine was demonstrated to be caused by radioiodine released at the time of the accident. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the (131)I levels in the local environment (e.g. air, plant, soil). At this point, a long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (t(1/2) = 15.7 million years), also released with a certain ratio to (131)I from CNPP, could be used for estimating the (131)I levels in the environment. In this paper we present analytical results of the (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in soil samples collected from the CNPP exclusion zone (30-km zone), with the aim of assessing current contamination levels and distribution patterns. For the analysis of the iodine fraction in the investigated soil samples, the pyrohydrolysis method was utilized for separation of (127)I and (129)I nuclides, and subsequently their concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), respectively. The concentration of (129)I and the (129)I/(127)I atom ratio in the surface soil samples in the 30 km-zone of CNPP ranged from 4.6 to 170 mBq/kg, and from 1.4 x 10(-6) to 13 x 10(-6), respectively. These values are significantly higher than those from global (129)I fallout, indicating that most of the measured (129)I was due to the deposition of the accident. Stable iodine concentrations in this area were found to be very low (below 1 ppm) for most of the samples, suggesting the environmental iodine levels in this area to be potentially low. The (129)I/(137)Cs activity ratio in surface and sub-surface soils was not so constant, i.e., in the range (7.3-20.2) x 10(-7). This might be due to the different behavior of deposition and/or migration

  3. Representative Doses to Members of the Public from Atmospheric Releases of 131I at the Mayak Production Association Facilities from 1948 through 1972

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Napier, Bruce A.; Anspaugh, Lynn R.

    2014-04-03

    Scoping epidemiologic studies performed by researchers from the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute revealed an excess prevalence of thyroid nodules and an increased incidence of thyroid cancer among residents of Ozersk, Russia, who were born in the early 1950s. Ozersk is located about 5 km from the facilities where the Mayak Production Association produced nuclear materials for the Russian weapons program. Reactor operations began in June 1948 and chemical separation of plutonium from irradiated fuel began in February 1949. The U.S.–Russia Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research conducted a series of projects over a 10-year period to assess the radiation risks in the Southern Urals. This paper uses data collected under Committee projects to reconstruct individual time-dependent thyroid doses to reference individuals living in Ozersk from 131I released to the atmosphere. Between 3.22×1016 and 4.31×1016 Bq of 131I released may have been released during the 1948–1972 time period, and a best estimate is 3.76×1016 Bq. A child born in 1947 is estimated to have received a cumulative thyroid dose of 2.3 Gy for 1948–1972, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.51–7.3 Gy. Annual doses were the highest in 1949 and a child who was 5 years old in 1949 is estimated to have a received an annual thyroid dose of 0.93 Gy with a 95% confidence interval of 0.19–3.5 Gy.

  4. Analysis of the uncertainties associated with the age-dependent thyroid doses and risk of thyroid cancer due to exposure to {sup 131}I

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.; Apostoaei, A.I.; Nair, S.K.

    1996-06-01

    Effects on the thyroid gland due to exposure to {sup 131}I are currently of interest for ongoing retrospective studies of historical releases in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington. Most of the work to date has been limited to dose estimation. This work focuses on estimating both dose and risk of thyroid cancer to an exposed individual. The age-dependent thyroid dose is calculated using a standard metabolic model for iodine. Updated information on thyroid mass from measurements using modem ultrasound techniques was used. The age-dependent risk is calculated using a linear excess relative risk model. An analysis of uncertainties in dose and risk estimates was performed for an individual in a population characterized by the mass of thyroid, by the iodine metabolic parameters, by the background incidence of thyroid cancer and by the excess relative risk per Gy of absorbed dose. The uncertainty analysis was performed using Monte-Carlo simulation, by considering the age-dependent parameters as random functions. The correlation between the metabolic age-dependent parameters was considered explicitly. Special attention is given to a modifying factor that accounts for the effectiveness of {sup 131}I in inducing thyroid cancer as compared to gamma irradiation, for which most of the excess risk factors are derived. This factor is based on review of recent literature and on informal interviews with outside experts, and thus, the expressed uncertainty is subjective in nature. The paper summarizes the age-dependent dose conversion factors (Sv Bq{sup -1}) and slope factors (risk Bq{sup -1}) as well as the uncertainty associated with them. An analysis that identifies the parameters of dominant importance by their contributions to the overall uncertainty is also included.

  5. Prevalence of Hyponatremia in Hypothyroid Patients during Radioactive 131I Ablation for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Single Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Cunanan, Elaine C.; Kho, Sjoberg A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia developing in hypothyroid patients has been encountered in clinical practice; however, its prevalence has not been well established. Methods Thirty patients diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer, rendered hypothyroid after surgery and levothyroxine withdrawal, and who are for radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation were included. Serum sodium concentrations were measured twice, at the time of admission for RAI ablation, and before discharge after increased oral fluid intake. The outcome measures were to determine the prevalence of hyponatremia among hypothyroid patients prior to RAI ablation and after oral hydration post-RAI, and to correlate the serum sodium levels pre-RAI and post-RAI with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration and age. Results Thirty patients were included, with ages from 23 to 65 years old (median, 40). Two patients (6.7%) were hyponatremic prior to RAI ablation, and eight patients (26.7%) had mild hyponatremia (130 to 134 mEq/L) after RAI and hydration. There was no significant correlation between TSH levels and serum sodium levels prior to or after RAI. There was also no significant correlation between pre- and post-RAI sodium concentration and age. Conclusions The prevalence of hyponatremia pre-RAI was 6.7%, and 26.7% post-RAI. No significant correlation was noted between TSH concentration and age on pre- or post-RAI sodium concentrations. Routine measurement of serum sodium post-RAI/isolation is still not advised. Measurement of sodium post-RAI may be considered in patients who are elderly, with comorbid conditions or on medications. PMID:27546873

  6. Calculating isotope concentrations using different schemes of dispersion parameters.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, M; Essa, Khaled S M; Embaby, M; Elsaid, Sawsan E M

    2013-09-01

    The investigated work aims to calculate the concentration of different isotopes through short downwind distances. A theoretical model was designed to calculate the isotope concentration in the wind. The mathematical calculation depends on wind speed, decay distance and the dilution factor to get the concentration of isotopes ((131)I, (133)I, (135)I and (137)Cs) detected in wind at different distances from a nuclear power station. There is a good agreement between the calculated and observed concentrations of (131)I, (133)I, (135)I and (137)Cs.

  7. Determination of concentration and activity of immobilized enzymes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Morris, Holly; Tivanski, Alexei V; Kohen, Amnon

    2015-09-01

    Methods that directly measure the concentration of surface-immobilized biomolecules are scarce. More commonly, the concentration of the soluble molecule is measured before and after immobilization, and the bound concentration is assessed by elimination, assuming that all bound molecules are active. An assay was developed for measuring the active site concentration, activity, and thereby the catalytic turnover rate (kcat) of an immobilized dihydrofolate reductase as a model system. The new method yielded a similar first-order rate constant, kcat, to that of the same enzyme in solution. The findings indicate that the activity of the immobilized enzyme, when separated from the surface by the DNA spacers, has not been altered. In addition, a new immobilization method that leads to solution-like activity of the enzyme on the surface is described. The approaches developed here for immobilization and for determining the concentration of an immobilized enzyme are general and can be extended to other enzymes, receptors, and antibodies.

  8. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I during the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-05-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of AM aerosols originating from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols obtained from aerosol models, typically in the range of 3-7 days, warrants further research on the cause of this discrepancy. Too short modeled AM aerosol lifetimes would have serious implications for air quality and climate model predictions.

  9. Licensee over-reliance on conservatisms in NRC guidance regarding the release of patients treated with 131I.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jeffry A; Marcus, Carol S; Stabin, Michael G

    2007-12-01

    Medical licensees are required to comply with U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations pertaining to the release of patients administered radioactive material. However, use of the associated NRC guidance expressed in NUREG-1556, Volume 9, is completely optional and has been shown to be overly conservative. Rigid adherence to the guidance recommendations has placed an undue burden on nuclear medicine therapy patients and their families, as well as licensees responsible for ensuring compliance with NRC requirements. More realistic guidance has been published by other responsible professional societies and will be presented in this work. These more realistic calculations allow for higher releasable activity levels than the widely adopted NUREG levels, particularly for thyroid cancer patients. The guidance-suggested releasable activity limit is similar to our calculational result for hyperthyroid patients, 2.1 GBq (57 mCi) compared to 2.3 GBq (62 mCi), but is significantly lower for thyroid cancer patients, 6.6 GBq (179 mCi) vs. 16.9 GBq (457 mCi) using the regulatory definition of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). Higher limits are both possible and reasonable, if the permissible extra-regulatory definition of the TEDE is used in which the effective dose equivalent (EDE), rather than the deep-dose equivalent (DDE), is determined. We maintain that professionals evaluating compliance with the NRC requirements for patient release, pursuant to 10 CFR 35.75, should use the procedures presented here and not rely automatically on the NUREG. PMID:17993847

  10. Intense iodine activity caused by mosquito bite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Tilak, Gauri; Edwards, Kevin; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-11-01

    A 12-year-old girl with a history of papillary thyroid cancer underwent radioiodine remnant ablation using (131)I. Posttherapy whole-body (131)I scintigraphy revealed not only the known activity in the neck but also increased activity in the superficial posterior right upper thigh. On further clinical evaluation, the patient was found to have a mosquito bite with surrounding hyperemia at the site of the abnormal activity.

  11. Whole-body clearance kinetics and external dosimetry of 131I-3F8 monoclonal antibody for radioimmunotherapy of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Lawrence T; St Germain, Jean; Williamson, Matthew J; Zanzonico, Pat; Modak, Shakeel; Cheung, Nai-Kong; Divgi, Chaitanya

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the whole-body clearance kinetics of I-3F8 monoclonal antibody, an anti-ganglioside 2 antibody, used in the treatment of pediatric patients with late-stage neuroblastoma (NB). Serial whole-body dose rate measurements were obtained on pediatric patients participating in phase I dose escalation studies of therapeutic I-3F8. Whole-body retention fractions were derived and fit for each treatment to exponential curves to determine both the effective half-lives and corresponding clearance fractions. 27 patients were administered I-3F8 over the course of cyclical administrations with a median administered activity of 2.5 GBq (range, 1-8.14 GBq), typically every 2-4 d for up to 9 treatment cycles. Based on whole-body dose rate measurements, there was a large variability in the calculated mono-exponential clearance effective half-life time, with a mean of 26.4 h (range, 12.4-45.5 h). The data from a subset of 12 treatments were fit to a bi-exponential curve with a rapid clearance component mean effective half-time of 16.9 h (range, 4.3-26 h) and a slower clearance component mean effective half-time of 65.5 h (range, 16.9-136 h). The use of whole-body dose rate measurements, obtained for patient-release and other radiation safety considerations, can be useful in estimating whole-body clearance kinetics for photon emitting radionuclide labeled mAbs and other therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. In the case of I-3F8 for pediatric NB therapy, the demonstrated variability in effective half-time suggests the need for patient-specific tracer dosimetry for both optimization of treatment and radiation safety precaution decision-making.

  12. Effects of obstruction on single-kidney function: clinical and experimental results with 131I-hippurate and 99mTc-DMSA.

    PubMed

    Moser, E; Jocham, D; Beer, M; Büll, U

    1980-12-01

    In 35 patients, renography with 131I-o-hippurate (OIH) and static renal imaging with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were used to measure differential renal function (DRF). The results were compared. Depth correction was applied in both methods. In non-obstructed kidneys (19 patients), both methods revealed nearly identical kidney function (r = 0.98). For completely obstructed kidneys (16 patients), OIH gave a significantly better DRF (14 ml/min) than DMSA. This small difference was of no clinical value. Because DMSA is reported to give unreliable results in unilateral obstructed kidneys, the right ureter was ligated in 8 dogs for 10 days and DRF was measured before and after opening an ureteral fistula. The difference in DRF was about 1% and could be accounted for by the amount of urinary radioactivity collected from the pelvic system after the ligature had been opened. Although DMSA appears to give reliable values in determining DRF, even in obstructed kidneys, OIH is preferred since total clearance values and postrenal urinary dynamics can be determined simultaneously.

  13. [Quantitative analysis of individual renal function using 99mTc-DMSA scintigram--comparison with 131I-OIH renogram].

    PubMed

    Komai, S; Toyama, H; Takeuchi, A; Yokoyama, K; Koga, S

    1995-04-01

    99mTc-2,3-di-mercapto-succinic acid (DMSA) is able to be used for the quantitative analysis of individual renal function by calculating the uptake ratio. The purpose of this study is to assess the clinical feasibility of DMSA uptake ratio as compared with 131I-ortho-iodo-hippuran (OIH) renogram pattern. Two hundred eleven cases (191 patients, 1 to 87 years old) with renal disorders and 4 normal volunteers (27.8 +/- 2.4 years old) were studied. Just prior to the DMSA study in the same day, OIH renogram was carried out. They were divided into 6 types by OIH renogram patterns. In 24 cases of normal renogram pattern and normal blood data who were defined as the normal group and 4 normal volunteers, DMSA uptake ratio showed negative correlation with increasing age (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Patients of the severe impaired functioning and the non functioning patterns showed significantly decreased DMSA uptake ratios as compared with the normal pattern. There was also a significant difference in DMSA uptake between impaired functioning patterns. Compensative hemi-hypertrophy kidneys showed significantly higher DMSA uptake ratios than those of atrophic kidneys. The possibility of the quantitative analysis of the functional compensation was presumed. In conclusion, quantitative analysis of individual renal function using DMSA uptake ratio is considered to be useful to evaluate the renal functional reserve.

  14. Evaluation of S-values and dose distributions for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re in seven lobes of the rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Tianwu; Liu Qian; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Rats have been widely used in radionuclide therapy research for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This has created the need to assess rat liver absorbed radiation dose. In most dose estimation studies, the rat liver is considered as a homogeneous integrated target organ with a tissue composition assumed to be similar to that of human liver tissue. However, the rat liver is composed of several lobes having different anatomical and chemical characteristics. To assess the overall impact on rat liver dose calculation, the authors use a new voxel-based rat model with identified suborgan regions of the liver. Methods: The liver in the original cryosectional color images was manually segmented into seven individual lobes and subsequently integrated into a voxel-based computational rat model. Photon and electron particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate absorbed fractions and S-values for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re for the seven liver lobes. The effect of chemical composition on organ-specific absorbed dose was investigated by changing the chemical composition of the voxel filling liver material. Radionuclide-specific absorbed doses at the voxel level were further assessed for a small spherical hepatic tumor. Results: The self-absorbed dose for different liver lobes varied depending on their respective masses. A maximum difference of 3.5% was observed for the liver self-absorbed fraction between rat and human tissues for photon energies below 100 keV. {sup 166}Ho and {sup 188}Re produce a uniformly distributed high dose in the tumor and relatively low absorbed dose for surrounding tissues. Conclusions: The authors evaluated rat liver radiation doses from various radionuclides used in HCC treatments using a realistic computational rat model. This work contributes to a better understanding of all aspects influencing radiation transport in organ-specific radiation dose evaluation for

  15. Myeloablative 131I-Tositumomab Radioimmunotherapy in Treating Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Comparison of Dosimetry Based on Whole-Body Retention and Dose to Critical Organ Receiving the Highest Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, Joseph G.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Durack, L. D.; Gooley, Ted; Press, Oliver W.

    2008-05-01

    Objectives: Myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I tositumomab (anti-CD 20) monoclonal antibodies is an effective new therapy for B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL). The goal of this work is to determine optimum methods to deliver maximal myeloablative radioactivity without exceeding the radiation tolerance of critical normal organs such as liver and lungs, and avoiding serious toxicity. Methods: We reviewed dosimetry records for 100 consecutive patients who underwent biodistribution and dosimetry after a test infusion of 131I- tositumomab. Serial gamma camera images were used to determine organ and tissue activities over time and to calculate radiation-absorbed doses. Volumes of critical normal organs were determined from CT scans to adjust the dose estimates for the individual patient. These dose estimates helped us determine an appropriate therapy based on projected dose to the critical normal organ receiving a maximum tolerable radiation dose. We compared our method of organ-specific dosimetry for treatment planning with the standard clinical approaches using a whole-body dose-assessment method by assessing the difference in projected amounts of radiation-absorbed doses, as well as the ratios of projected amounts, that would be prescribed for therapy by each of these two strategies. Results: The mean organ doses (mGy/MBq) estimated by both methods were (1) Whole body method: liver = 0.33 and lungs = 0.33; and (2) Organ-specific method: liver 1.52 and lungs 1.72 (p = .0001). The median difference between the radiation-absorbed dose estimates was 3.40 (range of 1.37 to 7.96) for the lungs, 3.05 (range of 1.04 to 6.20) for the liver, and –0.05 for whole body (range of –0.18 to 0.16). The median ratio (OS divided by WB method) of radiation-absorbed dose estimates was 5.12 (range of 2.33 to 10.01) for the lungs, 4.14 (range of 2.16 to 6.67) for the liver, and 0.94 (range of 0.79 to 1.22) for whole body. There was significant difference between the

  16. Patient-Specific Dosimetry Using Pretherapy [124I]m-iodobenzylguanidine ([124I]mIBG) Dynamic PET/CT Imaging Before [131I]mIBG Targeted Radionuclide Therapy for Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-ying; Bolch, Wesley E.; Lee, Choonsik; Van Brocklin, Henry F.; Pampaloni, Miguel H.; Hawkins, Randall A.; Sznewajs, Aimee; DuBois, Steven G.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Seo, Youngho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Iodine-131-m-iodobenzylguanidine ([131I]mIBG) targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) is a standard treatment for recurrent or refractory neuroblastoma with response rates of 30–40%. The aim of this study is to demonstrate patient-specific dosimetry using quantitative [124I]mIBG PET/CT imaging with a Geant4-based Monte Carlo method for better treatment planning. Procedures A Monte Carlo dosimetry method was developed using the Geant4 toolkit with voxelized anatomical geometry and source distribution as input. The pre-segmented hybrid computational human phantoms developed by the University of Florida and the National Cancer Institute (UF/NCI) were used as a surrogate to characterize the anatomy of a given patient. S-values for I-131 were estimated by the phantoms coupled with Geant4 and compared with those estimated by OLINDA|EXM and MCNPX for the newborn model. To obtain patient-specific biodistribution of [131I]mIBG, a 10-year-old girl with relapsed neuroblastoma was imaged with [124I]mIBG PET/CT at four time points prior to the planned [131I]mIBG TRT. The organ and tumor absorbed dose of the clinical case were estimated with the Geant4 method using the modified UF/NCI 10-year-old phantom with tumors and the patient-specific residence time. Results For the newborn model, the Geant4 S-values were consistent with the MCNPX S- values. The S-value ratio of the Geant4 method to OLINDA|EXM ranged from 0.08 to 6.5 of all major organs. The [131I]mIBG residence time quantified from the pretherapy [124I]mIBG PET/CT imaging of the 10-year-old patient was mostly comparable to those previously reported. Organ absorbed dose for the salivary glands were 98.0 Gy, heart wall, 36.5 Gy, and liver, 34.3 Gy; while tumor absorbed dose ranged from 143.9 Gy to 1641.3 Gy in different sites. Conclusions Patient-specific dosimetry for [131I]mIBG targeted radionuclide therapy was accomplished using pretherapy [124I]mIBG PET/CT imaging and a Geant4-based Monte Carlo dosimetry method

  17. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  18. Concentration-dependent activity of antibiotics in natural environments

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Steve P.; Surette, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial responses to antibiotics are concentration-dependent. At high concentrations, antibiotics exhibit antimicrobial activities on susceptible cells, while subinhibitory concentrations induce diverse biological responses in bacteria. At non-lethal concentrations, bacteria may sense antibiotics as extracellular chemicals to trigger different cellular responses, which may include an altered antibiotic resistance/tolerance profile. In natural settings, microbes are typically in polymicrobial communities and antibiotic-mediated interactions between species may play a significant role in bacterial community structure and function. However, these aspects have not yet fully been explored at the community level. Here we discuss the different types of interactions mediated by antibiotics and non-antibiotic metabolites as a function of their concentrations and speculate on how these may amplify the overall antibiotic resistance/tolerance and the spread of antibiotic resistance determinants in a context of polymicrobial community. PMID:23422936

  19. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  20. Activity concentration of caesium-137 in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Mahmoud A A; Aytas, Sule; Akyil, Sema; Yaprak, Gunseli; Yener, Gungor; Eral, Meral

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we measured 137Cs activity concentrations in the soil samples taken from agricultural lands in the Buyuk Menderes Basin in Turkey in 1997 and 1998. The soil samples were collected from 42 sites in this Basin. The activity concentration of 137Cs was found to range between 2.81+/-0.17 Bq.kg(-1) and 20.75+/-0.29 Bq.kg(-1). The effect of organic matter, clay, silt and sand contents and pH of the soil on the relative adsorption of the 137Cs on the soil surface were also studied.

  1. Incidence of malignant thyroid tumors in humans after exposure to diagnostic doses of /sup 131/I. II. Estimation of thyroid gland size, thyroid radiation dose, and predicted versus observed number of malignant thyroid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, L.E.; Eklund, G.; Lundell, G.

    1980-12-01

    The size of the thyroid glands was analyzed for 10% of the patients in a selected group that had been exposed to diagnostic doses of /sup 131/I. The mean thyroid gland weight +- SD was 50 +- 33 g for patients 20 or more years of age and 10 +- 5 g for patients less than 20 years of age. With the present follow-up, diagnostic doses of /sup 131/I appeared not to be associated with an increased risk for later development of malignant thyroid tumors. Possible reasons for the difference between the observed number of such tumors and the number expected (47 to 124) on the basis of risk estimates of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation are discussed.

  2. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth.

  3. Natural activity concentrations in bottled drinking water and consequent doses.

    PubMed

    Kabadayi, Önder; Gümüs, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    The radioactivity concentrations of nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in bottled drinking water from six different manufacturers from Turkey were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement was done using a coaxial high-purity germanium detector system coupled to Ortec-Dspect jr digital MCA system. The average measured activity concentrations of the nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are found to be 0.781, 1.05 and 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations have been compared with similar studies from different locations. The annual effective doses for ingestion of radionuclides in the water are found to be 0.0246 mSv for (238)U and 0.169 mSv for (232)Th.

  4. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-07

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  5. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-01

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  6. Effect of different K+ concentrations on Cryptococcus neoformans phenoloxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Vidotto, Valerio; Defina, Nicola; Pugliese, Agostino; Aoki, Shigeji; Nakamura, Kenjrou; Takeo, Kanjj

    2002-01-01

    Melanin synthesis in Cryptococcus neoformans, catalyzed by phenoloxidase activity, is one of the oldest virulence factors known. However, until now, the relationship between melanin production in C. neoformans and its virulence has been poorly understood. Among different chemical compounds only Fe3+ and Cu2+ cations enhance the phenoloxidase activity in C. neoformans. A few reports in the literature describe the influence of different cations on C. neoformans phenoloxidase activity, excluding iron. In this study, 13 C. neoformans strains isolated from AIDS patients and 7 from bird droppings (B.D.), were examined in order to clarify the effect of different K+ concentrations on phenoloxidase activity. A new solid and liquid caffeic acid minimal synthetic medium (MSM-CAF) containing only caffeic acid and ferric citrate with different potassium concentrations was used to evaluate C. neoformans phenoloxidase activity. In the MSM-CAF solid medium the degree of brown pigmentation on the agar plates was read on days 1, 2 and 3 of incubation, and the pigmentation of the C. neoformans strains was classed into 5 categories. The brown pigment of the liquid MSM-CAF test tubes were checked after 24 hours of incubation by measuring the optical density (O.D.) at 480 nm. Three C. neoformans AIDS and B.D. strains, randomly chosen, were tested for phenoloxidase activity, according to the modified protocols of Polacheck et al., Torres-Guerrero et al. and Rhodes. According to the results obtained, it has been observed that K+ does not activate the phenoloxidase activity in the C. neoformans AIDS and B.D. strains. In particular, with an increase in potassium concentrations in the MSM-CAF solid and liquid medium, there was a corresponding inhibition of the phenoloxidase activity on both the C. neoformans AIDS and B.D. strains. PMID:12749580

  7. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: validity of concentration addition.

    PubMed

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose-response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC(10), EC(25) and EC(50) in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP+DBP, DBP+DEP and DEP+BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC(10) mixtures BBP+DBP, BBP+DEP and DBP+DEP, and the EC(25) mixture of DBP+BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC(50), and weak antagonistic activity at the EC(25) level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept.

  8. Modeling the (212)Pb activity concentration in the lower atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Werzi, R

    2010-02-01

    A worldwide radionuclide network of 80 stations, part of the International Monitoring System, is being setup to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The radioactivity sampled at these stations is primarily (220)Rn progenies affecting the detection capability. A model linking the (220)Rn emanation with the sampled (212)Pb activity was developed and is presented here. The model and the performed measurements show that the variation of the sampled (212)Pb activity can be fully explained by the variation of the local (220)Rn activity concentration. PMID:19875214

  9. Interlaboratory comparison on 137Cs activity concentration in fume dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzika, Faidra; Hult, Mikael; Burda, Oleksiy; Arnold, Dirk; Sibbens, Goedele; Caro Marroyo, Belén; Gómez-Mancebo, Maria Belén; Peyrés, Virginia; Moser, Hannah; Ferreux, Laurent; Šolc, Jaroslav; Dryák, Pavel; Fazio, Aldo; Luca, Aurelian; Vodenik, Branko; Reis, Mario; Tyminski, Zbigniew; Klemola, Seppo

    2015-11-01

    A comparison was conducted, between 11 European National Metrology Institutes and EC-JRC, on measurement of 137Cs activity concentration in fume dust. As test material an activity standard produced from real contaminated fume dust was used. The standard material consisted of 13 cylindrical samples of compressed fume dust. The material contained 137Cs and 60Co of reference activity concentrations of (9.72±0.10) Bq/g and (0.450±0.018) Bq/g, respectively, for the reference date of 1 June 2013, determined using the comparison results. The organization and results of the intercomparison, as well as the process of obtaining reliable reference values are presented.

  10. HBx M130K and V131I (T-A) mutations in HBV genotype F during a follow-up study in chronic carriers

    PubMed Central

    León, Bernal; Taylor, Lizeth; Vargas, Minor; Luftig, Ronald B; Albertazzi, Federico; Herrero, Libia; Visona, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Background Around 400 million people worldwide are chronically infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV). An estimated 10% of these chronic patients develop progressive liver damage including cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). The HBx gene encodes a protein of 154 amino acids which is a transactivator and has been associated with HBV pathogenesis. A change in the amino acid sequences at positions 130 and 131 in the HBV-X protein (M130K and V131I) produced by T-A point mutations at the nucleic acids level has been associated with severe liver damage and HCC in patients from China and Africa. Further, such changes have been proposed as a prognostic marker for progressive liver damage and HCC. The purpose of this study was to determine if T-A mutations are present in HBV chronic carriers with genotype F (the major genotype in Costa Rica) and further, if these mutations are associated with HBV disease progression in Costa Rica HBV patients from 1972 to 1985. Results Serum samples from 50 HBV positive individuals were amplified and directly sequenced, 48 belonged to genotype F, 1 from genotype D and another was classified as D or E. T-;A mutations were absent in 17 acute patients who recovered, but was present in 12 of 29 chronic carrier samples (42.8%), in one sample the T-A mutations were detected as early as 29 days after clinical onset of disease. In 17 carriers with available liver biopsies, T-;A mutations were found in 8 sera of 13 (61.5%) classified as moderate or severe, and none in 4 biopsies with mild liver damage. However, it was not possible to demonstrate a statistical association between the presence of T-A mutations and moderate/severe liver damage, using a Fischer exact test, 1 tail, p = 0.05. In 4 patients HCC was diagnosed, and 2 of them presented the T-A mutations in their sera. Conclusion T-A mutations were found in HBV genotype F in chronic carriers but not in patients who recovered from acute infection. These mutations could be developing

  11. Activity concentrations and dose rates from decorative granite countertops.

    PubMed

    Llope, W J

    2011-06-01

    The gamma radiation emitted from a variety of commercial decorative granites available for use in U.S. homes has been measured with portable survey meters as well as an NaI(Th) gamma spectrometer. The (40)K, U-nat, and (232)Th activity concentrations were determined using a full-spectrum analysis. The dose rates that would result from two different arrangements of decorative granite slabs as countertops were explored in simulations involving an adult anthropomorphic phantom.

  12. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  13. Phytochemical concentrations and biological activities of Sorghum bicolor alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Dia, Vermont P; Pangloli, Philipus; Jones, Lynsey; McClure, Angela; Patel, Anjali

    2016-08-10

    Sorghum is an important cereal with reported health benefits. The objectives of this study were to measure the biological activities of alcoholic extracts of ten sorghum varieties and to determine the association between the color of the extracts and their biological activities. Variation on concentrations of bioactives among sorghum varieties was observed with ethanolic extracts giving higher concentrations than methanolic extracts. The color of the extracts significantly correlated with the concentrations of bioactives and with nitric oxide scavenging activity. Freeze-dried ethanol extract is more potent than freeze-dried methanol extract and caused cytotoxicity to A27801AP and PTX-10 OVCA with ED50 values of 0.69 and 1.29 mg mL(-1), respectively. Pre-treatment of OVCA with ethanol extract led to chemosensitization to paclitaxel and the proliferation and colony formation of OVCA cells were reduced by 14.7 to 44.6% and 36.4 to 40.1%, respectively. Sorghum is a potential source of colorants with health promoting properties. This is the first report on the capability of sorghum alcoholic extracts to cause cytotoxicity and chemosensitize ovarian cancer cells in vitro. PMID:27406291

  14. Characterization of particulate matter concentrations during controlled indoor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glytsos, T.; Ondráček, J.; Džumbová, L.; Kopanakis, I.; Lazaridis, M.

    2010-04-01

    Indoor sources have been identified as a major contributor to the increase of particle concentration in indoor environments. The work presented here is a study of the characteristics of particulate matter number size distribution and mass concentration under controlled indoor activities in a laboratory room. The objective is to characterize particulate matter concentrations indoors resulted under the influence of specific sources. Measurements were performed in an empty laboratory (period September-October 2006) using a GRIMM SMPS+C system (particle size range between 11.1 and 1083.3 nm), a DustTrak Aerosol Monitor (TSI) and a P-Trak Ultrafine Particle Counter (TSI). The studied indoor activities included candle burning, hot plate heating, water boiling, onion frying, vacuuming, hair drying, hair spraying, smoking and burning of incense stick. The AMANpsd computer algorithm was used to evaluate the modal structure of measured particle number size distribution data. Furthermore, the change of the particle number size distribution shape under the influence of different emission sources was studied versus time. Finally the particle emission rates were computed. High particle number concentrations were observed during smoking, onion frying, candle burning and incense stick burning. The highest particle mass concentrations were measured during smoking and hair spraying. The shift of the particle size distribution to larger diameters suggests the presence of strong coagulation effect during candle burning, incense stick burning, smoking and onion frying. The size distribution was mainly bimodal during onion frying and candle burning, whereas the size distribution remained unimodal during incense stick burning and smoking experiments.

  15. Evaluation of whole-body retention of iodine-131 ((131)I) after postoperative remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma - thyroxine withdrawal versus rhTSH administration: A retrospective comparison.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria Raquel; Ferreira, Teresa C; Leite, Valeriano

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that preparation with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) for thyroid remnant ablation results in lower extrathyroidal radiation compared to hypothyroidism. The results of 50 radioiodine therapies (RITs) under rhTSH, regarding iodine half-life, were evaluated and compared with 50 RITs performed on patients with hypothyroidism following thyroxine withdrawal. The patients were treated with 3700 MBq (100 mCi) of (131)I. Forty-eight hours after RIT, patients were measured with a radiation detector at a 1-meter (m) distance for evaluation of the effective dose (μSv/h). TSH and thyroglobulin (Tg) maximal values were also compared. rhTSH-stimulated patients had a significantly lower whole-body retention of (131)I (8.5±7.3 μSv/h), extrapolated from the measurements of the effective dose at a 1-m distance, compared to endogenously stimulated patients (13.6±8.1 μSv/h; p=0.001). Furthermore, TSH mean and Tg median levels were significantly higher in the rhTSH-stimulated patients (89.9±15.3 mU/l and 7.7 ng/ml, respectively) compared to the hypothyroid group (59.2±25.1 mU/l and 3.3 ng/ml; p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). Compared to thyroid hormone withdrawal, the use of rhTSH prior to RIT was associated with significantly lower whole-body retention of (131)I and with greater efficacy in reaching TSH levels greater than 30 mU/l, confirming data previously described.

  16. SU-E-I-78: Establishing a Protocol for Quick Estimation of Thyroid Internal Contamination with 131I in Normal and Emergency Situations

    SciTech Connect

    Naderi, S Mehdizadeh; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Zamani, E; Molaeimanesh, Z; Sadeghi, M; Sina, S; Faghihi, R; Entezarmahdi, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: I-131 is one of the most frequent radionuclides used in nuclear medicine departments. The radiation workers, who manipulate the unsealed radio-toxic iodine, should be monitored for internal contamination. In this study a protocol was established for estimating I-131 activity absorbed in the thyroid glands of the nuclear medicine staff in normal working condition and also in accidents. Methods: I-131 with the activity of 10 μCi was injected inside the thyroid gland of a home-made anthropomorphic neck phantom. The phantom is made up of PMMA as soft tissue, and Aluminium as bone. The dose rate at different distances from the surface of the neck phantom was measured using a scintillator detector for duration of two months. Then, calibration factors were obtained, for converting the dose rate at each distance to the iodine activity inside the thyroid. Results: According to the results of this study, the calibration factors for converting the dose rates (nSv/h) at distances of 0cm, 1cm, 6cm, 11cm, and 16cm to the activity (kBq) inside the thyroid were found to be 0.03, 0.04, 0.14, 0.29, and 0.49 . Conclusion: This method can be effectively used for quick estimation of the I-131 concentration inside the thyroid of the staff for daily checks in normal working conditions and also in accidents.

  17. A 3-Dimensional Absorbed Dose Calculation Method Based on Quantitative SPECT for Radionuclide Therapy: Evaluation for 131I Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ljungberg, Michael; Sjögreen, Katarina; Liu, Xiaowei; Frey, Eric; Dewaraja, Yuni; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2009-01-01

    A general method is presented for patient-specific 3-dimensional absorbed dose calculations based on quantitative SPECT activity measurements. Methods The computational scheme includes a method for registration of the CT image to the SPECT image and position-dependent compensation for attenuation, scatter, and collimator detector response performed as part of an iterative reconstruction method. A method for conversion of the measured activity distribution to a 3-dimensional absorbed dose distribution, based on the EGS4 (electron-gamma shower, version 4) Monte Carlo code, is also included. The accuracy of the activity quantification and the absorbed dose calculation is evaluated on the basis of realistic Monte Carlo–simulated SPECT data, using the SIMIND (simulation of imaging nuclear detectors) program and a voxel-based computer phantom. CT images are obtained from the computer phantom, and realistic patient movements are added relative to the SPECT image. The SPECT-based activity concentration and absorbed dose distributions are compared with the true ones. Results Correction could be made for object scatter, photon attenuation, and scatter penetration in the collimator. However, inaccuracies were imposed by the limited spatial resolution of the SPECT system, for which the collimator response correction did not fully compensate. Conclusion The presented method includes compensation for most parameters degrading the quantitative image information. The compensation methods are based on physical models and therefore are generally applicable to other radionuclides. The proposed evaluation methodology may be used as a basis for future intercomparison of different methods. PMID:12163637

  18. Dimerization in Highly Concentrated Solutions of Phosphoimidazolide Activated Mononucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1997-01-01

    Phosphoimidazolide activated ribomononucleotides (*pN) are useful substrates for the non-enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. However, dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN typically yield small amounts of dimers and traces of polymers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Here we report the self-condensation of nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2- methylimidazolide (2-MeImpN with N = cytidine, uridine or guanosine) in the presence of Mg2(+) in concentrated solutions, such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon on prebiotic Earth. The product distribution indicates that oligomerization is favored at the expense of hydrolysis. At 1.0 M, 2-MelmpU and 2-MelmpC produce about 65% of oligomers including 4% of the 3',5'-Iinked dimer. Examination of the product distribution of the three isomeric dimers in a self-condensation allows identification of reaction pathways that lead to dimer formation. Condensations in a concentrated mixture of all three nucleotides (U,C,G mixtures) is made possible by the enhanced solubility of 2-MeImpG in such mixtures. Although percent yield of intemucleotide linked dimers is enhanced as a function of initial monomer concentration, pyrophosphate dimer yields remain practically unchanged at about 20% for 2-MelmpU, 16% for 2-MeImpC and 25% of the total pyrophosphate in the U,C,G mixtures. The efficiency by which oligomers are produced in these concentrated solutions makes the evaporating lagoon scenario a potentially interesting medium for the prebiotic synthesis of dimers and short RNAs.

  19. Theta activity and meditative states: spectral changes during concentrative meditation.

    PubMed

    Baijal, Shruti; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2010-02-01

    Brain oscillatory activity is associated with different cognitive processes and plays a critical role in meditation. In this study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of oscillatory changes during Sahaj Samadhi meditation (a concentrative form of meditation that is part of Sudarshan Kriya yoga). EEG was recorded during Sudarshan Kriya yoga meditation for meditators and relaxation for controls. Spectral and coherence analysis was performed for the whole duration as well as specific blocks extracted from the initial, middle, and end portions of Sahaj Samadhi meditation or relaxation. The generation of distinct meditative states of consciousness was marked by distinct changes in spectral powers especially enhanced theta band activity during deep meditation in the frontal areas. Meditators also exhibited increased theta coherence compared to controls. The emergence of the slow frequency waves in the attention-related frontal regions provides strong support to the existing claims of frontal theta in producing meditative states along with trait effects in attentional processing. Interestingly, increased frontal theta activity was accompanied reduced activity (deactivation) in parietal-occipital areas signifying reduction in processing associated with self, space and, time.

  20. Metal concentration and antioxidant activity of edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Kocak, Mehmet Sefa; Uren, Mehmet Cemil

    2015-05-15

    This study presents information on the antioxidant activity and heavy metal concentrations of Polyporus sulphureus, Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon perlatum and Gomphus clavatus mushrooms collected from the province of Mugla in the South-Aegean Region of Turkey. Antioxidant activities of mushroom samples were evaluated by four complementary tests. All tests showed L. perlatum and G. clavatus to possess extremely high antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activity of the samples was strongly correlated with total phenolic-flavonoid content. In terms of heavy metal content, L. perlatum exceeded the legal limits for daily intake of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Co contents (0.461, 738.00, 14.52, 1.27, 1.65, 0.417 mg/day, respectively) by a 60-kg consumer. Co contents of M. procera (0.026 mg/day) and P. sulphureus (0.030 mg/day) and Cd contents of G. clavatus (0.071 mg/day) were also above the legal limits. According to these results, L. perlatum should not be consumed, despite the potentially beneficial antioxidant activity. Additionally, M. procera and G. clavatus should not be consumed daily due to their high levels of Cd and Co.

  1. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-, 177Lu-, 131I-, 124I-, and 188Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, S.; Feron, O.; Gallez, B.; Masereel, B.; Michiels, C.; Vander Borght, T.

    2015-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like 131I or 90Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of 90Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as 90Y, 177Lu, 131I, 124I, and 188Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody) distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC)). 90Y and 188Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases. PMID:26136812

  2. Pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA, (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP--an evaluation of three imaging techniques in patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.E.; Lazarus, C.R.; Wraight, P.; Sampson, C.; Maisey, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Nine patients with histologically proven medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) were imaged using pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercaptosuccinic acid ((V)DMSA), (/sup 131/I) metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and (/sup 99m/Tc)methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Technetium-99m (V)DMSA demonstrated most of the tumor sites in eight patients with proven metastases, with an overall sensitivity of 95% in lesion detection. Iodine-131 MIBG showed definite uptake in some of the tumor sites in three of the nine patients imaged, with equivocal uptake seen in a further one patient, with sensitivity of only 11% for lesion detection. Technetium-99m MDP demonstrated bony metastases only, in four of the patients imaged yielding a sensitivity of 61%. Technetium-99m (V)DMSA has been demonstrated in this study to be a useful imaging agent in patients with MCT, showing uptake in significantly more lesions and with better imaging qualities than (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and with the ability to detect soft tissue as well as bony metastases.

  3. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with (90)Y-, (177)Lu-, (131)I-, (124)I-, and (188)Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts.

    PubMed

    Lucas, S; Feron, O; Gallez, B; Masereel, B; Michiels, C; Vander Borght, T

    2015-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like (131)I or (90)Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of (90)Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as (90)Y, (177)Lu, (131)I, (124)I, and (188)Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody) distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC)). (90)Y and (188)Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases. PMID:26136812

  4. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with (90)Y-, (177)Lu-, (131)I-, (124)I-, and (188)Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts.

    PubMed

    Lucas, S; Feron, O; Gallez, B; Masereel, B; Michiels, C; Vander Borght, T

    2015-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like (131)I or (90)Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of (90)Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as (90)Y, (177)Lu, (131)I, (124)I, and (188)Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody) distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC)). (90)Y and (188)Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases.

  5. Platelet activating factor raises intracellular calcium ion concentration in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Peritoneal cells from thioglycollate-stimulated mice were allowed to adhere to coverglasses for 2 h to give a dense monolayer of adherent cells greater than 95% of which were macrophages. After incubation with the tetra-acetoxymethyl ester of quin2, coverglasses were rinsed with Ca2+-free saline, oriented at a 45 degree angle in square cuvettes containing a magnetically driven stir bar, and analyzed for changes in quin2 fluorescence in a spectrofluorimeter. Such fluorescence, taken as an indication of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i), increased as exogenous calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]o) was raised to 1 mM. At [Ca2+]o approximately equal to 10 microM, [Ca2+]i = 72 +/- 14 nM (n = 26); at [Ca2+]o = 1 mM, [Ca2+]i = 140-220 nM, levels not increased by N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine, a membrane-permeant chelator of heavy metals than can quench quin2. Addition of mouse alpha + beta fibroblast interferon, lipopolysaccharide, thrombin, collagen, vasopressin, ADP, compound 48/80, or U46619 did not change [Ca2+]i. However, addition of platelet activating factor (PAF) (2-20 ng/ml) raised [Ca2+]i by 480 nM within 1 min if [Ca2+]o = 1 mM. In the presence of 5 mM EGTA, PAF raised [Ca2+]i by 25 nM. This suggests that PAF causes influx of exogenous Ca2+, as well as releasing some Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Consistent with these results, when PAF was added to 1 mM Ca2+ in the presence of 100 microM Cd2+ or Mn2+ to block Ca2+ influx, [Ca2+]i increased by only intermediate amounts; at the times of such dampened peak response, [Ca2+]i could be raised within 1 min to normal PAF-stimulated levels by chelation of the exogenous heavy metals with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Normal PAF responses were observed in the presence of indomethacin. The lowest dose of PAF observed to raise [Ca2+]i was 0.1 ng/ml. Response of [Ca2+]i to 2-20 ng/ml PAF was transient, and second applications had no effect. The PAF response also was seen in

  6. The relation of seismic activity and radon concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Kulali, Feride E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Akkurt, İskender E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Vogiannis, Efstratios

    2014-10-06

    Radon, which is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation, reaches to surface as gas or dissolved form in the ground water. Emanation of radon can has a profile is disposed to increasing or decreasing depending on the effects of meteorological events or crust movements. In this work, the radon concentration in soil gas, which is transported from soil to AlphaGUARD, is continuously measured in Mytilene (Greece). A graph of radon concentration is prepared for comparison with simultaneous earthquake data. As a consequence of comparison, we determined that the radon concentration indicates anomalies before the earthquakes.

  7. The relation of seismic activity and radon concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulali, Feride; Akkurt, Iskender; Vogiannis, Efstratios

    2014-10-01

    Radon, which is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation, reaches to surface as gas or dissolved form in the ground water. Emanation of radon can has a profile is disposed to increasing or decreasing depending on the effects of meteorological events or crust movements. In this work, the radon concentration in soil gas, which is transported from soil to AlphaGUARD, is continuously measured in Mytilene (Greece). A graph of radon concentration is prepared for comparison with simultaneous earthquake data. As a consequence of comparison, we determined that the radon concentration indicates anomalies before the earthquakes.

  8. The active titration method for measuring local hydroxyl radical concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprengnether, Michele; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a method for measuring ambient OH by monitoring its rate of reaction with a chemical species. Our technique involves the local, instantaneous release of a mixture of saturated cyclic hydrocarbons (titrants) and perfluorocarbons (dispersants). These species must not normally be present in ambient air above the part per trillion concentration. We then track the mixture downwind using a real-time portable ECD tracer instrument. We collect air samples in canisters every few minutes for roughly one hour. We then return to the laboratory and analyze our air samples to determine the ratios of the titrant to dispersant concentrations. The trends in these ratios give us the ambient OH concentration from the relation: dlnR/dt = -k(OH). A successful measurement of OH requires that the trends in these ratios be measureable. We must not perturb ambient OH concentrations. The titrant to dispersant ratio must be spatially invariant. Finally, heterogeneous reactions of our titrant and dispersant species must be negligible relative to the titrant reaction with OH. We have conducted laboratory studies of our ability to measure the titrant to dispersant ratios as a function of concentration down to the few part per trillion concentration. We have subsequently used these results in a gaussian puff model to estimate our expected uncertainty in a field measurement of OH. Our results indicate that under a range of atmospheric conditions we expect to be able to measure OH with a sensitivity of 3x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). In our most optimistic scenarios, we obtain a sensitivity of 1x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). These sensitivity values reflect our anticipated ability to measure the ratio trends. However, because we are also using a rate constant to obtain our (OH) from this ratio trend, our accuracy cannot be better than that of the rate constant, which we expect to be about 20 percent.

  9. Concentration dependent differential activity of signalling molecules in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caenorhabditis elegans employs specific glycosides of the dideoxysugar ascarylose (the ‘ascarosides’) for monitoring population density/ dauer formation and finding mates. A synergistic blend of three ascarosides, called ascr#2, ascr#3 and ascr#4 acts as a dauer pheromone at a high concentration na...

  10. Three-Dimensional Concentration Measurements around Actively Tracking Blue Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, B. D.; Jackson, J. L.; Weissburg, M. J.; Webster, D. R.

    2006-11-01

    Many aquatic arthropods locate food, suitable habitats, and mates solely through information extracted by chemical signals in their environment. Chemical plumes detected by larger animals are influenced by turbulence that creates an intermittent and unpredictable chemical stimulus environment. To link the stimulus pattern to behavior, we have developed a measurement system to quantify the instantaneous odor concentration surrounding a freely tracking blue crab through three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (3DLIF). A blue crab receives chemical stimulus at several locations, including the antennules near the mouth region and the distal tips of the legs and claws. Hence, three-dimensional measurements of the concentration field are required to link behavior to plume structure. During trials, crabs began their search 150 cm downstream of a source, and walking kinematics were recording simultaneously. The crabs were reversibly ``blindfolded'' during tracking to prevent aversive reactions to the intense laser light. Our experiments allow us to examine how hypothesized navigational cues, such as concentration bursts at the antennules and spatial asymmetry in concentration at the distributed chemosensory organs on the legs and claws, results in particular decisions during navigation.

  11. Measurement of 129 I and 137 Cs in soils from Belarus and reconstruction of 131I deposition from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Anspaugh, L R; Marchetti, A A; Voigt, G; Minenko, V; Gu, F; Men, P; Trofimik, S; Tretyakevich, S; Drozdovitch, V; Shagalova, E; Zhukova, O; Germenchuk, M; Berlovich, S

    2006-07-01

    I and Cs have been measured in a large number of soil samples collected throughout the country of Belarus to support efforts for thyroid-dose reconstruction following the Chernobyl accident. Samples of soil consisting of multiple 30-cm-deep cores per site were sampled following a selection process to ensure sites were undisturbed and representative. Samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for I, gamma spectrometry for Cs, and gas chromatography (GC) for total iodine. Results show that both I and Cs are retained firmly in the top approximately 15 to 20 cm of the soil. Our results also suggest that the correlation between I and Cs deposition across the country of Belarus is poor; hence, I is a better surrogate for I than is Cs. It was also noted that total iodine concentrations in topsoil from Belarus are low compared with other regions of the world where radiogenic thyroid cancer has been studied. PMID:16775475

  12. Russian Activities in Space Photovoltaic Power Modules with Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, Vyacheslav M.; Rumyantsev, Valeri D.

    2004-01-01

    Space concentrator modules with point-and line-focus Fresnel lenses and with reflective parabolic troughs have been developed recently at Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute. PV receivers for these modules are based: on the single junction LPE and MOCVD AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells characterized by AM0 efficiencies of 23.5 - 24% at 20 - 50 suns and 24 - 24.75 at 50 - 200 suns; on the mechanically stacked tandem AlGaAs/GaAs-GaSb cells with efficiency of 27 - 28 at 20 - 100 suns. MOCVD AlGaAs/GaAs cells with internal Bragg reflector have shown a higher radiation resistance as compared to a traditional structure. Monolithic two-terminal tandems AlGaAs (top)-GaAs (bottom) for space application and GaSb (top) - InGaAsSb (bottom) for TRV application are under development as well.

  13. Development and calibration of a portable radon sampling system for groundwater 222Rn activity concentration measurements.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Fabio de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Igor José Chaves; Ribeiro, Fernando Brenha

    2009-10-01

    The assembling of a system for field sampling and activity concentration measurement of radon dissolved in groundwater is described. Special attention is given in presenting the calibration procedure to obtain the radon activity concentration in groundwater from the raw counting rate registered in a portable scintillation detector and in establishing the precision of the activity concentration measurements. A field procedure was established and the system tested during one year of monthly observations of (222)Rn activity concentration in groundwater drawn from two wells drilled on metamorphic rocks exposed at Eastern São Paulo State, Brazil. The observed mean (222)Rn activity concentrations are 374Bq/dm(3) in one well and about 1275Bq/dm(3) in the other one. In both wells the (222)Rn activity concentrations showed a seasonal variation similar to variations previously reported in the literature for the same region.

  14. Calculating Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Concentrations from Beta Activity Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Szrom, Fran; Falo, Gerald A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Alberth, David P.

    2009-03-01

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the depleted uranium (DU) source term for the subsequent human health risk assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Correction factors for the disrupted equilibrium ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92.

  15. EMG activity and voluntary activation during knee-extensor concentric torque generation.

    PubMed

    Babault, Nicolas; Pousson, Michel; Michaut, Anne; Ballay, Yves; Hoecke, Jacques Van

    2002-04-01

    This study was designed to re-examine and compare the neural drive of the knee extensors during isokinetic concentric muscular actions by means of the twitch interpolation technique (activation level, AL) and surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings (root mean square, RMS). Torque, AL and RMS amplitudes of three knee extensors and one knee flexor were measured in nine subjects during maximal and sub-maximal voluntary contractions, performed under concentric (60 degrees.s(-1) and 120 degrees.s(-1); Con60 and Con120, respectively) and isometric (Iso) conditions. Mean (SD) maximal voluntary torque was significantly lower ( P<0.01) during concentric contractions [Con60: 208.6 (26.8) Nm and Con120: 184.7 (26.4) Nm] compared with isometric contractions [327.4 (52.0) Nm]. A significantly lower AL ( P<0.05) was recorded during Con60 [80.9 (8.8)%] compared with Iso [87.9 (5.1)%] and Con120 [88.2 (6.6)%] maximal contractions. Simultaneously, a lower knee extensor average RMS amplitudes (av.RMS) was measured during Con60 maximal contractions compared with Iso and Con120 maximal contractions. The antagonist biceps femoris RMS values were not different between maximal Iso, Con60 and Con120 contractions. During sub-maximal voluntary contractions, the RMS/torque relationships were similar whatever the muscle considered (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis or rectus femoris) and the AL/av.RMS relationships did not reveal any noticeable differences between each contractile condition. The results of the present study indicate that av.RMS and AL describe similarly the neural drive during maximal and sub-maximal efforts and indicate that during maximal voluntary efforts, neural drive is dependent upon concentric angular velocity (up to 120 degrees.s(-1)). Thus, our results suggest that when applying different contractile conditions, the torque output is regulated via complex interactions between intrinsic muscular properties and the neural drive.

  16. External radiation exposure of personnel in nuclear medicine from 18F, 99mTC and 131I with special reference to fingers, eyes and thyroid.

    PubMed

    Leide-Svegborn, S

    2012-04-01

    The radiation exposure of fingers, thyroid and eyes of workers handling radiopharmaceuticals during various nuclear medicine procedures was measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters. Dosemeters were placed on the finger tips of 19 workers on several different occasions for various procedures. Additionally, the routinely determined whole-body doses to various groups of workers were analysed. The finger dose measurements demonstrated clear differences between the various tasks, from 0.0012 µGy MBq(-1) (unpacking and installing (99)Mo/(99m)Tc-generator) to 3.0 µGy MBq(-1) (syringe withdrawal, injection and waste handling of (18)F-FDG). As long as the worker was handling (99m)Tc, the dose to the fingers was well below the ICRP dose limits, even when the activity was high. Special concern should, however, be devoted to the handling of (18)F, since the dose to the fingers could easily reach the dose limits. The estimated dose to eyes and thyroid was well below the dose limits. Since the introduction of the positron emission tomography/computed tomography facility, the annual whole-body dose has increased for those directly involved in the handling of (18)F. The annual whole-body dose of 0.2-2.5 mGy was, however, well below the dose limits.

  17. Classical Nuclear Hormone Receptor Activity as a Mediator of Complex Concentration Response Relationships for Endocrine Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cookman, Clifford J.; Belcher, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonmonotonic concentration response relationships are frequently observed for endocrine active ligands that act via nuclear receptors. The curve of best fit for nonmonotonic concentration response relationships are often inverted U-shaped with effects at intermediate concentrations that are different from effects at higher or lower concentrations. Cytotoxicity is a major mode of action responsible for inverted U-shaped concentration response relationships. However, evidence suggests that ligand selectivity, activation of multiple molecular targets, concerted regulation of multiple opposing endpoints, and multiple ligand binding sites within nuclear receptors also contribute to nonmonotonic concentration response relationships of endocrine active ligands. This review reports the current understanding of mechanisms involved in classical nuclear receptor mediated nonmonotonic concentration response relationships with a focus on studies published between 2012 and 2014. PMID:25299165

  18. Melatonin concentrations in the two jugular veins, and relationship with the seasonal reproductive activity in goats.

    PubMed

    Zarazaga, L A; Celi, I; Guzmán, J L; Malpaux, B

    2010-07-15

    The authors investigated whether melatonin concentrations vary between the two jugular veins and whether absolute (nocturnal) or relative (nocturnal/diurnal ratio) plasma melatonin concentrations are associated with seasonal reproductive activity measured by oestrus or ovulatory activity in Payoya goats. Thirty-two adult Payoya goats were penned under natural photoperiod. Oestrus activity was tested daily using aproned males-twice a week plasma was sampled for progesterone. Melatonin plasma concentrations were studied at each equinox and solstice of the year in jugular samples taken simultaneously by venipuncture. Nocturnal and diurnal plasma melatonin concentrations from each jugular vein were assessed in 3 and 2 plasma samples per goat, respectively, taken at hourly intervals in each period. No differences in melatonin concentrations between the two veins were observed, but there was a significant interaction (P < 0.001) between jugular vein and animal in nocturnal melatonin concentrations. There was no effect of sampling period on melatonin concentrations and the coefficient of correlation between sampling periods was very high. The analyses performed indicated that neither absolute nor relative melatonin concentrations were related with the dates of onset or end of ovulatory/oestrus activity. Therefore, we concluded that in goats (1) melatonin concentrations are highly variable between jugular veins in the same individual but not in the general population, (2) melatonin concentrations are highly repeatable for each individual, and (3) absolute and relative amplitudes of melatonin concentrations are not linked to the seasonal breeding activity in Mediterranean goats. PMID:20451998

  19. Evolution in the concentration of activities in lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.

    2016-03-01

    From a perusal of the proceedings of the SPIE Advanced Lithography Symposium, the progression of new concepts in lithographic technology can be seen. A new idea first appears in a few papers, and over time, there is an increase in the number of papers on the same topic. Eventually the method becomes commonplace, and the number of papers on the topic declines, as the idea becomes part of our industry's working knowledge. For example, one or two papers on resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) appeared in the proceedings of the Optical Microlithography Conference in 1989 and 1990. By 1994, the total number of papers had increased to 35. Early lithographers focused on practical issues, such as adhesion promotion and resist edge bead. The introduction of simulation software brought on the next era of lithography. This was followed by a period of time in which RETs were developed and brought to maturity. The introduction of optical proximity corrections (OPC) initiated the next major era of lithography. The traditional path for scaling by using shorter wavelengths, decreasing k1 and increasing numerical aperture has given way to the current era of optical multiple patterning and lithography-design co-optimization. There has been sufficient activity in EUV lithography R and D to justify a separate EUV Lithography Conference as part of the annual Advanced Lithography Symposium. Each era builds on the cumulative knowledge gained previously. Over time, there have been parallel developments in optics, exposure tools, resist, metrology and mask technology, many of which were associated with changes in the wavelength of light used for leading-edge lithography.

  20. Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O

    2013-11-01

    The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio. PMID:23548474

  1. Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O

    2013-11-01

    The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio.

  2. Characterization of anaerobic perchloroethylene dehalogenation activity at various substrate and perchloroethylene concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.M.; Gao, J.; Skeen, R.S.; Hooker, B.S.

    1995-12-31

    Research was undertaken to characterize anaerobic perchloroethylene (PCE) dehalogenation activity of microorganisms at various substrate and PCE concentrations. The concentrations of substrate, chlorinated ethylenes, and metabolic products such as methane, acetate, propionate, butyrate, hydrogen, and formate were monitored. The apparent relationship between major metabolic activities and dehalogenation was determined.

  3. Daily and seasonal variations in radon activity concentration in the soil air.

    PubMed

    Műllerová, Monika; Holý, Karol; Bulko, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Radon activity concentration in the soil air in the area of Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics (FMPI) in Bratislava, Slovak Republic, has been continuously monitored since 1994. Long-term measurements at a depth of 0.8 m and short-term measurements at a depth of 0.4 m show a high variability in radon activity concentrations in the soil. The analysis of the data confirms that regular daily changes in radon activity concentration in the soil air depend on the daily changes in atmospheric pressure. It was also found that the typical annual courses of the radon activity concentration in the soil air (with summer minima and winter maxima) were disturbed by mild winter and heavy summer precipitation. Influence of precipitation on the increase in the radon activity concentration in the soil air was observed at a depth of 0.4 m and subsequently at a depth of 0.8 m.

  4. Radium and uranium concentrations in Georgia community water systems.

    PubMed

    Cline, W; Adamovitz, S; Blackman, C; Kahn, B

    1983-01-01

    The first cycle of statewide radionuclide concentration measurements of public drinking water supplies was completed in accord with the Federal and Georgia Safe Drinking Water Acts. The recommended pattern of analysis is initial screening for gross alpha-particle activity, followed by measuring 226Ra if the gross alpha-particle activity is above 5 pCi/l. and then measuring 228Ra if the 226Ra concentration is above 3 pCi/l; and uranium analysis if the gross alpha-particle activity exceeds 15 pCi/l. Surface water supplies for more than 100,000 persons are analyzed for 3H and 90Sr and screened for gross beta-particle activity, with additional analytical requirements if the latter is above 50 pCi/l. Specified supplies downstream for nuclear facilities are analyzed for 3H, 90Sr and 131I, and further analyses are required if the gross beta-particle activity is above 15 pCi/l. More thorough screening was applied for 1400 public water supplies in Georgia, of which about 90% use groundwater. Radium concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 pCi/l. in 24 groundwater supplies, mostly due to elevated 226Ra. The gross alpha-particle activity minus uranium concentrations exceeded the 15 pCi/l. MCL in 3 additional samples. No MCL was exceeded in surface water. The S.D.s of analytical results estimated from replicate analyses were approximately twice those based on counting statistics, suggesting that screening levels should be lowered to assure detection of 226Ra at MCL values.

  5. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor in Crohn's disease: relation of serum concentrations to disease activity.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, J E; Juby, L D; Heatley, R V; Lobo, A J; Bullimore, D W; Axon, A T

    1990-09-01

    Serum concentrations of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) were measured as a marker of immune activation in a group of 30 patients with Crohn's disease. sIL-2R concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay during periods of active and inactive disease and correlated with standard parameters of disease activity. Serum concentrations of sIL-2R were significantly raised in patients with active Crohn's disease compared with patients with inactive disease (p less than 0.001) and control subjects. There was a significant correlation between serum sIL-2R concentrations and disease activity as assessed by the Harvey-Bradshaw index (r = 0.42, p less than 0.01), platelet numbers (r = 0.49, p less than 0.01), and orosomucoid (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01), alpha 1 antitrypsin (r = 0.44, p less than 0.01), and C reactive protein concentrations (r = 0.48, p less than 0.001) but not with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Measurement of serum sIL-2R concentration is a simple and useful laboratory means of assessing disease activity. Raised concentrations in patients with active Crohn's disease is further evidence for in vivo immune activation occurring in this disease.

  6. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for (137)Caesium, (90)Strontium and (131)Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide (210)Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. PMID:26094571

  7. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for (137)Caesium, (90)Strontium and (131)Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide (210)Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring.

  8. Effect of the active-ion concentration on the lasing dynamics of holmium fibre lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Sholokhov, E M; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A

    2010-12-09

    The lasing dynamics of fibre lasers with a core based on quartz glass doped with holmium ions to concentrations in the range of 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} is investigated. It is shown that fibre lasers with a high concentration of active holmium ions generate pulses, but a decrease in the holmium concentration changes the lasing from pulsed to cw regime. At the same time, a decrease in the active-ion concentration and the corresponding increase in the fibre length in the cavity reduce the lasing efficiency. (lasers)

  9. A Monte Carlo approach to small-scale dosimetry of solid tumour microvasculature for nuclear medicine therapies with (223)Ra-, (131)I-, (177)Lu- and (111)In-labelled radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Amato, Ernesto; Leotta, Salvatore; Italiano, Antonio; Baldari, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    The small-scale dosimetry of radionuclides in solid-tumours is directly related to the intra-tumoral distribution of the administered radiopharmaceutical, which is affected by its egress from the vasculature and dispersion within the tumour. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the combined dosimetric effects of radiopharmaceutical distribution and range of the emitted radiation in a model of tumour microvasculature. We developed a computational model of solid-tumour microenvironment around a blood capillary vessel, and we simulated the transport of radiation emitted by (223)Ra, (111)In, (131)I and (177)Lu using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo. For each nuclide, several models of radiopharmaceutical dispersion throughout the capillary vessel were considered. Radial dose profiles around the capillary vessel, the Initial Radioactivity (IR) necessary to deposit 100 Gy of dose at the edge of the viable tumour-cell region, the Endothelial Cell Mean Dose (ECMD) and the Tumour Edge Mean Dose (TEMD), i.e. the mean dose imparted at the 250-μm layer of tissue, were computed. The results for beta and Auger emitters demonstrate that the photon dose is about three to four orders of magnitude lower than that deposited by electrons. For (223)Ra, the beta emissions of its progeny deliver a dose about three orders of magnitude lower than that delivered by the alpha emissions. Such results may help to characterize the dose inhomogeneities in solid tumour therapies with radiopharmaceuticals, taking into account the interplay between drug distribution from vasculature and range of ionizing radiations. PMID:25979209

  10. The potential role of pretransplant MIBG diagnostic scintigraphy in targeted administration of 131I-MIBG accompanied by ASCT for high-risk and relapsed neuroblastoma: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hamidieh, Amir Ali; Beiki, Davood; Paragomi, Pedram; Fallahi, Babak; Behfar, Maryam; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Hosseini, Ashraf Sadat; Shamshiri, Ahmadreza; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2014-08-01

    MIBG is an effective component in treatment of neuroblastoma. Furthermore, MIBG scintigraphy is an imaging modality in primary assessments. None of the previous studies have evaluated the role of pretransplant MIBG scintigraphy in decision making for neuroblastoma treatment. We selected therapeutic regimen based on pretransplant (131) I-MIBG scintigraphy. Twenty high-risk patients were enrolled. On day -30, patients underwent diagnostic MIBG scintigraphy. Patients were then subdivided into two groups (10 cases in each arm). MIBG-avid subgroup received MIBG (12 mCi/kg), etoposide (1200 mg/m2), carboplatin (1500 mg/m2), and melphalan (210 mg/m2). Non-MIBG-avid subgroup received etoposide (600 mg/m2), carboplatin (1200 mg/m2), and melphalan (150 mg/m2). Patients received CRA after ASCT. Mean age at diagnosis was 42.5 months (range, 17-65) in MIBG-avid and 38.9 months (range, 18-65) in non-MIBG-avid patients. Mean age at diagnosis and transplantation did not reveal significant difference between two subgroups. In MIBG-avid patients, the three-yr OS was 66 ± 21%. In MIBG-non-avid subgroup, the three-yr OS was 53 ± 20%. In MIBG-avid and non-MIBG-avid subgroups, the three-yr EFS were 66 ± 21% and 47 ± 19%, respectively. These findings may suggest an effective role in selecting the therapeutic strategy for pre-ASCT MIBG scintigraphy in high-risk neuroblastoma. MIBG-avid subset may benefit from the combination of therapeutic MIBG and high dose of chemotherapy.

  11. A Monte Carlo approach to small-scale dosimetry of solid tumour microvasculature for nuclear medicine therapies with (223)Ra-, (131)I-, (177)Lu- and (111)In-labelled radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Amato, Ernesto; Leotta, Salvatore; Italiano, Antonio; Baldari, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    The small-scale dosimetry of radionuclides in solid-tumours is directly related to the intra-tumoral distribution of the administered radiopharmaceutical, which is affected by its egress from the vasculature and dispersion within the tumour. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the combined dosimetric effects of radiopharmaceutical distribution and range of the emitted radiation in a model of tumour microvasculature. We developed a computational model of solid-tumour microenvironment around a blood capillary vessel, and we simulated the transport of radiation emitted by (223)Ra, (111)In, (131)I and (177)Lu using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo. For each nuclide, several models of radiopharmaceutical dispersion throughout the capillary vessel were considered. Radial dose profiles around the capillary vessel, the Initial Radioactivity (IR) necessary to deposit 100 Gy of dose at the edge of the viable tumour-cell region, the Endothelial Cell Mean Dose (ECMD) and the Tumour Edge Mean Dose (TEMD), i.e. the mean dose imparted at the 250-μm layer of tissue, were computed. The results for beta and Auger emitters demonstrate that the photon dose is about three to four orders of magnitude lower than that deposited by electrons. For (223)Ra, the beta emissions of its progeny deliver a dose about three orders of magnitude lower than that delivered by the alpha emissions. Such results may help to characterize the dose inhomogeneities in solid tumour therapies with radiopharmaceuticals, taking into account the interplay between drug distribution from vasculature and range of ionizing radiations.

  12. Variability of atmospheric krypton-85 activity concentrations observed close to the ITCZ in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, A; Schlosser, C; Ross, J O; Sartorius, H; Schmid, S

    2014-01-01

    Krypton-85 activity concentrations in surface air have been measured at Darwin, which is located in northern Australia and is influenced by seasonal monsoonal activity. Measurements between August 2007 and May 2010 covered three wet seasons. The mean activity concentration of krypton-85 measured during this period was 1.31±0.02Bqm(-3). A linear model fitted to the average monthly data, using month and monsoon as predictors, shows that krypton-85 activity concentration measured during the sampling period has declined by 0.01Bqm(-3) per year. Although there is no statistically significant difference in mean activity concentration of krypton-85 between wet and dry season, the model implies that activity concentration is higher by about 0.015Bqm(-3) during months influenced by the monsoon when a north westerly flow prevails. Backward dispersion runs using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Hysplit4 highlight possible source regions during an active monsoon located deep in the northern hemisphere, and include reprocessing facilities in Japan and India. However, the contribution of these facilities to krypton-85 activity concentrations in Darwin would be less than 0.003Bqm(-3).

  13. Effects of high dietary sulphur on enzyme activities, selenium concentrations and body weights of cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A A; Lovejoy, D; Sharma, A K; Sharma, R M; Prior, M G; Lillie, L E

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of a moderate increase in dietary sulphur (S) in cattle. Twelve animals were initially fed a basal concentrate (S = 0.2%) and then divided into two groups; one fed basal and the other high S (S = 0.75%) concentrates. Health, body weight gains, and activities of erythrocyte enzymes-glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), plasma- asparate aminotransferase (AST), and whole blood concentrations of selenium (Se) were monitored at various stages of the study. Marked increases in the activities of GSH-Px, SOD and G6PD from the pretrial values were observed upon initial feeding of basal concentrate diet. Sex related differences were not evident in enzyme activities and Se concentrations of the blood. A high linear correlation (r = 0.92) between averages of GSH-Px activity and Se concentration of blood was observed in both sexes. Increasing the amount of S in the concentrate diet (from 0.2 to 0.75%) did not produce any statistically significant change in enzyme activities and Se concentrations, body weight gains, and health of the cattle during the 85 days feeding period. The results indicate that a moderate increase in the dietary S would not impair Se and copper status or cause related disorders in cattle. PMID:3607649

  14. Effect of oxygen concentration on nitrification and denitrification in single activated sludge flocs.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hisashi; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Ono, Hideki; Okabe, Satoshi

    2003-09-01

    Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was investigated in the single aeration tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Microelectrode measurements and batch experiments were performed to test for the presence of SND. Microelectrodes recorded the presence of O(2) concentration gradients in individual activated sludge flocs. When the O(2) concentration in the bulk liquid was <45 microM, anoxic zones were detected within flocs with a larger diameter (approximately 3000 microm). The O(2) penetration depth in the floc was found to be dependent on the O(2) concentration in the bulk liquid. Nitrification was restricted to the oxic zones, whereas denitrification occurred mainly in the anoxic zones. The nitrification rate of the activated sludge increased with increasing O(2) concentration in the bulk liquid, up to 40 microM, and remained constant thereafter. SND was observed in the aerated activated sludge when O(2) concentration was in the range of 10 to 35 microM.

  15. A neutron activation analysis of iridium concentration in Yamato carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabushita, S.; Wada, K.; Moriyama, H.; Takeuchi, K.

    1988-09-01

    Iridium concentration in extra-terrestrial bodies is an important quantity in relation to Ir-rich geological layers. Ir concentration of a Yamato carbonaceous chondrite (Y-793321) has been measured by a neutron activation method. The measurement yields a value (0.57±0.06) μg per gramme for the chondrite.

  16. Effect of Radionuclide Activity Concentration on PET-CT Image Uniformity

    PubMed Central

    Hasford, Francis; Wyk, Bronwin Van; Mabhengu, Thulani; Vangu, Mboyo Di Tamba; Kyere, Augustine Kwame; Amuasi, John Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of radionuclide activity concentration on positron emission tomography-computedr tomography (PET-CT) image uniformity has been carried out quantitatively. Tomographic PET-CT images of cylindrical phantom containing F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) activity concentration was acquired and used for the assessment. Activity concentrations were varied and PET-CT images were acquired at the constant acquisition parameters of time, matrix size, and reconstruction algorithm, respectively. Using midtransaxial image slices, quantitative index of nonuniformity (NU), and coefficient of uniformity variation were estimated for the different activity concentrations. Maximum NUs of 17.6%, 26.3%, 32.7%, 36.2%, and 38.5% were estimated for activity concentrations of 16.87 kBq/mL, 14.06 kBq/mL, 11.25 kBq/mL, 8.43 kBq/mL, and 5.62 kBq/mL, respectively. The coefficient of uniformity variation established an inverse quadratic relationship with activity concentration. Activity concentrations of 16.87 kBq/mL, 14.06 kBq/mL, 11.25 kBq/mL, 8.43 kBq/mL, and 5.62 kBq/mL produced uniformity variations of 1.47%, 2.52%, 4.23%, 5.12%, and 4.98%, respectively. Increasing activity concentration resulted in decreasing coefficient of uniformity and hence, an increase in image uniformity. The uniformity estimates compared well with the standards set internationally. PMID:27134558

  17. Low vs. High Radioiodine Activity to Ablate the Thyroid after Thyroidectomy for Cancer: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Mäenpää, Hanna O.; Heikkonen, Jorma; Vaalavirta, Leila; Tenhunen, Mikko; Joensuu, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    Background Radioactive iodine is commonly administered following thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma to ablate the thyroid remnant. The optimal administered activity of radioiodine is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult subjects (n = 160) diagnosed with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma were randomly allocated to receive either 1100 MBq (30 mCi) or 3700 MBq (100 mCi) activity of radioiodine (131I) following thyroidectomy. The study participants were prepared for ablation using thyroid hormone withdrawal. Ablation was considered successful when serum thyroglobulin concentration was less than 1 ng/mL and no uptake was present in 131I scan. Ablation was successful following one administration of radioiodine in 42 (52%; 95% CI, 41% to 63%) of the 81 evaluable study participants who received 1100 MBq, and in 43 (56%, 45% to 67%) of the 77 subjects who received 3700 MBq activity (P = .61). There was no difference between the groups in the numbers of repeat radioiodine treatments needed to complete ablation (P = .27). The higher activity was associated with more nausea and taste disturbances, and a longer stay in a radioprotected isolation unit. None of the participants died from thyroid cancer during a median follow up of 51 months; three subjects in the 3700 MBq group and none in the 1100 MBq group were diagnosed with distant metastases during follow-up. In a meta-analysis of four randomized studies that compared the 1100 and 3700 MBq activities, the 1100 MBq activity tended to be associated with a higher risk of unsuccessful ablation (relative risk 1.148, 95% CI 0.974 to 1.353, P =  .10). Conclusions/Significance The results provide no conclusive evidence that 3700 MBq activity is more effective for ablation of the thyroid remnant than 1100 MBq activity. The 3700 MBq activity is associated with more adverse effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00115895 PMID:18382668

  18. On the calculation of activity concentrations and nuclide ratios from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, A; Ringbom, A

    2014-09-01

    Motivated by the need for consistent use of concepts central to the reporting of results from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity, we discuss some properties of the methods commonly used. Different expressions for decay correction of the activity concentration for parent-daughter decay pairs are presented, and it is suggested that this correction should be performed assuming parent-daughter ingrowth in the sample during the entire measurement process. We note that, as has already been suggested by others, activities rather than activity concentrations should be used when nuclide ratios are calculated. In addition, expressions that can be used to transform activity concentrations to activity ratios are presented. Finally we note that statistical uncertainties for nuclide ratios can be properly calculated using the exact solution to the problem of confidence intervals for a ratio of two jointly normally distributed variables, the so-called Fieller׳s theorem.

  19. Antimutagenic and radioprotective activities of beta-carotene against the biological effects of iodine-131 radiopharmaceutical in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Berti, A P; Düsman, E; Mariucci, R G; Lopes, N B; Vicentini, V E P

    2014-03-31

    Radioactive iodine-131 (131I) is used in the treatment and diagnosis of thyroid gland injuries. However, because it emits ionizing radiation, it causes harmful effects to cells. Given that beta-carotene (BC) has antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties, this study aimed to investigate its radioprotective and antimutagenic activity in relation to 131I at the dose that is used to treat hyperthyroidism using a test system of bone marrow cells from Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). The doses were 0.2 mL of 8 mg BC/mL corn oil and 25 μCi 131I per 100 g body weight, and they were given via gavage in acute and subchronic treatments. Treatment groups included simultaneous, pre-treatment, post-treatment, and continuous treatment types. In all antimutagenic acute treatments, BC had a significant antimutagenic/radioprotective activity in relation to 131I. In subchronic antimutagenic treatments, BC reduced the damage that was caused by the radioisotope; however, this reduction was not statistically significant because of the relatively low percentage of chromosomal abnormalities that were observed with only 131I compared to the acute treatment. These results demonstrate the radioprotective and antimutagenic activity of BC, indicating its use by the population, which inevitably is exposed to mutagenic agents, as a means of health protection.

  20. Concentration of biologically active compounds extracted from Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. by nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Aureanna Nairne Negrão; Amboni, Renata Dias de Mello Castanho; Prudêncio, Elane Schwinden; Amante, Edna Regina; Fritzen-Freire, Carlise Beddin; Boaventura, Brunna Cristina Bremer; Muñoz, Isabella de Bona; Branco, Catia Dos Santos; Salvador, Miriam; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the bioactive compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil) extract and in concentrated mate extract obtained by nanofiltration (NF). Also, the impact of NF on the antioxidant activity of both mate extracts was evaluated in vitro and using eukaryotic cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast assay). The results showed a significant increase in the contents of total phenolics (338%), chlorogenic acid (483%), theobromine (323%), caffeine (251%), chlorophyll (321%), condensed tannins (278%) and saponins (211%) in the concentrated mate extract. The concentrated mate extract showed higher in vitro antioxidant activity than the mate extract. According to the results obtained, it can be stated that the use of nanofiltration membrane is a valid approach for the concentration of biologically active compounds in aqueous extract of mate.

  1. Discrimination of Nuclear Explosions against Civilian Sources Based on Atmospheric Radioiodine Isotopic Activity Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, Martin B.; Liao, Yen-Yo; Pistner, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    A global monitoring system for atmospheric radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System that will verify compliance with the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT) once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies isotopic activity ratios to support the interpretation of observed atmospheric concentrations of 135I, 133I and 131I. The goal is to distinguish nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulated nuclear explosion releases along with observational data of radioiodine releases from historic nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site are compared to simulated light water reactor releases in order to provide a proof of concept for source discrimination based on radioiodine isotopic activity ratios.

  2. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI.

  3. Concentration evolution of pharmaceutically active compounds in raw urban and industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The distribution of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment has been reported in several works in which wastewater treatment plants have been identified as the main source of these compounds to the environment. The concentrations of these compounds in influent wastewater can vary widely not only during the day but also along the year, because of the seasonal-consumption patterns of some pharmaceuticals. However, only few studies have attempted to assess the hourly variability of the concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater. In this work, the distribution and seasonal and hourly variability of twenty-one pharmaceuticals, belonging to seven therapeutic groups, have been investigated in urban and industrial wastewater. The highest concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds, except salicylic acid, were found in urban wastewater, especially in the case of anti-inflammatory drugs and caffeine. The highest concentrations of salicylic acid were measured in industrial wastewater, reaching concentration levels up to 3295μgL(-)(1). The studied pharmaceutically active compounds showed different distribution patterns during winter and summer periods. Temporal variability of pharmaceutically active compounds during a 24-h period showed a distribution in concordance with their consumption and excretion patterns, in the case of urban wastewater, and with the schedule of industrial activities, in the case of industrial wastewater.

  4. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI. PMID:26939033

  5. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and concentrations of insulin among US adults.

    PubMed

    Ford, Earl S; Li, Chaoyang; Zhao, Guixiang; Pearson, William S; Tsai, James; Churilla, James R

    2010-09-01

    Time spent watching television has been linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, all conditions characterized to some degree by hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. However, limited evidence relates screen time (watching television or using a computer) directly to concentrations of insulin. We examined the cross-sectional associations between time spent watching television or using a computer, physical activity, and serum concentrations of insulin using data from 2800 participants aged at least 20 years of the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The amount of time spent watching television and using a computer as well as physical activity was self-reported. The unadjusted geometric mean concentration of insulin increased from 6.2 microU/mL among participants who did not watch television to 10.0 microU/mL among those who watched television for 5 or more hours per day (P = .001). After adjustment for age, sex, race or ethnicity, educational status, concentration of cotinine, alcohol intake, physical activity, waist circumference, and body mass index using multiple linear regression analysis, the log-transformed concentrations of insulin were significantly and positively associated with time spent watching television (P = < .001). Reported time spent using a computer was significantly associated with log-transformed concentrations of insulin before but not after accounting for waist circumference and body mass index. Leisure-time physical activity but not transportation or household physical activity was significantly and inversely associated with log-transformed concentrations of insulin. Sedentary behavior, particularly the amount of time spent watching television, may be an important modifiable determinant of concentrations of insulin.

  6. Relationship between Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Activity and The Concentrations of Salivary Calcium and Phosphate Ions

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Mina; Malekzadeh, Hosein; Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Samami, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Although salivary alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can balance deand remineralization processes of enamel, there is no evidence regarding its effects on the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. The present study aims to determine the relationship between salivary ALP activity and the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated salivary markers in 120 males, ages 19 to 44 years. All participants provided 5 mL of unstimulated whole saliva and the level of enzyme activity as well as calcium and phosphate concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Data were gathered and analyzed by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 13.00 using Pearson correlation test. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of participants in the present study was 32.95 ± 8.09 years. The mean pH of saliva was 6.65 ± 0.62. Salivary parameters included average ALP activity (5.04 ± 1.866 U/dL), calcium (4.77 ± 0.877 mg/dL) and phosphate (10.38 ± 2.301 mg/dL). Pearson correlation test showed no significant relationship between ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva (p>0.05). According to the results of the present study, there was no significant relation between salivary ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva. However, further research is highly recommended. PMID:25870846

  7. Telomerase activity concentrates in the mitotically active segments of human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, R D; Wright, W E; Shay, J W; Taylor, R S

    1997-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme capable of adding hexanucleotide repeats onto the ends of linear chromosomal DNA. Whereas normal somatic cells with a limited replicative capacity fail to express telomerase activity, most immortal eukaryotic cells do. Cells of renewal tissues (e.g., skin, intestine, blood) require an extensive proliferative capacity. Some cells in such renewal tissues also express telomerase activity, most likely to prevent rapid erosion of their telomeres during cell proliferation. In this study, we measured the levels of telomerase activity in dissected compartments of the human hair follicle: hair shaft, gland-containing fragment, upper intermediate fragment (where it is thought undifferentiated stem cells reside), lower intermediate fragment, and in the bulb-containing fragment (an area with high mitotic activity containing a more differentiated pool of keratinocytes). In anagen follicles, high levels of telomerase activity were found almost exclusively in the bulb-containing fragment of the follicles, with low levels of telomerase in the bulge area (intermediate fragments) and gland-containing fragment. In comparison, catagen follicles had low levels of telomerase activity in the bulb-containing fragments as well as in other compartments. Such observations indicate that, in anagen hair follicles, the fragments containing cells actively dividing (e.g., transient amplifying cells) express telomerase activity, whereas fragments containing cells with low mitotic activity, for example, quiescent stem cells, express low levels of telomerase activity. PMID:8980299

  8. Metabolic pathways and activity-dependent modulation of glutamate concentration in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Mangia, Silvia; Giove, Federico; Dinuzzo, Mauro

    2012-11-01

    Glutamate is one of the most versatile molecules present in the human brain, involved in protein synthesis, energy production, ammonia detoxification, and transport of reducing equivalents. Aside from these critical metabolic roles, glutamate plays a major part in brain function, being not only the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter, but also the precursor for γ-aminobutyric acid, the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter. Regulation of glutamate levels is pivotal for normal brain function, as abnormal extracellular concentration of glutamate can lead to impaired neurotransmission, neurodegeneration and even neuronal death. Understanding how the neuron-astrocyte functional and metabolic interactions modulate glutamate concentration during different activation status and under physiological and pathological conditions is a challenging task, and can only be tentatively estimated from current literature. In this paper, we focus on describing the various metabolic pathways which potentially affect glutamate concentration in the brain, and emphasize which ones are likely to produce the variations in glutamate concentration observed during enhanced neuronal activity in human studies.

  9. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathera??molting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  10. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  11. Intramuscular pressure and torque during isometric, concentric and eccentric muscular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styf, J.; Ballard, R.; Aratow, M.; Crenshaw, A.; Watenpaugh, D.; Hargens, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    Intramuscular pressures, electromyography (EMG) and torque generation during isometric, concentric and eccentric maximal isokinetic muscle activity were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers. Pressure and EMG activity were continuously and simultaneously measured side by side in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles. Ankle joint torque and position were monitored continuously by an isokinetic dynamometer during plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the foot. The increased force generation during eccentric muscular activity, compared with other muscular activity, was not accompanied by higher intramuscular pressure. Thus, this study demonstrated that eccentric muscular activity generated higher torque values for each increment of intramuscular pressure. Intramuscular pressures during antagonistic co-activation were significantly higher in the tibilis anterior muscle (42-46% of maximal agonistic activity) compared with the soleus muscle (12-29% of maximal agonistic activity) and was largely due to active recruitment of muscle fibers. In summary, eccentric muscular activity creates higher torque values with no additional increase of the intramuscular pressure compared with concentric and isometric muscular activity.

  12. Determination of thorium concentrations and activity ratios in silicate rocks by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, R N; Marques, L S; Nicolai, S H A; Ribeiro, F B

    2004-01-01

    A detailed radiochemical procedure for alpha spectrometry measurements of thorium concentrations and of 230Th/232Th activity ratios in silicates is presented. The Th behaviour, during each step of the chemical process, was investigated by using a 234Th tracer, which is a gamma-ray emitter. The described chemical processing provides relatively high thorium yields, which varied between 56% and 88%, in the analysis of GB-1 (granite) and BB-1 (basalt) Brazilian geological standards. Also, the application of the established radiochemical method allowed a determination of both Th concentrations and activity ratios with high reproducibility, on the order of 2%. The estimation of the concentration result accuracy is also about 2%, which was calculated by using published data obtained from neutron activation analysis as reference values.

  13. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the "Bay of Cadiz" Natural Park (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Ligero, R A; Vidal, J; Meléndez, M J; Hamani, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2009-03-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range=0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders. PMID:19136180

  14. Activated sludge pilot plant: comparison between experimental and predicted concentration profiles using three different modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Le Moullec, Y; Potier, O; Gentric, C; Leclerc, J P

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of an activated sludge channel pilot plant. Concentration profiles of oxygen, COD, NO(3) and NH(4) have been measured for several operating conditions. These profiles have been compared to the simulated ones with three different modelling approaches, namely a systemic approach, CFD and compartmental modelling. For these three approaches, the kinetics model was the ASM-1 model (Henze et al., 2001). The three approaches allowed a reasonable simulation of all the concentration profiles except for ammonium for which the simulations results were far from the experimental ones. The analysis of the results showed that the role of the kinetics model is of primary importance for the prediction of activated sludge reactors performance. The fact that existing kinetics parameters in the literature have been determined by parametric optimisation using a systemic model limits the reliability of the prediction of local concentrations and of the local design of activated sludge reactors. PMID:21489593

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, C P; Johnson, N S; Binder, T R; Rediske, R R; O'Keefe, J P

    2013-11-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native. PMID:23864162

  16. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  17. Indoor radon activity concentration measurements in the great historical museums of University of Naples, Italy.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; Loffredo, Filomena; La Verde, Giuseppe; Roca, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Indoor radon activity concentrations were measured in seven Museums of University of Naples, very old buildings of great historical value. The measurements were performed using a time-integrated technique based on LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detectors. The annual average concentrations were found to range from 40 up to 1935 Bq m(-3) and in 26 % of measurement sites, the values were higher than 500 Bq m(-3) which is the limit value of Italian legislation for workplace. Moreover, we analysed the seasonal variations of radon concentrations observing the highest average in cold weather than in warm.

  18. Influence of microwave irradiation on boron concentrate activation with an emphasis on surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Qiaoyi; Liu, Yajing; Xue, Xiangxin; Duan, Peining

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we employed microwave irradiation for activating boron concentrate, an abundant but low-grade boron mineral resource in China. The boron concentrate was pretreated by microwave irradiation based on TG-DTG-DSC analysis, and the influence of each parameter on processing efficiency was characterized using chemical analysis, XRD, SEM, FTIR and particle distribution analysis. Subsequently, the surface properties of boron concentrate and the mechanism of microwave irradiation was analyzed. Our results indicate that microwave irradiation decreased the processing temperature and shortened the roasting time by accelerating dehydroxylation and oxidation reactions in the boron concentrate, reducing the particle diameter and damaging the microstructure of the minerals, and it increased the B2O3 activity of boron from 64.68% to 86.73%, greater than the optimal conventional treatment. Compared with the simple thermal field, microwave roasting obviously increased ability of the boron concentrate to absorb OH- in the leachant and promoted boron leaching by expanding the contact area of the mineral exposed to leachant, boosting the amount of Mg2+ and Fe3+ on mineral surfaces, and increasing the hydrophilicity of the boron concentrate respectively. It enhanced the γSVLW and γSV- of boron concentrate from 29.15 mJ/m2 and 5.07 mJ/m2 to 37.07 mJ/m2 and 12.41 mJ/m2.

  19. Serum thyroxine concentrations following fixed-dose radioactive iodine treatment in hyperthyroid cats: 62 cases (1986-1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Meric, S.M.; Rubin, S.I. )

    1990-09-01

    The medical records of 62 hyperthyroid cats treated with a fixed dose of 4 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) were reviewed. In 60 cats, serum thyroxine concentrations were determined after treatment, allowing evaluation of treatment success. Eighty-four percent of the cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations after treatment. Five of the 60 cats (8%) remained hyperthyroxinemic after treatment. Five cats (8%) were hypothyroxinemic when evaluated within 60 days of treatment. Three of these cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations 6 months after treatment, and none had clinical signs of hypothyroidism. The administration of a fixed dose of 4 mCi of 131I was determined to be an effective treatment for feline hyperthyroidism.

  20. Measurement of 129I concentrations in the environment after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, M.; Fink), D.; Hollos, G.; Kaufman, A.; Kutschera, W.; Magaritz, M.

    1987-11-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident which occurred on April 26, 1986 is known to have injected into the atmosphere a pulse of a large number of radionuclides. The activities of several radionuclides present in the subsequent fallout have been measured in different locations throughout Europe by gamma-ray and beta counting. We present here measurements of concentrations of the long-lived radionuclide 129I ( T {1}/{2} = 1.6 × 10 7yr) in environmental samples collected in Israel and Europe following the nuclear reactor accident. The measurements were performed by accelerator mass spectrometry, using the 14UD Rehovot Pelletron Accelerator. Concentrations of 129I in rainwater samples collected in the Munich (West-Germany) area and in Israel during the fallout period were measured to be 2.6 × 10 10 and 1.2 × 10 9{atoms}/{I} respectively, while a 1982 rainwater sample from Israel shows a 129I concentration of 8.2 × 10 7{atoms}/{I}. Three measurements of the ratio 129I/ 131I gave a mean value of 21, from which an effective operating time of the reactor of 1.5 to 2 yr prior to the accident can be estimated. The possible use of anthropogenic 129I as a tracing tool for global environmental processes is discussed.

  1. Preparation of factor VII concentrate using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B immunoaffinity chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi Hosseini, Kamran; Nasiri, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Factor VII concentrates are used in patients with congenital or acquired factor VII deficiency or treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors. In this research, immunoaffinity chromatography was used to purify factor VII from prothrombin complex (Prothrombin- Proconvertin-Stuart Factor-Antihemophilic Factor B or PPSB) which contains coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. The aim of this study was to improve purity, safety and tolerability as a highly purified factor VII concentrate. Methods: PPSB was prepared using DEAE-Sephadex and was used as the starting material for purification of coagulation factor VII. Prothrombin complex was treated by solvent/detergent at 24°C for 6 h with constant stirring. The mixture of PPSB in the PBS buffer was filtered and then chromatographed using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B coupled with specific antibody. Factors II, IX, VII, X and VIIa were assayed on the fractions. Fractions of 48-50 were pooled and lyophilized as a factor VII concentrate. Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed and Tween 80 was measured in the factor VII concentrate. Results: Specific activity of factor VII concentrate increased from 0.16 to 55.6 with a purificationfold of 347.5 and the amount of activated factor VII (FVIIa) was found higher than PPSB (4.4-fold). Results of electrophoresis on agarose gel indicated higher purity of Factor VII compared to PPSB; these finding revealed that factor VII migrated as alpha-2 proteins. In order to improve viral safety, solvent-detergent treatment was applied prior to further purification and nearly complete elimination of tween 80 (2 μg/ml). Conclusion: It was concluded that immuonoaffinity chromatography using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B can be a suitable choice for large-scale production of factor VII concentrate with higher purity, safety and activated factor VII. PMID:26034723

  2. Concentrated dispersions of equilibrium protein nanoclusters that reversibly dissociate into active monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truskett, Thomas M.; Johnston, Keith; Maynard, Jennifer; Borwankar, Ameya; Miller, Maria; Wilson, Brian; Dinin, Aileen; Khan, Tarik; Kaczorowski, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Stabilizing concentrated protein solutions is of wide interest in drug delivery. However, a major challenge is how to reliably formulate concentrated, low viscosity (i.e., syringeable) solutions of biologically active proteins. Unfortunately, proteins typically undergo irreversible aggregation at intermediate concentrations of 100-200 mg/ml. In this talk, I describe how they can effectively avoid these intermediate concentrations by reversibly assembling into nanoclusters. Nanocluster assembly is achieved by balancing short-ranged, cosolute-induced attractions with weak, longer-ranger electrostatic repulsions near the isoelectric point. Theory predicts that native proteins are stabilized by a self-crowding mechanism within the concentrated environment of the nanoclusters, while weak cluster-cluster interactions can result in colloidally-stable dispersions with moderate viscosities. I present experimental results where this strategy is used to create concentrated antibody dispersions (up to 260 mg/ml) comprising nanoclusters of proteins [monoclonal antibody 1B7, polyclonal sheep Immunoglobin G and bovine serum albumin], which upon dilution in vitro or administration in vivo, are conformationally stable and retain activity.

  3. Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentrations in Adults without Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Recio-Rodríguez, José I.; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Martin-Borras, Carme; de-la-Cal-dela-Fuente, Aventina; Sauras-Llera, Ines; Sanchez-Perez, Alvaro; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR), and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. Methods A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women). Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs)/hour/week) and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days. Results Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute) and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week). Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = −0.100; p<0.001) and METs/hour/week (r = −0.162; p<0.001). In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week) respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile), maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = −0.03; p = 0.046 and β = −0.06; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders. PMID:24498413

  4. The relationship between infliximab concentrations, antibodies to infliximab and disease activity in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vande Casteele, Niels; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G; Stitt, Larry; Zou, G Y; Singh, Sharat; Lockton, Steve; Hauenstein, Scott; Ohrmund, Linda; Greenberg, Gordon R; Rutgeerts, Paul J; Gils, Ann; Sandborn, William J; Vermeire, Séverine; Feagan, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although low infliximab trough concentrations and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), the clinical relevance of ATI in patients with adequate infliximab concentrations is uncertain. We evaluated this question using an assay sensitive for identification of ATI in the presence of infliximab. Design In an observational study, 1487 trough serum samples from 483 patients with CD who participated in four clinical studies of maintenance infliximab therapy were analysed using a fluid phase mobility shift assay. Infliximab and ATI concentrations most discriminant for remission, defined as a C-reactive protein concentration of ≤5 mg/L, were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. A multivariable regression model evaluated these factors as independent predictors of remission. Results Based upon analysis of 1487 samples, 77.1% of patients had detectable and 22.9% had undetectable infliximab concentrations, of which 9.5% and 71.8%, respectively, were positive for ATI. An infliximab concentration of >2.79 μg/mL (area under the curve (AUC)=0.681; 95% CI 0.632 to 0.731) and ATI concentration of <3.15 U/mL (AUC=0.632; 95% CI 0.589 to 0.676) were associated with remission. Multivariable analysis showed that concentrations of both infliximab trough (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.5; p<0.001) and ATI (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.81; p=0.002) were independent predictors of remission. Conclusions The development of ATI increases the probability of active disease even at low concentrations and in the presence of a therapeutic concentration of drug during infliximab maintenance therapy. Evaluation of strategies to prevent ATI formation, including therapeutic drug monitoring with selective infliximab dose intensification, is needed. PMID:25336114

  5. The influence of particle size on radionuclide activity concentrations in Tejo River sediments.

    PubMed

    Madruga, M J; Silva, L; Gomes, A R; Libânio, A; Reis, M

    2014-06-01

    Sediment samples from Tejo River were analyzed for (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K by HPGe gamma spectrometry. The activity concentration data were statistically analyzed. The activity concentrations values were in the range of about two orders of magnitude for each radionuclide. The influence of the particle size on the radionuclide concentrations was observed. The different environmental origins of the radionuclides (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K, in the sediments were demonstrated through correlation analysis. Cluster analysis showed a close relationship between (228)Ra and (226)Ra and a different behavior for (40)K. The data obtained in this study provides useful information on the background radioactivity of the studied area and can be further used for radiological mapping of the Tejo River. PMID:24561724

  6. The influence of particle size on radionuclide activity concentrations in Tejo River sediments.

    PubMed

    Madruga, M J; Silva, L; Gomes, A R; Libânio, A; Reis, M

    2014-06-01

    Sediment samples from Tejo River were analyzed for (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K by HPGe gamma spectrometry. The activity concentration data were statistically analyzed. The activity concentrations values were in the range of about two orders of magnitude for each radionuclide. The influence of the particle size on the radionuclide concentrations was observed. The different environmental origins of the radionuclides (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K, in the sediments were demonstrated through correlation analysis. Cluster analysis showed a close relationship between (228)Ra and (226)Ra and a different behavior for (40)K. The data obtained in this study provides useful information on the background radioactivity of the studied area and can be further used for radiological mapping of the Tejo River.

  7. Spatial variability of dissolved phosphorous concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Chang, J.; Ho, T.; Gong, G.

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) have been determined at about 25 sampling stations in the East China Sea since 2003. The stations are mainly distributed from the Changjiang river mouth to northern Taiwan and east to the shelf break. In addition to the Changjiang discharge, we have found a specific nutrient source around a coastal site (122° 2’30’’ E, 28° 40’ N). Elevated DIP and nitrate concentrations have been constantly observed around the sampling station for 8 years, where the surface DIP concentrations are generally around 0.3 µM. The nutrient source may either originate from ground water discharge or coastal upwelling, where lower temperature has been observed in the water column around the station. In general, APA has been negatively correlated with DIP concentrations in the studies sites, with lowest APA around the high DIP station and the Changjiang river mouth.

  8. Association between serum trace element concentrations and the disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Sahebari, M; Abrishami-Moghaddam, M; Moezzi, A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Mirfeizi, Z; Esmaily, H; Ferns, G

    2014-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a complex, incompletely understood, etiology. Several genetic and environmental factors are suspected to be involved in its aetiology. Oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE and may be affected by trace element status. Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) are essential components of several anti-oxidative enzymes and are also involved in several immune functions. The current study aimed to assess the relationship between serum concentrations of these trace elements and the clinical disease activity of SLE assessed using the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). Serum concentrations of albumin (Alb) (p = 0.001), Se (p = 0.001), Zn (p = 0.001) and the Zn to Cu ratio (Zn/Cu R) (p = 0.001) were lower in patients with SLE than the age- and sex-matched healthy controls. However, only Alb (p = 0.001) and Cu (p = 0.03) were negatively correlated with disease activity, which was supported by regression analysis. In summary, lower serum values of Alb, Zn, Se and Zn/Cu R were found in SLE patients compared with healthy controls; however, in addition to serum Alb concentrations, serum Cu concentrations were also negatively correlated with lupus disease activity.

  9. Post-Chernobyl investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in Adriatic Sea pilchards.

    PubMed

    Franić, Zdenko; Petrinec, Branko; Branica, Gina; Marović, Gordana; Kubelka, Dragan; Franić, Zrinka

    2012-08-01

    Investigations in the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2009) of radiocaesium activity concentrations in Adriatic pilchards are presented. Compared with pre-Chernobyl period, the Chernobyl nuclear accident caused increase of (137)Cs activity concentrations in pilchards. By fitting the measured (137)Cs activity concentrations to the theoretical curve was estimated to be 1.5±0.4 y for 1986-90 and 5.8±0.4 y for 1991-2009 and the bimodal behaviour for the ecological half-life of (137)Cs in pilchards has been observed. Estimated annual effective doses received by (134)Cs and (137)Cs intake due to consumption for an adult member of Croatian population are small. Collective dose for the 1986-2009 period was 4.9+0.3 person-Sv. The observed (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio in pilchards was similar to the ratio that has been found in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for pilchards was roughly estimated to be 93.7±39.2 l kg(-1), which is consistent with the values observed elsewhere.

  10. Differential effects of mental concentration and acute psychosocial stress on cervical muscle activity and posture.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Bahar; Haight, Ashley; Maluf, Katrina

    2013-10-01

    Physical and psychosocial stressors in the workplace have been independently associated with the development of neck pain, yet interactions among these risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mentally challenging computer work performed with and without exposure to a psychosocial stressor on cervical muscle activity and posture. Changes in cervical posture and electromyography of upper trapezius, cervical extensor, and sternocleidomastoid muscles were compared between a resting seated posture at baseline, a low stress condition with mental concentration, and a high stress condition with mental concentration and psychosocial stress in sixty healthy office workers. Forward head posture significantly increased with mental concentration compared to baseline, but did not change with further introduction of the stressor. Muscle activity significantly increased from the low stress to high stress condition for both the dominant and non-dominant upper trapezius, with no corresponding change in activity of the cervical extensors or flexors between stress conditions. These findings suggest that upper trapezius muscles are selectively activated by psychosocial stress independent of changes in concentration or posture, which may have implications for the prevention of stress-related trapezius myalgia in the workplace.

  11. 76 FR 48882 - Agency Information Collections Activities; Comment Request for Uranium Concentrations in Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... U.S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collections Activities; Comment Request for Uranium... Collection 1028-NEW, Uranium concentrations in private wells in south-east New Hampshire, in the subject line... telephone (970) 226-9165; or schusterr@usgs.gov (e-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract...

  12. Combined effects of water temperature and copper ion concentration on catalase activity in Crassostrea ariakensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Jiahui; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-07-01

    A central composite experimental design and response surface method were used to investigate the combined effects of water temperature (18-34°C) and copper ion concentration (0.1-1.5 mg/L) on the catalase (CAT) activity in the digestive gland of Crassostrea ariakensis. The results showed that the linear effects of temperature were significant ( P<0.01), the quadratic effects of temperature were significant ( P<0.05), the linear effects of copper ion concentration were not significant ( P>0.05), and the quadratic effects of copper ion concentration were significant ( P<0.05). Additionally, the synergistic effects of temperature and copper ion concentration were not significant ( P>0.05), and the effect of temperature was greater than that of copper ion concentration. A model equation of CAT enzyme activity in the digestive gland of C. ariakensis toward the two factors of interest was established, with R 2, Adj. R 2 and Pred. R 2 values as high as 0.943 7, 0.887 3 and 0.838 5, respectively. These findings suggested that the goodness of fit to experimental data and predictive capability of the model were satisfactory, and could be practically applied for prediction under the conditions of the study. Overall, the results suggest that the simultaneous variation of temperature and copper ion concentration alters the activity of the antioxidant enzyme CAT by modulating active oxygen species metabolism, which may be utilized as a biomarker to detect the effects of copper pollution.

  13. Functionally active ganglioneuroma with increased plasma and urinary catecholamines and positive iodine 131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Clerico, A.; Jenkner, A.; Castello, M.A.; Ciofetta, G.; Lucarelli, C.; Codini, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Ganglioneuromas are usually considered not to be functionally active. Studies of their catecholamine excretory pattern and of their imaging by means of the adrenergic tracing agent 131-I-MIBG have been therefore sparse. We report on a case of secretory ganglioneuroma, as demonstrated by the increased urinary excretion of the catecholamine metabolites HVA and VMA, increased plasma dopamine and epinephrine levels, and positive 131-I-MIBG scintigraphy. We must therefore be aware that a functionally active tumor is not necessarily a neuroblastoma, and that the diagnosis should be biopsy proven.

  14. Ovicidal activity of different concentrations of Pochonia chlamydosporia chlamydospores on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Pinto, P S A

    2011-03-01

    Three concentrations of chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish) were evaluated in vitro on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Chlamydospores at each concentration were cultured in two different media: 2% water-agar (2%WA) and 2% corn-meal-agar (2%CMA). Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were plated in each chlamydospore concentration in 2%WA and 2%CMA (treated groups) and without fungus (control group). Eggs were removed from each Petri dish at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days and classified according to ovicidal activity (type 1, type 2 and type 3 effects). Plates containing 2%CMA showed the highest percentages for type 3 effect (81.3%) on the 21st day of observation. A difference (P < 0.01) between the media 2%WA and 2%CMA for type 1 effect was observed only at a concentration of 1000 chlamydospores on the 7th day. There were differences (P < 0.01) between 2%WA and 2%CMA on the 14th and 21st days, at the concentration of 20,000 chlamydospores, for type 1 and type 3 effects. Regression curves for type 3 effect in 2%WA and 2%CMA at the tested concentrations showed higher ovicidal activity with increasing chlamydospore concentrations. Results indicate that, at concentrations of 1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish, chlamydospores of P. chlamydosporia effectively destroyed T. taeniaeformis eggs and can be considered a potential biological control agent for this cestode. PMID:20338078

  15. Low Concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide Activate the Antioxidant Defense System in Human Sperm Cells.

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, V V; Barinova, K V; Turovetskii, V B; Muronetz, V I; Schmalhausen, E V

    2015-09-01

    The effect of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (10-100 µM) on sperm motility and on the activity of the sperm enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) was investigated. Incubation of semen samples with 10 and 100 µM hydrogen peroxide increased the content of spermatozoa with progressive motility by 20 and 18%, respectively, and enhanced the activity of GAPDS in the sperm cells by 27 and 20% compared to a semen sample incubated without additions. It was also found that incubation with 10 µM hydrogen peroxide increased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in sperm cells by 50% on average compared to that in the control samples. It is supposed that low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide activate the pentose phosphate pathway, resulting in NADPH synthesis and the reduction of the oxidized glutathione by glutathione reductase yielding GSH. The formed GSH reduces the oxidized cysteine residues of the GAPDS active site, increasing the activity of the enzyme, which in turn enhances the content of sperm cells with progressive motility. Thus, the increase in motile spermatozoa in the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide can serve as an indicator of normal functioning of the antioxidant defense system in sperm cells.

  16. 3D modeling of effects of increased oxygenation and activity concentration in tumors treated with radionuclides and antiangiogenic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerloef, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) in response to hypoxia is a fundamental event in the process of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. However, abnormalities in tumor neovasculature often induce increased interstitial pressure (IP) and further reduce oxygenation (pO{sub 2}) of tumor cells. In radiotherapy, well-oxygenated tumors favor treatment. Antiangiogenic drugs may lower IP in the tumor, improving perfusion, pO{sub 2} and drug uptake, by reducing the number of malfunctioning vessels in the tissue. This study aims to create a model for quantifying the effects of altered pO{sub 2}-distribution due to antiangiogenic treatment in combination with radionuclide therapy. Methods: Based on experimental data, describing the effects of antiangiogenic agents on oxygenation of GlioblastomaMultiforme (GBM), a single cell based 3D model, including 10{sup 10} tumor cells, was developed, showing how radionuclide therapy response improves as tumor oxygenation approaches normal tissue levels. The nuclides studied were {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 211}At. The absorbed dose levels required for a tumor control probability (TCP) of 0.990 are compared for three different log-normal pO{sub 2}-distributions: {mu}{sub 1} = 2.483, {sigma}{sub 1} = 0.711; {mu}{sub 2} = 2.946, {sigma}{sub 2} = 0.689; {mu}{sub 3} = 3.689, and {sigma}{sub 3} = 0.330. The normal tissue absorbed doses will, in turn, depend on this. These distributions were chosen to represent the expected oxygen levels in an untreated hypoxic tumor, a hypoxic tumor treated with an anti-VEGF agent, and in normal, fully-oxygenated tissue, respectively. The former two are fitted to experimental data. The geometric oxygen distributions are simulated using two different patterns: one Monte Carlo based and one radially increasing, while keeping the log-normal volumetric distributions intact. Oxygen and activity are distributed, according to the same pattern. Results: As tumor pO{sub 2

  17. Influence of physical activity on concentration among junior high-school students.

    PubMed

    Raviv, S; Low, M

    1990-02-01

    The level and quality of concentration were tested before and after each lesson in one class session. Two of the four classes participated in physical education activities, and the other two studied science. Each subject matter was studied the beginning and at the end of the school day. The research design was 2 x 2 x 2 factorial (two subject matters, two times of the school day, and as a repeated measure two times of test for each group at the beginning and end of each lesson). The level and the quality of concentration found at the end of each lesson were significantly higher than at the beginning. The subject matters did not influence concentration. It may be concluded that the time of day was the main influence on concentration, so teachers' claims against physical education activity lessons can be rejected. The increase in concentration toward the end of the lesson implies the need for careful lesson planning or even the consideration of increasing duration of lessons.

  18. PON-1 Activity and Plasma 8-Isoprostane Concentration in Patients with Angiographically Proven Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuchta, Agnieszka; Strzelecki, Adrian; Ćwiklińska, Agnieszka; Totoń, Magdalena; Gruchała, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Zbigniew; Kortas-Stempak, Barbara; Gliwińska, Anna; Dąbkowski, Kamil; Jankowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate association of the extent of angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) with plasma 8-isoprostane F2 (8-iso-PGF2α) levels as a reliable marker of lipid peroxidation and serum activity of paraoxonase-1, which demonstrates the ability to protect against lipid oxidation. The study included 105 patients with angiographically documented CAD (CAD+) and 45 patients with negative results of coronary angiography (CAD−). Compared to the control group CAD+ patients were characterized by increased 8-iso-PGF2α levels (P = 0.007) and reduced activity of PON-1 towards paraoxon (PONase, P = 0.002) and phenyl acetate (AREase, P = 0.037). Univariate correlation analysis indicated that 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were positively associated with the severity of CAD as evaluated by the Gensini score (R = 0.41, P < 0.001) while PONase activity (R = −0.26, P < 0.05) and AREase activity (R = −0.23, P < 0.05) were inversely correlated with CAD severity. PONase activity and 8-iso-PGF2α concentration remained independent determinant of atherosclerosis severity in multiple linear regression after adjusting for age, gender, smoking habits, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, statin therapy, and HDL-C and TAG concentration (β coefficients −0.267; P < 0.05 and 0.368; P < 0.001, resp.). The results suggest that PON-1 activity and 8-iso-PGF2α concentration are associated with the presence and extent of coronary stenosis and may be considered additional markers of coronary artery disease. PMID:26697134

  19. Determination of uranium, thorium and potassium activity concentrations in soil cores in Araba valley, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abusini, M; Al-Ayasreh, K; Al-Jundi, J

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from six different locations in Araba valley, situated between Aqaba port and Dead sea. The samples have been analysed by using gamma-ray spectrometry. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, activity concentrations are determined for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K. The mean activity concentration for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K was found to be in the range 19 +/- 1.4 to 38.7 +/- 3, 14.3 +/- 0.8 to 35 +/- 3.2 and 94 +/- 18.9 to 762 +/- 47.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These results indicate that the mean concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the populated Araba valley are lower than those in other populated areas. On the other hand, the concentrations of the major oxides (Al(2)O(3), SiO(2), K(2)O, CaO and Fe(2)O(3)) in the samples were determined using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence. High potassium and iron content in some samples might be attributed to the active faults, which refer to the Dead sea transform fault.

  20. Effects of chlordecone on 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration and chitobiase activity in a decapod crustacean, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, Anne; Gismondi, Eric; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Geraudie, Perrine; Dodet, Nathalie; Caupos, Fanny; Lemoine, Soazig; Lagadic, Laurent; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Forget-Leray, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine insecticide abundant in aquatic environment of the French West Indies. However, few studies have investigated its impact on freshwater invertebrates. Whereas CLD is suspected of inducing endocrine disruption, this work aimed to study the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of CLD on the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) hormone concentration and on the chitobiase activity, both having key roles in the molting process of crustaceans. In addition, the bioaccumulation of CLD was measured in the muscle tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to underline potential dose-response relationship. The results have shown that CLD was bioaccumulated in exposed organisms according to a trend to a dose-response relationship. Moreover, it was observed that CLD decreased the 20-HE concentration in exposed prawns when compared to control, whatever the duration of exposure, as well as it inhibited the chitobiase activity after 30days of exposure. The present study indicates that CLD could interfere with molting process of M. rosenbergii by disturbing the 20-HE concentration and the activity of chitobiase, suggesting consequences at the long term on the shrimp development. This study also confirmed that CLD could be an endocrine disruptor in decapod crustaceans, as it was already observed in vertebrates.

  1. Variation of PM2.5 concentrations in relation to street washing activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanasiou, Angeliki; Moreno, Teresa; Amato, Fulvio; Tobías, Aurelio; Boldo, Elena; Linares, Cristina; Lumbreras, Julio; Borge, Rafael; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Several studies conducted in urban areas have pointed out that road dust resuspension contributes significantly to PM concentration levels. Street washing is one of the methods proposed to reduce resuspended road dust contributions to ambient PM concentrations. As resuspended particles are mainly found in the coarse mode, published studies investigating the effects of street washing have focused on PM10 size fraction. As the PM2.5 mass fraction of particles originating from mechanical abrasion processes may still be significant we conducted a study in order to evaluate the effects of street washing on the mitigation of resuspension of fine particles. The PM2.5 mass concentration data were examined and integrated with the occurrence of street washing activities. In addition, the effect of the meteorological variability, traffic flow and street washing activities, on ambient PM2.5 levels was evaluated by means of a multivariate regression model. The results revealed that traffic flow is the most important factor that controls PM2.5 hourly concentrations while street washing activities did not influence fine particle mass levels.

  2. Effects of chlordecone on 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration and chitobiase activity in a decapod crustacean, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, Anne; Gismondi, Eric; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Geraudie, Perrine; Dodet, Nathalie; Caupos, Fanny; Lemoine, Soazig; Lagadic, Laurent; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Forget-Leray, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine insecticide abundant in aquatic environment of the French West Indies. However, few studies have investigated its impact on freshwater invertebrates. Whereas CLD is suspected of inducing endocrine disruption, this work aimed to study the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of CLD on the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) hormone concentration and on the chitobiase activity, both having key roles in the molting process of crustaceans. In addition, the bioaccumulation of CLD was measured in the muscle tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to underline potential dose-response relationship. The results have shown that CLD was bioaccumulated in exposed organisms according to a trend to a dose-response relationship. Moreover, it was observed that CLD decreased the 20-HE concentration in exposed prawns when compared to control, whatever the duration of exposure, as well as it inhibited the chitobiase activity after 30days of exposure. The present study indicates that CLD could interfere with molting process of M. rosenbergii by disturbing the 20-HE concentration and the activity of chitobiase, suggesting consequences at the long term on the shrimp development. This study also confirmed that CLD could be an endocrine disruptor in decapod crustaceans, as it was already observed in vertebrates. PMID:27108204

  3. Limiting concentrations of activated mononucleotides necessary for poly(C)-directed elongation of oligoguanylates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Chang, S.; Alberas, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Selected imidazolide-activated nucleotides have been subjected to hydrolysis under conditions similar to those that favor their template-directed oligomerization. Rate constants of hydrolysis of the P-N bond in guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) and in guanosine 5'-monophosphate imidazolide (ImpG), kh, have been determined in the presence/absence of magnesium ion as a function of temperature and polycytidylate [poly(C)] concentration. Using the rate constant of hydrolysis of 2-MeImpG and the rate constant of elongation, i.e., the reaction of an oligoguanylate with 2-MeImpG in the presence of poly(C) acting as template, the limiting concentration of 2-MeImpG necessary for oligonucleotide elongation to compete with hydrolysis can be calculated. The limiting concentration is defined as the initial concentration of monomer that results in its equal consumption by hydrolysis and by elongation. These limiting concentrations of 2-MeImpG are found to be 1.7 mM at 37 degrees C and 0.36 mM at 1 degrees C. Boundary conditions in the form of limiting concentration of activated nucleotide may be used to evaluate a prebiotic model for chemical synthesis of biopolymers. For instance, the limiting concentration of monomer can be used as a basis of comparison among catalytic, but nonenzymatic, RNA-type systems. We also determined the rate constant of dimerization of 2-MeImpG, k2 = 0.45 +/- 0.06 M-1 h-1 in the absence of poly(C), and 0.45 +/- 0.06 less than or equal to k2 less than or equal to 0.97 +/- 0.13 M-1 h-1 in its presence at 37 degrees C and pH 7.95.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  4. Effect of active-ion concentration on holmium fibre laser efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Sholokhov, E M; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A

    2010-08-03

    We have measured the fraction of holmium ions that relax nonradiatively to the ground level as a result of interaction at a metastable level in optical fibres with a silica-based core doped with holmium ions to 2 x 10{sup 19} - 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The percentage of such ions has been shown to depend on the absolute active-ion concentration. The fibres have been used to make a number of 2.05-{mu}m lasers, and their slope efficiency has been measured. The laser efficiency decreases with increasing holmium concentration in the fibres (lasers)

  5. Effect of elevated serum prolactin concentrations on cytokine production and natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Clodi, M; Svoboda, T; Kotzmann, H; Deyssig, R; Woloszczuk, W; Zielinski, C C; Luger, A

    1992-12-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies in rodents and human suggested an immunostimulatory effect of prolactin. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of chronically elevated serum prolactin concentrations on the immune system in patients with prolactinomas. For this purpose parameters of the humoral and cellular immune system were studied in seven patients with prolactinomas on two occasions (1) when their serum prolactin concentration had been normalized through treatment with dopamine agonists and (2) when their serum prolactin concentration was high. Serum concentrations of immunoglobulines, interleukin 1, 3 and 6, TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma and the soluble interleukin 2 receptor, leukocyte subsets and the natural killer cell activity were found to be within the normal range on both occasions, i.e. at normal and at high serum prolactin concentrations. The assumption could be made that long-lasting elevation of serum prolactin concentration induces adaptive changes when the acute stimulatory effects of prolactin on several parameters of the immune system have subsided.

  6. Influence of Traffic Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-01-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals’ homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  7. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; González, Carlos B.

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  8. High concentrations of single-walled carbon nanotubes lower soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lixia; Son, Yowhan; Yoon, Tae Kyung; Kang, Yu Jin; Kim, Woong; Chung, Haegeun

    2013-02-01

    Nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) may enter the soil environment with unknown consequences resulting from the development of nanotechnology for a variety of applications. We determined the effects of SWCNTs on soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass through a 3-week incubation of urban soils treated with different concentrations of SWCNTs ranging from 0 to 1000 μg g(-1) soil. The activities of cellobiohydrolase, β-1,4-glucosidase, β-1,4-xylosidase, β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase, L-leucine aminopeptidase, and acid phosphatase and microbial biomass were measured in soils treated with powder and suspended forms of SWCNTs. SWCNTs of concentrations at 300-1000 μg g(-1) soil significantly lowered activities of most enzymes and microbial biomass. It is noteworthy that the SWCNTs showed similar effects to that of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), but at a concentration approximately 5 times lower; we suggest that this is mainly due to the higher surface area of SWCNTs than that of MWCNTs. Indeed, our results show that surface area of CNTs has significant negative relationship with relative enzyme activity and biomass, which suggests that greater microorganism-CNT interactions could increase the negative effect of CNTs on microorganisms. Current work may contribute to the preparation of a regulatory guideline for the release of CNTs to the soil environment.

  9. Elevated blood plasma concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin in benign ovarian neoplasms and ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Markowska, A; Ziółkowska, A; Jaszczyńska-Nowinka, K; Madry, R; Malendowicz, L K

    2009-01-01

    Both ghrelin and obestatin are derived from preproghrelin by post-translational processing. The two peptides are secreted into the blood but circulating levels of these peptides have not been assessed in women with ovarian tumours. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate peripheral blood concentrations of active and total ghrelin and obestatin in patients with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer. The studies were conducted on 22 patients operated due to benign ovarian tumours, and 31 patients operated due to ovarian cancer. A control group consisted of 32 women, 24 to 65 years of age. Both in women with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer blood concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin were higher than in the control group (active ghrelin: 90 +/- 4, 84 +/- 4 and 56 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively, obestatin: 660 +/- 36; 630 +/- 30 and 538 +/- 31 ng/ml (x +/- SE), respectively). In contrast, total ghrelin concentrations in blood were similar in the studied groups. The alterations resulted in increased values of active to total ghrelin concentration ratio in the peripheral blood of patients with benign ovarian tumours or with ovarian cancer (0.79 +/- 0.02 and 0.93 +/- 0.05, respectively vs 0.58 +/- 0.02 in the control group). Due to the absence of any convincing proof for the presence of a functional GHS-R-1a receptor for ghrelin in human ovaries it did not seem probable that the observed elevated levels of active ghrelin and obestatin were directly linked to development of ovarian tumours.

  10. Platelet Activation by Low Concentrations of Intact Oxidized LDL Particles Involves the PAF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Chen, Xi; Salomon, Robert G.; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Mitochondrial depolarization aids platelet activation. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) contains the medium length oxidatively truncated phospholipid hexadecyl azelaoyl-lysoPAF (HAz-LPAF) that disrupts mitochondrial function in nucleated cells, so oxLDL may augment platelet activation. Methods and Results Flow cytometry showed intact oxLDL particles synergized with sub-threshold amounts of soluble agonists to increase intracellular Ca++, and initiate platelet aggregation and surface expression of activated gpIIb/IIIa and P-selectin. oxLDL also induced aggregation and increased intracellular Ca++ in FURA2-labeled cells by itself at low, although not higher, concentrations. HAz-LPAF, alone and in combination with sub-stimulatory amounts of thrombin, rapidly increased cytoplasmic Ca++ and initiated aggregation. HAz-LPAF depolarized mitochondria in intact platelets, but this required concentrations beyond those that directly activated platelets. An unexpectedly large series of chemically pure truncated phospholipids generated by oxidative fragmentation of arachidonoyl-, docosahexaneoyl-, or linoleoyl alkyl phospholipids were platelet agonists. The PAF receptor, thought to effectively recognize only phospholipids with very short sn-2 residues, was essential for platelet activation because PAF receptor agonists blocked signaling by all these medium length phospholipids and oxLDL. Conclusions Intact oxLDL particles activate platelets through the PAF receptor, and the PAF receptor responds to a far wider range of oxidized phospholipids in oxLDL than anticipated. PMID:19112165

  11. Further studies of activation-inactivation coupling in Myxicola axons. Insensitivity to changes in calcium concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Schauf, C L; Davis, F A

    1975-01-01

    In Myxicola axons subjected to moderate depolarizations the sodium inactivation time constants obtained from the decay of sodium current during a maintained depolarizatin (TSh) are substantially smaller than inactivation time constants determined at the same potential from the effect of changes in the duration of conditioning prepulses (Tph). This report extends these observations to positive membrane potentials and demonstrates that for sufficiently large depolarizations TSh and Tph become comparable. The ratio of inactivation time constants, Tph/TSh, is unaffected by changes in [Ca++] provided total divalent cation concentration is maintained constant, while changes in total divalent ion concentrations produce simple voltage shifts comparable to those obtained from measurement of membrane sodium or potassium conductances. Sodium inactivation delay was quantitatively determined as a function of membrane potential, and found to be similarly unaffected by changes in [Ca++] at constant total divalent ion concentration. Inactivation delay is, however, directly proportional to the activation rate constant over a wide range of potentials. PMID:1201328

  12. Evaluation of activated carbon respirator filter effectiveness by concentration mapping of dimethyl methylphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Billingsley, Brit G; Logue, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has been used extensively in personal protective equipment (PPE) to adsorb toxic substances for the purpose of protecting the user from exposure. The ability to evaluate localized carbon utilization in multiple PPE designs would help engineers develop more effective PPE. Therefore, a method to map dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a common PPE testing agent, concentrations throughout AC filters was developed and tested on DMMP-exposed filters, some purposefully occluded to simulate defective filters. DMMP concentrations were highest at the point of entry and dispersed outward in a radial pattern from that site, decreasing with distance from the point of exposure. Occluded filters were detected by observing DMMP adsorption inconsistent with unblocked filters and showed high concentrations of DMMP localized in unblocked areas of the filter. The DMMP mapping technique detailed in this study provides a tool for testing AC utilization inside DMMP-exposed PPE. PMID:24517267

  13. Primary centers and secondary concentrations of tectonic activity through time in the western hemisphere of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Franklin, B.J.; Tanaka, K.L.; Lias, J.; Peer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Five main stages of radial and concentric structures formed around Tharsis from the Noachian through the Amazonian as determined by geologic mapping of 24,452 structures within the stratigraphic framework of Mars and by testing their radial and concentric orientations. Tectonic activity peaked in the Noachian (stage 1) around the largest center, Claritas, an elongate center extending more than 20?? in latitude and defined by about half of the total grabens which are concentrated in the Syria Planum, Thaumasia, and Tempe Terra regions. During the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian (stage 2), extensional structures formed along the length of present-day Valles Marineris and in Thaumasia (with a secondary concentration near Warrego Vallis) radial to a region just to the south of the central margin of Valles Marineris. Early Hesperian (stage 3) radial grabens in Pavonis, Syria, Ulysses, and Tempe Terra and somewhat concentric wrinkle ridges in Lunae and Solis Plana and in Thaumasia, Sirenum, Memnonia, and Amazonis are centered northwest of Syria with secondary centers at Thaumasia, Tempe Terra, Ulysses Fossae, and western Valles Marineris. Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian (stage 4) structures around Alba Patera, the northeast trending alignment of Tharsis Montes, and Olympus Mons appears centered on Alba Patera. Stage 5 structures (Middle-Late Amazonian) represent the last pulse of Tharsis-related activity and are found around the large shield volcanoes and are centered near Pavonis Mons. Tectonic activity around Tharsis began in the Noachian and generally decreased through geologic time to the Amazonian. Statistically significant radial distributions of structures formed during each stage, centered at different locations within the higher elevations of Tharsis. Secondary centers of radial structures during many of the stages appear related to previously identified local magmatic centers that formed at different times and locations throughout Tharsis. Copyright 2001 by

  14. Mercury Inhibits Soil Enzyme Activity in a Lower Concentration than the Guideline Value.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Three soil types - neutral, alkaline and acidic were experimentally contaminated with nine different concentrations of inorganic mercury (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg) to derive effective concentrations of mercury that exert toxicity on soil quality. Bioavailability of mercury in terms of water solubility was lower in acidic soil with higher organic carbon. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nitrification rate were chosen as indicators to assess soil quality. Inorganic mercury significantly inhibited (p < 0.001) microbial activities in the soils. The critical mercury contents (EC10) were found to be less than the available safe limits for inorganic mercury which demonstrated inadequacy of existing guideline values.

  15. Effect of Fe doping concentration on photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanosheets under natural sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhra, Richa; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-05-15

    A facile room temperature, aqueous solution-based chemical method has been adopted for large-scale synthesis of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets. The XRD and SEM results reveal the as-synthesized products well crystalline and accumulated by large amount of interweave nanosheets, respectively. Energy dispersive spectroscopy data confirmed Fe doping of the ZnO nanosheets with a varying Fe concentration. The photoluminescence spectrum reveals a continuous suppression of defect related emissions intensity by increasing the concentration of the Fe ion. A photocatalytic activity using these samples under sunlight irradiation in the mineralization of methylene blue dye was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets depends upon the presence of surface oxygen vacancies.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of clove oil dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution.

    PubMed

    Briozzo, J; Núñez, L; Chirife, J; Herszage, L; D'Aquino, M

    1989-01-01

    Essential oil of clove, dispersed (0.4% v/v) in a concentrated sugar solution, had a marked germicidal effect against various bacteria and Candida albicans. Staphylococcus aureus (five strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli inoculated at a level of 10(7) cfu/ml, and C. albicans (inoculum 4.0 x 10(5) cfu/ml) were killed (greater than 99.999%) after 2-7 min in a laboratory broth supplemented with 63% (v/w) of sugar, and containing 0.4% (v/w) of essential oil of clove. Added organic matter (i.e. human or bovine serum) did not impair its antimicrobial activity. Sugar was not necessary for the antimicrobial activity of clove oil, but the concentrated sugar solution provided a good vehicle for obtaining an oil dispersion that is relatively stable for certain practical applications. PMID:2542213

  17. Low concentration of arsenite exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Xujun; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu Wenlan; Timmins, Graham S.; Liu Kejian

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated arsenic exposure with many types of human cancers. Arsenic has also been shown to act as a co-carcinogen even at low concentrations. However, the precise mechanism of its co-carcinogenic action is unknown. Recent studies indicate that arsenic can interfere with DNA-repair processes. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 is a zinc-finger DNA-repair protein, which can promptly sense DNA strand breaks and initiate DNA-repair pathways. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of arsenic could inhibit PAPR-1 activity and so exacerbate levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA strand breaks. HaCat cells were treated with arsenite and/or UVR, and then DNA strand breaks were assessed by comet assay. Low concentrations of arsenite ({<=} 2 {mu}M) alone did not induce significant DNA strand breaks, but greatly enhanced the DNA strand breaks induced by UVR. Further studies showed that 2 {mu}M arsenite effectively inhibited PARP-1 activity. Zinc supplementation of arsenite-treated cells restored PARP-1 activity and significantly diminished the exacerbating effect of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA strand breaks. Importantly, neither arsenite treatment, nor zinc supplementation changed UVR-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, suggesting that their effects upon UVR-induced DNA strand breaks are not through a direct free radical mechanism. Combination treatments of arsenite with PARP-1 inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide or PARP-1 siRNA demonstrate that PARP-1 is the target of arsenite. Together, these findings show that arsenite at low concentration exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity, which may represent an important mechanism underlying the co-carcinogenicity of arsenic.

  18. Response of oxidative enzyme activities to nitrogen deposition affects soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that atmospheric nitrate (NO3- ) deposition can alter soil carbon (C) storage by directly affecting the activity of lignin-degrading soil fungi. In a laboratory experiment, we studied the direct influence of increasing soil NO 3- concentration on microbial C cycling in three different ecosystems: black oak-white oak (BOWO), sugar maple-red oak (SMRO), and sugar maple-basswood (SMBW). These ecosystems span a broad range of litter biochemistry and recalcitrance; the BOWO ecosystem contains the highest litter lignin content, SMRO had intermediate lignin content, and SMBW leaf litter has the lowest lignin content. We hypothesized that increasing soil solution NO 3- would reduce lignolytic activity in the BOWO ecosystem, due to a high abundance of white-rot fungi and lignin-rich leaf litter. Due to the low lignin content of litter in the SMBW, we further reasoned that the NO3- repression of lignolytic activity would be less dramatic due to a lower relative abundance of white-rot basidiomycetes; the response in the SMRO ecosystem should be intermediate. We increased soil solution NO3- concentrations in a 73-day laboratory incubation and measured microbial respiration and soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenolics concentrations. At the end of the incubation, we measured the activity of ??-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase, which are extracellular enzymes involved with cellulose and lignin degradation. We quantified the fungal biomass, and we also used fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) to gain insight into fungal community composition. In the BOWO ecosystem, increasing NO 3- significantly decreased oxidative enzyme activities (-30% to -54%) and increased DOC (+32% upper limit) and phenolic (+77% upper limit) concentrations. In the SMRO ecosystem, we observed a significant decrease in phenol oxidase activity (-73% lower limit) and an increase in soluble phenolic concentrations

  19. The application of constant recycle solids concentration in activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Bonotan-Dura, F M; Yang, P Y

    1976-02-01

    The applicability of the model derived by Ramanathan and Gaudy (Biotechnol. Bioeng., 11, 207, (1969)) for completely mixed activated sludge treatment holding the recycle solids concentration as a system constant was investigated using an actual industrial organic wastewater. Short-term experiments were conducted at various dilution rates (1/8, 1/6, 1/4, 1/2, 1/1.5 hr-1) for two recycle solids concentration values (5000 and 7000 mg/liter). The influent substrate concentration was maintained at 1000 mg/liter COD and the hydraulic recycle ratio- alpha, was kept at 0.3. It was found that for bottling plant (Pepsi Cola) wastewaters, a steady state with respect to reactor biological solids and effluent COD, at different dilution rates, could be attained, lending experimental evidence to the assumption that a steady state could be reached in developing the model and also affecting the applicability of the model in industrial organic wastewater. The reactor biological solids and effluent COD calculated from the model closely agreed with the observed values at dilution rates lower than 0.5 hr-1. Operation at dilution rates higher than 0.5 hr-1 will washout the biological solids from the reactor and the recycle substrate concentration will be apparent if the concentration of XR were not increased.

  20. Comparison of digoxin concentration in plastic serum tubes with clot activator and heparinized plasma tubes

    PubMed Central

    Dukić, Lora; Šimundić, Ana-Maria; Malogorski, Davorin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sample type recommended by the manufacturer for the digoxin Abbott assay is either serum collected in glass tubes or plasma (sodium heparin, lithium heparin, citrate, EDTA or oxalate as anticoagulant) collected in plastic tubes. In our hospital samples are collected in plastic tubes. Our hypothesis was that the serum sample collected in plastic serum tube can be used interchangeably with plasma sample for measurement of digoxin concentration. Our aim was verification of plastic serum tubes for determination of digoxin concentration. Materials and methods: Concentration of digoxin was determined simultaneously in 26 venous blood plasma (plastic Vacuette, LH Lithium heparin) and serum (plastic Vacuette, Z Serum Clot activator; both Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) samples, on Abbott AxSYM analyzer using the original Abbott Digoxin III assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany). Tube comparability was assessed using the Passing Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot. Results: Serum and plasma digoxin concentrations are comparable. Passing Bablok intercept (0.08 [95% CI = −0.10 to 0.20]) and slope (0.99 [95% CI = 0.92 to 1.11]) showed there is no constant or proportional error. Conclusion: Blood samples drawn in plastic serum tubes and plastic plasma tubes can be interchangeably used for determination of digoxin concentration. PMID:24627723

  1. Quantifying the 3D Odorant Concentration Field Used by Actively Tracking Blue Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Dickman, B. D.; Jackson, J. L.; Weissburg, M. J.

    2007-11-01

    Blue crabs and other aquatic organisms locate food and mates by tracking turbulent odorant plumes. The odorant concentration fluctuates unpredictably due to turbulent transport, and many characteristics of the fluctuation pattern have been hypothesized as useful cues for orienting to the odorant source. To make a direct linkage between tracking behavior and the odorant concentration signal, we developed a measurement system based the laser induced fluorescence technique to quantify the instantaneous 3D concentration field surrounding actively tracking blue crabs. The data suggest a correlation between upstream walking speed and the concentration of the odorant signal arriving at the antennule chemosensors, which are located near the mouth region. More specifically, we note an increase in upstream walking speed when high concentration bursts arrive at the antennules location. We also test hypotheses regarding the ability of blue crabs to steer relative to the plume centerline based on the signal contrast between the chemosensors located on their leg appendages. These chemosensors are located much closer to the substrate compared to the antennules and are separated by the width of the blue crab. In this case, it appears that blue crabs use the bilateral signal comparison to track along the edge of the plume.

  2. The application of constant recycle solids concentration in activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Bonotan-Dura, F M; Yang, P Y

    1976-02-01

    The applicability of the model derived by Ramanathan and Gaudy (Biotechnol. Bioeng., 11, 207, (1969)) for completely mixed activated sludge treatment holding the recycle solids concentration as a system constant was investigated using an actual industrial organic wastewater. Short-term experiments were conducted at various dilution rates (1/8, 1/6, 1/4, 1/2, 1/1.5 hr-1) for two recycle solids concentration values (5000 and 7000 mg/liter). The influent substrate concentration was maintained at 1000 mg/liter COD and the hydraulic recycle ratio- alpha, was kept at 0.3. It was found that for bottling plant (Pepsi Cola) wastewaters, a steady state with respect to reactor biological solids and effluent COD, at different dilution rates, could be attained, lending experimental evidence to the assumption that a steady state could be reached in developing the model and also affecting the applicability of the model in industrial organic wastewater. The reactor biological solids and effluent COD calculated from the model closely agreed with the observed values at dilution rates lower than 0.5 hr-1. Operation at dilution rates higher than 0.5 hr-1 will washout the biological solids from the reactor and the recycle substrate concentration will be apparent if the concentration of XR were not increased. PMID:1252608

  3. Interplay of solvent additive concentration and active layer thickness on the performance of small molecule solar cells.

    PubMed

    Love, John A; Collins, Samuel D; Nagao, Ikuhiro; Mukherjee, Subhrangsu; Ade, Harald; Bazan, Guillermo C; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen

    2014-11-19

    A relationship between solvent additive concentration and active layer thickness in small-molecule solar cells is investigated. Specifically, the additive concentration must scale with the amount of semiconductor material and not as absolute concentration in solution. Devices with a wide range of active layers with thickness up to 200 nm can readily achieve efficiencies close to 6% when the right concentration of additive is used.

  4. Hepatitis C virus NS3 protease is activated by low concentrations of protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Göran; Arenas, Omar Gutiérrez; Danielson, U Helena

    2009-12-01

    The nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a bifunctional enzyme with a protease and a helicase functionality located in each of the two domains of the single peptide chain. There is little experimental evidence for a functional role of this unexpected arrangement since artificial single domain forms of both enzymes are catalytically competent. We have observed that low concentrations of certain protease inhibitors activate the protease of full-length NS3 from HCV genotype 1a with up to 100%, depending on the preincubation time and the inhibitor used. The activation was reduced, but not eliminated, by increased ionic strength, lowered glycerol concentration, or lowered pH. In all cases, it was at the expense of a significant loss of activity. Activation was not seen with the artificial protease domain of genotype 1b NS3 fused with a fragment of the NS4A cofactor. This truncated and covalently modified enzyme form was much less active and exhibited fundamentally different catalytic properties to the full-length NS3 protease without the fused cofactor. The most plausible explanation for the activation was found to involve a slow transition between two enzyme conformations, which differed in their catalytic ability and affinity for inhibitors. Equations derived based on this assumption resulted in better fits to the experimental data than the equation for simple competitive inhibition. The mechanism may involve an inhibitor-induced stabilization of the helicase domain in a conformation that enhances the protease activity, or an improved alignment of the catalytic triad in the protease. The proposed mnemonic mechanism and derived equations are viable for both these explanations and can serve as a basic framework for future studies of enzymes activated by inhibitors or other ligands.

  5. Using Photon Activation Analysis To Determine Concentrations Of Unknown Components In Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun, Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Maschner, Herb

    2011-06-01

    Using certified multi-element reference materials for instrumental analyses one frequently is confronted with the embarrassing fact that the concentration of some desired elements are not given in the respective certificate, nonetheless are detectable, e.g. by photon activation analysis (PAA). However, these elements might be determinable with sufficient quality of the results using scaling parameters and the well-known quantities of a reference element within the reference material itself. Scaling parameters include: activation threshold energy, Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) peak and endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung continuum; integrated photo-nuclear cross sections for the isotopes of the reference element; bremsstrahlung continuum integral; target thickness; photon flux density. Photo-nuclear cross sections from the unreferenced elements must be known, too. With these quantities, the integral was obtained for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the unreported element based upon the reported value, thus also the concentration of the unreferenced element in the reference material. A similar method to determine elements using the basic nuclear and experimental data has been developed for thermal neutron activation analysis some time ago (k{sub 0} Method).

  6. Bayesian Estimation of the Active Concentration and Affinity Constants Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feng; Kepler, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has previously been employed to measure the active concentration of analyte in addition to the kinetic rate constants in molecular binding reactions. Those approaches, however, have a few restrictions. In this work, a Bayesian approach is developed to determine both active concentration and affinity constants using SPR technology. With the appropriate prior probabilities on the parameters and a derived likelihood function, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is applied to compute the posterior probability densities of both the active concentration and kinetic rate constants based on the collected SPR data. Compared with previous approaches, ours exploits information from the duration of the process in its entirety, including both association and dissociation phases, under partial mass transport conditions; do not depend on calibration data; multiple injections of analyte at varying flow rates are not necessary. Finally the method is validated by analyzing both simulated and experimental datasets. A software package implementing our approach is developed with a user-friendly interface and made freely available. PMID:26098764

  7. Effect of petrochemical sludge concentrations of changes in mutagenic activity during soil bioremediation process.

    PubMed

    Morelli, I S; Vecchioli, G I; Del Panno, M T; Painceira, M T

    2001-10-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effect of the petrochemical sludge application rate on the mutagenic activity (Ames test) of soil and the persistence of mutagenic activity during laboratory soil bioremediation process. Sludge-soil systems were prepared at four different sludge application rates (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10% w/w). Unamended soil was used as a control. Immediately following sludge application, in the absence or presence of S9, a linear correlation between sludge application rates and mutagenicity was found but differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the control system only at higher application rates (5 and 10% w/w). The direct mutagenicity of all systems decreases during the bioremediation process, and after a year of treatment only the 10% system induced a mutagenic response that was significantly different from the control system. On the other hand, an initial increase of the indirect mutagenicity was observed at all application rates. The time required for observing this increase was inversely proportional to the initial sludge concentration. After a year of treatment, the indirect mutagenicity of all sludge-amended soils was not significantly different but was significantly different from the unamended soils. The persistence of the direct mutagenic activity of the sludge-amended soils was related to the sludge concentration, whereas the indirect mutagenic persistence was related to the relationship between easily degradable hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentration and independent from the initial application rate. PMID:11596747

  8. Effect of petrochemical sludge concentrations of changes in mutagenic activity during soil bioremediation process.

    PubMed

    Morelli, I S; Vecchioli, G I; Del Panno, M T; Painceira, M T

    2001-10-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effect of the petrochemical sludge application rate on the mutagenic activity (Ames test) of soil and the persistence of mutagenic activity during laboratory soil bioremediation process. Sludge-soil systems were prepared at four different sludge application rates (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10% w/w). Unamended soil was used as a control. Immediately following sludge application, in the absence or presence of S9, a linear correlation between sludge application rates and mutagenicity was found but differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the control system only at higher application rates (5 and 10% w/w). The direct mutagenicity of all systems decreases during the bioremediation process, and after a year of treatment only the 10% system induced a mutagenic response that was significantly different from the control system. On the other hand, an initial increase of the indirect mutagenicity was observed at all application rates. The time required for observing this increase was inversely proportional to the initial sludge concentration. After a year of treatment, the indirect mutagenicity of all sludge-amended soils was not significantly different but was significantly different from the unamended soils. The persistence of the direct mutagenic activity of the sludge-amended soils was related to the sludge concentration, whereas the indirect mutagenic persistence was related to the relationship between easily degradable hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentration and independent from the initial application rate.

  9. Concentration of enteric virus indicator from seawater using granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Jiemin; Gutierrez, Miguel; Goodridge, Lawrence; Janes, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Fecal contamination of shellfish growing seawater with enteric viruses is often associated with human outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Male specific bacteriophage MS2 is correlated with those of enteric viruses in a wide range of water environments and has been used widely as a surrogate for pathogenic waterborne viruses. Since viruses in contaminated water are usually at low levels, the development of methods to concentrate viruses from water is crucial for detection purposes. In the present study, granular activated carbon was evaluated for concentration of MS2 from artificial seawater, and different parameters of the seawater were also compared. Recovery of MS2 from warm seawater (37°C) was found to be significantly greater than from cold seawater (4 and 20°C), and even greater than from fresh water (4, 20 and 37°C); the difference between seawater and fresh water became less profound when the temperatures of both were below 37°C. Although not of statistical significance, recovery of MS2 from low salinity seawater (10 and 20 parts per thousand, ppt) was greater than from high salinity seawater (30 and 40ppt). One gram of granular activated carbon was able to extract 6-log plaque forming units (PFU) of MS2 from 500ml seawater at 37°C. This study demonstrated that granular activated carbon can concentrate an enteric virus indicator from shellfish growing seawater effectively.

  10. Study of the adsorption of Cd and Zn onto an activated carbon: Influence of pH, cation concentration, and adsorbent concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, A.; Marzal, P.; Gabaldon, C.; Ferrer, J.

    1999-06-01

    The single adsorption of Cd and Zn from aqueous solutions has been investigated on Scharlau Ca 346 granular activated carbon in a wide range of experimental conditions: pH, metal concentration, and carbon concentration. The results showed the efficiency of the activated carbon as sorbent for both metals. Metal removals increase on raising the pH and carbon concentration, and decrease on raising the initial metal concentration. The adsorption processes have been modeled using the surface complex formation (SCF) Triple Layer Model (TLM). The adsorbent TLM parameters were determined. Modeling has been performed assuming a single surface bidentate species or an overall surface species with fractional stoichiometry. The bidentate stoichiometry successfully predicted cadmium and zinc removals in all the experimental conditions. The Freundlich isotherm has been also checked.

  11. Coat Protein Activation of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus Replication Is Concentration Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Guogas, Laura M.; Laforest, Siana M.; Gehrke, Lee

    2005-01-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and ilarvirus RNAs are infectious only in the presence of the viral coat protein; therefore, an understanding of coat protein's function is important for defining viral replication mechanisms. Based on in vitro replication experiments, the conformational switch model states that AMV coat protein blocks minus-strand RNA synthesis (R. C. Olsthoorn, S. Mertens, F. T. Brederode, and J. F. Bol, EMBO J. 18:4856-4864, 1999), while another report states that coat protein present in an inoculum is required to permit minus-strand synthesis (L. Neeleman and J. F. Bol, Virology 254:324-333, 1999). Here, we report on experiments that address these contrasting results with a goal of defining coat protein′s function in the earliest stages of AMV replication. To detect coat-protein-activated AMV RNA replication, we designed and characterized a subgenomic luciferase reporter construct. We demonstrate that activation of viral RNA replication by coat protein is concentration dependent; that is, replication was strongly stimulated at low coat protein concentrations but decreased progressively at higher concentrations. Genomic RNA3 mutations preventing coat protein mRNA translation or disrupting coat protein's RNA binding domain diminished replication. The data indicate that RNA binding and an ongoing supply of coat protein are required to initiate replication on progeny genomic RNA transcripts. The data do not support the conformational switch model's claim that coat protein inhibits the initial stages of viral RNA replication. Replication activation may correlate with low local coat protein concentrations and low coat protein occupancy on the multiple binding sites present in the 3′ untranslated regions of the viral RNAs. PMID:15827190

  12. Effects of CO/sub 2/ concentration on rubisco amount, activity, and photosynthesis in soybean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, W.J.; Allen, L.H. Jr.; Bowes, G.

    1987-04-01

    Soybeans were grown at CO/sub 2/ concentrations ranging from 160 to 990 ..mu..l L/sup -1/ in outdoor chambers receiving natural sunlight. Leaf soluble protein and total rubisco activity decreased with increasing growth CO/sub 2/, when expressed on a dry weight basis, but no decrease occurred on an area basis. On an area basis, leaf photosynthetic rates of plants grown at 330 and 660 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/ L/sup -1/, and measured over a range of intercellular CO/sub 2/ of 50 to 680 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/ L/sup -1/, were always greater in the high CO/sub 2/ grown plants. Rubisco content (percent of soluble protein) and total activity (soluble protein basis), remained unchanged over the range of growth CO/sub 2/. Since rubisco content and total activity per m/sup 2/ were independent of growth CO/sub 2/ concentration, the enhanced rate of photosynthesis of leaves grown at high CO/sub 2/ was apparently not due to an increase in rubisco amount or activity. Soybean grown at high CO/sub 2/ has an extra palisade cell layer per unit leaf area. Thus, the greater photosynthetic rates of high CO/sub 2/ grown leaves may result from an enhanced ability of CO/sub 2/ to gain access to rubisco via increased total mesophyll cell surface area.

  13. Tracking Dissolved Methane Concentrations near Active Seeps and Gas Hydrates: Sea of Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. T.; Aoki, S.; Matsumoto, R.; Tomaru, H.; Owari, S.; Nakajima, R.; Doolittle, D. F.; Brant, B.

    2015-12-01

    A number of regions in the Sea of Japan are known for active gas venting and for gas hydrate exposures on the sea floor. In this investigation we employed several gas sensors mounted on a ROV in order to determine the concentrations of dissolved methane in the water near these sites. Methane concentrations were determined during two-second intervals throughout each ROV deployment during the cruise. The methane sensor deployments were coupled with seawater sampling using Niskin bottles. Dissolved gas concentrations were later measured using gas chromatography in order to compare with the sensor results taken at the same time. The observed maximum dissolved methane concentrations were much lower than saturation values, even when the ROV manipulators were in contact with gas hydrate. Nonetheless, dissolved concentrations did reach several thousands of nmol/L near gas hydrate exposures and gas bubbles, more than two orders of magnitude over the instrumental detection limits. Most of the sensors tested were able to detect dissolved methane concentrations as low as 10 nmol/L which permitted detection when the ROV approached methane plume sites, even from several tens of meters above the sea floor. Despite the low detection limits, the methane sensors showed variable response times when returning to low-background seawater (~5nM). For some of the sensors, the response time necessary to return to background values occurred in a matter of minutes, while for others it took several hours. Response time, as well as detection limit, should be an important consideration when selecting methane sensors for ROV or AUV investigations. This research was made possible, in part, through funding provided by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  14. Activity patterns, blood lactate concentrations and ratings of perceived exertion during a professional singles tennis tournament

    PubMed Central

    Mendez‐Villanueva, Alberto; Fernandez‐Fernandez, Jaime; Bishop, David; Fernandez‐Garcia, Benjamin; Terrados, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the game characteristics and physiological (ie, blood lactate concentration) and perceptual (ie, rating of perceived exertion, RPE) responses during actual tennis competition in professional performers. Methods Eight trained and internationally ranked (Association of Tennis Professionals rankings) male tennis players were studied during singles matches (best of three sets) played on an outdoor clay court surface during a professional, invitational tournament. Blood lactate concentrations (n = 53) and RPE (n = 113) were determined at selected changeovers during the game. The variables describing the characteristics of the matches, (a) duration of rallies (DRs); (b) rest time (RT); (c) effective playing time (EPT); and (d) shots per rally (SR), were determined from video recordings. Results The mean (SD) values for the match‐play activity variables were DR 7.5 (7.3) s, RT 16.2 (5.2) s, EPT 21.5 (4.9%), SR 2.7 (2.2) shots. Average blood lactate concentration and RPE values were 3.8 (2.0) mmol/l and 13 (2). Blood lactate concentrations and RPE values were significantly higher (p<0.01) in service games than in receiving games. Both blood lactate concentration and RPE values were significantly correlated with SR and DR (r = 0.80 to 0.28; p<0.001). Conclusions Blood lactate concentrations and RPE were found to be influenced by the characteristics of the match and the playing situation (ie, serving or returning). These specific situations might be used to alter the overload training stimulus during tennis on‐court practice. PMID:17237121

  15. Ascitic fluid gamma interferon concentrations and adenosine deaminase activity in tuberculous peritonitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sathar, M A; Simjee, A E; Coovadia, Y M; Soni, P N; Moola, S A; Insam, B; Makumbi, F

    1995-01-01

    The gamma interferon (gamma-IFN) concentration and the adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity were evaluated in 30 patients with tuberculous peritonitis, 21 patients with ascites due to a malignant disorder, and 41 patients with cirrhosis. The gamma-IFN concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in tuberculous peritonitis patients (mean: 6.70 U/ml) than in the malignant (mean: 3.10 U/ml) and cirrhotic (mean: 3.08 U/ml) groups. Use of a cut off value of > or = 3.2 U/ml gave the assay a sensitivity of 93% (25 of 27), a specificity of 98% (54 of 55), positive (P+) and negative (P-) predictive values of 96% and a test accuracy of 96%. The ADA activity was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in the tuberculous peritonitis group (mean: 101.84 U/l) than in the control groups (cirrhosis (mean: 13.49 U/l) and malignancy (mean: 19.35 U/l)). A cut off value of > 30 U/l gave the ADA test a sensitivity of 93% (26 of 28) a specificity of 96% (51 of 53), a (P+) value of 93%, a (P-) value of 96%, and a test accuracy of 95%. There was a significant (p < 0.0001) correlation (r = 0.72) between ADA activity and gamma-IFN values in patients with tuberculous peritonitis. These results show that a high concentration of gamma-IFN in ascitic fluid is as valuable as the ADA activity in the diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis. Both are rapid non-invasive diagnostic tests for tuberculous peritonitis. PMID:7698702

  16. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident and dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Franić, Zdenko; Petrinec, Branko; Marović, Gordana; Franić, Zrinka

    2007-02-01

    Systematic investigations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2005) in the Republic of Croatia are summarized. The correlation between (137)Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r = 0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 18 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of (137)Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.8 +/- 1.1 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than the theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl (137)Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. The annual effective doses received by (134)Cs and (137)Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of the Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput Dose for the entire 1986-2005 period was calculated to be about 2.9 microSv, (134)Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Therefore, after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia.

  17. Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, B G; Jaafar, M S; Azhar, A R; Akpa, T C

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively. PMID:21642647

  18. Variability in Saponin Content, Cancer Antiproliferative Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Concentrated Agave Sap.

    PubMed

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza Mireya; Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-08-01

    Concentrated agave sap (CAS) has gained popularity as an unrefined sweetener. It is obtained by boiling "aguamiel" that contains phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. Saponins have been the most widely studied agave phytochemicals due to their cancer antiproliferative effect but their concentration may vary due to maturity of the agave plant and collection site. In this study, 18 CAS samples produced in different states of Mexico were analyzed using multivariate methods to determine which physicochemical or phytochemical parameters were responsible for variation. Additionally, extracts with different saponin profiles were tested to determine possible correlations with antiproliferative activity. Total soluble solids, pH, and water activity were similar to those reported for other agave sweeteners. Antioxidant capacity of samples was correlated to browning index. Eleven steroidal saponins were found in CAS samples and they were the main source of variability. Magueyoside B, a kammogenin tetraglycoside, was the most abundant saponin in all samples. With respect to bioactivity, multivariate analysis indicated that magueyoside B and a gentrogenin tetraglycoside were compounds strongly related with bioactivity. CAS from Hidalgo, Puebla, and Veracruz had higher concentration of magueyoside B than from the other kamogenin tetraglycoside found in the samples from other Mexican states. These results could be used as a first approach to characterize and standardize CAS to validate the potential health benefits derived from its consumption. PMID:27376349

  19. Activity concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in nonmetallic industrial raw materials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Natural materials such as rock, ore, and clay, containing natural radioactive nuclides are widely used as industrial raw materials in Japan. If these are high concentrations, the workers who handle the material can be unknowingly exposed to radiation at a high level. In this study, about 80 nonmetallic natural materials frequently used as industrial raw materials in Japan were comprehensively collected from several industrial companies, and the activity concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K in the materials was determined by ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers handling them were estimated by using methods for dose estimation given in the RP 122. We found the activity concentrations to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum estimated effective dose to workers handling these materials was 0.16 mSv y(-1), which was lower than the reference level (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for existing situation given in the ICRP Publ.103.

  20. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    DOE PAGES

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; Spenkelink, Lisanne M.; McGrath, William J.; Morrone, Seamus R.; Sohn, Jungsan; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use ofmore » short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.« less

  1. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; Spenkelink, Lisanne M.; McGrath, William J.; Morrone, Seamus R.; Sohn, Jungsan; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use of short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.

  2. Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, B G; Jaafar, M S; Azhar, A R; Akpa, T C

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively.

  3. Variability in Saponin Content, Cancer Antiproliferative Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Concentrated Agave Sap.

    PubMed

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza Mireya; Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-08-01

    Concentrated agave sap (CAS) has gained popularity as an unrefined sweetener. It is obtained by boiling "aguamiel" that contains phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. Saponins have been the most widely studied agave phytochemicals due to their cancer antiproliferative effect but their concentration may vary due to maturity of the agave plant and collection site. In this study, 18 CAS samples produced in different states of Mexico were analyzed using multivariate methods to determine which physicochemical or phytochemical parameters were responsible for variation. Additionally, extracts with different saponin profiles were tested to determine possible correlations with antiproliferative activity. Total soluble solids, pH, and water activity were similar to those reported for other agave sweeteners. Antioxidant capacity of samples was correlated to browning index. Eleven steroidal saponins were found in CAS samples and they were the main source of variability. Magueyoside B, a kammogenin tetraglycoside, was the most abundant saponin in all samples. With respect to bioactivity, multivariate analysis indicated that magueyoside B and a gentrogenin tetraglycoside were compounds strongly related with bioactivity. CAS from Hidalgo, Puebla, and Veracruz had higher concentration of magueyoside B than from the other kamogenin tetraglycoside found in the samples from other Mexican states. These results could be used as a first approach to characterize and standardize CAS to validate the potential health benefits derived from its consumption.

  4. Concentrations of some antibiotics in synovial fluid after oral administration, with special reference to antistaphylococcal activity.

    PubMed

    Sattar, M A; Barrett, S P; Cawley, M I

    1983-02-01

    One of 4 antibiotics with antistaphylococcal activity was given in a conventional oral dose for one day to each of 20 hospitalised patients with synovial effusion of a knee joint requiring aspiration. Serial synchronous samples of serum and synovial fluid (SF) were taken over 36 hours through indwelling cannulae. No morbidity was experienced either during or after this procedure. Satisfactory antistaphylococcal concentrations in SF were achieved with sodium fusidate (500 mg 8 hourly) and amoxycillin (250 mg 8 hourly). Cephradine (500 mg 6 hourly) frequently failed to reach the minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus in the SF, and flucloxacillin (250 mg 6 hourly) was unpredictable in its penetration of the synovial space. Wide interpatient variation of both serum and SF concentrations was found. Our results indicate that sodium fusidate is an appropriate early treatment for a nonresistant staphylococcal joint infection. Amoxycillin is a suitable alternative or second antistaphylococcal drug and would also be appropriate initial therapy when the infecting organism is unknown. We strongly recommend that SF antibiotic concentrations be measured, to ensure adequate penetration of the synovial cavity, in the treatment of septic arthritis.

  5. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  6. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  7. Blood pressure, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations in vegans and omnivore controls.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Key, T J

    1987-06-01

    Blood pressure, plasma renin activity and the concentrations of aldosterone and cholesterol in plasma and sodium and potassium in urine (48-h collections) and nutrient intakes were determined in 22 vegans (11 male and 11 female) and omnivore controls matched for age, sex and body build. The vegan diets contained less protein, sodium, calcium and sulphur but more carbohydrate, potassium and fibre than the diets of their controls. The mean urinary potassium sodium ratio was 1.13 in the vegans compared with 0.64 in the omnivores. Plasma renin and cholesterol concentrations were lower in the male but not female vegans compared with their respective controls. Blood pressures of the vegan subjects were inside the normal range but they tended to have higher mean diastolic blood pressures than their controls.

  8. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in vitro activity of workers' urinary concentrates and raw materials.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, R; Paoletti, A; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Fabri, G; Carere, A

    1985-07-01

    The possible contribution to urinary mutagenicity of occupational exposures in the rubber industry was studied by assaying the urine concentrates of 72 workmen (44 smokers) employed in a tyre plant. Twenty three clerks (16 smokers) engaged in the administrative department of the same factory served as presumptive unexposed controls. XAD-2 resin concentrates of urine samples were assayed in the plate incorporation test and in the microtitre fluctuation assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA98, and TA100. Furthermore, the in vitro mutagenicity of the major raw materials in use at the plant was determined in the plate incorporation assay with S typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98, and TA100. The results obtained from the urinary mutagenicity study show that smoking habits, but not occupation, were statistically significantly related to the appearance of a urinary mutagenicity that was detectable with strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation with smoking was observed among tyre builders who were also smokers. The study of the raw materials showed that three technical grade materials were weakly active as mutagens in strain TA98 in the absence (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene) or in the presence of metabolic activation (mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines and tetramethyltiuram disulphide). The latter chemical was also weakly active in strain TA100. PMID:4015996

  9. Serum Malondialdehyde Concentration and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in a Longitudinal Study of Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, María; Muriach, María; Romero, Francisco J.; Villar, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of oxidative damage and to quantify its level in gestational diabetes. Methods Thirty-six healthy women and thirty-six women with gestational diabetes were studied in the three trimesters of pregnancy regarding their levels of oxidative stress markers. These women were diagnosed with diabetes in the second trimester of pregnancy. Blood glucose levels after 100g glucose tolerance test were higher than 190, 165 or 145 mg/dl, 1, 2 or 3 hours after glucose intake. Results The group of women with gestational diabetes had higher serum malondialdehyde levels, with significant differences between groups in the first and second trimester. The mean values of serum glutathione peroxidase activity in the diabetic women were significantly lower in the first trimester. In the group of women with gestational diabetes there was a negative linear correlation between serum malondialdehyde concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in the second and third trimester. Conclusions In this observational and longitudinal study in pregnant women, the alterations attributable to oxidative stress were present before the biochemical detection of the HbA1c increase. Usual recommendations once GD is detected (adequate metabolic control, as well as any other normally proposed to these patients) lowered the concentration of malondialdehyde at the end of pregnancy to the same levels of the healthy controls. Serum glutathione peroxidase activity in women with gestational diabetes increased during the gestational period. PMID:27228087

  10. Lithium ions in nanomolar concentration modulate glycine-activated chloride current in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, J V; Kondratenko, R V; Skrebitsky, V G

    2016-03-01

    Lithium salts are successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. At the same time, according to recent data lithium may be considered as a candidate medication for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of therapeutic action of lithium have not been fully elucidated. In particular, in the literature there are no data on the effect of lithium on the glycine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of Li(+) on glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) in rat isolated pyramidal hippocampal neurons using patch-clamp technique. The effects of Li(+) were studied with two glycine concentrations: 100 μM (EC50) and 500 μM (nearly saturating). Li(+) was applied to the cell in two ways: first, by 600 ms co-application with glycine through micropipette (short application), and, second, by addition to an extracellular perfusate for 10 min (longer application). Li(+) was used in the range of concentrations of 1 nM-1 mM. Short application of Li(+) caused two effects: (1) an acceleration of desensitization (a decrease in the time of half-decay, or "τ") of IGly induced by both 100 μM and 500 μM glycine, and (2) a reduction of the peak amplitude of the IGly, induced by 100 μM, but not by 500 μM glycine. Both effects were not voltage-dependent. Dose-response curves for both effects were N-shaped with two maximums at 100 nM and 1 mM of Li(+) and a minimum at 1 μM of Li(+). This complex form of dose-response may indicate that the process activated by high concentrations of lithium inhibits the process that is sensitive to low concentrations of lithium. Longer application of Li(+)caused similar effects, but in this case 1 μM lithium was effective and the dose-effect curves were not N-shaped. The inhibitory effect of lithium ions on glycine-activated current suggests that lithium in low concentrations is able to modulate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus. This important property of lithium should be considered when using this drug as a

  11. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  12. Effect of Direct-Current Electric Field on Enzymatic Activity and the Concentration of Laccase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxing; Zhang, Huiling; Ren, Dajun; Li, Qian; Zhang, Shuqin; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    This work investigates the effect of direct-current electric field on the extracellular enzymatic activity, concentration and other experimental parameters of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The results showed that laccase could significantly contribute to the change of pH at the end of graphite electrode. In addition, it increased the electrical conductivity of the water. In the experiment, the optimum pH and catalytic pH range for laccase activity were 3.0 and pH 2.5-4.0. The application of 6 V direct current showed significant effects on the laccase enzyme activity. The activity of laccase was enhanced in the anodic region, but at the same time was strongly inhibited at the cathode. The electric charge characteristics of laccase were changed when exposed to electric field, and some laccases molecules moved to the anode, which produced a slight migration phenomenon. This study is the basis of combination of laccase and electrical technology, at the same time, providing a new direction of enhancing laccase activity. Compared to immobilization, using electric field is simple, no chemical additives, and great potential.

  13. Concentric zones of active RhoA and Cdc42 around single cell wounds

    PubMed Central

    Benink, Hélène A.; Bement, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Rho GTPases control many cytoskeleton-dependent processes, but how they regulate spatially distinct features of cytoskeletal function within a single cell is poorly understood. Here, we studied active RhoA and Cdc42 in wounded Xenopus oocytes, which assemble and close a dynamic ring of actin filaments (F-actin) and myosin-2 around wound sites. RhoA and Cdc42 are rapidly activated around wound sites in a calcium-dependent manner and segregate into distinct, concentric zones around the wound, with active Cdc42 in the approximate middle of the F-actin array and active RhoA on the interior of the array. These zones form before F-actin accumulation, and then move in concert with the closing array. Microtubules and F-actin are required for normal zone organization and dynamics, as is crosstalk between RhoA and Cdc42. Each of the zones makes distinct contributions to the organization and function of the actomyosin wound array. We propose that similar rho activity zones control related processes such as cytokinesis. PMID:15684032

  14. Melanin-concentrating hormone is necessary for olanzapine-inhibited locomotor activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Chee, Melissa J S; Douris, Nicholas; Forrow, Avery B; Monnard, Arnaud; Lu, Shuangyu; Flaherty, Stephen E; Adams, Andrew C; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-10-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), an atypical antipsychotic, can be effective in treating patients with restricting type anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively. Clinical improvements include weight gain and reduced pathological hyperactivity. However the neuronal populations and mechanisms underlying OLZ actions are not known. We studied the effects of OLZ on hyperactivity using male mice lacking the hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCHKO) that are lean and hyperactive. We compared the in vivo effects of systemic or intra-accumbens nucleus (Acb) OLZ administration on locomotor activity in WT and MCHKO littermates. Acute systemic OLZ treatment in WT mice significantly reduced locomotor activity, an effect that is substantially attenuated in MCHKO mice. Furthermore, OLZ infusion directly into the Acb of WT mice reduced locomotor activity, but not in MCHKO mice. To identify contributing neuronal mechanisms, we assessed the effect of OLZ treatment on Acb synaptic transmission ex vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal OLZ treatment reduced Acb GABAergic activity in WT but not MCHKO neurons. This effect was also seen in vitro by applying OLZ to acute brain slices. OLZ reduced the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic activity that was more robust in WT than MCHKO Acb. These findings indicate that OLZ reduced Acb GABAergic transmission and that MCH is necessary for the hypolocomotor effects of OLZ.

  15. Effect of Yeast Probiotic on Growth, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Concentration of Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Kawu, Mohammed; Raji, Moshood; Dzenda, Tavershima; Govwang, Felix; Sinkalu, Victor; Ayo, Joseph

    2013-11-06

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of yeast probiotic on body weight, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on hybrid Hubbard broiler chickens (n = 200). Two-hundred day-old chicks were randomly selected and distributed into four groups of 50 day-old chicks each: Control, C, and treatment groups comprising T₁, T₂ and T₃ administered with 0.25 mL, 0.5 mL and 1.0 mL yeast probiotic, respectively. Chicks were fed a commercial starter diet for the first 28 days of age, followed by pelleted finisher diet from 29 to 42 days. Chickens in T₁ had a significantly (p < 0.01) higher body weight at 4th week of age when compared with the control. SOD activity in all treatment groups was not significantly (p > 0.05) different when compared with the control. GPx activity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in T₁, when compared with the control. GPx activity in T₂ was higher (p < 0.01) when compared with the control. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in MDA level in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, administering yeast probiotic supplement increased body weight and enhanced serum anti-oxidant enzyme activities of broiler chickens.

  16. Active concentric ring electrode for non-invasive detection of intestinal myoelectric signals.

    PubMed

    Prats-Boluda, Gema; Garcia-Casado, Javier; Martinez-de-Juan, Jose L; Ye-Lin, Yiyao

    2011-05-01

    Although the surface electroenterogram (EEnG) is a weak signal contaminated by strong physiological interference, such as ECG and respiration, abdominal surface recordings of the EEnG could provide a non-invasive method of studying intestinal activity. The goal of this work was to develop a modular, active, low-cost and easy-to-use sensor to obtain a direct estimation of the Laplacian of the EEnG on the abdominal surface in order to enhance the quality of bipolar surface monitoring of intestinal activity. The sensor is made up of a set of 3 concentric dry Ag/AgCl ring electrodes and a battery-powered signal-conditioning circuit. Each section is etched on a different printed circuit board (PCB) and the sections are joined to each other by surface mount technology connectors. This means the sensing electrodes can be treated independently for purposes of maintenance and replacement and the signal conditioning circuit can be re-used. A total of ten recording sessions were carried out on humans. The results show that the surface recordings of the EEnG obtained by the active sensor present significantly less ECG and respiration interference than those obtained by bipolar recordings. In addition, bioelectrical sources whose frequency fitted with the slow wave component of the EEnG (SW) were identified by parametric spectral analysis in the surface signals picked up by the active sensors.

  17. Activated charcoal filter counting for radioiodine effluent concentration determination in protein iodinations.

    PubMed

    Button, T M; Hamilton, R G

    1982-12-01

    Regulatory agencies have recently placed emphasis upon quantification of 125I released to the environment during protein iodinations at radioiodination facilities. This necessitates air sampling in order to determine the concentration of 125I in the effluent. Air sample trapping mechanisms generally employed are activated charcoal filters. Difficulty arises in quantifying the activity of 125I trapped because of the attenuation of the 125I decay photons by the charcoal. Evaluation of the activity incident upon commercially available filters using a scintillation detector and large detector source separation is considered here. It is demonstrated that the activity in the filter may be treated as an exponential distribution within an attentuating matrix. This treatment essentially adds a constant correction factor to the counting efficiency of a given geometry for a filter-affluent flow rate combination. Finally, it is shown that an approximation assuming a uniform distribution of activity produces a large error in correction factor to the counting efficiency for the filters examined. PMID:7152949

  18. Bactericidal activity of electrolyzed acid water from solution containing sodium chloride at low concentration, in comparison with that at high concentration.

    PubMed

    Kiura, Hiromasa; Sano, Kouichi; Morimatsu, Shinichi; Nakano, Takashi; Morita, Chizuko; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Maeda, Toyoyuki; Katsuoka, Yoji

    2002-05-01

    Electrolyzed strong acid water (ESW) containing free chlorine at various concentrations is becoming to be available in clinical settings as a disinfectant. ESW is prepared by electrolysis of a NaCl solution, and has a corrosive activity against medical instruments. Although lower concentrations of NaCl and free chlorine are desired to eliminate corrosion, the germicidal effect of ESW with low NaCl and free-chlorine concentrations (ESW-L) has not been fully clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that ESW-L possesses bactericidal activity against Mycobacteria and spores of Bacillus subtilis. The effect was slightly weaker than that of ESW containing higher NaCl and free-chlorine concentrations (ESW-H), but acceptable as a disinfectant. To clarify the mechanism of the bactericidal activity, we investigated ESW-L-treated Pseudomonas aeruginosa by transmission electron microscopy, a bacterial enzyme assay and restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern (RFLP) assay. Since the bacterium, whose growth was completely inhibited by ESW-L, revealed the inactivation of cytoplasmic enzyme, blebs and breaks in its outer membrane and remained complete RFLP of DNA, damage of the outer membrane and inactivation of cytoplasmic enzyme are the important determinants of the bactericidal activity.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Nanocomposites from Whey Protein Concentrate Activated with Lycopene.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rafaela Corrêa; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Assis, Odílio Benedito Garrido; Alvarenga, Gabriela Lara

    2016-03-01

    The production and characterization of nanocomposites based on whey protein concentrate (WPC) and montmorilonite (MMT) incorporated with lycopene as a functional substance is presented and discussed as an alternative biomaterial for potential uses in foodstuff applications. A full factorial design with varying levels of MMT (0% and 2% in w/w) and lycopene (0%, 6%, and 12% in w/w) was used. Color, light transmission, film transparency, moisture, density, solubility, water vapor permeability, and antioxidant activity of the resulting materials were evaluated. Results indicated that lycopene and MMT nanoparticles were successfully included in WPC films using the casting/evaporation method. Inclusion of 2% w/w of MMT in the polymeric matrix significantly improved barrier property against water vapor. Lycopene, besides its good red coloring ability, provided to the films antioxidant activity and UV-vis light protection. These findings open a new perspective for the use of materials for bioactive packaging applications. PMID:26814439

  20. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in-vitro activity of urine concentrates and rubber chemicals.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, R; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Carere, A; Paoletti, A; Fabri, G

    1984-01-01

    A possible occupational contribution to urinary mutagenicity was studied in a tyre plant, by assaying concentrates of urine from 72 workmen and 23 controls for their activity in the Ames test and microtitre fluctuation test. The results show that smoking habits but not occupation are related to the appearance of a detectable urinary mutagenicity in strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation was, however, observed among tyre builders who were smokers. Mutagenicity screening of 25 rubber chemicals, of major technological relevance and used in high volume in the workplace investigated, showed that three of them are weakly active in TA98 and TA100 (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) or TA98 alone (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene and mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines). PMID:6400096

  1. Barley chloroplast glutamine synthetase activity is not affected by CO sub 2 -concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, C.; Forde, B.; Wallsgrove, R. )

    1990-05-01

    It has been reported that when photorespiration is suppressed by raising the concentration of CO{sub 2}, the expression of the chloroplast glutamine synthetase (GS2) gene in pea leaves is reduced (Plant Cell, 1, 241). We have examined this effect in barley (Hordeum vulgare), and confirm that plants grown continuously in 0.8% CO{sub 2}, or transferred to such conditions after growth in air, appear to have a reduced GS2 mRNA abundance. However, we were unable to detect any significant difference in the extractable GS2 activity, or any change in amount of GS2 protein (judged by Western blots). Whatever controls are operating on gS2 mRNA expression in response to changes is external CO{sub 2}, they do not affect the activity or amount of the enzyme in barley.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Nanocomposites from Whey Protein Concentrate Activated with Lycopene.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rafaela Corrêa; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Assis, Odílio Benedito Garrido; Alvarenga, Gabriela Lara

    2016-03-01

    The production and characterization of nanocomposites based on whey protein concentrate (WPC) and montmorilonite (MMT) incorporated with lycopene as a functional substance is presented and discussed as an alternative biomaterial for potential uses in foodstuff applications. A full factorial design with varying levels of MMT (0% and 2% in w/w) and lycopene (0%, 6%, and 12% in w/w) was used. Color, light transmission, film transparency, moisture, density, solubility, water vapor permeability, and antioxidant activity of the resulting materials were evaluated. Results indicated that lycopene and MMT nanoparticles were successfully included in WPC films using the casting/evaporation method. Inclusion of 2% w/w of MMT in the polymeric matrix significantly improved barrier property against water vapor. Lycopene, besides its good red coloring ability, provided to the films antioxidant activity and UV-vis light protection. These findings open a new perspective for the use of materials for bioactive packaging applications.

  3. Feasibility and analysis of bipolar concentric recording of electrohysterogram with flexible active electrode.

    PubMed

    Ye-Lin, Y; Alberola-Rubio, J; Prats-Boluda, G; Perales, A; Desantes, D; Garcia-Casado, Javier

    2015-04-01

    The conduction velocity and propagation patterns of the electrohysterogram (EHG) provide fundamental information on the electrophysiological condition of the uterus. However, the accuracy of these measurements can be impaired by both the poor spatial selectivity and sensitivity to the relative direction of the contraction propagation associated with conventional disc electrodes. Concentric ring electrodes could overcome these limitations. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of picking up surface EHG signals using a new flexible tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE), and to compare these signals with conventional bipolar recordings. Simultaneous recording of conventional bipolar signals and bipolar concentric EHG (BC-EHG) were carried out on 22 pregnant women. Signal bursts were characterized and compared. No significant differences were found between the channels in either duration or dominant frequency in the Fast Wave High frequency range. Nonetheless, the high pass filtering effect of the BC-EHG recordings gave lower frequency content between 0.1 and 0.2 Hz. Although the BC-EHG signal amplitude was about 5-7 times smaller than that of bipolar recordings, a similar signal-to-noise ratio was obtained. These results suggest that the flexible TCRE is able to pick up uterine electrical activity and could provide additional information for deducing the uterine electrophysiological condition.

  4. Feasibility and analysis of bipolar concentric recording of electrohysterogram with flexible active electrode.

    PubMed

    Ye-Lin, Y; Alberola-Rubio, J; Prats-Boluda, G; Perales, A; Desantes, D; Garcia-Casado, Javier

    2015-04-01

    The conduction velocity and propagation patterns of the electrohysterogram (EHG) provide fundamental information on the electrophysiological condition of the uterus. However, the accuracy of these measurements can be impaired by both the poor spatial selectivity and sensitivity to the relative direction of the contraction propagation associated with conventional disc electrodes. Concentric ring electrodes could overcome these limitations. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of picking up surface EHG signals using a new flexible tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE), and to compare these signals with conventional bipolar recordings. Simultaneous recording of conventional bipolar signals and bipolar concentric EHG (BC-EHG) were carried out on 22 pregnant women. Signal bursts were characterized and compared. No significant differences were found between the channels in either duration or dominant frequency in the Fast Wave High frequency range. Nonetheless, the high pass filtering effect of the BC-EHG recordings gave lower frequency content between 0.1 and 0.2 Hz. Although the BC-EHG signal amplitude was about 5-7 times smaller than that of bipolar recordings, a similar signal-to-noise ratio was obtained. These results suggest that the flexible TCRE is able to pick up uterine electrical activity and could provide additional information for deducing the uterine electrophysiological condition. PMID:25274161

  5. Optimisation of concentrating solar cell systems with passive and active cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenberg, J.

    1983-10-01

    Design considerations for concentrator solar cell arrays for space applications are reviewed, noting the restrictions on total mass that govern system selections. Consideration is given to systems with parabolic mirrors and Si and GaAs solar cells. Passive and active cooling systems for the arrays are discussed, as is the addition of a heat engine with a turbogenerator to utilize part of the waste heat of the cooling cycle. Attention is given to systems orbiting at 0.5, 1, and 3.5 AU from the sun. Flat panels are found to be more suitable for missions near the sun for Si solar cells, while GaAs cells with concentration are preferred to flat panel systems at all distances from the sun. Nuclear turboelectric systems are better than concentrator Si arrays at large distances from the sun, in terms of specific masses of the systems. The addition of a system to use waste heat is judged unfavorable from specific mass factors.

  6. Concentrations and activity ratios of uranium isotopes in groundwater from Donana National Park, South of Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, J. P.; Olias, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-07

    The levels and distribution of natural radionuclides in groundwaters from the unconfined Almonte-Marismas aquifer, upon which Donana National Park is located, have been analysed. Most sampled points were multiple piezometers trying to study the vertical distribution of the hydrogeochemical characteristics in the aquifer. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were determined in the field. A large number of parameters, physico-chemical properties, major and minor ions, trace elements and natural radionuclides (U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, Ra-isotopes and {sup 210}Po), were also analysed. In the southern zone, where aeolian sands crop out, water composition is of the sodium chloride type, and the lower U-isotopes concentrations have been obtained. As water circulates through the aquifer, bicarbonate and calcium concentrations increase slightly, and higher radionuclides concentrations were measured. Finally, we have demonstrated that {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios can be used as markers of the type of groundwater and bedrock, as it has been the case for old waters with marine origin confined by a marsh in the south-east part of aquifer.

  7. Detection of enteric viruses in activated sludge by feasible concentration methods

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Tatiana; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are responsible to cause several diseases, including gastroenteritis and hepatitis, and can be present in high amounts in sewage sludge. This study compared virus recovery efficiency of two feasible concentration methods used for detecting human adenovirus (HAdV), rotavirus species A (RV-A), norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in sewage sludge from an activated sludge process. Twelve sewage sludge samples were collected bi-monthly from January to July, 2011. Ultracentrifugation was compared with a simplified protocol based on beef extract elution for recovering enteric viruses. Viruses were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR assays and virus recovery efficiency and limits of detection were determined. Methods showed mean recovery rates lower than 7.5%, presenting critical limits of detection (higher than 102 – 103 genome copies - GC L−1 for all viruses analyzed). Nevertheless, HAdV were detected in 90% of the analyzed sewage sludge samples (range: 1.8 × 104 to 1.1 × 105 GC L−1), followed by RV-A and NoV (both in 50%) and HAV (8%). Results suggesting that activated sludge is contaminated with high viral loads and HAdV are widely disseminated in these samples. The low virus recovery rates achieved, especially for HAV, indicate that other feasible concentration methods could be developed to improve virus recovery efficiency in these environmental matrices. PMID:24948954

  8. RNA Remodeling Activity of DEAD Box Proteins Tuned by Protein Concentration, RNA Length, and ATP.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Myong, Sua

    2016-09-01

    DEAD box RNA helicases play central roles in RNP biogenesis. We reported earlier that LAF-1, a DEAD box RNA helicase in C. elegans, dynamically interacts with RNA and that the interaction likely contributes to the fluidity of RNP droplets. Here we investigate the molecular basis of the interaction of RNA with LAF-1 and its human homolog, DDX3X. We show that both LAF-1 and DDX3X, at low concentrations, are monomers that induce tight compaction of single-stranded RNA. At high concentrations, the proteins are multimeric and dynamically interact with RNA in an RNA length-dependent manner. The dynamic LAF-1-RNA interaction stimulates RNA annealing activity. ATP adversely affects the RNA remodeling ability of LAF-1 by suppressing the affinity, dynamics, and annealing activity of LAF-1, suggesting that ATP may promote disassembly of the RNP complex. Based on our results, we postulate a plausible molecular mechanism underlying the dynamic equilibrium of the LAF-1 RNP complex. PMID:27546789

  9. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-01

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites. PMID:26351879

  10. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-01

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites.

  11. Effects of increasing size and changing europium activator concentration in KCaI3 scintillator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Adam C.; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Wu, Yuntao; Stand, Luis; Loyd, Matthew; Gokhale, Sasmit; Koschan, Merry; Melcher, Charles L.

    2016-09-01

    KCaI3:Eu crystals have been identified as very promising for use in spectroscopic detector applications related to nuclear nonproliferation and domestic security efforts. Initial studies have shown for small crystals a few mm3 in size with 3% europium dopant concentration, a high light yield of >70,000 ph/MeV and energy resolution of ≈3% at 662 keV is attainable which is comparable with the highest performance scintillators discovered. In this work, single crystals of KCaI3 with a range of Eu2+ doping between 0 and 5 at% substituting for Ca2+ were grown at 22 mm diameter and their performance for gamma-ray spectroscopy studied. Comparisons among crystals approximately Ø22 mm×22 mm (8.4 cm3 or ≈0.5 in3) provide a more accurate understanding of how scintillation performance changes with Eu doping and increased crystal size. KCaI3 in the undoped form is shown to be a highly efficient intrinsic scintillator with a defect-related emission at 404 nm which coexists with the Eu2+ 5d-4f emission in low dopant concentrations and is completely re-absorbed in more heavily doped crystals. For larger crystals, effects from self-absorption due to Eu activation become more evident by a near doubling of decay time for 0.5 in3 crystals as the activator is increased from 0.5 to 5.0 at% Eu. Comparisons of pulse-height spectra obtained for Ø22 mm×22 mm cylinders with varying Eu concentration suggests best performance is achieved using lower Eu additions closer to 0.5-1.0 at%. Using a modified crystal packaging featuring an offset reflector geometry, 0.5 in3 crystals of KCaI3:Eu can attain under 4% energy resolution at 662 keV.

  12. Estimating volatile organic compound concentrations in selected microenvironments using time-activity and personal exposure data.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Ken; Mongin, Steven J; Adgate, John L; Pratt, Gregory C; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Stock, Thomas H; Morandi, Maria T

    2007-03-01

    Repeated measures of personal exposure to 14 volatile organic compounds (VOC) were obtained over 3 seasons for 70 healthy, nonsmoking adults living in Minneapolis-St. Paul. Matched data were also available for participants' time-activity patterns, and measured VOC concentrations outdoors in the community and indoors in residences. A novel modeling approach employing hierarchical Bayesian techniques was used to estimate VOC concentrations (posterior mode) and variability (credible intervals) in five microenvironments: (1) indoors at home; (2) indoors at work/school; (3) indoors in other locations; (4) outdoors in any location; and (5) in transit. Estimated concentrations tended to be highest in "other" indoor microenvironments (e.g., grocery stores, restaurants, shopping malls), intermediate in the indoor work/school and residential microenvironments, and lowest in the outside and in-transit microenvironments. Model estimates for all 14 VOC were reasonable approximations of measured median concentrations in the indoor residential microenvironment. The largest predicted contributor to cumulative (2-day) personal exposure for all 14 VOC was the indoor residential environment. Model-based results suggest that indoors-at-work/school and indoors-at-other-location microenvironments were the second or third largest contributors for all VOC, while the outside-in-any-location and in-transit microenvironments appeared to contribute negligibly to cumulative personal exposure. Results from a mixed-effects model indicate that being in or near a garage increased personal exposure to o-xylene, m/p-xylene, benzene, ethylbenzene, and toluene, and leaving windows and doors at home open for 6 h or more decreased personal exposure to 13 of 14 VOC, all except trichloroethylene.

  13. Radiological hazards of Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza) smoking: activity concentrations and dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E M; Abd El-Aziz, Nawal S; Al-Sewaidan, Hamed A; Chaouachi, Kamal

    2008-12-01

    Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza, "water-pipe") smoking has become fashionable worldwide. Its tobacco pastes, known as moassel and jurak, are not standardized and generally contain about 30-50% (sometimes more) tobacco, molasses/juice of sugarcane, various spices and dried fruits (particularly in jurak) and, in the case of moassel, glycerol and flavoring essences. Tobacco contains minute amounts of radiotoxic elements such as (210)Pb, (210)Po and uranium, which are inhaled via smoking. Only very few data have been published on the concentrations of natural radionuclides in narghile tobacco mixtures. Consequently, the aim of this study was to draw first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in moassel tobacco in relation to narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range in the radioactivity contents where the average (range) activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)Th (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (232)Th and (40)K, in Bq/kg dry weight were 55 (19-93), 11 (3-23), 3 (1.2-8), 14 (3-29), 13 (7-32), 7 (4-10) and 719 (437-1044)Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. The average concentrations of natural radionuclides in moassel tobacco pastes are comparable to their concentration in Greek cigarettes and tobacco leaves, and lower than that of Brazilian tobacco leaves. The distribution pattern of these radionuclides after smoking, between smoke, ash and filter, is unknown, except for (210)Po during cigarette smoking and from one existing study during moassel smoking. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of natural radionuclides was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radionuclides is briefly discussed. PMID:18768240

  14. Comparative hepatic cytochrome P450 activities and contaminant concentrations in caged carp and juvenile ducks

    SciTech Connect

    O`Keefe, P.; Gierthy, J.; Connor, S.; Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Wood, L.; Clayton, W.; Storm, R.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile carp (Cyprinius carpio) weighing approx. 60 g were placed in cages located on the surface of sediments near an aluminum plant and an automobile parts plant in the Massena area of the St. Lawrence River. Fish were removed at weekly intervals over a 35 day exposure period and composited samples of liver tissue, cranial lipid, and fillet tissue were prepared for analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Liver tissue was also stored at {minus}80 C for determination of microsomal Cytochrome P450 activity using the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) assay. A control exposure was carried out upstream at an uncontaminated site. Juvenile pre-flight ducks (mallards, gadwalls, wood ducks and common mergansers) were collected in the contaminated areas on the St. Lawrence and on the Hudson River two to three months after hatching. Control pre-flight mallards, wood ducks and common mergansers were collected from remote lakes in the Addirondack State Park. Samples of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were removed for analysis as described above for the carp. There was a three fold increase in AHH activity in the carp liver tissue at the end of the 35 day exposure period and there was a similar increase it activity for the mallards, common mergansers and wood ducks compared to controls. For each species the enzyme activity increases will be compared to the contaminant concentrations.

  15. Influence of dietary intake and physical activity on annual rhythm of human blood cholesterol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Blüher, M; Hentschel, B; Rassoul, F; Richter, V

    2001-05-01

    Seasonal variation in the plasma total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been repeatedly reported, with contradictory results regarding the pattern of seasonal variation of these parameters. Furthermore, it is still not well established whether the variation is due to changes in the nutrition or changes in physical activity depending on the season. The aim of this study was therefore to determine plasma TC and HDL-C in different groups of healthy participants: 19 vegetarians with a constant diet independent of the season, 14 athletes with almost constant physical activity over the year, and 114 controls in the age groups 20-26 years (mean age 24 + 1.5 years) and 40-48 years (mean age 44.3 + 2.1 years). Over 2 years, blood samples were collected every 2-3 months and were analyzed for plasma TC and HDL-C. At all visits, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated, and nutrition and physical activity profiles were obtained. The seasonal model was calculated using object-oriented software for the analysis of longitudinal data in S (OSWALD); multiple regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age, gender, diet, and physical activity on seasonal changes of the lipid parameters. In all groups, we found an annual rhythm of the plasma TC and HDL-C concentrations, which can be mathematically described by a sine curve with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. This rhythm was independent of the age, gender, BMI, diet, or physical activity. The observed seasonal differences between the maximum and the minimum were about 5%-10% for TC and about 5%-8% for HDL-C concentration. These differences were greater than the determined circadian (TC 3.5%, HDL-C 4%) and day-to-day changes for TC and HDL-C (coefficient of variation <5% for both). In conclusion, annual rhythm of TC and HDL-C is not primarily induced by seasonal differences in dietary intake or physical activity. Therefore, the annual rhythm in

  16. Response of soil microbial activity and biodiversity in soils polluted with different concentrations of cypermethrin insecticide.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Manuel; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez, Isidoro

    2015-07-01

    We performed a laboratory study into the effect of cypermethrin insecticide applied to different concentrations on biological properties in two soils [Typic Xerofluvent (soil A) and Xerollic Calciorthid (soil B)]. Two kg of each soil were polluted with cypermethrin at a rate of 60, 300, 600, and 1,200 g ha(-1) (C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments). A nonpolluted soil was used as a control (C0 treatment). For all treatments and each experimental soil, soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and arylsulphatase activities and soil microbial community were analysed by phospholipid fatty acids, which were measured at six incubation times (3, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days). The behavior of the enzymatic activities and microbial population were dependent on the dose of insecticide applied to the soil. Compared with the C0 treatment, in soil A, the maximum inhibition of the enzymatic activities was at 15, 30, 45, and 90 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. However, in soil B, the maximum inhibition occurred at 7, 15, 30, and 45 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the cypermethrin insecticide caused a negative effect on soil enzymatic activities and microbial diversity. This negative impact was greater when a greater dose of insecticide was used; this impact was also greater in soil with lower organic matter content. For both soils, and from these respective days onward, the enzymatic activities and microbial populations progressively increased by the end of the experimental period. This is possibly due to the fact that the insecticide or its breakdown products and killed microbial cells, subsequently killed by the insecticide, are being used as a source of energy or as a carbon source for the surviving microorganisms for cell proliferation.

  17. Antioxidative enzymes activity and malondialdehyde concentration during mitoxantrone therapy in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk-Sowa, M; Sowa, P; Pierzchala, K; Polaniak, R; Labuz-Roszak, B

    2012-12-01

    Mitoxantrone (MX) is approved for the treatment of aggressive relapsing-remitting, secondary-progressive and progressive-relapsing form of multiple sclerosis (MS). The mechanism of its action is multiaxial, however, it is not free from side effects. The causes of the side effects are still unknown and require further investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of MX therapy on enzymatic parameters of endogenous antioxidative status: manganese and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and lipid peroxidation marker--malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients suffering from MS. After the MX therapy serum and the CSF MDA concentrations increased significantly. We reported that MnSOD activities decrease in serum and the CSF, while, surprisingly, the serum Cu/ZnSOD activity increases after the MX therapy. We also noted a marked decrease in CSF CAT and GSH-Px activity after the MX treatment. Our results strongly suggest the influence of MX therapy on oxidation/antioxidation status of serum and the CSF. These findings open up new opportunities for a better understanding of underlying physiopathological events in MS and provide a new insight into MX's mechanisms of action, especially its potent side effects.

  18. Impact of enzyme concentration and residence time on apparent activity recovery in jump dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Robert A; Basavapathruni, Aravind; Moyer, Mikel; Scott, Margaret Porter

    2011-09-15

    Jump dilution analysis is commonly used to evaluate the reversibility of inhibition and to quantify the residence time of the inhibitor-enzyme complex. During hit and lead characterization, one sometimes observes apparently linear progress curves after jump dilution that display activity recoveries that are intermediate between those expected for fully reversible and irreversible inhibition. Computer simulations of progress curves after jump dilution indicate that seemingly linear progress curves can result when dealing with tight-binding inhibitors if substoichiometric concentrations of inhibitor are preincubated with enzyme. In this situation, the activity recovered is comparable to that expected for instantaneously reversible inhibitors. In addition, simulations demonstrate that intermediate values of activity recovery may be observed for compounds with modestly slow dissociation rates (i.e., residence times >0min but ≤20min) when the attending curvature of the data is not accounted for. The observation of intermediate values of recovery can, thus, serve as an indication of either modest residence time or a contaminating inactivator within an inhibitor sample, in either case prompting greater scrutiny of the test compound.

  19. Metabolic activity of sperm cells: correlation with sperm cell concentration, viability and motility in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Planell, Núria; Gil, Sílvia; Tallo-Parra, Oriol; Maya-Soriano, Maria José; Taberner, Ester; Piles, Miriam; Sabés, Manel; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2016-10-01

    The resazurin reduction test (RRT) is a useful technique to assess the metabolic rate of sperm cells. RRT depends on the ability of metabolically active cells to reduce the non-fluorescent dye resazurin to the fluorescent resorufin. The aim of this study was to develop a vital fluorometric method to evaluate metabolic activity of rabbit sperm cells. Twenty-five rabbit males were included in the study. Viability and morphology, motility and metabolic activity were evaluated using an eosin-nigrosin staining, a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) and the RRT, respectively. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between RRT and semen parameters. After evaluation, a concentration of 10 × 106 sperm cells/ml was selected for further experiments with RRT. No significant correlation was found between the RRT results and the motility parameters. However, after RRT a significant positive correlation between relative fluorescence units and the percentage of alive spermatozoa (r = 0.62; P = 0.001) and a negative one with the percentage of sperm cells with acrosomic abnormalities (r = -0.45; P < 0.05) were detected. The vital assessment of metabolic rate of sperm cells by RRT could provide more information about semen quality than other routine semen analysis, correlating with sperm viability and acrosome status information.

  20. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  1. Methanogenic activity inhibition by increasing the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentration.

    PubMed

    Souza, Luiza F C; Florencio, Lourdinha; Gavazza, Savia; Kato, Mario T

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the initial concentration of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was investigated in this work. Six anaerobic flasks reactors with 1 L of total volume were inoculated with anaerobic sludge (2 g VSS L(-1)). The reactors were assayed for 42 days, and fed with volatile fatty acids, nutrients, and LAS. The initial LAS concentrations were 0, 10, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1) for the treatment flasks T1 (control), T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively. When compared with T1, T2 exhibited a 30% reduction in maximum SMA and total methane production (TMP). In treatment T3 through T6, the reductions were 44-97% (T3-T6) for SMA, and 30-90% (T3-T6) for TMP. Total LAS removal increased following the increase in the initial LAS concentration (from 36% at T1 to 76% at T6), primarily due to the high degree of sludge adsorption. LAS biodegradation also occurred (32% in all treatments), although this was most likely associated with the formation of non-methane intermediates. Greater removal by adsorption was observed in long-chain homologues, when compared to short-chain homologues (C13 > C10), whereas the opposite occurred for biodegradation (C10 > C13). The C13 homologue was adsorbed to a great extent (in mass) in T4, T5 and T6, and may also have inhibited methane formation in these treatments. PMID:27088975

  2. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoclusters: Aqueous, Concentrated, Stable, and Catalytically Active Colloids toward Green Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Yasuaki; Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tarutani, Naoki; Vaz, Pedro D; Nunes, Carla D; Prevot, Vanessa; Stenning, Gavin B G; Takahashi, Masahide

    2016-05-24

    Increasing attention has been dedicated to the development of nanomaterials rendering green and sustainable processes, which occur in benign aqueous reaction media. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of another family of green nanomaterials, layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoclusters, which are concentrated (98.7 g/L in aqueous solvent), stably dispersed (transparent sol for >2 weeks), and catalytically active colloids of nano LDHs (isotropic shape with the size of 7.8 nm as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering). LDH nanoclusters are available as colloidal building blocks to give access to meso- and macroporous LDH materials. Proof-of-concept applications revealed that the LDH nanocluster works as a solid basic catalyst and is separable from solvents of catalytic reactions, confirming the nature of nanocatalysts. The present work closely investigates the unique physical and chemical features of this colloid, the formation mechanism, and the ability to act as basic nanocatalysts in benign aqueous reaction systems. PMID:27124717

  3. Concentration Effects of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Activity for Three Platinum Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Richards, R.; Dinh, H. N.

    2014-10-04

    A rotating disk electrode (RDE) along with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), were used to investigate the impact of two model compounds representing degradation products of Nafion and 3M perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes on the electrochemical surface area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline Pt, nano-structured thin film (NSTF) Pt (3M), and Pt/Vulcan carbon (Pt/Vu) (TKK) electrodes. ORR kinetic currents (measured at 0.9 V and transport corrected) were found to decrease linearly with the log of concentration for both model compounds on all Pt surfaces studied. Ultimately, model compound adsorption effects on ECA weremore » more abstruse due to competitive organic anion adsorption on Pt surfaces superimposing with the hydrogen underpotential deposition (HUPD) region.« less

  4. Activities of chromium in molten copper at dilute concentrations by solid-state electrochemical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inouye, T. K.; Fujiwara, H.; Iwase, M.

    1991-08-01

    In order to obtain the activities of chromium in molten copper at dilute concentrations (<0.008 chromium mole fractions), liquid copper was brought to equilibrium with molten CaCl2 + Cr2O3 slag saturated with Cr2O3 (s), at temperatures between 1423 and 1573 K, and the equilibrium oxygen partial pressures were measured by means of solid-oxide galvanic cells of the type Mo/Mo + MoO2/ZrO2(MgO)/(Cu + Cr))alloy + Cr2O3 + (CaCl2 + Cr2O3)slag/Mo. The free energy changes for the dissolution of solid chromium in molten copper at infinite dilution referred to 1 wt pct were determined as Cr (s) = Cr(1 wt pct, in Cu) and Δ G° = + 97,000 + 73.3 (T/K) ± 2,000 J mol-1.

  5. Strontium-90 and caesium-137 activity concentrations in bats in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Gashchak, Sergey; Beresford, Nicholas Anthony; Maksimenko, Andrey; Vlaschenko, Anton S

    2010-11-01

    Bats are a protected species and as such may be an object of protection in radiological assessments of the environment. However, there have previously been only few radioecological studies of species of bats. In this paper, results for >140 measurements of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in 10 species of bats collected within the Chernobyl zone are presented. There was some indication of a decreasing transfer of (90)Sr with increasing deposition, although this was inconsistent across species and explained little of the observed variability. There was no difference between male and female bats in the transfer (expressed as the ratio of whole-body activity concentrations to those in soil) of either radionuclide. There was considerable variability in transfer across all species groups. At two sites where there were sufficient data, Eptesicus serotinus was found to have higher transfer than other species.

  6. Tuning the surface oxygen concentration of {111} surrounded ceria nanocrystals for enhanced photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Li, Sean

    2015-12-01

    For oxide semiconductors, the morphology, particle size and oxygen vacancies are usually considered as key influential parameters for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants/dyes. It is widely accepted that cation doping not only modifies their phase and microstructures but also introduces variations in oxygen vacancy concentration. Herein, we report the fabrication of sub-10 nm sized pure and indium doped CeO2 nanocrystals (NCs) via a facile, green hydrothermal method for the investigation of photocatalytic activities. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were employed to examine the crystal phase and morphology of the as-prepared nanocrystals. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques were implemented to investigate the presence and variations in oxygen vacancy concentration in un-doped and indium doped CeO2 nanocrystals. The photocatalytic activity results revealed that 10 at% doping is the optimal indium doping level to demonstrate superior dye removal efficiency (~40%) over un-doped and doped CeO2 NCs. Moreover, the 10% In-doped CeO2 nanocrystals expressed excellent cycling stability and superior photocatalytic performance toward other dye pollutants. Finally, on the basis of our findings, a possible photocatalytic mechanism in which indium doping can generate more surface oxygen vacancies in the ceria lattice which delay the electron-hole recombination rates, thus increasing the lifetime of electron-hole separation for enhanced photocatalytic performances was proposed.For oxide semiconductors, the morphology, particle size and oxygen vacancies are usually considered as key influential parameters for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants/dyes. It is widely accepted that cation doping not only modifies their phase and microstructures but also introduces variations in oxygen vacancy concentration. Herein, we report the fabrication of sub-10 nm sized pure and indium doped CeO2 nanocrystals (NCs) via a facile

  7. Management practices that concentrate visitor activities: Camping impact management at Isle Royale National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Farrell, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed campsite conditions and the effectiveness of campsite impact management strategies at Isle Royale National Park, USA. Protocols for assessing indicators of vegetation and soil conditions were developed and applied to 156 campsites and 88 shelters within 36 backcountry campgrounds. The average site was 68 m2 and 83% of sites lost vegetation over areas less than 47 m2. Results reveal that management actions to spatially concentrate camping activities and reduce camping disturbance have been highly successful. Comparisons of disturbed area/overnight stay among other protected areas reinforces this assertion. These reductions in area of camping disturbance are attributed to a designated site camping policy, limitation on site numbers, construction of sites in sloping terrain, use of facilities, and an ongoing program of campsite maintenance. Such actions are most appropriate in higher use backcountry and wilderness settings.

  8. Activity concentrations and population dose from radium-226 in food and drinking water in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y C; Lai, S Y; Huang, C C; Lin, Y M

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the radioactivity of 226Ra in environmental samples in Taiwan. Fish, pork, rice, flour, chicken, vegetable, milk, fruit, egg and water samples were collected and pretreated by radiochemical procedure to extract the 226Ra, and the activity concentrations of 226Ra were determined using a liquid scintillation counter. The 226Ra content of groundwater was 12.0 mBq l-1. The 226Ra contents of the food ranged from 0.02 Bq kg-1 fresh to 0.17 Bq kg-1 fresh. The annual internal dose from ingestion of 226Ra from food and drinking water per caput was evaluated to be 7.5 microSv.

  9. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoclusters: Aqueous, Concentrated, Stable, and Catalytically Active Colloids toward Green Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Yasuaki; Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tarutani, Naoki; Vaz, Pedro D; Nunes, Carla D; Prevot, Vanessa; Stenning, Gavin B G; Takahashi, Masahide

    2016-05-24

    Increasing attention has been dedicated to the development of nanomaterials rendering green and sustainable processes, which occur in benign aqueous reaction media. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of another family of green nanomaterials, layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoclusters, which are concentrated (98.7 g/L in aqueous solvent), stably dispersed (transparent sol for >2 weeks), and catalytically active colloids of nano LDHs (isotropic shape with the size of 7.8 nm as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering). LDH nanoclusters are available as colloidal building blocks to give access to meso- and macroporous LDH materials. Proof-of-concept applications revealed that the LDH nanocluster works as a solid basic catalyst and is separable from solvents of catalytic reactions, confirming the nature of nanocatalysts. The present work closely investigates the unique physical and chemical features of this colloid, the formation mechanism, and the ability to act as basic nanocatalysts in benign aqueous reaction systems.

  10. Concentration Effects of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Activity for Three Platinum Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Richards, R.; Dinh, H. N.

    2014-10-04

    A rotating disk electrode (RDE) along with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), were used to investigate the impact of two model compounds representing degradation products of Nafion and 3M perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes on the electrochemical surface area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline Pt, nano-structured thin film (NSTF) Pt (3M), and Pt/Vulcan carbon (Pt/Vu) (TKK) electrodes. ORR kinetic currents (measured at 0.9 V and transport corrected) were found to decrease linearly with the log of concentration for both model compounds on all Pt surfaces studied. Ultimately, model compound adsorption effects on ECA were more abstruse due to competitive organic anion adsorption on Pt surfaces superimposing with the hydrogen underpotential deposition (HUPD) region.

  11. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachubik, J.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008-2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  12. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2015-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups: orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the action of DA on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration-dependent bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high (100 μM) concentrations of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G-protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours.

  13. Enhanced antibacterial activity of bimetallic gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles at low silver concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Sharma, Shilpa; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2011-12-01

    Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was possibly due to the more active silver atoms in the shell surrounding gold core due to high surface free energy of the surface Ag atoms owing to shell thinness in the bimetallic NP structure.Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was

  14. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Concentration on the Characteristics of Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adib, M. R. M.; Suraya, W. M. S. W.; Rafidah, H.; Amirza, A. R. M.; Attahirah, M. H. M. N.; Hani, M. S. N. Q.; Adnan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Impregnation method is one of the crucial steps involved in producing activated carbon using chemical activation process. Chemicals employed in this step is effective at decomposing the structure of material and forming micropores that helps in adsorption of contaminants. This paper explains thorough procedures that have been involved in producing sugarcane bagasse activated carbon (SBAC) by using 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) during the impregnation step. Concentration of H3PO4 used in the process of producing SBAC was optimized through several tests including bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter and the charactesristic of optimum SBAC produced has been compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC). Batch study has been carried out by using the SBAC produced from optimum condition to investigate the performance of SBAC in removal of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from textile wastewater. From characteristic study, SBAC with 30% H3PO4 has shown the optimum value of bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter of 0.3023 g cm-3, 4.35%, 974.96 mg/g and 0.21-0.41 µm, respectively. These values are comparable to the characteristics of CAC. Experimental result from the batch study has been concluded that the SBAC has a promising potential in removing turbidity and COD of 75.5% and 66.3%, respectively which was a slightly lower than CAC which were able to remove 82.8% of turbidity and 70% of COD. As a conclusion, the SBAC is comparable with CAC in terms of their characteristics and the capability of removing contaminants from textile wastewater. Therefore, it has a commercial value to be used as an alternative of low-cost material in producing CAC.

  15. Effect of biomass concentration on methane oxidation activity using mature compost and graphite granules as substrata.

    PubMed

    Xie, S; O'Dwyer, T; Freguia, S; Pikaar, I; Clarke, W P

    2016-10-01

    Reported methane oxidation activity (MOA) varies widely for common landfill cover materials. Variation is expected due to differences in surface area, the composition of the substratum and culturing conditions. MOA per methanotrophic cell has been calculated in the study of natural systems such as lake sediments to examine the inherent conditions for methanotrophic activity. In this study, biomass normalised MOA (i.e., MOA per methanotophic cell) was measured on stabilised compost, a commonly used cover in landfills, and on graphite granules, an inert substratum widely used in microbial electrosynthesis studies. After initially enriching methanotrophs on both substrata, biomass normalised MOA was quantified under excess oxygen and limiting methane conditions in 160ml serum vials on both substrata and blends of the substrata. Biomass concentration was measured using the bicinchoninic acid assay for microbial protein. The biomass normalised MOA was consistent across all compost-to-graphite granules blends, but varied with time, reflecting the growth phase of the microorganisms. The biomass normalised MOA ranged from 0.069±0.006μmol CH4/mg dry biomass/h during active growth, to 0.024±0.001μmol CH4/mg dry biomass/h for established biofilms regardless of the substrata employed, indicating the substrata were equally effective in terms of inherent composition. The correlation of MOA with biomass is consistent with studies on methanotrophic activity in natural systems, but biomass normalised MOA varies by over 5 orders of magnitude between studies. This is partially due to different methods being used to quantify biomass, such as pmoA gene quantification and the culture dependent Most Probable Number method, but also indicates that long term exposure of materials to a supply of methane in an aerobic environment, as can occur in natural systems, leads to the enrichment and adaptation of types suitable for those conditions. PMID:27515185

  16. HTO and OBT activity concentrations in soil at the historical atmospheric HT release site (Chalk River Laboratories).

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Bredlaw, M; Korolevych, V Y

    2012-01-01

    Tritium is routinely released by the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) nuclear facilities. Three International HT release experiments have been conducted at the CRL site in the past. The site has not been disturbed since the last historical atmospheric testing in 1994 and presents an opportunity to assess the retention of tritium in soil. This study is devoted to the measurement of HTO and OBT activity concentration profiles in the subsurface 25 cm of soil. In terms of soil HTO, there is no evidence from the past HT release experiments that HTO was retained. The HTO activity concentration in the soil pore water appears similar to concentrations found in background areas in Ontario. In contrast, OBT activity concentrations in soil at the same site were significantly higher than HTO activity concentrations in soil. Elevated OBT appears to reside in the top layer of the soil (0-5 cm). In addition, OBT activity concentrations in the top soil layer did not fluctuate much with season, again, quite in contrast with soil HTO. This result suggests that OBT activity concentrations retained the signature of the historical tritium releases.

  17. SGLT1 activity in lung alveolar cells of diabetic rats modulates airway surface liquid glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tales Lyra; Candeia-Medeiros, Návylla; Cavalcante-Araújo, Polliane M.; Melo, Igor Santana; Fávaro-Pípi, Elaine; Fátima, Luciana Alves; Rocha, Antônio Augusto; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Campos, Ruy R.; Sabino-Silva, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    High glucose concentration in the airway surface liquid (ASL) is an important feature of diabetes that predisposes to respiratory infections. We investigated the role of alveolar epithelial SGLT1 activity on ASL glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation. Non-diabetic and diabetic rats were intranasally treated with saline, isoproterenol (to increase SGLT1 activity) or phlorizin (to decrease SGLT1 activity); 2 hours later, glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation (methicillin-resistant Sthaphylococcus aureus, MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa) were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); and alveolar SGLT1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. BAL glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation increased in diabetic animals: isoproterenol stimulated SGLT1 migration to luminal membrane, and reduced (50%) the BAL glucose concentration; whereas phlorizin increased the BAL glucose concentration (100%). These regulations were accompanied by parallel changes of in vitro MRSA and P. aeruginosa proliferation in BAL (r = 0.9651 and r = 0.9613, respectively, Pearson correlation). The same regulations were observed in in vivo P. aeruginosa proliferation. In summary, the results indicate a relationship among SGLT1 activity, ASL glucose concentration and pulmonary bacterial proliferation. Besides, the study highlights that, in situations of pulmonary infection risk, such as in diabetic subjects, increased SGLT1 activity may prevent bacterial proliferation whereas decreased SGLT1 activity can exacerbate it. PMID:26902517

  18. Glutathione peroxidase activity, selenium, and lipid peroxide concentrations in blood from a healthy Polish population : I. Maternal and cord blood.

    PubMed

    Zachara, B A; Wąsowicz, W; Gromadzińska, J; Skłodowska, M; Krasomski, G

    1986-09-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood and plasma of 19 nonpregnant women. 14 mothers at delivery, 14 neonates, and 13 infants, aged 2-12 mo, were evaluated. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in erythrocytes and plasma and the level of lipid peroxides in plasma were also analyzed. Selenium concentrations in whole blood and plasma in mothers at delivery were significantly lower compared to nonpregnant women. Selenium concentrations in cord blood components were lower compared to mothers, but the differences were not significant. The concentration of the element decreased in the first few months of life. Glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes differed only slightly in the examined groups. In plasma, however, the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women and in neonates compared to their mothers. Lipid peroxide concentrations in plasma differed only slightly in the examined groups. The results obtained are discussed in terms of the observations of other investigators. PMID:24254392

  19. Pharmaceutical gel analysis by NIR spectroscopy. Determination of the active principle and low concentration of preservatives.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; Alcalá, M; Bautista, M

    2008-04-23

    Near infrared spectroscopy has proved highly suitable for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations. However, its limited sensitivity can severely restrict its scope of application. In this work, we determine the active principle and two preservatives in a pharmaceutical preparation available as a hydrogel. The matrix of the pharmaceutical preparation exhibits strong absorption in the NIR spectral region; also, the two preservatives (parabens) are very similar in chemical and spectral terms, and present at low concentrations in the pharmaceutical. These complications make it rather difficult to accurately quantify the active principle and the preservatives, which can only be accomplished by using an effective design in order to prepare the samples to be included in the calibration set and select the optimum spectral range for measuring each analyte. The evaporation of solvents during the measurement process produces increasing errors related with sample's air exposition; the introductions of new samples with a wider range of the volatile components correct this effect. An ANOVA of the predictions obtained with the new models shows that correct the error due to evaporation. The proposed method was validated for the analytical control of the studied preparation.

  20. Prototype of a primary calibration system for measurement of radon activity concentration.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, M Y A; Vasyanovich, M; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-01

    To calibrate measurement devices for monitoring the activity concentration of (222)Rn in air, a prototype of a calibration facility is tested using a solid (226)Ra source and a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. An emanation box was mounted on the detector for online gamma measurements. Inside this box, a 32.8 kBq ±3% (226)Ra standard source was placed. An AlphaGUARD control radon monitor was connected to the emanation box with a pumping air system in an open flow mode as a reference monitor. The emanation coefficient of the source was controlled online by comparing the gamma activity of (214)Bi (Eγ=609.3 keV), progeny of (226)Ra, to that of the calibration source. A standard (137)Cs source, installed within the emanation box, was used as a reference for gamma spectroscopy using the HPGe detector, with a total systematic error of 4% and a random error less than 2%. The ratio between gamma measurements and AlphaGUARD was 0.94±0.4; which is within the 9% uncertainties of AlphaGUARD calibration. PMID:26490512

  1. Influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident on Spanish environmental radioactivity levels.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Rodríguez, A; Galván, J; García-Tenorio, R; Manjón, G; Mantero, J; Vioque, I; Arnold, D; Grossi, C; Serrano, I; Vallés, I; Vargas, A

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents measurements of the effect of the atmospheric radioactive release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station at three sites belonging to the Spanish environmental monitoring system. Measured values varied depending on the locations of the sites in Spain and their respective climatic characteristics. (134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, and (132)Te activity concentrations in filter samples were studied and associated levels of (131)I fallout were estimated from wet and dry deposition. Particulate aerosol activity concentrations ranges, in μBq/m(3), were 1.63-3080 ((131)I), 2.8-690 ((137)Cs), 1.3-620 ((134)Cs) and 3.6-330 ((132)Te), while the associated (131)I fallout was roughly estimated to be less than 20 Bq/m(2), Gaseous (131)I was also detected and the (131)I-gaseous/(131)I-total ratio increased at the three stations from approximately 0.75 at the end of March to 0.85-0.9 during the first few days of April. Finally, the presence of (131)I in some crucial parts of the food chain was also studied. (131)I was detected in samples from goat's and cow's milk (maximum levels of 1.11 Bq/L) and in broadleaf plants (maximum level 1.42 Bq/kg).

  2. Predicting the activity coefficients of free-solvent for concentrated globular protein solutions using independently determined physical parameters.

    PubMed

    McBride, Devin W; Rodgers, Victor G J

    2013-01-01

    The activity coefficient is largely considered an empirical parameter that was traditionally introduced to correct the non-ideality observed in thermodynamic systems such as osmotic pressure. Here, the activity coefficient of free-solvent is related to physically realistic parameters and a mathematical expression is developed to directly predict the activity coefficients of free-solvent, for aqueous protein solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. The model is based on the free-solvent model, which has previously been shown to provide excellent prediction of the osmotic pressure of concentrated and crowded globular proteins in aqueous solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. Thus, this model uses only the independently determined, physically realizable quantities: mole fraction, solvent accessible surface area, and ion binding, in its prediction. Predictions are presented for the activity coefficients of free-solvent for near-saturated protein solutions containing either bovine serum albumin or hemoglobin. As a verification step, the predictability of the model for the activity coefficient of sucrose solutions was evaluated. The predicted activity coefficients of free-solvent are compared to the calculated activity coefficients of free-solvent based on osmotic pressure data. It is observed that the predicted activity coefficients are increasingly dependent on the solute-solvent parameters as the protein concentration increases to near-saturation concentrations.

  3. Association of circulating active and total ghrelin concentrations with dry matter intake, growth, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Hales, K E; Lents, C A; Freetly, H C

    2014-12-01

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that when acylated is thought to stimulate appetite. Circulating ghrelin concentrations could potentially be used as a predictor of DMI in cattle. The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating ghrelin concentrations with DMI and other production traits. Steers and heifers were fed a finishing diet, and individual intake was recorded for 84 d. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture following the DMI and ADG measurement period. Plasma active ghrelin and total ghrelin were quantified using commercial RIA. Active ghrelin was not correlated to DMI (P=0.36), but when DMI was modeled using a multivariate analysis including plasma metabolites and sex, active ghrelin was shown to be positively associated with DMI (P<0.01) and accounted for 6.2% of the variation accounted for by the regression model (R2=0.33). Total ghrelin was negatively correlated to DMI (P<0.01), but was not significant in a multivariate regression analysis (P=0.13). The ratio of active:total ghrelin was positively associated with DMI (P<0.01) and accounted for 10.2% of the variation in the model (R2=0.35). Active ghrelin was positively associated with ADG (P<0.05), while total ghrelin was negatively associated with ADG (P<0.01), and the ratio of active:total ghrelin was positively associated with ADG (P<0.01). Active ghrelin was not associated with G:F (P=0.88), but total ghrelin concentrations were negatively associated with G:F (P<0.01) and accounted for 10.24% of the variation (R2=0.25). Heifers consumed less feed than steers (P<0.01), tended to have greater active ghrelin concentrations (P=0.06), and had greater total ghrelin concentrations than steers (P=0.04). Total ghrelin concentrations were not different between sire breeds (P=0.80), but active ghrelin concentrations and the ratio of active:total ghrelin differed between breeds (P<0.01), indicating that genetics have an effect on the amount and form of circulating ghrelin

  4. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, Richard R; Scofield, Patricia A; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level NORM

  5. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Flint, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 μg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  6. Fine organic particle, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde concentrations under and after the influence of fire activity in the atmosphere of Riverside, California.

    PubMed

    Na, Kwangsam; Cocker, David R

    2008-09-01

    Concentrations of gas-phase organic carbons (formaldehyde (HCHO) and acetaldehyde (CH(3)CHO)) and fine particle-phase carbons (organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) were measured under and after the influence of fire activity in southern California. The measurement was conducted after the start of the wildfire activities from October 27 through November 6, 2003 at a site in Riverside, southern California. Under the influence of the fire activities, HCHO, CH(3)CHO and EC concentrations were found to be over two times as high as those after the fire activities ended. The total lifetime cancer risk estimated by HCHO and CH(3)CHO concentrations measured was significantly higher under the influence of the wildfire activities than that after the activities ended. OC showed a larger difference in concentrations between the two event periods as compared with gas-phase organic carbons and EC. OC/EC ratios ranged from 3.7 to 12.5 during the study period with the highest OC/EC ratio observed when the study area was under the influence of the fire activities. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regressions between OC/EC concentrations and visibility were performed. It was found that the visibility was even worse under the influence of fire activity as compared to the period after fire activity ended. EC was a stronger contributor to the visibility reduction compared to OC. The influence of air mass pathways on HCHO, CH(3)CHO, OC, and EC concentrations during the wildfire activities was addressed using a backward trajectory model developed by NOAA.

  7. Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of iodine-131 and radioprotection of acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) and beta-carotene in vitro.

    PubMed

    Almeida, I V; Düsman, E; Heck, M C; Pamphile, J A; Lopes, N B; Tonin, L T D; Vicentini, V E P

    2013-12-10

    The radioisotope iodine-131 [(131)I] can damage DNA. One way to prevent this is to increase the amount of antioxidants via dietary consumption. The goal of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of fresh acerola pulp and synthetic beta-carotene in Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in response to [(131)I] exposure in vitro. Cellular DNA damage was subsequently assessed using a cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of doses of [(131)I] (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 µCi), acerola (0.025, 0.125, and 0.25 g acerola pulp/mL), and beta-carotene (0.2, 1, and 2 µM) were evaluated. Radioprotective tests were performed by simultaneous treatment with acerola (0.25 g/mL) plus [(131)I] (10 µCi) and beta-carotene (0.2 µM) plus [(131)I] (10 µCi). Acerola, beta-carotene, and low concentrations of [(131)I] did not induce micronucleus formation in HTC cells; in contrast, high concentrations of [(131)I] (10 µCi) were mutagenic and induced DNA damage. Moreover, neither acerola nor beta-carotene treatment was cytotoxic. However, acerola reduced the percentage of [(131)I]-induced damage, although beta-carotene did not show a similar effect. Thus, our results suggest that acerola diet supplementation may benefit patients who are exposed to [(131)I] during thyroid diagnostics and therapy.

  8. The Comparative Analysis of Antioxidant and Biological Activity for the Dendropanax morbifera LEV. Leaves Extracted by Different Ethanol Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masaya; Ra, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The different concentrations of ethanol (20-100%) and distilled water extract for Dendropanax morbifera LEV. leaves were evaluated to induce antioxidant and biological activity employed by variety of assays. The 20%, 80%, and 100% ethanol extract demonstrated the relatively higher activity, whereas distilled water, 40%, and 60% ethanol extracts exhibited the lower antioxidant and biological activity. Especially, 80% ethanol extract showed the remarkably higher radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenol and flavonoid content, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Also, 100% ethanol extract exhibited relatively greater activity, but there did not show significant radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, there were 50% and 30% promotion effect for ADH activity assay and 80% and 40% promotion effect for ALDH activity assay in 80% and 100% ethanol extract, respectively. In addition, in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), all extracts except for distilled water extract inhibited Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Escherichia coli. For Pichia jadinii, whole extracts effectively inhibited yeast multiplication at concentration of 125 μg/mL for 100% ethanol extract and 250 μg/mL for the rest of extract. These result indicated that D. morbifera LEV. leaves extracted by 80% ethanol would be the ideal extracting solution to maximize inherent antioxidant and biological activity agent. PMID:27592831

  9. Effects of Hemerocallis flava on motor activity and the concentration of central monoamines and its metabolites in rats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, M T; Ho, Y F; Peng, W H; Wu, C R; Chen, C F

    1996-06-01

    In this study, we used behavioral and biochemical methods to investigate the effects of Hemerocallis flava (Liliaceae) (abbreviated as HF) on motor activity and the concentration of monoamines in rats. The water fraction of the resuspended HF extract was most active in reducing the motility in rats. The water fraction of the HF extract enhanced the reduction of locomotor activity produced by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, but it reduced the increase of locomotor activity produced by L-dopa plus benserazide and p-chlorophenylalanine. Furthermore, the water fraction of the HF extract significantly decreased the concentration of norepinepherine in the cortex and the concentration of dopamine and serotonin in the brain stem. It also increased the concentration of vanilylmandelic acid in the cortex, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid in the brain stem. These results suggest that the reduction of locomotor activity produced by the water fraction of HF extract may be related to the decrease in the concentration of norepinepherine in the cortex and the concentration of dopamine and serotonin in brain stem. PMID:8735450

  10. Activation of ENaC by AVP contributes to the urinary concentrating mechanism and dilution of plasma.

    PubMed

    Mironova, Elena; Chen, Yu; Pao, Alan C; Roos, Karl P; Kohan, Donald E; Bugaj, Vladislav; Stockand, James D

    2015-02-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) activates the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). The physiological significance of this activation is unknown. The present study tested if activation of ENaC contributes to AVP-sensitive urinary concentration. Consumption of a 3% NaCl solution induced hypernatremia and plasma hypertonicity in mice. Plasma AVP concentration and urine osmolality increased in hypernatremic mice in an attempt to compensate for increases in plasma tonicity. ENaC activity was elevated in mice that consumed 3% NaCl solution compared with mice that consumed a diet enriched in Na(+) with ad libitum tap water; the latter diet does not cause hypernatremia. To determine whether the increase in ENaC activity in mice that consumed 3% NaCl solution served to compensate for hypernatremia, mice were treated with the ENaC inhibitor benzamil. Coadministration of benzamil with 3% NaCl solution decreased urinary osmolality and increased urine flow so that urinary Na(+) excretion increased with no effect on urinary Na(+) concentration. This decrease in urinary concentration further increased plasma Na(+) concentration, osmolality, and AVP concentration in these already hypernatremic mice. Benzamil similarly compromised urinary concentration in water-deprived mice and in mice treated with desmopressin. These results demonstrate that stimulation of ENaC by AVP plays a critical role in water homeostasis by facilitating urinary concentration, which can compensate for hypernatremia or exacerbate hyponatremia. The present findings are consistent with ENaC in addition to serving as a final effector of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and blood pressure homeostasis, also playing a key role in water homeostasis by regulating urine concentration and dilution of plasma. PMID:25391898

  11. Effect of various concentration of sulfuric acid for Nafion membrane activation on the performance of fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiastuti, Sri; Onggo, Holia

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes an activation treatment to Nafion 117 membrane with sulfuric acid in various concentrations. The main goal of this study is to increase the Nafion 117 membrane performance, which is determined by proton number in the membrane and membrane performance in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). This work was developed using sulfuric acids in four different concentrations: 1, 2, 3, and 4 M. The surface morphology and functional groups of activated membranes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope and Fourier Transform Infrared, respectively. The proton number absorbed in membranes was observed by gravimetric measurements. The performances of activated membranes in PEMFC were studied by single cell measurements with H2/O2 operation. The experimental results showed that activation of Nafion membrane did not change its surface morphology and functional groups. The proton number increased when the concentration of sulfuric acid is increased from 1 to 3 M and from 1 to 4 M. On the other hand, there is no significant increase when the concentration of sulfuric acid was increased from 1 to 2 M. Similar trends were observed when testing activated membrane performance in PEMFC, especially for current density at 0.6 V and maximum power. It is assumed that there is a correlation between the increase of sulfuric acid concentration in activation process with the increase of proton number in the membrane that are available for facilitating of transfer protons from the anode to the cathode.

  12. Sulforhodamine 101, a widely used astrocyte marker, can induce cortical seizure-like activity at concentrations commonly used

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Rune; Nedergaard, Maiken; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar

    2016-01-01

    Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) is a preferential astrocyte marker widely used in 2-photon microscopy experiments. Here we show, that topical loading of two commonly used SR101 concentrations, 100 μM and 250 μM when incubated for 10 min, can induce seizure-like local field potential (LFP) activity in both anaesthetized and awake mouse sensori-motor cortex. This cortical seizure-like activity develops in less than ten minutes following topical loading, and when applied longer, these neuronal discharges reliably evoke contra-lateral hindlimb muscle contractions. Short duration (<1 min) incubation of 100 μM and 250 μM SR101 or application of lower concentrations 25 μM and 50 μM of SR101, incubated for 30 and 20 min, respectively, did not induce abnormal LFP activity in sensori-motor cortex, but did label astrocytes, and may thus be considered more appropriate concentrations for in vivo astrocyte labeling. In addition to label astrocytes SR101 may, at 100 μM and 250 μM, induce abnormal neuronal activity and interfere with cortical circuit activity. SR101 concentration of 50 μM or lower did not induce abnormal neuronal activity. We advocate that, to label astrocytes with SR101, concentrations no higher than 50 μM should be used for in vivo experiments. PMID:27457281

  13. Anaemia, Serum Iron Concentrations and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Laying Hens Infected Naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Boiago, M M; do Carmo, G M; Bottari, N B; Araujo, D N; Giuriatti, J; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C; Casagrande, R A; Wisser, C S; Stefani, L M; Alves, M S; Da Silva, A S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anaemia, serum iron concentrations and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in laying hens infected naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum and having severe hepatic lesions. Liver and serum samples were collected from 27 laying hens (20 infected and seven uninfected). The δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations were evaluated. There were significant decreases in δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations (P <0.01) in birds infected by S. Gallinarum when compared with uninfected birds. There was a positive correlation (P <0.001) between serum iron concentration, haematocrit (r(2) = 0.82) and δ-ALA-D activity (r(2) = 0.75). A positive correlation was also observed between δ-ALA-D activity and haematocrit (r(2) = 0.78; P <0.01). Liver samples showed moderate focal coagulative necrosis associated with infiltration of lymphoplasmacytic cells, macrophages and heterophils. The anaemia in the infected hens may be related to reduction in δ-ALA-D activity and serum iron concentrations, since both are important for haemopoiesis.

  14. Responses of methanotrophic activity, community and EPS production to CH4 and O2 concentrations in waste biocover soils.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Meng; Su, Yao; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Chen, Min; He, Ruo

    2015-08-01

    Biocover soils are known to be a good alternative material to mitigate CH4 emissions from landfills to the atmosphere. In this study, 16 treatments with four O2 concentrations (∼0%, 5%, 10% and 21%) and four CH4 concentrations (i.e. 1%, 10%, 20% and 50%) were conducted to estimate extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production, methanotrophic activity and community in response to CH4 and O2 concentrations in waste biocover soil (WBS). When the CH4 concentration was saturated for CH4 oxidation in the WBS, the continuous exposure of CH4 above the saturated concentrations could not obviously enhance CH4 oxidation activity. In the WBS, extracellular protein (ECP) production was negatively related with the tested CH4 concentrations, while both ECP and extracellular polysaccharides (ECPS) productions were positively related with the tested O2 concentrations. Cloning and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses showed that type I methanotrophs (Methylocaldum, Methylococcaceae, Methylomicrobium and Methylobacter) and type II methanotrophs (Methylosinus) dominated in the WBS. Among them, Methylocaldum and/or Methylococcaceae were sensitive to low O2 concentrations of ∼0%. Methylobacter had propensity to grow at low O2 concentrations of ∼0% and 5%, while Methylosinus preferred environments with high concentrations of CH4 (⩾10%) and O2 (21%). In the tested five environmental variables of ECPS, O2, EPS, CH4 and ECP, only ECPS and O2 concentrations had significant effect on the methanotrophic communities. These results suggested that O2 concentration in landfill covers should be paid more attention to optimize and sustain CH4 oxidation for mitigating CH4 emission from landfills.

  15. [Effect of continual application of two kinds sludge on enzyme activities and heavy metal concentrations in alluvial soil].

    PubMed

    Tan, Qiling; Hu, Chengxiao; Zhao, Bin; Mclaren, R G; Cheng, Li; Wu, Lishu

    2004-03-01

    Pot culture experiments were conducted to study the effect of industrial and sewage sludge on some enzyme activities and heavy metal concentrations in alluvial soil. The results showed that the heavy metals in both industrial and sewage sludge were mainly non-exchangeable, and those in sewage sludge had a lower concentration but a higher bio-availability than in industrial sludge. The application of sludge could increase the activities of soil urease, polyphenol oxidase and neutral phosphatase, and the polyphenol oxidase and neutral phosphatase activities showed a reverse relationship with the concentrations of soil exchangeable Zn and Cu. Soil polyphenol oxidase and catalase activities could be used to indicate the Zn pollution in soil.

  16. Thyroid thermogenesis. Relationships between Na+-dependent respiration and Na+ + K+-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Y; Liberman, U A; Edelman, I S

    1976-01-01

    The effect of thyroid status on QO2, QO2 (t) and NaK-ATPase activity was examined in rat skeletal muscle. QO2(t) (i.e. Na+-transport-dependent respiration) was estimated with ouabain or Na+-free media supplemented with K+. In contrast to the effects of ouabain on ion composition, intracellular K+ was maintained at about 125 meq/liter, and intracellular Na+ was almost nil in the Na+-free media. The estimates of QO2(t) were independent of the considerable differences in tissue ion concentrations. The increase in QO2(t) account for 47% of the increase in QO2 in the transition from the hypothyroid to the euthyroid state and 84% of the increase in the transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state. Surgical thyroidectomy lowered NaK-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction (expressed per milligram protein) 32%; injections of triodothyronine (T3) increased this activity 75% in initially hypothyroid rats and 26% in initially euthyroid rats. Thyroidectomy was attended by significant falls in serum Ca and Pi concentrations. Administration of T3 resulted in further declines in serum Ca and marked increases in serum Ps concentrations. Similar effects were seen in 131I-treated rats, but the magnitude of the declines in serum Ca were less. The effects of T3 on QO2, QO2(t), and NaK-ATPase activity of skeletal muscle were indistinguishable in the 131I-ablated and surgically thyroidectomized rats. In thyroidectomized or euthyroid rats given repeated doses of T3, QO2(t) and NaA-ATPase activity increased proportionately. In thyroidectomized rats injected with single doses of T3, either 10, 50, or 250 mug/100 g body wt, QO2(t) increased linearly with NaK-ATPase activity. The kinetics of the NaK-ATPase activity was assessed with an ATP-generating system. T3 elicited a significant increase in Vmax with no change in Km for ATP. PMID:130385

  17. The effects of cerium doping concentration on the properties and photocatalytic activity of bimetallic Mo/Ce catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaedini, Ghazaleh; Tasirin, Siti Masrinda; Aminayi, Payam

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the characterization and photocatalytic activity of MoO3 nanoparticles doped with various doping concentrations of cerium have been investigated. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the prepared catalysts confirmed that MoO3 particles have been successfully doped by cerium. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was performed to visualize the surface morphology of the obtained catalysts. The XRD patterns suggested that the crystallinity of the sample with the lowest doping concentration of 15 mol % was higher in comparison with samples of higher doping concentrations. The volume-averaged crystal sizes of the obtained catalysts were calculated to be 25, 28, and 32 nm for 15, 35, and 60 mol % samples, respectively. The photocatalytic activity along with the reaction kinetics of Ce-doped MoO3 nanoparticles have also been investigated through the dye degradation of methyl orange. The synthesized Ce-doped MoO3 particles with the lowest dopant concentration of 15 mol % exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for methyl orange dye degradation. It was observed that photo-degradation activity decreased with an increase in the doping concentration of cerium. The predicted rate constants for samples with 15, 35, and 60 mol % doping concentrations were found to be 0.0432, 0.035, and 0.029 min-1, respectively.

  18. Ethanol-Induced ADH Activity in Zebrafish: Differential Concentration-Dependent Effects on High- Versus Low-Affinity ADH Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Facciol, Amanda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish express enzymes that metabolize ethanol in a manner comparable to that of mammals, including humans. We previously demonstrated that acute ethanol exposure increases alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in an inverted U-shaped dose-dependent manner. It was hypothesized that the biphasic dose-response was due to the increased activity of a high-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to low concentrations of ethanol and increased activity of a low-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol. To test this hypothesis, we exposed zebrafish to different concentrations of ethanol (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0% v/v) for 30 min and measured the total ADH activity in the zebrafish liver. However, we also repeated this enzyme activity assay using a low concentration of the substrate (ethanol) to determine the activity of high-affinity ADH isoforms. We found that total ADH activity in response to ethanol induces an inverted U-shaped dose-response similar to our previous study. Using a lower substrate level in our enzyme assay targeting high-affinity isozymes, we found a similar dose-response. However, the difference in activity between the high and low substrate assays (high substrate activity - low substrate activity), which provide an index of activity for low-affinity ADH isoforms, revealed no significant effect of ethanol exposure. Our results suggest that the inverted U-shaped dose-response for total ADH activity in response to ethanol is driven primarily by high-affinity isoforms of ADH.

  19. Characterization of concentration gradients of a morphogenetically active retinoid in the chick limb bud

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    It has long been suggested that the generation of biological patterns depends in part on gradients of diffusible substances. In an attempt to bridge the gap between this largely theoretical concept and experimental embryology, we have examined the physiology of diffusion gradients in an actual embryonic field. In particular, we have generated in the chick wing bud concentration gradients of the morphogenetically active retinoid TTNPB, (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro- 5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-prope nyl] benzoic acid, a synthetic vitamin A compound. Upon local application of TTNPB the normal 234 digit pattern is duplicated in a way that correlates with the geometry of