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Sample records for 131i activity concentrations

  1. 131I activity quantification of gamma camera planar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barquero, Raquel; Garcia, Hugo P.; Incio, Monica G.; Minguez, Pablo; Cardenas, Alexander; Martínez, Daniel; Lassmann, Michael

    2017-02-01

    A procedure to estimate the activity in target tissues in patients during the therapeutic administration of 131I radiopharmaceutical treatment for thyroid conditions (hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer) using a gamma camera (GC) with a high energy (HE) collimator, is proposed. Planar images are acquired for lesions of different sizes r, and at different distances d, in two HE GC systems. Defining a region of interest (ROI) on the image of size r, total counts n g are measured. Sensitivity S (cps MBq-1) in each acquisition is estimated as the product of the geometric G and the intrinsic efficiency η 0. The mean fluence of 364 keV photons arriving at the ROI per disintegration G, is calculated with the MCNPX code, simulating the entire GC and the HE collimator. Intrinsic efficiency η 0 is estimated from a calibration measurement of a plane reference source of 131I in air. Values of G and S for two GC systems—Philips Skylight and Siemens e-cam—are calculated. The total range of possible sensitivity values in thyroidal imaging in the e-cam and skylight GC measure from 7 cps MBq-1 to 35 cps MBq-1, and from 6 cps MBq-1 to 29 cps MBq-1, respectively. These sensitivity values have been verified with the SIMIND code, with good agreement between them. The results have been validated with experimental measurements in air, and in a medium with scatter and attenuation. The counts in the ROI can be produced by direct, scatter and penetration photons. The fluence value for direct photons is constant for any r and d values, but scatter and penetration photons show different values related to specific r and d values, resulting in the large sensitivity differences found. The sensitivity in thyroidal GC planar imaging is strongly dependent on uptake size, and distance from the GC. An individual value for the acquisition sensitivity of each lesion can significantly alleviate the level of uncertainty in the measurement of thyroid uptake activity for each patient.

  2. (131)I activity quantification of gamma camera planar images.

    PubMed

    Barquero, Raquel; Garcia, Hugo P; Incio, Monica G; Minguez, Pablo; Cardenas, Alexander; Martínez, Daniel; Lassmann, Michael

    2017-02-07

    A procedure to estimate the activity in target tissues in patients during the therapeutic administration of (131)I radiopharmaceutical treatment for thyroid conditions (hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer) using a gamma camera (GC) with a high energy (HE) collimator, is proposed. Planar images are acquired for lesions of different sizes r, and at different distances d, in two HE GC systems. Defining a region of interest (ROI) on the image of size r, total counts n g are measured. Sensitivity S (cps MBq(-1)) in each acquisition is estimated as the product of the geometric G and the intrinsic efficiency η 0. The mean fluence of 364 keV photons arriving at the ROI per disintegration G, is calculated with the MCNPX code, simulating the entire GC and the HE collimator. Intrinsic efficiency η 0 is estimated from a calibration measurement of a plane reference source of (131)I in air. Values of G and S for two GC systems-Philips Skylight and Siemens e-cam-are calculated. The total range of possible sensitivity values in thyroidal imaging in the e-cam and skylight GC measure from 7 cps MBq(-1) to 35 cps MBq(-1), and from 6 cps MBq(-1) to 29 cps MBq(-1), respectively. These sensitivity values have been verified with the SIMIND code, with good agreement between them. The results have been validated with experimental measurements in air, and in a medium with scatter and attenuation. The counts in the ROI can be produced by direct, scatter and penetration photons. The fluence value for direct photons is constant for any r and d values, but scatter and penetration photons show different values related to specific r and d values, resulting in the large sensitivity differences found. The sensitivity in thyroidal GC planar imaging is strongly dependent on uptake size, and distance from the GC. An individual value for the acquisition sensitivity of each lesion can significantly alleviate the level of uncertainty in the measurement of thyroid uptake activity for

  3. Impact of high 131I-activities on quantitative 124I-PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braad, P. E. N.; Hansen, S. B.; Høilund-Carlsen, P. F.

    2015-07-01

    Peri-therapeutic 124 I-PET/CT is of interest as guidance for radioiodine therapy. Unfortunately, image quality is complicated by dead time effects and increased random coincidence rates from high 131 I-activities. A series of phantom experiments with clinically relevant 124 I/131 I-activities were performed on a clinical PET/CT-system. Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) curves and quantitation accuracy were determined from repeated scans performed over several weeks on a decaying NEMA NU-2 1994 cylinder phantom initially filled with 25 MBq 124 I and 1250 MBq 131 I. Six spherical inserts with diameters 10-37 mm were filled with 124 I (0.45 MBq ml-1 ) and 131 I (22 MBq ml-1 ) and placed inside the background of the NEMA/IEC torso phantom. Contrast recovery, background variability and the accuracy of scatter and attenuation corrections were assessed at sphere-to-background activity ratios of 20, 10 and 5. Results were compared to pure 124 I-acquisitions. The quality of 124 I-PET images in the presence of high 131 I-activities was good and image quantification unaffected except at very high count rates. Quantitation accuracy and contrast recovery were uninfluenced at 131 I-activities below 1000 MBq, whereas image noise was slightly increased. The NECR peaked at 550 MBq of 131 I, where it was 2.8 times lower than without 131 I in the phantom. Quantitative peri-therapeutic 124 I-PET is feasible.

  4. Impact of high (131)I-activities on quantitative (124)I-PET.

    PubMed

    Braad, P E N; Hansen, S B; Høilund-Carlsen, P F

    2015-07-07

    Peri-therapeutic (124)I-PET/CT is of interest as guidance for radioiodine therapy. Unfortunately, image quality is complicated by dead time effects and increased random coincidence rates from high (131)I-activities. A series of phantom experiments with clinically relevant (124)I/(131)I-activities were performed on a clinical PET/CT-system. Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) curves and quantitation accuracy were determined from repeated scans performed over several weeks on a decaying NEMA NU-2 1994 cylinder phantom initially filled with 25 MBq (124)I and 1250 MBq (131)I. Six spherical inserts with diameters 10-37 mm were filled with (124)I (0.45 MBq ml(-1)) and (131)I (22 MBq ml(-1)) and placed inside the background of the NEMA/IEC torso phantom. Contrast recovery, background variability and the accuracy of scatter and attenuation corrections were assessed at sphere-to-background activity ratios of 20, 10 and 5. Results were compared to pure (124)I-acquisitions. The quality of (124)I-PET images in the presence of high (131)I-activities was good and image quantification unaffected except at very high count rates. Quantitation accuracy and contrast recovery were uninfluenced at (131)I-activities below 1000 MBq, whereas image noise was slightly increased. The NECR peaked at 550 MBq of (131)I, where it was 2.8 times lower than without (131)I in the phantom. Quantitative peri-therapeutic (124)I-PET is feasible.

  5. Local distribution and concentration of intravenously injected sup 131 I-9. 2. 27 monoclonal antibody in human malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Del Vecchio, S.; Reynolds, J.C.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Blasberg, R.G.; Neumann, R.D.; Lotze, M.T.; Bryant, G.J.; Farkas, R.J.; Larson, S.M. )

    1989-05-15

    Regional measurements of {sup 131}I-9.2.27 distribution in human melanoma tumors were obtained using quantitative autoradiography. Tumors were removed from patients 72-96 h after they had received an i.v. injection of 9.15 mCi (100 mg) of {sup 131}I-9.2.27. The autoradiographic images showed that the radioactivity reaching the tumor was heterogeneously distributed. Areas of relative high and low uptake were selected in each tumor. Regions of high activity contained from 51 to 1371 nCi/g, while areas with low uptake had radioactivity ranging from 12 to 487 nCi/g. The reliability of the autoradiographic measurements was demonstrated by the strong positive correlation with direct tissue sample counting (r = 0.994 P less than 0.001). Since comparative immunocytochemistry showed a homogeneous and diffuse staining of target antigen on viable tumor cells, variability of monoclonal antibody uptake within individual tumors was not primarily due to heterogeneity of antigen expression in these cases. However, antigen levels accounted for some of the variation from tumor to tumor. When immunoperoxidase staining was repeated on adjacent sections without the addition of 9.2.27, it confirmed the nonuniform distribution of monoclonal antibody found at autoradiography. Thus, quantitative autoradiography gives information about the distribution and the local concentration of radioactive antibody in tumors allowing calculation of the radiation dose delivered to small regions within tumors.

  6. Thyroid function in fasting rats: variations in 131I uptake and transient decrease in peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Moura, E G; Ramos, C F; Nascimento, C C; Rosenthal, D; Breitenbach, M M

    1987-01-01

    Serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, radioiodide thyroid uptake and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity were studied over a 2 to 5 day period in fasting rats treated (F+) or not (F-) with TSH. In F- rats, TPO activity was transiently decreased on the 3rd day, whereas in F+ it was always higher than in controls. On the 5th day, the 2 h thyroid uptake of 131I decreased in F-, while the 24 h uptake increased in both F- and F+. Serum T3 and T4 decreased in both fasting groups. Thus, not all effects of fasting on rat thyroid function are reverted by TSH administration, suggesting intrinsic impairment of glandular function.

  7. False-positive scalp activity in 131I imaging associated with hair coloring.

    PubMed

    Yan, Di; Doss, Mohan; Mehra, Ranee; Parsons, Rosaleen B; Milestone, Barton N; Yu, Jian Q

    2013-03-01

    A patient with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (after surgical resection of tumor and positive lymph nodes) undergoing thyroid ablation therapy with (131)I is described. Whole-body scintigraphy was performed 1 wk after ablation therapy to evaluate the presence of residual disease. The whole-body images demonstrated an artifact caused by tracer accumulation in the patient's scalp related to recent hair coloring. Common etiologies of false-positive (131)I scintigraphic findings are briefly reviewed. The importance of taking preventative measures to decrease the number of false-positive findings and recognizing these findings when they occur is discussed.

  8. Activity standardization of 131I at CENTIS-DMR and PTB within the scope of a bilateral comparison.

    PubMed

    Oropesa Verdecia, P; Kossert, K

    2009-06-01

    The activity of an (131)I solution was measured at the Cuban Institute, CENTIS-DMR, as well as at the German National Metrology Institute, PTB, within the scope of a bilateral comparison. In particular, the comparison is aimed at an investigation of the measurement capabilities of CENTIS-DMR which provides activity standards in Cuba and organizes national comparisons, placing a particular emphasis on radionuclides for nuclear medicine, such as (131)I. Both institutes applied liquid scintillation counting techniques with efficiency tracing as well as secondary standardization procedures by means of calibrated ionization chambers and gamma-ray spectrometers. The results were checked for consistency and a good agreement was found. Moreover, a virtual link of the Cuban result to the International Reference System (SIR) at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) is discussed.

  9. Feasibility of using sup 129 I concentrations in human tissue to estimate radiation dose from sup 131 I

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, W.D.

    1989-10-01

    To use data on {sup 129}I in human tissue to estimate an individual's past exposure to that radionuclide, it is necessary to know when and how the exposure occurred, and to know about any other prior and/or ongoing exposures. Moreover, to use {sup 129}I data to estimate past exposure to {sup 131}I, it is also necessary to know the relationship of the two radionuclides at the time of exposure. The relative quantities of {sup 131}I and {sup 129}I in gaseous effluents from Hanford Site facilities varied significantly because of the large variations in elapsed time between discharge of irradiated fuel from Hanford production reactors and initiation of chemical processing. The relationship of the two radionuclides also varied in the environment because the shorter-lived {sup 131}I decayed and the longer-lived {sup 129}I accumulated. Because of its extremely long half-life, {sup 129}I from both Hanford and non-Hanford sources (such as fallout from weapons testing) has accumulated in the environment. Without an associated exposure to {sup 131}I, chronic exposure to {sup 129}I deposited in the environment has contributed and continues to contribute to thyroid burdens. Based on investigations conducted to date, measured levels of {sup 129}I in human tissue will not provide a viable alternative for reconstruction of historical exposure to {sup 131}I. 5 refs.

  10. Evidence of 131I and (134,137)Cs activities in Bordeaux, France due to the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Perrot, F; Hubert, Ph; Marquet, Ch; Pravikoff, M S; Bourquin, P; Chiron, H; Guernion, P-Y; Nachab, A

    2012-12-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, low-background gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with HPGe detectors at the PRISNA platform located at the CENBG laboratory in Bordeaux, France. Different kinds of samples were collected and measured between March 26 and May 14, 2011. The first fission product observed was (131)I with maximum activity values of 2.4 mBq/m(3) in atmospheric dusts in air, 3.5 Bq/L in rain water, 15 Bq/kg in grass and 0.9 Bq/L in cow milk. The (134,137)Cs isotopes were also detected in air and in grass at a maximum level of 0.2 mBq/m(3) and 0.7 Bq/kg respectively, around one order of magnitude less than (131)I activity, but they were below detection limits in the other samples. All these activity values were consistent with others measured in France by IRSN and were well below those reported in May 1986 after the Chernobyl accident.

  11. The study of external dose rate and retained body activity of patients receiving 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiying; Jiao, Ling; Cui, Songye; Wang, Liang; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; He, Yajing; Ruan, Shuzhou; Fan, Saijun; Zhang, Wenyi

    2014-10-21

    Radiation safety is an integral part of targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of this work was to study the external dose rate and retained body activity as functions of time in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients receiving 131I therapy. Seventy patients were stratified into two groups: the ablation group (A) and the follow-up group (FU). The patients' external dose rate was measured, and simultaneously, their retained body radiation activity was monitored at various time points. The equations of the external dose rate and the retained body activity, described as a function of hours post administration, were fitted. Additionally, the release time for patients was calculated. The reduction in activity in the group receiving a second or subsequent treatment was more rapid than the group receiving only the initial treatment. Most important, an expeditious method was established to indirectly evaluate the retained body activity of patients by measuring the external dose rate with a portable radiation survey meter. By this method, the calculated external dose rate limits are 19.2, 8.85, 5.08 and 2.32 μSv·h-1 at 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m, respectively, according to a patient's released threshold level of retained body activity <400 MBq. This study is beneficial for radiation safety decision-making.

  12. Airborne 131I at a background monitoring site.

    PubMed

    Kitto, Michael E; Fielman, Eileen M; Fielman, Steven E; Gillen, Elizabeth A

    2005-01-01

    As part of an environmental surveillance program, measurements of 131I in samples of atmospheric aerosols were determined in week-long collection periods at 0.3 km and 1.5 km from a municipal-sewage sludge incinerator located in Albany, New York. During an 11-month period when the sampler was temporarily located near the incinerator, sampling canisters of activated charcoal nearly always contained detectable airborne 131I activity (range of 0.1-6.0 mBq m(-3)). In contrast, remote concentrations where the sample was normally located were near or below analytical detection limits, both before and after the 11-month relocation. Activities of wet and dry fallout at both locations were below detection limits. The source of 131I in the aerosols associated with the sewage sludge was likely excreta from patients following medical treatments at local hospitals.

  13. Behavior of Na131I and meta(131I) iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in municipal sewerage.

    PubMed

    Fenner, F D; Martin, J E

    1997-08-01

    Behavior of 131I activity in primary sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plant was studied in relation to known radioiodine therapy events at the University of Michigan Hospital complex. The principal compounds administered are Na131I, which has widespread use, and meta (131I) iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), which is a compound unique to the University of Michigan, although labeled antibodies and other forms are also used in therapy and research. The objectives of the study were to determine the environmental fate of such discharges and to determine radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. Approximately 17% of the MIBG activity administered in a therapy was found in the primary sludge, whereas only 1.1% of the Na131I was in sludge. When land applied, the short half life of 131I in the sludge presents few radiological health concerns; however, incineration, which is done in winter months, is assumed to release organically bound 131I to the atmosphere. Radiation doses due to incineration of sludge containing measured concentrations were calculated for a maximally exposed worker to be 1.7 microSv (0.17 mrem) of which 0.48 microSv (0.048 mrem) was due to a 2-d upset condition. For a more typically exposed worker, and a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalents were 1.2 microSv (0.12 mrem) and 0.06 microSv (0.006 mrem), respectively, for a 22-wk incineration period with release of all radioiodine in the sludge. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of normal sewage, possibly due to organic material in sewer lines that absorb iodine. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected; whether other radioactive materials are held up the same way is not known but chemical form is surely a factor.

  14. Biodistribution and dosimetry of free 211At, 125I- and 131I- in rats.

    PubMed

    Spetz, Johan; Rudqvist, Nils; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2013-11-01

    131I is widely used for therapy in the clinic and 125I and 131I, and increasingly 211At, are often used in experimental studies. It is important to know the biodistribution and dosimetry for these radionuclides to determine potential risk organs when using radiopharmaceuticals containing these radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of 125I-, 131I-, and free 211At in rats and to determine absorbed doses to various organs and tissues. Male Sprague Dawley rats were injected simultaneously with 0.1-0.3 MBq 125I- and 0.1-0.3 MBq 131I-, or 0.05-0.2 MBq 211At and sacrificed 1 hour to 7 days after injection. The activities and activity concentrations in organs and tissues were determined and mean absorbed doses were calculated. The biodistribution of 125I- was similar to that of 131I- but the biodistribution of free 211At was different compared to 125I- and 131I-. The activity concentration of radioiodine was higher compared with 211At in the thyroid and lower in all extrathyroidal tissues. The mean absorbed dose per unit injected activity was highest to the thyroid. 131I gave the highest absorbed dose to the thyroid, and 211At gave the highest absorbed dose to all other tissues studied.

  15. Measurement of (131)I activity in thyroid of nuclear medical staff and internal dose assessment in a Polish nuclear medical hospital.

    PubMed

    Brudecki, K; Kowalska, A; Zagrodzki, P; Szczodry, A; Mroz, T; Janowski, P; Mietelski, J W

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents results of (131)I thyroid activity measurements in 30 members of the nuclear medicine personnel of the Department of Endocrinology and Nuclear Medicine Holy Cross Cancer Centre in Kielce, Poland. A whole-body spectrometer equipped with two semiconductor gamma radiation detectors served as the basic research instrument. In ten out of 30 examined staff members, the determined (131)I activity was found to be above the detection limit (DL = 5 Bq of (131)I in the thyroid). The measured activities ranged from (5 ± 2) Bq to (217 ± 56) Bq. The highest activities in thyroids were detected for technical and cleaning personnel, whereas the lowest values were recorded for medical doctors. Having measured the activities, an attempt has been made to estimate the corresponding annual effective doses, which were found to range from 0.02 to 0.8 mSv. The highest annual equivalent doses have been found for thyroid, ranging from 0.4 to 15.4 mSv, detected for a cleaner and a technician, respectively. The maximum estimated effective dose corresponds to 32% of the annual background dose in Poland, and to circa 4% of the annual limit for the effective dose due to occupational exposure of 20 mSv per year, which is in compliance with the value recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  16. Circulating T-cell subsets in Graves' disease: differences between patients with active disease and in remission after /sup 131/I-therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Canonica, G.W.; Bagnasco, M.; Ferrini, S.; Biassoni, P.; Giordano, G.; Corte, G.

    1983-08-01

    In the present investigation some surface markers in peripheral blood T lymphocytes of patients with active Graves' disease and subjects in remission after /sup 131/I-therapy have been studied. We confirmed low TG levels in untreated patients and normal values in treated subjects. Increased percentages of DR+, MLR4+ (activated T cells), and 5/9+ (inducer-helper) T cells were detected in patients with active disease, thus indicating the presence of activated T cells and suggesting increased levels of helper T cells. High percentages of MLR4+ and 5/9+, but normal levels of DR+ were found in /sup 131/I-treated subjects. The different distribution of DR and MLR4 positivities on 5/9+ and 5+9-T cells confirm the different meaning of these two markers of the activation state. The imbalance of T-cell subsets found in /sup 131/I-treated subjects and the normal values observed in patients with hyperthyroidism due to toxic adenoma indicate that hyperthyroidism per se is not sufficient to explain the T-cell alterations. The possible meaning of these findings is discussed with respect to previous hypotheses on the pathogenesis of Graves' disease.

  17. Aerosol residence times and changes in radioiodine-131I and radiocaesium-137 Cs activity over Central Poland after the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Bem, Henryk

    2012-05-01

    The first detectable activities of radioiodine (131)I, and radiocaesium (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the air over Central Poland were measured in dust samples collected by the ASS-500 station in the period of 21(st) to 24(th) of March, 2011. However, the highest activity of both fission products, (131)I and (137)Cs: 8.3 mBq m(-3) and 0.75 mBq m(-3), respectively, were obtained in the samples collected on 30(th) March, i.e.∼18 days after the beginning of the fission products' discharge from the damaged units of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The simultaneously determined corrected aerosol residence time for the same samples by (210)Pb/(210)Bi and (210)Pb/(210)Po methods was equal to 10 days. Additionally, on the basis of the activity ratio of two other natural cosmogenic radionuclides, (7)Be and (22)Na in these aerosol samples, it was possible to estimate the aerosol residence time at ∼150 days for the solid particles coming from the stratospheric fallout. These data, as well as the differences in the activity size distribution of (7)Be and (131)I in the air particulate matter, show, in contrast to the Chernobyl discharge, a negligible input of stratospheric transport of Fukushima-released fission products.

  18. Therapy to target renal cell carcinoma using 131I-labeled B7-H3 monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueqin; Zhang, Guangbo; Hou, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    B7-H3 is a tumor-associated antigen that plays a critical role in potential tumor-targeted therapy. In this study, we aimed to assess the radiobiological effect of 131I-labeled B7-H3 monoclonal antibody (131I-4H7) in nude mice with human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and evaluate the effect of 131I-4H7 on RCC treatment. The radiobiological activity and tumor uptake of 131I-4H7, and its effect on tumor growth were measured. 131I-4H7 was absorbed by the tumor and reached its maximal uptake rate (3.32% injected dose [ID]/g) at 24 h, at which point the drug concentration in the tumor was 7.36-, 2.06-, 1.80-, and 2.78-fold higher than that in muscle, kidneys, liver, and heart, respectively. Measurements and positron emission tomography–computed tomography imaging showed that tumor development was significantly inhibited by 131I-4H7. HE staining revealed that 131I-4H7 significantly injures tumor cells. Our results suggest that 131I-4H7 is markedly absorbed by the tumor and did suppress the development of RCC xenografted tumors in nude mice, which might provide a new candidate for antibody-mediated targeted radiotherapy in human RCC. PMID:27058890

  19. A Study of Thyroid 131I Activity of Five Human Subjects Exposed to a Radioactive Plume at Tamura City in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Koji; Miyashita, Masami; Sato, Hitoshi; Tanishima, Yoshinobu; Maeda, Shigenobu; Yoshikawa, Jun; Kimura, Shinzo

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid 131I activities were determined for five human subjects from a disaster medical assistance team of Fukui Prefectural Hospital. The team was dispatched to the Tamura City Sports Park, 40 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. They were exposed to a radioactive plume on 15 March 2011. In vivo measurements at Fukui Prefectural Hospital were conducted around 17 h after the team left the park. A thyroid counter equipped with a 51-mm-diameter × 51-mm-thick NaI(Tl) detector with a 20-mm-thick lead collimator was used. Mock iodine (133Ba and 137Cs) with a thyroid uptake neck phantom was used for calibration. On 16 March 2011, at 11:30, thyroid activity of a member of the team age 53 y, who was never administered stable iodine, was 268 ± 38 Bq. The remaining four men, aged 49, 35, 34, and 27 y, ingested two stable iodine pills (a total of 100 mg of potassium iodide) approximately 36 h before being exposed to the plume. Their thyroid activity values were 249 ± 86 Bq, 676 ± 107 Bq, 569 ± 96 Bq, and 1,082 ± 119 Bq, respectively. An inverse relationship between age and thyroid activity was observed among those who ingested potassium iodide before exposure, indicating that stable iodine administration may have a protective effect. Thyroid 131I activity was reduced by approximately 70% in the oldest person. This can be explained by the iodine metabolism in the thyroid of younger individuals being significantly faster than that of older individuals.

  20. Observation of radioactive iodine ((131)I, (129)I) in cropland soil after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2016-10-01

    During the early stages of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the temporal variations of (131)I deposited on the ground and of (131)I accumulated in cropland soil were monitored at a fixed location in Japan. Moreover, concentrations of long-lived radioactive iodine ((129)I) in atmospheric deposits and soil were measured to examine the feasibility of retrospectively reconstructing (131)I levels from the levels of accident-derived (129)I. The exceptionally high levels of (131)I in deposits and soil were attributed to rainfall-related deposition of radionuclides. In the crop field studied, the losses of deposited (131)I and (129)I due to volatilization were small. The atomic ratio (129)I/(131)I in the topsoil corresponded to the same ratio in deposits. The (131)I concentrations measured in the topsoil were very consistent with the (131)I concentrations reconstructed from the (129)I concentrations in the soil.

  1. Dosimetric results in treatments of neuroblastoma and neuroendocrine tumors with {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine with implications for the activity to administer

    SciTech Connect

    Mínguez, Pablo; Genollá, José; Guayambuco, Sonía; Delgado, Alejandro; Fombellida, José Cruz

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The aim was to investigate whole-body and red marrow absorbed doses in treatments of neuroblastoma (NB) and adult neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and to propose a simple method for determining the activity to administer when dosimetric data for the individual patient are not available. Methods: Nine NB patients and six NET patients were included, giving in total 19 treatments as four patients were treated twice. Whole-body absorbed doses were determined from dose-rate measurements and planar gamma-camera imaging. For six NB and five NET treatments, red marrow absorbed doses were also determined using the blood-based method. Results: Dosimetric data from repeated administrations in the same patient were consistent. In groups of NB and NET patients, similar whole-body residence times were obtained, implying that whole-body absorbed dose per unit of administered activity could be reasonably well described as a power function of the patient mass. For NB, this functional form was found to be consistent with dosimetric data from previously published studies. The whole-body to red marrow absorbed dose ratio was similar among patients, with values of 1.4 ± 0.6–1.7 ± 0.7 (1 standard deviation) in NB treatments and between 1.5 ± 0.6 and 1.7 ± 0.7 (1 standard deviation) in NET treatments. Conclusions: The consistency of dosimetric results between administrations for the same patient supports prescription of the activity based on dosimetry performed in pretreatment studies, or during the first administration in a fractionated schedule. The expressions obtained for whole-body absorbed doses per unit of administered activity as a function of patient mass for NB and NET treatments are believed to be a useful tool to estimate the activity to administer at the stage when the individual patient biokinetics has not yet been measured.

  2. Uptake and depuration of 131I by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea: uptake from seawater.

    PubMed

    Vives i Batlle, J; Wilson, R C; McDonald, P; Parker, T G

    2005-01-01

    Uptake and depuration experiments for the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea have been performed using 131I-labelled seawater. Throughout the experimental phase the winkles were fed on unlabelled Chondrus crispus. 131I concentrations in winkles during uptake followed linear first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 11 days, whereas for depuration a triphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 4, 23 and 56 days was determined. In general, iodine turnover in winkles via labelled seawater appears to be slower than observed for other molluscs (2-3 days). Most of the activity prior to and after depuration is found to be in the shell, with indications that shell and soft parts accumulate and depurate 131I at a similar rate. The operculum displays the highest specific activity of all fractions with a concentration factor of 750 l kg(-1). Concentration factors for whole winkle, shell, soft parts and digestive gland are in the order of 40-60 l kg(-1), higher than the IAEA recommended CF value for iodine in molluscs of 10 l kg(-1). The 131I CF in winkles is closer to that of the conservative radionuclides 99Tc and 137Cs than the CF of the particle reactive radionuclides (239,240)Pu and 241Am.

  3. Measurement of the /sup 129/I//sup 131/I ratio in Chernobyl fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Kutschera, W.; Fink, D.; Paul, M.; Hollos, G.; Kaufman, A.

    1986-01-01

    Rainwater collected in the Munich area approximately one week after the Chernobyl reactor accident was investigated for its content of the radioisotopes /sup 129/I (T/sub 1/2/ = 1.6 x 10/sup 7/ y) and /sup 131/I (T/sub 1/2/ = 8.04 d). For the time of release, an isotopic ratio of /sup 129/I//sup 131/I = 19 +- 5 was found. This value was obtained from a gamma-ray activity measurement of /sup 131/I with a GE detector and a concentration measurement of /sup 129/I with accelerator mass spectrometry. From the measured ratio an operating time of the reactor prior to the accident in the vicinity of two years can be estimated, which is in fair agreement with estimates from other long-lived to short-lived radioisotope ratios in the Chernobyl fallout. Some measurements of /sup 131/I activity in thyroids of persons living in the Munich area is also reported.

  4. Influence of measurement geometry on the estimate of {sup 131}I activity in the thyroid: Monte Carlo simulation of a detector and a phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Ulanovsky, A.V.; Minenko, V.F.; Korneev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    An approach for evaluating the influence of measurement geometry on estimates of {sup 131}I in the thyroid from measurements with survey meters was developed using Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport in the human body and the radiation detector. The modified Monte Carlo code, EGS4, including a newly developed mathematical model of detector, thyroid gland, and neck, was used for the computations. The approach was tested by comparing calculated and measured differential and integral detector characteristics. This procedure was applied to estimate uncertainties in direct thyroid-measurement results due to geometrical errors. 14 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Testing prediction capabilities of an 131I terrestrial transport model by using measurements collected at the Hanford nuclear facility.

    PubMed

    Apostoaei, A Iulian

    2005-05-01

    A model describing transport of 131I in the environment was developed by SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., for assessment of radiation doses and excess lifetime risk from 131I atmospheric releases from Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in southeast Idaho. This paper describes the results of an exercise designed to test the reliability of this model and to identify the main sources of uncertainty in doses and risks estimated by this model. The testing of the model was based on materials published by the International Atomic Energy Agency BIOMASS program, specifically environmental data collected after the release into atmosphere of 63 curies of 131I during 2-5 September 1963, after an accident at the Hanford PUREX Chemical Separations Plant, in Hanford, Washington. Measurements of activity in air, vegetation, and milk were collected in nine counties around Hanford during the first couple of months after the accident. The activity of 131I in the thyroid glands of two children was measured 47 d after the accident. The model developed by SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., was used to estimate concentrations of 131I in environmental media, thyroid doses for the general population, and the activity of 131I in thyroid glands of the two children. Predicted concentrations of 131I in pasture grass and milk and thyroid doses were compared with similar estimates produced by other modelers. The SENES model was also used to estimate excess lifetime risk of thyroid cancer due to the September 1963 releases of 131I from Hanford. The SENES model was first calibrated and then applied to all locations of interest around Hanford without fitting the model parameters to a given location. Predictions showed that the SENES model reproduces satisfactorily the time-dependent and the time-integrated measured concentrations in vegetation and milk, and provides reliable estimates of 131I activity in thyroids of children. SENES model

  6. Transcriptional response to 131I exposure of rat thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Spetz, Johan; Schüler, Emil; Parris, Toshima Z.; Langen, Britta; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Humans are exposed to 131I in medical diagnostics and treatment but also from nuclear accidents, and better knowledge of the molecular response in thyroid is needed. The aim of the study was to examine the transcriptional response in thyroid tissue 24 h after 131I administration in rats. The exposure levels were chosen to simulate both the clinical situation and the case of nuclear fallout. Thirty-six male rats were i.v. injected with 0–4700 kBq 131I, and killed at 24 h after injection (Dthyroid = 0.0058–3.0 Gy). Total RNA was extracted from individual thyroid tissue samples and mRNA levels were determined using oligonucleotide microarray technique. Differentially expressed transcripts were determined using Nexus Expression 3.0. Hierarchical clustering was performed in the R statistical computing environment. Pathway analysis was performed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool and the Gene Ontology database. T4 and TSH plasma concentrations were measured using ELISA. Totally, 429 differentially regulated transcripts were identified. Downregulation of thyroid hormone biosynthesis associated genes (e.g. thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, the sodium-iodine symporter) was identified in some groups, and an impact on thyroid function was supported by the pathway analysis. Recurring downregulation of Dbp and Slc47a2 was found. Dbp exhibited a pattern with monotonous reduction of downregulation with absorbed dose at 0.0058–0.22 Gy. T4 plasma levels were increased and decreased in rats whose thyroids were exposed to 0.057 and 0.22 Gy, respectively. Different amounts of injected 131I gave distinct transcriptional responses in the rat thyroid. Transcriptional response related to thyroid function and changes in T4 plasma levels were found already at very low absorbed doses to thyroid. PMID:28222107

  7. Simulating 131I pathways from Fukushima to Kanto: a case study for March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee Zhi Yi, A.; Yoshimura, K.; Oki, T.

    2015-12-01

    An estimated 150PBq of 131I was released from the FDNPP accident, partially deposited into rivers and affected the water treatment plants (WTPs) of Japan. Due to the elevated 131I concentration in tap water, a restriction on drinking water was placed in 15 of 47 prefectures; of those limited, the densely populated Kanto region was significantly affected during this period. In order to better understand the existence of and to investigate the pathways of 131I for future risk and water resource management in the Kanto region, the IsoMATTRIP land surface and river model was developed. Half-life considerations of radiotracers were implemented and a river map of the Kanto region was manually created. Few simulation studies on the pathways of 131I have been conducted due to its short half-life and limited validation data. The development of the IsoMATTRIP model serves as an initial step to address this gap in knowledge. Preliminary runs on the IsoMATTRIP showed that river discharge has a significant effect on 131I concentration found in WTPs. River discharge was underestimated (by average of 55 m3/s) while 131I concentration was overestimated (by 301 Bq/kg). However, the model was able to simulate varying response of 131I concentration for fallout according to basin size. The discrepancy between observed and simulated river discharge is potentially caused by the model's usage of natural land parameters to simulate an urban environment. Effective river velocity, input precipitation, and discharge were calibrated to successfully identify optimized settings for the current model setup. The IsoMATTRIP simulated comparable values of 131I to that from the observed in WTPs of the Kanto region.

  8. A bioassay experience and lessons learned on the internal contamination of (131)I during a maintenance period in a Korean nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2012-08-01

    During a maintenance period at a Korean nuclear power plant, internal exposure of radiation workers occurred by the inhalation of (131)I that was released into the reactor building from a primary system opening due to defective fuels. The internal activity in radiation workers contaminated by (131)I was immediately measured using a whole body counter (WBC). A whole body counting was performed again a few days later, considering the factors of equilibrium in the body. The intake and the committed effective dose were estimated based on the WBC results. The intake was also calculated by hand, based on both the entrance records to the reactor building, and the counted results of the air concentration for (131)I were compared with the whole body counting results.

  9. Estimating the impact from Fukushima in Southern Spain by (131)I and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry detection of (129)I.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; López-Gutiérrez, J M; García-Tenorio, R; Agulló, L; Peruchena, J I; Manjón, G; García-León, M

    2017-01-01

    After the Fukushima accident, large amounts of radionuclides were discharged to the atmosphere. Some of them travelled long distances and were detected in places as far from Japan as Spain a few days after the accident. One of these radionuclides was (131)I. Its isotope (129)I (T1/2 = 15.7 × 106 years) was also expected to follow the same pathway. In this work, we present the results for the (129)I concentration in the same atmospheric samples from Seville (Spain) where (131)I activity was measured in 2011 by Baeza et al. (2012). (129)I concentrations in aerosol and gaseous samples showed concentrations in the order of 104 and 105 atoms/m(3), typically higher in the gaseous form with respect to the aerosol form. Also (129)I in rainwater was measured, showing concentrations in the order of 10(8) atoms/L. The results show a very good agreement with the (131)I profile, showing that, if background from other sources is not relevant, it is possible to estimate the impact of similar events years after them thanks to the sensitivity of techniques like Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

  10. Detection and tracing of the medical radioisotope 131I in the Canberra environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfillan, Nathan R.; Timmers, Heiko

    2012-10-01

    The transport and radioecology of the therapeutical radioisotope 131I has been studied in Canberra, Australia. The isotope has been detected in water samples and its activity quantified via characteristic J-ray photo peaks. A comparison of measurements on samples from upstream and downstream of the Canberra waste water treatment plant shows that 131I is discharged from the plant outflow into the local Molonglo river. This is consistent with observations in other urban environments. A time-correlation between the measured activities in the outflow and the therapeutical treatment cycle at the hospital identifies the medical treatment as the source of the isotope. Enhanced activity levels of 131I have been measured for fish samples. This may permit conclusions on 131I uptake by the biosphere. Due to the well-defined and intermittent input of 131I into the sewage, the Canberra situation is ideally suited for radioecological studies. Furthermore, the 131I activity may be applied in tracer studies of sewage transport to and through the treatment plant and as an indicator of outflow dilution following discharge to the environment.

  11. Uptake and localization of /sup 131/I-labeled anti-calcitonin immunoglobulins in rat medullary thyroid carcinoma tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gautvik, K.M.; Svindahl, K.; Skretting, A.; Stenberg, B.; Myhre, L.; Ekeland, A.; Johannesen, J.V.

    1982-09-15

    A medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) which has been transplanted repeatedly under the kidney capsule of Wag/Rij rats secretes calcitonin (CT) spontaneously. From 10--20 weeks after transplantation, immunoreactive serum calcitonin (iCT) is abnormally elevated and continues to rise parallel to tumor growth. The immunoglobulin fraction of the rabbit anti-CT antiserum raised against intact synthetic hormone, was purified and iodinated electrolytically. Specific activities of /sup 131/I-labeled immunoglobulin of 0.008--0.014 mCi/microgram protein were obtained with 80% preservation of CT binding activity. Wag/Rig rats with MCT tumor and increased serum iCT concentrations received intravenous injections of /sup 131/I-labeled immunoglobulins (0.054--0.811 mCi). The distribution of radioactivity in the rats was followed for 14 days using external scintigraphy in combination with radioactivity measurements of blood and different organs at the end of the observation period. The distribution of /sup 113/mIn was used as a marker for blood distribution. When the radioactivity ratios (/sup 131/I//sup 113/mIn) in tumor and different organs were related to that of blood which was set equal to unity, tumor tissue contained 3--6 times higher activity. Nonhyperimmune rabbit immunoglobulins or rabbit antirat prolactin immunoglobulins were not concentrated in MCT tissue, nor did anti-CT immunoglobulins localize in rat prolactin adenomas.

  12. Behavior of 131I and 137Cs in environments released from the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.; Kubota, T.; Igarashi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The devastating tsunami that caused by the great earthquake (M = 9.0) off the coast of northeastern Honshu on 11 March 2011 destroyed large coastal areas of Tohoku and north Kanto, Japan. Radionuclides, including 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs, were released into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Daiichi plants. Concentration of levels of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, released from the Fukushima Daiichi plant were investigated in the soil and precipitation. The concentrations of 131I and 137Cs in the soil from the surface to 1 cm depth in Ibaraki Prefecture were 9360-13,400 Bq/kg and 720-3250 Bq/kg, respectively. The concentration of 137Cs at this soil observation site originating from the Fukushima plant was 8.4 to 21 times that found locally after the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion. Most of the 134Cs and 137Cs from rainwater were trapped by the surface soil and sand to a depth of 1 cm, whereas only about 30% of the 131I was collected by the surface soil, suggesting that 131I would move deeper than 137Cs and 134Cs. The 131I in the rainwater was in the anion exchangeable form, and all of it could be collected by anion exchangeable mechanisms, whereas 30% of the 131I that had passed through the soil could not be trapped by the anion exchange resin, suggesting that the chemical form of this 30% was in a changeable, organic-bound form. The 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs that were absorbed on soil were difficult to be dissolved into water. As the half-life of 131I is short and 137Cs is strongly adsorbed on the surface soil and sand, these radionuclides would be unlikely to reach the groundwater before completely decaying; contamination of groundwater with 131I and 137Cs supplied from rainwater to the surface soil is therefore exceedingly unlikely. As the 137Cs is likely to migrate only 0.6 cm in 10 years, people living in the Fukushima and Kanto areas will be exposed to radiation from 137Cs in the surface soil and sand. For protection, surface soils and sands

  13. A Phase 1 Study of 131I-CLR1404 in Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Advanced Solid Tumors: Dosimetry, Biodistribution, Pharmacokinetics, and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Grudzinski, Joseph J.; Titz, Benjamin; Kozak, Kevin; Clarke, William; Allen, Ernest; Trembath, LisaAnn; Stabin, Michael; Marshall, John; Cho, Steve Y.; Wong, Terence Z.; Mortimer, Joanne; Weichert, Jamey P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction 131I-CLR1404 is a small molecule that combines a tumor-targeting moiety with a therapeutic radioisotope. The primary aim of this phase 1 study was to determine the administered radioactivity expected to deliver 400 mSv to the bone marrow. The secondary aims were to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profiles of 131I-CLR1404. Methods Eight subjects with refractory or relapsed advanced solid tumors were treated with a single injection of 370 MBq of 131I-CLR1404. Whole body planar nuclear medicine scans were performed at 15–35 minutes, 4–6, 18–24, 48, 72, 144 hours, and 14 days post injection. Optional single photon emission computed tomography imaging was performed on two patients 6 days post injection. Clinical laboratory parameters were evaluated in blood and urine. Plasma PK was evaluated on 127I-CLR1404 mass measurements. To evaluate renal clearance of 131I-CLR1404, urine was collected for 14 days post injection. Absorbed dose estimates for target organs were determined using the RADAR method with OLINDA/EXM software. Results Single administrations of 370 MBq of 131I-CLR1404 were well tolerated by all subjects. No severe adverse events were reported and no adverse event was dose-limiting. Plasma 127I-CLR1404 concentrations declined in a bi-exponential manner with a mean t½ value of 822 hours. Mean Cmax and AUC(0-t) values were 72.2 ng/mL and 15753 ng•hr/mL, respectively. An administered activity of approximately 740 MBq is predicted to deliver 400 mSv to marrow. Conclusions Preliminary data suggest that 131I-CLR1404 is well tolerated and may have unique potential as an anti-cancer agent. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00925275 PMID:25402488

  14. Long-range transport of gaseous 131I and other radionuclides from Fukushima accident to Southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W.; Kierepko, Renata; Brudecki, Kamil; Janowski, Paweł; Kleszcz, Krzysztof; Tomankiewicz, Ewa

    2014-07-01

    A serious accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi NPP triggered radioactive emission to the atmosphere on 12 March 2011. The results of gamma spectrometric measurements of both gaseous and aerosol fraction of the air, collected in Krakow over the period from March 21 till the end of May 2011, as well as wet and dry deposition recorded from March till the end of October 2011, are presented in this paper. Krakow happened to be the first Polish location where radioactive isotopes characteristic for reactor releases, such as 131I, 132I, 129mTe, 132Te, 134Cs, 136Cs, and 137Cs, were detected. The maximum activity for aerosols equal to (5.73 ± 0.35) mBq/m3, (0.461 ± 0.041) mBq/m3 and (0.436 ± 0.038) mBq/m3 for 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, respectively, was recorded for March 29, 2011. The data on the fallout are also given. The results of the radiochemical analysis of aerosol samples showed no traces of plutonium or americium isotopes associated with the disaster to be detected. The results of air activity concentration from Fukushima accident observed in Central Europe, Poland, in comparison to those of Chernobyl accident observed in Japan are presented and discussed. The comparison has revealed a discrepancy in the recognized relative scale of both accidents, and important difference in long distance transport of contamination, to exist. An attempt to explain the variation in the activity ratios between the aerosol fraction for 131I and 137Cs as resulting from exchange between the gaseous and aerosol fractions of 131I while the contamination had been propagating, is made.

  15. Uptake and depuration of 131I from labelled diatoms (Skeletonema costatum) to the edible periwinkle (Littorina littorea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, R C; Vives I Batlle, J; Watts, S J; McDonald, P; Parker, T G

    2007-01-01

    Uptake and depuration of (131)I into winkles through consumption of the diatom Skeletonema costatum is described. The work follows on from previous studies that investigated the uptake of iodine into winkles from seawater and seaweed. Incorporation of (131)I in S. costatum from labelled seawater followed linear first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 0.40 days. Iodine uptake in winkles from labelled S. costatum also followed linear first-order kinetics, with a calculated equilibrium concentration (C(infinity)) of 42Bqkg(-1) and a transfer factor (TF) of 1.1x10(-4) with respect to labelled diatom food. This TF is lower than that observed for uptake of (131)I in winkles from labelled seaweed. For the depuration stage, a biphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 1.3 and 255 days was determined. The first phase is biokinetically important, given that winkles can lose two-thirds of their activity during that period. This study shows that, whilst winkles can obtain radioactive iodine from phytoplankton consumption, they do not retain the majority of that activity for very long. Hence, compared with other exposure pathways, such as uptake from seawater and macroalgae, incorporation from phytoplankton is a relatively minor exposure route.

  16. Evaluation of (131)I-pentamidine for scintigraphy of experimentally Leishmania tropica-infected hamsters.

    PubMed

    Inceboz, Tonay; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Eren, Mine Şencan; Girginkardeşler, Nogay; Bekiş, Recep; Yilmaz, Osman; Er, Özge; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to assess the ability of (131)I-Pentamidine scintigraphy to detect the lesions of Leishmania tropica infection. An experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis was developed. The presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was confirmed. Pentamidine was radioiodinated with (131)I. The radiolabeled pentamidine was validated by the requisite quality control tests to check its radiolabeling efficiency, in vitro stability. (131)I-Pentamidine (activity: 18.5 MBq/100 µl) was injected intracardiacally into infected hamsters. Static whole body images of the hamsters were acquired under the gamma camera at 5 and 30 min, 2, 6 and 24 h following the administration. On the scintigrams, anatomically adjusted regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over the right feet (target) and left feet (not-target) and various organs. Accumulation of (131)I-Pentamidine at sites of infection is expressed as the target to non-target (T/NT) ratio. The results T/NT ratio decreased with time. In concluding the (131)I-Pentamidine has poor sensitivity in detection of L. tropica infection.

  17. MIRD pamphlet No. 24: Guidelines for quantitative 131I SPECT in dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Dewaraja, Yuni K; Ljungberg, Michael; Green, Alan J; Zanzonico, Pat B; Frey, Eric C; Bolch, Wesley E; Brill, A Bertrand; Dunphy, Mark; Fisher, Darrell R; Howell, Roger W; Meredith, Ruby F; Sgouros, George; Wessels, Barry W

    2013-12-01

    The reliability of radiation dose estimates in internal radionuclide therapy is directly related to the accuracy of activity estimates obtained at each imaging time point. The recently published MIRD pamphlet no. 23 provided a general overview of quantitative SPECT imaging for dosimetry. The present document is the first in a series of isotope-specific guidelines that will follow MIRD 23 and focuses on one of the most commonly used therapeutic radionuclides, (131)I. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on the development of protocols for quantitative (131)I SPECT in radionuclide therapy applications that require regional (normal organs, lesions) and 3-dimensional dosimetry.

  18. 131I therapy for 345 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism: Without antithyroid drug pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong; Xing, Jialiu; Fang, Yi; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Youren; Long, Yahong

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and long-term results of (131)I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment. From January 2002 to December 2012, 408 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism were treated with (131)I alone. Among them, 345 were followed up for 1 to 10 years for physical examination, thyroid function, and thyroid ultrasound. Complete Blood Count (CBC) liver function, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) thyroid imaging were performed as indicated. The 345 patients had concomitant conditions including thyrotoxic heart disease, severe liver dysfunction, enlarged thyroid weighing 80 to 400 g, severe cytopenia, and vasculitis. One to two weeks prior to (131)I therapy, all patients were given low-iodine diet. The dose of (131)I therapy was 2.59 to 6.66 MBq (70 to180 µCi) per gram of thyroid with an average of 3.83 ± 0.6 MBq (103.6 ± 16.4 µCi); and the total (131)I activity administrated for the individuals was 111 to 3507.6 MBq (3.0 to 94.8 mCi, mean 444 ± 336.7 MBq (12.0 ± 9.1 mCi)). Out of the 408 patients, 283 were cured, 15 with complete remission, and 47 with incomplete remission. No treatment failure or significant clinical worsening was noted in these patients. Our data indicated that (131)I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment is safe and effective.

  19. sup 131 I-anticarcinoembryonic antigen therapy of LS174T human colon adenocarcinoma spheroids

    SciTech Connect

    Langmuir, V.K.; McGann, J.K.; Buchegger, F.; Sutherland, R.M. )

    1989-06-15

    LS174T human colon adenocarcinoma multicell spheroids were used to study the radiobiological aspects of radioimmunotherapy. The spheroids were incubated in 131I-anticarcinoembryonic antigen (B7) at an antibody concentration of 0.5 microgram/ml and at 131I concentrations of 2.5 and 7.5 microCi/ml. After incubation times of 90 h, clonogenic cells per spheroid were reduced by 1400-fold and 23-fold at the high and low 131I concentrations, respectively. 131I Nonspecific antibody (PX63) resulted in 2- and 1.2-fold reductions. Spheroid diameter was not significantly affected by therapy but histological examination revealed that there had been a significant reduction in the cell density, particularly near the spheroid surface. Using a theoretical model to estimate radiation dose, a radiation survival curve was constructed. The resulting curve was somewhat concave suggesting the presence of a resistant population of cells. It is likely that this observation is primarily due to the fact that the inner cells received a lower dose than the outer cells. A population of radiobiologically hypoxic cells in the inner portion of the spheroids may also have contributed to the decreasing slope of the curve as well as ongoing cell division leading to new cells which receive a lower radiation dose per cell cycle. Because of the ability to estimate radiation dose for a given biological effect, these types of experiments may allow predictions of the efficacy of radiolabeled antibody therapy for micrometastatic disease.

  20. Prediction of groundwater contamination with 137Cs and 131I from the Fukushima nuclear accident in the Kanto district.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tomoko; Mahara, Yasunori; Kubota, Takumi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Keiko; Takamiya, Koichi; Yoshinaga, Hisao; Mizuochi, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2012-09-01

    We measured the concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs released from the Fukushima nuclear accident in soil and rainwater samples collected March 30-31, 2011, in Ibaraki Prefecture, Kanto district, bordering Fukushima Prefecture to the south. Column experiments revealed that all (131)I in rainwater samples was adsorbed onto an anion-exchange resin. However, 30% of (131)I was not retained by the resin after it passed through a soil layer, suggesting that a portion of (131)I became bound to organic matter from the soil. The (137)Cs migration rate was estimated to be approximately 0.6 mm/y in the Kanto area, which indicates that contamination of groundwater by (137)Cs is not likely to occur in rainwater infiltrating into the surface soil after the Fukushima accident.

  1. Thyroglobulin autoantibodies switch to immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG3 subclasses and preserve their restricted epitope pattern after 131I treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism: the activity of autoimmune disease influences subclass distribution but not epitope pattern of autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Latrofa, F; Ricci, D; Montanelli, L; Piaggi, P; Mazzi, B; Bianchi, F; Brozzi, F; Santini, P; Fiore, E; Marinò, M; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-12-01

    The subclass distribution of thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) is debated, whereas their epitope pattern is restricted. Radioidine ((131)I) treatment for Graves' disease (GD) induces a rise in TgAb levels, but it is unknown whether it modifies subclass distribution and epitope pattern of TgAb as well. We collected sera from GD patients before (131) I treatment and 3 and 6 months thereafter. We measured total TgAb, TgAb light chains and TgAb subclasses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 25 patients. We characterized the TgAb epitope pattern in 30 patients by inhibiting their binding to (125-) (I) Tg by a pool of four TgAb-Fab (recognizing Tg epitope regions A, B, C and D) and to Tg in ELISA by each TgAb-Fab. Total TgAb immunoglobulin (Ig)G rose significantly (P = 0.024). TgAb κ chains did not change (P = 0.052), whereas TgAb λ chains increased significantly (P = 0.001) and persistently. We observed a significant rise in IgG1 and IgG3 levels after (131)I (P = 0.008 and P = 0.006, respectively), while IgG2 and IgG4 levels did not change. The rise of IgG1 was persistent, that of IgG3 transient. The levels of inhibition of TgAb binding to Tg by the TgAb-Fab pool were comparable. A slight, non-significant reduction of the inhibition by the immune-dominant TgAb-Fab A was observed 3 and 6 months after (131)I. We conclude that (131)I treatment for GD increases the levels of the complement-activating IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses and does not influence significantly the epitope pattern of TgAb. In autoimmune thyroid disease subclass distribution of autoantibodies is dynamic in spite of a stable epitope pattern.

  2. Thyroglobulin autoantibodies switch to immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG3 subclasses and preserve their restricted epitope pattern after 131I treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism: the activity of autoimmune disease influences subclass distribution but not epitope pattern of autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Latrofa, F; Ricci, D; Montanelli, L; Piaggi, P; Mazzi, B; Bianchi, F; Brozzi, F; Santini, P; Fiore, E; Marinò, M; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-01-01

    The subclass distribution of thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) is debated, whereas their epitope pattern is restricted. Radioidine (131I) treatment for Graves' disease (GD) induces a rise in TgAb levels, but it is unknown whether it modifies subclass distribution and epitope pattern of TgAb as well. We collected sera from GD patients before 131I treatment and 3 and 6 months thereafter. We measured total TgAb, TgAb light chains and TgAb subclasses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 25 patients. We characterized the TgAb epitope pattern in 30 patients by inhibiting their binding to 125-ITg by a pool of four TgAb-Fab (recognizing Tg epitope regions A, B, C and D) and to Tg in ELISA by each TgAb-Fab. Total TgAb immunoglobulin (Ig)G rose significantly (P = 0·024). TgAb κ chains did not change (P = 0·052), whereas TgAb λ chains increased significantly (P = 0·001) and persistently. We observed a significant rise in IgG1 and IgG3 levels after 131I (P = 0·008 and P = 0·006, respectively), while IgG2 and IgG4 levels did not change. The rise of IgG1 was persistent, that of IgG3 transient. The levels of inhibition of TgAb binding to Tg by the TgAb-Fab pool were comparable. A slight, non-significant reduction of the inhibition by the immune-dominant TgAb-Fab A was observed 3 and 6 months after 131I. We conclude that 131I treatment for GD increases the levels of the complement-activating IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses and does not influence significantly the epitope pattern of TgAb. In autoimmune thyroid disease subclass distribution of autoantibodies is dynamic in spite of a stable epitope pattern. PMID:25134846

  3. Calculation of. beta. -ray absorbed dose rate for /sup 131/I applied to the inflorescence of Tradescantia

    SciTech Connect

    Bingo, K.; Tano, S.; Numakunai, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.

    1981-03-01

    Effects of /sup 131/I applied to the inflorescence on the induction of somatic mutations in Tradescantia stamen hairs were previously investigated, and the doubling dose (activity) was estimated to be 4 nCi. In the present paper, the absorbed dose rate in stamen hairs of Tradescantia for ..beta.. rays from the applied /sup 131/I was calculated. The doubling dose for the /sup 131/I (4 nCi) applied to the inflorescence was estimated to be higher than 0.3 rad (assuming uniform distribution of /sup 131/I on the surface of the buds and assuming that the shape of the buds was a sphere) and lower than 1.0 rad.

  4. 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine therapy in neuroblastoma spheroids of different sizes.

    PubMed Central

    Gaze, M. N.; Mairs, R. J.; Boyack, S. M.; Wheldon, T. E.; Barrett, A.

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical models have predicted that targeted radiotherapy of neuroblastoma with metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) is less likely to cure small rather than large micrometastases if 131I is the conjugated radionuclide. This study uses multicellular tumour spheroids as an in vitro model to test the hypothesis that smaller tumours of sub-millimetre dimensions are relatively resistant to 131I-mIBG. Spheroids of the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE(2c), either 250 microns or 400 microns diameter, were incubated with 131I-mIBG at concentrations of up to 6.0 MBq ml-1. Using both regrowth delay and spheroid 'cure' as endpoints, the greater vulnerability of larger spheroids was confirmed. From this in vitro result we conclude that when used in vivo 131I-mIBG may spare smaller micrometastases. Therefore, either a radionuclide such as 211At which emits a shorter path length radiation should be conjugated to mIBG, or targeted radiotherapy should be combined with a treatment such as total body irradiation, the efficacy of which is not reduced in smaller tumours. PMID:1457344

  5. Radiobiological effects of /sup 131/I and /sup 125/I on the DNA of the rat thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Nabi, H.; Ortman, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    One of the major disadvantages of the use of /sup 131/I in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis is the development of hypothyroidism. Alternatively, /sup 125/I has been proposed for thyrotoxicosis therapy, and was thought to be preferable to /sup 131/I because of the short range of its emitted soft electrons.Several studies have shown /sup 125/I to be as effective as /sup 131/I in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis, and equally likely to produce hupothyroidism. This work compared the radiobiological effects of /sup 131/I and /sup 125/I given in doses to deliver the same amount of radiation to the rat thyroid gland.These effects were studied by in vivo determination of single-strand DNA breaks by alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation using the DABA fluorescent technique to detect the DNA. Serum T/sub 4/ and TSH concentrations and percentage T/sub 3/ uptake were determined by RIA. The incidence of hypothyroidism following /sup 131/I and /sup 125/I therapy was found to be the same (10% in each group). The extent of DNA damage following /sup 125/I therapy was greater than the damage induced by a larger dose of /sup 131/I.

  6. Radionuclide 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Zhao, Lingzhou; Cheng, Yongjun; Xiong, Zhijuan; Tang, Yueqin; Shen, Mingwu; Zhao, Jinhua; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and labeling of radioactive iodine-131 (131I). The generated multifunctional 131I-G5.NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers were characterized via different methods. We show that prior to 131I labeling, the G5.NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers conjugated with approximately 9.4 HPAO moieties per dendrimer are noncytotoxic at a concentration up to 20 μM and are able to target cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors (FAR), thanks to the modified FA ligands. In the presence of a phenol group, radioactive 131I is able to be efficiently labeled onto the dendrimer platform with good stability and high radiochemical purity, and render the platform with an ability for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of an FAR-overexpressing xenografted tumor model in vivo. The designed strategy to use the facile dendrimer nanotechnology may be extended to develop various radioactive theranostic nanoplatforms for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of different types of cancer.We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and

  7. Cancer risks after diagnostic doses of 131I with special reference to thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, L.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Between 1951 and 1969 a total of 35,074 patients less than 75 years of age (mean = 44 years) were examined with diagnostic doses of 131I. The mean administered activity of 131I was 52 microCi and the radiation dose to the thyroid gland was on the average of 0.5 Gy. The cohort was matched with the Swedish Cancer Register for the years 1958-1984. During this period, 3746 cancers occurred more than 5 years after the 131I examination, and the resulting standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98 to 1.04). SIR for thyroid cancer was 1.18 (95% CI = 0.88 to 1.56). The risks for both cancer of all sites and for thyroid cancer were highest 5 to 9 years after examination (SIR = 1.07 and 2.06, respectively) and did not differ from unity thereafter. With greater than or equal to 10 years of follow-up, risk was not statistically associated with the dose of 131I.

  8. Familial phaeochromocytoma: Successful treatment with sup 131 I-MIBG

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves, E.; Ninane, J.; Wese, F.X.; Leonet, J.; Piret, L.; Cornu, G.; De Meyer, R. )

    1990-01-01

    We report the case of a family in which the mother died of hypertensive encephalopathy following the relapse of a phaeochromocytoma. Two of her children are still alive. Both children had malignant phaeochromocytomas that have been treated by surgery and {sup 131}I-MIBG. The first child presented with phaeochromocytoma of the right suprarenal gland at the age of 7 years. Surgery was performed. At the age of 14 years, he developed a tumour of the left suprarenal gland and two pulmonary metastases demonstrated by {sup 131}I-MIBG. The three tumours were removed, but new lesions occurred. The boy then was treated with 200 mCi (7,400 MBq) of 131I-MIBG given twice, and is now free of disease more than 2 years after treatment. His sister presented at the age of 12 years with phaeochromocytoma of the left suprarenal gland, the only lesion recognized by {sup 131}I-MIBG. The tumour was removed, but 5 months later, she developed phaeochromocytoma in the right suprarenal gland. She was treated with 200 mCi (7,400 MBq) of {sup 131}I-MIBG and surgery was performed 6 months later. Histology of the suprarenal gland could not demonstrate the persistence of phaeochromocytoma cells. The child is now free of disease more than 2 years after treatment.

  9. Targeting radioimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma with iodine ({sup 131}I) metuximab injection: Clinical Phase I/II trials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhinan . E-mail: chcerc2@fmmu.edu.cn; Mi Li; Xu Jing

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: HAb18G/CD147 is a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated antigen. We developed iodine ({sup 131}I) metuximab injection (Licartin), a novel {sup 131}I-labeled HAb18G/CD147-specific monoclonal antibody F(ab'){sub 2} fragment, and evaluated its safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy on HCC in Phase I/II trials. Methods and Materials: In a Phase I trial, 28 patients were randomly assigned to receive the injection in 9.25-, 18.5-, 27.75-, or 37-MBq/kg doses by hepatic artery infusion. In a multicenter Phase II trial, 106 patients received the injection (27.75 MBq/kg) on Day 1 of a 28-day cycle. Response rate and survival rate were the endpoints. Results: No life-threatening toxic effects were found. The safe dosage was 27.75 MBq/kg. The blood clearance fitted a biphasic model, and its half-life was 90.56-63.93 h. In the Phase II trial, the injection was found to be targeted and concentrated to tumor tissues. Of the 73 patients completing two cycles, 6 (8.22%) had a partial response, 14 (19.18%) minor response, and 43 (58.90%) stable disease. The 21-month survival rate was 44.54%. The survival rate of progression-free patients was significantly higher than that of patients with progressive disease after either one or two cycles (p < 0.0001 or p 0.0019). Conclusion: Iodine ({sup 131}I) metuximab injection is safe and active for HCC patients.

  10. Credibility of Uncertainty Analyses for 131-I Pathway Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Apostoaei, A. I.; Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, A; Napier, Bruce A.; Simon, Steven L.

    2004-05-01

    We would like to make your readers aware of numerous concerns we have with respect to the paper by A. A. Simpkins and D. M. Hamby on Uncertainty in transport factors used to calculate historic dose from 131I releases at the Savannah River Site. The paper by Simpkins and Hamby concludes by saying their uncertainty analysis would add credibility to current dose reconstruction efforts of public exposures to historic releases of 131I from the operations at the Savannah River Site, yet we have found their paper to be afflicted with numerous errors in assumptions and methodology, which in turn lead to grossly misleading conclusions. Perhaps the most egregious errors are their conclusions, which state that: a. the vegetable pathway, not the ingestion of fresh milk, was the main contributor to thyroid dose for exposure to 131I (even though dietary intake of vegetables was less in the past than at present), and b. the probability distribution assigned to the fraction of iodine released in the elemental form (Uniform 0, 0.6) is responsible for 64.6% of the total uncertainty in thyroid dose, given a unit release of 131I to the atmosphere. The assumptions used in the paper by Simpkins and Hamby lead to a large overestimate of the contamination of vegetables by airborne 131I. The interception by leafy and non-leafy vegetables of freshly deposited 131I is known to be highly dependent on the growth form of the crop and the standing crop biomass of leafy material. Unrealistic assumptions are made for losses of 131I from food processing, preparation, and storage prior to human consumption. These assumptions tend to bias their conclusions toward an overestimate of the amount of 131I retained by vegetation prior to consumption. For example, the generic assumption of a 6-d hold-up time is used for the loss from radioactive decay for the time period from harvest to human consumption of fruits, vegetables, and grains. We anticipate hold-up times of many weeks, if not months, between

  11. Radioimmunotherapy of human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts with 131I-labelled antiferritin antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Saiful Alam, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of 131-labelled antiferritin polyclonal antibody for the treatment of established hepatocellular carcinoma (HC-04) in athymic nude mice were evaluated. 131I-labelled antiferritin antibody localised specifically to a subcutaneous tumour with a mean of 8.1% of the infused dose per gram of tumour at 24 h after infusion when the experiment was started 15 days after inoculation and with a mean of about 6.5% of the infused dose per gram of tumour when the experiment was started 30 days after tumour transplantation. The concentrations of 131I-antiferritin antibody in tumour delivered a mean of 1994 cGy to tumour following infusion of 500 microCi of radiolabelled antiferritin antibody in the early group and a mean of 1600 cGy in the late group. Treatment with 500 microCi led to regression of the tumour in 55% of animals in the early group and 44% in the late group. In contrast, unlabelled antiferritin and 131I-labelled IgG failed to exert any significant effect on tumour growth. The transplanted tumours in the early groups of animals had relatively higher concentration of ferritin than those in the late group. There was accelerated inhibition of tumour growth and prolonged survival in animals in the early group compared with those in the late group. PMID:2021533

  12. Radiolabeling of new generation magnetic poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanoparticles with (131) I and preliminary investigation of its radiopharmaceutical potential using albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Avcıbaşı, Uğur; Demiroğlu, Hasan; Ediz, Melis; Akalın, Hilmi Arkut; Özçalışkan, Emir; Şenay, Hilal; Türkcan, Ceren; Özcan, Yeşim; Akgöl, Sinan; Avcıbaşı, Nesibe

    2013-12-01

    In this study, N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine (MAPA) containing poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (HEMA)-based magnetic poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanobeads [mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA)] were radiolabeled with (131) I [(131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA)], and the radiopharmaceutical potential of (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) was investigated. Quality control studies were carried out by radiochromatographic method to be sure that (131) I binded to mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) efficiently. In this sense, binding yield of (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) was found to be about 95-100%. In addition to this, optimum radiodination conditions for (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were determined by thin-layer radiochromatography studies. In addition to thin-layer radiochromatography studies, lipophilicity (partition coefficient) and stability studies for (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were realized. It was determined that lipophilicities of mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) and (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were 0.12 ± 0.01 and 1.79 ± 0.76 according to ACD/logP algorithm program, respectively. Stability of the radiolabeled compound was investigated in time intervals given as 0, 30, 60, 180, and 1440 min. It was found that (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) existed as a stable complex in rat serum within 60 min. After that, biodistribution and scintigraphy studies were carried out by using albino Wistar rats. It was determined that the most important (131) I activity uptake was observed in the breast, the ovary, and the pancreas. Scintigraphy studies well supported biodistribution results.

  13. NOTE: Monte Carlo microdosimetry of 188Re- and 131I-labelled anti-CD20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-García, E.; Garnica-Garza, H. M.; Ferro-Flores, G.

    2006-10-01

    The radiolabelled monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 has the property of binding to the CD20 antigen expressed on the cell surface of B-lymphocytes, thus making it a useful tool in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this work, the event-by-event Monte Carlo code NOREC is used to calculate the single-event distribution function f1(z) in the cell nucleus using the beta spectra of the 188Re and 131I radionuclides. The simulated geometry consists of two concentric spheres representing the nucleus and the cell surface embedded in a semi-infinite water medium. An isotropic point source was placed on the cell surface to simulate the binding of the anti-CD20 labelled with either 188Re or 131I. The simulations were carried out for two combinations of cell surface and nucleus radii. A method was devised that allows one to calculate the contribution of betas of energy greater than 1 MeV, which cannot be simulated by the NOREC code, to the single-event distribution function. It is shown that disregarding this contribution leads to an overestimation of the frequency-mean specific energy of the order of 9 12%. In general, the antibody radiolabelled with 131I produces single-event distribution functions that yield higher frequency-mean specific energies.

  14. Monte Carlo microdosimetry of 188Re- and 131I-labelled anti-CD20.

    PubMed

    Torres-García, E; Garnica-Garza, H M; Ferro-Flores, G

    2006-10-07

    The radiolabelled monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 has the property of binding to the CD20 antigen expressed on the cell surface of B-lymphocytes, thus making it a useful tool in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this work, the event-by-event Monte Carlo code NOREC is used to calculate the single-event distribution function f(1)(z) in the cell nucleus using the beta spectra of the (188)Re and (131)I radionuclides. The simulated geometry consists of two concentric spheres representing the nucleus and the cell surface embedded in a semi-infinite water medium. An isotropic point source was placed on the cell surface to simulate the binding of the anti-CD20 labelled with either (188)Re or (131)I. The simulations were carried out for two combinations of cell surface and nucleus radii. A method was devised that allows one to calculate the contribution of betas of energy greater than 1 MeV, which cannot be simulated by the NOREC code, to the single-event distribution function. It is shown that disregarding this contribution leads to an overestimation of the frequency-mean specific energy of the order of 9-12%. In general, the antibody radiolabelled with (131)I produces single-event distribution functions that yield higher frequency-mean specific energies.

  15. Individualized 131I-mIBG therapy in the management of refractory and relapsed neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    George, Sally L.; Falzone, Nadia; Chittenden, Sarah; Kirk, Stephanie J.; Lancaster, Donna; Vaidya, Sucheta J.; Mandeville, Henry; Saran, Frank; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Du, Yong; Meller, Simon T.; Denis-Bacelar, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Iodine-131-labelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131I-mIBG) therapy is an established treatment modality for relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma, most frequently administered according to fixed or weight-based criteria. We evaluate response and toxicity following a dosimetry-based, individualized approach. Materials and methods A review of 44 treatments in 25 patients treated with 131I-mIBG therapy was performed. Patients received 131I-mIBG therapy following relapse (n=9), in refractory disease (n=12), or with surgically unresectable disease despite conventional treatment (n=4). Treatment schedule (including mIBG dose and number of administrations) was individualized according to the clinical status of the patient and dosimetry data from either a tracer study or previous administrations. Three-dimensional tumour dosimetry was also performed for eight patients. Results The mean administered activity was 11089±7222 MBq and the mean whole-body dose for a single administration was 1.79±0.57 Gy. Tumour-absorbed doses varied considerably (3.70±3.37 mGy/MBq). CTCAE grade 3/4 neutropenia was documented following 82% treatments and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia following 71% treatments. Further acute toxicity was found in 49% of patients. All acute toxicities resolved with appropriate therapy. The overall response rate was 58% (complete or partial response), with a further 29% of patients having stable disease. Conclusion A highly personalized approach combining patient-specific dosimetry and clinical judgement enables delivery of high activities that can be tolerated by patients, particularly with stem cell support. We report excellent response rates and acceptable toxicity following individualized 131I-mIBG therapy. PMID:26813989

  16. Absorbed dose estimations of 131I for critical organs using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaur, Rahman; Shakeel, ur Rehman; Waheed, Arshed; Nasir, M. Mirza; Abdul, Rashid; Jahan, Zeb

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the absorbed doses of critical organs of 131I using the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) with the corresponding predictions made by GEANT4 simulations. S-values (mean absorbed dose rate per unit activity) and energy deposition per decay for critical organs of 131I for various ages, using standard cylindrical phantom comprising water and ICRP soft-tissue material, have also been estimated. In this study the effect of volume reduction of thyroid, during radiation therapy, on the calculation of absorbed dose is also being estimated using GEANT4. Photon specific energy deposition in the other organs of the neck, due to 131I decay in the thyroid organ, has also been estimated. The maximum relative difference of MIRD with the GEANT4 simulated results is 5.64% for an adult's critical organs of 131I. Excellent agreement was found between the results of water and ICRP soft tissue using the cylindrical model. S-values are tabulated for critical organs of 131I, using 1, 5, 10, 15 and 18 years (adults) individuals. S-values for a cylindrical thyroid of different sizes, having 3.07% relative differences of GEANT4 with Siegel & Stabin results. Comparison of the experimentally measured values at 0.5 and 1 m away from neck of the ionization chamber with GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulations results show good agreement. This study shows that GEANT4 code is an important tool for the internal dosimetry calculations.

  17. 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) therapy for residual neuroblastoma: a mono-institutional experience with 43 patients

    PubMed Central

    Garaventa, A; Bellagamba, O; Piccolo, M S Lo; Milanaccio, C; Lanino, E; Bertolazzi, L; Villavecchia, G P; Cabria, M; Scopinaro, G; Claudiani, F; Bernardi, B De

    1999-01-01

    Incomplete response to therapy may compromise the outcome of children with advanced neuroblastoma. In an attempt to improve tumour response we incorporated 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) in the treatment regimens of selected stage 3 and stage 4 patients. Between 1986 and 1997, 43 neuroblastoma patients older than 1 year at diagnosis, 13 with stage 3 (group A) and 30 with stage 4 disease (group B) who had completed the first-line protocol without achieving complete response entered in this study. 131I-MIBG dose/course ranged from 2.5 to 5.5 Gbq (median, 3.7). The number of courses ranged from 1 to 5 (median 3) depending on the tumour response and toxicity. The most common acute side-effect was thrombocytopenia. Later side-effects included severe interstitial pneumonia in one patient, acute myeloid leukaemia in two, reduced thyroid reserve in 21. Complete response was documented in one stage 4 patient, partial response in 12 (two stage 3, 10 stage 4), mixed or no response in 25 (ten stage 3, 15 stage 4) and disease progression in five (one stage 3, four stage 4) Twenty-four patients (12/13 stage 3, 12/30 stage 4) are alive at 22–153 months (median, 59) from diagnosis. 131I-MIBG therapy may increase the cure rate of stage 3 and improve the response of stage 4 neuroblastoma patients with residual disease after first-line therapy. A larger number of patients should be treated to confirm these results but logistic problems hamper prospective and coordinated studies. Long-term toxicity can be severe. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10604736

  18. Variation in airborne (134)Cs, (137)Cs, particulate (131)I and (7)Be maximum activities at high-altitude European locations after the arrival of Fukushima-labeled air masses.

    PubMed

    Masson, Olivier; Bieringer, Jacqueline; Brattich, Erika; Dalheimer, Axel; Estier, Sybille; Penev, Ilia; Ringer, Wolfgang; Schlosser, Clemens; Steinkopff, Thomas; Steinmann, Philipp; Tositti, Laura; Van Beek, Pieter; Vismes-Ott, Anne de

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima-labeled air mass arrival, and later the cesium-134 ((134)Cs), cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and particulate iodine-131 (hereafter noted (131)Ip) maximum levels were registered in Europe at different dates depending on the location. Most of those data were obtained at low-altitude sampling areas. Here, we compare the airborne levels registered at different high-altitude European locations (from 850 m to about 3500 m). The integrated (137)Cs activity concentration was not uniform with regard to the altitude even after a long travel time/distance from Japan. Moreover, the relation of integrated (137)Cs vs. altitude showed a linear decrease up to an altitude of about 3000 m. A similar trend was noticed for (131)Ip (particulate fraction) while it increased above 3000 m. Comparison with (7)Be activity concentration showed that, as far as the high altitude location is concerned, the (137)Cs and (134)Cs maximum concentrations corresponded to the (7)Be maximum, suggesting downdraft movements from high tropospheric or stratospheric layers to be responsible for (137,134)Cs increase and peak values. This was also confirmed by high potential vorticity and low relative humidity registered during the peak values.

  19. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Hertel, N.; ...

    2015-03-25

    specific activities of 131I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for 131I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ~27% of administered 131I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ~4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ~3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with 131I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered 131I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. Finally, the method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.« less

  20. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with {sup 131}I thyroid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, S. Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K.; Hertel, N.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.

    2015-04-15

    specific activities of {sup 131}I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for {sup 131}I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ∼27% of administered {sup 131}I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ∼4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ∼3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with {sup 131}I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered {sup 131}I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. The method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.

  1. Model Testing Using Data on 131I Released from Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, Kathleen M.; Napier, Bruce A.; Filistovic, Vitold; Homma, Toshimitsu; Kanyar, Bela; Krajewski, Pawel; Kryshev, Alexander I.; Nedveckaite, Tatjana; Nenyei, Arpad; Sazykina, Tatiana G.; Tveten, Ulf; Sjoblom, Kirsti-Liisa; Robinson, Carol

    2005-06-21

    The Hanford test scenario described an accidental release of 131I to the environment from the Hanford Purex Chemical Separations Plant in September 1963. Based on monitoring data collected after the release, this scenario was used by the Dose Reconstruction Working Group of BIOMASS to test models typically used in dose reconstructions. The primary exposure pathway in terms of contribution to human doses was ingestion of contaminated milk and vegetables. Predicted mean doses to the thyroid of reference individuals from ingestion of 131I ranged from 0.0001 to 0.8 mSv. Predicted doses to actual children with high milk consumption ranged from 0.006 to 2 mSv. The predicted deposition at any given location varied among participants by a factor of 5 to 80. Predicted ingestion doses for children, normalized for predicted deposition, varied by about a factor of 10. The exercise provided an opportunity for comparison of assessment methods and conceptual approaches, testing model predictions against measurements, and identifying the most important contributors to uncertainty in the assessment result. Key factors affecting predictions included the approach to handling incomplete data, interpretation of input information, selection of parameter values, adjustment of models for site-specific conditions, and treatment of uncertainties.

  2. Effect of 131I on the anemia of hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Perlman, J.A.; Sternthal, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the National Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-Up Study (NTTFS) are presented here to document the existence of anemia in hyperthyroidism, a mild and reversible anemia that is simultaneously ameliorated with reversal of the hyperthyroid state. Among 20,600 women entered into the NTTF study with no previous history of hematological disorders, the prevalence of anemia was found to range from 10-15%, appearing to be higher in those selected for treatment with 131I when compared to those selected for surgery. An attempt is made to verify the recent hypothesis that thyroid hormone levels in the supraphysiologic range may suppress erythrogenesis. Two statistically significant regression models are consistent with a hypothesis of thyrotoxic bone marrow suppression. However, both associations are weak enough to suggest that some other physiologic improvement underlies the amelioration of anemia when hyperthyroidism is reversed. The degree of improvement in hematological status is similar for women in both treatment groups. Among 4464 women for whom serial hematological tests are obtained, over 3/4 of anemic patients are no longer anemic after an average 6.2 yr of follow-up. Clinicians are reassured that radioactive iodine exposure causes no further insult to the bone marrow, no matter what the cumulative dosage. The highly fractionated low dose bone marrow exposures to radiation account for the minimal hematological risks of 131I treatment.

  3. Water to atmosphere fluxes of 131I in relation with alkyl-iodide compounds from the Seine Estuary (France).

    PubMed

    Connan, Olivier; Tessier, Emmanuel; Maro, Denis; Amouroux, David; Hébert, Didier; Rozet, Marianne; Voiseux, Claire; Solier, Luc

    2008-07-01

    This study presents an original work on measurements of stable and radioactive iodinated species in the Seine estuary (France), with estimates fluxes of volatile gaseous species from water to the atmosphere. Various iodinated compounds were identified in water and air in particular 131I in water, what is unusual. Concentrations and behaviour of iodinated elements in the Seine estuary seem similar to what has been observed in other European estuaries. MeI (Methyl Iodide) and Total Volatile Iodine (TVI) fluxes from water to air vary between 392 and 13949 pmol m(-2) d(-1) and between 1279 and 16484 pmol m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Water to air flux of TVI for the Seine river was estimated in the range 4-46 kg y(-1). Measurements of (131)I in water varying between 0.4 and 11.9 Bq m(-3). Fluxes of (131)I from water to atmosphere are in the range 2.4 x 10(5)-1.3 x 10(7)Bq y(-1), close to an annual discharge of (131)I by a nuclear reactor.

  4. Specific energy from Auger and conversion electrons of 131I, 188Re-anti-CD20 to a lymphocyte's nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-García, E.; Carrillo-Cazares, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The typical radionuclides used to label anti-CD20 in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are 90Y, 131I, and 188Re, with the emission of beta particles, Auger electrons, and conversion electrons for the latter two. The aim of the present work was to calculate the contribution of high linear energy transfer radiation as Auger electrons (AE) and conversion electrons (CE) of 131I and 188Re-anti-CD20 to mean specific energy into the cell nucleus by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), so as to infer therapeutic effectiveness on a dosimetric basis. MCS was used to quantify the frequency-mean specific energy into the cell nucleus, where the cell was modeled by two concentric spheres, considering two cell models. The results showed that 10% and 33% of the mean-specific energies (z¯) per disintegration imparted to the cell nucleus for both geometries are due to AE and CE; on the other hand, if the hit of AE and CE occurs, the contribution to (z¯) is about 64% and 86% for 131I and 188Re, respectively. According to the amount of specific energy from AE and CE into the cell nucleus by positive event, they can cause catastrophic effects in the nuclear DNA in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with 131I, 188Re-anti-CD20.

  5. Validation of 131I ecological transfer models and thyroid dose assessments using Chernobyl fallout data from the Plavsk district, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Zvonova, I.; Krajewski, P.; Berkovsky, V.; Ammann, M.; Duffa, C.; Filistovic, V.; Homma, T.; Kanyar, B.; Nedveckaite, T.; Simon, S.L.; Vlasov, O.; Webbe-Wood, D.

    2009-01-01

    Within the project “Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety” (EMRAS) organized by the IAEA in 2003 experimental data of 131I measurements following the Chernobyl accident in the Plavsk district of Tula region, Russia were used to validate the calculations of some radioecological transfer models. Nine models participated in the inter-comparison. Levels of 137Cs soil contamination in all the settlements and 131I/137Cs isotopic ratios in the depositions in some locations were used as the main input information. 370 measurements of 131I content in thyroid of townspeople and villagers, and 90 measurements of 131I concentration in milk were used for validation of the model predictions. A remarkable improvement in models performance comparing with previous inter-comparison exercise was demonstrated. Predictions of the various models were within a factor of three relative to the observations, discrepancies between the estimates of average doses to thyroid produced by most participant not exceeded a factor of ten. PMID:19783331

  6. Furosemide- sup 131 I-hippuran renography after angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Erbsloeh-Moeller, B.Du.; Dumas, A.; Roth, D.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Bourgoignie, J.J. )

    1991-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated the greater sensitivity of 131I-hippuran renography than 99mTC-DTPA scintigraphy to diagnose renovascular hypertension (RVH). This study assesses the predictive diagnostic value of furosemide-131I-hippuran renography after angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in patients with and without RVH. All patients were investigated at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center. Twenty-eight patients had RVH and 22 did not. Twenty-eight patients had normal or minimally decreased renal function and 22 had renal insufficiency. Renography was performed 60 minutes after oral administration of 50 mg captopril or 10 minutes after intravenous injection of 40 micrograms/kg enalaprilat. Forty milligrams of furosemide were administered intravenously 2 minutes after injection of 131I-hippuran. The residual cortical activity (RCA) of 131I-hippuran was measured at 20 minutes. RVH was unlikely when RCA after ACE inhibition was less than 30% of peak cortical activity. Conversely, RVH was present when 131I-hippuran cortical activity steadily increased throughout the test to reach 100% at 20 minutes. In azotemic patients with RCA between 31% and 100%, RVH was differentiated from intrinsic renal disease by obtaining a baseline renogram without ACE inhibition and comparing RCA in that study and RCA after ACE inhibition. If RCA increased (indicating worsening renal function) after ACE inhibition, RVH was likely; whereas, intrinsic renal disease was more likely if RCA remained unchanged or decreased (indicating improved renal function) with ACE inhibition. The test had a specificity of 95% and a sensitivity of 96% in this population. There was a direct correlation between the results of angioplasty or surgery on high blood pressure and the changes in RCA before and after intervention (n = 20).

  7. Aerial Survey Results for 131I Deposition on the Ground after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sugita, Takeshi; Okada, Colin E.; Reed, Michael S.; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    In March 2011 the second largest accidental release of radioactivity in history occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Response performed aerial surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. The initial results from the surveys did not report the concentration of 131I. This work reports on analyses performed on the initial survey data by a joint Japan-US collaboration to determine 131I ground concentration. This information is potentially useful in reconstruction of the inhalation and external exposure doses from this short-lived radionuclide. The deposited concentration of 134Cs is also reported.

  8. Traces of radioactive 131I in rainwater and milk samples in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mărgineanu, Romul; Mitrică, Bogdan; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of 131I (T1/2 = 8.04 days) activities have been performed in the IFIN HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering) underground laboratory situated in Unirea salt mine, Slănic-Prahova, Romania. The rainwater samples were collected starting on 27 March from Braşov and Slănic-Prahova. Also sheep and goat milk samples were collected in the Slănic, Braşov and Iaşi areas and measurements were subsequently made on them. The measurements on the samples were made at the IFIN HH's underground laboratory in an ultra-low radiation background, using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a GeHP (hyperpure) detector having a full width at half-maximum of 1.80 keV at 1332.48 keV for the second 60Co gamma ray and a relative efficiency of 22.8%. The results show a specific activity of 131I from < 0.063 to 0.75 Bq l - 1 for rain. In the milk samples the specific activity varied from < 0.12 to 5.2 Bq l - 1.

  9. Radionuclide therapy using nanoparticle of 131I-Lactosome in combination with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Eri; Makino, Akira; Kurihara, Kensuke; Ueda, Motoki; Hara, Isao; Kawabe, Takashi; Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Ozeki, Eiichi; Togashi, Kaori; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2013-12-01

    We present here a radionuclide therapy using nanoparticle of 131I-labeled Lactosome (131I-Lactosome) is effective as a tumor therapy when combined with the local therapy of the percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT). A mixture of 131I-labeled poly( l-lactic acid)30 and amphiphilic block polymer of poly(sarcosine)64- block-poly( l-lactic acid)30 was dispersed in saline to generate polymeric micelles of 131I-Lactosome (the diameter of 46 nm with PDI of 0.057). Mice were transplanted with murine mammary cancer (4T1) cells, and a relatively small amount of ethanol was injected percutaneously to the tumor region, followed by intravenous administration of 131I-Lactosome (2.0 × 102 MBq/kg). At 16 days after the 131I-Lactosome dosage with PEIT, the relative tumor volume (RTV) was suppressed as low as 5.32 ± 1.06, while the RTV values became significant to be 15.9 ± 5.0 with PEIT alone and 17.4 ± 3.9 with 131I-Lactosome alone. Indeed, 131I-accumulation in the transplanted tumor region at 48 h after 131I-Lactosome dosage became three times higher with PEIT than that without PEIT. The nanoparticle-based radionuclide therapy in combination with PEIT was, therefore, effective in suppression of tumor proliferation.

  10. (131)I age-dependent inhalation dose in Southern Poland from Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Brudecki, K; Szufa, K; Mietelski, J W

    2017-03-01

    A general method for calculating doses absorbed from isotopes released in nuclear accidents is presented. As an example, this method was used to calculate doses for inhabitants of Southern Poland due to inhalation of (131)I released due to the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. (131)I activity measurements in the air of that region provided the basis for the study. The proposed model is based on a complex biokinetic model for iodine merging the Leggett model developed in 2010 with the human respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This model is described here, and it is demonstrated that resulting dose estimates are consistent with those obtained using the ICRP methodology. Using the developed model, total doses were calculated for six age groups of both genders, for gaseous and aerosol fractions alike. The committed effective dose, H 50, for an adult man reached 16 nSv, which is lower than 0.001% of the background dose. The dose for the thyroid of an adult reached 0.33 μSv, which corresponds to circa 0.0007% of the dose to the population of Southern Poland after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident.

  11. Serum thyroxine concentrations after radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Meric, S.M.; Hawkins, E.C.; Washabau, R.J.; Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.

    1986-05-01

    Thirty-one cats with hyperthyroidism were given one dose of radioactive iodine (131I) IV. Serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations were measured before treatment in all cats, at 12-hour intervals after treatment in 10 cats, and at 48-hour intervals after treatment in 21 cats. Serum T4 concentrations also were measured one month after /sup 131/I therapy in 29 cats. Activity of 131I administered was 1.5 to 6.13 mCi, resulting in a dose of 20,000 rads to the thyroid. Serum T4 concentrations before /sup 131/I administration were 5.3 to 51.0 micrograms/dl, with a median T4 concentration of 11.0 micrograms/dl. Serum T4 decreased most rapidly during the first 3 to 6 days after treatment. Sixteen cats (55%) had normal serum thyroxine concentrations by day 4 after 131I administration, and 23 cats (74%) were euthyroxinemic by day 8 after treatment. One month after administration of 131I, the 29 cats evaluated were clinically improved, and 24 (83%) of the 29 cats evaluated had normal serum T4 concentrations, 3 cats (10%) remained hyperthyroxinemic, and 2 cats (7%) were hypothyroxinemic. Therefore, administration of 131I was a safe and effective method to quickly decrease serum T4 concentrations in hyperthyroid cats.

  12. /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in neuroblastoma: report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Cottino, F.; Mussa, G.C.; Madon, E.; Favero, A.; Silvestro, L.; Grazia, G.

    1987-01-01

    Poor results with /sup 131/I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy have been obtained in two children with stage IV neuroblastoma treated after partial surgery and unsatisfactory combination chemotherapy. Both patients' response to treatment (four and three 1-month-spaced courses, respectively; cumulative administration of 11.9 and 9.2 GBq) has been characterized by a low isotope concentration in the primary tumor and in the multiple bone metastases and by bone marrow uptake with final severe hematological toxicity. A slight decrease in the primary tumor's volume was observed in one patient at a cumulative dose of 85 Gy; there was no change in the other's at 42 Gy. At an initial, greater isotope concentration delivering 103 Gy, some bone metastases displayed a sharp decrease in uptake that persisted in the successive courses. For both patients a progressive spreading of new tumor localization in the bones and finally in the soft tissues was observed.

  13. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 131/I) scintigraphy detects impaired myocardial sympathetic neuronal transport function of canine mechanical-overload heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, M.A.; Rose, C.P.; Rouleau, J.L.; Chartrand, C.; Wieland, D.M.; Lepanto, L.; Legault, F.; Suissa, S.; Rosenthall, L.; Burgess, J.H.

    1987-12-01

    In heart failure secondary to chronic mechanical overload, cardiac sympathetic neurons demonstrate depressed catecholamine synthetic and transport function. To assess the potential of sympathetic neuronal imaging for detection of depressed transport function, serial scintigrams were acquired after the intravenous administration of metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 131/I) to 13 normal dogs, 3 autotransplanted (denervated) dogs, 5 dogs with left ventricular failure, and 5 dogs with compensated left ventricular hypertrophy due to a surgical arteriovenous shunt. Nine dogs were killed at 14 hours postinjection for determination of metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 131/I) and endogenous norepinephrine content in left atrium, left ventricle, liver, and spleen. By 4 hours postinjection, autotransplanted dogs had a 39% reduction in mean left ventricular tracer accumulation, reflecting an absent intraneuronal tracer pool. Failure dogs demonstrated an accelerated early mean left ventricular tracer efflux rate (26.0%/hour versus 13.7%/hour in normals), reflecting a disproportionately increased extraneuronal tracer pool. They also showed reduced late left ventricular and left atrial concentrations of tracer, consistent with a reduced intraneuronal tracer pool. By contrast, compensated hypertrophy dogs demonstrated a normal early mean left ventricular tracer efflux rate (16.4%/hour) and essentially normal late left ventricular and left atrial concentrations of tracer. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 131/I) scintigraphic findings reflect the integrity of the cardiac sympathetic neuronal transport system in canine mechanical-overload heart failure. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 123/I) scintigraphy should be explored as a means of early detection of mechanical-overload heart failure in patients.

  14. When May a Nonuniform Distribution of 131I Be Considered Uniform? An Experimental Basis for Multicellular Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Neti, Prasad V.S.V.; Howell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    To varying degrees, radiopharmaceuticals are distributed non-uniformly in tissue. At a macroscopic level, the radiopharmaceutical may appear to be uniformly distributed throughout the tissue. However, on closer inspection, not all cells in the tissue may be labeled with the radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the radioactivity in the cells may be localized only in certain compartments within the cell. This work uses a cell culture model to examine the impact of nonuniformities at the multicellular level on the lethal effects of 131I. Methods A 3-dimensional tissue culture model was used to investigate the biologic effects of nonuniform distributions of 131I in a large population of mammalian cells. Chinese hamster V79 cells were labeled with 131I-iododeoxyuridine (131IdU), mixed with unlabeled cells, and multicellular clusters (4 × 106 cells) were formed by gentle centrifugation. Thus, the labeled cells were randomly located in the cluster to achieve a uniform distribution of radioactivity at the macroscopic level, yet nonuniform at the multicellular level. The clusters were assembled as described and then maintained at 10.5°C for 72 h to allow 131I decays to accumulate. The clusters were then dismantled and the cells were plated for colony formation. Results When 100% of the cells were labeled, the surviving fraction of cells in the cluster was exponentially dependent on the cluster activity down to 0.1% survival. In contrast, when 10% of the cells were labeled, it was observed that the survival fraction begins to saturate at about 1% survival. Absorbed-dose estimates reveal that the mean lethal cluster dose is 4.5, 5.7, and 6.4 Gy for 100%, 10%, and 1% labeling, respectively. Conclusion These data indicate that when the distribution of 131I is uniform at the macroscopic level, but nonuniform at the multicellular level, the mean absorbed dose to a tissue element may not be a suitable quantity for use in predicting biologic effect. Rather, cellular and

  15. Hepatoma-Targeted Radionuclide Immune Albumin Nanospheres: 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Zhang, Dongsheng; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Xiao, Yanhong; Shi, Yujuan; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    An effective strategy has been developed for synthesis of radionuclide immune albumin nanospheres (131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs). In vitro as well as in vivo targeting of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs to AFP-positive hepatoma was examined. In cultured HepG2 cells, the uptake and retention rates of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were remarkably higher than those of 131I alone. As well, the uptake rate and retention ratios of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs in AFP-positive HepG2 cells were also significantly higher than those in AFP-negative HEK293 cells. Compared to 131I alone, 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were much more easily taken in and retained by hepatoma tissue, with a much higher T/NT. Due to good drug-loading, high encapsulation ratio, and highly selective affinity for AFP-positive tumors, the 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs are promising for further effective radiation-gene therapy of hepatoma. PMID:26981334

  16. Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City. PMID:23887080

  17. Industrial production of 131I by neutron irradiation and melting of sintered TeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Jose; Navarrete, Manuel

    2001-07-01

    Optimal conditions of temperature and reaction rate have been settled to produce high purity TeO2 by the chemical reaction between Te and HNO3. Also, heating and time conditions for sintering this product have been found, in order to create cavities in the crystal inside, where a gaseous element such as iodine can be adsorbed with minimal leaking. In this way it is fabricated a suitable target to be irradiated with thermal neutrons for obtaining 131Te(t1/2=24.8 m) and 131mTe(t1/2=30 h) by (n, γ) nuclear reactions. Irradiation time has been chosen to get 131Te saturation activity (ti=150 m) because much longer irradiation times do not increase significantly total activity. Since parents 131Te and 131mTe have shorter half life than daughter 131I(t1/2=8.05 d) optimal cooling time must permit daughter activity to grow up till a maximum (tc=4d). Then, sintered cylinder shaped radioactive sample is manipulated in a hot cell, transported and put on a quartz tray, keeping Health Physics regulations. The quartz tray is inside a small electric oven enclosed in an airtight box with negative pressure (water 0.5 cm). There, it is gradually heated till melting point (733 °C). From 400 °C on, vapors are pumped out and bubbled in two solutions: one is 0.1 M NaOH, which retains nearly 99.9% of pumped 131I. Other is 0.02 M Na2CO3 (60%) plus 0.0025 M NaHCO3 (40%), which retains the remaining sample residue. Air filtering is accomplished by activated carbon and alumina filters in the inflow, glass wool fiber before bubbling, and activated carbon again in the outflow.

  18. Follow-up of solitary autonomous thyroid nodules treated with /sup 131/I

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Hart, I.R.

    1983-12-15

    A study was made of the long-term effects of /sup 131/I therapy for solitary autonomous thyroid nodules on the size of the nodule and on thyroid function. Twenty-three patients with autonomous thyroid adenomas that had been treated with /sup 131/I from 4 to 16.5 years earlier (mean, 8.5) were examined, and their thyroid function was tested. In 12 patients (54 per cent), the nodules were still palpable, and in 2 they had increased in size. Eight patients (36 per cent) had become hypothyroid. The incidence of hypothyroidism was not related to nodule size or the level of thyroid function before therapy with /sup 131/I or to the total dose of /sup 131/I that had been given. We conclude that /sup 131/I therapy for autonomous thyroid adenoma often causes hypothyroidism and in many cases does not eradicate the offending nodule.

  19. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S.

    1994-11-01

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. A predictive mathematical model for the calculation of the final mass of Graves' disease thyroids treated with 131I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traino, Antonio C.; Di Martino, Fabio; Grosso, Mariano; Monzani, Fabio; Dardano, Angela; Caraccio, Nadia; Mariani, Giuliano; Lazzeri, Mauro

    2005-05-01

    Substantial reductions in thyroid volume (up to 70-80%) after radioiodine therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism are common and have been reported in the literature. A relationship between thyroid volume reduction and outcome of 131I therapy of Graves' disease has been reported by some authors. This important result could be used to decide individually the optimal radioiodine activity A0 (MBq) to administer to the patient, but a predictive model relating the change in gland volume to A0 is required. Recently, a mathematical model of thyroid mass reduction during the clearance phase (30-35 days) after 131I administration to patients with Graves' disease has been published and used as the basis for prescribing the therapeutic thyroid absorbed dose. It is well known that the thyroid volume reduction goes on until 1 year after therapy. In this paper, a mathematical model to predict the final mass of Graves' diseased thyroids submitted to 131I therapy is presented. This model represents a tentative explanation of what occurs macroscopically after the end of the clearance phase of radioiodine in the gland (the so-called second-order effects). It is shown that the final thyroid mass depends on its basal mass, on the radiation dose absorbed by the gland and on a constant value α typical of thyroid tissue. α has been evaluated based on a set of measurements made in 15 reference patients affected by Graves' disease and submitted to 131I therapy. A predictive equation for the calculation of the final mass of thyroid is presented. It is based on macroscopic parameters measurable after a diagnostic 131I capsule administration (0.37-1.85 MBq), before giving the therapy. The final mass calculated using this equation is compared to the final mass of thyroid measured 1 year after therapy administration in 22 Graves' diseased patients. The final masses calculated and measured 1 year after therapy are in fairly good agreement (R = 0.81). The possibility, for the physician, to decide a

  1. Accuracy of two simple methods for estimation of thyroidal {sup 131}I kinetics for dosimetry-based treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Traino, A. C.; Xhafa, B.

    2009-04-15

    One of the major challenges to the more widespread use of individualized, dosimetry-based radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease is the development of a reasonably fast, simple, and cost-effective method to measure thyroidal {sup 131}I kinetics in patients. Even though the fixed activity administration method does not optimize the therapy, giving often too high or too low a dose to the gland, it provides effective treatment for almost 80% of patients without consuming excessive time and resources. In this article two simple methods for the evaluation of the kinetics of {sup 131}I in the thyroid gland are presented and discussed. The first is based on two measurements 4 and 24 h after a diagnostic {sup 131}I administration and the second on one measurement 4 h after such an administration and a linear correlation between this measurement and the maximum uptake in the thyroid. The thyroid absorbed dose calculated by each of the two methods is compared to that calculated by a more complete {sup 131}I kinetics evaluation, based on seven thyroid uptake measurements for 35 patients at various times after the therapy administration. There are differences in the thyroid absorbed doses between those derived by each of the two simpler methods and the ''reference'' value (derived by more complete uptake measurements following the therapeutic {sup 131}I administration), with 20% median and 40% 90-percentile differences for the first method (i.e., based on two thyroid uptake measurements at 4 and 24 h after {sup 131}I administration) and 25% median and 45% 90-percentile differences for the second method (i.e., based on one measurement at 4 h post-administration). Predictably, although relatively fast and convenient, neither of these simpler methods appears to be as accurate as thyroid dose estimates based on more complete kinetic data.

  2. Repeated 131I treatment of a residual ovarian teratoma containing malignant thyroid tissue.

    PubMed

    Suga, K; Hirabayashi, A; Motoyama, K; Kume, N; Matsunaga, N; Tamura, H; Kato, H

    1999-11-01

    A 49-year-old woman with ovarian teratoma received 131I treatment three times for an unresectable mass containing malignant thyroid tissue after surgery. Repeated 131I treatment effectively reduced serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level and tumour uptake of 131I, despite absence of any change in size of the treated tumour. Treatment did not inhibit the increase of serum CA-125 and tumour 201Tl uptake, associated with progression of a radioresistant intratumoral hyper-perfused tissue component, detected by colour Doppler ultrasound. Serum CA-125 level and tumour 201Tl uptake were not significantly changed despite temporary increases in serum Tg level after each 131I treatment. These observations indicate the importance of diagnostic measures using combined functional imaging and tumour markers in managing this rare tumour.

  3. Absorbed Dose in the Uterus of a Three Months Pregnant Woman Due to 131I

    SciTech Connect

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Hernandez-Davila, Victor Martin; Arcos-Pichardo, Areli; Barquero, Raquel; Iniguez, M. Pilar

    2006-09-08

    The use of 131I is widely used in diagnostic and treatment of patients. If the patient is pregnant the 131I presence in the thyroid it becomes a source of constant exposition to other organs and the fetus. In this study the absorbed dose in the uterus of a 3 months pregnant woman with 131I in her thyroid gland has been calculated. The dose was determined using Monte Carlo methods in which a detailed model of the woman has been developed. The dose was also calculated using a simple procedure that was refined including the photons' attenuation in the woman organs and body. To verify these results an experiment was carried out using a neck phantom with 131I. Comparing the results it was found that the simple calculation tend to overestimate the absorbed dose, by doing the corrections due to body and organs photon attenuation the dose is 0.14 times the Monte Carlo estimation.

  4. Absorbed Dose in the Uterus of a Three Months Pregnant Woman Due to 131I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; Manzanares-Acuña, Eduardo; Hernández-Dávila, Víctor Martín; Arcos-Pichardo, Areli; Barquero, Raquel; Iñiguez, M. Pilar

    2006-09-01

    The use of 131I is widely used in diagnostic and treatment of patients. If the patient is pregnant the 131I presence in the thyroid it becomes a source of constant exposition to other organs and the fetus. In this study the absorbed dose in the uterus of a 3 months pregnant woman with 131I in her thyroid gland has been calculated. The dose was determined using Monte Carlo methods in which a detailed model of the woman has been developed. The dose was also calculated using a simple procedure that was refined including the photons' attenuation in the woman organs and body. To verify these results an experiment was carried out using a neck phantom with 131I. Comparing the results it was found that the simple calculation tend to overestimate the absorbed dose, by doing the corrections due to body and organs photon attenuation the dose is 0.14 times the Monte Carlo estimation.

  5. Transition of nodular toxic goiter to autoimmune hyperthyroidism triggered by 131I therapy.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, B; Faber, J; Veje, A; Hegedüs, L; Hansen, J M

    1999-05-01

    The use of 131I treatment in nodular toxic goiter is widely accepted. In this article, we describe transition of nodular toxic goiter into an autoimmune toxic goiter with development of thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) as a side effect of 131I treatment. In this retrospective study, 149 patients with nodular toxic goiter (100 with multinodular goiter, 49 with a solitary autonomously functioning toxic nodule) were studied. Of these 149 patients 100 became permanently euthryoid after 1 dose of 131I, and due to persistent hyperthyroidism, 32 patients needed 2-5 doses to became euthyroid. After becoming euthyroid, none of these 132 patients had relapse of hyperthyroidism in the follow-up period. Based on evaluation of the thyroid hormone variables, 17 of 149 patients had a distinctly different pattern in the changes in thyroid hormones. They developed an increase in FT4I 3-6 months posttreatment after an initial fall in FT4I. Twelve of these 17 patients were treated with antithyroid drugs before the initial 131I dose. On samples of frozen sera (-20 degrees C) anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and TRAb were followed for 6 months after 131I treatment in these 17 patients. A similar follow-up was done in 20 patients (10 with and 10 without antithyroid drug pretreatment), randomly selected from the patients who did not relapse. In the remaining 112 patients, anti-TPO and TRAb levels were measured only before the 131I treatment. Of the 17 patients with relapse, 6 developed TRAb concomitant with recurrence of hyperthyroidism (4% of the study group). In 5 of the 17 patients TRAb values remained absent throughout the follow-up period. The remaining 6 patients had elevated TRAb values before 131I treatment. Among the 132 patients who did not relapse, an additional 7 cases with presence of TRAb were found. A total of 9% of the study group was found to have TRAb before 131I pretreatment. Anti-TPO was found in 20 of 149 patients (13%) before 131I treatment. Complications, either

  6. Preparation and use of 131I magic gel as a dosimeter for targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Courbon, Frédéric; Love, Peter; Chittenden, Sarah; Flux, Glen; Ravel, Patrice; Cook, Gary

    2006-10-01

    Clinical interest in targeted radiotherapy is increasing, but accurate dosimetry studies are difficult to achieve. The aim of this study was to investigate the preparation and use of a "normoxic" polymer gel (with a tissue-equivalent density), known as MAGIC gel, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for nonsealed source dosimetry. MAGIC gel samples were mixed with deionized water (MAGIC95) or a solution of 131I (131I-MAGIC95). By measuring the radioinduced variations of R2 values (relaxivity) of irradiated gels, we analyzed the response of MAGIC95 and MAGIC samples to external photon beam or 131I irradiation (131I-MAGIC95). MRI showed that a homogeneous dose distribution from 131I can be achieved if the MAGIC gel, at a temperature of approximately 35 degrees C, is mixed in 131I solution and the resulting mixture shaken gently for 30 minutes. It is important that the vials are completely filled, as residual air reduces polymerization and causes spontaneous polymerization stripes. Responses of MAGIC95 or MAGIC gels to external photon beam irradiation are similar. The variations of R2 values for 131I-MAGIC95 gel depend on the absorbed dose and not on the duration of the irradiation being reproducible from one batch of gel to another. MAGIC gel responses to 131I or external beam irradiation (EBI) are different. Our preliminary results suggest that radiolabeled "normoxic" polymer can be easily and safely produced. Radiolabeled MAGIC gel may, therefore, be suitable for the creation of phantoms dedicated to nonsealed source dosimetry.

  7. Quantitative uptake studies of /sup 131/I-labeled (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in herpes simplex virus-infected cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, M.J.; Samuel, J.; Wiebe, L.I.; Knaus, E.E.; Tyrrell, D.L.

    1984-04-01

    We have synthesized a /sup 131/I-radiolabeled antiviral compound (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (IVdU) and shown that this agent was selectively trapped within rabbit kidney cells, infected in vitro by thymidine kinase-positive (TK+) herpes simplex virus (HSV). The uptake of /sup 131/I-labeled IVdU was specific, as it was not concentrated within either HSV (TK-) or mock-infected cells. In certain conditions, over 40% of the radiolabel was selectively trapped within HSV (TK+)-infected cells. This was a 20- to 30-fold increase over the uptake of /sup 131/I-labeled IVdU by HSV (TK-) or mock-infected cells. The uptake of /sup 131/I-labeled IVdU varied directly with (i) the dose of the virus used to infect the rabbit kidney cells; (ii) the concentration of radiolabeled IVdU added to the system; and (iii) the time of exposure of IVdU to infected cells. The ability of this agent to be trapped within HSV (TK+)-infected cells merits further evaluation in animal models as it has potential as a noninvasive, herpes-specific diagnostic test, in particular for HSV encephalitis.

  8. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of /sup 99m/Tc(Sn)- and /sup 131/I-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody fragments in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, A.M.; Kazikiewicz, J.M.; Rosen, S.T.; Spies, S.M.

    1987-03-15

    The biodistribution, radioimmunoimaging, and high pressure liquid chromatography activity profiles of /sup 99m/Tc(Sn) and /sup 131/I-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody fragments were compared. Nude mice, bearing specific (colon carcinoma, LS174T) and nonspecific (pancreatic carcinoma, MIA) xenografts were given injections of the respective radiolabeled antibody fragments and also of irrelevant /sup 125/I-labeled antibody fragments (MOPC-21). The animals were imaged at 24 h after being given injections, they were sacrificed, and biodistribution studies were performed. Results of the study showed high kidney uptake (48.6% injected dose (ID)/g +/- 8.1% (SD)) and low tumor uptake (1.5% ID/g +/- 0.6%) for /sup 99m/Tc(Sn)-labeled fragments and higher uptake (4.4% ID/g +/- 0.6%) for /sup 131/I-labeled fragments, resulting in a higher localization index for the radioiodinated monoclonal antibody fragments. Imaging results showed good tumor visualization at 24 h after injection for the /sup 131/I-labeled fragments and poor tumor visualization with predominant kidney uptake for /sup 99m/Tc(Sn)-labeled fragments. After radiolabeling, high pressure liquid chromatography analysis indicated that 131I was primarily associated with F(ab')2 fragments, whereas 99mTc was mostly associated with Fab' fragments.

  10. Thyroid Remnant Estimation by Diagnostic Dose (131)I Scintigraphy or (99m)TcO4(-) Scintigraphy after Thyroidectomy: A Comparison with Therapeutic Dose (131)I Imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanghui; Li, Na; Li, Xuena; Chen, Song; Du, Bulin; Li, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    In this clinical study, we have compared routine diagnostic dose (131)I scan and (99m)TcO4(-) thyroid scintigraphy with therapeutic dose (131)I imaging for accurate thyroid remnant estimation after total thyroidectomy. We conducted a retrospective review of the patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and subsequently receiving radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment to ablate remnant thyroid tissue. All patients had therapeutic dose RAI whole body scan, which was compared with that of diagnostic dose RAI, (99m)TcO4(-) thyroid scan, and ultrasound examination. We concluded that therapeutic dose RAI scan reveals some extent thyroid remnant in all DTC patients following total thyroidectomy. Diagnostic RAI scan is much superior to ultrasound and (99m)TcO4(-) thyroid scan for the postoperative estimation of thyroid remnant. Ultrasound and (99m)TcO4(-) thyroid scan provide little information for thyroid remnant estimation and, therefore, would not replace diagnostic RAI scan.

  11. Kinetic study of internalization and degradation of sup 131 I-labeled follicle-stimulating hormone in mouse Sertoli cells and its relevance to other systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, A.; Kawashima, S. )

    1989-08-15

    The behavior of 131I-labeled follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) after binding to cell-surface receptors in cultured Sertoli cells of C57BL/6NCrj mice was investigated. Sertoli cells cultured in F12/DME were pulse-labeled with 131I-FSH for 10 min at 4 degrees C, followed by cold chase for various periods of time. After the cold chase Sertoli cells were treated with 0.2 M acetate (pH 2.5) to dissociate membrane-bound 131I-FSH (surface radioactivity). The medium containing radioactivity after cold chase was mixed with 20% trichloroacetic acid, centrifuged, and the radioactivity of the supernatant was measured (degraded hormone). The radiolabeled materials associated with each process (surface binding, internalization, and degradation) were concentrated with ultrafiltration and characterized with gel filtration and/or thin layer chromatography. The effects of lysosomotropic agents, NH4Cl and chloroquine, were studied. The cold chase study at 32 degrees C showed that the surface radioactivity was the largest among the three kinds of radioactivities associated with each process immediately after pulse labeling, but the surface radioactivity rapidly decreased, while the internalized radioactivity increased. The cold chase study at 4 degrees C did not show such time-related changes in radioactivities, and a high level of surface radioactivity constantly persisted. The surface and internalized radioactivities were due to 131I-FSH, and the degraded radioactivity was mainly due to (131I)monoiodotyrosine. When Sertoli cells were cultured with lysosomotropic agents, the internalized radioactivity increased, while the degraded radioactivity decreased. Based on these observations, a kinetic model was proposed and the relationships among the surface, internalized, and degraded radioactivities and cold chase time were calculated algebraically.

  12. Early tissue distribution of therapeutic 131I in a patient with thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Vachal, E; Wegst, A; Preston, D; Tomita, T

    1979-01-01

    A therapeutic dose of 131I was given to a 53-year-old man with thyrotoxicosis three and one-half hours prior to death. The distribution of 131I in the thyroid gland was studied by autoradiography, and the radioactivity in various fresh tissues was measured. Radioactivity was distributed evenly throughout the colloid; small amounts were present in follicular cells. Radioactivity was not localized to the periphery of colloid follicles as observed in an earlier report. Papillary projections were associated with increased radioactivity. Decreased radioactivity was associated with oxyphilic cells. Measurement of 131I in individual tissues showed that per gram of tissue the thyroid gland contained approximately 50 times that of intestine and spleen and approximately 100 times that of liver and bone.

  13. NMR-ON measurements of123, 124, 131I in nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohya, S.; Muto, S.; Katsurayama, M.; Heiguchi, K.; Mutsuro, N.; Stone, N. J.; Rikovska, J.

    1992-11-01

    The magnetic hyperfine splitting frequencies of123I Ni,124I Ni and131I Ni in a zero external magnetic field have been determined by the NMR-ON method as 258.9(1), 165.9(1) and 179.5(2) MHz, respectively. With the known values of the magnetic moments, the magnetic hyperfine fields have been deduced: B HF(123I Ni)=30.17(5) T, B HF(124I Ni)=30.14(9) T, B HF(131I Ni)=30.06(4) T; the weighted average is B HF(I Ni)=30.11(4) T. The small difference of the B HF(131I Ni) with those of123I Ni and124I Ni is discussed comparing with results of the hyperfine splitting frequency of iodine in iron host.

  14. Dosimetry in 131I-mIBG therapy: moving toward personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, C; Castellani, R; Mira, M; Lorenzoni, A; Flux, G D

    2013-06-01

    Internal dosimetry was developed as a basis for 131I-mIBG treatment at an early stage and has continued to develop for over the last 20 years. Whole-body dosimetry was introduced to prevent hematological toxicity. It will be the basis for a forthcoming European multicentre trial, in which the activity of a second administration is determined according to the results calculated from the first. Lesion dosimetry has also been performed in a small number of centres. The major goal of dosimetry now is to establish dose-effect correlation studies, which will be the basis for individualized treatment planning. The aim of this paper is to analyse previously published studies and to consider the potential for improvement in order to obtain a stronger predictive power of dosimetry. The intrinsic radiobiological limits of dosimetry are also illustrated. Due to the development and dissemination of methods of internal dosimetry and radiobiology over the last two decades, and to the increasing availability of quantitative 124I PET imaging, dosimetry could provide in the near future a more systematic basis for standardization and individualization of mIBG therapy. This will however require a number of multicentre trials which are performed under good instrumental and scientific methodology.

  15. S values for 131I based on the ICRP adult voxel phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Lamart, Stephanie; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Moroz, Brian E.; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-01-01

    To improve the estimates of organ doses from nuclear medicine procedures using 131I, the authors calculated a comprehensive set of 131I S values, defined as absorbed doses in target tissues per unit of nuclear transition in source regions, for different source and target combinations. The authors used the latest reference adult male and female voxel phantoms published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 110) and the 131I photon and electron spectra from the ICRP Publication 107 to perform Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using MCNPX2.7 to compute the S values. For each phantom, the authors simulated 55 source regions with an assumed uniform distribution of 131I. They computed the S values for 42 target tissues directly, without calculating specific absorbed fractions. From these calculations, the authors derived a comprehensive set of S values for 131I for 55 source regions and 42 target tissues in the ICRP male and female voxel phantoms. Compared with the stylised phantoms from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that consist of 22 source regions and 24 target regions, the new data set includes 1662 additional S values corresponding to additional combinations of source–target tissues that are not available in the stylised phantoms. In a comparison of S values derived from the ICRP and ORNL phantoms, the authors found that the S values to the radiosensitive tissues in the ICRP phantoms were 1.1 (median, female) and 1.3 (median, male) times greater than the values based on the ORNL phantoms. However, for several source–target pairs, the difference was up to 10-fold. The new set of S values can be applied prospectively or retrospectively to the calculation of radiation doses in adults internally exposed to 131I, including nuclear medicine patients treated for thyroid cancer or hyperthyroidism. PMID:25829162

  16. S values for 131I based on the ICRP adult voxel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Lamart, Stephanie; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, Andre; Moroz, Brian E; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-01-01

    To improve the estimates of organ doses from nuclear medicine procedures using (131)I, the authors calculated a comprehensive set of (131)I S values, defined as absorbed doses in target tissues per unit of nuclear transition in source regions, for different source and target combinations. The authors used the latest reference adult male and female voxel phantoms published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 110) and the (131)I photon and electron spectra from the ICRP Publication 107 to perform Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using MCNPX2.7 to compute the S values. For each phantom, the authors simulated 55 source regions with an assumed uniform distribution of (131)I. They computed the S values for 42 target tissues directly, without calculating specific absorbed fractions. From these calculations, the authors derived a comprehensive set of S values for (131)I for 55 source regions and 42 target tissues in the ICRP male and female voxel phantoms. Compared with the stylised phantoms from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that consist of 22 source regions and 24 target regions, the new data set includes 1662 additional S values corresponding to additional combinations of source-target tissues that are not available in the stylised phantoms. In a comparison of S values derived from the ICRP and ORNL phantoms, the authors found that the S values to the radiosensitive tissues in the ICRP phantoms were 1.1 (median, female) and 1.3 (median, male) times greater than the values based on the ORNL phantoms. However, for several source-target pairs, the difference was up to 10-fold. The new set of S values can be applied prospectively or retrospectively to the calculation of radiation doses in adults internally exposed to (131)I, including nuclear medicine patients treated for thyroid cancer or hyperthyroidism.

  17. Preparation and preclinical evaluation of (131) I-trastuzumab for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Gota, Vikram; Ambade, Rajwardhan; Gupta, Sudeep; Dash, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Trastuzumab that targets the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) is known to benefit patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. The objective was to explore the potential of (131) I-trastuzumab for treatment of breast cancers. Radioiodination of trastuzumab was carried out by chloramine-T method, purified by using PD-10 column, and characterized by size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography on a gel column. In vitro studies were carried out in HER2+ cells to determine the specificity of the radioimmunoconjugate. Uptake and retention of (131) I-trastuzumab were determined by biodistribution studies in tumor-bearing non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency and normal severe combined immunodeficiency mice. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of (131) I-trastuzumab was 98 ± 0.4% with retention time of 17 minutes by high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro stability studies exhibited RCP of more than 90% in serum at 37°C after 120 hours of radioiodination. In vitro cell binding with (131) I-trastuzumab in HER2+ cells showed binding of 28% to 35% which was inhibited significantly, with unlabeled trastuzumab confirming its specificity. Kd value of (131) I-trastuzumab was 0.5 nM, while its immunoreactivity was more than 80%. Uptake of more than 12% and retention were observed in the tumors up to 120 hours p.i. (131) I-trastuzumab prepared in-house-exhibited RCP of more than 98%, excellent immunoreactivity, affinity to HER2+ cell lines and good tumor uptake thereby indicating its potential for further evaluation in HER2+ breast cancers.

  18. A pioneer experience in Malaysia on In-house Radio-labelling of (131)I-rituximab in the treatment of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and a case report of high dose (131)I-rituximab-BEAM conditioning autologous transplant.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Jew Win; Law, Chiong Soon; Wong, Xiang Qi; Ko, Ching Tiong; Awang, Zool Hilmi; Chew, Lee Ping; Chang, Kian Meng

    2016-10-01

    Radioimmunotherapy is an established treatment modality in Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The only two commercially available radioimmunotherapies - (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan is expensive and (131)I-tositumomab has been discontinued from commercial production. In resource limited environment, self-labelling (131)I-rituximab might be the only viable practical option. We reported our pioneer experience in Malaysia on self-labelling (131)I-rituximab, substituting autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and a patient, the first reported case, received high dose (131)I-rituximab (6000MBq/163mCi) combined with BEAM conditioning for autologous HSCT.

  19. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for lactational transfer of Na-131I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Anita Loretta

    The excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after administration of radiopharmaceuticals is a concern as a radiation risk to nursing infants. It is not uncommon to administer radiopharmaceuticals to lactating patients due to emergency nuclear medicine investigations such as thyroid complications, kidney failure, and pulmonary embolism. There is a need to quantify the amount of radioactivity translocated into breast milk in cases of ingestion by a breast-fed infant. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) and a modified International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) model have been developed to predict iodine concentrations in breast milk after ingestion of radioiodine by the mother. In the PBPK model, all compartments are interconnected by blood flow and represent real anatomic tissue regions in the body. All parameters involved are measurable values with physiological or physiochemical meaning such as tissue masses, blood flow rates, partition coefficients and cardiac output. However, some of the parameters such as the partition coefficients and metabolic constants are not available for iodine and had to be inferred from other information. The structure of the PBPK model for the mother consists of the following tissue compartments: gastrointestinal tract, blood, kidney, thyroid, milk, and other tissues. With the exception of the milk compartment, the model for the nursing infant is structured similarly to the mother. The ICRP model describing iodine metabolism in a standard 70-kg man was modified to represent iodine metabolism in a lactating woman and nursing infant. The parameters involved in this model are transfer rates and biological half-lives which are based on experimental observations. The results of the PBPK model and the modified ICRP model describing the lactational transfer of iodine were compared. When administering 1 mCi of Na131I to the lactating mother, the concentration reaches a maximum of 0.1 mCi/liter in 24

  20. Limitations of /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy in locating pheochromocytomas

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, I.R.; Thompson, N.W.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.

    1985-07-01

    /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 131/I-MIBG) scintigraphy for the location of pheochromocytomas has proved to be a major advance in patient management. In combination with computerized tomographic scanning, nearly all pheochromocytomas can be located before surgery and invasive investigations are now indicated only in exceptional cases. However, there are still lessons to be learned concerning the optimal administration and interpretation of /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. With careful attention to detail and an awareness of isotope distribution, false positive studies should be extremely rare. While the incidence of false negative studies is uncommon, these certainly occur. A patient with sporadic bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia, bilateral pheochromocytomas, and additional benign pheochromocytomas arising in paraganglia tissue anterior to the abdominal aorta is presented. The right adrenal pheochromocytoma was not identified on /sup 131/I-MIBG imaging. The authors conclude that even with current locating techniques, the traditional surgical approach to pheochromocytoma should not be abandoned. This involves transabdominal exploration of both adrenal glands and careful examination of all possible sites of extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.

  1. Failure to visualize adrenal glands in a patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. [/sup 131/I

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.; Mayfield, R.K.; Levine, J.H.; Lopes-Virella, M.F.; Sagel, J.; Buse, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A patient with clinical and biochemical evidence of Cushing's disease and severe hyperlipidemia underwent an adrenal imaging procedure with NP-59 (6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol), without visualization of either gland. Correction of the hyperlipidemia followed by repeated adrenal imaging resulted in bilateral visualization. A pituitary tumor was removed at surgery, confirming the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.

  2. Tumor immunotherapy in the mouse with the use of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Zalcberg, J.R.; Thompson, C.H.; Lichtenstein, M.; McKenzie, I.F.

    1984-03-01

    This report describes the use of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibodies in two experimental models for tumor immunotherapy. In vitro treatment of the radiation-induced murine thymoma ITT-1-75NS with radiolabeled anti-Ly-2.1 significantly impaired subsequent tumor growth in vivo. However, in vivo treatment of this tumor, which previously had been injected into C57BL/6 mice, was unsuccessful. By contrast, in vitro treatment of a human colorectal tumor cell line (COLO 205) with 131I-labeled 250-30.6--a monoclonal antibody directed against a secretory component of normal and malignant gastrointestinal epithelium--completely inhibited subsequent tumor growth in BALB/c nude (nu/nu) mice. Furthermore, in vivo treatment of preexisting human colorectal tumor xenografts significantly impaired progressive tumor growth. Although some tumor inhibition was also produced by unlabeled 250-30.6 antibody, this response was considerably amplified by treatment with (131I)-labeled 250-30.6 (P less than .05), suggesting that in vivo treatment of human tumors with the use of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibodies may be clinically beneficial. The antithyroid drug propylthiouracil was used to reduce dehalogenation of the radiolabeled immunoglobulins in an attempt to improve their therapeutic efficacy.

  3. Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following /sup 131/I treatment for nodular goiter

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, H.; Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Schnell, P.O.; Lundell, G.

    1987-02-01

    The blood lymphocyte population was examined in 34 patients who were treated with /sup 131/I for toxic or atoxic nodular goiter. The patients received one to three doses of 300-550 MBq of /sup 131/I administered at 1 week intervals. Lymphocyte counts were significantly reduced both 1 and 6 weeks after treatment. This reduction was accompanied by a changed composition of the lymphocyte population. The frequency of lymphocytes expressing membrane receptors for C'3 (EAC-rosette forming) was significantly reduced 1 and 6 weeks after /sup 131/I-administration. At 6 weeks there was a slight but statistically significant increase of the frequency of T-cells as identified by Leu 1 monoclonal antibodies. This was largely caused by an increased proportion of helper/induced T-cells as identified by Leu 3a monoclonals. /sup 131/I-treatment also reduced the capacity of lymphocytes to secrete immunoglobulins (Ig) upon PWM-stimulation. The most pronounced effect was observed for IgM. Secretion of IgG and IgA were less reduced. Mitogenic stimulations of lymphocytes with PHA and ConA were not significantly changed. We conclude that these changes observed, with the exception of mitogen reactivity, are essentially similar to those occurring after external radiation therapy for cancer. We speculate that blood lymphocytes passing through the continuously irradiated gland are damaged mainly by emitted beta-particles.

  4. Occupational exposure to 131I-a case study.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Huikari, Jussi; Korpela, Helinä; Lindholm, Carita; Paile, Wendla; Parviainen, Teuvo

    2014-10-01

    In a laboratory in a company manufacturing radiopharmaceuticals, a laboratory technician was contaminated with I. The employee was preparing I capsules for thyroid carcinoma treatment. The employee was wearing two pairs of protective gloves and, when changing gloves, noticed a rupture in the right inner glove but no visible rupture in the outer glove. Only 3-4 h later, routine monitoring revealed heavy contamination of the back of the right hand. Immediate actions to decontaminate the hand were taken on-site. Stable iodine was not administered. On the next day, besides persisting heavy contamination of the hand, I was also detected in the thyroid gland. Based on original measurements on-site and later follow-up at STUK, including surface contamination measurements and whole body counting, the original I activity on the hand was estimated at 12 MBq and the superficial skin dose at 33 Gy, affecting a skin area of about 10 cm. The thyroid dose was estimated at 430 mGy. Eleven days after the incident, the skin was dry and slightly desquamated. After 15 d, the skin was intact with no desquamation left. No further signs of skin damage have occurred. Cytogenetic analysis of circulating lymphocytes indicated a slight elevation of chromosomal aberrations.

  5. Uptake and depuration of 131I by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea: uptake from labelled seaweed (Chondrus crispus).

    PubMed

    Wilson, R C; Vives i Batlle, J; McDonald, P; Parker, T G

    2005-01-01

    Uptake and depuration experiments of (131)I from labelled seaweed (Chondrus crispus) by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea have been performed. Radioiodine concentrations in winkles during uptake followed first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 1 day, and a calculated equilibrium concentration (C(infinity)) of 21 000 Bq kg(-1) resulting in a transfer factor of 0.07 with respect to the labelled seaweed used as food. For depuration, a biphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 1 and 24 days was determined. The results suggest that in general, iodine turnover in periwinkles is slower than observed for other molluscs (monophasic biological half-lives in the order of 2-3 days). Both environmental media, food and seawater, can be significant sources of radioiodine for the winkle.

  6. Capillary permeability of /sup 131/I-albumin in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Sejrsen, P.; Paaske, W.P.; Henriksen, O.

    1985-05-01

    Capillary permeability of /sup 131/I-albumin in skeletal muscle was determined by applying the ''single injection, residue detection'' method to the autoperfused cat gastrocnemius muscle preparation. Experiments at zero venous pressure gave an average capillary extraction fraction, E, of 0.028 at a plasma flow of about 3 ml X (100 g)-1 X min-1. The permeability-surface area product, PS, was on average 0.075 ml X (100 g)-1 X min-1. Experiments at a venous pressure of 10 mm Hg gave essentially the same PS product (0.070 ml X (100 g)-1 X min-1. Further experiments demonstrated that stagnant intravascular pools of /sup 131/I-albumin were not present. The free diffusion coefficient in water at 37 degrees of the purified /sup 131/I-albumin was 0.0631 X 10-5 cm2 X sec-1). The distribution volume for /sup 131/I-albumin in the interstitial space was 3.5 ml X (100 g)-1 X sec-1. Assuming a capillary surface area of 70 cm2 X g-1 the permeability coefficient was calculated to be 18 X 10(-8) cm X sec-1 which is about 3 to 10 times higher than values obtained by lymph sampling methods. The results indicate that the predominant transcapillary transport mechanism for /sup 131/I-albumin is diffusion. When analyzed according to the theory of restricted diffusion the results are compatible with transcapillary diffusion through pores with an effective equivalent pore radius of 145 A.

  7. SU-E-T-619: Planning 131I Thyroid Treatments for Patients Requiring Hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Treatment of 131I thyroid cancer patients who also require regular hemodialysis (HD) treatments requires consideration of the administered activity and the HD schedule. In this work the red bone marrow is considered the dose limiting organ and the treatment plan optimized the HD schedule with the amount of radioactivity administered. Methods: The ‘Safe’ dose was considered to be 2 Gy (200 rad) to the red bone marrow.1 131Iodine doses of 50 mCi to 100 mCi were modeled and found to require a range of HD schedules. In order to achieve the safe dose to the red marrow, more aggressive HD schedules are required. 100 mCi required an aggressive HD treatment of every 24 hours for at least one week to achieve the ‘safe’ dose and an exposure appropriate for release from the hospital. A more normal schedule of HD beginning at 18 hours then every 48 hours allowed for up to 60 mCi administered dose allowed for a safe dose and expected release after less than one week.2In addition room was equipped with video cameras cameras for monitoring the patient and their vital signs from an adjacent room during HD. In this way the dialysis nurses were able to monitor the patient closely from an adjoining room. Results: Two HD patients were administered adjusted doses of about 50 mCi. The medical and nursing staff were exposed to no more than 4 mR for the entire treatment. The residual Iodine in the patient appeared to be normal after 4 to 6 days when the patient was released. Conclusion: With careful treatment planning 131Iodine treatments can be performed safely for patients needing HD and treatments appear to be as effective as those for patients with normal renal function.

  8. Estimation of internal exposure of the thyroid to (131)I on the basis of (134)Cs accumulated in the body among evacuees of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Akiba, Suminori; Kurihara, Osamu; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Momose, Takumaro; Nakano, Takashi; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-11-01

    Namie Town was heavily contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. The thyroid equivalent dose for residents who lived in Namie was estimated using results of whole body counting examinations which were carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency a few months after the nuclear accident. Photon peaks of (131)I and (134)Cs were previously measured by the authors using a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer and that information was used to estimate the (131)I/(134)Cs activity ratio of total intake in the present study. The maximum values of (131)I/(134)Cs activity ratio corresponding to thyroid uptake factors of 0.3, 0.1 and 0.03 were evaluated to be 0.9, 2.6 and 8.7, respectively. The maximum value of the (131)I/(134)Cs activity ratio was used to obtain the most conservative thyroid equivalent dose estimation. The maximum internal exposure of the thyroid to (131)I on the basis of (134)Cs accumulated in the body measured by the whole body counter was estimated to be 18mSv. This value was much smaller than 50mSv that the International Atomic Energy Agency recommends as the dose at which exposed persons should take stable iodine tablets.

  9. Monitoring rainwater and seaweed reveals the presence of (131)I in southwest and central British Columbia, Canada following the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chester, A; Starosta, K; Andreoiu, C; Ashley, R; Barton, A; Brodovitch, J-C; Brown, M; Domingo, T; Janusson, C; Kucera, H; Myrtle, K; Riddell, D; Scheel, K; Salomon, A; Voss, P

    2013-10-01

    Detailed analysis of (131)I levels in rainwater and in three species of seaweed (Fucus distichus Linnaeus, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Pyropia fallax) collected in southwest British Columbia and Bella Bella, B.C., Canada was performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011. Maximum (131)I activity was found to be 5.8(7) Bq/L in rainwater collected at the campus of Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, B.C. nine days after the accident. Concomitantly, maximum observed activity in the brown seaweed F. distichus Linnaeus was observed to be 130(7) Bq/kg dry weight in samples collected in North Vancouver 11 days following the accident and 67(6) Bq/kg dry weight in samples collected from the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre on Vancouver Island 17 days following the accident. The (131)I activity in seaweed samples collected in southwest B.C. following the Fukushima accident was an order of magnitude less than what was observed following Chernobyl. Iodine-131 activity in F. distichus Linnaeus remained detectable for 60 days following the accident and was detectable in each seaweed species collected. The Germanium Detector for Elemental Analysis and Radioactivity Studies (GEARS) was modeled using the Geant4 software package and developed as an analytical tool by the Nuclear Science group in the Simon Fraser University Department of Chemistry for the purpose of these measurements.

  10. Thyroid Remnant Estimation by Diagnostic Dose 131I Scintigraphy or 99mTcO4− Scintigraphy after Thyroidectomy: A Comparison with Therapeutic Dose 131I Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this clinical study, we have compared routine diagnostic dose 131I scan and 99mTcO4− thyroid scintigraphy with therapeutic dose 131I imaging for accurate thyroid remnant estimation after total thyroidectomy. We conducted a retrospective review of the patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and subsequently receiving radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment to ablate remnant thyroid tissue. All patients had therapeutic dose RAI whole body scan, which was compared with that of diagnostic dose RAI, 99mTcO4− thyroid scan, and ultrasound examination. We concluded that therapeutic dose RAI scan reveals some extent thyroid remnant in all DTC patients following total thyroidectomy. Diagnostic RAI scan is much superior to ultrasound and 99mTcO4− thyroid scan for the postoperative estimation of thyroid remnant. Ultrasound and 99mTcO4− thyroid scan provide little information for thyroid remnant estimation and, therefore, would not replace diagnostic RAI scan. PMID:27034938

  11. Dosimetric analysis of 123I, 125I and 131I in thyroid follicle models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Radioiodine is routinely used or proposed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes: 123I, 125I and 131I for diagnostics and 125I and 131I for therapy. When radioiodine-labelled pharmaceuticals are administered to the body, radioiodide might be released into the circulation and taken up by the thyroid gland, which may then be an organ at risk. The aim of this study was to compare dosimetric properties for 123I, 125I and 131I in previously developed thyroid models for man, rat and mouse. Methods Dosimetric calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.6.0 and nuclear decay data from ICRP 107. Only the non-radiative transitions in the decays were considered. The S value was determined for the cell nuclei in species-specific thyroid follicle models for mouse, rat and man for different spatial distributions of radioiodine. Results For the species-specific single follicle models with radioiodine homogeneously within the follicle lumen, the highest S value came from 131I, with the largest contribution from the β particles. When radioiodine was homogeneously distributed within the follicle cells or the follicle cell nucleus, the highest contribution originated from 125I, about two times higher than 123I, with the largest contribution from the Auger electrons. The mean absorbed dose calculated for our human thyroid multiple follicle model, assuming homogenous distribution of for 123I, 125I, or 131I within the follicle lumens and follicle cells, was 9%, 18% and 4% higher, respectively, compared with the mean absorbed dose according to Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) formalism and nuclear decay data. When radioiodine was homogeneously distributed in the follicle lumens, our calculations gave up to 90% lower mean absorbed dose for 125I compared to MIRD (20% lower for 123I, and 2% lower for 131I). Conclusions This study clearly demonstrates the importance of using more detailed dosimetric methods and models than MIRD formalism for radioiodine

  12. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and (131)I by thermosensitive micellar-hydrogel for enhanced in situ synergetic chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pingsheng; Zhang, Yumin; Wang, Weiwei; Zhou, Junhui; Sun, Yu; Liu, Jinjian; Kong, Deling; Liu, Jianfeng; Dong, Anjie

    2015-12-28

    Combined chemoradiotherapy is potent to defeat malignant tumor. Concurrent delivery of radioisotope with chemotherapeutic drugs, which also act as the radiosensitizer, to tumor tissues by a single vehicle is essential to achieve this objective. To this end, a macroscale injectable and thermosensitive micellar-hydrogel (MHg) depot was constructed by thermo-induced self-aggregation of poly(ε-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone)-poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone) (PECT) triblock copolymer micelles (Ms), which could not only serve as a micellar drug reservoir to locally deliver concentrated nano chemotherapeutic drugs, but also immobilize radioisotopes at the internal irradiation hot focus. Doxorubicin (DOX) and iodine-131 labeled hyaluronic acid ((131)I-HA) were used as the model therapeutic agents. The aqueous mixture of drug-loaded PECT micelles and (131)I-HA exhibited sol-to-gel transition around body temperature. In vitro drug release study indicated that PECT/DOX Ms were sustainedly shed from the native PECT/DOX MHg formulation, which could be internalized by tumor cells with rapid intracellular DOX release. This hydrogel formulation demonstrated considerable in vitro antitumor effect as well as remarkable radiosensitization. In vivo subcutaneous injection of PECT MHg demonstrated that (131)I isotope was immobilized stably at the injection location and no obvious indication of damage to major organs were observed as indicated by the histopathological analysis. Furthermore, the peritumoral injection of chemo-radiation therapeutic agents-encapsulated MHg formulation on tumor-bearing nude mice resulted in the desired combined treatment effect, which significantly improved the tumor growth inhibition efficiency with minimized drug-associated side effects to major organs. Consequently, such a thermosensitive MHg formulation, which enabled the precise control over the dosage and ratio of combination

  13. Outpatient 131I Treatment for a Patient with Graves' Disease Receiving Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Miho; Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Sugino, Kiminori; Ito, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A patient presented with hyperthyroidism and end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis that was difficult to control despite increased dosages of anti-thyroid drugs. The condition could finally be controlled by 131I radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) and hemodialysis provided under a hospital-linkage system. During three hemodialysis sessions after the oral administration of 131I, we measured the radioactivity released from the patient and the radioactivity of the devices/tools used. The radioactivity of the devices/tools was managed by allowing the isotope to decay into non-radioactive elements. Our experience suggests that outpatient RIT may provide a safe and convenient means of treating Graves' disease, even in patients receiving hemodialysis. PMID:27853074

  14. The clearance of /sup 131/I-human plasma ferritin in man

    SciTech Connect

    Worwood, M.; Cragg, S.J.; Williams, A.M.; Wagstaff, M.; Jacobs, A.

    1982-10-01

    Ferritin was purified 33,000-fold from the plasma of patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis. The plasma ferritin was labeled with /sup 131/I and injected into 2 normal men. Clearance was found to be relatively slow, with 50% /sup 131/I-ferritin remaining in the plasma at 27-30 hr. The fraction of plasma ferritin that bound to concanavalin-A was found to be cleared more slowly than the nonbinding fraction. These findings confirm our previous suggestion that glycosylation is a major factor prolonging the survival of ferritin in the plasma, but differ from the results of earlier studies in experimental animals and preterm infants, which indicated very rapid plasma ferritin turnover.

  15. Radionuclide studies of chronic schistosomal uropathy. [/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; /sup 131/I-hippuran

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Lamki, N.

    1981-08-01

    Fifty patients with chronic urinary tract schistosomiasis were studied with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. All had a flow study, sequential analog imaging, and digital imaging for 25 to 35 min (20-sec frames). Time-activity curves (DTPA renograms) were extracted; 12 patients had /sup 131/I-Hippuran probe renograms as well. Renal changes included diminished perfusion and structural abnormalities ranging from minor calyceal dilatation to overt hydronephrosis. Ureteral changes included dilatation, tortuosity, and kinking. Marked distortion of the ureterovesical junction was seen in some patients due to periureteral and perivesicular fibrosis, which is a major factor in upper urinary tract damage. Renograms showed varying obstruction and parenchymal damage. Nuclear medicine complements excretory urography and is sometimes preferable for visualization of the ureters. After the initial urogram, sequential DTPA scanning and renography are sufficient for follow-up.

  16. Dosimetric study of Cs-131, I-125, and Pd-103 seeds for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruijie; Wang, Junjie; Zhang, Hongzhi

    2009-12-01

    As a well-established single-modality approach for early-stage prostate cancer, transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (TIPPB) has gained increasing popularity due to its favorable clinical results. Currently, three isotopes, namely Cs-131, I-125, and Pd-103, are commercially available for TIPPB. This is the first study to systematically explore the dosimetric difference of these three isotopes for TIPPB. In total, 25 patients with T1-T2c prostate cancer previously implanted with I-125 seeds were randomly selected and replanned with Cs-131, I-125, and Pd-103 seeds to the prescription doses of 115, 145, and 125 Gy, respectively. The planning goals attempted were prostate V(p)100 approximately 95%, D(p)90 >or= 100%, and prostatic urethra D(u)10 131, I-125, and Pd-103 plans, respectively. The average D(u)10 was 124.6%, 125.7%, and 129.7%, respectively. The average rectum V(r)100 was 0.19, 0.22, and 0.31 cc, respectively. In addition, the average number of seeds was 57.9, 63.0, and 63.7, and the average number of needles required was 31.6, 32.9, and 33.6 for Cs-131, I-125, and Pd-103 seeds, respectively. This study demonstrates that TIPPB, utilizing Cs-131 seeds, allows for better dose homogeneity, while providing comparable prostate coverage and sparing of the urethra and rectum, with a comparable number of, or fewer, seeds and needles required, compared to I-125 or Pd-103 seeds. Further biological and clinical studies associated with Cs-131 are warranted.

  17. Potential third-party radiation exposure from outpatients treated with {sup 131}I for hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Matheoud, Roberta; Reschini, Eugenio; Canzi, Cristina; Voltini, Franco; Gerundini, Paolo

    2004-12-01

    Thirty-three hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine (mean administered activity 414 MBq, range 163-555) were studied to determine if pretreatment dosimetry could be used to give radiation protection advice that could assure compliance with the effective dose constraints suggested by the European Commission. Effective doses to travelers, co-workers, and sleeping partners were estimated by integrating the effective dose rate-versus-time curve obtained by fitting the dose rates measured several times after radioiodine administration to a biexponential function. The mean estimated effective doses to travelers, co-workers, and sleeping partners were 0.11 mSv (0.05-0.24), 0.24 mSv (0.07-0.52), and 1.8 mSv (0.6-4.1), respectively. The best correlation was found between effective dose (D) in mSv and maximum activity (AU{sub max}) in MBq taken up in the thyroid: D{sub traveler}=0.0005*(AU{sub max})+0.04 (r=0.88,p<0.01); D{sub co-worker}=0.0013*(AU{sub max})+0.03(r=0.89,p<0.01); D{sub sleepingpartners}=0.0105*(AU{sub max})+0.16 (r=0.93,p<0.01). Private/public transports are always allowed. For the co-workers the effective dose constraint of 0.3 mSv is met without restrictions and with 3 days off work if AU{sub max} is lower or higher than 185 MBq, respectively. For the sleeping partners the effective dose constraint of 3 mSv is met without restriction and with 4 nights separate sleeping arrangements if AU{sub max} is lower or higher than 185 MBq, respectively. The potential for contamination by the patients was determined from perspiration samples taken from the patient's hands, forehead, and neck and in saliva at 4, 24, and 48 h after radioiodine treatment. The mean highest {sup 131}I activity levels for hands, forehead, neck, and saliva were 4.1 Bq/cm{sup 2}, 1.9 Bq/cm{sup 2}, 0.9 Bq/cm{sup 2}, and 796 kBq/g, respectively. The results indicate that there is minimal risk of contamination from these patients.

  18. Methimazole, but not betamethasone, prevents 131I treatment-induced rises in thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies in hyperthyroid Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gamstedt, A.; Wadman, B.; Karlsson, A.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of methimazole or betamethasone therapy on the TSH receptor antibody response to radioiodine therapy were compared in a prospective randomized study of 60 patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. The patients were followed for 1 yr after treatment with 131I. Twenty-three patients received 131I alone, 17 were treated with methimazole for 2 months before and 3 months after 131I therapy, and 20 patients were treated with betamethasone for 3 weeks before and 4 weeks after 131I therapy. 131I induced a transient rise in the mean serum level of TSH receptor autoantibodies, measured as TSH binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII), but in patients receiving methimazole treatment, no such rise occurred. In the betamethasone-treated patients, TBII increased similarly to that in patients treated with 131I alone. In addition, in patients given betamethasone, there was an early decrease in total serum immunoglobulin G, which persisted throughout the follow-up period. In the other 2 groups, no changes in total immunoglobulin G were found. The results demonstrate that in hyperthyroid Graves' disease, TBII production is influenced by therapy. Methimazole abolished the 131I-induced increase in TBII, whereas betamethasone did not have such an inhibitory effect.

  19. Treatment of (131)I-labeled anti-CD147 monoclonal antibody in VX2 carcinoma-induced liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Niu, Huanzhang; Wang, Ruihua; Cheng, Jingliang; Gao, Shegan; Liu, Baoping

    2013-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem worldwide. CD147 has been reported to be overexpressed in HCC and blocking CD147 expression can decrease tumor growth. (131)I is often used in combination with other drugs to treat HCC and yields positive results. In this study, we combined the (131)I and CD147 monoclonal antibody to treat HCC in a rabbit VX2 animal model. In the (131)I-labeled CD147 antibody ((131)I-CD147-Ab) treatment group, the animals lived considerably longer than the animals in the other treatment groups. Metastasis and tumor growth in the (131)I-CD147-Ab treatment group were also inhibited. MMP2 and CD31 expression were significantly lower in the treatment group, whereas Tunel staining was overexpressed. These findings suggest that (131)I-CD147-Ab is a promising drug in the treatment of HCC, by inhibiting metastasis and growth and by decreasing the expression of MMP2 and CD31 or by inducing tumor necrosis. After testing the biochemical parameters, (131)I-CD147-Ab caused fewer side-effects in the animals.

  20. Thyrotropin receptor antibodies and Graves' disease, a side-effect of 131I treatment in patients with nontoxic goiter.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, B; Knudsen, J H; Hegedüs, L; Scient, A V; Hansen, J E

    1997-09-01

    The use of 131I treatment in patients with benign nontoxic goiter is increasing, and the described side-effects are few. In this paper we describe appearance of TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) and concomitant development of hyperthyroidism as a side-effect of 131I treatment in patients with nontoxic goiter. In this retrospective study, 191 consecutive patients with 131I-treated nontoxic goiter are described. Nine patients (5%) developed hyperthyroidism 3 months after 131I treatment, and 5 patients (3%) developed radiation thyroiditis within the first month. Frozen sera were analyzed for thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO) in 130 patients before 131I treatment. In 21% of these, serum levels of anti-TPO were over 200 U/mL. The complication frequency of Graves'-like hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism was 51% in patients with elevated anti-TPO (n = 27) and 15% in patients with normal serum anti-TPO levels (P < 0.00005). TRAb, anti-TPO, and thyroglobulin were followed in patients developing hyperthyroidism or radiation thyroiditis and in 10 control patients remaining euthyroid. At the time of 131I treatment, all patients had serum TRAb values within the normal range. Three months after administration of 131I, the patients developing hyperthyroidism had a transient extensive rise in serum TRAb and anti-TPO levels parallel to a rise in the serum free T4 index. In patients developing radiation thyroiditis, serum TRAb values were normal. In control patients, serum TRAb and anti-TPO values were both within the normal range throughout the observation period. In conclusion, hyperthyroidism can be triggered by 131I in patients with nontoxic goiter, not only related to radiation thyroiditis but also as a Graves'-like hyperthyroidism induced by TRAb. Elevated anti-TPO pretreatment is a marker of an increased risk of side-effects to 131I treatment in nontoxic goiter.

  1. Influence of thyroid volume reduction on absorbed dose in 131I therapy studied by using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaur, Rahman; Sikander, M. Mirza; Waheed, Arshed; Nasir, M. Mirza; Waheed, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    A simulation study has been performed to quantify the effect of volume reduction on the thyroid absorbed dose per decay and to investigate the variation of energy deposition per decay due to β- and γ-activity of 131I with volume/mass of thyroid, for water, ICRP- and ICRU-soft tissue taken as thyroid material. A Monte Carlo model of the thyroid, in the Geant4 radiation transport simulation toolkit was constructed to compute the β- and γ-absorbed dose in the simulated thyroid phantom for various values of its volume. The effect of the size and shape of the thyroid on energy deposition per decay has also been studied by using spherical, ellipsoidal and cylindrical models for the thyroid and varying its volume in 1-25 cm3 range. The relative differences of Geant4 results for different models with each other and MCNP results lie well below 1.870%. The maximum relative difference among the Geant4 estimated results for water with ICRP and ICRU soft tissues is not more than 0.225%. S-values for ellipsoidal, spherical and cylindrical thyroid models were estimated and the relative difference with published results lies within 3.095%. The absorbed fraction values for beta particles show a good agreement with published values within 2.105% deviation. The Geant4 based simulation results of absorbed fractions for gammas again show a good agreement with the corresponding MCNP and EGS4 results (±6.667%) but have 29.032% higher values than that of MIRD calculated values. Consistent with previous studies, the reduction of the thyroid volume is found to have a substantial effect on the absorbed dose. Geant4 simulations confirm dose dependence on the volume/mass of thyroid in agreement with MCNP and EGS4 computed values but are substantially different from MIRD8 data. Therefore, inclusion of size/mass dependence is indicated for 131I radiotherapy of the thyroid.

  2. 131I-tositumomab myeloablative radioimmunotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: radiation dose to the testes

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Naoya; Gopal, Ajay K.; Shields, Andrew T.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, Ted; Pagel, John M.; Press, Oliver W.; Rajendran, Joseph G.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiation doses to the testes delivered by a radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibody and its effects on male sex hormone levels. Materials and methods: Testicular uptake and retention of 131I-tositumomab were measured, and testicular absorbed doses were calculated for 67 male patients (54+/-11 years of age) with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who had undergone myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab. Time-activity curves for the major organs, testes, and whole body were generated from planar imaging studies. In a subset of patients, male sex hormones were measured before and 1 year after the therapy. Results: The absorbed dose to the testes showed considerable variability (range=4.4-70.2 Gy). Pretherapy levels of total testosterone were below the lower limit of the reference range, and post-therapy evaluation demonstrated further reduction [4.6+/-1.8 nmol/l (pre-RIT) vs. 3.8+/-2.9 nmol/l (post-RIT), P<0.05]. Patients receiving higher radiation doses to the testes (>=25 Gy) showed a greater reduction [4.7+/-1.6 nmol/l (pre-RIT) vs. 3.3+/-2.7 nmol/l (post-RIT), P<0.05] compared with patients receiving lower doses (<25 Gy), who showed no significant change in total testosterone levels. Conclusion: The testicular radiation absorbed dose varied highly among individual patients. Finally, patients receiving higher doses to the testes were more likely to show post-RIT suppression of testosterone levels.

  3. Uncertainties in dose coefficients from ingestion of 131I, 137Cs, and 90Sr.

    PubMed

    Apostoaei, A Iulian; Miller, Laurence F

    2004-05-01

    Quantification of uncertainties in doses from intakes of radionuclides is important in risk assessments and epidemiologic studies of individuals exposed to radiation. In this study, the uncertainties in the doses per unit intake (i.e., dose coefficients) for ingestion of 131I, 137Cs, and 90Sr by healthy individuals have been determined. Age-dependent thyroid dose coefficients were derived for 131I. The analysis for 131I uses recent measurements of thyroid volume obtained by ultrasonography, which indicate a thyroid mass lower than that previously obtained using autopsy measurements. The coefficients for 137Cs are determined using the relationship between the biological half-lives and the amount of potassium in the human body. The most recent International Commission on Radiological Protection biokinetic model was employed to determine the uncertainties for 90Sr. For 137Cs and 90Sr, the dose coefficients represent exposure in adulthood and they were determined for all organs of radiological importance. The uncertainty in the estimated dose coefficients represent state of knowledge estimates for a reference individual, and they are described by lognormal distributions with a specified geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD). The estimated geometric means vary only slightly from the dose coefficients reported by ICRP publications. The largest uncertainty is observed in the dose coefficients for bone surface (GSD = 2.6), and red bone marrow (GSD = 2.4) in the case of ingestion of 90Sr. For most other organs, the uncertainty in the 90Sr dose coefficients is characterized by a GSD of 1.8 (or less for some organs). For 131I, the uncertainty in the thyroid dose coefficients is well represented by a GSD of 1.7 for both sexes and all ages other than infants for whom a GSD of 1.8 is more appropriate. The lowest uncertainties are obtained for the dose coefficients from ingestion of 137Cs (GSD = 1.24 for males; 1.4 for females). A dominant source of

  4. Localization of m-lodo(/sup 131/I)benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hattner, R.S.; Huberty, J.P.; Engelstad, B.L.; Gooding, C.A.; Ablin, A.R.

    1984-08-01

    Patient survival and the therapeutic strategy for treatment of neuroblastoma are highly dependent on the stage of the tumor at presentation. For routine staging, the Children's Cancer Study group currently recommends a chest radiograph, abdominal CT scan, radionuclide bone scan, bone marrow biopsy, catecholamine metabolite estimations, and surgical determination of tumor extent. A noninvasive method for detectiton of neuroblastoma that avoids surgery and bone marrow biopsy would be a most welcome addition to the armamentarium of the pediatric oncologist. A case of neuroblastoma demonstrated with m-iodo(/sup 131/I)benzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is reported.

  5. (/sup 131/I) iodocholesterol scintiscan and a rare functional black adenoma of the adrenal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.M.; Lieberman, L.M.; Gould, H.R.; Hafez, G.R.

    1983-06-01

    A rare functional black adenoma (FBA) of the adrenal cortex was found to be the cause of hypertension and cushingoid features in a 34-yr-old white female., Preoperative studies included (/sup 131/I)iodocholesterol scanning (ICS) of the adrenal glands, which demonstrated the increased release of cortisol from the affected adrenal gland, with the failure of the opposite adrenal gland to record. This is evidence that cortisol was suppressing adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) output by the pituitary gland. This case documents the clinical utility of functional imaging techniques in this clinical setting.

  6. Determining thyroid {sup 131}I effective half-life for the treatment planning of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Willegaignon, Jose; Sapienza, Marcelo T.; Barberio Coura Filho, George; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Traino, Antonio C.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Thyroid {sup 131}I effective half-life (T{sub eff}) is an essential parameter in patient therapy when accurate radiation dose is desirable for producing an intended therapeutic outcome. Multiple {sup 131}I uptake measurements and resources from patients themselves and from nuclear medicine facilities are requisites for determining T{sub eff}, these being limiting factors when implementing the treatment planning of Graves' disease (GD) in radionuclide therapy. With the aim of optimizing this process, this study presents a practical, propitious, and accurate method of determining T{sub eff} for dosimetric purposes. Methods: A total of 50 patients with GD were included in this prospective study. Thyroidal {sup 131}I uptake was measured at 2-h, 6-h, 24-h, 48-h, 96-h, and 220-h postradioiodine administration. T{sub eff} was calculated by considering sets of two measured points (24-48-h, 24-96-h, and 24-220-h), sets of three (24-48-96-h, 24-48-220-h, and 24-96-220-h), and sets of four (24-48-96-220-h). Results: When considering all the measured points, the representative T{sub eff} for all the patients was 6.95 ({+-}0.81) days, whereas when using such sets of points as (24-220-h), (24-96-220-h), and (24-48-220-h), this was 6.85 ({+-}0.81), 6.90 ({+-}0.81), and 6.95 ({+-}0.81) days, respectively. According to the mean deviations 2.2 ({+-}2.4)%, 2.1 ({+-}2.0)%, and 0.04 ({+-}0.09)% found in T{sub eff}, calculated based on all the measured points in time, and with methods using the (24-220-h), (24-48-220-h), and (24-96-220-h) sets, respectively, no meaningful statistical difference was noted among the three methods (p > 0.500, t test). Conclusions: T{sub eff} obtained from only two thyroid {sup 131}I uptakes measured at 24-h and 220-h, besides proving to be sufficient, accurate enough, and easily applicable, attributes additional major cost-benefits for patients, and facilitates the application of the method for dosimetric purposes in the treatment planning of

  7. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of 131I in the thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, S. M.; Dantas, A. L. A.; Dantas, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in vivo monitoring of 131I in the thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. Results show that all models evaluated in this work present enough sensitivity for the evaluation of accidental intakes.

  8. Radioiodine Accumulation in a Giant Ovarian Cystadenofibroma Detected Incidentally by 131-I Whole Body Scans

    PubMed Central

    Mebarki, Mohammed; Menemani, Abdelghani; Medjahedi, Abdelkader; Boualou, Fouad; Slama, Abdelhak; Ouguirti, Sarah; Kherbouche, Fatima Zahra; Berber, Nécib

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cystadenofibroma is a relatively rare tumor; it is usually asymptomatic and is found incidentally. We present the case of a 24-year-old female patient, who had undergone total thyroidectomy for thyroid papillary carcinoma, with an asymptomatic giant cystadenofibroma, incidentally discovered by diagnostic 131I-SPECT/CT WBSs. We summarize the clinical history, imaging data, and histopathological study on a rare case of radioiodine accumulation in cystadenofibroma, and we discuss the mechanism of uptake of radioiodine in this case. PMID:23119215

  9. Radionuclide (131)I labeled reduced graphene oxide for nuclear imaging guided combined radio- and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Yi, Xuan; Huang, Min; Ning, Ping; Liu, Teng; Ge, Cuicui; Chai, Zhifang; Liu, Zhuang; Yang, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Nano-graphene and its derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine, including their applications in cancer theranostics. In this work, we develop 131I labeled, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated reduced nano-graphene oxide (RGO), obtaining 131I-RGO-PEG for nuclear imaging guided combined radiotherapy and photothermal therapy of cancer. Compared with free 131I, 131IRGO- PEG exhibits enhanced cellular uptake and thus improved radio-therapeutic efficacy against cancer cells. As revealed by gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of 131I-RGO-PEG is observed after its intravenous injection. While RGO exhibits strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and could induce effective photothermal heating of tumor under NIR light irradiation, 131I is able to emit high-energy X-ray to induce cancer killing as the result of radio ionization effect. By utilizing the combined photothermal therapy and radiotherapy, both of which are delivered by a single agent 131IRGO- PEG, effective elimination of tumors is achieved in our animal tumor model experiments. Toxicology studies further indicate that 131I-RGO-PEG induces no appreciable toxicity to mice at the treatment dose. Our work demonstrates the great promise of combing nuclear medicine and photothermal therapy as a novel therapeutic strategy to realize synergistic efficacy in cancer treatment.

  10. Biologically effective dose in fractionated molecular radiotherapy—application to treatment of neuroblastoma with 131I-mIBG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mínguez, Pablo; Gustafsson, Johan; Flux, Glenn; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the biologically effective dose (BED) is investigated for fractionated molecular radiotherapy (MRT). A formula for the Lea-Catcheside G-factor is derived which takes the possibility of combinations of sub-lethal damage due to radiation from different administrations of activity into account. In contrast to the previous formula, the new G-factor has an explicit dependence on the time interval between administrations. The BED of tumour and liver is analysed in MRT of neuroblastoma with 131I-mIBG, following a common two-administration protocol with a mass-based activity prescription. A BED analysis is also made for modified schedules, when due to local regulations there is a maximum permitted activity for each administration. Modifications include both the simplistic approach of delivering this maximum permitted activity in each of the two administrations, and also the introduction of additional administrations while maintaining the protocol-prescribed total activity. For the cases studied with additional (i.e. more than two) administrations, BED of tumour and liver decreases at most 12% and 29%, respectively. The decrease in BED of the tumour is however modest compared to the two-administration schedule using the maximum permitted activity, where the decrease compared to the original schedule is 47%.

  11. Immunohistochemical analysis of intratumoral heterogeneity of [131I]cG250 antibody uptake in primary renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, M. G.; Oosterwijk, E.; Zegwaart-Hagemeier, N. E.; van't Hof, M. A.; Debruyne, F. M.; Corstens, F. H.; Boerman, O. C.

    1998-01-01

    In previous studies, highly heterogeneous uptake of 131I-labelled chimeric monoclonal antibody G250 ([131I]cG250) in primary renal cell carcinomas has been observed (intratumoral differences > factor 100). In this study, we investigated a possible correlation between intratumoral antibody uptake and four immunohistochemically determined parameters: G250 antigen expression, blood vessel density, neovascularization and percentage of viable tumour cells. Whole tumour slices of four different tumours were cut into 1-cm3 cubes, and in each cube the [131I]cG250 uptake was determined. The correlation between [131I]cG250 uptake and each individual parameter was determined in a multiple regression analysis. Additionally, the data were reanalysed after introducing arbitrary cut-off values for each parameter. If a sample showed expression of a parameter above the introduced threshold value, this sample fulfilled one condition. Subsequently, the Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated from [131I]cG250 uptake and the number of fulfilled conditions (0-3). All tumour samples with high [131I]cG250 uptake [> 0.1% of the injected dose per gram (ID g(-1))] showed high antigen expression (> 50%). However, not all samples with high antigen expression displayed high uptake. A statistically significant correlation between [131I]cG250 uptake and antigen expression was found (beta = 0.44, 0.69 and 0.74) in three out of four tumours analysed. Of the other determined parameters, no consistent correlation with [131I]cG250 uptake was found; only the percentage of viable tumour cells correlated significantly in two out of four tumours (beta = 0.80 and 0.26). Calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficients showed a statistically significant correlation between [131I]cG250 uptake and an increased number of fulfilled conditions in all tumours, indicating that each of the individual parameters contribute to the uptake of [131I]cG250. These observations indicate that high antigen

  12. Red marrow and blood dosimetry in 131I treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma: pre-treatment versus in-therapy results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giostra, A.; Richetta, E.; Pasquino, M.; Miranti, A.; Cutaia, C.; Brusasco, G.; Pellerito, R. E.; Stasi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Treatment with radioiodine is a standard procedure for patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer, but the main approach to the therapy is still empiric, consisting of the administration of fixed activities. A predictive individualized dosimetric study may represent an important tool for physicians to determine the best activity to prescribe. The aim of this work is to compare red marrow and blood absorbed dose values obtained in the pre-treatment (PT) dosimetry phase with those obtained in the in-treatment (IT) dosimetry phase in order to estimate the predictive power of PT trial doses and to determine if they can be used as a decision-making tool to safely administer higher 131I activity to potentially increase the efficacy of treatment. The PT and IT dosimetry for 50 patients has been evaluated using three different dosimetric approaches. In all three approaches blood and red marrow doses, are calculated as the sum of two components, the dose from 131I activity in the blood and the dose from 131I activity located in the remainder of the body (i.e. the blood and whole-body contributions to the total dose). PT and IT dose values to blood and red marrow appear to be well correlated irrespective of the dosimetric approach used. Linear regression analyses of PT and IT total doses, for blood and red marrow, and the whole-body contribution to these doses, showed consistent best fit slope and correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.9 and 0.6, respectively: analyses of the blood dose contribution to the total doses also yielded similar values for the best fit slope but with correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.4 reflecting the greater variance in these dose estimates. These findings suggest that pre-treatment red marrow dose assessments may represent an important tool to personalize metastatic thyroid cancer treatment, removing the constraints of a fixed activity approach and permitting potentially more effective higher 131I activities to be

  13. Red marrow and blood dosimetry in (131)I treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma: pre-treatment versus in-therapy results.

    PubMed

    Giostra, A; Richetta, E; Pasquino, M; Miranti, A; Cutaia, C; Brusasco, G; Pellerito, R E; Stasi, M

    2016-06-07

    Treatment with radioiodine is a standard procedure for patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer, but the main approach to the therapy is still empiric, consisting of the administration of fixed activities. A predictive individualized dosimetric study may represent an important tool for physicians to determine the best activity to prescribe. The aim of this work is to compare red marrow and blood absorbed dose values obtained in the pre-treatment (PT) dosimetry phase with those obtained in the in-treatment (IT) dosimetry phase in order to estimate the predictive power of PT trial doses and to determine if they can be used as a decision-making tool to safely administer higher (131)I activity to potentially increase the efficacy of treatment. The PT and IT dosimetry for 50 patients has been evaluated using three different dosimetric approaches. In all three approaches blood and red marrow doses, are calculated as the sum of two components, the dose from (131)I activity in the blood and the dose from (131)I activity located in the remainder of the body (i.e. the blood and whole-body contributions to the total dose). PT and IT dose values to blood and red marrow appear to be well correlated irrespective of the dosimetric approach used. Linear regression analyses of PT and IT total doses, for blood and red marrow, and the whole-body contribution to these doses, showed consistent best fit slope and correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.9 and 0.6, respectively: analyses of the blood dose contribution to the total doses also yielded similar values for the best fit slope but with correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.4 reflecting the greater variance in these dose estimates. These findings suggest that pre-treatment red marrow dose assessments may represent an important tool to personalize metastatic thyroid cancer treatment, removing the constraints of a fixed activity approach and permitting potentially more effective higher (131)I

  14. The treatment of intraperitoneal malignant disease with monoclonal antibody guided 131I radiotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, B.; Mather, S.; Shepherd, J.; Crowther, M.; Hawkins, L.; Britton, K.; Slevin, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    Seven patients with small volume ovarian carcinoma, remaining after conventional therapy with surgery and a platinum containing chemotherapy regimen, were treated with intraperitoneal monoclonal antibody guided radiotherapy. 100 mCi131I conjugated to 10 mg of monoclonal antibody were injected i.p. in 2,000 ml peritoneal dialysis fluid. Patients were evaluated 3 months later; 3 had clinical progressive disease while third look laparotomy demonstrated progressive disease in 3 of the remaining 4 patients. The seventh patient did not have a third look laparotomy and is currently inevaluable for response. Five patients with recurrent malignant ascites not controlled by diuretics or repeated paracentesis were similarly treated with 75-170 mCi131I conjugated to 10 mg monoclonal antibody. In three patients the ascites was controlled for a mean of 4 months. One patient died too early to assess the control of his ascites but tumour cells disappeared from the ascitic fluid after therapy. In the patient whose ascites were not controlled, a subpopulation of antigen-negative tumour cells was demonstrated. This study was unable to demonstrate a therapeutic benefit for i.p. injected monoclonal antibody guided radiotherapy for solid intraperitoneal tumour but suggests that it may be capable of controlling the accumulation of antigen positive malignant ascites. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3219277

  15. {sup 129}I, {sup 131}I and {sup 127}I in animal thyroids after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    VanMiddleworth, L.; Handle, J.

    1997-10-01

    A small number of animal thyroids from Bad Hall, Austria; Ulm, Germany; and Steinkjer, Norway had {sup 131}I (half-life 8.06 d) measured between 21 and 72 d following the nuclear accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. Nine years later {sup 129}I (half-life 1.57 x 10{sup 7} y) fission product and natural {sup 127}I were measured in the same thyroids. The mass ratios, {sup 129}I/{sup 131}I were calculated to the date of the Chernobyl accident and they ranged between 13 and 71. These ratios are compared to the expected ratios within an operating nuclear reactor during 2 y of operation, where the {sup 129}I/{sup 131}I{sup -1} ratio never exceeded 30. The observed ratio of {sup 129}I to natural {sup 127}I in thyroids ranged from 5 to 200 times the ratio before the accident, except that the Norwegian thyroids had {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios which were less than the ratios of pre-Chernobyl thyroids from Ulm. These studies show the {sup 129}I and {sup 131}I from the Chernobyl accident were accumulated with natural {sup 127}I in animal thyroids but the isotope ratios, calculated to the release date, had wide ranges. The {sup 131}I radioactive exposure might be estimated from a fission product mixture by measuring {sup 129}I in thyroids long after the exposure to {sup 131}I, but the results would probably show a wide range of possibilities. The determining variables should be evaluated. We know of no previous data regarding both {sup 131}I and {sup 129}I in thyroid glands during the first 3 mo after the Chernobyl accident. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Detection and activity of iodine-131 in brown algae collected in the Japanese coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takami; Niwa, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Ken; Kasai, Hiromi; Yamada, Haruya; Nishiutch, Kou; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Godo, Waichiro; Taino, Seiya; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Takeno, Koji; Nishigaki, Tomokazu; Fujiwara, Kunihiro; Aratake, Hisamichi; Kamonoshita, Shingo; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Otosaka, Sigeyoshi; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2010-07-15

    Iodine-131 (physical half-life: 8.04 days) was detected in brown algae collected off the Japanese coast. Brown algae have been extensively used as bioindicators for radioiodine because of their ability to accumulate radionuclides in high concentration factors. The maximum measured specific activity of (131)I in brown algae was 0.37 + or - 0.010 Bq/kg-wet. Cesium-137 was also detected in all brown algal samples used in this study. There was no correlation between specific activities of (131)I and (137)Cs in these seaweeds. The specific activity of (137)Cs ranged from 0.0034 + or - 0.00075 to 0.090 + or - 0.014 Bq/kg-wet. Low specific activity and minimal variability of (137)Cs in brown algae indicated that past nuclear weapon tests were the source of (137)Cs. Although nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are known to be pollution sources of (131)I, there was no relationship between the sites where (131)I was detected and the locations of nuclear power facilities. Most of the sites where (131)I was detected were near big cities with large populations. Iodine-131 is frequently used in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. On the basis of the results, we suggest that the likely pollution source of (131)I, detected in brown seaweeds, is not nuclear power facilities, but nuclear medicine procedures.

  17. Sequential serum thyroglobulin determinations, /sup 131/I scans, and /sup 131/I uptakes after triiodothyronine withdrawal in patients with thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.B.; Line, B.R.; Goldman, J.M.; Robbins, J.

    1981-12-01

    To develop guidelines for the timing and interpretation of thyroglobulin (TG) measurements in patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer, we performed /sup 131/I whole body scans and uptakes with simultaneous serum TG and TSH determinations in 49 patients with this disease. In 15 patients, TG measurements were obtained initially while the patient was receiving T/sub 3/ therapy and then were repeated serially within a period of up to 35 days after T/sub 3/ withdrawal. In 9 patients with functioning thyroid tissue, the changes in TG paralleled the changes in TSH levels. Before stopping T/sub 3/, TG measurements were a poor indicator of function, since 14 of 15 patients had suppressed TG levels (<10 ng/ml). After 2 weeks off T/sub 3/, TG increased in all 5 patients with scan evidence of metastases, in 2 of 4 subjects with residual thyroid bed uptake, and in 2 of 6 patients with no uptake. In 23 patients, both the scan and serum TG measurements were performed 2 and 4 weeks after stopping T/sub 3/. At 4 weeks, compared to 2 weeks, TG levels were nearly the same in 17 (a change of <5 ng/ml and <50%), decreased in 1, and increased in 5 subjects. In 44 patients whose measurements were free of interference from anti-TG, 106 scans and serum TG determinations were performed after stopping thyroid hormone replacement. Scan evidence of metastases was always (22 scans) associated with high serum TG levels (>10 ng/ml), but high serum TG levels did not distinguish metastases from residual thyroid tissue. The serum TG level was greater than 10 ng/ml in 5 of 28 instances (18%) of negative scans, while scans were positive in 14 of 32 instances (44%) where TG levels were less than 2 ng/ml.

  18. Microdosimetric analysis confirms similar biological effectiveness of external exposure to gamma-rays and internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Manabe, Kentaro; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The risk of internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I is of great public concern after the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE, defined herein as effectiveness of internal exposure relative to the external exposure to γ-rays) is occasionally believed to be much greater than unity due to insufficient discussions on the difference of their microdosimetric profiles. We therefore performed a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation in ideally aligned cell systems to calculate the probability densities of absorbed doses in subcellular and intranuclear scales for internal exposures to electrons emitted from 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I, as well as the external exposure to 662 keV photons. The RBE due to the inhomogeneous radioactive isotope (RI) distribution in subcellular structures and the high ionization density around the particle trajectories was then derived from the calculated microdosimetric probability density. The RBE for the bystander effect was also estimated from the probability density, considering its non-linear dose response. The RBE due to the high ionization density and that for the bystander effect were very close to 1, because the microdosimetric probability densities were nearly identical between the internal exposures and the external exposure from the 662 keV photons. On the other hand, the RBE due to the RI inhomogeneity largely depended on the intranuclear RI concentration and cell size, but their maximum possible RBE was only 1.04 even under conservative assumptions. Thus, it can be concluded from the microdosimetric viewpoint that the risk from internal exposures to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I should be nearly equivalent to that of external exposure to γ-rays at the same absorbed dose level, as suggested in the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  19. Comparison of Radiation Dose Estimation for Myeloablative Radioimmunotherapy for Relapsed or Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma using 131I Tositumomab to that of Other Types of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, Joseph G.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Durack, Larry; Fisher, Darrell R.; Press, Oliver W.; Eary, Janet F.

    2004-12-01

    Patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) demonstrate poor survival after standard treatment. Myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I tositumomab (anti-CD20) has the ability to deliver specific radiation absorbed dose to antigen bearing tumor. We reviewed normal organ radiation absorbed doses in MCL patients. METHODS: Records of patients with MCL (n = 25), who received myeloablative RIT between January 1996 and December 2003 were reviewed. Individual patient radiation dosimetry was performed on all patients after a trace labeled infusion of 131I tositumomab (mean = 348 MBq), to calculate the required amount of radioactivity for therapy, based on MIRD schema. RESULTS: Mean organ residence times (hr) corrected for CT derived organ volumes for MCL, were as follows: Lungs:9.0; Liver:12.4; Kidneys:1.7; Spleen:2.17; Whole Body:62.4 and mean radiation absorbed doses mGy/Mbq were: Lungs:1.2; Liver:1.1; Kidneys:0.85; Spleen:1.7; Whole Body: 0.21. This is similar to patients with other NHL. Patients received a mean activity of 21 GBq of 131I (range = 11.5 - 41.4) for therapy estimated to deliver 25 Gy to the normal organ receiving the highest radiation absorbed dose. CONCLUSION: Myeloablative RIT using 131I tositumomab results in normal organ radiation absorbed doses similar to those in patients with other non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and is suitable for treating patients with relapsed or refractory MCL.

  20. Arsenic trioxide as a radiation sensitizer for 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy: Results of a phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Shakeel; Zanzonico, Pat; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Kushner, Brian H.; Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Larson, Steven M.; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide has in vitro and in vivo radiosensitizing properties. We hypothesized that Arsenic trioxide would enhance the efficacy of the targeted radiotherapeutic agent 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG), and tested the combination in a phase II clinical trial. Methods Patients with recurrent or refractory stage 4 neuroblastoma or metastatic paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma (MP) were treated on an institutional review board-approved protocol (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00107289). Planned treatment was 131I-MIBG (444 or 666MBq/kg) intravenously on day 1 plus arsenic trioxide (0.15 or 0.25mg/m2) intravenously on days 6–10 and 13–17. Toxicity was evaluated using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 3.0. Response was assessed by International NB response criteria or (for MP) by changes in 123I-MIBG or PET scans. Results Twenty-one patients were treated: 19 with neuroblastoma and 2 with MP. Fourteen patients received 131I-MIBG and AT both at maximal dosages, 2 patients received a 444MBq/kg dose of 131I-MIBG plus a 0.15mg/kg/dose dose of arsenic trioxide; and 3 patients received a 666MBq/kg dose of 131I-MIBG plus a 0.15mg/kg/dose dose of arsenic trioxide. One did not receive arsenic trioxide because of transient central line-induced cardiac arrhythmia and another received only 6 of 10 planned doses of arsenic trioxide because of grade 3 diarrhea and vomiting with concurrent grade 3 hypokalemia and hyponatremia. Nineteen patients experienced myelosuppression higher than grade 2, most frequently, thrombocytopenia (n=18), though none required autologous stem cell rescue. 12 of 13 evaluable patients experienced hyperamylasemia higher than grade 2 from transient sialoadenitis. By International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria, 12 NB patients had no response and 7 had progressive disease, including 6 of 8 entering the study with progressive disease. Objective improvements in semiquantitative 131I-MIBG scores were observed in 6 patients

  1. Estimation of effective half life of clearance of radioactive Iodine (131I) in patients treated for hyperthyroidism and carcinoma thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, JP; Saadi, Amal Al

    2010-01-01

    Background In medical applications of radioisotopes, for calculations of whole body doses and radiation safety applications, there is a need to estimate radioactive body burden. Local recommendations in Oman stipulate the need for hospitalization of patients treated for radioactive-iodine (131 I) with activities above 400 MBq. Materials & Methods: A study of body burden estimation from sequentially measured exposure rates from patients treated for carcinoma thyroid and hyperthyroidism was undertaken. A digital auto-ranging beta gamma survey instrument calibrated for measurement of exposure rates is used in this study. Results: The mean measured exposure rates at 1 m in μSv/h immediately after administration and at 24 h intervals are used for estimation of effective half time of clearance of administered activity. For patients with post-operative thyroid carcinoma, the variation of body burden with time post-administration indicated tri-exponential clearance pattern, with T½eff values 14.4 h, 22 h, and 41.3 h. For patients treated for thyrotoxicosis, the body burden showed slow delayed clearance with a T½eff – 111.4 h, and exposure rates did not show appreciable fall off after 48 h. PMID:21188063

  2. Gonadal effect of radiation from 131I in male patients with thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Krassas, G E; Pontikides, N

    2005-01-01

    The role of iodine-131 therapy in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma is well established. Because the spermatogonia are very sensitive to radiation, there is concern that large doses of the latter could result in azoospermia and permanent infertility. For patients treated with a single ablation dose, testicular function recovers within months and the risk of infertility is diminished. Gonadal damage may be cumulative in those requiring multiple administrations. In all young male patients, but especially in those with metastatic or pelvic disease or both, the long-term storage of semen should be addressed prior to therapy. Sperm banking should be considered in patients likely to be given cumulative doses greater than 14 GBq of 131I. However, the patient's threshold for sperm banking might be even lower than that.

  3. Treatment of neuroblastoma with /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine: the experience of an Italian Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Bestagno, M.; Guerra, P.; Puricelli, G.P.; Colombo, L.; Calculli, G.

    1987-01-01

    Eight patients affected by neuroblastoma were treated with 18 courses of /sup 131/I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). They all had been judged as nonresponders to conventional treatments. Six had stage IV disease: of these, five, with massive marrow involvement, had poor results, mainly because of marrow depression; one, whose marrow had been previously purged by chemotherapy, showed a decrease in blood cell counts but not to critical levels, thus allowing repeated treatments and some improvement. Two other cases had stage III disease, without marrow involvement. Both could receive repeated treatments without adverse effects on marrow and circulating blood cells; both could have surgical procedures when a significant neoplastic mass reduction had been induced by MIBG treatments. Almost all patients experienced reduction or disappearing of pain. Treatments were well tolerated.

  4. Imaging the primate adrenal medulla with (/sup 123/I) and (/sup 131/I) metaiodobenzylguanidine: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wieland, D.M.; Brown, L.E.; Tobes, M.C.; Rogers, W.L.; Marsh, D.D.; Mangner, T.J.; Swanson, D.P.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1981-04-01

    An evaluation of radioiodinated meta-iodobenzylguanidine (m-IBG) as an adrenomedullary imaging agent is reported in 15 rhesus monkeys. Scintiscans of the monkey adrenal medulla have been obtained with (/sup 123/I)- and (m-/sup 131/)IBG at 2 to 6 days after injection. The imaging superiority of m-IBG over its positional isomer, para-iodobenzylguanidine (p-IBG), is documented in both dogs and monkeys. Administration of reserpine, a depletor of catecholamine stores, markedly lowers the (m-/sup 131/I)-IBG content of the dog adrenal medulla, but the adrenergic blocking agents phenoxybenzamine and propanolol have no effect. Subcellular fractionation of the dog's adrenal medullae reveals that m-IBG is sequestered mainly in the chromaffin storage granules. The results of this study suggest that radioiodinated m-IBG, previously reported to image the primate myocardium, also merits evaluation as a clinical radiopharmaceutical for the adrenal medulla.

  5. Salivary gland accumulation of meta-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajo, M.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.; Swanson, D.P.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    Intense uptake of m-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been observed in the salivary glands of patients undergoing scintigraphy for the location of suspected pheochromocytomas. This uptake of radioativity was not due to free I-131 derived from the I-131 MIBG but rather to uptake of I-131 MIBG by sympathetic neuronal elements in the salivary glands. In keeping with this, administration of tricycle antidepressants reversibly blocked salivary uptake of I-131 MIBG. Furthermore, I-131 MIBG uptake was markedly diminished by the ipsilateral salivary glands in a patient with Horner's syndrome, and was bilaterally diminished in a patient with severe idiopathic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The salivary gland uptake of I-131 MIBG may provide a means for the study of sympathetic innervation of these organs, and thus for the study of generalized disorders of autonomic innervation.

  6. High-Dose 131I-Tositumomab (Anti-CD20) Radioimmunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Adjusting Radiation Absorbed Dose to Actual Organ Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gopal, A K.; Durack, L. D.; Press, O. W.; Eary, Janet F.

    2004-06-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab has been used successfully to treat relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgin's lymphoma (NHL). Our approach to treatment planning has been to determine limits on radiation absorbed close to critical nonhematopoietic organs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using CT to adjust for actual organ volumes in calculating organ-specific absorbed dose estimates. Methods: Records of 84 patients who underwent biodistribution studies after a trace-labeled infusion of 131I-tositumomab for RIT (January 1990 and April 2003) were reviewed. Serial planar -camera images and whole-body Nal probe counts were obtained to estimate 131I-antibody source-organ residence times as recommended by the MIRD Committee. The source-organ residence times for standard man or woman were adjusted by the ratio of the MIRD phantom organ mass to the CT-derived organ mass. Results: The mean radiation absorbed doses (in mGy/MBq) for our data using the MIRD model were lungs= 1.67; liver= 1.03; kidneys= 1.08; spleen= 2.67; and whole body= 0.3; and for CT volume-adjusted organ volumes (in mGy/MBq) were lungs= 1.30; liver= 0.92; kidneys= 0.76; spleen= 1.40; and whole body= 0.22. We determined the following correlation coefficients between the 2 methods for the various organs; lungs, 0.49; (P= 0.0001); liver, 0.64 (P= 0.004); kidneys, 0.45 (P= 0.0001), for the residence times. For therapy, patients received mean 131I administered activities of 19.2 GBq (520 mCi) after adjustment for CT-derived organ mass compared with 16.0 GBq (433 mCi) that would otherwise have been given had therapy been based only using standard MIRD organ volumes--a statistically significant difference (P= 0.0001). Conclusion: We observed large variations in organ masses among our patients. Our treatments were planned to deliver the maximally tolerated radiation dose to the dose-limiting normal organ. This work provides a simplified method for calculating patient-specific radiation

  7. Counting efficiency of whole-body monitoring system using BOMAB and ANSI/IAEA thyroid phantom due to internal contamination of 131I.

    PubMed

    Ghare, V P; Patni, H K; Akar, D K; Rao, D D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of Indian reference BOttle MAnnikin aBsorber (BOMAB) neck with axial cavity and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) thyroid phantom using pencil sources of (133)Ba ((131)I simulant) on counting efficiency (CE) is seen experimentally in static geometry for whole-body monitoring system comprising 10.16-cm diameter and 7.62-cm-thick NaI(Tl) detector. The CE estimated using the neck part of BOMAB phantom is 50.2% lower in comparison with ANSI phantom. In rest of the studies FLUKA code is used for Monte Carlo simulations using ANSI/IAEA thyroid phantom. The simulation results are validated in static geometries with experimental CE and the differences are within 1.3%. It is observed that CE for pencil source distribution is 3.97% higher for (133)Ba in comparison with CE of (131)I source. Simulated CE for pencil source distribution is 4.7% lower in comparison with uniform source distribution in the volume of thyroid for (131)I. Since the radiation workers are of different physique; overlying tissue thickness (OTT) and neck-to-detector distance play an important role in the calculation of activity in thyroid. The CE decreases with increase in OTT and is found to be 5.5% lower if OTT is changed from 1.1 to 2 cm. Finally, the simulations are carried out to estimate the variation in CE due to variation in the neck-to-detector distance. The CE is 6.2% higher if the neck surface-to-detector distance is decreased from 21.4 to 20.4 cm and it goes on increasing up to 61.9% if the distance is decreased to 15.4 cm. In conclusion, the calibration of whole-body monitoring system for (131)I should be carried out with ANSI/IAEA thyroid phantom, the neck-to-detector distance controlled or the CE corrected for this, and the CE should be corrected for OTT.

  8. Recovery of 131I from alkaline solution of n-irradiated tellurium target using a tiny Dowex-1 column.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Saha Das, Sujata

    2010-10-01

    A simple and inexpensive ion-exchange chromatography method for the separation of medically useful no-carrier-added (nca) iodine radionuclides from bulk amounts of irradiated tellurium dioxide (TeO(2)) target was developed and tested using (131)I. The radiochemical separation was performed using a very small Dowex-1x8 ion-exchange column. The overall radiochemical yield for the complete separation of (131)I was 92+/-1.8 (standard deviation) % (n=8). The separated nca (131)I was of high, approximately 99%, radionuclidic and radiochemical purity and did not contain detectable amounts of the target material. This method may be adopted for the radiochemical separation of other different iodine radionuclides produced from tellurium matrices through cyclotron as well as reactor irradiation.

  9. Accumulation and tissue distribution of radioiodine ( sup 131 I) from algal phytoplankton by the freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis

    SciTech Connect

    Cuvin-Aralar, Ma.L.A. ); Umaly, R.C. )

    1991-12-01

    Radioactive wastes discharged from establishments involved in the use of radioisotopes such as nuclear-powered industries, tracer research and nuclear medicine are a potential public health hazard. Such wastes contain radionuclides, particularly Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I), produced in fission with a yield of about 3%. Radionuclides in waste waters are known to be taken up by molluscs such as mussels, oysters, and clams. This study aims to determine the uptake of {sup 131}I from algal phytoplankton (Chroococcus dispersus) fed to the freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis as well as the organ/tissue distribution. The results will be compared with a previous study on {sup 131}I uptake from water by the same clams.

  10. Age-dependent potassium iodide effect on the thyroid irradiation by 131I and 133I in the nuclear emergency.

    PubMed

    Jang, M; Kim, H K; Choi, C W; Kang, C S

    2008-01-01

    The initial near-field exposure is primarily through inhalation in a nuclear emergency and the dominant contribution to the effective inhalation dose comes from radioiodine. Thyroid blockade by oral potassium iodide (KI) is efficient and practical for public in the nuclear emergency. Age-dependent radioprotective effect of KI on the thyroid irradiation by (131)I and (133)I has been derived using the simplified compartment model of iodine metabolism and WinSAAM program. Administration of KI within 2 h after (131)I and (133)I intake can block thyroid uptake significantly, yielding protective effect of 78.9% and 74.3%, respectively, for (131)I and (133)I for adults. The mean absorbed doses decrease with age, while protective effects of KI are similar for all age groups.

  11. Tumor-Absorbed Dose Predicts Progression-Free Survival Following 131I-Tositumomab Radioimmunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Schipper, Matthew J.; Shen, Jincheng; Smith, Lauren B.; Murgic, Jure; Savas, Hatice; Youssef, Ehab; Regan, Denise; Wilderman, Scott J.; Roberson, Peter L.; Kaminski, Mark S.; Avram, Anca M.

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying patient-specific dosimetric and nondosimetric factors predicting outcome of non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients after 131I-tositumomab radioimmunotherapy for potential use in treatment planning. Methods Tumor-absorbed dose measures were estimated for 130 tumors in 39 relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients by coupling SPECT/CT imaging with the Dose Planning Method (DPM) Monte Carlo code. Equivalent biologic effect was calculated to assess the biologic effects of nonuniform absorbed dose including the effects of the unlabeled antibody. Evaluated nondosimetric covariates included histology, presence of bulky disease, and prior treatment history. Tumor level outcome was based on volume shrinkage assessed on follow-up CT. Patient level outcome measures were overall response (OR), complete response (CR), and progression-free survival (PFS), determined from clinical assessments that included PET/CT. Results The estimated mean tumor-absorbed dose had a median value of 275 cGy (range, 94–711 cGy). A high correlation was observed between tracer-predicted and therapy-delivered mean tumor-absorbed doses (P < 0.001; r = 0.85). In univariate tumor-level analysis, tumor shrinkage correlated significantly with almost all of the evaluated dosimetric factors, including equivalent biologic effect. Regression analysis showed that OR, CR, and PFS were associated with the dosimetric factors and equivalent biologic effect. Both mean tumor-absorbed dose (P = 0.025) and equivalent biologic effect (P = 0.035) were significant predictors of PFS whereas none of the nondosimetric covariates were found to be statistically significant factors affecting PFS. The most important finding of the study was that in Kaplan–Meier curves stratified by mean dose, longer PFS was observed in patients receiving mean tumor-absorbed doses greater than 200 cGy than in those receiving 200 cGy or less (median PFS, 13.6 vs. 1.9 mo for the 2 dose groups; log-rank P < 0

  12. Critical analysis of (/sup 131/I)- and (/sup 125/I)human thyroglobulin labels for radioimmunoassay use

    SciTech Connect

    Schlumberger, M.; Van Herle, A.J.

    1982-03-01

    (/sup 125/I)- and (/sup 131/I)thyroglobin (Tg) tracer obtained by two different oxidation methods, chloramine-T (ChlT) and lactoperoxidase (LP-ase), were analyzed to assess their suitability in the development of a RIA. Pairs of tracers which were prepared on a single day using these methods with a single source of /sup 131/I and /sup 125/I were compared. The following conclusions were reached. (1) Both /sup 131/I and /sup 125/I isotopes, using Chl-T or LP-ase as oxidants, produce suitable tracers. (2) (/sup 131/I)Tg can be used repeatedly for 2 weeks without repurification. (3) (/sup 125/I)Tg, in contrast, has to be rechromatographed weekly on sephadex G-200 to maintain assay sensitivity and adequate maximal binding. (4) Under these conditions, 2- or 9-day tracers with either isotope using Chl-T or LP-ase give similar Tg determinations in the serum. (5) The LP-ase-chromatographed /sup 125/I tracer seems to lead to higher maximal binding in the assay than the Chl-T-repurified tracer.

  13. Long-term follow-up study of compensated low-dose /sup 131/I therapy for Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sridama, V.; McCormick, M.; Kaplan, E.L.; Fauchet, R.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1984-08-16

    We treated 187 patients who had Graves' disease with low-dose radioactive iodide (/sup 131/I), using a protocol that included a compensation for thyroid size. The incidence of early hypothyroidism (12 per cent) was acceptably low in the first year after /sup 131/I treatment, but we found a cumulative high incidence (up to 76 per cent) at the end of the 11th year. In contrast, the incidence of permanent hypothyroidism was relatively stable in 166 surgically treated patients, increasing from 19 to 27 per cent at the end of 11 years. Among 122 medically treated patients, only 40 per cent entered remission, and hypothyroidism developed in 2 per cent during the same period of follow-up. The long-term incidence of hypothyroidism in our patients treated with low-dose /sup 131/I therapy was much higher than that found in earlier studies using a comparable dose. Our study suggests that it will be difficult to modify therapy with /sup 131/I alone to produce both early control of thyrotoxicosis and a low incidence of hypothyroidism.

  14. Development of a kinetic model and calculation of radiation dose estimates for sodium iodide-{sup 131}I in athyroid individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M.

    1997-07-01

    The treatment for some thyroid carcinomas involves surgically removing the thyroid gland and administering the radiopharmaceutical Sodium iodide-{sup 131}I (NaI). A diagnostic dose of NaI is given to the patient to determine if remnant tissue from the gland remains or larger doses are administered in order to treat the malignant tissue. Past research regarding NaI uptake and retention in euthyroid individuals (normal functioning thyroid) reveal that radioiodine concentrates mainly in the thyroid tissue and the remaining material is excreted from the body. The majority of radioiodine in athyroid (without thyroid) individuals is also eliminated from the body; however, there has been recent evidence of a long-term retention phase for individuals with no radioiodine concentrating tissue. The general purpose of this study was to develop a kinetic model and estimate the absorbed dose to athyroid individuals regarding the distribution and retention of NaI.

  15. Radiation safety protocol for high dose 131I therapy of thyroid carcinoma in patients on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Modarresifar, Homayoun; Almodovar, Samuel; Bass, William B; Ojha, Buddhiwardhan

    2007-02-01

    Iodine ablation therapy for thyroid cancer on patients receiving dialysis poses unique radiation safety challenges. Exposure to gamma and beta negative particles by the hemodialysis (HD) staff is a concern that has not been well studied. A 53-y-old male patient on HD for chronic renal failure was scheduled for 131I high dose therapy as treatment for thyroid papillary carcinoma. The patient was on HD every other day, prior to ablation. A high dose of 131I (3,607.5 MBq) was required. The patient was admitted for 131I therapy, and continued HD. Thyroid cancer ablation therapy was administered according to our institutional protocol. New radiation safety measures were developed and implemented in order to give the patient an optimal treatment dose, reduce radiation to the patient (critical organs and whole body), and to protect the HD personnel. This included placing two lead shields between the patient and the HD nurse, and HD monitoring by two alternating nurses to reduce their radiation exposure. Film badges were used to measure radiation exposure to the nursing staff. Dosimetry calculations were obtained to determine radiation absorbed doses by the optic lens, skin, and whole body. Quality control verification for this shielding arrangement proved to be effective in protecting the HD staff against gamma and beta negative radiation from recent 131I high dose therapy. Implementation of this model proved to be an effective and adequate radiation safety protocol for limiting radiation exposure to the HD staff. The patient was given 3607.5 MBq for optimal treatment after HD. Hemodialysis was repeated after approximately 48 and 96 h to remove excess 131I and reduce radiation to the patient.

  16. Tissue to plasma capillary permeability of sup 131 I-albumin in the perfused rabbit ear

    SciTech Connect

    Bent-Hansen, L.; Svendsen, J.H. )

    1991-03-01

    The tissue to plasma transfer of {sup 131}I-albumin was recorded in perfused rabbit ears (n = 6) following equilibration for 24 hr. 125I-fibrinogen served as the plasma marker, and was introduced intravenously 15 min before clamping. The ears were rollerpump perfused with isotonic diluted plasma at a constant rate of (mean {plus minus} SD) 5.1 {plus minus} 1.5 ml (min.100 g)-1. The mean extravascular albumin distribution volume was 12.4 {plus minus} 1.1 ml.100 g-1, and the fibrinogen volume (plasma volume in tissue) was 3.1 {plus minus} 0.4 ml.100 g-1 as determined from biopsies of the contralateral ear. The initial transfer of albumin was marked, and occurred at rates corresponding to a unidirectional clearance (Cl(0)) of 0.068 {plus minus} 0.012 ml (min.100 g)-1. However, with a reduction of mean interstitial albumin tracer content of no more than 4%, net transport decreased to reach slowly declining levels 5 to 10 times lower within 10 min of continued perfusion. The decrease was considered due to rapid exhaustion of a small interstitial pool of tracer immediately adjacent to the exchange vessel membrane, followed by an increasingly retarded outwash from more distant areas. The results suggest a bimodal structural resistance to albumin movement: a relatively low resistance in the capillary membrane, and a considerable restriction to albumin transport located within the interstitial space.

  17. Clinical experiences in the treatment of neuroblastoma with sup 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Treuner, J.; Klingebiel, T.; Feine, U.; Buck, J.; Bruchelt, G.; Dopfer, R.; Girgert, R.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.M.; Meinke, J.; Kaiser, W. )

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of neuroblastoma is an unsolved problem of pediatric oncology. In spite of highly intensified chemotherapy, the long-term survival rate of children with a metastatic neuroblastoma is below 10%. We therefore used {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for the first time to treat children with a neuroblastoma in relapse or primary unresponsiveness to chemotherapy. We had previously demonstrated that MIBG is useful for the scintigraphic imaging of neuroblastoma lesions and had investigated the cytotoxicity and uptake of MIBG in various neuroblastoma cell lines. We treated 6 children with neuroblastoma in a total of 19 courses. Three of the children suffered from a relapse of neuroblastoma; 3 had never gained a remission. Four of the 6 children lost their bone pain and fever during the first 3 days. In 5 of the 6 children the solid tumor as well as the bone marrow infiltration responded to MIBG treatment, with responses ranging from transitory decrease of the tumor mass to complete disappearance of abdominal tumors. We also witnessed a stabilization of osteolytic lesions, a decrease in elevated serum catecholamines, and a decrease in bone marrow infiltration. Five of the 6 children died of tumor progression 55-249 days after the first MIBG treatment.

  18. An Excel-Based System for Managing the Radiation Safety of the (131)I Therapy Patient's Family, and Others.

    PubMed

    Steward, Palmer G

    2017-03-09

    Excel workbooks are developed that assist the radiation safety counseling of (131)I therapy patients and their families. Use of the workbooks provides individualized guidelines for meeting selected dose limits that avoid overly conservative restrictions to family members and others. Methods: The mathematical model includes biphasic patient radionuclide retention. The extra-thyroidal component is a cylindrical volume with a diameter corresponding to the patient's size and includes patient self-absorption, while the thyroidal component is a point source whose transmission is reduced by self-absorption. A separate model in which the thyroid, extra-thyroid, and bladder compartments feed serially from one to the next is developed in order to depict the radionuclide levels within the patient and to estimate the activity entering the environment at each urination. Results: The system is organized into a set of 4 workbooks: the first to be used with ablation patients prepared using thyrogen, the second with ablation patients prepared by deprivation, the third with hyperthyroid patients, and the fourth is used with the unusual hyperthyroid patient who finds the restrictions to be oppressive and returns 5 to 10 days post-administration for a measurement and reassessment. The workbooks evaluate the radiation field strength external to the patient and indicate restrictions based upon selected dose limits. To assist in suggesting contamination precautions, the workbooks also evaluate the radioactivity present within the patient and the estimated discharge into the environment as a function of time. Conclusion: The workbooks, a user's manual, and a document detailing the mathematics involved are available free of charge by email request sent to the author.

  19. Initial plasma disappearance and tissue uptake of 131I-albumin in normal rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Bent-Hansen, L. )

    1991-05-01

    The simultaneous plasma disappearance curves of 131I-albumin and 125I-fibrinogen were recorded in normal rabbits for 1 hr. Using fibrinogen as a plasma reference, the disappearance curves of albumin were shown to contain two separate phases of efflux: one fast from zero to 10 min. comprising 8% of the total tracer; and one slow appearing in the interval of 10 to 60 min. containing another 9% of the tracer. Total albumin escape was analyzed to yield an initial slope of 0.024 {plus minus} 0.004 min-1, corresponding to a wholebody unidirectional albumin clearance (Cl(0)) of 0.090 {plus minus} 0.009 ml(min{asterisk}100 g)-1. The distribution of efflux was assessed by biopsy uptakes using the same tracers in spleen, kidney, heart, lung, liver, intestine, skin, muscle, and brain. The disappearance curve generally reflects a biphasic pattern of uptake in peripheral tissue, predominantly by muscle and lung. The rapid phase has contributions from the fast near equilibration of liver, and intestine and skin are significant codeterminants of the slow phase. Due to their low body masses highly perfused organs such as kidney, spleen, and heart have little influence on the plasma disappearance. In accordance, the Cl(0) determined for the wholebody was higher than initial clearances found in skin (0.053 ml(min{asterisk}100 g)-1) and muscle (0.054 ml(min{asterisk}100 g)-1), but much lower than those found in the highly perfused organs. The initial (unidirectional) rates of peripheral albumin transfer demonstrated, ranged from 10 to 30 times higher than estimates of lymphatic return, suggesting that transcapillary albumin exchange is mediated by high-rate bidirectional diffusion. The rapid decrease of net albumin exchange rates suggests a second, highly significant barrier located within the interstitial matrix, which restricts plasma escape and reduces plasma to lymph albumin transport.

  20. Nothing but NET: A review of norepinephrine transporter expression and efficacy of 131I-mIBG therapy

    PubMed Central

    Streby, Keri A; Shah, Nilay; Ranalli, Mark A; Kunkler, Anne; Cripe, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is unique amongst common pediatric cancers for its expression of the norepinephrine transporter (NET), enabling tumor-selective imaging and therapy with radioactive analogues of norepinephrine. The majority of neuroblastoma tumors are avid for 123I-metaiodobenzaguanidine (mIBG) on imaging, yet the therapeutic response to 131I-mIBG is only 30% in clinical trials, and off-target effects cause short- and long-term morbidity. We review the contemporary understanding of the tumor-selective uptake, retention, and efflux of meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) and strategies currently in development for improving its efficacy. Combination treatment strategies aimed at enhancing NET are likely necessary to reach the full potential of 131I-mIBG therapy. PMID:25175627

  1. The feasibility of using {sup 129}I to reconstruct {sup 131}I desposition from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Marchetti, A.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-11-01

    Radioiodine released to the atmosphere from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the spring of 1986 resulted in large-scale thyroid-gland exposure of populations in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. Because of the short half life of {sup 131}I (8.04 d), adequate data on the intensities and patterns of iodine deposition were not collected, especially in the regions where the incidence of childhood-thyroid cancer is now increasing. Results are presented from a feasibility study that show that accelerator-mass-spectrometry measurements of {sup 129}I (half life 16 {times} 10{sup 6}y) in soil can be used to reconstruct {sup 131}I-deposition density and thus help in the thyroid-dosimetry effort that is now urgently needed to support epidemiologic studies of childhood-thyroid cancer in the affected regions. 32refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Factors affecting the relationship between the red marrow dose and myelotoxicity in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy with {sup 131}I-labeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Juweid, M.; Behr, T.M.; Sharkey, R.M.

    1996-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between the red marrow dose (RMD) and myelotoxicity in patients with CEA-producing tumors who received radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) with {sup 131}I-NP-4 and MN-14 anti-CEA MAbs. Eligibility criteria included no chemotherapy in the last 4 weeks prior to RAIT, no X-irradiation (XT) to >25% of marrow, WBC >3,000, platelets > 100,000, and Hg > 10.0. The RMD was estimated based on blood by assuming a red marrow-to-blood activity concentration ratio of 1.0. Myelotoxicity was evaluated based on standard RTOG criteria. Leukopenia or thrombocytopenia {ge} grade 3 was considered dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). A total of 109 eligible patients were assessed for myelotoxicity. Overall, reversible DLT occurred in 0/14 (0%), 1/25 (4%), 4/26 (15%), 6/25 (24%), 5/9 (55%), 3/6 (50%), and 3/4 (75%) patients receiving a mean RMD of 75, 150, 250, 350, 450, 550, and 650 cGy, respectively. Patients were further stratified into those who had chemotherapy (CHT) in the last 1-6 months prior to RAIT, and/or had XT or tumor metastases to 11-25% of their marrow (group 1), and those who had no CHT in the last 6 months and/or XT or metastases to {ge} 10% of the marrow (group 2). At 250, 350, 450, and 550 cGy, the incidence of DLT in group 1 was 4/17 (23%), 5/11 (45%), 4/4 (100%), and 3/3 (100%), respectively, compared to 0/9 (0%), 1/14 (7%), 1/5 (20%), and 0/3 (0%) in group 2. In conclusion, these data indicate that recent CHT, XT, and marrow metastases are important factors determining myelotoxicity after RAIT. Further, the relatively low incidence of myelotoxicity in group 2 (1/8, 12/5%) DLT at a RMD of 450-550cGy suggests that these patients may be able to tolerate an almost 2-fold higher dose than those in group 1. Although further refinement in identifying risk-factors for myelotoxicity are necessary, these results provide important insights for future planning of phase II trials.

  3. Potassium iodate and its comparison to potassium iodide as a blocker of 131I uptake by the thyroid in rats.

    PubMed

    Pahuja, D N; Rajan, M G; Borkar, A V; Samuel, A M

    1993-11-01

    Potassium iodide is the preferred thyroid blocker for personnel handling radioiodine and is recommended as a prophylaxis for the population in the near-field of a nuclear reactor which would be likely to be exposed to radioiodine in an accidental breach of containment. However, in hot and humid climates, this hygroscopic chemical has a poor shelf life due to hydrolytic loss of iodine vapors. On the other hand, another iodine-rich salt, potassium iodate (KIO3), is quite stable and has a much longer shelf life. The present study compares potassium iodide and KIO3 as thyroid blockers and examines the appropriate time at which they should be administered in case of radioiodine exposure. Either of the two were given in recommended dosage (100 mg stable iodine per 70 kg body weight) at -2, 0, +2, +4, +6, and +8 h after administration of tracer quantities of radioiodine (131I) to age-, weight-, and sex-matched rats. 131I uptake in thyroid was measured 24 h after its administration in the experimental animals and compared with placebo administered controls. Results suggest that KIO3 is as effective a thyroid blocking agent as potassium iodide. In comparison to controls, 24-h thyroid uptake of 131I can be substantially reduced if potassium iodide or KIO3 is given to the animals within 2-4 h after exposure to 131I. Another noteworthy observation is that KIO3 is effective even at 8 h when administered at twice the usual dosage in comparison to the single dose, which does not show appreciable thyroid blocking properties after 8 h.

  4. Interception of the Fukushima reactor accident-derived 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I by coniferous forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Gomi, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the surrounding forests. In this study, we analyzed fallout 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I in rainwater, throughfall, and stemflow in coniferous forest plantations immediately after the accident. We show selective fractionation of the deposited radionuclides by the forest canopy and contrasting transfer of radiocesium and 131I from the canopy to the forest floor in association with precipitation. More than 60% of the total deposited radiocesium remained in the canopy after 5 month of the initial fallout, while marked penetration of the initially deposited 131I through the canopy was observed. The half-lives of 137Cs absorbed in the cypress and cedar canopies were calculated as 620 days and 890 days, respectively for the period of 0-160 days. The transfer of the deposited radiocesium from the canopy to the forest floor was slow compared with that of the spruce forest affected by fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

  5. Evaluation of potassium iodide (KI) and ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) to ameliorate 131I- exposure in the rat.

    PubMed

    Harris, C A; Fisher, J W; Rollor, E A; Ferguson, D C; Blount, B C; Valentin-Blasini, L; Taylor, M A; Dallas, C E

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear reactor accidents and the threat of nuclear terrorism have heightened the concern for adverse health risks associated with radiation poisoning. Potassium iodide (KI) is the only pharmaceutical intervention that is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating (131)I(-) exposure, a common radioactive fission product. Though effective, KI administration needs to occur prior to or as soon as possible (within a few hours) after radioactive exposure to maximize the radioprotective benefits of KI. During the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, KI was not administered soon enough after radiation poisoning occurred to thousands of people. The delay in administration of KI resulted in an increased incidence of childhood thyroid cancer. Perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) was suggested as another pharmaceutical radioprotectant for 131I- poisoning because of its ability to block thyroidal uptake of iodide and discharge free iodide from the thyroid gland. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of KI and ammonium perchlorate to reduce thyroid gland exposure to radioactive iodide (131I-). Rats were dosed with 131I- tracer and 0.5 and 3 h later dosed orally with 30 mg/kg of either ammonium perchlorate or KI. Compared to controls, both anion treatments reduced thyroid gland exposure to 131I- equally, with a reduction ranging from 65 to 77%. Ammonium perchlorate was more effective than stable iodide for whole-body radioprotectant effectiveness. KI-treated animals excreted only 30% of the (131)I(-) in urine after 15 h, compared to 47% in ammonium perchlorate-treated rats. Taken together, data suggest that KI and ammonium perchlorate are both able to reduce thyroid gland exposure to 131I- up to 3 h after exposure to 131I-. Ammonium perchlorate may offer an advantage over KI because of its ability to clear 131I- from the body.

  6. Decontamination Efficiencies of Pot-Type Water Purifiers for 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs in Rainwater Contaminated during Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Rainwater was contaminated by a large release of radionuclides into the environment during the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. It became a matter of concern for Japan when several water purification plants detected 131I contamination in the drinking water. In the present study, the decontamination efficiency of two easily obtainable commercial water purifiers were examined for rainwater contaminated with 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. The water purifiers removed 94.2–97.8% of the 131I and 84.2–91.5% of the 134Cs and 137Cs after one filtration. Seven filtrations removed 98.2–99.6% of the 131I and over 98.0% of the 134Cs and 137Cs. From a practical perspective, over the fourth filtrations were not needed because of no significant improvements after the third filtration. PMID:22615935

  7. Relationship of serum lipids to adrenal-gland uptake of 6. beta. -(/sup 131/I) iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol in Cushing's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Valk, T.W.; Gross, M.D.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.P.; Schteingart, D.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1980-11-01

    An alteration in serum cholesterol levels has been suggested as a possible modifier of adrenal uptake of the cholesterol analog, 6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59). To assess the effect of hypercholesterolemia upon NP-59 adrenal uptake, patients with Cushing's syndrome (eight with pituitary-dependent, four with ACTH-independent, and two with ectopic-ACTH syndrome) were selected for retrospective analysis based on the availability of serum cholesterol (n = 14) and triglyceride (n = 10) concentrations obtained at the time of adrenal scintigraphy. A negative correlation (r = -0.78, p < 0.01) was found between NP-59 uptake and serum cholesterol levels in patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease. Compared with pituitary-dependent disease, the ectopic-ACTH syndrome and ACTH-independent states demonstrated equal or greater adrenal uptake of NP-59 at similar serum cholesterol concentrations. Serum triglyceride concentrations did not correlate with total adrenal uptake of NP-59 in any of the patient groups studied. Increased serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with diminished adrenal uptake of NP-59, and in some cases may limit the diagnoic efficacy of adrenal scintigraphy in Cushing's syndrome.

  8. Radioactive iodide (131 I-) excretion profiles in response to potassium iodide (KI) and ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Curtis; Dallas, Cham; Rollor, Edward; White, Catherine; Blount, Benjamin; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2012-08-01

    Radioactive iodide ((131)I-) protection studies have focused primarily on the thyroid gland and disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. The objective of the current study was to establish (131)I- urinary excretion profiles for saline, and the thyroid protectants, potassium iodide (KI) and ammonium perchlorate over a 75 hour time-course. Rats were administered (131)I- and 3 hours later dosed with either saline, 30 mg/kg of NH(4)ClO(4) or 30 mg/kg of KI. Urinalysis of the first 36 hours of the time-course revealed that NH(4)ClO(4) treated animals excreted significantly more (131)I- compared with KI and saline treatments. A second study followed the same protocol, but thyroxine (T(4)) was administered daily over a 3 day period. During the first 6-12 hour after (131)I- dosing, rats administered NH(4)ClO(4) excreted significantly more (131)I- than the other treatment groups. T(4) treatment resulted in increased retention of radioiodide in the thyroid gland 75 hour after (131)I- administration. We speculate that the T(4) treatment related reduction in serum TSH caused a decrease synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in greater residual radioiodide in the thyroid gland. Our findings suggest that ammonium perchlorate treatment accelerates the elimination rate of radioiodide within the first 24 to 36 hours and thus may be more effective at reducing harmful exposure to (131)I- compared to KI treatment for repeated dosing situations. Repeated dosing studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of these treatments to reduce the radioactive iodide burden of the thyroid gland.

  9. Effectiveness of combined (131)I-chTNT and radiofrequency ablation therapy in treating advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jianfei; Ji, Jiansong; Wu, Fazong; Wang, Yonghui; Zhang, Dengke; Zhao, Zhongwei; Ying, Xihui

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of monoclonal antibody ((131)I-chTNT) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combination therapy in treating middle-advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirty-four patients diagnosed with HCC patients, divided into two groups comprised of 22 and 12 cases were included in this retrospective study. The two groups received RFA with or without ((131)I-chTNT) therapy, respectively. The patients in these groups were followed up for a median of 31 and 35 months, respectively. Patient survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method and safety profiles were determined by analyzing liver, thyroid, and bone marrow toxicities. This retrospective study showed that survival time of the patients who received combination therapy was significantly longer than that of the RFA group (P = 0.052). The median progress-free survival of patients in the two groups was 23 and 7 months, respectively, and the difference was significant (P = 0.04). Tumor recurred in 3.5-8.7 months in four of the combination group patients, among which three had newly developed lesions. The red blood cells and platelets counts were not altered on day 7 and 1 month of the treatment, however, number of white blood cells was significantly increased on day 7 which was reversed back to the normal range in 2 weeks. The ALT and AST were also not significantly altered on day 7 and 1 month of therapy. In middle-advanced stage HCC patients, the combination of (131)I-chTNT and RFA therapy was found to be significantly more effective than the RFA treatment alone as assessed in short-term follow-up. However, the dose we used was insufficient to completely block the local recurrence of the lesions with a diameter of 5 cm or larger.

  10. Standard Operating Procedure for In-house Preparation of 131I-rituximab for Radioimmunotherapy of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Pickford, Matthew D.; Turner, J. Harvey

    2012-01-01

    A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) has been formulated for in-house preparation, quality control, dispensing and administration of 131I-rituximab appropriate for the safe, effective, radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A decade of experience of semi-automated radioiodination of rituximab in our hospital radiopharmaceutical laboratory was analysed. The methodology was then refined for safe, practical, affordable application to radioimmunotherapy of lymphoma in departments of nuclear medicine in developing countries. This SOP has the potential to be incorporated into good laboratory practice conditions appropriate for local regulatory agency requirements. PMID:23372447

  11. The development of a phantom to determine foetal organ doses from 131I in the foetal thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hare, N.; Murphy, D.; Malone, J. F.

    2000-09-01

    Iodine can accumulate in the foetal thyroid from the twelfth week of gestation onwards. If the iodine taken up by the foetal thyroid is in the form of 131I then the thyroid and its proximal tissues and organs will be irradiated. Several mathematical models exist in the literature on foetal/maternal iodine kinetics. However, very few studies have been performed where the foetal thyroid had been physically modelled thus allowing the determination of foetal organ dosimetry from 131I in the foetal thyroid. Here, the development of such a physical model or phantom is described and dosimetry results obtained from the phantom are discussed. The phantom is of Perspex construction, the dimensions of which are sufficient to incorporate models of the foetus at 16, 24 and 36 weeks' gestational age. The dosimetry of two organs is presented, that of the brain and the thymus. The results show that the measured absorbed dose is comparable with that calculated using modified MIRD dosimetry and traditional methods. The results also show that the dose to the thymus is greater than that of the brain by a factor of almost 30 for 16 weeks' gestational age.

  12. Thyroid tumors following /sup 131/I or localized x irradiation to the thyroid and pituitary glands in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Chiacchierini, R.P.; Shleien, B.; Telles, N.C.

    1982-11-01

    Three thousand 6-week-old female Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to 10 equal treatment groups. Three groups were injected intraperitoneally with 0.48, 1.9, and 5.4 ..mu..Ci of Na /sup 131/I yielding mean thyroid doses of 30, 330, and 850 rad, respectively. Three groups were irradiated with 94, 410, and 1060 rad from localized X ray to the thyroid. One group was irradiated with 410 rad to the pituitary, and another group was given 410 rad to both the thyroid and the pituitary with localized X rays. The remaining two groups of animals were used as separate sham-irradiated controls for the two types of radiation. All the surviving animals were killed 2 years later. Results derived from this study indicate that: (a) The proportion of animals with thyroid carcinoma is similar for /sup 131/I and X irradiation within the dose range of 0-1000 rad. (b) The thryoid carcinoma dose-response functions fitted by the least-squares method are nearly proportional to the square root of the thyroid dose. (c) Thyroid carcinoma induction appears to be independent of the dose rates resulting from the radiations used in this study. (d) A localized X-ray dose of 410 rad to the pituitary, whether the dose was administered concomitantly with thyroid irradiation or without thyroid irradiation, did not modify the risk of thyroid tumor.

  13. Gamma camera imaging of HSV-tk gene expression with [131I]-FIAU: Clinical applications in gene therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tjuvajev, J.; Joshi, R.; Kennedy, J.

    1996-05-01

    Develop a method to image gene expression that can be used to monitor successful gene transduction in patients. Currently there are no noninvasive ways to define the extent and spatial location of gene transduction or the level of gene expression in targeted organs or tumors. Wild-type RF2 s.c. tumors were produced by implantation of 10{sup 6} cells into both flanks of Sprague Dawley R-Nu rats. Following a 46 day growth period, the left and right flank tumors reached a 5x4x3 and 3x2x1 cm size. The left tumor was inoculated with 10{sup 6} gp-STK-A2 retroviral vector-producer cells (10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} cfu/ml) in 100 {mu}l of media to induce in vivo transduction with HSV-tk gene. No carrier added 2`-fluoro-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-[131I]-iodo-uracil [131I]-FIAU was synthesized and 2.8 mCi was injected i.v. 14 days after gp-STK-A2 cell inoculation. Gamma camera imaging was performed in vivo at 4,24 and 36 hours post [131I]-FIAU injection with a dual-headed gamma camera. The 24 and 36 hour images showed specific localization of retained radioactivity only in the transduced tumors. These results were confirmed using quantitative autoradiography (QAR) of the same tumors. QAR also showed significantly higher levels of retained radioactivity (>1% dose/g) in the transduced tumor than in other nontransduced areas (<0.03 %dose/g). The transduced tumor tissue had microscopic features typical of subcutaneously growing RG2 glioma and non vector-producer cells could be identified. Gene therapy trials in patients would benefit greatly from a noninvasive measure and image that could define the location, magnitude and persistence of gene expression overtime. HSV-tk and FIAU can be used as a {open_quotes}marker gene{close_quotes} - {open_quotes}marker substrate{close_quotes} combination for PET ([124-I]) or possibly SPECT ([123-I]) imaging.

  14. Effective method of measuring the radioactivity of [ 131I]-capsule prior to radioiodine therapy with significant reduction of the radiation exposure to the medical staff.

    PubMed

    Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Marx, Marlies; Imme, Thea; Assam, Isong; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Culman, Juraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-07-01

    Radiation Protection in Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radio Oncology is of the utmost importance. Radioiodine therapy is a frequently used and effective method for the treatment of thyroid disease. Prior to each therapy the radioactivity of the [ 131I]-capsule must be determined to prevent misadministration. This leads to a significant radiation exposure to the staff. We describe an alternative method, allowing a considerable reduction of the radiation exposure. Two [ 131I]-capsules (A01=2818.5; A02=73.55.0 MBq) were measured multiple times in their own delivery lead containers - that is to say, [ 131I]-capsules remain inside the containers during the measurements (shielded measurement) using a dose calibrator and a well-type and a thyroid uptake probe. The results of the shielded measurements were correlated linearly with the [ 131I]-capsules radioactivity to create calibration curves for the used devices. Additional radioactivity measurements of 50 [ 131I]-capsules of different radioactivities were done to validate the shielded measuring method. The personal skin dose rate (HP(0.07)) was determined using calibrated thermo luminescent dosimeters. The determination coefficients for the calibration curves were R2>0.9980 for all devices. The relative uncertainty of the shielded measurement was <6.8%. At a distance of 10 cm from the unshielded capsule the HP(0.07) was 46.18 μSv/(GBq⋅s), and on the surface of the lead container containing the [ 131I]-capsule the HP(0.07) was 2.99 and 0.27 μSv/(GBq⋅s) for the two used container sizes. The calculated reduction of the effective dose by using the shielded measuring method was, depending on the used container size, 74.0% and 97.4%, compared to the measurement of the unshielded [ 131I]-capsule using a dose calibrator. The measured reduction of the effective radiation dose in the practice was 56.6% and 94.9 for size I and size II containers. The shielded [ 131I]-capsule measurement reduces the

  15. Radioimmunotherapy of human colon cancer xenografts by using {sup 131}I labeled-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ling; Xu Huiyun; Mi Li; Bian Huijie; Qin Jun; Xiong Hua; Feng Qiang; Wen Ning; Tian Rong; Xu Liqing; Shen Xiaomei; Tang Hao; Chen Zhinan . E-mail: znchen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Therapeutic efficacy, suitable dose, and administration times of {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2}, a new monoclonal antibody therapeutics specifically directed against a cell surface-associated glycoprotein of colon cancer, were investigated in this article. Methods and Materials: In human colon cancer xenografts, {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2} at the dose of 125 {mu}Ci, 375 {mu}Ci, and 1125 {mu}Ci were administrated intraperitoneally on Days 6 and 18 after implantation of HR8348 cells with CAb{sub 1} high reactivity. Survival time and tumor growth inhibition rate were used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2} in treatment of colon cancer xenografts. Results: Treatment of 125, 375, and 1125 {mu}Ci {sup 131}I-CAb1 F(ab'){sub 2} did not significantly decrease the mean survival time of nude mice when compared with nontreated groups (p = 0.276, 0.865, 0.582, respectively). Moreover, the mean survival times of nude mice receiving 375 {mu}Ci and 1125 {mu}Ci {sup 131}I-CAb1 F(ab'){sub 2} were significantly longer than that of 5-FU-treated groups (p 0.018 and 0.042). Tumor growth inhibition rates of the first therapy were 35.67% and 41.37%, with corresponding {sup 131}I-labeled antibody dosage of 375 {mu}Ci and 1125 {mu}Ci. After single attack dosage, second reinforcement therapy may rise efficacy significantly. Tumor growth inhibition rates of 125 {mu}Ci, 375 {mu}Ci, and 1125 {mu}Ci {sup 131}I-labeled antibody on Day 20 posttherapy were 42.65%, 56.56%, and 84.41%, respectively. Histopathology examination revealed that tissue necrosis of various degrees was found in {sup 131}I-CAb1 F(ab'){sub 2}-treated groups. Conclusion: {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2} is safe and effective for colon cancer. It may be a novel and potentially adjuvant therapeutics for colon cancer.

  16. Evaluation of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Sequential Therapy Involving Percutaneous Microwave Ablation in Combination with 131I-Hypericin Using the VX2 Rabbit Breast Solid Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Miao; Lin, Xiao-An; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Bin; Xia, Tian-Song; Wang, Shui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Combination of percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA) and intravenous injection of 131I-hypericin(IIIH) may bear potential as a mini-invasive treatment for tumor. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of PMWA and IIIH in breast tumor growth. Methods Ten New Zealand White rabbits bearing VX2 breast carcinomas were randomly divided into two groups (each 5 examples) and processed using PMWA followed by IIIH and IIIH alone. The IIIH activity was evaluated using planar scintigraphy, autoradiography and biodistribution analysis. The maximum effective safe dose of IIIH was found through 48 rabbits with VX2 breast tumor, which were randomized into six groups (n=8 per group). Subsequently, a further 75 rabbits bearing VX2 breast solid tumors were randomly divided into five groups (each 15 examples) and treated as follows: A, no treatment group; B, PMWA alone; C, IIIH alone; D, PMWA+IIIH×1 (at 8 h post-PMWA); and E, PMWA+IIIH×2 (at 8 h and at 8 days post-PMWA). The therapeutic effect was assessed by measurement of tumor size and performation of positron emission tomography/computed tomograph (PET/CT) scans, liver and renal function tests and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results The planar scintigraphy findings suggested a significant uptake of 131I in necrotic tumor tissue. The autoradiography gray scales indicated higher selective uptake of IIIH by necrotic tissue, with significant differences between the groups with and those without necrotic tumor tissue (P<0.05). The maximum effective safe dose of IIIH was 1mCi/kg. The PET/CT scans and tumor size measurement suggested improvements in treatment groups at all time points (P<0.01). Significant differences were detected among Groups A, B, D and E (P<0.05). Lower levels of lung metastasis were detected in Groups D and E (P<0.05). There were no abnormalities in liver and renal functions tests or other reported side effects. Conclusion IIIH exhibited selective uptake by necrotic tumor tissue

  17. Unusual Presentation of Bladder Paraganglioma: Comparison of (131)I MIBG SPECT/CT and (68)Ga DOTANOC PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Basher, Rajender Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Shukla, Jaya; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Extraadrenal chromaffin cell-related tumors or paragangliomas are rare, especially in the bladder, accounting for less than 1% of cases. We report a 16-year-old boy who presented with hematuria and paroxysmal headache and was found to have a prostatic growth infiltrating the urinary bladder on anatomical imaging. Iodine-131 ((131)I) metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) whole-body scanning and subsequently gallium-68 ((68)Ga) DOTANOC positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were performed. The MIBG scan revealed a non-tracer-avid soft-tissue mass, while DOTANOC PET/CT revealed a tracer-avid primary soft-tissue mass involving the urinary bladder and prostate with metastasis to the iliac lymph nodes. He underwent surgical management; histopathology of the surgical specimen revealed a bladder paraganglioma, whereas the prostate was found to be free of tumor.

  18. Unusual Presentation of Bladder Paraganglioma: Comparison of 131I MIBG SPECT/CT and 68Ga DOTANOC PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Basher, Rajender Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Shukla, Jaya; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Extraadrenal chromaffin cell-related tumors or paragangliomas are rare, especially in the bladder, accounting for less than 1% of cases. We report a 16-year-old boy who presented with hematuria and paroxysmal headache and was found to have a prostatic growth infiltrating the urinary bladder on anatomical imaging. Iodine-131 (131I) metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) whole-body scanning and subsequently gallium-68 (68Ga) DOTANOC positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were performed. The MIBG scan revealed a non-tracer-avid soft-tissue mass, while DOTANOC PET/CT revealed a tracer-avid primary soft-tissue mass involving the urinary bladder and prostate with metastasis to the iliac lymph nodes. He underwent surgical management; histopathology of the surgical specimen revealed a bladder paraganglioma, whereas the prostate was found to be free of tumor. PMID:26912984

  19. Hypoxia-targeted 131I therapy of hepatocellular cancer after systemic mesenchymal stem cell-mediated sodium iodide symporter gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andrea M; Schmohl, Kathrin A; Knoop, Kerstin; Schug, Christina; Urnauer, Sarah; Hagenhoff, Anna; Clevert, Dirk-André; Ingrisch, Michael; Niess, Hanno; Carlsen, Janette; Zach, Christian; Wagner, Ernst; Bartenstein, Peter; Nelson, Peter J; Spitzweg, Christine

    2016-08-23

    Adoptively transferred mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) home to solid tumors. Biologic features within the tumor environment can be used to selectively activate transgenes in engineered MSCs after tumor invasion. One of the characteristic features of solid tumors is hypoxia. We evaluated a hypoxia-based imaging and therapy strategy to target expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene to experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) delivered by MSCs.MSCs engineered to express transgenes driven by a hypoxia-responsive promoter showed robust transgene induction under hypoxia as demonstrated by mCherry expression in tumor cell spheroid models, or radioiodide uptake using NIS. Subcutaneous and orthotopic HCC xenograft mouse models revealed significant levels of perchlorate-sensitive NIS-mediated tumoral radioiodide accumulation by tumor-recruited MSCs using 123I-scintigraphy or 124I-positron emission tomography. Functional NIS expression was further confirmed by ex vivo 123I-biodistribution analysis. Administration of a therapeutic dose of 131I in mice treated with NIS-transfected MSCs resulted in delayed tumor growth and reduced tumor perfusion, as shown by contrast-enhanced sonography, and significantly prolonged survival of mice bearing orthotopic HCC tumors. Interestingly, radioiodide uptake into subcutaneous tumors was not sufficient to induce therapeutic effects. Our results demonstrate the potential of using tumor hypoxia-based approaches to drive radioiodide therapy in non-thyroidal tumors.

  20. Hypoxia-targeted 131I therapy of hepatocellular cancer after systemic mesenchymal stem cell-mediated sodium iodide symporter gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Andrea M.; Schmohl, Kathrin A.; Knoop, Kerstin; Schug, Christina; Urnauer, Sarah; Hagenhoff, Anna; Clevert, Dirk-André; Ingrisch, Michael; Niess, Hanno; Carlsen, Janette; Zach, Christian; Wagner, Ernst; Bartenstein, Peter; Nelson, Peter J.; Spitzweg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Adoptively transferred mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) home to solid tumors. Biologic features within the tumor environment can be used to selectively activate transgenes in engineered MSCs after tumor invasion. One of the characteristic features of solid tumors is hypoxia. We evaluated a hypoxia-based imaging and therapy strategy to target expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene to experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) delivered by MSCs. MSCs engineered to express transgenes driven by a hypoxia-responsive promoter showed robust transgene induction under hypoxia as demonstrated by mCherry expression in tumor cell spheroid models, or radioiodide uptake using NIS. Subcutaneous and orthotopic HCC xenograft mouse models revealed significant levels of perchlorate-sensitive NIS-mediated tumoral radioiodide accumulation by tumor-recruited MSCs using 123I-scintigraphy or 124I-positron emission tomography. Functional NIS expression was further confirmed by ex vivo 123I-biodistribution analysis. Administration of a therapeutic dose of 131I in mice treated with NIS-transfected MSCs resulted in delayed tumor growth and reduced tumor perfusion, as shown by contrast-enhanced sonography, and significantly prolonged survival of mice bearing orthotopic HCC tumors. Interestingly, radioiodide uptake into subcutaneous tumors was not sufficient to induce therapeutic effects. Our results demonstrate the potential of using tumor hypoxia-based approaches to drive radioiodide therapy in non-thyroidal tumors. PMID:27458162

  1. Association of cisplatin and intra-arterial injection of {sup 131}I-lipiodol in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: Results of phase II trial

    SciTech Connect

    Raoul, Jean-Luc . E-mail: raoul@rennes.fnclcc.fr; Boucher, Eveline; Olivie, Damien; Guillygomarc'h, Anne; Boudjema, Karim; Garin, Etienne

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: Intra-arterial injections of {sup 131}I-lipiodol ({sup 131}I-Lip) provide an effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. In hepatocellular carcinoma cell cultures, concurrent administration of cisplatin increases the cytotoxicity of {sup 131}I. The efficacy and tolerance of intra-arterial injections of {sup 131}I-Lip combined with systemic cisplatin was tested in a phase II trial. Methods and Materials: The inclusion criteria were proven unresectable nonmetastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, compensated liver disease, and adequate laboratory test findings. Treatment comprised the combination of intra-arterial injection of {sup 131}I-Lip (2.2 GBq) with intravenous infusion of low-dose cisplatin. The combined treatment could be repeated. Results: A total of 41 patients were included; 37 had cirrhosis and 38 had measurable tumors. One to four treatments (median, two) were given. The cisplatin dose was 75 mg for the first course and 72 mg for the second. Grade 3-4 (n/n) adverse effects were observed in 14 patients, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (3/0), platelets (5/1), asthenia (1/0), pain (1/0), and vomiting (1/0). Four patients developed pulmonary toxicity; 2 cases were likely related to {sup 131}I-Lip administration and 1 was fatal. The response rate was 47% (18 of 38), and the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 73% {+-} 7% and 48% {+-} 9%, respectively. Conclusion: This combination had a tolerable toxicity profile and provided an objective response rate, warranting a phase III trial.

  2. Gefitinib enhances radiotherapeutic effects of (131)I-hEGF targeted to EGFR by increasing tumor uptake of hEGF in tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lu; Peng, He; Zhiqiang, Luo; Xiaoli, Zhang

    2017-02-04

    Gefitinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor which has been proven effective for cancer treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether gefitinib could increase the in vivo tumor uptake of human (131)I-EGF ((131)I-hEGF), thereby enhancing the potential of hEGF as a vehicle for EGFR-targeted radionuclide therapy. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect the effects of gefitinib on EGFR expression in human head and neck squamous carcinoma cell line UM-SCC-22B. Nude mice bearing UM-SCC-22B tumor xenografts were pretreated via i.p. injection of gefitinib or DMSO (vehicle control), followed by i.v. injection of (125)I-hEGF; the animals were then subjected to ex vivo biodistribution or injection of (131)I-hEGF for planar γ-imaging using SPECT, respectively. Targeted radionuclide therapy using (131)I-hEGF combined with gefitinib as a vehicle targeting EGFR was also performed in UM-SCC-22B tumor xenografts. The EGFR level was unchangeable in cells pretreated with gefitinib, but after gefitinib pretreatment, the uptake of (125)I-hEGF in 22B tumor xenografts increased substantially while the uptake of (125)I-hEGF in normal organs was effectively unchanged. (131)I-hEGF as a vehicle for EGFR-targeting therapy combined with gefitinib therefore showed strong therapeutic effects against 22B tumor xenografts tolerant to gefitinib. The uptake of hEGF to EGFR-positive tumors was enhanced significantly after gefitinib pretreatment, suggesting that (131)I-hEGF is a potential vehicle for EGFR-targeting radionuclide therapy when combined with gefitinib.

  3. Effects of time of administration and dietary iodine levels on potassium iodide (KI) blockade of thyroid irradiation by 131I from radioactive fallout.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, P B; Becker, D V

    2000-06-01

    Radioiodines, particularly 131I, may be released into the environment in breach-of-containment nuclear reactor accidents and localize in and irradiate the thyroid with an attendant risk of neoplastic growth and other adverse health effects. Pharmacologic thyroid blockade by oral potassium iodide (KI) (50-100 mg in adults) can substantially reduce thyroid uptake of and irradiation by internalized radioiodine. In the current analysis, computer modeling of iodine metabolism has been used to systematically elucidate the effects of two practically important but highly variable factors on the radioprotective effect of KI: the time of administration relative to exposure to radioiodine and the dietary level of iodine. In euthyroid adults receiving iodine-sufficient diets (250 microg d(-1) in the current analysis), KI administered up to 48 h before 131I exposure can almost completely block thyroid uptake and therefore greatly reduce the thyroid absorbed dose. However, KI administration 96 h or more before 131I exposure has no significant protective effect. In contrast, KI administration after exposure to radioiodine induces a smaller and rapidly decreasing blockade effect. KI administration 16 h or later after 131I exposure will have little effect on thyroid uptake and absorbed dose and therefore little or no protective effect. The 131I thyroid absorbed dose is two-fold greater with insufficient levels of dietary iodine, 2,900 cGy/37 MBq, than with sufficient levels of dietary iodine, 1,500 cGy/37 MBq. When KI is administered 48 h or less before 131I intake, the thyroid absorbed doses (in cGy/37 MBq) are comparably low with both sufficient and insufficient dietary iodine levels. When KI is administered after 131I intake, however, the protective effect of KI is less and decreases more rapidly with insufficient than with sufficient dietary iodine. For example, KI administration 2 and 8 h after 131I intake yields protective effects of 80 and 40%, respectively, with iodine

  4. [Radioactivity for 137Cs, 125I, 131I, 59Fe, y 57Co windows from foods included in the basic alimentary basket and in the water, consumed in the state of Carabobo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Torres, Annabell; Tovar, María; Malpica, Oscar; Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    One of the input ways of radionucleids into the organism is through food intake. The aim of the present study is to measure the radioactivity levels in food and water samples within energy windows corresponding to 137Cs, 125I, 131I, 59Fe, and 57Co. Samples were taken from local and imported food belonging to the venezuelan basic alimentary basket and included: beef meat, hen egg, chicken bone, tomato, black bean, rice, powder milk from local dealers or imported from Italy and New Zeeland, potable water from the Valencia city aqueduct and bottled water from local sources or imported from Portugal. Radioactivity was measured with a well type Nal (TI) scintillation counter. Analyzed foods and water presented levels lower than the minimal detectable activity for 137Cs, 131I, 59Fe, 57Co, but it was detected in the Valencia city aqueduct water and in bottled water imported from Portugal, levels greater than the minimal detectable activity for the 125I energy window. These results strongly suggest the need of repeated multienergy windows monitoring of radioactivity of basic alimentary basket foods and potable water.

  5. Tracer kinetics of 15-(ortho-123/131I-phenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (oPPA) and 15-(para-123/131I-phenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (pPPA) in animals and man

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, K.P.; Geuting, B.; Grossmann, K.; Vester, E.; Loesse, B.A.; Antar, M.A.; Machulla, H.J.; Feinendegen, L.E. )

    1990-10-01

    The human myocardium retains oPPA as opposed to pPPA. Therefore turnover of oPPA was compared with that of pPPA in rat hearts and in man, the latter by using substrates double-labeled with 123/131I and 14C. Moreover, substrate binding to coenzyme-A was tested in vitro. In rats, oPPA remained mainly in the pool of free fatty acids, as opposed to pPPA, which was metabolized by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Binding to coenzyme-A at maximum was 62% for oPPA, 81% for pPPA and 90% for palmitic acid. In man, after i.v. and intracoronary injection of double-labeled oPPA, the two radionuclides reappeared together in venous blood and in coronary sinus respectively, in an unchanged ratio but at a significantly lower rate than with pPPA. It can be concluded that oPPA is bound to coenzyme-A and is retained in the cytosolic lipid pool, while pPPA is metabolized by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. A dual-tracer application of oPPA and pPPA has the potential of being a specific probe for the function of the carnitine shuttle.

  6. Assessment of the point-source method for estimating dose rates to members of the public from exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Dewji, Shaheen Azim; Bellamy, Michael B.; Hertel, Nolan E.; ...

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated a contract with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate radiation dose rates to members of the public that may result from exposure to patients recently administered iodine-131 (131I) as part of medical therapy. The main purpose was to compare dose rate estimates based on a point source and target with values derived from more realistic simulations that considered the time-dependent distribution of 131I in the patient and attenuation of emitted photons by the patient’s tissues. The external dose rate estimates were derived using Monte Carlo methods and two representations of the Phantommore » with Movable Arms and Legs, previously developed by ORNL and the USNRC, to model the patient and a nearby member of the public. Dose rates to tissues and effective dose rates were calculated for distances ranging from 10 to 300 cm between the phantoms and compared to estimates based on the point-source method, as well as to results of previous studies that estimated exposure from 131I patients. The point-source method overestimates dose rates to members of the public in very close proximity to an 131I patient but is a broadly accurate method of dose rate estimation at separation distances of 300 cm or more at times closer to administration.« less

  7. Estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification*

    PubMed Central

    Willegaignon, José; Pelissoni, Rogério Alexandre; Lima, Beatriz Christine de Godoy Diniz; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Queiroz, Marcelo Araújo; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods Fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of 131I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after 131I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (Teff) and residence time of 131I in the body. Results The mean values for Teff and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the Teff (p = 0.801), residence time (p = 0.801), dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708), and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811), even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after 131I administration (p > 0.914). Conclusion There is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating 131I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is inefficacious in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of 131I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution. PMID:27403014

  8. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to 131I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuko; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Rafalsky, Ruslan; Saiko, Alexsey; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal 131I radiation. The associations between internal 131I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of 131I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs), thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0–5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1) and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2). Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb) positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb) positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively); after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the 131I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320) in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482). On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003), though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26–27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to 131I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid. PMID:27019779

  9. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to (131)I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuko; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Rafalsky, Ruslan; Saiko, Alexsey; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal (131)I radiation. The associations between internal (131)I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of (131)I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs), thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0-5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1) and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2). Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb) positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb) positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively); after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the (131)I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320) in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482). On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003), though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26-27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to (131)I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid.

  10. O6-3-[131I]iodobenzylguanine: improved synthesis and further evaluation of a potential agent for imaging of alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Affleck, Donna J; Norman, Joseph; Welsh, Phil; Liu, Wenge; Johnson, Stewart P; Friedman, Henry S; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2004-01-01

    O(6)-Benzylguanine derivatives with suitable radionuclides attached to the benzyl ring are potentially useful in the noninvasive imaging of the DNA repair protein, alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). Previously, O(6)-3-[(131)I]iodobenzylguanine ([(131)I]IBG) was prepared using a two-step approach; we now report its synthesis in a single step by the radioiododestannylation of O(6)-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzylguanine in 85-95% radiochemical yield. The in vitro specific uptake of [(131)I]IBG in DAOY human medulloblastoma cells, in TE-671 human rhabdomyosarcoma cells and a CHO cell line transfected to express AGT was linear (r(2) = 0.9-1.0) as a function of cell density. After intravenous injection of [(131)I]IBG in athymic mice bearing TE-671 xenografts, tumor uptake was 1.38 +/- 0.34% ID/g at 0.5 h and declined at 2 and 4 h. Preadministration of O(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)guanine (IBG) at 0.5 h increased uptake not only in tumor but also in several normal tissues. Notable exceptions were thyroid (p < 0.05), lung (p <0.05) and stomach. After intratumoral injection of [(131)I]IBG in the same xenograft model, the uptake in tumors that were depleted of AGT by BG treatment (165.8 +/- 27.5% ID/g) was about 60% of that in control mice (272.4 +/- 48.2% ID/g; p < 0.05).

  11. A parallel Monte Carlo code for planar and SPECT imaging: implementation, verification and applications in (131)I SPECT.

    PubMed

    Dewaraja, Yuni K; Ljungberg, Michael; Majumdar, Amitava; Bose, Abhijit; Koral, Kenneth F

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the implementation of the SIMIND Monte Carlo code on an IBM SP2 distributed memory parallel computer. Basic aspects of running Monte Carlo particle transport calculations on parallel architectures are described. Our parallelization is based on equally partitioning photons among the processors and uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library for interprocessor communication and the Scalable Parallel Random Number Generator (SPRNG) to generate uncorrelated random number streams. These parallelization techniques are also applicable to other distributed memory architectures. A linear increase in computing speed with the number of processors is demonstrated for up to 32 processors. This speed-up is especially significant in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) simulations involving higher energy photon emitters, where explicit modeling of the phantom and collimator is required. For (131)I, the accuracy of the parallel code is demonstrated by comparing simulated and experimental SPECT images from a heart/thorax phantom. Clinically realistic SPECT simulations using the voxel-man phantom are carried out to assess scatter and attenuation correction.

  12. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan: current issues with historical review and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-02-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, (131)I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of "radiophobia". There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements.

  13. External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) for Patients with Malignant Pheochromocytoma and Non-Head and Neck Paraganglioma: Combination with 131I-MIBG

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, Lauren; Bonner, Lara; Torigian, Drew A.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Cohen, Debbie L.; Pryma, Daniel; Cengel, Keith

    2015-01-01

    In patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, 131I-MIBG radiotherapy can achieve an objective response rate of 30–50% with the dose limiting toxicity being hematologic. Patients with disseminated disease, who also have a few index bulky or symptomatic lesions, may benefit from the addition of targeted external beam radiotherapy alone or in combination with systemic 131I-MIBG. The records of patients with malignant paraganglioma who were treated with external beam radiotherapy at the University of Pennsylvania from February 1973 to February 2011 were reviewed in an institutional review board approved retrospective study. Of the 17 patients with tumors in the thorax, abdomen, or pelvis, 76% had local control or clinically significant symptomatic relief for at least one year or until death. As expected, the predominant toxicity was due to irradiation of tumor-adjacent normal tissues without clinically significant hematologic toxicity. Due to widespread systemic metastases with areas of bulky, symptomatic tumor, five of the 17 patients were treated with sequential 131I-MIBG (2 mCi/kg per treatment) and external beam radiotherapy to nine sites. In these patients, all areas that were irradiated with external beam radiotherapy showed durable objective response despite all patients eventually experiencing out-of-field systemic progression requiring other treatment. Four of these patients remain alive with excellent performance status 16, 18, 23, and 24 months after external beam radiotherapy. External beam radiotherapy can be highly effective in local management of malignant paraganglioma and can be used in conjunction with 131I-MIBG due to non-overlapping toxicities with excellent control of locally bulky tumors. PMID:22566196

  14. On-Site Test of Filters in Nuclear Facilities Using Radioactive Sodium Chloride ((24)Na)-Aerosol and Methyl Iodide ((131)I)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    tested with a 4NaCl-erosol and charcoal filters with 131I of 1 mCi used. Penetrations (1 -Jeffic ency) can be determined with a relative uncertainty...34 4. RESULTS ...................... 6......*............ . . . 38 4.1. Charcoal filters ............ 0.... 6. 60 . ..... ..0. 38 4.2...in the choice of filter- material and filter types to be used in existing charcoal filter- installations. The Air Pollution Laboratory surveyed all the

  15. Experimental determination of transfer coefficients of sup 137 Cs and sup 131 I from fodder into milk of cows and sheep after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, G.; Mueller, H.P.; Proehl, G.P.; Paretzke, H.G.; Propstmeier, G.; Roehrmoser, G.H.; Hofmann, P. )

    1989-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in April 1986, the transfer of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs from feed to milk was studied under experimental and common agricultural conditions. From measurements in different dairy farms in Southern Bavaria, equilibrium transfer coefficients for cow's milk were calculated to be 0.003 d L-1 (range 0.0015 to 0.005) for {sup 131}I and 0.003 d L-1 (range 0.0025 to 0.004) for {sup 137}Cs. In feeding experiments with cows and sheep under more controlled conditions, milk transfer coefficients of 0.007 d L-1 (range 0.0055 to 0.0081) for {sup 131}I and 0.003 d L-1 (range 0.0023 to 0.0053) for {sup 137}Cs were obtained for cows, while for sheep the {sup 137}Cs transfer coefficient was higher: 0.06 d L-1. The kinetics of the Cs transfer from fodder to cow's milk can be described by two exponential terms assuming biological half-lives in milk of 1-2 d and 10-20 d. The use of a fast component with 1.5 d and a fraction of 0.8, and a slow component with 15 d, gives a good approximation to the kinetics for all cows in this experiment.

  16. Methods For Calculating Thyroid Doses to The Residents Of Ozersk Due to 131I Releases From The Stacks of The Mayak Production Association

    SciTech Connect

    Rovny, Sergey I.; Mokrov, Y.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Beregich, D. A.; Teplyakov, I. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was established in the late 1940s in accordance with a special Decree of the USSR Government for the production of nuclear weapons. In early years of MPA operation, due to the lack of experience and absence of effective methods of RW management, the enterprise had extensive routine (designed) and non-routine (accidental) releases of gaseous radioactive wastes to the atmosphere. These practices resulted in additional technogenic radiation exposure of residents inhabiting populated areas near the MPA. The primary objective of ongoing studies under JCCRER Project 1.4 is to estimate doses to the residents of Ozersk due to releases of radioactive substances from the stacks of MPA. Preliminary scoping studies have demonstrated that releases of radioactive iodine (131I) from the stacks of the Mayak Radiochemical Plant represented the major contribution to the dose to residents of Ozersk and of other nearby populated areas. The behavior of 131I in the environment and of 131I migration through biological food chains (vegetation-cows-milk-humans) indicated a need for use of special mathematical models to perform the estimation of radiation doses to the population. The goal of this work is to select an appropriate model of the iodine migration in biological food chains and to justify numerical values of the model parameters.

  17. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOEpatents

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  18. In vivo Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide (131I) Therapy of Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells Transfected with a Lentivirus Expressing Sodium Iodide Symporter

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shuo; Zhang, Min; Guo, Rui; Miao, Ying; Hu, Jiajia; Xi, Yun; Li, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite recent improvements in the survival rates for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), novel treatment strategies are required to improve distant metastasis-free survival. The sodium iodine symporter (NIS) gene has been applied for in vivo imaging and cancer therapy. In this study, we examined the potential of NIS gene therapy as a therapeutic approach in NPC by performing non-invasive imaging using 125I and 131I therapy in vivo. Methods We constructed a lentiviral vector expressing NIS and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the human elongation factor-1α (EF1α) promoter, and stably transfected the vector into CNE-2Z NPC cells to create CNE-2Z-NIS cells. CNE-2Z and CNE-2Z-NIS tumor xenografts were established in nude mice; 125I uptake, accumulation and efflux were measured using micro-SPECT/CT imaging; the therapeutic effects of treatment with 131I were assessed over 25 days by measuring tumor volume and immunohistochemical staining of the excised tumors. Results qPCR, immunofluorescence and Western blotting confirmed that CNE-2Z-NIS cells expressed high levels of NIS mRNA and protein. CNE-2Z-NIS cells and xenografts took up and accumulated significantly more 125I than CNE-2Z cells and xenografts. In vitro, 131I significantly reduced the clonogenic survival of CNE-2Z-NIS cells. In vivo, 131I effectively inhibited the growth of CNE-2Z-NIS xenografts. At the end of 131I therapy, CNE-2Z-NIS xenograft tumor cells expressed higher levels of NIS and caspase-3 and lower levels of Ki-67. Conclusion Lentiviruses effectively delivered and mediated long-lasting expression of NIS in CNE-2Z cells which enabled uptake and accumulation of radioisotopes and provided a significant therapeutic effect in an in vivo model of NPC. NIS-mediated radioiodine treatment merits further investigation as a potentially effective, low toxicity therapeutic strategy for NPC. PMID:25621996

  19. Concentration and temperature effects on ovostatin activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriarity, Debra M.

    1994-01-01

    Light scattering experiments performed at Mississippi State University using MSFC ovostatin preparations indicated that at low ovostatin concentrations, below 0.2 mg/ml, the protein was dissociating from a tetramer into dimers. Since the proposed mechanism of action involved the tetrameric form of the protein, we hypothesized that perhaps under the conditions of our assays at various O/T ratios the ovostatin was becoming dissociated into an inactive dimer. To examine this possibility we assayed the ovostatin activity as a function of ovostatin concentration and of temperature of the assay. Data are presented that show the results of these assays at 23 C, 30 C, 37 C and 42 C respectively. The data are highly suggestive that there is a decrease in ovostatin activity as the concentration of the protein falls below 0.06 mg/ml. This may not be of any physiological importance, however, since the concentration of ovostatin in the egg is about 0.5 mg/ml. Curiously, the dissociation of the tetramer into dimers does not show a significant temperature dependence as would be expected for an equilibrium reaction. Whether this is in fact the case, or whether the differences are so small as to not be discerned from the current data remains to be seen. Another aspect to consider is that in the egg the primary role of the ovostatin may or may not be as a protease inhibitor. Although the inhibition of collagenase by ovostatin may be an important aspect of embryogenesis, it is also possible that it functions as a binding protein for some substance. In this regard, all ovostatin preparations from MSFC have shown an approximately 88,000 MW protein associated with the ovostatin. The identity of this protein is not currently known and may be the subject of future studies.

  20. Distribution and transport kinetics of radionuclides sup 99 Mo and sup 131 I in a simulated aquatic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Svadlenkova, M.; Konecny, J.; Obdrzalek, M.; Simanov, L. )

    1990-04-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations increase the activity not only of water but also of sediment, aquatic and shore plants, and animals. On average, the majority of the total radioactivity brought to the aquatic system is absorbed by the sediment; the remaining fraction is distributed between water and biomass. For us to be able to assess the influence of the nuclear power station at Temelin in South Bohemia on the nearby hydrosphere, the authors concentrated first on the experimental investigation of the distribution and transport kinetics of some radionuclides in a simulated aquatic system.

  1. A combination hepatoma-targeted therapy based on nanotechnology: pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Combination targeted therapy is a promising cancer therapeutic strategy. Here, using PEI-Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (PEI-MZF-NPs) as magnetic media for MFH (magnetic fluid hyperthermia) and gene transfer vector for gene-therapy, a combined therapy, pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH, for hepatoma is developed. AntiAFPMcAb (Monoclonal antibody AFP) is exploited for targeting. The plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are achieved by incorporation of pEgr1-HSV-TK and pHRE-Egr1-EGFP. Restriction enzyme digestion and PCR confirm the recombinant plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are successfully constructed. After exposure to the magnetic field, PEI-MZF-NPs/pHRE-Egr1-EGFP fluid is warmed rapidly and then the temperature is maintained at 43 °C or so, which is quite appropriate for cancer treatment. The gene expression reaches the peak when treated with 200 μCi 131I for 24 hours, indicating that the dose of 200 μCi might be the optimal dose for irradiation and 24 h irradiation later is the best time to initiate MFH. The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH can greatly suppress hepatic tumor cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis and necrosis and effectively inhibit the tumor growth, much better than any monotherapy does alone. Furthermore, the combination therapy has few or no adverse effects. It might be applicable as a strategy to treat hepatic cancer. PMID:27642033

  2. 131I-Anti-CD45 Antibody Plus Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide before Allogeneic Hematophoietic Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Remission

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Eary, Janet F.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, Ted; Ruffner, Katherine; Nemecek, Eneida; Sickle, Eileen; Durack, Larry; Carreras, Jeanette; Horowitz, Mary; Press, Oliver W.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, Paul J.; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Matthews, Dana C.

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to improve outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we conducted a Phase I/II study in which targeted irradiation delivered by 131I-anti-CD45 antibody was combined with targeted busulfan (BU; area-under-curve, 600-900 ng/ml) and cyclophosphamide (CY; 120 mg/kg). Fifty-two of 59 patients (88%) receiving a trace 131I-labeled dose of 0.5 mg/kg anti-CD45 murine antibody had higher estimated absorbed radiation in bone marrow and spleen than in any other organ. Forty-six patients were treated with 102-298 mCi 131I delivering an estimated 5.3-19 (mean 11.3) Gy to marrow, 17-72 (mean 29.7) Gy to spleen, and 3.5 Gy (n=4) to 5.25 Gy (n=42) to the liver. The estimated 3-year non-relapse mortality and disease-free survival (DFS) were 21% and 61%, respectively. These results were compared to those from 509 similar International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry patients transplanted using BU/CY alone. After adjusting for differences in age and cytogenetics-risk, the hazard of mortality among all antibody-treated patients was 0.65 times that of the Registry patients (95% CI 0.39-1.08; p=.09). The addition of targeted hematopoietic irradiation to conventional BU/CY is feasible and well tolerated, and Phase II results are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further study.

  3. Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization Plus 131I-Labelled Metuximab versus Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization Alone in Intermediate/Advanced Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ze-xin; Liao, Ming-heng; Wang, Xiao-xue

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to compare transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus 131I-labelled metuximab with TACE alone for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Chinese BioMedical Literature Database with published date from the earliest to February 29th, 2016. No language restrictions were applied, but only prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or non-RCTs were eligible for a full-text review. The primary outcome was the overall survival (OS) and effective rate (the rate of partial atrophy or complete clearance of the tumor lesion). The odds ratios (ORs) were combined using either the fixed-effects model or random-effects model. Results Eight trials (3 RCTs and 5 non-RCTs) were included, involving a total of 1121 patients. Patients receiving combined therapy of TACE plus 131I-labelled metuximab showed significant improvement in effective rate {OR = 4.00, (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.40–6.66), p < 0.001}, 1-year OS (OR = 2.03 [95% CI: 1.55–2.67], p < 0.001) and 2-year OS (OR = 2.57 [95% CI: 1.41–4.66], p = 0.002]. Conclusion TACE plus 131I-labelled metuximab is more beneficial for treating advanced HCCs than TACE alone in terms of tumor response and OS. Large, multi-center, and blinded randomized trials are required to confirm these findings. PMID:27833404

  4. A combination hepatoma-targeted therapy based on nanotechnology: pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-09-01

    Combination targeted therapy is a promising cancer therapeutic strategy. Here, using PEI-Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (PEI-MZF-NPs) as magnetic media for MFH (magnetic fluid hyperthermia) and gene transfer vector for gene-therapy, a combined therapy, pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH, for hepatoma is developed. AntiAFPMcAb (Monoclonal antibody AFP) is exploited for targeting. The plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are achieved by incorporation of pEgr1-HSV-TK and pHRE-Egr1-EGFP. Restriction enzyme digestion and PCR confirm the recombinant plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are successfully constructed. After exposure to the magnetic field, PEI-MZF-NPs/pHRE-Egr1-EGFP fluid is warmed rapidly and then the temperature is maintained at 43 °C or so, which is quite appropriate for cancer treatment. The gene expression reaches the peak when treated with 200 μCi 131I for 24 hours, indicating that the dose of 200 μCi might be the optimal dose for irradiation and 24 h irradiation later is the best time to initiate MFH. The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH can greatly suppress hepatic tumor cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis and necrosis and effectively inhibit the tumor growth, much better than any monotherapy does alone. Furthermore, the combination therapy has few or no adverse effects. It might be applicable as a strategy to treat hepatic cancer.

  5. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I measured after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-11-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. The removal time of 131I is longer due to the aerosol production from gaseous 131I, thus the removal time for 137Cs serves as a better estimate for aerosol lifetime. The removal time of 131I is of interest for semi-volatile species. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols

  6. The half maximum time of (99m)Tc-DTPA renography measured in healthy kidney donors, compared to (131)I-OIH.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bing; Ding, Xianmin; Du, Xiaoguang; Xie, Xinli; Han, Xinmin; Liu, Baoping

    2011-01-01

    Technetium-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) has been widely used after (131)I-ortho-hippurate ((131)I-OIH) for renography and to test renal function. Only a few reports refer to normal values range of (99m)Tc-DTPA renography half maximum time (HMT). We have measured the normal value range of (99m)Tc-DTPA renography HMT in our department, of 433 healthy kidney donors from 2007 to 2010, and compared these results with those of (131)I-OIH renography. There were 326 men and 107 women, 18y-69y (median age 29y), subjects were measured before the donation of their kidneys operation and their biochemical, ultrasound and renal function tests were normal. All subjects drunk at least 1 litre of tap water before renography. The (99m)Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy was performed in the posterior view by injecting intravenously as a bolus 185-296MBq. Dynamic imaging was performed immediately after the injection, using a high-resolution low-energy general purpose collimator and a large field of view dual-detector gamma-camera (Hawkeye; General Electric Medical Systems, USA). Matrix was 64Χ64, the phase acquisition time of blood perfusion was 1s/frame and 30 frames were collected. Dynamic acquisition was 30s/frame and 39 frames were collected. Total acquisition time was 20min. We defined as background two regions of interest around the kidneys and the aorta, for radioactive decay correction. We also compared (99m)Tc-DTPA renography HMT values with the HMT values of (131)I-OIH, between the two kidneys, and between men and women. The findings were evaluated by using frequency distribution analysis, paired Sample Student's t-test and one sample t test, with a level of significance P<0.05. We used the SPSS 10.0 statistical software. Since values beyond a high boundary were regarded as unusual, we used the P(95), i.e. " 95% of HMT reference ranges value" to determine the medical reference range of values, as the HMT normal limit. This reference value is used

  7. Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Zoe; House, C.

    2014-01-01

    As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

  8. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gomez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-08

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 {+-} 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 {+-} 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 {+-} 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  9. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gómez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-01

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 ± 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 ± 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 ± 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  10. Health physics consequences of out-patient treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with 131I-radiolabeled anti-B1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M T; Spicer, K M; Frei-Lahr, D; Samei, E; Frey, G D; Hargrove, H; Bloodworth, G

    2000-11-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina is currently participating in clinical trials of 131I radiolabeled Anti-B1 antibody for treatment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Under current South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control regulatory guidelines,; these patients are required to be admitted to the hospital and to remain as inpatients until the whole body burden is <30 mCi or the exposure rate measured 1 m from the patient is <5 mR h(-1). We demonstrate that these patients can be released in accordance with the new recommended guidelines of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the release of patients containing radioactive materials in compliance with all radioactive material and public dose standards. This benefits these patients by reducing their risk of infection and other hospital insults and by reducing the length of hospitalizations. Further, unnecessary hospital admissions are decreased, and the overall cost of healthcare delivery for these patients is significantly reduced.

  11. Analysis of the uncertainties associated with the age-dependent thyroid doses and risk of thyroid cancer due to exposure to {sup 131}I

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.; Apostoaei, A.I.; Nair, S.K.

    1996-06-01

    Effects on the thyroid gland due to exposure to {sup 131}I are currently of interest for ongoing retrospective studies of historical releases in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington. Most of the work to date has been limited to dose estimation. This work focuses on estimating both dose and risk of thyroid cancer to an exposed individual. The age-dependent thyroid dose is calculated using a standard metabolic model for iodine. Updated information on thyroid mass from measurements using modem ultrasound techniques was used. The age-dependent risk is calculated using a linear excess relative risk model. An analysis of uncertainties in dose and risk estimates was performed for an individual in a population characterized by the mass of thyroid, by the iodine metabolic parameters, by the background incidence of thyroid cancer and by the excess relative risk per Gy of absorbed dose. The uncertainty analysis was performed using Monte-Carlo simulation, by considering the age-dependent parameters as random functions. The correlation between the metabolic age-dependent parameters was considered explicitly. Special attention is given to a modifying factor that accounts for the effectiveness of {sup 131}I in inducing thyroid cancer as compared to gamma irradiation, for which most of the excess risk factors are derived. This factor is based on review of recent literature and on informal interviews with outside experts, and thus, the expressed uncertainty is subjective in nature. The paper summarizes the age-dependent dose conversion factors (Sv Bq{sup -1}) and slope factors (risk Bq{sup -1}) as well as the uncertainty associated with them. An analysis that identifies the parameters of dominant importance by their contributions to the overall uncertainty is also included.

  12. Representative Doses to Members of the Public from Atmospheric Releases of 131I at the Mayak Production Association Facilities from 1948 through 1972

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Napier, Bruce A.; Anspaugh, Lynn R.

    2014-04-03

    Scoping epidemiologic studies performed by researchers from the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute revealed an excess prevalence of thyroid nodules and an increased incidence of thyroid cancer among residents of Ozersk, Russia, who were born in the early 1950s. Ozersk is located about 5 km from the facilities where the Mayak Production Association produced nuclear materials for the Russian weapons program. Reactor operations began in June 1948 and chemical separation of plutonium from irradiated fuel began in February 1949. The U.S.–Russia Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research conducted a series of projects over a 10-year period to assess the radiation risks in the Southern Urals. This paper uses data collected under Committee projects to reconstruct individual time-dependent thyroid doses to reference individuals living in Ozersk from 131I released to the atmosphere. Between 3.22×1016 and 4.31×1016 Bq of 131I released may have been released during the 1948–1972 time period, and a best estimate is 3.76×1016 Bq. A child born in 1947 is estimated to have received a cumulative thyroid dose of 2.3 Gy for 1948–1972, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.51–7.3 Gy. Annual doses were the highest in 1949 and a child who was 5 years old in 1949 is estimated to have a received an annual thyroid dose of 0.93 Gy with a 95% confidence interval of 0.19–3.5 Gy.

  13. Multi-modality treatment of primary nonresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with /sup 131/I anti-CEA--a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study

    SciTech Connect

    Stillwagon, G.B.; Order, S.E.; Klein, J.L.; Leichner, P.K.; Leibel, S.A.; Siegelman, S.S.; Fishman, E.K.; Ettinger, D.S.; Haulk, T.; Kopher, K.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-seven patients with primary nonresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (57% with prior treatment and/or metastasis) were prospectively treated with external radiation, chemotherapy, and /sup 131/I labelled anti-CEA. Therapy began in all trials with whole liver irradiation (21.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy/Fx, 4 days/week, 10 MV photons) with alternate treatment day chemotherapy (Adriamycin, 15 mg + 5-FU, 500 mg). One month after external beam therapy, chemotherapy was given (Adriamycin, 15 mg + 5-FU, 500 mg) followed the next day by the first administration of /sup 131/I anti-CEA. The treatment schedule used was 20 mCi day 0; 10 mCi day 5 as an outpatient. This schedule was derived from tumor dose estimates which indicated that 20 mCi (8-10 mCi/mg IgG) was sufficient to achieve tumor saturation with a tumor effective half-life of 3 to 5 days, depending upon the species of animal from which the antibody was obtained. The median tumor dose for the 20 mCi + 10 mCi regimen was 6.2 Gy. Antibody therapy was delivered in 2-month cycles using antibody generated in different species of animals; rabbit, pig, monkey, and bovine. Toxicity was limited to hematologic toxicity and was manifested as thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia (3.2% Grade IV for each according to RTOG toxicity criteria). Tumor remission evaluated by CT scan digitized tumor volume analysis indicated a 26.6% partial response (PR). Tumor remission by physical examination indicated a 33.3% remission rate (25.9% PR and 7.4% complete remission (CR). The median survival for patients who responded was 15.2 months. The actuarial median survival for the entire group of patients (metastases and previous treatment) was 6.5 months. The longest partial remission is presently more than 4 years.

  14. Prevalence of Hyponatremia in Hypothyroid Patients during Radioactive 131I Ablation for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Single Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Cunanan, Elaine C.; Kho, Sjoberg A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia developing in hypothyroid patients has been encountered in clinical practice; however, its prevalence has not been well established. Methods Thirty patients diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer, rendered hypothyroid after surgery and levothyroxine withdrawal, and who are for radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation were included. Serum sodium concentrations were measured twice, at the time of admission for RAI ablation, and before discharge after increased oral fluid intake. The outcome measures were to determine the prevalence of hyponatremia among hypothyroid patients prior to RAI ablation and after oral hydration post-RAI, and to correlate the serum sodium levels pre-RAI and post-RAI with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration and age. Results Thirty patients were included, with ages from 23 to 65 years old (median, 40). Two patients (6.7%) were hyponatremic prior to RAI ablation, and eight patients (26.7%) had mild hyponatremia (130 to 134 mEq/L) after RAI and hydration. There was no significant correlation between TSH levels and serum sodium levels prior to or after RAI. There was also no significant correlation between pre- and post-RAI sodium concentration and age. Conclusions The prevalence of hyponatremia pre-RAI was 6.7%, and 26.7% post-RAI. No significant correlation was noted between TSH concentration and age on pre- or post-RAI sodium concentrations. Routine measurement of serum sodium post-RAI/isolation is still not advised. Measurement of sodium post-RAI may be considered in patients who are elderly, with comorbid conditions or on medications. PMID:27546873

  15. Determination of (129)I and (127)I concentration in soil samples from the Chernobyl 30-km zone by AMS and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Rühm, Werner

    2009-07-01

    A large amount of radioiodine isotopes (mainly (131)I, t(1/2) = 8 days) was released from the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) in April-May 1986. An increase in childhood-thyroid cancer in the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine was demonstrated to be caused by radioiodine released at the time of the accident. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the (131)I levels in the local environment (e.g. air, plant, soil). At this point, a long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (t(1/2) = 15.7 million years), also released with a certain ratio to (131)I from CNPP, could be used for estimating the (131)I levels in the environment. In this paper we present analytical results of the (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in soil samples collected from the CNPP exclusion zone (30-km zone), with the aim of assessing current contamination levels and distribution patterns. For the analysis of the iodine fraction in the investigated soil samples, the pyrohydrolysis method was utilized for separation of (127)I and (129)I nuclides, and subsequently their concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), respectively. The concentration of (129)I and the (129)I/(127)I atom ratio in the surface soil samples in the 30 km-zone of CNPP ranged from 4.6 to 170 mBq/kg, and from 1.4 x 10(-6) to 13 x 10(-6), respectively. These values are significantly higher than those from global (129)I fallout, indicating that most of the measured (129)I was due to the deposition of the accident. Stable iodine concentrations in this area were found to be very low (below 1 ppm) for most of the samples, suggesting the environmental iodine levels in this area to be potentially low. The (129)I/(137)Cs activity ratio in surface and sub-surface soils was not so constant, i.e., in the range (7.3-20.2) x 10(-7). This might be due to the different behavior of deposition and/or migration

  16. A dynamic model to estimate the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of marine biota as consequences of a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Keum, Dong-Kwon; Jun, In; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a dynamic compartment model (K-BIOTA-DYN-M) to assess the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of marine biota as a result of a nuclear accident. The model considers the transport of radioactivity between the marine biota through the food chain, and applies the first order kinetic model for the sedimentation of radionuclides from seawater onto sediment. A set of ordinary differential equations representing the model are simultaneously solved to calculate the activity concentration of the biota and the sediment, and subsequently the dose rates, given the seawater activity concentration. The model was applied to investigate the long-term effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the marine biota using (131)I, (134)Cs, and, (137)Cs activity concentrations of seawater measured for up to about 2.5 years after the accident at two locations in the port of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) which was the most highly contaminated area. The predicted results showed that the accumulated dose for 3 months after the accident was about 4-4.5Gy, indicating the possibility of occurrence of an acute radiation effect in the early phase after the Fukushima accident; however, the total dose rate for most organisms studied was usually below the UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation)'s bench mark level for chronic exposure except for the initial phase of the accident, suggesting a very limited radiological effect on the marine biota at the population level. The predicted Cs sediment activity by the first-order kinetic model for the sedimentation was in a good agreement with the measured activity concentration. By varying the ecological parameter values, the present model was able to predict the very scattered (137)Cs activity concentrations of fishes measured in the port of FDNPS. Conclusively, the present dynamic model can be usefully applied to estimate the activity concentration and whole

  17. Licensee over-reliance on conservatisms in NRC guidance regarding the release of patients treated with 131I.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jeffry A; Marcus, Carol S; Stabin, Michael G

    2007-12-01

    Medical licensees are required to comply with U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations pertaining to the release of patients administered radioactive material. However, use of the associated NRC guidance expressed in NUREG-1556, Volume 9, is completely optional and has been shown to be overly conservative. Rigid adherence to the guidance recommendations has placed an undue burden on nuclear medicine therapy patients and their families, as well as licensees responsible for ensuring compliance with NRC requirements. More realistic guidance has been published by other responsible professional societies and will be presented in this work. These more realistic calculations allow for higher releasable activity levels than the widely adopted NUREG levels, particularly for thyroid cancer patients. The guidance-suggested releasable activity limit is similar to our calculational result for hyperthyroid patients, 2.1 GBq (57 mCi) compared to 2.3 GBq (62 mCi), but is significantly lower for thyroid cancer patients, 6.6 GBq (179 mCi) vs. 16.9 GBq (457 mCi) using the regulatory definition of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). Higher limits are both possible and reasonable, if the permissible extra-regulatory definition of the TEDE is used in which the effective dose equivalent (EDE), rather than the deep-dose equivalent (DDE), is determined. We maintain that professionals evaluating compliance with the NRC requirements for patient release, pursuant to 10 CFR 35.75, should use the procedures presented here and not rely automatically on the NUREG.

  18. Therapeutic use of /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in neuroblastoma: a phase II study in nine patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, O.; Lumbroso, J.; Lemerle, J.; Schlumberger, M.; Ricard, M.; Aubert, B.; Coonaert, S.; Merline, L.; Olive, D.; De Lumley, L.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of high activities of I 131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) were evaluated in nine children with advanced neuroblastoma. All patients had been previously heavily treated and had either primarily refractory disease or resistant relapse. Twenty-two doses of mIBG labeled with 1.3 to 4 GBq (35-108 mCi) of iodine 131 were administered. Three subjective effects, especially relief of pain, and two objective effects were observed. Transient blood pressure increase was observed once and did not recur after prolongation of the infusion time to 6 hours. A major side effect was bone marrow toxicity, essentially marked by thrombopenia, particularly severe in previously bone-marrow-transplanted patients.

  19. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I during the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-05-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of AM aerosols originating from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols obtained from aerosol models, typically in the range of 3-7 days, warrants further research on the cause of this discrepancy. Too short modeled AM aerosol lifetimes would have serious implications for air quality and climate model predictions.

  20. Improved targeting of 5-[125I/131I]iodo-2‧-deoxyuridine to rat hepatoma by using lipiodol emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hung-Man; Yeh, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Tien-Kui; Huang, Kuang-Liang; Chuang, Kuo-Tang; Liu, Ren-Shen; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Chen, Fu-Du; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Chen, Chin-Hsiung; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2006-12-01

    This study aims to assess whether emulsion of [ 125/131I]IUdR and lipiodol (IUdR/LP) can improve delivery of IUdR into hepatoma. MethodsIn vitro release profile of IUdR from IUdR/LP to serum was performed. IUdR/LP was injected into N1-S1 hepatoma-bearing SD rat via hepatic artery and IUdR/normal saline (IUdR/NS) was used for comparison. Biodistribution, autoradiography, imaging and tumor DNA incorporation assay were performed. The radioactive metabolites in plasma and urine were analyzed. Radiation doses to tumor and organs were estimated. ResultsIUdR released from lipiodol into serum was fast. There were longer retention, more DNA incorporation and higher radiation dose of IUdR in the tumor by using IUdR/LP. IUdR/LP deposited deep in the hepatomas. Only free iodide was found in the plasma and urine after injection of IUdR/LP. ConclusionsHepatic artery injection of IUdR/LP emulsion could definitely enhance the tumor cell uptake and incorporation to DNA of *IUdR, prolong the tumor retention time and increase radiation dose to tumor. IUdR/LP may be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatic tumors.

  1. Evaluation of S-values and dose distributions for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re in seven lobes of the rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Tianwu; Liu Qian; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Rats have been widely used in radionuclide therapy research for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This has created the need to assess rat liver absorbed radiation dose. In most dose estimation studies, the rat liver is considered as a homogeneous integrated target organ with a tissue composition assumed to be similar to that of human liver tissue. However, the rat liver is composed of several lobes having different anatomical and chemical characteristics. To assess the overall impact on rat liver dose calculation, the authors use a new voxel-based rat model with identified suborgan regions of the liver. Methods: The liver in the original cryosectional color images was manually segmented into seven individual lobes and subsequently integrated into a voxel-based computational rat model. Photon and electron particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate absorbed fractions and S-values for {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 166}Ho, and {sup 188}Re for the seven liver lobes. The effect of chemical composition on organ-specific absorbed dose was investigated by changing the chemical composition of the voxel filling liver material. Radionuclide-specific absorbed doses at the voxel level were further assessed for a small spherical hepatic tumor. Results: The self-absorbed dose for different liver lobes varied depending on their respective masses. A maximum difference of 3.5% was observed for the liver self-absorbed fraction between rat and human tissues for photon energies below 100 keV. {sup 166}Ho and {sup 188}Re produce a uniformly distributed high dose in the tumor and relatively low absorbed dose for surrounding tissues. Conclusions: The authors evaluated rat liver radiation doses from various radionuclides used in HCC treatments using a realistic computational rat model. This work contributes to a better understanding of all aspects influencing radiation transport in organ-specific radiation dose evaluation for

  2. Complex Spontaneous Flows and Concentration Banding in Active Polar Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Luca; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Liverpool, Tanniemola B.

    2008-11-01

    We study the dynamical properties of active polar liquid crystalline films. Like active nematic films, active polar films undergo a dynamical transition to spontaneously flowing steady states. Spontaneous flow in polar fluids is, however, always accompanied by strong concentration inhomogeneities or “banding” not seen in nematics. In addition, a spectacular property unique to polar active films is their ability to generate spontaneously oscillating and banded flows even at low activity. The oscillatory flows become increasingly complicated for strong polarity.

  3. Renal Metastasis and Dual (18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose and 131I) Avid Skeletal Metastasis in a Patient with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Prashanth; Rekha, Pobbi Setty Radhakrishna Gupta; Prabhu, Meghana; Venkataramarao, Sunil Hejjaji; Raju, Nalini; Chandrasekhar, Naveen Hedne; Kannan, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) though usually behaves in an indolent manner, can have unusual metastatic presentation. Initial presentation of metastatic disease has been reported in 1–12% of DTC being less frequent in papillary (~2%) than in follicular (~10%) thyroid carcinoma. Renal metastasis from DTC is very rare. To our knowledge, only about 30 cases have been reported in the English literature to date. To make clinicians aware that management of such high-risk thyroid cancer frequently requires novel multimodality imaging and therapeutic techniques. A 72-year-old female is described who presented with abdominal pain and bilateral lower limbs swelling. Initial contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of abdomen showed a well-encapsulated mass in the upper pole of right kidney favoring a renal cell carcinoma. Postright sided radical nephrectomy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry reports suggested metastatic deposits from thyroid malignancy. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-CT demonstrated hypermetabolic nodule in the left lobe of thyroid and a lytic lesion involving left acetabulum suggestive of skeletal metastasis. Subsequently, ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid nodules in bilateral lobes confirmed thyroid malignancy (Bethesda 6/6). Total thyroidectomy revealed papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) (follicular variant-PTC [FV-PTC]). After surgery, 131I-whole body scan showed iodine avid lytic lesion in the left acetabulum. The present case is a rare scenario of a renal metastasis as the presenting feature of an FV-PTC. Dual avidity in metastatic thyroid cancers (iodine and FDG) is rare and based on the degree of dedifferentiation of the DTC. PMID:28242987

  4. Incidence of malignant thyroid tumors in humans after exposure to diagnostic doses of /sup 131/I. II. Estimation of thyroid gland size, thyroid radiation dose, and predicted versus observed number of malignant thyroid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, L.E.; Eklund, G.; Lundell, G.

    1980-12-01

    The size of the thyroid glands was analyzed for 10% of the patients in a selected group that had been exposed to diagnostic doses of /sup 131/I. The mean thyroid gland weight +- SD was 50 +- 33 g for patients 20 or more years of age and 10 +- 5 g for patients less than 20 years of age. With the present follow-up, diagnostic doses of /sup 131/I appeared not to be associated with an increased risk for later development of malignant thyroid tumors. Possible reasons for the difference between the observed number of such tumors and the number expected (47 to 124) on the basis of risk estimates of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation are discussed.

  5. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with 131I-anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pagel, John M; Gooley, Theodore A; Rajendran, Joseph; Fisher, Darrell R; Wilson, Wendy A; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Matthews, Dana C; Deeg, H Joachim; Gopal, Ajay K; Martin, Paul J; Storb, Rainer F; Press, Oliver W; Appelbaum, Frederick R

    2009-12-24

    We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of (131)I-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with (131)I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3(+) and CD33(+) cells in the blood by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of (131)I-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177.

  6. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  7. HBx M130K and V131I (T-A) mutations in HBV genotype F during a follow-up study in chronic carriers

    PubMed Central

    León, Bernal; Taylor, Lizeth; Vargas, Minor; Luftig, Ronald B; Albertazzi, Federico; Herrero, Libia; Visona, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Background Around 400 million people worldwide are chronically infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV). An estimated 10% of these chronic patients develop progressive liver damage including cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). The HBx gene encodes a protein of 154 amino acids which is a transactivator and has been associated with HBV pathogenesis. A change in the amino acid sequences at positions 130 and 131 in the HBV-X protein (M130K and V131I) produced by T-A point mutations at the nucleic acids level has been associated with severe liver damage and HCC in patients from China and Africa. Further, such changes have been proposed as a prognostic marker for progressive liver damage and HCC. The purpose of this study was to determine if T-A mutations are present in HBV chronic carriers with genotype F (the major genotype in Costa Rica) and further, if these mutations are associated with HBV disease progression in Costa Rica HBV patients from 1972 to 1985. Results Serum samples from 50 HBV positive individuals were amplified and directly sequenced, 48 belonged to genotype F, 1 from genotype D and another was classified as D or E. T-;A mutations were absent in 17 acute patients who recovered, but was present in 12 of 29 chronic carrier samples (42.8%), in one sample the T-A mutations were detected as early as 29 days after clinical onset of disease. In 17 carriers with available liver biopsies, T-;A mutations were found in 8 sera of 13 (61.5%) classified as moderate or severe, and none in 4 biopsies with mild liver damage. However, it was not possible to demonstrate a statistical association between the presence of T-A mutations and moderate/severe liver damage, using a Fischer exact test, 1 tail, p = 0.05. In 4 patients HCC was diagnosed, and 2 of them presented the T-A mutations in their sera. Conclusion T-A mutations were found in HBV genotype F in chronic carriers but not in patients who recovered from acute infection. These mutations could be developing

  8. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  9. Antioxidant Activities of Functional Beverage Concentrates Containing Herbal Medicine Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Kim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Jung Hoan; Jeong, Sehyun; Kim, Min Hee; Yang, Su-Jin; Lee, Jongsung; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity of functional beverage concentrates containing herbal medicine extracts (FBCH) using various antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power assay. The total polyphenolic content of FBCH (81.45 mg/100 g) was higher than Ssanghwa tea (SHT, 37.56 mg/100 g). The antioxidant activities of FBCH showed 52.92% DPPH and 55.18% ABTS radical scavenging activities at 100 mg/mL, respectively. FBCH showed significantly higher antioxidant activities compared to the SHT (DPPH, 23.43%; ABTS, 22.21%; reducing power optical density; 0.23, P<0.05). In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner following FBCH treatment. These results suggest that the addition of herbal medicine extract contributes to the improved functionality of beverage concentrates.

  10. Natural activity concentrations in bottled drinking water and consequent doses.

    PubMed

    Kabadayi, Önder; Gümüs, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    The radioactivity concentrations of nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in bottled drinking water from six different manufacturers from Turkey were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement was done using a coaxial high-purity germanium detector system coupled to Ortec-Dspect jr digital MCA system. The average measured activity concentrations of the nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are found to be 0.781, 1.05 and 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations have been compared with similar studies from different locations. The annual effective doses for ingestion of radionuclides in the water are found to be 0.0246 mSv for (238)U and 0.169 mSv for (232)Th.

  11. The concentration of criminal victimization and patterns of routine activities.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Sheu, Chuen-Jim; Zhao, Jihong Solomon

    2012-06-01

    Although many repeat victimization studies have focused on describing the prevalence of the phenomenon, this study attempted to explain variations in the concentration of victimization by applying routine activities as a theoretical model. A multivariate analysis of repeat victimization based on the 2005 Taiwan criminal victimization data supported the general applicability of the routine activity model developed in Western culture for predicting repeat victimization. Findings that diverged from Western patterns included family income to assault, gender to robbery, and marital status, family income, and major activity to larceny incidents. These disparities illustrated the importance of considering the broader sociocultural context in the association between risk predictors and the concentration of criminal victimization. The contradictory results and nonsignificant variance also reflected untapped information on respondents' biological features and psychological tendencies. Future victimization research would do well to integrate measurements that are sensitive to salient sociocultural elements of the society being studied and individuals' biological and psychological traits.

  12. Monitoring cell concentration and activity by multiple excitation fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Li, J K; Asali, E C; Humphrey, A E; Horvath, J J

    1991-01-01

    Four key cellular metabolic fluorophores--tryptophan, pyridoxine, NAD(P)H, and riboflavin--were monitored on-line by a multiple excitation fluorometric system (MEFS) and a modified SLM 8000C scanning spectrofluorometer in three model yeast fermentation systems--bakers' yeast growing on glucose, Candida utilis growing on ethanol, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RTY110/pRB58 growing on glucose. The measured fluorescence signals were compared with cell concentration, protein concentration, and cellular activity. The results indicate that the behavior and fluorescence intensity of various fluorophores differ in the various fermentation systems. Tryptophan fluorescence is the best signal for the monitoring of cell concentration in bakers' yeast and C. utilis fermentations. Pyridoxine fluoresce is the best signal for the monitoring of cell concentration in the S. cerevisiae RTY110/pRB58 fermentation. In bakers' yeast fermentations the pyridoxine fluorescence signal can be used to monitor cellular activity. The NAD(P)H fluorescence signal is a good indicator of cellular activity in the C. utilis fermentation. For this fermentation NAD(P)H fluorescence can be used to control ethanol feeding in a fed-batch process.

  13. SU-E-I-78: Establishing a Protocol for Quick Estimation of Thyroid Internal Contamination with 131I in Normal and Emergency Situations

    SciTech Connect

    Naderi, S Mehdizadeh; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Zamani, E; Molaeimanesh, Z; Sadeghi, M; Sina, S; Faghihi, R; Entezarmahdi, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: I-131 is one of the most frequent radionuclides used in nuclear medicine departments. The radiation workers, who manipulate the unsealed radio-toxic iodine, should be monitored for internal contamination. In this study a protocol was established for estimating I-131 activity absorbed in the thyroid glands of the nuclear medicine staff in normal working condition and also in accidents. Methods: I-131 with the activity of 10 μCi was injected inside the thyroid gland of a home-made anthropomorphic neck phantom. The phantom is made up of PMMA as soft tissue, and Aluminium as bone. The dose rate at different distances from the surface of the neck phantom was measured using a scintillator detector for duration of two months. Then, calibration factors were obtained, for converting the dose rate at each distance to the iodine activity inside the thyroid. Results: According to the results of this study, the calibration factors for converting the dose rates (nSv/h) at distances of 0cm, 1cm, 6cm, 11cm, and 16cm to the activity (kBq) inside the thyroid were found to be 0.03, 0.04, 0.14, 0.29, and 0.49 . Conclusion: This method can be effectively used for quick estimation of the I-131 concentration inside the thyroid of the staff for daily checks in normal working conditions and also in accidents.

  14. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  15. Activity concentrations and dose rates from decorative granite countertops.

    PubMed

    Llope, W J

    2011-06-01

    The gamma radiation emitted from a variety of commercial decorative granites available for use in U.S. homes has been measured with portable survey meters as well as an NaI(Th) gamma spectrometer. The (40)K, U-nat, and (232)Th activity concentrations were determined using a full-spectrum analysis. The dose rates that would result from two different arrangements of decorative granite slabs as countertops were explored in simulations involving an adult anthropomorphic phantom.

  16. Plasma renin activities, angiotensin II concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values in dogs with severe heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, H; Kitoh, K; Inoue, H; Ohba, Y; Suzuki, F; Sasaki, Y

    2000-04-01

    Relationships among plasma renin activities (PRA), plasma angiotensin II (ATII) concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values were examined in dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease and acute- and chronic-vena caval syndrome (CS). PRA, plasma ATII concentration and plasma ANP concentration tended to be higher or were significantly higher in dogs with ascites, acute- and chronic-CS. PRA correlated significantly with plasma ATII concentration, WBC count, ALP activity, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ATII concentration correlated significantly with WBC count, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ANP concentration did not correlate with PRA or ATII concentration, but correlated significantly only with pulmonary arterial pressure.

  17. Electrochemical Evidence for Neuroglobin Activity on NO at Physiological Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Trashin, Stanislav; de Jong, Mats; Luyckx, Evi; Dewilde, Sylvia; De Wael, Karolien

    2016-09-02

    The true function of neuroglobin (Ngb) and, particularly, human Ngb (NGB) has been under debate since its discovery 15 years ago. It has been expected to play a role in oxygen binding/supply, but a variety of other functions have been put forward, including NO dioxygenase activity. However, in vitro studies that could unravel these potential roles have been hampered by the lack of an Ngb-specific reductase. In this work, we used electrochemical measurements to investigate the role of an intermittent internal disulfide bridge in determining NO oxidation kinetics at physiological NO concentrations. The use of a polarized electrode to efficiently interconvert the ferric (Fe(3+)) and ferrous (Fe(2+)) forms of an immobilized NGB showed that the disulfide bridge both defines the kinetics of NO dioxygenase activity and regulates appearance of the free ferrous deoxy-NGB, which is the redox active form of the protein in contrast to oxy-NGB. Our studies further identified a role for the distal histidine, interacting with the hexacoordinated iron atom of the heme, in oxidation kinetics. These findings may be relevant in vivo, for example, in blocking apoptosis by reduction of ferric cytochrome c, and gentle tuning of NO concentration in the tissues.

  18. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-, 177Lu-, 131I-, 124I-, and 188Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, S.; Feron, O.; Gallez, B.; Masereel, B.; Michiels, C.; Vander Borght, T.

    2015-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like 131I or 90Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of 90Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as 90Y, 177Lu, 131I, 124I, and 188Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody) distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC)). 90Y and 188Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases. PMID:26136812

  19. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with (90)Y-, (177)Lu-, (131)I-, (124)I-, and (188)Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts.

    PubMed

    Lucas, S; Feron, O; Gallez, B; Masereel, B; Michiels, C; Vander Borght, T

    2015-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like (131)I or (90)Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of (90)Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as (90)Y, (177)Lu, (131)I, (124)I, and (188)Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody) distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC)). (90)Y and (188)Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases.

  20. Pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA, (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP--an evaluation of three imaging techniques in patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.E.; Lazarus, C.R.; Wraight, P.; Sampson, C.; Maisey, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Nine patients with histologically proven medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) were imaged using pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercaptosuccinic acid ((V)DMSA), (/sup 131/I) metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and (/sup 99m/Tc)methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Technetium-99m (V)DMSA demonstrated most of the tumor sites in eight patients with proven metastases, with an overall sensitivity of 95% in lesion detection. Iodine-131 MIBG showed definite uptake in some of the tumor sites in three of the nine patients imaged, with equivocal uptake seen in a further one patient, with sensitivity of only 11% for lesion detection. Technetium-99m MDP demonstrated bony metastases only, in four of the patients imaged yielding a sensitivity of 61%. Technetium-99m (V)DMSA has been demonstrated in this study to be a useful imaging agent in patients with MCT, showing uptake in significantly more lesions and with better imaging qualities than (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and with the ability to detect soft tissue as well as bony metastases.

  1. Dimerization in Highly Concentrated Solutions of Phosphoimidazolide Activated Monomucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1997-08-01

    Phosphoimidazolide activated ribomononucleotides (*pN) are useful substrates for the non-enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. However, dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN typically yield small amounts of dimers and traces of polymers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Here we report the self-condensation of nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpN with N = cytidine, uridine or guanosine) in the presence of Mg2+ in concentrated solutions, such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon on prebiotic Earth. The product distribution indicates that oligomerization is favored at the expense of hydrolysis. At 1.0 M, 2-MeImpU and 2-MeImpC produce about 65% of oligomers including 4% of the 3',5'-linked dimer. Examination of the product distribution of the three isomeric dimers in a self-condensation allows identification of reaction pathways that lead to dimer formation. Condensations in a concentrated mixture of all three nucleotides (U,C,G mixtures) is made possible by the enhanced solubility of 2-MeImpG in such mixtures. Although percent yield of internucleotide linked dimers is enhanced as a function of initial monomer concentration, pyrophosphate dimer yields remain practically unchanged at about 20% for 2-MeImpU, 16% for 2-MeImpC and 25% of the total pyrophosphate in the U,C,G mixtures. The efficiency by which oligomers are produced in these concentrated solutions makes the evaporating lagoon scenario a potentially interesting medium for the prebiotic synthesis of dimers and short RNAs.

  2. Dimerization in Highly Concentrated Solutions of Phosphoimidazolide Activated Mononucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1997-01-01

    Phosphoimidazolide activated ribomononucleotides (*pN) are useful substrates for the non-enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. However, dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN typically yield small amounts of dimers and traces of polymers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Here we report the self-condensation of nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2- methylimidazolide (2-MeImpN with N = cytidine, uridine or guanosine) in the presence of Mg2(+) in concentrated solutions, such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon on prebiotic Earth. The product distribution indicates that oligomerization is favored at the expense of hydrolysis. At 1.0 M, 2-MelmpU and 2-MelmpC produce about 65% of oligomers including 4% of the 3',5'-Iinked dimer. Examination of the product distribution of the three isomeric dimers in a self-condensation allows identification of reaction pathways that lead to dimer formation. Condensations in a concentrated mixture of all three nucleotides (U,C,G mixtures) is made possible by the enhanced solubility of 2-MeImpG in such mixtures. Although percent yield of intemucleotide linked dimers is enhanced as a function of initial monomer concentration, pyrophosphate dimer yields remain practically unchanged at about 20% for 2-MelmpU, 16% for 2-MeImpC and 25% of the total pyrophosphate in the U,C,G mixtures. The efficiency by which oligomers are produced in these concentrated solutions makes the evaporating lagoon scenario a potentially interesting medium for the prebiotic synthesis of dimers and short RNAs.

  3. Metal concentration and antioxidant activity of edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Kocak, Mehmet Sefa; Uren, Mehmet Cemil

    2015-05-15

    This study presents information on the antioxidant activity and heavy metal concentrations of Polyporus sulphureus, Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon perlatum and Gomphus clavatus mushrooms collected from the province of Mugla in the South-Aegean Region of Turkey. Antioxidant activities of mushroom samples were evaluated by four complementary tests. All tests showed L. perlatum and G. clavatus to possess extremely high antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activity of the samples was strongly correlated with total phenolic-flavonoid content. In terms of heavy metal content, L. perlatum exceeded the legal limits for daily intake of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Co contents (0.461, 738.00, 14.52, 1.27, 1.65, 0.417 mg/day, respectively) by a 60-kg consumer. Co contents of M. procera (0.026 mg/day) and P. sulphureus (0.030 mg/day) and Cd contents of G. clavatus (0.071 mg/day) were also above the legal limits. According to these results, L. perlatum should not be consumed, despite the potentially beneficial antioxidant activity. Additionally, M. procera and G. clavatus should not be consumed daily due to their high levels of Cd and Co.

  4. Nonionic surfactants enhancing bactericidal activity at their critical micelle concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Seiichi; Majima, Toshiaki; Tadenuma, Hirohiko; Suekuni, Tomonari; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Bactericidal activities of benzalkonium chloride [also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC)] containing nonionic surfactants such as methyl ester ethoxylates (MEE) with the alkyl group C8-C14 and oxyethylene (EO) group of average adduct number 3-15 were measured against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Sample solutions containing MEE in the vicinity of the critical micelle concentration exhibited a dramatic decrease in viable bacterial counts. MEE with an alkyl group of C12 and an oxyethylene group of lower adduct number exhibited little viable bacterial counts than those having higher EO adduct numbers. MEE with reduced EO adduct numbers increased fluorescence intensity in E. coli using the viability stain SYTO 9. Our results show that MEE molecules with low EO adduct numbers exhibited bactericidal activity by increasing the permeability of the E. coli cell membrane. Sample solution containing ADBAC and MEE molecules with lower EO adduct numbers also displayed higher zeta potentials. Moreover, ADBAC molecules incorporated into micelles of MEE with lower EO adduct numbers were adsorbed onto the surface of E. coli, which augmented bactericidal activity.

  5. Assessment of thrombogenicity of activated and non-activated prothrombin concentrates in a rat model.

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, S.; Fareed, J.; Walenga, J.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro clotting activity of rats injected with different preparations of prothrombin concentrates was measured. Animals rendered deficient in vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors by early coumadin (warfarin) pretreatment, followed by injections of concentrate preparations were also evaluated. Findings indicate a dose-related response in abnormal coagulation changes demonstrable with each preparation and lack of protection of intravascular coagulation by coumadin anticoagulation. Furthermore, a role for in vivo factor VII activation of haemostasis following concentrate administration could not be elicited. PMID:3091059

  6. Specific activity and activity ratios of radionuclides in soil collected about 20 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Radionuclide release to the south and southwest.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Uchihori, Yukio; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2011-10-15

    Soil samples at different depths (0-2, 5-7 and 10-12cm) were collected from J Village, about 20km south of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) to determine their radionuclide specific activities and activity ratios. The concentrations and activity ratios of (131)I, (134, 136, 137)Cs and (129m)Te were obtained, but only trace amounts of (95)Nb, (110m)Ag and (140)La were detected which were too low to provide accurate concentrations. Radionuclides such as (95)Zr, (103, 106)Ru and (140)Ba that were found in Chernobyl fallout, were not found in these soil samples. This suggests that noble gasses and volatile radionuclides predominated in the releases from FNPP to the terrestrial environment. The average activity ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (134)Cs/(137)Cs, (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(137)Cs were 55, 0.90, 0.22 and 4.0 (corrected to March 11, 2011) in the 0-2cm soil samples of April 20 and 28, 2011.

  7. Active-site concentrations of chemicals - are they a better predictor of effect than plasma/organ/tissue concentrations?

    PubMed

    Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2010-03-01

    Active-site concentrations can be defined as the concentrations of unbound, pharmacologically active substances at the site of action. In contrast, the total concentrations of the drug in plasma/organ/tissue also include the protein- or tissue-bound molecules that are pharmacologically inactive. Plasma and whole tissue concentrations are used as predictors of effects and side effects because of their ease of sampling, while the concentrations of unbound drug in tissue are more difficult to measure. However, with the introduction of microdialysis and subsequently developed techniques, it has become possible to test the free drug hypothesis. The brain is an interesting organ in this regard because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier with its tight junctions and active efflux and influx transporters. We have proposed that research into brain drug delivery be divided into three main areas: the rate of delivery (PS, CL(in)), the extent of delivery (K(p,uu)) and the non-specific affinity of the drug to brain tissue, described by the volume of distribution of unbound drug in the brain (V(u,brain)). In this way, the concentration of unbound drug at the target site can be estimated from the total brain concentration and the plasma concentration after measuring the fraction of unbound drug. Results so far fully support the theory that active site concentrations are the best predictors when active transport is present. However, there is an urgent need to collect more relevant data for predicting active site concentrations in tissues with active transporters in their plasma membranes.

  8. Platelet activating factor raises intracellular calcium ion concentration in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Peritoneal cells from thioglycollate-stimulated mice were allowed to adhere to coverglasses for 2 h to give a dense monolayer of adherent cells greater than 95% of which were macrophages. After incubation with the tetra-acetoxymethyl ester of quin2, coverglasses were rinsed with Ca2+-free saline, oriented at a 45 degree angle in square cuvettes containing a magnetically driven stir bar, and analyzed for changes in quin2 fluorescence in a spectrofluorimeter. Such fluorescence, taken as an indication of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i), increased as exogenous calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]o) was raised to 1 mM. At [Ca2+]o approximately equal to 10 microM, [Ca2+]i = 72 +/- 14 nM (n = 26); at [Ca2+]o = 1 mM, [Ca2+]i = 140-220 nM, levels not increased by N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine, a membrane-permeant chelator of heavy metals than can quench quin2. Addition of mouse alpha + beta fibroblast interferon, lipopolysaccharide, thrombin, collagen, vasopressin, ADP, compound 48/80, or U46619 did not change [Ca2+]i. However, addition of platelet activating factor (PAF) (2-20 ng/ml) raised [Ca2+]i by 480 nM within 1 min if [Ca2+]o = 1 mM. In the presence of 5 mM EGTA, PAF raised [Ca2+]i by 25 nM. This suggests that PAF causes influx of exogenous Ca2+, as well as releasing some Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Consistent with these results, when PAF was added to 1 mM Ca2+ in the presence of 100 microM Cd2+ or Mn2+ to block Ca2+ influx, [Ca2+]i increased by only intermediate amounts; at the times of such dampened peak response, [Ca2+]i could be raised within 1 min to normal PAF-stimulated levels by chelation of the exogenous heavy metals with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Normal PAF responses were observed in the presence of indomethacin. The lowest dose of PAF observed to raise [Ca2+]i was 0.1 ng/ml. Response of [Ca2+]i to 2-20 ng/ml PAF was transient, and second applications had no effect. The PAF response also was seen in

  9. Probable involvement of serotonin in the increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier by forced swimming. An experimental study using Evans blue and 131I-sodium tracers in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H S; Westman, J; Navarro, J C; Dey, P K; Nyberg, F

    1995-12-14

    The possibility that endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) participates in alteration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following short-term forced swimming (FS) exercise was examined in a rat model. Subjection of conscious young (age 8-9 weeks, 80-90 g) animals to continuous FS (at a water temperature of 30 +/- 1 degrees C) for 30 min, increased the permeability of the BBB to Evans blue albumin (EBA) and 131I-sodium in six and nine brain regions, respectively. The EBA staining was noted in posterior cingulate cortex, parietal, occipital cortices, cerebellar vermis, medial lateral cerebellar cortices and dorsal surface of hippocampus. In addition to these brain regions, the BBB permeability to 131I-sodium was further extended to caudate nucleus, thalamus and hypothalamus. This effect of FS on the BBB permeability was absent in adult (age 24-30 weeks, 300-400 g) animals. Measurement of 5-HT showed a profound increase of plasma and brain in young rats by 180% and 250%, respectively, from the control group. Adult animals showed only a minor increase in brain and plasma 5-HT levels. In young animals, pretreatment with p-CPA (a 5-HT synthesis inhibitor) and indomethacin (a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor) prevented the FS induced increase in BBB permeability and 5-HT levels. Destruction of serotonergic neurons with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) reduced the breakdown of the BBB and attenuated the brain 5-HT level without affecting the plasma 5-HT. Cyproheptadine, ketanserin (5-HT2 receptor antagonists) and vinblastine (a vesicular transport inhibitor) prevented the increased permeability of the BBB alone. The plasma and brain 5-HT continued to remain high. These observations suggest that (i) 5-HT plays an important role in the breakdown of BBB permeability in FS, (ii) this effect of 5-HT on BBB permeability is mediated by 5-HT2 receptors, and (iii) FS induced increase in BBB permeability is age dependent.

  10. Follicular thyroid carcinoma with NRAS Q61K and GNAS R201H mutations that had a good 131I treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Po-Ju; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Chang, Tien-Chun; Huang, Tien-Shang

    2016-01-01

    Summary We report a case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with concomitant NRAS p.Q61K and GNAS p.R201H mutations, which manifested as a 13.5 cm thyroid mass with lung, humerus and T9 spine metastases, and exhibited good response to radioactive iodine treatment. Learning points GNAS p.R201H somatic mutation is an activating or gain-of-function mutation resulting in constitutively activated Gs-alpha protein and downstream cAMP cascade, independent of TSH signaling, causing autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. NRAS p.Q61K mutations with GNAS p.R201H mutations are known for a good radioactive iodine treatment response.Further exploration of the GNAS-activating pathway may provide therapeutic insights into the treatment of metastatic follicular carcinoma. PMID:26788326

  11. The relation of seismic activity and radon concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Kulali, Feride E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Akkurt, İskender E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Vogiannis, Efstratios

    2014-10-06

    Radon, which is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation, reaches to surface as gas or dissolved form in the ground water. Emanation of radon can has a profile is disposed to increasing or decreasing depending on the effects of meteorological events or crust movements. In this work, the radon concentration in soil gas, which is transported from soil to AlphaGUARD, is continuously measured in Mytilene (Greece). A graph of radon concentration is prepared for comparison with simultaneous earthquake data. As a consequence of comparison, we determined that the radon concentration indicates anomalies before the earthquakes.

  12. The "AQUASCOPE" simplified model for predicting 89,90Sr, 131I, and 134,137Cs in surface waters after a large-scale radioactive fallout.

    PubMed

    Smith, J T; Belova, N V; Bulgakov, A A; Comans, R N J; Konoplev, A V; Kudelsky, A V; Madruga, M J; Voitsekhovitch, O V; Zibold, G

    2005-12-01

    Simplified dynamic models have been developed for predicting the concentrations of radiocesium, radiostrontium, and I in surface waters and freshwater fish following a large-scale radioactive fallout. The models are intended to give averaged estimates for radionuclides in water bodies and in fish for all times after a radioactive fallout event. The models are parameterized using empirical data collected for many lakes and rivers in Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, UK, Finland, Italy, The Netherlands, and Germany. These measurements span a long time period after fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and following the Chernobyl accident. The models thus developed were tested against independent measurements from the Kiev Reservoir and Chernobyl Cooling Pond (Ukraine) and the Sozh River (Belarus) after the Chernobyl accident, from Lake Uruskul (Russia), following the Kyshtym accident in 1957, and from Haweswater Reservoir (UK), following atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The AQUASCOPE models (implemented in EXCEL spreadsheets) and model documentation are available free of charge from the corresponding author.

  13. Effect of pressure and intimal damage on /sup 131/I-albumin and (/sup 14/C)sucrose spaces in aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Tedgui, A.; Lever, M.J.

    1987-12-01

    To measure the distribution volume for sucrose and albumin in the media of the rabbit thoracic aorta, we studied the uptake of tracers in vitro. In most cases the tracers were applied to both luminal and adventitial surfaces at the same concentration. When transmural convection was prevented by pressurization of the arteries with air, there was a decrease in sucrose space (19% at 70 mmHg and 28% at 180 mmHg) and in albumin space (60% at 70 mmHg and 66% at 180 mmHg), compared with the respective spaces in relaxed arteries (0.42 for sucrose and 0.08 for albumin). Much smaller changes were found when intact vessels were pressurized with liquid (insignificant for sucrose, decreases of 24% at 70 mmHg and 14% at 180 mmHg for albumin). Removal of the endothelium, which increases transmural fluid flux, increased the space for sucrose (not significantly at 70 mmHg and 17% at 180 mmHg) and particularly for albumin (100% at 70 mmHg and 250% at 180 mmHg). We conclude that the interstitial volume and consequently the protein space within the media can be modified both by distending stresses applied to the vessel and by transmural fluid flux.

  14. The active titration method for measuring local hydroxyl radical concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprengnether, Michele; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a method for measuring ambient OH by monitoring its rate of reaction with a chemical species. Our technique involves the local, instantaneous release of a mixture of saturated cyclic hydrocarbons (titrants) and perfluorocarbons (dispersants). These species must not normally be present in ambient air above the part per trillion concentration. We then track the mixture downwind using a real-time portable ECD tracer instrument. We collect air samples in canisters every few minutes for roughly one hour. We then return to the laboratory and analyze our air samples to determine the ratios of the titrant to dispersant concentrations. The trends in these ratios give us the ambient OH concentration from the relation: dlnR/dt = -k(OH). A successful measurement of OH requires that the trends in these ratios be measureable. We must not perturb ambient OH concentrations. The titrant to dispersant ratio must be spatially invariant. Finally, heterogeneous reactions of our titrant and dispersant species must be negligible relative to the titrant reaction with OH. We have conducted laboratory studies of our ability to measure the titrant to dispersant ratios as a function of concentration down to the few part per trillion concentration. We have subsequently used these results in a gaussian puff model to estimate our expected uncertainty in a field measurement of OH. Our results indicate that under a range of atmospheric conditions we expect to be able to measure OH with a sensitivity of 3x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). In our most optimistic scenarios, we obtain a sensitivity of 1x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). These sensitivity values reflect our anticipated ability to measure the ratio trends. However, because we are also using a rate constant to obtain our (OH) from this ratio trend, our accuracy cannot be better than that of the rate constant, which we expect to be about 20 percent.

  15. Variance of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) concentrations in activated, concentrated platelets from healthy male donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of autologous blood concentrates, such as activated, concentrated platelets, in orthopaedic clinical applications has had mixed results. Research on this topic has focused on growth factors and cytokines, with little directed towards matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are involved in post-wound tissue remodeling. Methods In this study, the authors measured the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13), in activated platelets derived from blood of healthy, male volunteers (n = 92), 19 to 60 years old. The levels of the natural inhibitors of these proteases, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 were also assessed. Results Notably, there was no significant change in concentration with age in four of six targets tested. However, TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 demonstrated a statistically significant increase in concentration for subjects older than 30 years of age compared to those 30 years and younger (P = 0.04 and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 are global inhibitors of MMPs, including MMP-2 (Gelatinase A). MMP-2 targets native collagens, gelatin and elastin to remodel the extracellular matrix during wound healing. A decreased availability of pharmacologically active MMP-2 may diminish the effectiveness of the use of activated, concentrated platelets from older patients, and may also contribute to longer healing times in this population. PMID:24766991

  16. Concentration dependent differential activity of signalling molecules in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caenorhabditis elegans employs specific glycosides of the dideoxysugar ascarylose (the ‘ascarosides’) for monitoring population density/ dauer formation and finding mates. A synergistic blend of three ascarosides, called ascr#2, ascr#3 and ascr#4 acts as a dauer pheromone at a high concentration na...

  17. Three-Dimensional Concentration Measurements around Actively Tracking Blue Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, B. D.; Jackson, J. L.; Weissburg, M. J.; Webster, D. R.

    2006-11-01

    Many aquatic arthropods locate food, suitable habitats, and mates solely through information extracted by chemical signals in their environment. Chemical plumes detected by larger animals are influenced by turbulence that creates an intermittent and unpredictable chemical stimulus environment. To link the stimulus pattern to behavior, we have developed a measurement system to quantify the instantaneous odor concentration surrounding a freely tracking blue crab through three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (3DLIF). A blue crab receives chemical stimulus at several locations, including the antennules near the mouth region and the distal tips of the legs and claws. Hence, three-dimensional measurements of the concentration field are required to link behavior to plume structure. During trials, crabs began their search 150 cm downstream of a source, and walking kinematics were recording simultaneously. The crabs were reversibly ``blindfolded'' during tracking to prevent aversive reactions to the intense laser light. Our experiments allow us to examine how hypothesized navigational cues, such as concentration bursts at the antennules and spatial asymmetry in concentration at the distributed chemosensory organs on the legs and claws, results in particular decisions during navigation.

  18. Low salt concentrations activate AMP-activated protein kinase in mouse macula densa cells.

    PubMed

    Cook, Natasha; Fraser, Scott A; Katerelos, Marina; Katsis, Frosa; Gleich, Kurt; Mount, Peter F; Steinberg, Gregory R; Levidiotis, Vicki; Kemp, Bruce E; Power, David A

    2009-04-01

    The energy-sensing kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is associated with the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter NKCC2 in the kidney and phosphorylates it on a regulatory site in vitro. To identify a potential role for AMPK in salt sensing at the macula densa, we have used the murine macula densa cell line MMDD1. In this cell line, AMPK was rapidly activated by isosmolar low-salt conditions. In contrast to the known salt-sensing pathway in the macula densa, AMPK activation occurred in the presence of either low sodium or low chloride and was unaffected by inhibition of NKCC2 with bumetanide. Assays using recombinant AMPK demonstrated activation of an upstream kinase by isosmolar low salt. The specific calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase inhibitor STO-609 failed to suppress AMPK activation, suggesting that it was not part of the signal pathway. AMPK activation was associated with increased phosphorylation of the specific substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at Ser(79), as well as increased NKCC2 phosphorylation at Ser(126). AMPK activation due to low salt concentrations was inhibited by an adenovirus construct encoding a kinase dead mutant of AMPK, leading to reduced ACC Ser(79) and NKCC2 Ser(126) phosphorylation. This work demonstrates that AMPK activation in macula densa-like cells occurs via isosmolar changes in sodium or chloride concentration, leading to phosphorylation of ACC and NKCC2. Phosphorylation of these substrates in vivo is predicted to increase intracellular chloride and so reduce the effect of salt restriction on tubuloglomerular feedback and renin secretion.

  19. Rapid Response Concentration-Controlled Desorption of Activated Carbon to Dampen Concentration Fluctuations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Z A E M A M I P O U R , D I E G O C E V A L L O S , A N D M A R K J . R O O D * Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of...such as granular activated carbon (GAC) have been used as biofilter packing material on which biofilm was grown to assist with buffering of the...efficiencies were attributed to the thickness of the biofilm on the GAC. GAC was also used in a separate vessel to dampen the fluctuations of the

  20. Active and passive cooling for concentrating photovoltaic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The optimization, based on minimum energy cost, of active and passive cooling designs for point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic arrays and line-focus, parabolic-trough photovoltaic arrays are discussed, and the two types of cooling are compared. Passive cooling is more cost effective than active for Fresnel lens arrays while the reverse is true for parabolic trough arrays. The analysis produced several other conclusions of interest which are also discussed.

  1. Active and passive cooling for concentrating photovoltaic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1981-10-01

    Optimization, based on minimum energy cost, of active and passive cooling designs for point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic arrays and line-focus, parabolic-trough photovoltaic arrays is discussed, and the two types of cooling are compared. Passive cooling is more cost-effective for Fresnel lens arrays while the reverse is true for parabolic-trough arrays.

  2. Russian Activities in Space Photovoltaic Power Modules with Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, Vyacheslav M.; Rumyantsev, Valeri D.

    2004-01-01

    Space concentrator modules with point-and line-focus Fresnel lenses and with reflective parabolic troughs have been developed recently at Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute. PV receivers for these modules are based: on the single junction LPE and MOCVD AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells characterized by AM0 efficiencies of 23.5 - 24% at 20 - 50 suns and 24 - 24.75 at 50 - 200 suns; on the mechanically stacked tandem AlGaAs/GaAs-GaSb cells with efficiency of 27 - 28 at 20 - 100 suns. MOCVD AlGaAs/GaAs cells with internal Bragg reflector have shown a higher radiation resistance as compared to a traditional structure. Monolithic two-terminal tandems AlGaAs (top)-GaAs (bottom) for space application and GaSb (top) - InGaAsSb (bottom) for TRV application are under development as well.

  3. Calculating Capstone depleted uranium aerosol concentrations from beta activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Szrom, Frances; Falo, Gerald A; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Alberth, David P

    2009-03-01

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the DU source term for the subsequent Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Values for the equilibrium fraction ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92. This paper describes the process used and adjustments necessary to calculate uranium mass from proportional counting measurements.

  4. Evolution in the concentration of activities in lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.

    2016-03-01

    From a perusal of the proceedings of the SPIE Advanced Lithography Symposium, the progression of new concepts in lithographic technology can be seen. A new idea first appears in a few papers, and over time, there is an increase in the number of papers on the same topic. Eventually the method becomes commonplace, and the number of papers on the topic declines, as the idea becomes part of our industry's working knowledge. For example, one or two papers on resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) appeared in the proceedings of the Optical Microlithography Conference in 1989 and 1990. By 1994, the total number of papers had increased to 35. Early lithographers focused on practical issues, such as adhesion promotion and resist edge bead. The introduction of simulation software brought on the next era of lithography. This was followed by a period of time in which RETs were developed and brought to maturity. The introduction of optical proximity corrections (OPC) initiated the next major era of lithography. The traditional path for scaling by using shorter wavelengths, decreasing k1 and increasing numerical aperture has given way to the current era of optical multiple patterning and lithography-design co-optimization. There has been sufficient activity in EUV lithography R and D to justify a separate EUV Lithography Conference as part of the annual Advanced Lithography Symposium. Each era builds on the cumulative knowledge gained previously. Over time, there have been parallel developments in optics, exposure tools, resist, metrology and mask technology, many of which were associated with changes in the wavelength of light used for leading-edge lithography.

  5. A Monte Carlo approach to small-scale dosimetry of solid tumour microvasculature for nuclear medicine therapies with (223)Ra-, (131)I-, (177)Lu- and (111)In-labelled radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Amato, Ernesto; Leotta, Salvatore; Italiano, Antonio; Baldari, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    The small-scale dosimetry of radionuclides in solid-tumours is directly related to the intra-tumoral distribution of the administered radiopharmaceutical, which is affected by its egress from the vasculature and dispersion within the tumour. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the combined dosimetric effects of radiopharmaceutical distribution and range of the emitted radiation in a model of tumour microvasculature. We developed a computational model of solid-tumour microenvironment around a blood capillary vessel, and we simulated the transport of radiation emitted by (223)Ra, (111)In, (131)I and (177)Lu using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo. For each nuclide, several models of radiopharmaceutical dispersion throughout the capillary vessel were considered. Radial dose profiles around the capillary vessel, the Initial Radioactivity (IR) necessary to deposit 100 Gy of dose at the edge of the viable tumour-cell region, the Endothelial Cell Mean Dose (ECMD) and the Tumour Edge Mean Dose (TEMD), i.e. the mean dose imparted at the 250-μm layer of tissue, were computed. The results for beta and Auger emitters demonstrate that the photon dose is about three to four orders of magnitude lower than that deposited by electrons. For (223)Ra, the beta emissions of its progeny deliver a dose about three orders of magnitude lower than that delivered by the alpha emissions. Such results may help to characterize the dose inhomogeneities in solid tumour therapies with radiopharmaceuticals, taking into account the interplay between drug distribution from vasculature and range of ionizing radiations.

  6. Immunohistology of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-expressing tumors grafted in nude mice after radioimmunotherapy with 131I-labeled bivalent hapten and anti-CEA x antihapten bispecific antibody.

    PubMed

    Gautherot, E; Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Daniel, L; Fiche, M; Rouvier, E; Saï-Maurel, C; Thedrez, P; Chatal, J F; Barbet, J

    1999-10-01

    We have developed a pretargeting strategy, called the Affinity Enhancement System (AES), which uses bispecific antibodies (BsF(ab')2) to target radiolabeled bivalent haptens to tumor cells. We performed several radioimmunotherapy (RIT) experiments in nude mice grafted with LS174T colon carcinoma or TT medullary thyroid cancer. Mice were treated with 131I-labeled di-DTPA-indium-tyrosyl-lysine bivalent hapten (75-112 MBq) administered 15-48 h after anti-CEA x anti-DTPA-indium BsF(ab')2. Immunohistological studies were performed on tumors at their minimal relative volume (TT), on stabilized tumor nodules (LS174T), and on regrowing tumors (TT and LS174T). Untreated tumors were used as controls. On microscopic examination, regrowing tumors (2 months posttherapy) were similar to untreated tumors with cells showing their respective typical morphology (large cells with a high nucleocytoplasmic ratio for TT, small and very undifferentiated cells for LS174T). However, regrowing tumors showed larger necrotic areas and a higher mitotic index correlated with Ki-67 antigen staining. Immunostaining for CEA was as strong as for controls. By contrast, the immunohistology of TT tumors at their minimal relative volume (1 month posttherapy) or of LS174T residual nodules (8 months posttherapy) showed decreased mitotic indices correlated with poor Ki-67 antigen staining. Some clusters of LS174T presented with features of glandular lumen, which suggested a more differentiated and less aggressive status. In TT tumors, CEA expression remained unchanged (80-100% membrane and cytoplasmic staining), whereas only 70% of the LS174T tumors were stained, with 58% loss of the membrane expression. Repeated treatment early after the tumor has reached its minimal relative volume should thus be efficient and improve the overall efficacy of AES RIT.

  7. Classical Nuclear Hormone Receptor Activity as a Mediator of Complex Concentration Response Relationships for Endocrine Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cookman, Clifford J.; Belcher, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonmonotonic concentration response relationships are frequently observed for endocrine active ligands that act via nuclear receptors. The curve of best fit for nonmonotonic concentration response relationships are often inverted U-shaped with effects at intermediate concentrations that are different from effects at higher or lower concentrations. Cytotoxicity is a major mode of action responsible for inverted U-shaped concentration response relationships. However, evidence suggests that ligand selectivity, activation of multiple molecular targets, concerted regulation of multiple opposing endpoints, and multiple ligand binding sites within nuclear receptors also contribute to nonmonotonic concentration response relationships of endocrine active ligands. This review reports the current understanding of mechanisms involved in classical nuclear receptor mediated nonmonotonic concentration response relationships with a focus on studies published between 2012 and 2014. PMID:25299165

  8. Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O

    2013-11-01

    The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio.

  9. Daily and seasonal variations in radon activity concentration in the soil air.

    PubMed

    Műllerová, Monika; Holý, Karol; Bulko, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Radon activity concentration in the soil air in the area of Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics (FMPI) in Bratislava, Slovak Republic, has been continuously monitored since 1994. Long-term measurements at a depth of 0.8 m and short-term measurements at a depth of 0.4 m show a high variability in radon activity concentrations in the soil. The analysis of the data confirms that regular daily changes in radon activity concentration in the soil air depend on the daily changes in atmospheric pressure. It was also found that the typical annual courses of the radon activity concentration in the soil air (with summer minima and winter maxima) were disturbed by mild winter and heavy summer precipitation. Influence of precipitation on the increase in the radon activity concentration in the soil air was observed at a depth of 0.4 m and subsequently at a depth of 0.8 m.

  10. Elevated blood active ghrelin and normal total ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Markowska, A; Ziolkowska, A; Nowinka, K; Malendowicz, L K

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin originate from the same peptide precursor, preproghrelin. Both peptides are secreted in the blood. We investigated serum active and total ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in women with uterine myomatosis. Serum concentrations of active ghrelin in uterine leiomyoma were significantly higher compared to women in the control group (86 +/- 3 vs 56 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.02). On the other hand, serum concentrations of total ghrelin and obestatin in uterine leiomyoma did not differ from those in the control group. In the control group the ratio of active to total ghrelin concentrations amounted to 0.62, while in women with uterine myoma it was 0.95, pointing to a prevalence of the active form of ghrelin in women with uterine myoma. Also the ratio of active ghrelin concentration to obestatin concentration was higher in the latter group while the ratio of total circulating ghrelin to obestatin concentrations was similar in the two groups. The data may suggest a role of active ghrelin in the development of a myoma. Moreover, the results indicate that increased blood ratios of active to total ghrelin and to obestatin concentrations are not specific for cachexia.

  11. Effect of the active-ion concentration on the lasing dynamics of holmium fibre lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Sholokhov, E M; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A

    2010-12-09

    The lasing dynamics of fibre lasers with a core based on quartz glass doped with holmium ions to concentrations in the range of 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} is investigated. It is shown that fibre lasers with a high concentration of active holmium ions generate pulses, but a decrease in the holmium concentration changes the lasing from pulsed to cw regime. At the same time, a decrease in the active-ion concentration and the corresponding increase in the fibre length in the cavity reduce the lasing efficiency. (lasers)

  12. Effects of eccentric and concentric resistance training on skeletal muscle substrates, enzyme activities and capillary supply.

    PubMed

    Tesch, P A; Thorsson, A; Colliander, E B

    1990-12-01

    This study compared the skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations in response to combined eccentric and concentric or concentric resistance training regimens. Twenty-six physically active males were assigned to either the combined eccentric and concentric group (n = 10), the concentric group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 6). The combined eccentric and concentric and the concentric groups performed four to five sets of maximal, voluntary bilateral quadriceps muscle actions at 1.05 rad s-1 using a speed-controlled dynamometer three times per week for 12 weeks. The concentric group performed 12 concentric actions per set, whereas the combined eccentric and concentric group performed six coupled eccentric and concentric actions per set. Bilateral percutaneous muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis at rest pre- and post-training. Tissue samples were analysed for contents of adenosine triphosphate, creatine phosphate and creatine and for enzyme activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase, myokinase, phosphofructokinase, hexokinase and Mg2(+)-ATPase using fluorometric techniques. Histochemical staining procedures were employed to determine capillary supply. The overall increase (P less than 0.05) in muscle strength was greater (P less than 0.05) for the combined eccentric and concentric group than for the concentric group. Enzyme or substrate contents and capillary supply were unaltered after either type of training. It is suggested that substantial increases in muscle strength may occur in response to resistance training without enhancing or compromising metabolic function of skeletal muscle.

  13. Variability of atmospheric krypton-85 activity concentrations observed close to the ITCZ in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, A; Schlosser, C; Ross, J O; Sartorius, H; Schmid, S

    2014-01-01

    Krypton-85 activity concentrations in surface air have been measured at Darwin, which is located in northern Australia and is influenced by seasonal monsoonal activity. Measurements between August 2007 and May 2010 covered three wet seasons. The mean activity concentration of krypton-85 measured during this period was 1.31±0.02Bqm(-3). A linear model fitted to the average monthly data, using month and monsoon as predictors, shows that krypton-85 activity concentration measured during the sampling period has declined by 0.01Bqm(-3) per year. Although there is no statistically significant difference in mean activity concentration of krypton-85 between wet and dry season, the model implies that activity concentration is higher by about 0.015Bqm(-3) during months influenced by the monsoon when a north westerly flow prevails. Backward dispersion runs using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Hysplit4 highlight possible source regions during an active monsoon located deep in the northern hemisphere, and include reprocessing facilities in Japan and India. However, the contribution of these facilities to krypton-85 activity concentrations in Darwin would be less than 0.003Bqm(-3).

  14. [The effectiveness of ultralow doses and concentrations of biologically active compounds].

    PubMed

    Ashmarin, I P; Lelekova, T V; Sanzhieva, L Ts

    1992-01-01

    Numerous data of literature are analysed on the biological activity of ultra-low (10(-12)-10(-19) M) concentrations and corresponding doses of same bioregulators. Our own data are presented on the modulation of lymphatic vessel contractility by peptides (thyroliberin, defensin, and tuftsin) in concentrations ranging from 10(-13) to 10(-16) M. Hypothetic mechanisms of these phenomena are discussed.

  15. Changes in HTO and OBT activity concentrations in the Perch Lake aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Farrow, F; Bredlaw, M; Stuart, M

    2016-12-01

    Perch Lake, a small shallow shield lake located on the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site, contains elevated levels of tritium due to inputs from a nearby nuclear waste management area. The releases have been going on for many years but tritium levels in Perch Lake have been gradually decreasing since about year 2000. Lake water, sediments, aquatic plants, clams and fish were collected during the summer and fall of 2003 and 2013 at three locations in the lake. HTO activity concentrations were measured in all samples and OBT activity concentrations were measured in sediments, plants, clams and fish. In 2003, 2013, HTO activity concentrations in lake water were roughly uniform in time and space, except close to the shoreline where concentrations were fluctuating according to stream water and groundwater tritium levels in streams entering the lake. HTO activity concentrations of biota were similar to concentrations in lake water at the site where they were collected. OBT activity concentrations in biota were not always correlating with the lake water HTO levels. OBT to HTO ratios were found to be less than 1 for aquatic plants, around 1 for clams and fish and above 1 for birds reared on the shore of the lake.

  16. Altered Biomarkers of Mucosal Immunity and Reduced Vaginal Lactobacillus Concentrations in Sexually Active Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Carpenter, Colleen; Fiedler, Tina; Kalyoussef, Sabah; McAndrew, Thomas C.; Viswanathan, Shankar; Kim, Mimi; Keller, Marla J.; Fredricks, David N.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females. Methodology/Principal Findings Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15–18 years). Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs. Conclusions/Significance Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females. PMID:22808157

  17. On the calculation of activity concentrations and nuclide ratios from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, A; Ringbom, A

    2014-09-01

    Motivated by the need for consistent use of concepts central to the reporting of results from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity, we discuss some properties of the methods commonly used. Different expressions for decay correction of the activity concentration for parent-daughter decay pairs are presented, and it is suggested that this correction should be performed assuming parent-daughter ingrowth in the sample during the entire measurement process. We note that, as has already been suggested by others, activities rather than activity concentrations should be used when nuclide ratios are calculated. In addition, expressions that can be used to transform activity concentrations to activity ratios are presented. Finally we note that statistical uncertainties for nuclide ratios can be properly calculated using the exact solution to the problem of confidence intervals for a ratio of two jointly normally distributed variables, the so-called Fieller׳s theorem.

  18. Evaluation of metal concentration and antioxidant activity of three edible mushrooms from Mugla, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Semiz, Deniz Karsli; Solak, M Halil

    2010-05-01

    This study is designed for the determination of metal concentrations, antioxidant activity potentials and total phenolics of Amanita caesarea, Clitocybe geotropa and Leucoagaricus pudicus. Concentrations of four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni) and five minor elements (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Co) are determined. In the case of A. caesarea, Cr and Ni concentrations are found in a high level. Concentrations of the metals are found to be within safe limits for C. geotropa. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid test, L. pudicus showed the highest activity potential. In DPPH system, A. caesarea showed 79.4% scavenging ability. Additionally, reducing power and chelating capacity of the mushrooms increased with concentration. The strongest super-oxide anion scavenger was A. caesarea. In the case of total phenolics, L. pudicus found to have the highest content.

  19. Activation of the Escherichia coli marA/soxS/rob regulon in response to transcriptional activator concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert G; Bartlett, Emily S; Rosner, Judah L; Wall, Michael E

    2008-07-04

    The paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob activate a common set of promoters, the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli, by binding a cognate site (marbox) upstream of each promoter. The extent of activation varies from one promoter to another and is only poorly correlated with the in vitro affinity of the activator for the specific marbox. Here, we examine the dependence of promoter activation on the level of activator in vivo by manipulating the steady-state concentrations of MarA and SoxS in Lon protease mutants and by measuring promoter activation using lacZ transcriptional fusions. We found that: (i) the MarA concentrations needed for half-maximal stimulation varied by at least 19-fold among the 10 promoters tested; (ii) most marboxes were not saturated when there were 24,000 molecules of MarA per cell; (iii) the correlation between the MarA concentration needed for half-maximal promoter activity in vivo and marbox binding affinity in vitro was poor; and (iv) the two activators differed in their promoter activation profiles. The marRAB and sodA promoters could both be saturated by MarA and SoxS in vivo. However, saturation by MarA resulted in greater marRAB and lesser sodA transcription than did saturation by SoxS, implying that the two activators interact with RNA polymerase in different ways at the different promoters. Thus, the concentration and nature of activator determine which regulon promoters are activated, as well as the extent of their activation.

  20. Zinc and iron concentration and SOD activity in human semen and seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Kamiński, Piotr; Lakota, Paweł; Szymański, Marek; Wasilow, Karolina; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Kuligowska-Prusińska, Magdalena; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Michałkiewicz, Jacek

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentration in human semen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in seminal plasma and correlate the results with sperm quality. Semen samples were obtained from men (N = 168) undergoing routine infertility evaluation. The study design included two groups based on the ejaculate parameters. Group I (n = 39) consisted of males with normal ejaculate (normozoospermia), and group II (n = 129) consisted of males with pathological spermiogram. Seminal Zn and Fe were measured in 162 samples (group I, n = 38; group II, n = 124) and SOD activity in 149 samples (group I, n = 37; group II, n = 112). Correlations were found between SOD activity and Fe and Zn concentration, and between Fe and Zn concentration. SOD activity was negatively associated with volume of semen and positively associated with rapid progressive motility, nonprogressive motility, and concentration. Negative correlation was stated between Fe concentration and normal morphology. Mean SOD activity in seminal plasma of semen from men of group I was higher than in seminal plasma of semen from men of group II. Fe concentration was higher in teratozoospermic males than in males with normal morphology of spermatozoa in group II. Our results suggest that Fe may influence spermatozoa morphology.

  1. Influence of Concentration and Activation on Hydrogen Peroxide Diffusion through Dental Tissues In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Carlos R. G.; Souza, Cristiane S.; Borges, Alessandra B.; Huhtala, Maria Filomena R. L.; Caneppele, Taciana M. F.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of physical and chemical activation on the diffusion time of different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching agents through enamel and dentin. One hundred and twenty bovine cylindrical specimens were divided into six groups (n = 20): 20% HP; 20% HP with light activation; 20% HP with manganese gluconate; 35% HP; 35% HP with light activation; and 35% HP with manganese gluconate. The specimens were fixed over transparent epoxy wells with internal cavities to simulate a pulpal chamber. This chamber was filled with an enzymatic reagent to simulate pulpal fluid. The bleaching gels were applied on enamel surface and the image of the pulpal fluid was captured by a video camera to monitor the time of peroxide penetration in each specimen. ANOVA analysis showed that concentration and type of activation of bleaching gel significantly influenced the diffusion time of HP (P < 0.05). 35% HP showed the lowest diffusion times compared to the groups with 20% HP gel. The light activation of HP decreased significantly the diffusion time compared to chemical activation. The highest diffusion time was obtained with 20% HP chemically activated. The diffusion time of HP was dependent on activation and concentration of HP. The higher concentration of HP diffused through dental tissues more quickly. PMID:24163616

  2. A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germin...

  3. A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germi...

  4. Concentration evolution of pharmaceutically active compounds in raw urban and industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The distribution of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment has been reported in several works in which wastewater treatment plants have been identified as the main source of these compounds to the environment. The concentrations of these compounds in influent wastewater can vary widely not only during the day but also along the year, because of the seasonal-consumption patterns of some pharmaceuticals. However, only few studies have attempted to assess the hourly variability of the concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater. In this work, the distribution and seasonal and hourly variability of twenty-one pharmaceuticals, belonging to seven therapeutic groups, have been investigated in urban and industrial wastewater. The highest concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds, except salicylic acid, were found in urban wastewater, especially in the case of anti-inflammatory drugs and caffeine. The highest concentrations of salicylic acid were measured in industrial wastewater, reaching concentration levels up to 3295μgL(-)(1). The studied pharmaceutically active compounds showed different distribution patterns during winter and summer periods. Temporal variability of pharmaceutically active compounds during a 24-h period showed a distribution in concordance with their consumption and excretion patterns, in the case of urban wastewater, and with the schedule of industrial activities, in the case of industrial wastewater.

  5. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI.

  6. Contraceptive steroid concentrations in women with early active schistosomiasis: lack of effect of antischistosomal drugs.

    PubMed

    el-Raghy, I; Back, D J; Osman, F; Orme, M L; Fathalla, M

    1986-04-01

    Plasma concentrations of the oral contraceptive steroids (OCS) ethinyloestradiol (EE2) and levonorgestrel (LNG) have been determined in women with early active schistosomiasis and compared to those obtained in healthy volunteers. Steroid concentrations following a single dose of Ovral (500 micrograms LNG, 50 micrograms EE2) or during a multiple dose regimen were unaffected by the disease. There was no significant effect of the antischistosomal drugs praziquantel (40 mg X kg-1) or metrifonate (10 mg X kg-1 X 3 at 2-week intervals) on plasma steroid concentrations. In regular users of OCS, significantly higher concentrations of LNG were observed than in women who received only a single dose. We conclude that there is no pharmacokinetic reason for withholding OCS from patients with early active schistosomiasis who are also receiving either praziquantel or metrifonate.

  7. An indole-containing dauer pheromone component with unusual dauer inhibitory activity at higher concentrations.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Rebecca A; Ragains, Justin R; Clardy, Jon

    2009-07-16

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the dauer pheromone, which consists of a number of derivatives of the 3,6-dideoxysugar ascarylose, is the primary cue for entry into the stress-resistant, "nonaging" dauer larval stage. Here, using activity-guided fractionation and NMR-based structure elucidation, a structurally novel, indole-3-carboxyl-modified ascaroside is identified that promotes dauer formation at low nanomolar concentrations but inhibits dauer formation at higher concentrations.

  8. Characteristics of Zinc Phosphate Coating Activated by Different Concentrations of Nickel Acetate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Khalid; Zuhailawati, H.; Rahmat, Azmi; Azizan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Activation pretreatment with nickel acetate solution at various concentrations was performed prior to the phosphating step to enhance the corrosion resistance of carbon steel substrates. The activation solution was studied over various concentrations: 10, 50, and 100 g/L. The effects of these concentrations on surface characteristics and microstructural evolution of the coated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in a 3.5 pct NaCl solution. Significant increases in the nucleation sites and surface coverage of zinc phosphate coating were observed as the concentration of activation solution reached 50 g/L. The electrochemical analysis revealed that the activation treatment with 50 g/L nickel acetate solution significantly improved the protection ability of the zinc phosphate coating. The corrosion current density of activated phosphate coating with 50 g/L was reduced by 64.64 and 13.22 pct, compared to the coatings obtained with activation solutions of 10 and 100 g/L, respectively.

  9. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  10. Inhibitory effect of high concentrations of ferric ions on the activity of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Yoshishige; Inoue, Chihiro; Suto, Koichi; Chida, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    The influence of high concentrations of ferric ions on the biochemical activity of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was studied using intact cells. The specific oxidation rate of ferrous ions decreased with increasing ferric ion concentration. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed typical competitive inhibition kinetics, because the slopes varied with the ferric ion concentration. A linear relationship between the slope and the square of the ferric ion concentration revealed that the iron-oxidizing enzyme system of A. ferrooxidans was competitively inhibited by about two molecules of ferric ion. The kinetic equation based on this inhibition model agreed with the experimental observation at a high ferric ion concentration where the bacterium is usually exposed in bioleaching and biooxidation plants.

  11. Intramuscular pressure and torque during isometric, concentric and eccentric muscular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styf, J.; Ballard, R.; Aratow, M.; Crenshaw, A.; Watenpaugh, D.; Hargens, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    Intramuscular pressures, electromyography (EMG) and torque generation during isometric, concentric and eccentric maximal isokinetic muscle activity were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers. Pressure and EMG activity were continuously and simultaneously measured side by side in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles. Ankle joint torque and position were monitored continuously by an isokinetic dynamometer during plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the foot. The increased force generation during eccentric muscular activity, compared with other muscular activity, was not accompanied by higher intramuscular pressure. Thus, this study demonstrated that eccentric muscular activity generated higher torque values for each increment of intramuscular pressure. Intramuscular pressures during antagonistic co-activation were significantly higher in the tibilis anterior muscle (42-46% of maximal agonistic activity) compared with the soleus muscle (12-29% of maximal agonistic activity) and was largely due to active recruitment of muscle fibers. In summary, eccentric muscular activity creates higher torque values with no additional increase of the intramuscular pressure compared with concentric and isometric muscular activity.

  12. Determination of thorium concentrations and activity ratios in silicate rocks by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, R N; Marques, L S; Nicolai, S H A; Ribeiro, F B

    2004-01-01

    A detailed radiochemical procedure for alpha spectrometry measurements of thorium concentrations and of 230Th/232Th activity ratios in silicates is presented. The Th behaviour, during each step of the chemical process, was investigated by using a 234Th tracer, which is a gamma-ray emitter. The described chemical processing provides relatively high thorium yields, which varied between 56% and 88%, in the analysis of GB-1 (granite) and BB-1 (basalt) Brazilian geological standards. Also, the application of the established radiochemical method allowed a determination of both Th concentrations and activity ratios with high reproducibility, on the order of 2%. The estimation of the concentration result accuracy is also about 2%, which was calculated by using published data obtained from neutron activation analysis as reference values.

  13. Comparison of Lower Limb Muscle Activity during Eccentric and Concentric Exercises in Runners with Achilles Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jaeho

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify changes in muscle activation by comparing muscle activities of the affected side (AS) and non-affected side (NAS) during eccentric and concentric exercises in runners with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. [Subjects] The study included 18 participants consisting of men and women with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in a single leg who had more than 1 year of running experience. [Methods] All subjects performed concentric and eccentric exercise with the Achilles tendon moving from full plantar flexion to full dorsiflexion for 8 seconds, and electromyography data was obtained. [Results] All muscles examined showed a significant increase in %maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with concentric exercise compared with eccentric exercise. Compared with the NAS, the AS showed significant increases in %MVC of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius. All interaction effects of exercise methods and injuries showed statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] Runners with Achilles tendinopathy show increases in medial gastrocnemius activity when performing eccentric exercise. PMID:25276014

  14. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the "Bay of Cadiz" Natural Park (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Ligero, R A; Vidal, J; Meléndez, M J; Hamani, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2009-03-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range=0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders.

  15. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration in marine sediments at Amvrakikos Gulf, western of Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Patiris, D L; Fillis-Tsirakis, E; Kapsimalis, V; Pilakouta, M; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of (137)Cs migration in sediment column taking into account the sedimentation rate in the Amvrakikos Gulf, at the western part of Greece. Marine core sediments were collected and the measurements were performed using the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method. The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration, as part of anthropogenic marine radioactivity, provided averaged sedimentation rate by identifying the depths of activity concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident and the nuclear tests signals. Furthermore, (137)Cs measurements were reproduced using the proposed one-dimensional diffusion-advection model which provides mainly as an output, the sedimentation rate and the average diffusivity of (137)Cs in the sediment column. The proposed model estimates the temporal variation of (137)Cs activity concentration from 1987 (one year after the Chernobyl accident) till today (2014).

  16. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  17. Influence of microwave irradiation on boron concentrate activation with an emphasis on surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Qiaoyi; Liu, Yajing; Xue, Xiangxin; Duan, Peining

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we employed microwave irradiation for activating boron concentrate, an abundant but low-grade boron mineral resource in China. The boron concentrate was pretreated by microwave irradiation based on TG-DTG-DSC analysis, and the influence of each parameter on processing efficiency was characterized using chemical analysis, XRD, SEM, FTIR and particle distribution analysis. Subsequently, the surface properties of boron concentrate and the mechanism of microwave irradiation was analyzed. Our results indicate that microwave irradiation decreased the processing temperature and shortened the roasting time by accelerating dehydroxylation and oxidation reactions in the boron concentrate, reducing the particle diameter and damaging the microstructure of the minerals, and it increased the B2O3 activity of boron from 64.68% to 86.73%, greater than the optimal conventional treatment. Compared with the simple thermal field, microwave roasting obviously increased ability of the boron concentrate to absorb OH- in the leachant and promoted boron leaching by expanding the contact area of the mineral exposed to leachant, boosting the amount of Mg2+ and Fe3+ on mineral surfaces, and increasing the hydrophilicity of the boron concentrate respectively. It enhanced the γSVLW and γSV- of boron concentrate from 29.15 mJ/m2 and 5.07 mJ/m2 to 37.07 mJ/m2 and 12.41 mJ/m2.

  18. Physiological sodium concentrations enhance the iodide affinity of the Na+/I- symporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Juan P.; Carrasco, Nancy; Mario Amzel, L.

    2014-06-01

    The Na+/I- symporter (NIS) mediates active I- transport—the first step in thyroid hormonogenesis—with a 2Na+:1I- stoichiometry. NIS-mediated 131I- treatment of thyroid cancer post-thyroidectomy is the most effective targeted internal radiation cancer treatment available. Here to uncover mechanistic information on NIS, we use statistical thermodynamics to obtain Kds and estimate the relative populations of the different NIS species during Na+/anion binding and transport. We show that, although the affinity of NIS for I- is low (Kd=224 μM), it increases when Na+ is bound (Kd=22.4 μM). However, this Kd is still much higher than the submicromolar physiological I- concentration. To overcome this, NIS takes advantage of the extracellular Na+ concentration and the pronounced increase in its own affinity for I- and for the second Na+ elicited by binding of the first. Thus, at physiological Na+ concentrations, ~79% of NIS molecules are occupied by two Na+ ions and ready to bind and transport I-.

  19. Serum thyroxine concentrations following fixed-dose radioactive iodine treatment in hyperthyroid cats: 62 cases (1986-1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Meric, S.M.; Rubin, S.I. )

    1990-09-01

    The medical records of 62 hyperthyroid cats treated with a fixed dose of 4 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) were reviewed. In 60 cats, serum thyroxine concentrations were determined after treatment, allowing evaluation of treatment success. Eighty-four percent of the cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations after treatment. Five of the 60 cats (8%) remained hyperthyroxinemic after treatment. Five cats (8%) were hypothyroxinemic when evaluated within 60 days of treatment. Three of these cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations 6 months after treatment, and none had clinical signs of hypothyroidism. The administration of a fixed dose of 4 mCi of 131I was determined to be an effective treatment for feline hyperthyroidism.

  20. Effects of Active Recovery on Lactate Concentration, Heart Rate and RPE in Climbing

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Nick; Bird, Ellis L.; Coleman, Ian; Hodgson, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The performance advantage of active rather than passive recovery during subsequent trials for repeated high intensity short-term exercise is well documented. Research findings suggest that shorter periods of active recovery, than traditionally employed, can be prescribed and still retain performance benefits over passive recoveries in successive exercise trials. The aim of this study was to examine the benefits of a short duration active recovery for repeat climbing trials. Ten recreational climbers volunteered for the study. In this randomly assigned crossover study each climber completed five two-minute climbing trails before a two minute active or passive recovery. This was followed by a one and a half minute passive refocusing period for all climbers before the subsequent climbing trial. Heart rate was monitored continuously, RPE immediately post climbing and fingertip capillary blood samples collected during each refocusing phase. There was a non-significant difference between active and passive recoveries for heart rate during climbing. After the active phase climbers had higher heart rates than when following the passive recovery protocol, however, by the end of the refocusing phase the active recovery protocol led to lower heart rates than for the entirely passive recovery. There was a significant difference between active and passive recovery conditions in lactate concentration (F(1,9) = 18.79, p = 0.002) and RPE (F(1,9) = 6.51, p = 0.031). Lactate concentration and RPE were lower across all five climbing trials for the active recovery protocol. After active recovery climbers started the next trial with a lower arterial lactate concentration than for a passive recovery and indicated lower RPE scores at the end of each climb. The refocusing period following active recovery allowed climbers heart rates to return to a lower level at the start of the next climb than for the passive recovery condition. Key Points The three and half minute recovery strategy

  1. Antioxidant activities of polysaccharides obtained from Chlorella pyrenoidosa via different ethanol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Xuan; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Xiao, Zheng; Huang, Yi-Fan; Liu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    An ultrasonic-assisted extraction of Chlorella pyrenoidosa polysaccharides (CPP) was carried out using different concentrations of ethanol for precipitation, and named as CPP60, CPP70 and CPP85, respectively. The monosaccharide composition of each polysaccharide (CPP) was determined using gas chromatography (GC) and the antioxidant activity of each was investigated via the reducing power and scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and superoxide anion radicals, respectively. All of the polysaccharides examined possessed antioxidant activity in vitro. CPP70 exhibited stronger scavenging activity against superoxide, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, when compared with CPP60 and CPP85. This suggests that polysaccharides from C. pyrenoidosa precipitated by a final ethanol concentration of 70%, have the potential to be developed as natural antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Detecting kinase activities from single cell lysate using concentration-enhanced mobility shift assay.

    PubMed

    Cheow, Lih Feng; Sarkar, Aniruddh; Kolitz, Sarah; Lauffenburger, Douglas; Han, Jongyoon

    2014-08-05

    Electrokinetic preconcentration coupled with mobility shift assays can give rise to very high detection sensitivities. We describe a microfluidic device that utilizes this principle to detect cellular kinase activities by simultaneously concentrating and separating substrate peptides with different phosphorylation states. This platform is capable of reliably measuring kinase activities of single adherent cells cultured in nanoliter volume microwells. We also describe a novel method utilizing spacer peptides that significantly increase separation resolution while maintaining high concentration factors in this device. Thus, multiplexed kinase measurements can be implemented with single cell sensitivity. Multiple kinase activity profiling from single cell lysate could potentially allow us to study heterogeneous activation of signaling pathways that can lead to multiple cell fates.

  3. Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentrations in Adults without Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Recio-Rodríguez, José I.; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Martin-Borras, Carme; de-la-Cal-dela-Fuente, Aventina; Sauras-Llera, Ines; Sanchez-Perez, Alvaro; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR), and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. Methods A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women). Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs)/hour/week) and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days. Results Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute) and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week). Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = −0.100; p<0.001) and METs/hour/week (r = −0.162; p<0.001). In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week) respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile), maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = −0.03; p = 0.046 and β = −0.06; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders. PMID:24498413

  4. Effects of allopurinol on uric acid concentrations, xanthine oxidoreductase activity and oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Carro, M D; Falkenstein, E; Radke, W J; Klandorf, H

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of allopurinol (AL) on xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity and uric acid (UA) levels in chickens. Thirty 5-week-old broilers were divided into three groups and fed 0 (control), 25 (AL25) or 50 (AL50) mg AL per kg of body mass for 5 weeks. Chicks were weighed twice weekly and leukocyte oxidative activity (LOA) and plasma purine levels were determined weekly in five birds per group. Chicks were sacrificed after 2 or 5 weeks, and samples from tissues were taken for analysis of XOR activity. Plasma UA concentrations were lower (P<0.001) and xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were greater (P<0.001) in AL25 and AL50 birds compared to controls, whereas no differences (P=0.904) were detected in allantoin concentrations. By week 5, body mass was reduced (P<0.001) to 84.0 and 65.1% of that in controls for AL25 and AL50 broilers, respectively, and LOA was 4.1 times greater (P<0.05) in AL25 compared to control birds. Liver XOR activity was increased by 1.1 and 1.2 times in AL25 and AL50 birds, but there was no change (P>0.05) in XOR activity in the pancreas and intestine. These results suggest that AL effect on XOR activity is tissue dependent.

  5. The relationship between infliximab concentrations, antibodies to infliximab and disease activity in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vande Casteele, Niels; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G; Stitt, Larry; Zou, G Y; Singh, Sharat; Lockton, Steve; Hauenstein, Scott; Ohrmund, Linda; Greenberg, Gordon R; Rutgeerts, Paul J; Gils, Ann; Sandborn, William J; Vermeire, Séverine; Feagan, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although low infliximab trough concentrations and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), the clinical relevance of ATI in patients with adequate infliximab concentrations is uncertain. We evaluated this question using an assay sensitive for identification of ATI in the presence of infliximab. Design In an observational study, 1487 trough serum samples from 483 patients with CD who participated in four clinical studies of maintenance infliximab therapy were analysed using a fluid phase mobility shift assay. Infliximab and ATI concentrations most discriminant for remission, defined as a C-reactive protein concentration of ≤5 mg/L, were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. A multivariable regression model evaluated these factors as independent predictors of remission. Results Based upon analysis of 1487 samples, 77.1% of patients had detectable and 22.9% had undetectable infliximab concentrations, of which 9.5% and 71.8%, respectively, were positive for ATI. An infliximab concentration of >2.79 μg/mL (area under the curve (AUC)=0.681; 95% CI 0.632 to 0.731) and ATI concentration of <3.15 U/mL (AUC=0.632; 95% CI 0.589 to 0.676) were associated with remission. Multivariable analysis showed that concentrations of both infliximab trough (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.5; p<0.001) and ATI (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.81; p=0.002) were independent predictors of remission. Conclusions The development of ATI increases the probability of active disease even at low concentrations and in the presence of a therapeutic concentration of drug during infliximab maintenance therapy. Evaluation of strategies to prevent ATI formation, including therapeutic drug monitoring with selective infliximab dose intensification, is needed. PMID:25336114

  6. Spatial variability of dissolved phosphorous concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Chang, J.; Ho, T.; Gong, G.

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) have been determined at about 25 sampling stations in the East China Sea since 2003. The stations are mainly distributed from the Changjiang river mouth to northern Taiwan and east to the shelf break. In addition to the Changjiang discharge, we have found a specific nutrient source around a coastal site (122° 2’30’’ E, 28° 40’ N). Elevated DIP and nitrate concentrations have been constantly observed around the sampling station for 8 years, where the surface DIP concentrations are generally around 0.3 µM. The nutrient source may either originate from ground water discharge or coastal upwelling, where lower temperature has been observed in the water column around the station. In general, APA has been negatively correlated with DIP concentrations in the studies sites, with lowest APA around the high DIP station and the Changjiang river mouth.

  7. 76 FR 48882 - Agency Information Collections Activities; Comment Request for Uranium Concentrations in Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... U.S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collections Activities; Comment Request for Uranium... Collection 1028-NEW, Uranium concentrations in private wells in south-east New Hampshire, in the subject line... telephone (970) 226-9165; or schusterr@usgs.gov (e-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract...

  8. Different cortical activation patterns during voluntary eccentric and concentric muscle contractions: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Hyun; Park, Ji-Won

    2011-01-01

    Concentric and eccentric muscle contractions have distinct differences in their neuromuscular and neurophysiologic characteristics. However, although many evidences regarding the features of these types of muscle contraction have emerged, there have been few neuroimaging studies to compare the two types of contractions. Therefore, we investigated whether cortical activity associated with eccentric contraction of the wrist extensors differed from that of concentric contraction, using functional MRI (fMRI). Fifteen right-handed healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. During 4 repeating blocks of eccentric and concentric muscle contraction paradigms, the brain was scanned with fMRI. The differences in the BOLD signal intensities during the performance of eccentric and concentric exercise were compared in the predetermined regions of interest. Our findings revealed that many cortical areas associated with motor performance were activated, including the primary motor area, the inferior parietal lobe, the pre-supplementary area (pre-SMA), the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal area, and the cerebellum. In addition, lower signal intensities were seen in the right primary motor cortex and right cerebellum during eccentric contractions compared with concentric contractions, whereas higher signal intensities were detected in other cortical areas during eccentric contractions. In the study, we demonstrated that eccentric and concentric muscle contractions induced quite different patterns of cortical activity respectively. These findings might be attributed to different strategy of neuro-motor processing and a higher level of cognitive demand for the performance of motor task with a higher degree of difficulty such as that required during eccentric contractions in comparison of concentric contractions.

  9. Combined effects of water temperature and copper ion concentration on catalase activity in Crassostrea ariakensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Jiahui; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-07-01

    A central composite experimental design and response surface method were used to investigate the combined effects of water temperature (18-34°C) and copper ion concentration (0.1-1.5 mg/L) on the catalase (CAT) activity in the digestive gland of Crassostrea ariakensis. The results showed that the linear effects of temperature were significant ( P<0.01), the quadratic effects of temperature were significant ( P<0.05), the linear effects of copper ion concentration were not significant ( P>0.05), and the quadratic effects of copper ion concentration were significant ( P<0.05). Additionally, the synergistic effects of temperature and copper ion concentration were not significant ( P>0.05), and the effect of temperature was greater than that of copper ion concentration. A model equation of CAT enzyme activity in the digestive gland of C. ariakensis toward the two factors of interest was established, with R 2, Adj. R 2 and Pred. R 2 values as high as 0.943 7, 0.887 3 and 0.838 5, respectively. These findings suggested that the goodness of fit to experimental data and predictive capability of the model were satisfactory, and could be practically applied for prediction under the conditions of the study. Overall, the results suggest that the simultaneous variation of temperature and copper ion concentration alters the activity of the antioxidant enzyme CAT by modulating active oxygen species metabolism, which may be utilized as a biomarker to detect the effects of copper pollution.

  10. Ovicidal activity of different concentrations of Pochonia chlamydosporia chlamydospores on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Pinto, P S A

    2011-03-01

    Three concentrations of chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish) were evaluated in vitro on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Chlamydospores at each concentration were cultured in two different media: 2% water-agar (2%WA) and 2% corn-meal-agar (2%CMA). Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were plated in each chlamydospore concentration in 2%WA and 2%CMA (treated groups) and without fungus (control group). Eggs were removed from each Petri dish at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days and classified according to ovicidal activity (type 1, type 2 and type 3 effects). Plates containing 2%CMA showed the highest percentages for type 3 effect (81.3%) on the 21st day of observation. A difference (P < 0.01) between the media 2%WA and 2%CMA for type 1 effect was observed only at a concentration of 1000 chlamydospores on the 7th day. There were differences (P < 0.01) between 2%WA and 2%CMA on the 14th and 21st days, at the concentration of 20,000 chlamydospores, for type 1 and type 3 effects. Regression curves for type 3 effect in 2%WA and 2%CMA at the tested concentrations showed higher ovicidal activity with increasing chlamydospore concentrations. Results indicate that, at concentrations of 1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish, chlamydospores of P. chlamydosporia effectively destroyed T. taeniaeformis eggs and can be considered a potential biological control agent for this cestode.

  11. Influence of various concentrations of selenic acid (IV) on the activity of soil enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nowak, J; Kaklewski, K; Klódka, D

    2002-05-27

    The aim of this experiment was the assessment of the influence of various concentrations of H2SeO3 (0.05, 0.5 and 5 mM) on the activity of soil enzymes over 112 days. The lab experiment was performed using soil samples (dust-silt black soil of 1.92% organic C content, pH 7.7), 60% maximal water capacity. The soil samples were treated with a selenic acid water solution at the concentrations mentioned above. As a reference, natural soil was used (without the selenic acid). The activity of the following enzymes was tested: beta-glucosidase, nitrate reductase, urease, dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatases. The soil was sampled at days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 112. The results of the study have shown that the selenic acid had no effect on the activity of the beta-glucosidase in soil. In the course of the whole experiment, the applied selenic acid inhibited activity of the nitrate reductase up to 70% at 5 mM, and the activity of dehydrogenase was also decreased--by up to 85% at 5 mM, similarly to urease (with the exception of days 14 and 28), and acid phosphatase (until day 56). The activity of alkaline phosphatase was increased by the lowest concentration of selenic acid and decreased by the highest, which was found in the course of the whole experiment. The 5-mM concentration of selenic acid inhibited the activity of all the enzymes tested in this experiment.

  12. Functionally active ganglioneuroma with increased plasma and urinary catecholamines and positive iodine 131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Clerico, A.; Jenkner, A.; Castello, M.A.; Ciofetta, G.; Lucarelli, C.; Codini, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Ganglioneuromas are usually considered not to be functionally active. Studies of their catecholamine excretory pattern and of their imaging by means of the adrenergic tracing agent 131-I-MIBG have been therefore sparse. We report on a case of secretory ganglioneuroma, as demonstrated by the increased urinary excretion of the catecholamine metabolites HVA and VMA, increased plasma dopamine and epinephrine levels, and positive 131-I-MIBG scintigraphy. We must therefore be aware that a functionally active tumor is not necessarily a neuroblastoma, and that the diagnosis should be biopsy proven.

  13. Short-term effect of ammonia concentration and salinity on activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Claros, J; Jiménez, E; Borrás, L; Aguado, D; Seco, A; Ferrer, J; Serralta, J

    2010-01-01

    A continuously aerated SHARON (single reactor high activity ammonia removal over nitrite) system has been operated to achieve partial nitritation. Two sets of batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of ammonia concentration and salinity on the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Activity of AOB raised as free ammonia concentration was increased reaching its maximum value at 4.5 mg NH3-N l(-1). The half saturation constant for free ammonia was determined (K(NH3)=0.32 mg NH3-N l(-1)). Activity decreased at TAN (total ammonium-nitrogen) concentration over 2,000 mg NH4-N l(-1). No free ammonia inhibition was detected. The effect of salinity was studied by adding different concentrations of different salts to the biomass. No significant differences were observed between the experiments carried out with a salt containing or not containing NH4. These results support that AOB are inhibited by salinity, not by free ammonia. A mathematical expression to represent this inhibition is proposed. To compare substrate affinity and salinity inhibitory effect on different AOB populations, similar experiments were carried out with biomass from a biological nutrient removal pilot plant. The AOB activity reached its maximum value at 0.008 mg NH3-N l(-1) and decreased at TAN concentration over 400 mg NH4-N l(-1). These differences can be explained by the different AOB predominating species: Nitrosomonas europaea and N. eutropha in the SHARON biomass and Nitrosomonas oligotropha in the pilot plant.

  14. Estimating ROI activity concentration with photon-processing and photon-counting SPECT imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Recently a new class of imaging systems, referred to as photon-processing (PP) systems, are being developed that uses real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate multiple attributes per detected photon and store these attributes in a list format. PP systems could have a number of potential advantages compared to systems that bin photons based on attributes such as energy, projection angle, and position, referred to as photon-counting (PC) systems. For example, PP systems do not suffer from binning-related information loss and provide the potential to extract information from attributes such as energy deposited by the detected photon. To quantify the effects of this advantage on task performance, objective evaluation studies are required. We performed this study in the context of quantitative 2-dimensional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with the end task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a region of interest (ROI). We first theoretically outline the effect of null space on estimating the mean activity concentration, and argue that due to this effect, PP systems could have better estimation performance compared to PC systems with noise-free data. To evaluate the performance of PP and PC systems with noisy data, we developed a singular value decomposition (SVD)-based analytic method to estimate the activity concentration from PP systems. Using simulations, we studied the accuracy and precision of this technique in estimating the activity concentration. We used this framework to objectively compare PP and PC systems on the activity concentration estimation task. We investigated the effects of varying the size of the ROI and varying the number of bins for the attribute corresponding to the angular orientation of the detector in a continuously rotating SPECT system. The results indicate that in several cases, PP systems offer improved estimation performance compared to PC systems.

  15. Determination of certain trace impurities in uranium concentrates by activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rassoul, A A; Wahba, S S; Abdel-Aziz, A

    1966-03-01

    A method is presented for the simultaneous determination of chromium, iron, cobalt and zinc in samples of uranium concentrates, oxides and metallic uranium by neutron-activation analysis. The method involves adequate decontamination of gross fission product activities by adsorption on silica gel, removal of uranium by solvent extraction, separation of most carrier-free rare-earth activities by coprecipitation with aluminium chloride, and, finally, fractional separation of the elements concerned by ion-exchange chromatography. The method can assay ppm of such elements in limited quantities of samples by scintillation gamma-ray spectrometric analysis with a reproducibility of 10-15%.

  16. Low Concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide Activate the Antioxidant Defense System in Human Sperm Cells.

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, V V; Barinova, K V; Turovetskii, V B; Muronetz, V I; Schmalhausen, E V

    2015-09-01

    The effect of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (10-100 µM) on sperm motility and on the activity of the sperm enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) was investigated. Incubation of semen samples with 10 and 100 µM hydrogen peroxide increased the content of spermatozoa with progressive motility by 20 and 18%, respectively, and enhanced the activity of GAPDS in the sperm cells by 27 and 20% compared to a semen sample incubated without additions. It was also found that incubation with 10 µM hydrogen peroxide increased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in sperm cells by 50% on average compared to that in the control samples. It is supposed that low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide activate the pentose phosphate pathway, resulting in NADPH synthesis and the reduction of the oxidized glutathione by glutathione reductase yielding GSH. The formed GSH reduces the oxidized cysteine residues of the GAPDS active site, increasing the activity of the enzyme, which in turn enhances the content of sperm cells with progressive motility. Thus, the increase in motile spermatozoa in the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide can serve as an indicator of normal functioning of the antioxidant defense system in sperm cells.

  17. Adsorption of Crystal Violet on Activated Carbon Prepared from Coal Flotation Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogmus, Ramazan; Depci, Tolga; Sarikaya, Musa; Riza Kul, Ali; Onal, Yunus

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is firstly to investigate the floatability properties of Zilan- Van coal after microwave irradiation and secondly to produce activated carbon from flotation concentrate in order to remove Crystal Violet (CV) from waste water. The flotation experiments showed that microwave heating at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time enhanced the hydrophobicity and increased the flotation yield. The activated carbon with remarkable surface area (696 m2/g) was produced from the flotation concentrate and used to adsorb CV from aqueous solution in a batch reactor at different temperature. The adsorption properties of CV onto the activated carbon are discussed in terms of the adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and found that the experimental results best fitted by the Langmuir model.

  18. 3D modeling of effects of increased oxygenation and activity concentration in tumors treated with radionuclides and antiangiogenic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerloef, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) in response to hypoxia is a fundamental event in the process of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. However, abnormalities in tumor neovasculature often induce increased interstitial pressure (IP) and further reduce oxygenation (pO{sub 2}) of tumor cells. In radiotherapy, well-oxygenated tumors favor treatment. Antiangiogenic drugs may lower IP in the tumor, improving perfusion, pO{sub 2} and drug uptake, by reducing the number of malfunctioning vessels in the tissue. This study aims to create a model for quantifying the effects of altered pO{sub 2}-distribution due to antiangiogenic treatment in combination with radionuclide therapy. Methods: Based on experimental data, describing the effects of antiangiogenic agents on oxygenation of GlioblastomaMultiforme (GBM), a single cell based 3D model, including 10{sup 10} tumor cells, was developed, showing how radionuclide therapy response improves as tumor oxygenation approaches normal tissue levels. The nuclides studied were {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 211}At. The absorbed dose levels required for a tumor control probability (TCP) of 0.990 are compared for three different log-normal pO{sub 2}-distributions: {mu}{sub 1} = 2.483, {sigma}{sub 1} = 0.711; {mu}{sub 2} = 2.946, {sigma}{sub 2} = 0.689; {mu}{sub 3} = 3.689, and {sigma}{sub 3} = 0.330. The normal tissue absorbed doses will, in turn, depend on this. These distributions were chosen to represent the expected oxygen levels in an untreated hypoxic tumor, a hypoxic tumor treated with an anti-VEGF agent, and in normal, fully-oxygenated tissue, respectively. The former two are fitted to experimental data. The geometric oxygen distributions are simulated using two different patterns: one Monte Carlo based and one radially increasing, while keeping the log-normal volumetric distributions intact. Oxygen and activity are distributed, according to the same pattern. Results: As tumor pO{sub 2

  19. Platelet activation of platelet concentrates derived from buffy coat and apheresis methods.

    PubMed

    Ali, Soleimany Ferizhandy

    2011-02-01

    Preparation for storage may cause platelet activation. The quality of platelet concentrates plays an important role in transfusion therapy. Platelet concentrates are produced by different centrifugation methods; buffy coat (buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates-BC) and plateletpheresis (apheresis-derived platelet concentrates-APC). Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: platelet, WBC and RBC counts pH, volume, platelet factor 4 (PF4) and Annexin V. The present paper compares the quality of both platelet preparations in vitro. In this experimental study, 30 platelet concentrates were harvested with the Haemonetics MCS plus and 30 units via the buffy coat (BC) method. The percentages of Annexin V expression, PF4 levels, platelet, WBC and RBC counts, pH and volume were measure immediately after collection and after 3 days of storage. During storage for up to 3 days, BC units displayed, no significant pH or RBC, difference in comparison with apheresis preparations (p>0.05). During storage for up to 3 days, BC units displayed a significant increase in the PF4 and Annexin V expression, compared to the apheresis preparations on day three (p<0.05). The kinetics of PF4 and Annexin V levels are influenced by the method used to prepare platelets for storage. The different levels of PF4 and Annexin V in BCs and APCs clearly demonstrates a progressive activation of BC platelets exceeding that of APC. However, in vivo studies should be performed to confirm these findings.

  20. Limiting concentrations of activated mononucleotides necessary for poly(C)-directed elongation of oligoguanylates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Chang, S.; Alberas, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Selected imidazolide-activated nucleotides have been subjected to hydrolysis under conditions similar to those that favor their template-directed oligomerization. Rate constants of hydrolysis of the P-N bond in guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) and in guanosine 5'-monophosphate imidazolide (ImpG), kh, have been determined in the presence/absence of magnesium ion as a function of temperature and polycytidylate [poly(C)] concentration. Using the rate constant of hydrolysis of 2-MeImpG and the rate constant of elongation, i.e., the reaction of an oligoguanylate with 2-MeImpG in the presence of poly(C) acting as template, the limiting concentration of 2-MeImpG necessary for oligonucleotide elongation to compete with hydrolysis can be calculated. The limiting concentration is defined as the initial concentration of monomer that results in its equal consumption by hydrolysis and by elongation. These limiting concentrations of 2-MeImpG are found to be 1.7 mM at 37 degrees C and 0.36 mM at 1 degrees C. Boundary conditions in the form of limiting concentration of activated nucleotide may be used to evaluate a prebiotic model for chemical synthesis of biopolymers. For instance, the limiting concentration of monomer can be used as a basis of comparison among catalytic, but nonenzymatic, RNA-type systems. We also determined the rate constant of dimerization of 2-MeImpG, k2 = 0.45 +/- 0.06 M-1 h-1 in the absence of poly(C), and 0.45 +/- 0.06 less than or equal to k2 less than or equal to 0.97 +/- 0.13 M-1 h-1 in its presence at 37 degrees C and pH 7.95.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Very High Concentrations of Active Intracellular Phosphorylated Emtricitabine in Neonates (ANRS 12109 Trial, Step 2)▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, Déborah; Pruvost, Alain; Ekouévi, Didier K.; Urien, Saïk; Arrivé, Elise; Kone, Mamourou; Nerrienet, Eric; Nyati, Mandisa; Gray, Glenda; Kruy, Leang Sim; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate neonatal emtricitabine (FTC) plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics. The study was designed as a phase I/II prospective trial in two sequential steps evaluating the combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and FTC for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. HIV-1-infected pregnant women received two tablets of TDF (300 mg) and FTC (200 mg) at onset of labor and then one tablet daily for 7 days postpartum. Based on the data obtained in the first part of the Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in Africa and Asia (TEmAA) Study, single doses of 2 mg/kg of FTC and 13 mg/kg of TDF were given to the neonates within 12 h after birth. A total of 540 FTC plasma concentrations and 44 active intracellular phosphorylated metabolite FTC-TP concentrations were taken from the 36 enrolled women and their neonates. Concentrations were measured by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and analyzed by a population approach. The proposed dose obtained by simulations based on plasma drug concentrations was confirmed. However, median FTC-TP exposures were, respectively, 5.9 and 6.8 times higher in the fetus and the neonate than in the adult. High FTC-TP concentrations were observed in the four children who had serious adverse events (SAEs), but the link between FTC-TP concentrations and SAEs in children was not formally identified. The exposure to the active form of FTC was high in neonates despite plasma drug concentrations equivalent to those in adults. Our results are similar to those obtained with zidovudine or lamivudine. PMID:21464241

  2. Effect of active-ion concentration on holmium fibre laser efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Sholokhov, E M; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A

    2010-08-03

    We have measured the fraction of holmium ions that relax nonradiatively to the ground level as a result of interaction at a metastable level in optical fibres with a silica-based core doped with holmium ions to 2 x 10{sup 19} - 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The percentage of such ions has been shown to depend on the absolute active-ion concentration. The fibres have been used to make a number of 2.05-{mu}m lasers, and their slope efficiency has been measured. The laser efficiency decreases with increasing holmium concentration in the fibres (lasers)

  3. Influence of traffic activity on heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-05-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals' homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  4. Influence of Traffic Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-01-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals’ homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  5. Concentrated bovine milk whey active proteins facilitate osteogenesis through activation of the JNK-ATF4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsuji-Naito, Kentaro; Jack, Ralph W

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated fractions of low molecular weight whey proteins (1-30 kDa), that is concentrated bovine milk whey active proteins (CBP), have been found to enhance bone formation in both in vivo and clinical studies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we found that CBP promoted osteoblastic differentiation in normal human osteoblasts, and determined the involvement of the c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) pathway. We observed that alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization were significantly induced by CBP treatment. In addition, mRNA expression of ATF4 was intensely elevated in CBP-treated osteoblasts, indicating that the late-phase events of differentiation were promoted. We found that CBP activated the phosphorylation of JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, pathway analyses using the various signaling pathway-specific inhibitors revealed that JNK activation, but not ERK activation, is essential for CBP-induced mineralization and ATF4 expression. Our results indicate that the JNK-mediated ATF4 pathway is required for CBP-promotive osteogenesis.

  6. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; González, Carlos B.

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  7. Estimation of Na-24 activity concentration in BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajijul Hoq, M.; Malek Soner, M. A.; Salam, M. A.; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S. M.

    The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) TRIGA Research Reactor is a unique nuclear installation of the country generally implemented for a wide variety of research applications and serves as an excellent source of neutron. During reactor operation it is necessary to measure and control the activity concentration of the pool water for fuel element failure detection and for the determination of contamination. The present study deals with the estimation of activity concentration for Na-24 present in water coolant produced as a result of 23Na (n, γ) 24Na reaction. Several governing equations have been employed to estimate the Na-24 activity concentrations theoretically at different reactor power levels including maximum reactor power of 2.4 MW. From the obtained result it is ensured that the estimated Na-24 activity of 8.83 × 10-3 μCi /cm3 is not significant enough for any radiological hazard. Thus for ensuring radiological safety issues of the research reactor the assessment performed under the present study has an implication.

  8. Validation of an immunoassay to measure plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in human saliva

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We have previously shown that the concentrations of D-dimer are significantly elevated in saliva compared with plasma. Saliva offers several advantages compared with blood analysis. We hypothesised that human saliva contains plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and that the concentrations are not affected by the time of saliva collection. The aim was to adopt and validate an immunoassay to quantify PAI-1 concentrations in saliva and to determine whether saliva collection time has an influence in the measurement. Materials and methods: Two saliva samples (morning and afternoon) from the same day were collected from healthy subjects (N = 40) who have had no underlying heart conditions. A customized AlphaLISA® immunoassay (PerkinElmer®, MA, USA) was adopted and used to quantify PAI-1 concentrations. We validated the analytical performance of the customized immunoassay by calculating recovery of known amount of analyte spiked in saliva. Results: The recovery (95.03%), intra- (8.59%) and inter-assay (7.52%) variations were within the acceptable ranges. The median salivary PAI-1 concentrations were 394 pg/mL (interquartile ranges (IQR) 243.4–833.1 pg/mL) in the morning and 376 (129.1–615.4) pg/mL in the afternoon and the plasma concentration was 59,000 (24,000–110,000) pg/mL. Salivary PAI-1 did not correlate with plasma (P = 0.812). Conclusions: The adopted immunoassay produced acceptable assay sensitivity and specificity. The data demonstrated that saliva contains PAI-1 and that its concentration is not affected by the time of saliva collection. There is no correlation between salivary and plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Further studies are required to demonstrate the utility of salivary PAI-1 in CVD risk factor studies. PMID:24969919

  9. A comparison of muscle activity in concentric and counter movement maximum bench press.

    PubMed

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics and muscle activation patterns of regular free-weight bench press (counter movement) with pure concentric lifts in the ascending phase of a successful one repetition maximum (1-RM) attempt in the bench press. Our aim was to evaluate if diminishing potentiation could be the cause of the sticking region. Since diminishing potentiation cannot occur in pure concentric lifts, the occurrence of a sticking region in this type of muscle actions would support the hypothesis that the sticking region is due to a poor mechanical position. Eleven male participants (age 21.9 ± 1.7 yrs, body mass 80.7 ± 10.9 kg, body height 1.79 ± 0.07 m) conducted 1-RM lifts in counter movement and in pure concentric bench presses in which kinematics and EMG activity were measured. In both conditions, a sticking region occurred. However, the start of the sticking region was different between the two bench presses. In addition, in four of six muscles, the muscle activity was higher in the counter movement bench press compared to the concentric one. Considering the findings of the muscle activity of six muscles during the maximal lifts it was concluded that the diminishing effect of force potentiation, which occurs in the counter movement bench press, in combination with a delayed muscle activation unlikely explains the existence of the sticking region in a 1-RM bench press. Most likely, the sticking region is the result of a poor mechanical force position.

  10. Elevated blood plasma concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin in benign ovarian neoplasms and ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Markowska, A; Ziółkowska, A; Jaszczyńska-Nowinka, K; Madry, R; Malendowicz, L K

    2009-01-01

    Both ghrelin and obestatin are derived from preproghrelin by post-translational processing. The two peptides are secreted into the blood but circulating levels of these peptides have not been assessed in women with ovarian tumours. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate peripheral blood concentrations of active and total ghrelin and obestatin in patients with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer. The studies were conducted on 22 patients operated due to benign ovarian tumours, and 31 patients operated due to ovarian cancer. A control group consisted of 32 women, 24 to 65 years of age. Both in women with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer blood concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin were higher than in the control group (active ghrelin: 90 +/- 4, 84 +/- 4 and 56 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively, obestatin: 660 +/- 36; 630 +/- 30 and 538 +/- 31 ng/ml (x +/- SE), respectively). In contrast, total ghrelin concentrations in blood were similar in the studied groups. The alterations resulted in increased values of active to total ghrelin concentration ratio in the peripheral blood of patients with benign ovarian tumours or with ovarian cancer (0.79 +/- 0.02 and 0.93 +/- 0.05, respectively vs 0.58 +/- 0.02 in the control group). Due to the absence of any convincing proof for the presence of a functional GHS-R-1a receptor for ghrelin in human ovaries it did not seem probable that the observed elevated levels of active ghrelin and obestatin were directly linked to development of ovarian tumours.

  11. Platelet Activation by Low Concentrations of Intact Oxidized LDL Particles Involves the PAF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Chen, Xi; Salomon, Robert G.; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Mitochondrial depolarization aids platelet activation. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) contains the medium length oxidatively truncated phospholipid hexadecyl azelaoyl-lysoPAF (HAz-LPAF) that disrupts mitochondrial function in nucleated cells, so oxLDL may augment platelet activation. Methods and Results Flow cytometry showed intact oxLDL particles synergized with sub-threshold amounts of soluble agonists to increase intracellular Ca++, and initiate platelet aggregation and surface expression of activated gpIIb/IIIa and P-selectin. oxLDL also induced aggregation and increased intracellular Ca++ in FURA2-labeled cells by itself at low, although not higher, concentrations. HAz-LPAF, alone and in combination with sub-stimulatory amounts of thrombin, rapidly increased cytoplasmic Ca++ and initiated aggregation. HAz-LPAF depolarized mitochondria in intact platelets, but this required concentrations beyond those that directly activated platelets. An unexpectedly large series of chemically pure truncated phospholipids generated by oxidative fragmentation of arachidonoyl-, docosahexaneoyl-, or linoleoyl alkyl phospholipids were platelet agonists. The PAF receptor, thought to effectively recognize only phospholipids with very short sn-2 residues, was essential for platelet activation because PAF receptor agonists blocked signaling by all these medium length phospholipids and oxLDL. Conclusions Intact oxLDL particles activate platelets through the PAF receptor, and the PAF receptor responds to a far wider range of oxidized phospholipids in oxLDL than anticipated. PMID:19112165

  12. A database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region uranium province.

    PubMed

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) uranium province in the Australian wet-dry tropics. The database contains 5060 sample records and 57,473 concentration values. The data are for animal, plant, soil, sediment and water samples collected by the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) as part of its statutory role to undertake research and monitoring into the impacts of uranium mining on the environment of the ARR. Concentration values are provided in the database for 11 radionuclides ((227)Ac, (40)K, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U) and 26 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn). Potential uses of the database are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of activated carbon respirator filter effectiveness by concentration mapping of dimethyl methylphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Billingsley, Brit G; Logue, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has been used extensively in personal protective equipment (PPE) to adsorb toxic substances for the purpose of protecting the user from exposure. The ability to evaluate localized carbon utilization in multiple PPE designs would help engineers develop more effective PPE. Therefore, a method to map dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a common PPE testing agent, concentrations throughout AC filters was developed and tested on DMMP-exposed filters, some purposefully occluded to simulate defective filters. DMMP concentrations were highest at the point of entry and dispersed outward in a radial pattern from that site, decreasing with distance from the point of exposure. Occluded filters were detected by observing DMMP adsorption inconsistent with unblocked filters and showed high concentrations of DMMP localized in unblocked areas of the filter. The DMMP mapping technique detailed in this study provides a tool for testing AC utilization inside DMMP-exposed PPE.

  14. Activity measurement of gamma-ray emitters in aerosol filters exposed in Lithuania, in March-April 2011.

    PubMed

    Gudelis, A; Gorina, I; Nedveckaitė, T; Kovař, P; Dryak, P; Suran, J

    2013-11-01

    Two aerosol sampling stations in Lithuania were simultaneously used for assessing consequences of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The maximum activity concentrations of (129 m)Te, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.59 ± 0.06, 3.5 ± 0.3, 0.90 ± 0.08, 0.90 ± 0.07 mBq m(-3) at station #1 in Vilnius, and 0.29 ± 0.03, 1.0 ± 0.1, 0.41 ± 0.04, 0.41 ± 0.0 4 mBq m(-3) at station #2 in northeastern part of Lithuania, respectively.

  15. Primary centers and secondary concentrations of tectonic activity through time in the western hemisphere of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Franklin, B.J.; Tanaka, K.L.; Lias, J.; Peer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Five main stages of radial and concentric structures formed around Tharsis from the Noachian through the Amazonian as determined by geologic mapping of 24,452 structures within the stratigraphic framework of Mars and by testing their radial and concentric orientations. Tectonic activity peaked in the Noachian (stage 1) around the largest center, Claritas, an elongate center extending more than 20?? in latitude and defined by about half of the total grabens which are concentrated in the Syria Planum, Thaumasia, and Tempe Terra regions. During the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian (stage 2), extensional structures formed along the length of present-day Valles Marineris and in Thaumasia (with a secondary concentration near Warrego Vallis) radial to a region just to the south of the central margin of Valles Marineris. Early Hesperian (stage 3) radial grabens in Pavonis, Syria, Ulysses, and Tempe Terra and somewhat concentric wrinkle ridges in Lunae and Solis Plana and in Thaumasia, Sirenum, Memnonia, and Amazonis are centered northwest of Syria with secondary centers at Thaumasia, Tempe Terra, Ulysses Fossae, and western Valles Marineris. Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian (stage 4) structures around Alba Patera, the northeast trending alignment of Tharsis Montes, and Olympus Mons appears centered on Alba Patera. Stage 5 structures (Middle-Late Amazonian) represent the last pulse of Tharsis-related activity and are found around the large shield volcanoes and are centered near Pavonis Mons. Tectonic activity around Tharsis began in the Noachian and generally decreased through geologic time to the Amazonian. Statistically significant radial distributions of structures formed during each stage, centered at different locations within the higher elevations of Tharsis. Secondary centers of radial structures during many of the stages appear related to previously identified local magmatic centers that formed at different times and locations throughout Tharsis. Copyright 2001 by

  16. Effect of Fe doping concentration on photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanosheets under natural sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhra, Richa; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-05-15

    A facile room temperature, aqueous solution-based chemical method has been adopted for large-scale synthesis of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets. The XRD and SEM results reveal the as-synthesized products well crystalline and accumulated by large amount of interweave nanosheets, respectively. Energy dispersive spectroscopy data confirmed Fe doping of the ZnO nanosheets with a varying Fe concentration. The photoluminescence spectrum reveals a continuous suppression of defect related emissions intensity by increasing the concentration of the Fe ion. A photocatalytic activity using these samples under sunlight irradiation in the mineralization of methylene blue dye was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets depends upon the presence of surface oxygen vacancies.

  17. Mercury Inhibits Soil Enzyme Activity in a Lower Concentration than the Guideline Value.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Three soil types - neutral, alkaline and acidic were experimentally contaminated with nine different concentrations of inorganic mercury (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg) to derive effective concentrations of mercury that exert toxicity on soil quality. Bioavailability of mercury in terms of water solubility was lower in acidic soil with higher organic carbon. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nitrification rate were chosen as indicators to assess soil quality. Inorganic mercury significantly inhibited (p < 0.001) microbial activities in the soils. The critical mercury contents (EC10) were found to be less than the available safe limits for inorganic mercury which demonstrated inadequacy of existing guideline values.

  18. NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI is neuroprotective at femtomolar concentrations through inhibition of microglia over-activation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Gao, Xi; Pei, Zhong; Wu, Xuefei; Block, Michelle; Wilson, Belinda; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report that diphenyliodonium (DPI), a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, shows potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects at femtomolar concentrations (10(-13) to 10(-14) M) in primary midbrain cultures. Mechanistic studies revealed that DPI-elicited effects were mediated by the inhibition of LPS-induced microglial ROS production and the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFa, and the production of nitric oxide. Further studies showed that 10(-14) M DPI significantly reduced LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that femtomolar concentrations of DPI exert potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects by inhibiting microglial activation through the inhibition of ERK-regulated PHOX activity.

  19. Radon activity concentrations and effective doses in ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings.

    PubMed

    Hafez, A F; Hussein, A S

    2001-09-01

    Radon concentrations and equilibrium factors were measured in three pharaonic tombs during the year 1998. The tombs, which are open to the public are located in a limestone wadi on the West Bank of the River Nile at Luxor, 650 km south of Cairo. The radon activity concentration and equilibrium factor were measured monthly by two-integral nuclear track detectors (bare and diffusion detectors). Seasonal variation of radon concentrations, with summer maximum and winter minimum were observed in all tombs investigated. The yearly mean radon activity concentrations insidc the tombs ranged from 540 to 3115 Bq m(-3). The mean equilibrium factor over a year was found to be 0.25 and 0.32 inside and at the entrance, respectively. Estimated annual effective doses to tour guides ranged from 0.33 to 1.90 mSv, visitors receive doses from 0.65 to 3.80 microSv per visit. The effective dose to tomb workers did not exceed the 20 mSv yr(-1) limit.

  20. Coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity and porphyrin concentrations in peripheral red blood cells in hereditary sideroblastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Pasanen, A V; Eklöf, M; Tenhunen, R

    1985-03-01

    The activity of coproporphyrinogen oxidase and the concentrations of coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin (measured by HPLC) in peripheral red blood cells were established in 2 families with different types of hereditary sideroblastic anaemia. 2 males and 4 females were members of a family with an X-chromosome-linked and pyridoxine-responsive HSA, and 3 females were members of another family where the mode of inheritance is not clear and where pyridoxine did not produce a haematological response. Coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity was normal in 8 of 9 patients and slightly decreased only in 1 patient. All patients had normal red cell coproporphyrin concentrations, but red cell protoporphyrin concentration was decreased in 4 patients. These findings indicate that in vivo haem synthesis was not impaired at the step of coproporphyrinogen oxidase, hence enzymatic defects in earlier steps of haem synthesis are more evident. Earlier suggestions of impaired haem synthesis at this level, based on observed increased concentrations of coproporphyrin in peripheral red blood cells might be explained by the use of unspecific methods.

  1. [Resistance activities of the association of pharmacists in the Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp].

    PubMed

    Nowak, B

    2000-01-01

    The activity of the Resistance was mainly focused on helping prisoners in the concentration camp. The underground organizations of independence existed due to the local population. That help was very effective-it rescued many people against starving and rebuilt the faith in the human. It was not only food but medicines, dressings, vaccines serums. The huge part in that help took pharmacists working in local countries and cities. This publication is strictly connected with these brave people.

  2. Low concentration of arsenite exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Xujun; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu Wenlan; Timmins, Graham S.; Liu Kejian

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated arsenic exposure with many types of human cancers. Arsenic has also been shown to act as a co-carcinogen even at low concentrations. However, the precise mechanism of its co-carcinogenic action is unknown. Recent studies indicate that arsenic can interfere with DNA-repair processes. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 is a zinc-finger DNA-repair protein, which can promptly sense DNA strand breaks and initiate DNA-repair pathways. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of arsenic could inhibit PAPR-1 activity and so exacerbate levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA strand breaks. HaCat cells were treated with arsenite and/or UVR, and then DNA strand breaks were assessed by comet assay. Low concentrations of arsenite ({<=} 2 {mu}M) alone did not induce significant DNA strand breaks, but greatly enhanced the DNA strand breaks induced by UVR. Further studies showed that 2 {mu}M arsenite effectively inhibited PARP-1 activity. Zinc supplementation of arsenite-treated cells restored PARP-1 activity and significantly diminished the exacerbating effect of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA strand breaks. Importantly, neither arsenite treatment, nor zinc supplementation changed UVR-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, suggesting that their effects upon UVR-induced DNA strand breaks are not through a direct free radical mechanism. Combination treatments of arsenite with PARP-1 inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide or PARP-1 siRNA demonstrate that PARP-1 is the target of arsenite. Together, these findings show that arsenite at low concentration exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity, which may represent an important mechanism underlying the co-carcinogenicity of arsenic.

  3. The Role of Electrode Microstructure on Activation and Concentration Polarizations in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    December 1999 Abstract Activation and concentration polarization effects in anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells ( SOFC ) were examined. The anode and...and Chemical Properties’, Schlol Solid state devices such as solid oxide fuel cells Ringberg, Germany, March 8-13, 1998. ( SOFC ) consist of a cathode...mail address: anil.virkar@m.cc.utah.edu (AV Virkar) development of the SOFC ; the electrolyte-supported 0167-2738/00/$ - see front matter © 2000 Elsevier

  4. Quantifying the 3D Odorant Concentration Field Used by Actively Tracking Blue Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Dickman, B. D.; Jackson, J. L.; Weissburg, M. J.

    2007-11-01

    Blue crabs and other aquatic organisms locate food and mates by tracking turbulent odorant plumes. The odorant concentration fluctuates unpredictably due to turbulent transport, and many characteristics of the fluctuation pattern have been hypothesized as useful cues for orienting to the odorant source. To make a direct linkage between tracking behavior and the odorant concentration signal, we developed a measurement system based the laser induced fluorescence technique to quantify the instantaneous 3D concentration field surrounding actively tracking blue crabs. The data suggest a correlation between upstream walking speed and the concentration of the odorant signal arriving at the antennule chemosensors, which are located near the mouth region. More specifically, we note an increase in upstream walking speed when high concentration bursts arrive at the antennules location. We also test hypotheses regarding the ability of blue crabs to steer relative to the plume centerline based on the signal contrast between the chemosensors located on their leg appendages. These chemosensors are located much closer to the substrate compared to the antennules and are separated by the width of the blue crab. In this case, it appears that blue crabs use the bilateral signal comparison to track along the edge of the plume.

  5. Impacts of active urea secretion into pars recta on urine concentration and urea excretion rate

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Anita T; Bankir, Lise

    2013-01-01

    It has been observed experimentally that early distal tubular urea flow exceeds urea delivery by the proximal convoluted tubule to the pars recta and loop of Henle. Moreover, the fractional excretion of urea in the urine may exceed values compatible with the reabsorption known to occur in the proximal convoluted tubule in the cortex. A likely explanation for these observations is that urea may be actively secreted into the pars recta, as proposed in a few studies. However, this hypothesis has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. In this study, we used a mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney to investigate the impacts of active urea secretion in the intrarenal handling of urea and in the urine concentrating ability. The model represents only the outer and inner medullary zones, with the actions taking place in the cortex incorporated via boundary conditions. Blood flow in the model vasculature is divided into plasma and red blood cell compartments. We compared urea flow rates and other related model variables without and with the hypothetical active urea secretion in the pars recta. The simulation suggests that active urea secretion induces a “urea-selective” improvement in urine concentrating ability by enhancing the efficiency of urea excretion without requiring a higher urine flow rate, and with only modest changes in the excretion of other solutes. These results should encourage experimental studies in order to assess the existence of an active urea secretion in the rodent kidney. PMID:24058732

  6. Corticosterone targets distinct steps of synaptic transmission via concentration specific activation of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sreejata; Sikdar, Sujit K

    2014-02-01

    Hippocampal neurons are affected by chronic stress and have a high density of cytoplasmic mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors (MR and GR). Detailed studies on the genomic effects of the stress hormone corticosterone at physiologically relevant concentrations on different steps in synaptic transmission are limited. In this study, we tried to delineate how activation of MR and GR by different concentrations of corticosterone affects synaptic transmission at various levels. The effect of 3-h corticosterone (25, 50, and 100 nM) treatment on depolarization-mediated calcium influx, vesicular release and properties of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) were studied in cultured hippocampal neurons. Activation of MR with 25 nM corticosterone treatment resulted in enhanced depolarization-mediated calcium influx via a transcription-dependent process and increased frequency of mEPSCs with larger amplitude. On the other hand, activation of GR upon 100 nM corticosterone treatment resulted in increase in the rate of vesicular release via the genomic actions of GR. Furthermore, GR activation led to significant increase in the frequency of mEPSCs with larger amplitude and faster decay. Our studies indicate that differential activation of the dual receptor system of MR and GR by corticosterone targets the steps in synaptic transmission differently.

  7. Response of oxidative enzyme activities to nitrogen deposition affects soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that atmospheric nitrate (NO3- ) deposition can alter soil carbon (C) storage by directly affecting the activity of lignin-degrading soil fungi. In a laboratory experiment, we studied the direct influence of increasing soil NO 3- concentration on microbial C cycling in three different ecosystems: black oak-white oak (BOWO), sugar maple-red oak (SMRO), and sugar maple-basswood (SMBW). These ecosystems span a broad range of litter biochemistry and recalcitrance; the BOWO ecosystem contains the highest litter lignin content, SMRO had intermediate lignin content, and SMBW leaf litter has the lowest lignin content. We hypothesized that increasing soil solution NO 3- would reduce lignolytic activity in the BOWO ecosystem, due to a high abundance of white-rot fungi and lignin-rich leaf litter. Due to the low lignin content of litter in the SMBW, we further reasoned that the NO3- repression of lignolytic activity would be less dramatic due to a lower relative abundance of white-rot basidiomycetes; the response in the SMRO ecosystem should be intermediate. We increased soil solution NO3- concentrations in a 73-day laboratory incubation and measured microbial respiration and soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenolics concentrations. At the end of the incubation, we measured the activity of ??-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase, which are extracellular enzymes involved with cellulose and lignin degradation. We quantified the fungal biomass, and we also used fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) to gain insight into fungal community composition. In the BOWO ecosystem, increasing NO 3- significantly decreased oxidative enzyme activities (-30% to -54%) and increased DOC (+32% upper limit) and phenolic (+77% upper limit) concentrations. In the SMRO ecosystem, we observed a significant decrease in phenol oxidase activity (-73% lower limit) and an increase in soluble phenolic concentrations

  8. Bayesian Estimation of the Active Concentration and Affinity Constants Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feng; Kepler, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has previously been employed to measure the active concentration of analyte in addition to the kinetic rate constants in molecular binding reactions. Those approaches, however, have a few restrictions. In this work, a Bayesian approach is developed to determine both active concentration and affinity constants using SPR technology. With the appropriate prior probabilities on the parameters and a derived likelihood function, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is applied to compute the posterior probability densities of both the active concentration and kinetic rate constants based on the collected SPR data. Compared with previous approaches, ours exploits information from the duration of the process in its entirety, including both association and dissociation phases, under partial mass transport conditions; do not depend on calibration data; multiple injections of analyte at varying flow rates are not necessary. Finally the method is validated by analyzing both simulated and experimental datasets. A software package implementing our approach is developed with a user-friendly interface and made freely available.

  9. Using Photon Activation Analysis To Determine Concentrations Of Unknown Components In Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun, Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Maschner, Herb

    2011-06-01

    Using certified multi-element reference materials for instrumental analyses one frequently is confronted with the embarrassing fact that the concentration of some desired elements are not given in the respective certificate, nonetheless are detectable, e.g. by photon activation analysis (PAA). However, these elements might be determinable with sufficient quality of the results using scaling parameters and the well-known quantities of a reference element within the reference material itself. Scaling parameters include: activation threshold energy, Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) peak and endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung continuum; integrated photo-nuclear cross sections for the isotopes of the reference element; bremsstrahlung continuum integral; target thickness; photon flux density. Photo-nuclear cross sections from the unreferenced elements must be known, too. With these quantities, the integral was obtained for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the unreported element based upon the reported value, thus also the concentration of the unreferenced element in the reference material. A similar method to determine elements using the basic nuclear and experimental data has been developed for thermal neutron activation analysis some time ago (k{sub 0} Method).

  10. Captopril and lisinopril only inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity at millimolar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kuntze, Luciana B; Antonio, Raquel C; Izidoro-Toledo, Tatiane C; Meschiari, Cesar A; Tanus-Santos, Jose E; Gerlach, Raquel F

    2014-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) shares structural similarities with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors have been described to inhibit MMP-2, but this inhibitory potential was not shown using a highly purified MMP-2. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of captopril and lisinopril regarding MMP-2 activity. The first objective was to test the potential of captopril to change the pH of the buffer solution. The second objective was to test the direct inhibitory effect of captopril and lisinopril on plasma MMP-2 and on recombinant human MMP-2 (rhMMP-2). The in vitro activity assays included gelatin zymography and a fluorimetric assay. Captopril solubilization significantly decreased the pH of the 50 mM Tris buffer solution at the following concentrations: 2 mM (p < 0.05), 4 mM and 8 mM (p < 0.01), while only the 8 mM lisinopril induced a drop in pH (p < 0.05). Thus, only 200 mM buffer solutions were used. Zymography results of plasma MMP-2 and rhMMP-2 showed that inhibition only happened at captopril concentrations ≥ 4 and 1 mM, respectively (p < 0.05), while only the higher concentration of lisinopril (8 mM) inhibited plasma MMP-2 (p < 0.05). In the fluorimetric assay, captopril led to significant inhibition of the rhMMP-2 activity at concentrations ≥2 mM (p < 0.01), whereas aminophenylmercuric acetate-activated rhMMP-2 was inhibited by 0.5 mM captopril (p < 0.01). The captopril and lisinopril concentrations found to inhibit MMP-2 are 3 orders of magnitude higher than those present in vivo after drug administration. We also discuss possible pitfalls for gelatinase inhibitory assays (besides the obvious pH problem already cited). In conclusion, this study's data show that captopril and lisinopril did not inhibit MMP-2 directly at the concentrations reached in vivo.

  11. Evaluation of the influence of physical activity on the plasma concentrations of several trace metals.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Tuya, I; Pinilla Gil, E; Maynar Mariño, M; García-Moncó Carra, R M; Sánchez Misiego, A

    1996-01-01

    Our study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the influence that the degree of physical activity may have on plasma concentrations of essential and toxic elements. Copper and zinc, elements of known importance in basic cellular processes, have been analysed as essential, and cadmium and lead as toxic for the body in abnormal doses. The study was performed on a total population of 50 healthy individuals, 34 of them professional sportsmen and the rest who undertook moderate physical activity (control group), all of them living in a polluted environment (Madrid, Spain). Sampling was conducted at the beginning of the season (October). Electro-analytical techniques of proved reliability and accuracy were used for the determination of the metals. The results were related to data obtained using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and by use of biological reference materials. We found significantly higher zinc plasma concentrations in the sportsmen involved in anaerobic-type training (judo, fencing) compared to those undertaking aerobic activities (endurance, cycling) (P < 0.05). The values in both cases were higher than those found in the control group. Our study showed an increase of plasma copper concentrations in professional sportsmen, especially in those performing anaerobic activities, compared to those subjects undertaking moderate activity (control group) (P < 0.05). In summary, our results showed that there were no deficiencies of copper and zinc in the athletes studied at the beginning of the season. The levels were higher than those of the control population. As for the toxic metals, cadmium and lead, we observed lower levels in the athletes than in the control group (cadmium P < 0.005, lead P < 0.05). These results may indicate the existence of possible elimination systems for these metals in athletes, when they are training in a polluted environment.

  12. Study of the adsorption of Cd and Zn onto an activated carbon: Influence of pH, cation concentration, and adsorbent concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, A.; Marzal, P.; Gabaldon, C.; Ferrer, J.

    1999-06-01

    The single adsorption of Cd and Zn from aqueous solutions has been investigated on Scharlau Ca 346 granular activated carbon in a wide range of experimental conditions: pH, metal concentration, and carbon concentration. The results showed the efficiency of the activated carbon as sorbent for both metals. Metal removals increase on raising the pH and carbon concentration, and decrease on raising the initial metal concentration. The adsorption processes have been modeled using the surface complex formation (SCF) Triple Layer Model (TLM). The adsorbent TLM parameters were determined. Modeling has been performed assuming a single surface bidentate species or an overall surface species with fractional stoichiometry. The bidentate stoichiometry successfully predicted cadmium and zinc removals in all the experimental conditions. The Freundlich isotherm has been also checked.

  13. Concentrations of iodine isotopes ((129)I and (127)I) and their isotopic ratios in aerosol samples from Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Daraoui, A; Riebe, B; Walther, C; Wershofen, H; Schlosser, C; Vockenhuber, C; Synal, H-A

    2016-04-01

    New data about (129)I, (127)I concentrations and their isotopic ratios in aerosol samples from the trace survey station of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Northern Germany, are presented and discussed in this paper. The investigated samples were collected on a weekly basis during the years 2011 to 2013. Iodine was extracted from aerosol filters using a strong basic solution and was separated from the matrix elements with chloroform and was analysed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for (129)I and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for (127)I. The concentrations of (127)I and (129)I in aerosol filters ranged from 0.31 to 3.71 ng m(-3) and from 0.06 to 0.75 fg m(-3), respectively. The results of (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios were in the order 10(-8) to 10(-7). The (129)I originated directly from gaseous emissions and indirectly from liquid emissions (via sea spray) from the reprocessing plants in Sellafield and La Hague. In comparison with the results of (131)I after the Fukushima accident, no contribution of (129)I from this accident was detectable in Central Europe due to the high background originating from the (129)I releases of the European reprocessing plants. (129)I atmospheric activity concentrations were compared with those of an anthropogenic radionuclide ((85)Kr). We did not find any correlation between (129)I and (85)Kr, both having nuclear reprocessing plant as the main source.

  14. Circulating extracellular proteasome in the cerebrospinal fluid: a study on concentration and proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Oliver; Anlasik, Timur; Wiedemann, Jonas; Thomassen, Jan; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Hagel, Vincent; Keyvani, Kathy; Schwieger, Isabel; Dahlmann, Burkhardt; Sure, Ulrich; Sixt, Stephan Urs

    2012-03-01

    Alterations of the intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome pathway are found in neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system, as well as in its malignancies. Inhibitory substrates of the proteasomes represent promising approaches to control autoimmune inflammations and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Extracellular circulating proteasomes are positively correlated to outcome prognosis in hematogenic neoplasias and the outcome in critically ill patients. Previously, we reported raised levels of proteolytic active 20S proteasomes in the extracellular alveolar space in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). For the cerebrospinal fluid, we assumed that extracellular circulating proteasomes with enzymatic activity can be found, too. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of twenty-six patients (14 females, 12 males), who underwent diagnostic spinal myelography, were analyzed for leukocyte cell count, total protein content, lactate and interleukine-6 (Il-6) concentrations. CSF samples were analyzed for concentration and enzymatic activity of extracellular 20S proteasomes (fluorescenic substrate cleavage; femtokatal). Blood samples were analyzed with respect to concentration of extracellular circulating proteasomes. Choroidal plexus was harvested at autopsies and examined with immunoelectron microscopy (EM) for identification of possible transportation mechanisms. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (18.0.3). In all patients, extracellular proteasome was found in the CSF. The mean concentration was 24.6 ng/ml. Enzymatic activity of the 20S subunits of proteasomes was positively identified by the fluorescenic subtrate cleavage at a mean of 8.5 fkat/ml. Concentrations of extracellular proteasomes in the CSF, total protein content and Il-6 were uncorrelated. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed merging vesicles of proteasomes with the outer cell membrane suggestive of an exozytic transport mechanism. For the first time

  15. Potassium permeability activated by intracellular calcium ion concentration in the pancreatic beta-cell.

    PubMed Central

    Atwater, I; Dawson, C M; Ribalet, B; Rojas, E

    1979-01-01

    1. Membrane potentials and input resistance were measured in beta-cells from mouse pancreatic islets of Langerhans in a study designed to assess the role of a K permeability specifically blocked by quinine or quinidine and activated by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+])i-activated PK). 2. Addition of 100 microM-quinine to the perifusion medium resulted in a 10--30 mV depolarization of the membrane and an increase in the input resistance of ca. 4.10(7) omega. 3. In the absence of glucose, 100 microM-quinine induced electrical activity. 4. In the presence of glucose, 100 microM-quinine abolished the burst pattern of electrical activity and very much reduced the graded response of spike frequency normally seen with different concentrations of glucose. 5. Addition of mitochondrial inhibitors, KCN, NaN3, DNP, CCCP, FCCP, to the perifusion medium containing glucose rapidly hyperpolarized the beta-cell membrane, inducing a concomitant decrease in input resistance. 6. In the presence of glucose, these mitochondrial inhibitors reversibly blocked electrical activity; upon removal of the inhibitor, recovery of electrical activity followed a biphasic pattern. 7. The effects of mitochondrial inhibitors were partially reversed by 100 microM-quinine. 8. It is proposed that the membrane potential of the beta-cell in the absence of glucose is predominantly controlled by the [Ca2+]i-activated PK. It is further suggested that this permeability to K controls the level for glucose stimulation and leads to the generation of the burst pattern. PMID:381636

  16. Threat-related amygdala activity is associated with peripheral CRP concentrations in men but not women.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Johnna R; Prather, Aric A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-04-01

    Increased levels of peripheral inflammatory markers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are associated with increased risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidality. The brain mechanisms that may underlie the association between peripheral inflammation and internalizing problems remain to be determined. The present study examines associations between peripheral CRP concentrations and threat-related amygdala activity, a neural biomarker of depression and anxiety risk, in a sample of 172 young adult undergraduate students. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while performing an emotional face matching task to obtain a measure of threat-related amygdala activity to angry and fearful faces; CRP concentrations were assayed from dried blood spots. Results indicated a significant interaction between CRP and sex: in men, but not women, higher CRP was associated with higher threat-related amygdala activity. These results add to the literature finding associations between systemic levels of inflammation and brain function and suggest that threat-related amygdala activity may serve as a potential pathway through which heightened chronic inflammation may increase risk for mood and anxiety problems.

  17. Tracking Dissolved Methane Concentrations near Active Seeps and Gas Hydrates: Sea of Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. T.; Aoki, S.; Matsumoto, R.; Tomaru, H.; Owari, S.; Nakajima, R.; Doolittle, D. F.; Brant, B.

    2015-12-01

    A number of regions in the Sea of Japan are known for active gas venting and for gas hydrate exposures on the sea floor. In this investigation we employed several gas sensors mounted on a ROV in order to determine the concentrations of dissolved methane in the water near these sites. Methane concentrations were determined during two-second intervals throughout each ROV deployment during the cruise. The methane sensor deployments were coupled with seawater sampling using Niskin bottles. Dissolved gas concentrations were later measured using gas chromatography in order to compare with the sensor results taken at the same time. The observed maximum dissolved methane concentrations were much lower than saturation values, even when the ROV manipulators were in contact with gas hydrate. Nonetheless, dissolved concentrations did reach several thousands of nmol/L near gas hydrate exposures and gas bubbles, more than two orders of magnitude over the instrumental detection limits. Most of the sensors tested were able to detect dissolved methane concentrations as low as 10 nmol/L which permitted detection when the ROV approached methane plume sites, even from several tens of meters above the sea floor. Despite the low detection limits, the methane sensors showed variable response times when returning to low-background seawater (~5nM). For some of the sensors, the response time necessary to return to background values occurred in a matter of minutes, while for others it took several hours. Response time, as well as detection limit, should be an important consideration when selecting methane sensors for ROV or AUV investigations. This research was made possible, in part, through funding provided by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  18. Activity patterns, blood lactate concentrations and ratings of perceived exertion during a professional singles tennis tournament

    PubMed Central

    Mendez‐Villanueva, Alberto; Fernandez‐Fernandez, Jaime; Bishop, David; Fernandez‐Garcia, Benjamin; Terrados, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the game characteristics and physiological (ie, blood lactate concentration) and perceptual (ie, rating of perceived exertion, RPE) responses during actual tennis competition in professional performers. Methods Eight trained and internationally ranked (Association of Tennis Professionals rankings) male tennis players were studied during singles matches (best of three sets) played on an outdoor clay court surface during a professional, invitational tournament. Blood lactate concentrations (n = 53) and RPE (n = 113) were determined at selected changeovers during the game. The variables describing the characteristics of the matches, (a) duration of rallies (DRs); (b) rest time (RT); (c) effective playing time (EPT); and (d) shots per rally (SR), were determined from video recordings. Results The mean (SD) values for the match‐play activity variables were DR 7.5 (7.3) s, RT 16.2 (5.2) s, EPT 21.5 (4.9%), SR 2.7 (2.2) shots. Average blood lactate concentration and RPE values were 3.8 (2.0) mmol/l and 13 (2). Blood lactate concentrations and RPE values were significantly higher (p<0.01) in service games than in receiving games. Both blood lactate concentration and RPE values were significantly correlated with SR and DR (r = 0.80 to 0.28; p<0.001). Conclusions Blood lactate concentrations and RPE were found to be influenced by the characteristics of the match and the playing situation (ie, serving or returning). These specific situations might be used to alter the overload training stimulus during tennis on‐court practice. PMID:17237121

  19. Yeast AMP-activated Protein Kinase Monitors Glucose Concentration Changes and Absolute Glucose Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Bendrioua, Loubna; Smedh, Maria; Almquist, Joachim; Cvijovic, Marija; Jirstrand, Mats; Goksör, Mattias; Adiels, Caroline B.; Hohmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the time-dependent behavior of a signaling system can provide insight into its dynamic properties. We employed the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the transcriptional repressor Mig1 as readout to characterize Snf1-Mig1 dynamics in single yeast cells. Mig1 binds to promoters of target genes and mediates glucose repression. Mig1 is predominantly located in the nucleus when glucose is abundant. Upon glucose depletion, Mig1 is phosphorylated by the yeast AMP-activated kinase Snf1 and exported into the cytoplasm. We used a three-channel microfluidic device to establish a high degree of control over the glucose concentration exposed to cells. Following regimes of glucose up- and downshifts, we observed a very rapid response reaching a new steady state within less than 1 min, different glucose threshold concentrations depending on glucose up- or downshifts, a graded profile with increased cell-to-cell variation at threshold glucose concentrations, and biphasic behavior with a transient translocation of Mig1 upon the shift from high to intermediate glucose concentrations. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data demonstrate that Mig1 shuttles constantly between the nucleus and cytoplasm, although with different rates, depending on the presence of glucose. Taken together, our data suggest that the Snf1-Mig1 system has the ability to monitor glucose concentration changes as well as absolute glucose levels. The sensitivity over a wide range of glucose levels and different glucose concentration-dependent response profiles are likely determined by the close integration of signaling with the metabolism and may provide for a highly flexible and fast adaptation to an altered nutritional status. PMID:24627493

  20. Effect of altitude training on serum creatine kinase activity and serum cortisol concentration in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Wilber, R L; Drake, S D; Hesson, J L; Nelson, J A; Kearney, J T; Dallam, G M; Williams, L L

    2000-01-01

    In this investigation we evaluated the effect of a 5-week training program at 1860 m on serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and serum cortisol concentration in national-caliber triathletes for the purpose of monitoring the response to training in a hypobaric hypoxic environment. Subjects included 16 junior-level female (n = 8) and male (n = 8) triathletes who were training for the International Triathlon Union (ITU) World Championships. After an initial acclimatization period, training intensity and/or volume were increased progressively during the 5-week altitude training camp. Resting venous blood samples were drawn at 0700 hours following a 12-h overnight fast and were analyzed for serum CK activity and serum cortisol concentration. Subjects were evaluated before [7-10 days pre-altitude (SL 1)] and after [7-10 days post-altitude (SL 2)] the 5-week training camp at 1860 m. At altitude, subjects were evaluated within 24-36 h after arrival (ALT 1), 7 days after arrival (ALT 2), 18 days after arrival (ALT 3), and 24-36 h prior to leaving the altitude training camp (ALT 4). A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences over time from SL 1 to SL 2. Compared to SL 1, serum CK activity increased approximately threefold (P < 0.05) within the initial 24-36 h at altitude (ALT 1), and increased by an additional 70% (P < 0.05) after the 1st week of altitude training (ALT 2). Serum CK activity remained significantly elevated over the duration of the experimental period compared to pre-altitude baseline levels. Serum cortisol concentration was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the 5-week altitude training period (ALT 4) relative to SL 1, ALT 1 and ALT 3. These data suggest that: (1) the initial increase in serum CK activity observed in the first 24-36 h at altitude was due primarily to acute altitude exposure and was independent of increased training intensity and/or training volume, (2) the subsequent increases in serum CK activity observed over

  1. Fumonisin concentration and ceramide synthase inhibitory activity of corn, masa, and tortilla chips.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kenneth A; Norred, William P; Meredith, Filmore I; Riley, Ronald T; Stephen Saunders, D

    2006-07-01

    Nixtamalization removes fumonisins from corn and reduces their amounts in masa and tortilla products. Fumonisin concentrations and potential toxicity could be underestimated, however, if unknown but biologically active fumonisins are present. Therefore, the relative amounts of fumonisins in extracts of fumonisin-contaminated corn and its masa and tortilla chip nixtamalization products were determined with an in vitro ceramide synthase inhibition bioassay using increased sphinganine (Sa) and sphinganine to sphingosine ratio (Sa/So) as endpoints. African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells ATCC CCL-81) were grown in 1-ml wells and exposed to 4 microl of the concentrated extracts for 48 h. The corn extract inhibited ceramide synthase as Sa (mean = 132 pmol/well) and Sa/So (mean = 2.24) were high compared to vehicle controls (Sa = 9 pmol/well; Sa/So = 0.10). Inhibitory activity (mean Sa = 14-24 pmol/well; mean Sa/So = 0.17-0.28) of the masa and tortilla chip extracts were reduced > or = 80% compared to the corn extract. Results were corroborated in a second experiment in which Sa and Sa/So of the wells treated with masa or tortilla chip extracts were reduced > or = 89% compared to those treated with the corn extract. Masa and tortilla chip FB1 concentrations (4-7 ppm) were reduced about 80-90% compared to the corn (30 ppm) when the materials were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Therefore, nixtamalization reduced both the measured amount of FB1 and the ceramide synthase inhibitory activity of masa and tortilla chips extracts. The results further suggest that the masa and tortilla chip extracts did not contain significant amounts of unknown fumonisins having ceramide synthase inhibitory activity.

  2. Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, B G; Jaafar, M S; Azhar, A R; Akpa, T C

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively.

  3. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    DOE PAGES

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; ...

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use ofmore » short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.« less

  4. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; Spenkelink, Lisanne M.; McGrath, William J.; Morrone, Seamus R.; Sohn, Jungsan; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use of short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.

  5. Variability in Saponin Content, Cancer Antiproliferative Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Concentrated Agave Sap.

    PubMed

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza Mireya; Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-08-01

    Concentrated agave sap (CAS) has gained popularity as an unrefined sweetener. It is obtained by boiling "aguamiel" that contains phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. Saponins have been the most widely studied agave phytochemicals due to their cancer antiproliferative effect but their concentration may vary due to maturity of the agave plant and collection site. In this study, 18 CAS samples produced in different states of Mexico were analyzed using multivariate methods to determine which physicochemical or phytochemical parameters were responsible for variation. Additionally, extracts with different saponin profiles were tested to determine possible correlations with antiproliferative activity. Total soluble solids, pH, and water activity were similar to those reported for other agave sweeteners. Antioxidant capacity of samples was correlated to browning index. Eleven steroidal saponins were found in CAS samples and they were the main source of variability. Magueyoside B, a kammogenin tetraglycoside, was the most abundant saponin in all samples. With respect to bioactivity, multivariate analysis indicated that magueyoside B and a gentrogenin tetraglycoside were compounds strongly related with bioactivity. CAS from Hidalgo, Puebla, and Veracruz had higher concentration of magueyoside B than from the other kamogenin tetraglycoside found in the samples from other Mexican states. These results could be used as a first approach to characterize and standardize CAS to validate the potential health benefits derived from its consumption.

  6. Activity concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in nonmetallic industrial raw materials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Natural materials such as rock, ore, and clay, containing natural radioactive nuclides are widely used as industrial raw materials in Japan. If these are high concentrations, the workers who handle the material can be unknowingly exposed to radiation at a high level. In this study, about 80 nonmetallic natural materials frequently used as industrial raw materials in Japan were comprehensively collected from several industrial companies, and the activity concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K in the materials was determined by ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers handling them were estimated by using methods for dose estimation given in the RP 122. We found the activity concentrations to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum estimated effective dose to workers handling these materials was 0.16 mSv y(-1), which was lower than the reference level (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for existing situation given in the ICRP Publ.103.

  7. Muscle conduction velocity, strength, neural activity, and morphological changes after eccentric and concentric training.

    PubMed

    Cadore, E L; González-Izal, M; Pallarés, J G; Rodriguez-Falces, J; Häkkinen, K; Kraemer, W J; Pinto, R S; Izquierdo, M

    2014-10-01

    This study compared the effects of concentric and eccentric training on neuromuscular adaptations in young subjects. Twenty-two men and women were assigned to one of two groups: concentric (CON, n = 11) and eccentric (ECC, n = 11) training. Training consisted of 6 weeks of isokinetic exercise, performed twice weekly, starting with two sets of eight repetitions, and progressing to five sets of 10 repetitions. Subjects were tested in strength variables [concentric, eccentric, and isometric peak torque (PT), and rate of force development (RFD)], muscle conduction velocity (CV), neuromuscular activity, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle thickness, and echo intensity as determined by ultrasonography. There were similar increases in the concentric and eccentric PTs in both the CON and ECC groups (P < 0.01), but only the ECC group showed an increase in isometric PT (P < 0.001). Similarly, both groups exhibited increased VL muscle thickness, CV, and RFD, and reduced VL echo intensity (P < 0.05). Significant correlations were observed among the relative changes in the neuromuscular outcomes and training variables (e.g., total work, average PT) (r = 0.68-0.75, P < 0.05). The results showed that both training types similarly improved dynamic PT, CV, RFD, and muscle thickness and quality during the early weeks of training.

  8. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  9. Concentration of Tea Extracts by Osmotic Evaporation: Optimisation of Process Parameters and Effect on Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Marisa P.; Alves, Vítor D.; Coelhoso, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the concentration process of three different tea extracts (medicinal Rosil No. 6, Black, and Forest Fruit teas) using the osmotic evaporation (OE) process, was studied. The effect of the OE process on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The concentration process was carried out in a hollow-fibre membrane contactor with an effective surface area of 0.54 m2. The tea extract was circulated through the shell side of the contactor, while a concentrated osmotic solution (CaCl2 5 M) was circulated inside the fibres. The flux, the driving force, and the mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. A decrease of the water flux over time was observed and was attributed only to the decrease of the driving force, caused by the dilution of the osmotic solution. Using a surface area/feed volume ratio of 774 m2·m−3, it is possible to reach a tea concentration of 40% (w/w) in 5 h, with a constant water flux and without losing the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in most teas. PMID:28036043

  10. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  11. [Electrical activity of the heart cells and myocardial contractility during a change in extracellular sodium concentration].

    PubMed

    Kobrin, V I; Alabovskiĭ, V V; Alipov, N N; Oleĭnikov, O D

    1988-09-01

    The transmembrane potentials of the cells of the ventricle contractile myocardium of the rat and frog isolated hearts were studied as well as the strength of the ventricle contraction under the effect of a decrease (to 30 mM) or increase (up to 200 mM) in the sodium chloride concentration in the perfusate. The decrease led to a fibrillation of ventricles, 80-85% of contractile cells generating a high-frequency activity, 12-15% preserving the same AP and 3-5% having completely lost the excitability. The increase only affects the transmembrane potentials of ischemized myocardium. The decrease in the sodium concentration led to an augmentation of the contraction strength through the sodium-calcium exchange mechanism.

  12. Serum Malondialdehyde Concentration and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in a Longitudinal Study of Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, María; Muriach, María; Romero, Francisco J.; Villar, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of oxidative damage and to quantify its level in gestational diabetes. Methods Thirty-six healthy women and thirty-six women with gestational diabetes were studied in the three trimesters of pregnancy regarding their levels of oxidative stress markers. These women were diagnosed with diabetes in the second trimester of pregnancy. Blood glucose levels after 100g glucose tolerance test were higher than 190, 165 or 145 mg/dl, 1, 2 or 3 hours after glucose intake. Results The group of women with gestational diabetes had higher serum malondialdehyde levels, with significant differences between groups in the first and second trimester. The mean values of serum glutathione peroxidase activity in the diabetic women were significantly lower in the first trimester. In the group of women with gestational diabetes there was a negative linear correlation between serum malondialdehyde concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in the second and third trimester. Conclusions In this observational and longitudinal study in pregnant women, the alterations attributable to oxidative stress were present before the biochemical detection of the HbA1c increase. Usual recommendations once GD is detected (adequate metabolic control, as well as any other normally proposed to these patients) lowered the concentration of malondialdehyde at the end of pregnancy to the same levels of the healthy controls. Serum glutathione peroxidase activity in women with gestational diabetes increased during the gestational period. PMID:27228087

  13. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in vitro activity of workers' urinary concentrates and raw materials.

    PubMed Central

    Crebelli, R; Paoletti, A; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Fabri, G; Carere, A

    1985-01-01

    The possible contribution to urinary mutagenicity of occupational exposures in the rubber industry was studied by assaying the urine concentrates of 72 workmen (44 smokers) employed in a tyre plant. Twenty three clerks (16 smokers) engaged in the administrative department of the same factory served as presumptive unexposed controls. XAD-2 resin concentrates of urine samples were assayed in the plate incorporation test and in the microtitre fluctuation assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA98, and TA100. Furthermore, the in vitro mutagenicity of the major raw materials in use at the plant was determined in the plate incorporation assay with S typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98, and TA100. The results obtained from the urinary mutagenicity study show that smoking habits, but not occupation, were statistically significantly related to the appearance of a urinary mutagenicity that was detectable with strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation with smoking was observed among tyre builders who were also smokers. The study of the raw materials showed that three technical grade materials were weakly active as mutagens in strain TA98 in the absence (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene) or in the presence of metabolic activation (mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines and tetramethyltiuram disulphide). The latter chemical was also weakly active in strain TA100. PMID:4015996

  14. Lithium ions in nanomolar concentration modulate glycine-activated chloride current in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, J V; Kondratenko, R V; Skrebitsky, V G

    2016-03-01

    Lithium salts are successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. At the same time, according to recent data lithium may be considered as a candidate medication for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of therapeutic action of lithium have not been fully elucidated. In particular, in the literature there are no data on the effect of lithium on the glycine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of Li(+) on glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) in rat isolated pyramidal hippocampal neurons using patch-clamp technique. The effects of Li(+) were studied with two glycine concentrations: 100 μM (EC50) and 500 μM (nearly saturating). Li(+) was applied to the cell in two ways: first, by 600 ms co-application with glycine through micropipette (short application), and, second, by addition to an extracellular perfusate for 10 min (longer application). Li(+) was used in the range of concentrations of 1 nM-1 mM. Short application of Li(+) caused two effects: (1) an acceleration of desensitization (a decrease in the time of half-decay, or "τ") of IGly induced by both 100 μM and 500 μM glycine, and (2) a reduction of the peak amplitude of the IGly, induced by 100 μM, but not by 500 μM glycine. Both effects were not voltage-dependent. Dose-response curves for both effects were N-shaped with two maximums at 100 nM and 1 mM of Li(+) and a minimum at 1 μM of Li(+). This complex form of dose-response may indicate that the process activated by high concentrations of lithium inhibits the process that is sensitive to low concentrations of lithium. Longer application of Li(+)caused similar effects, but in this case 1 μM lithium was effective and the dose-effect curves were not N-shaped. The inhibitory effect of lithium ions on glycine-activated current suggests that lithium in low concentrations is able to modulate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus. This important property of lithium should be considered when using this drug as a

  15. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  16. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.; Bauer, L.R.

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model.

    PubMed

    Hamby, D M; Bauer, L R

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates.

  18. Intestinal morphology and enzymatic activity in newly weaned pigs fed contrasting fiber concentrations and fiber properties.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, M S; Eskildsen, M; Laerke, H N; Pedersen, C; Lindberg, J E; Laurinen, P; Knudsen, K E Bach

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of fiber source and concentration on morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW 8.6 +/- 1.4 kg) and divided into 5 treatment groups. Diets containing fiber of various physico-chemical properties and concentrations were formulated to contain 73, 104, or 145 g of dietary fiber/kg of DM. The diets were based on raw wheat and barley flours. Pectin and barley hulls, representing soluble and insoluble fiber sources, respectively, were used to increase the fiber concentration. The pigs were fed the experimental diets for 9 d, and then the pigs were euthanized and the entire gastrointestinal tract was removed. Tissue samples were taken from the mid and distal small intestine and from the mid colon. Inclusion of pectin in the diets significantly decreased (P < 0.001) ADFI and ADG compared with pigs fed no pectin. The villi and the crypts were shorter in pigs fed pectin-containing diets, but the villous height/crypt depth ratio was unaltered. Pectin significantly decreased the area of mucins in the crypts of the small intestine, indicating that the pigs fed the pectin-containing diet would probably be more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria, although this cannot be separated from the impact on ADFI. The lectin-binding pattern of the intestinal mucosa was unaffected by diet. The activity of lactase and maltase was increased in pigs fed diets with high fiber content, whereas sucrase activity was increased in pigs fed the pectin-containing diets. The activity of the peptidases, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, was increased when feeding high fiber diets, whereas the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase remained unaffected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, the reduced feed intake observed with the pectin-containing diets could explain the

  19. Application of an artificial neural network for evaluation of activity concentration exemption limits in NORM industry.

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Hannah; Peyrés, Virginia; Crespo, Teresa; Mejuto, Marcos; García-Toraño, Eduardo; Maringer, Franz Josef

    2016-12-27

    NORM emits many different gamma energies that have to be analysed by an expert. Alternatively, artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used. These mathematical software tools can generalize "knowledge" gained from training datasets, applying it to new problems. No expert knowledge of gamma-ray spectrometry is needed by the end-user. In this work an ANN was created that is able to decide from the raw gamma-ray spectrum if the activity concentrations in a sample are above or below the exemption limits.

  20. Effect of iron concentration on the expression and activity of catalase-peroxidases in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Veena C; Sundaram, C A S Sivagami; Sritharan, Manjula

    2005-02-01

    Mycobacterial catalases are known to exist in different isoforms. We studied the influence of iron concentration on the expression and activity of the different isoforms in Mycobacterium bovis BCG, M. smegmatis, M. fortuitum, M. kansasii and M. vaccae by growing them under iron-sufficient (4 microg Fe/mL) and iron-deficient (0.02 microg Fe/ml) conditions. Upon iron deprivation, significant differences were observed in the catalase/peroxidase activities in both quantitative spectrophotometric assays and in the activity staining in native gels. Notable feature was that the peroxidase activity showed a significant decrease upon iron deprivation in all the mycobacteria, except M. vaccae. Peroxidase activity in all the mycobacteria, irrespective of the iron status was susceptible to heat inactivation. However, the isoforms of catalase showed differences in their heat stability, indicating possible structural differences in these proteins. For example, M. bovis BCG expressed a heat labile catalase under iron-sufficient conditions, while a heat stable catalase band of similar mobility was expressed under iron-deprivation conditions. The study clearly indicates that iron plays an important role in the regulation of expression of the different isoforms of the catalase-peroxidases.

  1. Concentric zones of active RhoA and Cdc42 around single cell wounds

    PubMed Central

    Benink, Hélène A.; Bement, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Rho GTPases control many cytoskeleton-dependent processes, but how they regulate spatially distinct features of cytoskeletal function within a single cell is poorly understood. Here, we studied active RhoA and Cdc42 in wounded Xenopus oocytes, which assemble and close a dynamic ring of actin filaments (F-actin) and myosin-2 around wound sites. RhoA and Cdc42 are rapidly activated around wound sites in a calcium-dependent manner and segregate into distinct, concentric zones around the wound, with active Cdc42 in the approximate middle of the F-actin array and active RhoA on the interior of the array. These zones form before F-actin accumulation, and then move in concert with the closing array. Microtubules and F-actin are required for normal zone organization and dynamics, as is crosstalk between RhoA and Cdc42. Each of the zones makes distinct contributions to the organization and function of the actomyosin wound array. We propose that similar rho activity zones control related processes such as cytokinesis. PMID:15684032

  2. Melanin-concentrating hormone is necessary for olanzapine-inhibited locomotor activity in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Melissa J. S.; Douris, Nicholas; Forrow, Avery B.; Monnard, Arnaud; Lu, Shuangyu; Flaherty, Stephen E.; Adams, Andrew C.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), an atypical antipsychotic, can be effective in treating patients with restricting type anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively. Clinical improvements include weight gain and reduced pathological hyperactivity. However the neuronal populations and mechanisms underlying OLZ actions are not known. We studied the effects of OLZ on hyperactivity using male mice lacking the hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCHKO) that are lean and hyperactive. We compared the in vivo effects of systemic or intra-accumbens nucleus (Acb) OLZ administration on locomotor activity in WT and MCHKO littermates. Acute systemic OLZ treatment in WT mice significantly reduced locomotor activity, an effect that is substantially attenuated in MCHKO mice. Furthermore, OLZ infusion directly into the Acb of WT mice reduced locomotor activity, but not in MCHKO mice. To identify contributing neuronal mechanisms, we assessed the effect of OLZ treatment on Acb synaptic transmission ex vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal OLZ treatment reduced Acb GABAergic activity in WT but not MCHKO neurons. This effect was also seen in vitro by applying OLZ to acute brain slices. OLZ reduced the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic activity that was more robust in WT than MCHKO Acb. These findings indicate that OLZ reduced Acb GABAergic transmission and that MCH is necessary for the hypolocomotor effects of OLZ. PMID:26092201

  3. Effect of Direct-Current Electric Field on Enzymatic Activity and the Concentration of Laccase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxing; Zhang, Huiling; Ren, Dajun; Li, Qian; Zhang, Shuqin; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    This work investigates the effect of direct-current electric field on the extracellular enzymatic activity, concentration and other experimental parameters of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The results showed that laccase could significantly contribute to the change of pH at the end of graphite electrode. In addition, it increased the electrical conductivity of the water. In the experiment, the optimum pH and catalytic pH range for laccase activity were 3.0 and pH 2.5-4.0. The application of 6 V direct current showed significant effects on the laccase enzyme activity. The activity of laccase was enhanced in the anodic region, but at the same time was strongly inhibited at the cathode. The electric charge characteristics of laccase were changed when exposed to electric field, and some laccases molecules moved to the anode, which produced a slight migration phenomenon. This study is the basis of combination of laccase and electrical technology, at the same time, providing a new direction of enhancing laccase activity. Compared to immobilization, using electric field is simple, no chemical additives, and great potential.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Nanocomposites from Whey Protein Concentrate Activated with Lycopene.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rafaela Corrêa; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Assis, Odílio Benedito Garrido; Alvarenga, Gabriela Lara

    2016-03-01

    The production and characterization of nanocomposites based on whey protein concentrate (WPC) and montmorilonite (MMT) incorporated with lycopene as a functional substance is presented and discussed as an alternative biomaterial for potential uses in foodstuff applications. A full factorial design with varying levels of MMT (0% and 2% in w/w) and lycopene (0%, 6%, and 12% in w/w) was used. Color, light transmission, film transparency, moisture, density, solubility, water vapor permeability, and antioxidant activity of the resulting materials were evaluated. Results indicated that lycopene and MMT nanoparticles were successfully included in WPC films using the casting/evaporation method. Inclusion of 2% w/w of MMT in the polymeric matrix significantly improved barrier property against water vapor. Lycopene, besides its good red coloring ability, provided to the films antioxidant activity and UV-vis light protection. These findings open a new perspective for the use of materials for bioactive packaging applications.

  5. Barley chloroplast glutamine synthetase activity is not affected by CO sub 2 -concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, C.; Forde, B.; Wallsgrove, R. )

    1990-05-01

    It has been reported that when photorespiration is suppressed by raising the concentration of CO{sub 2}, the expression of the chloroplast glutamine synthetase (GS2) gene in pea leaves is reduced (Plant Cell, 1, 241). We have examined this effect in barley (Hordeum vulgare), and confirm that plants grown continuously in 0.8% CO{sub 2}, or transferred to such conditions after growth in air, appear to have a reduced GS2 mRNA abundance. However, we were unable to detect any significant difference in the extractable GS2 activity, or any change in amount of GS2 protein (judged by Western blots). Whatever controls are operating on gS2 mRNA expression in response to changes is external CO{sub 2}, they do not affect the activity or amount of the enzyme in barley.

  6. A novel method for measuring aromatase activity in tissue samples by determining estradiol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tinwell, H; Rascle, J B; Colombel, S; Al Khansa, I; Freyberger, A; Bars, R

    2011-07-01

    Increasing scrutiny of endocrine disrupters has led to changes to European pesticide and biocide legislation and to the introduction of the Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program by the US EPA. One element of endocrine disrupter identification is to determine its effects on aromatase, but most available assays are limited as they depend on tritiated water production to indicate enzyme activity. Whilst acceptable for determining aromatase effects using a cell-free approach, this method is unreliable for cell or tissue-based investigations as other cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme activities can similarly produce tritiated water and consequently confound interpretation of the aromatase data. To address this lack of specificity an assay directly measuring the final estrogen product by incubating rat tissue protein with testosterone and measuring the resultant estradiol concentration was developed. Using this approach we demonstrated marked increases in enzyme activity in pregnant rat ovary samples and dose-related inhibitions when incubating non-pregnant rat ovary samples with known aromatase inhibitors. Hepatic aromatase activity was investigated using our method and by tritiated water production with microsomes from rats dosed with the antiandrogen 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4 chlorophenyl)ethane. Additional cytochrome P-450s were also measured. Treatment-related increased tritiated water production and general hepatic enzyme activity were recorded but estradiol was not increased, indicating that the increased tritiated water was due to general enzyme activity and not aromatase activity. A simple and specific method has been developed that can detect aromatase inhibition and induction, which when applied to tissue samples, provides a means of generating relevant animal data concerning chemical effects on the aromatase enzyme.

  7. Concentrations and activity ratios of uranium isotopes in groundwater from Donana National Park, South of Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, J. P.; Olias, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-07

    The levels and distribution of natural radionuclides in groundwaters from the unconfined Almonte-Marismas aquifer, upon which Donana National Park is located, have been analysed. Most sampled points were multiple piezometers trying to study the vertical distribution of the hydrogeochemical characteristics in the aquifer. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were determined in the field. A large number of parameters, physico-chemical properties, major and minor ions, trace elements and natural radionuclides (U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, Ra-isotopes and {sup 210}Po), were also analysed. In the southern zone, where aeolian sands crop out, water composition is of the sodium chloride type, and the lower U-isotopes concentrations have been obtained. As water circulates through the aquifer, bicarbonate and calcium concentrations increase slightly, and higher radionuclides concentrations were measured. Finally, we have demonstrated that {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios can be used as markers of the type of groundwater and bedrock, as it has been the case for old waters with marine origin confined by a marsh in the south-east part of aquifer.

  8. Optimisation of concentrating solar cell systems with passive and active cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenberg, J.

    1983-10-01

    Design considerations for concentrator solar cell arrays for space applications are reviewed, noting the restrictions on total mass that govern system selections. Consideration is given to systems with parabolic mirrors and Si and GaAs solar cells. Passive and active cooling systems for the arrays are discussed, as is the addition of a heat engine with a turbogenerator to utilize part of the waste heat of the cooling cycle. Attention is given to systems orbiting at 0.5, 1, and 3.5 AU from the sun. Flat panels are found to be more suitable for missions near the sun for Si solar cells, while GaAs cells with concentration are preferred to flat panel systems at all distances from the sun. Nuclear turboelectric systems are better than concentrator Si arrays at large distances from the sun, in terms of specific masses of the systems. The addition of a system to use waste heat is judged unfavorable from specific mass factors.

  9. Methanogenic activity inhibition by increasing the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentration.

    PubMed

    Souza, Luiza F C; Florencio, Lourdinha; Gavazza, Savia; Kato, Mario T

    2016-07-02

    The effect of the initial concentration of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was investigated in this work. Six anaerobic flasks reactors with 1 L of total volume were inoculated with anaerobic sludge (2 g VSS L(-1)). The reactors were assayed for 42 days, and fed with volatile fatty acids, nutrients, and LAS. The initial LAS concentrations were 0, 10, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1) for the treatment flasks T1 (control), T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively. When compared with T1, T2 exhibited a 30% reduction in maximum SMA and total methane production (TMP). In treatment T3 through T6, the reductions were 44-97% (T3-T6) for SMA, and 30-90% (T3-T6) for TMP. Total LAS removal increased following the increase in the initial LAS concentration (from 36% at T1 to 76% at T6), primarily due to the high degree of sludge adsorption. LAS biodegradation also occurred (32% in all treatments), although this was most likely associated with the formation of non-methane intermediates. Greater removal by adsorption was observed in long-chain homologues, when compared to short-chain homologues (C13 > C10), whereas the opposite occurred for biodegradation (C10 > C13). The C13 homologue was adsorbed to a great extent (in mass) in T4, T5 and T6, and may also have inhibited methane formation in these treatments.

  10. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  11. Electrical activation of Na/K pumps can increase ionic concentration gradient and membrane resting potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Dando, Robin

    2006-01-01

    It has been previously demonstrated by our group that our specifically designed synchronization modulation electric field can dynamically entrain the Na/K ATPase molecules, effectively accelerating the pumping action of these molecules. The ATPase molecules are first synchronized by the field, and subsequently their pumping rates are gradually modulated in a stepwise pattern to progressively higher and higher levels. Here, we present results obtained on application of the field to intact twitch skeletal muscle fibers. The ionic concentration gradient across the cell membrane was monitored, with the membrane potential extrapolated using a slow fluorescent probe with a confocal microimaging technique. The applied synchronization-modulation electric field is able to slowly but consistently increase the ionic concentration gradient across the membrane and, hence, hyperpolarize the membrane potential. All of these results were fully eliminated if ouabain was applied to the bathing solution, indicating a correlation with the action of the Na/K pump molecules. These results in combination with our previous results into the entrainment of the pump molecules show that the synchronization-modulation electric field-induced activation of the Na/K pump functions can effectively increase the ionic concentration gradient and the membrane potential.

  12. The ratios of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (ARR) versus aldosterone / direct renin concentration (ADRR).

    PubMed

    Glinicki, Piotr; Jeske, Wojciech; Bednarek-Papierska, Lucyna; Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata; Rosłonowska, Elżbieta; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is estimated to occur in 5-12% of patients with hypertension. Assessment of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) has been used as a screening test in patients suspected of PA. Direct determination of renin (DRC) and calculation of aldosterone / direct renin concentration ratio (ADRR) could be similarly useful for screening patients suspected of PA. The study included 62 patients with indication for evaluation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and 35 healthy volunteers. In all participants we measured concentrations of serum aldosterone, plasma direct renin, and PRA after a night's rest and again after walking for two hours. The concentrations of aldosterone, direct renin, and PRA were measured by isotopic methods (radioimmunoassay (RIA) / immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)). Correlations of ARR with ADRR in the supine position were r = 0.9162, r(2) = 0.8165 (p < 0.01); and in the up-right position were r = 0.7765, r(2) = 0.9153 (p < 0.01). The cut-off values of ARR and ADRR ≥ 100 presented highest specificity (99%) for the diagnosis of PA; however, quite acceptable specificity and sensitivity (> 80% and 100%, respectively) appeared for the ratios ≥ 30. We suggest that for practical and economic reasons ARR can be replaced by ADRR.

  13. Detection of enteric viruses in activated sludge by feasible concentration methods.

    PubMed

    Prado, Tatiana; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are responsible to cause several diseases, including gastroenteritis and hepatitis, and can be present in high amounts in sewage sludge. This study compared virus recovery efficiency of two feasible concentration methods used for detecting human adenovirus (HAdV), rotavirus species A (RV-A), norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in sewage sludge from an activated sludge process. Twelve sewage sludge samples were collected bi-monthly from January to July, 2011. Ultracentrifugation was compared with a simplified protocol based on beef extract elution for recovering enteric viruses. Viruses were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR assays and virus recovery efficiency and limits of detection were determined. Methods showed mean recovery rates lower than 7.5%, presenting critical limits of detection (higher than 10(2) - 10(3) genome copies - GC L(-1) for all viruses analyzed). Nevertheless, HAdV were detected in 90% of the analyzed sewage sludge samples (range: 1.8 × 10(4) to 1.1 × 10(5) GC L(-1)), followed by RV-A and NoV (both in 50%) and HAV (8%). Results suggesting that activated sludge is contaminated with high viral loads and HAdV are widely disseminated in these samples. The low virus recovery rates achieved, especially for HAV, indicate that other feasible concentration methods could be developed to improve virus recovery efficiency in these environmental matrices.

  14. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-06

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites.

  15. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in macrofungi from Galicia (NW Spain): Influence of environmental and genetic factors.

    PubMed

    García, M A; Alonso, J; Melgar, M J

    2015-05-01

    Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) is an artificial radionuclide that can be captured from the soil through the mycelium of fungi. However, in Spain there are few data on its presence in edible mushrooms. (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined using 54 samples of wild and cultivated mushrooms and 18 samples of soil, all of them collected in Galicia (NW Spain) during 2010. Samples were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentration of (137)Cs in wild mushrooms was 249.2Bqkg(-1) dry weight (dw) and about 24.9Bqkg(-1) fresh weight (fw). Genetic factors (species) influenced the uptake of (137)Cs, highlighting Hydnum repandum as the greatest accumulator of all wild species (1016.4Bqkg(-1) dw), while cultivated species showed much lower levels (1.6Bqkg(-1) fw). Accumulation was also favored by fungal mycorrhizal ecology, whose mycelium was distributed in contaminated soil horizons. The mean levels detected in soils were 14Bqkg(-1) fw. Although some species behaved as bioexclusors of radiocaesium, the transfer factors (TF) suggest that mushrooms preferentially bioaccumulate (137)Cs. No sample reached the limit of 600Bqkg(-1) fw (about 6000Bqkg(-1) dw) indicated in the European legislation. In conclusion, the consumption of mushrooms harvested from the investigated areas poses no toxicological risk to human health due to radiocaesium.

  16. Effects of plasma nitric oxide levels on platelet activation in single donor apheresis and random donor concentrates.

    PubMed

    Büyükkağnici, Demet Iren; Ilhan, Osman; Kavas, Güzin Ozelçi; Arslan, Onder; Arat, Mutlu; Dalva, Klara; Ayyildiz, Erol

    2007-02-01

    P-selectin is an useful marker to determine platelet activation and nitric oxide inhibits platelet activation, secretion, adhesion and aggregation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitric oxide and P-selectin values in both single donor apheresis and random donor platelet concentrates. According to the results of this study, we found that the best platelet concentrate is freshly prepared single donor apheresis concentrate and it is important to prevent activation at the beginning of the donation. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized from platelets during the storage period, is not sufficient to prevent platelet activation.

  17. Amoxicillin concentrations in relation to beta-lactamase activity in sputum during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; VanderValk, Paul; van der Zanden, Rogier W; Nijdam, Lars; van der Palen, Job; Hendrix, Ron; Movig, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often treated with antibiotics. Theoretically, to be maximally effective, the antibiotic concentration at sites of infection should exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration at which 90% of the growth of potential pathogens is inhibited (MIC90). A previous study showed that most hospitalized COPD patients had sputum amoxicillin concentrations concentrations had better clinical outcomes. Low amoxicillin concentrations can be caused by beta-lactamase activity in the lungs. This study investigated whether patients with sputum amoxicillin concentrations activity in sputum than patients with a concentration ≥MIC90. Methods In total, 23 patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD and treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were included. Sputum and serum samples were collected at day 3 of treatment to determine beta-lactamase activity in sputum and amoxicillin concentrations in both sputum and serum. Results We found no difference in beta-lactamase activity between patients with sputum amoxicillin concentrations activity and sputum amoxicillin concentrations concentrations were activity did not differ between those with sputum amoxicillin concentrations concentrations

  18. Multifunctional Concentric FRET-Quantum Dot Probes for Tracking and Imaging of Proteolytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Massey, Melissa; Li, Jia Jun; Algar, W Russ

    2017-01-01

    Proteolysis has many important roles in physiological regulation. It is involved in numerous cell signaling processes and the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancers. Methods of visualizing and assaying proteolytic activity are therefore in demand. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes offer several advantages in this respect. FRET supports end-point or real-time measurements, does not require washing or separation steps, and can be implemented in various assay or imaging formats. In this chapter, we describe methodology for preparing self-assembled concentric FRET (cFRET) probes for multiplexed tracking and imaging of proteolytic activity. The cFRET probe comprises a green-emitting semiconductor quantum dot (QD) conjugated with multiple copies of two different peptide substrates for two target proteases. The peptide substrates are labeled with different fluorescent dyes, Alexa Fluor 555 and Alexa Fluor 647, and FRET occurs between the QD and both dyes, as well as between the two dyes. This design enables a single QD probe to track the activity of two proteases simultaneously. Fundamental cFRET theory is presented, and procedures for using the cFRET probe for quantitative measurement of the activity of two model proteases are given, including calibration, fluorescence plate reader or microscope imaging assays, and data analysis. Sufficient detail is provided for other researchers to adapt this method to their specific requirements and proteolytic systems of interest.

  19. Application of an optimized flow cytometry-based quantification of Platelet Activation (PACT): Monitoring platelet activation in platelet concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Roest, Mark; Henskens, Yvonne M. C.; de Laat, Bas; Huskens, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that flow cytometry is a reliable test to quantify platelet function in stored platelet concentrates (PC). It is thought that flow cytometry is laborious and hence expensive. We have optimized the flow cytometry-based quantification of agonist induced platelet activation (PACT) to a labor, time and more cost-efficient test. Currently the quality of PCs is only monitored by visual inspection, because available assays are unreliable or too laborious for use in a clinical transfusion laboratory. Therefore, the PACT was applied to monitor PC activation during storage. Study design and methods The optimized PACT was used to monitor 5 PCs during 10 days of storage. In brief, optimized PACT uses a ready-to-use reaction mix, which is stable at -20°C. When needed, a test strip is thawed and platelet activation is initiated by mixing PC with PACT. PACT was based on the following agonists: adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP-6). Platelet activation was measured as P-selectin expression. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) was performed as a reference. Results Both PACT and LTA showed platelet function decline during 10-day storage after stimulation with ADP and collagen/CRP; furthermore, PACT showed decreasing TRAP-induced activation. Major differences between the two tests are that PACT is able to measure the status of platelets in the absence of agonists, and it can differentiate between the number of activated platelets and the amount of activation, whereas LTA only measures aggregation in response to an agonist. Also, PACT is more time-efficient compared to LTA and allows high-throughput analysis. Conclusion PACT is an optimized platelet function test that can be used to monitor the activation of PCs. PACT has the same accuracy as LTA with regard to monitoring PCs, but it is superior to both LTA and conventional flow cytometry based tests with regard to labor

  20. Enhanced analysis methods to derive the spatial distribution of 131I deposition on the ground by airborne surveys at an early stage after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sugita, Takeshi; Okada, Colin E; Reed, Michael S; Blumenthal, Daniel J

    2013-08-01

    This paper applies both new and well tested analysis methods to aerial radiological surveys to extract the I ground concentrations present after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident. The analysis provides a complete map of I deposition, an important quantity incalculable at the time of the accident due to the short half-life of I and the complexity of the analysis. A map of I deposition is the first step in conducting internal exposure assessments, population dose reconstruction, and follow-up epidemiological studies. The short half-life of I necessitates the use of aerial radiological surveys to cover the large area quickly, thoroughly, and safely. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) performed aerial radiological surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. This work reports on analyses performed on a subset of the initial survey data by a joint Japan-U.S. collaboration to determine I ground concentrations. The analytical results show a high concentration of I northwest of the NPP, consistent with the previously reported radioactive cesium deposition, but also shows a significant I concentration south of the plant, which was not observed in the original cesium analysis. The difference in the radioactive iodine and cesium patterns is possibly the result of differences in the ways these materials settle out of the air.

  1. Sub-lethal concentrations of activated complement increase rat lymphocyte glutamine utilization and oxidation while lethal concentrations cause death by a mechanism involving ATP depletion.

    PubMed

    Bacurau, R F P; O'Toole, C E; Newsholme, P; Costa Rosa, L F B P

    2002-09-01

    Nucleated cells are more resistant to complement-mediated cell death than anucleated cells such as erythrocytes. There are few reports concerning the metabolic response of nucleated cells subjected to sub-lethal complement attack. It is possible that the rate of utilization of specific metabolic fuels by the cell is increased to enhance cell defence. We have measured the maximum activity of hexokinase, citrate synthase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutaminase in rat mesenteric lymphocytes exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of activated complement (present in zymosan-activated serum, ZAS). These enzymes were carefully selected as they indicate changes of flux in glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and glutaminolysis, respectively. The only enzyme activity to change on exposure of lymphocytes to ZAS was glutaminase, which was enhanced approximately by two-fold. Although rates of both glutamine and glucose utilization were enhanced by exposure to ZAS, only the rate of oxidation of glutamine was increased. Complement kills anucleated cells by simple osmotic lysis. However, it is likely that some nucleated cells will display characteristics of an ordered death mechanism and we have demonstrated that the concentration of lymphocyte ATP is dramatically decreased by activated complement. Nevertheless, the extent of cell death could be significantly reduced by the addition of inhibitors of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). We conclude that glutamine metabolism is not only important for lymphocyte proliferative responses but is also important for cell defence from sub-lethal concentrations of activated complement. The rapid rate of complement-induced lymphocyte death reported here is suggested to be a consequence of over-activation of the nuclear enzyme PARP and ATP depletion.

  2. Extending neutron activation analysis to materials with high concentrations of neutron absorbing elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilian, Cornelia

    chemical element and the sample geometrical factor. Therefore, the remaining nuclear factor, considered as a product of nuclide composite nuclear characteristics and irradiation site characteristics, led to the introduction of a so-called epithermal neutron absorption cross-sections, sigmaabs,ep. This new nuclear parameter will allow the calculation of the epithermal self-shielding for all cylindrical samples activated in all types of irradiation sites. For the 13 cases studied, the epithermal self-shielding factor, Gep, was obtained from the experimental effective self-shielding factor, Geff, by extracting the thermal neutron self-shielding factor, calculated with the sigmoid formulation. A least-squares fit of the experimental Gep values as a function of the mass of element yielded sigmaabs,ep for each activated nuclide. In addition, for all nuclides commonly used in neutron activation analysis, sigmaabs,ep was calculated with the Martinho, Salgado and Goncalves sigmoid formulation, which uses the total cross-section values at the peaks of the resonances. A comparison of the calculated sigmaabs,ep with the 13 measured values reveals that the calculated values are accurate to about 20%. Finally, for all 76 nuclides commonly used in NAA, a spreadsheet program was written to use experimental or calculated sigmaabs,ep nuclear parameters to perform iterative self-shielding corrections of concentrations measured by neutron activation analysis. The user provides the parameters f and alpha of the neutron spectrum, the sample mass and dimensions, and the measured concentrations. In a typical case with 10% thermal self-shielding and 30% epithermal self-shielding, the corrected concentrations had uncertainties varying from 2% to 3%. Keywords. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, epithermal, thermal, self-shielding factors. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. Response of soil microbial activity and biodiversity in soils polluted with different concentrations of cypermethrin insecticide.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Manuel; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez, Isidoro

    2015-07-01

    We performed a laboratory study into the effect of cypermethrin insecticide applied to different concentrations on biological properties in two soils [Typic Xerofluvent (soil A) and Xerollic Calciorthid (soil B)]. Two kg of each soil were polluted with cypermethrin at a rate of 60, 300, 600, and 1,200 g ha(-1) (C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments). A nonpolluted soil was used as a control (C0 treatment). For all treatments and each experimental soil, soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and arylsulphatase activities and soil microbial community were analysed by phospholipid fatty acids, which were measured at six incubation times (3, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days). The behavior of the enzymatic activities and microbial population were dependent on the dose of insecticide applied to the soil. Compared with the C0 treatment, in soil A, the maximum inhibition of the enzymatic activities was at 15, 30, 45, and 90 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. However, in soil B, the maximum inhibition occurred at 7, 15, 30, and 45 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the cypermethrin insecticide caused a negative effect on soil enzymatic activities and microbial diversity. This negative impact was greater when a greater dose of insecticide was used; this impact was also greater in soil with lower organic matter content. For both soils, and from these respective days onward, the enzymatic activities and microbial populations progressively increased by the end of the experimental period. This is possibly due to the fact that the insecticide or its breakdown products and killed microbial cells, subsequently killed by the insecticide, are being used as a source of energy or as a carbon source for the surviving microorganisms for cell proliferation.

  4. Effects of AMPK activation on lipolysis in primary rat adipocytes: studies at different glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Szkudelski, Tomasz; Szkudelska, Katarzyna

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue plays a key role in energy homeostasis. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important intracellular energy sensor. Effects of activation of AMPK by aminomidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) on lipolysis in the rat adipocytes were determined in the presence of 3 or 12 mM glucose. Response to epinephrine or dibutyryl-cAMP was higher in the presence of 12 mM glucose. AICAR decreased lipolysis, also when glucose was replaced by alanine or succinate and without decrease in cAMP levels. AICAR attenuated epinephrine-induced decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, reduced glucose uptake and lactate release. These results indicate that short-term activation of AMPK by AICAR in the rat adipocytes inhibits lipolysis, due to changes in the final, followed by protein kinase A (PKA), steps of the lipolytic cascade and improves intracellular energy status. Similar effects of AICAR were observed in the presence of 3 and 12 mM glucose, which indicates that the AMPK system is operative at high glucose concentrations.

  5. Metabolic activity of sperm cells: correlation with sperm cell concentration, viability and motility in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Planell, Núria; Gil, Sílvia; Tallo-Parra, Oriol; Maya-Soriano, Maria José; Taberner, Ester; Piles, Miriam; Sabés, Manel; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2016-10-01

    The resazurin reduction test (RRT) is a useful technique to assess the metabolic rate of sperm cells. RRT depends on the ability of metabolically active cells to reduce the non-fluorescent dye resazurin to the fluorescent resorufin. The aim of this study was to develop a vital fluorometric method to evaluate metabolic activity of rabbit sperm cells. Twenty-five rabbit males were included in the study. Viability and morphology, motility and metabolic activity were evaluated using an eosin-nigrosin staining, a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) and the RRT, respectively. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between RRT and semen parameters. After evaluation, a concentration of 10 × 106 sperm cells/ml was selected for further experiments with RRT. No significant correlation was found between the RRT results and the motility parameters. However, after RRT a significant positive correlation between relative fluorescence units and the percentage of alive spermatozoa (r = 0.62; P = 0.001) and a negative one with the percentage of sperm cells with acrosomic abnormalities (r = -0.45; P < 0.05) were detected. The vital assessment of metabolic rate of sperm cells by RRT could provide more information about semen quality than other routine semen analysis, correlating with sperm viability and acrosome status information.

  6. The effect of triton concentration on the activity of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Huang, Jianzhong; Jiang, Xinhe; Seefeld, Mark; McQueney, Michael; Macarron, Ricardo

    2003-12-01

    Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS) catalyzes the consecutive condensation of 8 molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate with farnesyl pyrophosphate to yield C55-undecaprenyl pyrophosphate, which is required for bacterial cell wall synthesis. UPPS is found in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and based on the differences between bacterial variants of UPPS and their human counterpart, dolicopyrophosphate synthase, it was identified as an attractive antibacterial target. An assay, which monitors the release of Pi by coupling the UPPS catalyzed reaction with inorganic pyrophosphatase, was employed to conduct an HTS campaign using an inhouse collection of compounds. A direct assay measuring the incorporation of 14C-IPP (isopentenyl pyrophosphate) was used as a secondary assay to evaluate the high-throughput screening (HTS) hits. From the HTS campaign, a few classes of UPPS inhibitors were identified. During the process of hit evaluation by the direct assay, the authors observed that Triton, an essential factor for the enzyme activity and accurate formation of the natural product, dramatically altered the inhibitory activity of a particular class of compounds. Above its critical micellar concentration (CMC), Triton abolished the inhibitory activity of these compounds. Further research will be required to establish the biophysical phenomenon that causes this effect. Meanwhile, it can be speculated that Triton (and other detergents) above CMC may hinder the identification in screening compounds of certain classes of hits.

  7. Concentration Effects of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Activity for Three Platinum Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Richards, R.; ...

    2014-10-04

    A rotating disk electrode (RDE) along with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), were used to investigate the impact of two model compounds representing degradation products of Nafion and 3M perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes on the electrochemical surface area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline Pt, nano-structured thin film (NSTF) Pt (3M), and Pt/Vulcan carbon (Pt/Vu) (TKK) electrodes. ORR kinetic currents (measured at 0.9 V and transport corrected) were found to decrease linearly with the log of concentration for both model compounds on all Pt surfaces studied. Ultimately, model compound adsorption effects on ECA weremore » more abstruse due to competitive organic anion adsorption on Pt surfaces superimposing with the hydrogen underpotential deposition (HUPD) region.« less

  8. Pseudocatalytic Antiaggregation Activity of Antibodies: Immunoglobulins can Influence α-Synuclein Aggregation at Substoichiometric Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Breydo, Leonid; Morgan, Dave; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-04-01

    Protein aggregation is involved in a variety of diseases. Alteration of the aggregation pathway, either to produce less toxic structures or to increase aggregate clearance, is a promising therapeutic route. Both active and passive immunization has been used for this purpose. However, the mechanism of action of antibodies on protein aggregates is not completely clear especially given poor ability of antibodies to cross blood-brain barrier. Here, we have shown that antibodies can interfere with protein aggregation at substoichiometric concentrations (as low as 1:1000 antibody to protein ratio). This is an indication that antibodies interact with aggregation intermediates in chaperone-like manner altering the aggregation pathways at very low antibody levels. This observation supports earlier suggestions that antibodies can inhibit aggregation by interaction with low abundance aggregation intermediates.

  9. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoclusters: Aqueous, Concentrated, Stable, and Catalytically Active Colloids toward Green Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Yasuaki; Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tarutani, Naoki; Vaz, Pedro D; Nunes, Carla D; Prevot, Vanessa; Stenning, Gavin B G; Takahashi, Masahide

    2016-05-24

    Increasing attention has been dedicated to the development of nanomaterials rendering green and sustainable processes, which occur in benign aqueous reaction media. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of another family of green nanomaterials, layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoclusters, which are concentrated (98.7 g/L in aqueous solvent), stably dispersed (transparent sol for >2 weeks), and catalytically active colloids of nano LDHs (isotropic shape with the size of 7.8 nm as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering). LDH nanoclusters are available as colloidal building blocks to give access to meso- and macroporous LDH materials. Proof-of-concept applications revealed that the LDH nanocluster works as a solid basic catalyst and is separable from solvents of catalytic reactions, confirming the nature of nanocatalysts. The present work closely investigates the unique physical and chemical features of this colloid, the formation mechanism, and the ability to act as basic nanocatalysts in benign aqueous reaction systems.

  10. Concentration Effects of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Activity for Three Platinum Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Richards, R.; Dinh, H. N.

    2014-10-04

    A rotating disk electrode (RDE) along with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), were used to investigate the impact of two model compounds representing degradation products of Nafion and 3M perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes on the electrochemical surface area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline Pt, nano-structured thin film (NSTF) Pt (3M), and Pt/Vulcan carbon (Pt/Vu) (TKK) electrodes. ORR kinetic currents (measured at 0.9 V and transport corrected) were found to decrease linearly with the log of concentration for both model compounds on all Pt surfaces studied. Ultimately, model compound adsorption effects on ECA were more abstruse due to competitive organic anion adsorption on Pt surfaces superimposing with the hydrogen underpotential deposition (HUPD) region.

  11. Management practices that concentrate visitor activities: Camping impact management at Isle Royale National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Farrell, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed campsite conditions and the effectiveness of campsite impact management strategies at Isle Royale National Park, USA. Protocols for assessing indicators of vegetation and soil conditions were developed and applied to 156 campsites and 88 shelters within 36 backcountry campgrounds. The average site was 68 m2 and 83% of sites lost vegetation over areas less than 47 m2. Results reveal that management actions to spatially concentrate camping activities and reduce camping disturbance have been highly successful. Comparisons of disturbed area/overnight stay among other protected areas reinforces this assertion. These reductions in area of camping disturbance are attributed to a designated site camping policy, limitation on site numbers, construction of sites in sloping terrain, use of facilities, and an ongoing program of campsite maintenance. Such actions are most appropriate in higher use backcountry and wilderness settings.

  12. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachubik, J.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008-2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  13. Relationship between fluoride concentration and activity against virulence factors and viability of a cariogenic biofilm: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pandit, S; Kim, H-J; Song, K-Y; Jeon, J-G

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread use of various concentrations of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries, the relationship between fluoride concentration and activity against cariogenic biofilms has not been much studied. Herein we investigated the relationship between fluoride concentration and activity against virulence factors and viability of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs. The 70-hour-old biofilms were exposed to 0, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1,000 or 2,000 ppm F(-). The changes of virulence factors and viability of the biofilms were analyzed using biochemical methods and laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. At 1-2,000 ppm F(-), the activity of fluoride against acid production, acid tolerance, and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans biofilms accurately followed a sigmoidal pattern of concentration dependence (R(2) = 0.94-0.99), with EC50 values ranging from 3.07 to 24.7 ppm F(-). Generally, the activity of fluoride against the virulence factors was concentration-dependently augmented in 10-100 ppm F(-) and did not increase further at concentrations higher than 100 ppm F(-). However, fluoride did not alter glucosyltransferase activity and viability of S. mutans biofilm cells in all concentrations tested. These results can provide a basis for the selection of appropriate fluoride concentrations that reduce the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms.

  14. Determination of plasma lactic acid concentration and specific activity using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bleiberg, B; Steinberg, J J; Katz, S D; Wexler, J; LeJemtel, T

    1991-08-23

    Assessment of lactate metabolism is of particular interest during exercise and in disease states such as diabetes, shock, and absorptive abnormalities of short-chain fatty acids by the colon. We describe an analytical method that introduces radio-active tracers and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to simultaneously analyze concentrations and specific activities (SAs) of plasma lactate. The HPLC conditions included separation on a reversed-phase column (octadecylsilane) and an isocratic buffer (30% acetonitrile in water). [3H]Acetate served as an internal standard. Lactate and acetate were extracted from plasma samples with diethyl ether following a pH adjustment to less than 1.0 and back-extracted into a hydrophilic phase with sodium carbonate (2 mM, pH greater than 10.0). Lactate is detected in the ultraviolet range (242 and 320 nm) by derivatization with alpha-bromoacetophenone. Control plasma samples were studied after an overnight fast for precision and analytical recovery. Calibration curves were linear in the range 0.18-6.0 mM (r = 0.92). The precision was 3% and the analytical recovery was 87%. The detection limit of the method was 36 pmol. Determination of lactate metabolism was performed in a patient with chronic congestive heart failure who was administered primed-continuous L-[U-14C]lactate (10 microCi bolus and 0.3 microCi/min continuously) during a 60-min rest period. Mean arterial lactate concentration and SA were 1.69 +/- 0.2 mM and 253.8 +/- 22 dpm/mumol, respectively. Systemic lactate turnover was 25.65 mumol/kg per min. Lactic acid systemic turnover, organ uptake and release rates can be accurately determined by isocratic HPLC.

  15. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B.; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M.; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups, where orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying DA action on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using whole cell patch clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration dependent, bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high concentrations (100 μM) of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors, whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours. PMID:26036709

  16. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2015-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups: orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the action of DA on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration-dependent bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high (100 μM) concentrations of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G-protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours.

  17. Enhanced antibacterial activity of bimetallic gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles at low silver concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Sharma, Shilpa; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2011-12-01

    Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was possibly due to the more active silver atoms in the shell surrounding gold core due to high surface free energy of the surface Ag atoms owing to shell thinness in the bimetallic NP structure.Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was

  18. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Concentration on the Characteristics of Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adib, M. R. M.; Suraya, W. M. S. W.; Rafidah, H.; Amirza, A. R. M.; Attahirah, M. H. M. N.; Hani, M. S. N. Q.; Adnan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Impregnation method is one of the crucial steps involved in producing activated carbon using chemical activation process. Chemicals employed in this step is effective at decomposing the structure of material and forming micropores that helps in adsorption of contaminants. This paper explains thorough procedures that have been involved in producing sugarcane bagasse activated carbon (SBAC) by using 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) during the impregnation step. Concentration of H3PO4 used in the process of producing SBAC was optimized through several tests including bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter and the charactesristic of optimum SBAC produced has been compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC). Batch study has been carried out by using the SBAC produced from optimum condition to investigate the performance of SBAC in removal of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from textile wastewater. From characteristic study, SBAC with 30% H3PO4 has shown the optimum value of bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter of 0.3023 g cm-3, 4.35%, 974.96 mg/g and 0.21-0.41 µm, respectively. These values are comparable to the characteristics of CAC. Experimental result from the batch study has been concluded that the SBAC has a promising potential in removing turbidity and COD of 75.5% and 66.3%, respectively which was a slightly lower than CAC which were able to remove 82.8% of turbidity and 70% of COD. As a conclusion, the SBAC is comparable with CAC in terms of their characteristics and the capability of removing contaminants from textile wastewater. Therefore, it has a commercial value to be used as an alternative of low-cost material in producing CAC.

  19. SGLT1 activity in lung alveolar cells of diabetic rats modulates airway surface liquid glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tales Lyra; Candeia-Medeiros, Návylla; Cavalcante-Araújo, Polliane M.; Melo, Igor Santana; Fávaro-Pípi, Elaine; Fátima, Luciana Alves; Rocha, Antônio Augusto; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Campos, Ruy R.; Sabino-Silva, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    High glucose concentration in the airway surface liquid (ASL) is an important feature of diabetes that predisposes to respiratory infections. We investigated the role of alveolar epithelial SGLT1 activity on ASL glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation. Non-diabetic and diabetic rats were intranasally treated with saline, isoproterenol (to increase SGLT1 activity) or phlorizin (to decrease SGLT1 activity); 2 hours later, glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation (methicillin-resistant Sthaphylococcus aureus, MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa) were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); and alveolar SGLT1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. BAL glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation increased in diabetic animals: isoproterenol stimulated SGLT1 migration to luminal membrane, and reduced (50%) the BAL glucose concentration; whereas phlorizin increased the BAL glucose concentration (100%). These regulations were accompanied by parallel changes of in vitro MRSA and P. aeruginosa proliferation in BAL (r = 0.9651 and r = 0.9613, respectively, Pearson correlation). The same regulations were observed in in vivo P. aeruginosa proliferation. In summary, the results indicate a relationship among SGLT1 activity, ASL glucose concentration and pulmonary bacterial proliferation. Besides, the study highlights that, in situations of pulmonary infection risk, such as in diabetic subjects, increased SGLT1 activity may prevent bacterial proliferation whereas decreased SGLT1 activity can exacerbate it. PMID:26902517

  20. Soil-gas radon concentration monitoring in an active granite quarry from Central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Luís.; Barbosa, Susana; Pereira, Alcides; Aumento, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out in an active quarry located nearby the town of Nelas (Central Portugal), with the primary objective of assessing the effect of regular explosions on soil-gas radon concentrations. Here, a late-orogenic Hercynian porphyritic biotite granite occurs and is exploited for the production of high quality aggregates for different building purposes. This granite is part of the Beiras batholiths, being a geochemically moderately evolved rock, slightly peraluminous, and widely known by the frequent occurrence of associated uranium mineralizations. In fact, more than 4000t of U3O8 was produced from 60 mines of the Beiras region in the last century, over a wide area of more than 10.000 km2, and thousands of anomalies related with the local accumulation of uranium in fault filling materials, metasedimentary enclaves and doleritic veins were recognized during prospecting works. The heterogeneity of uranium distribution in this rock is reflected at the test site; indeed, a gamma ray survey shows that some of the faults that occur in the quarry are slightly mineralized. A total of 7 radon monitoring stations were implemented in the quarry, at a typical depth comprised between 1 and 2 meters, in holes drilled for the purpose. Aware RM-70 pancake GM detectors were used, sensitive to alpha, beta and gamma/X-rays above 10 keV, connected to palmtop computers for data registration (1 minute interval) and power supplied by batteries. Monitoring was carried out during 6 months, in Spring/Summer conditions and the exact time of each explosion was registered manually. Several problems of data loss and power supply affected the stations during the experiment, leading to discontinuities in the records. Still the available data showed important differences in the soil-gas radon concentrations between stations, which can be explained by the heterogeneity of uranium distribution in the rock and increased local permeability. Furthermore, all stations showed a clear daily

  1. Effect of thermodynamic activity on skin permeation and skin concentration of triamcinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Effects of thermodynamic activity and the state (solution/suspension) of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) on skin permeation and concentration were physicochemically and kinetically analyzed. Permeation of TA through a silicone membrane, hairless rat skin (full-thickness skin or stripped skin) or a three-dimensional cultured human skin model (LSE-high) was determined and a permeability coefficient (P), partition coefficient (K) , diffusion coefficient (D) and steady-state flux (J) were calculated. The resulting J values proportionally increased with an increase in the TA activity in the drug solution and similar P, K and D values were obtained independent of the TA state (solution/suspension) in all membranes except for full-thickness hairless rat skin. On the other hand, the TA permeation through full-thickness hairless rat skin with the 1000 microg/ml suspension was higher than that expected judging by the thermodynamic acidity of TA. Higher D and P values were also obtained in the skin permeation of TA from the 1000 microg/ml suspension. Morphological observation of the skin surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the presence of TA solids in the hair follicles after application of the TA suspension. These results suggest that dissolved TA may be permeated predominantly through the stratum corneum, but that solid TA may be passed through the hair follicles to enter the dermis. The present physicochemical and kinetic analysis provides useful information to develop topical steroid formulations.

  2. Influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident on Spanish environmental radioactivity levels.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Rodríguez, A; Galván, J; García-Tenorio, R; Manjón, G; Mantero, J; Vioque, I; Arnold, D; Grossi, C; Serrano, I; Vallés, I; Vargas, A

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents measurements of the effect of the atmospheric radioactive release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station at three sites belonging to the Spanish environmental monitoring system. Measured values varied depending on the locations of the sites in Spain and their respective climatic characteristics. (134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, and (132)Te activity concentrations in filter samples were studied and associated levels of (131)I fallout were estimated from wet and dry deposition. Particulate aerosol activity concentrations ranges, in μBq/m(3), were 1.63-3080 ((131)I), 2.8-690 ((137)Cs), 1.3-620 ((134)Cs) and 3.6-330 ((132)Te), while the associated (131)I fallout was roughly estimated to be less than 20 Bq/m(2), Gaseous (131)I was also detected and the (131)I-gaseous/(131)I-total ratio increased at the three stations from approximately 0.75 at the end of March to 0.85-0.9 during the first few days of April. Finally, the presence of (131)I in some crucial parts of the food chain was also studied. (131)I was detected in samples from goat's and cow's milk (maximum levels of 1.11 Bq/L) and in broadleaf plants (maximum level 1.42 Bq/kg).

  3. Adsorption of low concentration phosphine in yellow phosphorus off-gas by impregnated activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Ning, Ping; Shi, Yan; Jiang, Ming

    2009-11-15

    In order to utilize high concentration CO comprehensively, impregnated activated carbon sorbent and the catalytic oxidation reaction for PH(3) were investigated in this study. Carbon was impregnated with HCl, KNO(3), or hexanediol. The activated carbon modified by 7% (mass fraction) HCl could enhance the adsorption purification ability significantly. Raising the reaction temperature or increasing the oxygen content of the gas can improve the purification efficiency. The structure of the materials after modification was determined using nitrogen adsorption. The modification decreased the volume of pores smaller than 2 nm in diameter with the most noticeable change occurring in the micropores ranging from 0.3 nm to 1.5 nm in diameter. Decreases in micropore volume accounted for 87% of the total pore volume change. After the adsorption, the surface areas decreased 28%, 29% of which was due to decreased micropore surface. HCl significantly increased the performance of carbon as a PH(3) adsorbent when HCl impregnation was applied whereas the effects of other materials used in this study were much less pronounced. HCl present in the small pores probably acted as a catalyst for oxygen activation that caused PH(3) oxidation. As a result of this process, H(3)PO(4) and P(4)O(10) were formed, strongly adsorbed, and present in the small pores ranging from 0.3 nm to 1.5 nm. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that CO from industrial off-gas can be purified and used as the raw material for a broader range of products.

  4. Rising fecal glucocorticoid concentrations track reproductive activity in the female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Kersey, David C; Wildt, David E; Brown, Janine L; Snyder, Rebecca J; Huang, Yan; Monfort, Steven L

    2011-09-01

    To better understand the adaptive significance of adrenal glucocorticoid (GC) variation in the giant panda, we assessed patterns of fecal GC excretion over time as well as during estrus, parturient and non-parturient luteal phases, lactation and acyclicity in 17 adult females. Fecal estrogen and GC patterns were positively correlated (P<0.05) in four of five periestrual females (r = 0.57-0.92). Among all reproductive states, fecal GC was highest (P<0.05) during periestrus (non-parturient, 495.9 ± 100.7 ng/g [mean ± SE]; parturient, 654.1 ± 10 6.5 ng/g; P>0.05). Concentrations of GC metabolites were lower (P<0.05) during the later stage of the luteal phase in non-parturient (334.8 ± 24.8 ng/g) compared to parturient (470.4 ± 54.0 ng/g) females. Although fecal GC concentrations in cyclic, non-parturient females did not differ (P>0.05) across all seasons, there were seasonal variations (P<0.05) in females that were acyclic and non-lactational. However, the overall lack of difference (P>0.05) in GC values between reproductively cyclic and acyclic females did not support the hypothesis that ovarian acyclicity is due to increased adrenal activity (related or unrelated to physiological stress). Furthermore, GCs may play an important role in the normal endocrine milieu associated with sexual receptivity and late pregnancy. These data demonstrate that both reproductive status and seasonal factors are important modulators of adrenal function in this endangered species.

  5. Association of circulating active and total ghrelin concentrations with dry matter intake, growth, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Hales, K E; Lents, C A; Freetly, H C

    2014-12-01

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that when acylated is thought to stimulate appetite. Circulating ghrelin concentrations could potentially be used as a predictor of DMI in cattle. The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating ghrelin concentrations with DMI and other production traits. Steers and heifers were fed a finishing diet, and individual intake was recorded for 84 d. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture following the DMI and ADG measurement period. Plasma active ghrelin and total ghrelin were quantified using commercial RIA. Active ghrelin was not correlated to DMI (P=0.36), but when DMI was modeled using a multivariate analysis including plasma metabolites and sex, active ghrelin was shown to be positively associated with DMI (P<0.01) and accounted for 6.2% of the variation accounted for by the regression model (R2=0.33). Total ghrelin was negatively correlated to DMI (P<0.01), but was not significant in a multivariate regression analysis (P=0.13). The ratio of active:total ghrelin was positively associated with DMI (P<0.01) and accounted for 10.2% of the variation in the model (R2=0.35). Active ghrelin was positively associated with ADG (P<0.05), while total ghrelin was negatively associated with ADG (P<0.01), and the ratio of active:total ghrelin was positively associated with ADG (P<0.01). Active ghrelin was not associated with G:F (P=0.88), but total ghrelin concentrations were negatively associated with G:F (P<0.01) and accounted for 10.24% of the variation (R2=0.25). Heifers consumed less feed than steers (P<0.01), tended to have greater active ghrelin concentrations (P=0.06), and had greater total ghrelin concentrations than steers (P=0.04). Total ghrelin concentrations were not different between sire breeds (P=0.80), but active ghrelin concentrations and the ratio of active:total ghrelin differed between breeds (P<0.01), indicating that genetics have an effect on the amount and form of circulating ghrelin

  6. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, Richard R; Scofield, Patricia A; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level NORM

  7. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Flint, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 μg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  8. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders.

    PubMed

    Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Flint, Paul L

    2011-06-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 µg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  9. Identification of gentian violet concentration that does not stain oral mucosa, possesses anti-candidal activity and is well tolerated.

    PubMed

    Jurevic, R J; Traboulsi, R S; Mukherjee, P K; Salata, R A; Ghannoum, M A

    2011-05-01

    Gentian violet (GV) is recommended for initial treatment of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. Currently GV is not used because of its staining effects. In this study, we investigated the staining capacity of three different concentrations of GV to determine a concentration that does not cause staining. The selected concentration that did not cause staining was evaluated for its physical stability and antifungal activity. Fifteen healthy participants were randomized to rinse twice daily for 14 days with one of three GV concentrations: 0.1%, 0.0085%, or 0.00165%. Oral examination and intra-oral photographs were performed at baseline and at the end of therapy. Participants responded to a questionnaire to assess adverse events. Antifungal activity was evaluated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute methodology. GV at a concentration of 0.00165% did not stain the oral mucosa and was well tolerated. GV at a concentration of 0.00165% was stable and possessed antifungal activity when stored at certain temperatures for different time periods. Gentian violet solution at the concentration of 0.00165% does not stain the oral mucosa, is stable and possesses potent antifungal activity.

  10. Geobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-12-01

    An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G. sulfurreducens PCA and Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290 ± 29 A m−3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200 mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189 ± 44 A m−3) or the type strains (< 70 A m−3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50 mM PBS and 650 mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158 ± 4 A m−3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50 mM PBS (220 ± 4 A m−3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147 ± 19 A m−3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  11. The impact of military activities on the concentration of mercury in soils of military training grounds and marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Gębka, Karolina; Bełdowski, Jacek; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2016-11-01

    Military activities have been conducted on land and at sea. Both during conflicts and in peace time, some regions served as a military training ground which included firing positions and bunkers. Mercury fulminate has been used in ammunition primers and detonators. Certain amount of ammunition was dumped into the Baltic Sea after the Second World War. Because of corroded containers, mercury can be released into the marine environment. The soil and sediment samples were taken from military training grounds, southern Baltic in 2014 and 2015. The concentration of mercury was determined by AMA-254 analyzer. Hg concentration was higher in the places of military activities, as compared to other areas. Ten times increased concentration of Hg was determined in soil sample collected in area of active gun range compared to the reference station. The significant higher concentration of mercury was detected in stations where chemical warfare agents were found.

  12. The Comparative Analysis of Antioxidant and Biological Activity for the Dendropanax morbifera LEV. Leaves Extracted by Different Ethanol Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masaya; Ra, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The different concentrations of ethanol (20-100%) and distilled water extract for Dendropanax morbifera LEV. leaves were evaluated to induce antioxidant and biological activity employed by variety of assays. The 20%, 80%, and 100% ethanol extract demonstrated the relatively higher activity, whereas distilled water, 40%, and 60% ethanol extracts exhibited the lower antioxidant and biological activity. Especially, 80% ethanol extract showed the remarkably higher radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenol and flavonoid content, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Also, 100% ethanol extract exhibited relatively greater activity, but there did not show significant radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, there were 50% and 30% promotion effect for ADH activity assay and 80% and 40% promotion effect for ALDH activity assay in 80% and 100% ethanol extract, respectively. In addition, in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), all extracts except for distilled water extract inhibited Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Escherichia coli. For Pichia jadinii, whole extracts effectively inhibited yeast multiplication at concentration of 125 μg/mL for 100% ethanol extract and 250 μg/mL for the rest of extract. These result indicated that D. morbifera LEV. leaves extracted by 80% ethanol would be the ideal extracting solution to maximize inherent antioxidant and biological activity agent.

  13. Factors affecting 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Alberto, G

    2011-02-01

    The activity of (210)Po and (210)Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759±277 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg(-1) dry weight), and 45±19 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that (210)Po and (210)Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210±75 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) for (210)Po and 10±4 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) for (210)Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in mussels, and provides an explanation for occasional high concentrations of

  14. A comparison of barley malt osmolyte concentrations and standard malt quality measurements as indicators of barley malt amylolytic enzyme activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt osmolyte concentrations (OC) would correlate better with malt a-amylase, ß-amylase, and limit dextrinase activities than do the standard malt quality measurements (malt extract [ME], diastatic power [DP], ASBC a-amylase activity, solub...

  15. Anaemia, Serum Iron Concentrations and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Laying Hens Infected Naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Boiago, M M; do Carmo, G M; Bottari, N B; Araujo, D N; Giuriatti, J; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C; Casagrande, R A; Wisser, C S; Stefani, L M; Alves, M S; Da Silva, A S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anaemia, serum iron concentrations and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in laying hens infected naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum and having severe hepatic lesions. Liver and serum samples were collected from 27 laying hens (20 infected and seven uninfected). The δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations were evaluated. There were significant decreases in δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations (P <0.01) in birds infected by S. Gallinarum when compared with uninfected birds. There was a positive correlation (P <0.001) between serum iron concentration, haematocrit (r(2) = 0.82) and δ-ALA-D activity (r(2) = 0.75). A positive correlation was also observed between δ-ALA-D activity and haematocrit (r(2) = 0.78; P <0.01). Liver samples showed moderate focal coagulative necrosis associated with infiltration of lymphoplasmacytic cells, macrophages and heterophils. The anaemia in the infected hens may be related to reduction in δ-ALA-D activity and serum iron concentrations, since both are important for haemopoiesis.

  16. Phosphate glass core/silica clad fibres with a high concentration of active rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, O. N.; Galagan, B. I.; Denker, B. I.; Sverchkov, S. E.; Semjonov, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    We report a study of silica-clad composite optical fibres having a phosphate glass core doped with active rare-earth elements. The phosphate glass core allows a high concentration of active rare-earth ions to be obtained, and the silica cladding ensures high mechanical strength and facilitates fusion splicing of such fibres to silica fibres. Owing to the high concentration of active rare-earth ions, this type of fibre is potentially attractive for applications where a small cavity length and high lasing efficiency are needed.

  17. [The influence of smoking on plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant concentrations in active smokers (preliminary report)].

    PubMed

    Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Sobczak, Andrzej; Król, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains many reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress. Crucial role in defending the organism against ROS play vitamins E and A. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of tobacco smoke on concentration of main ingredients of these vitamins alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol, as well as retinol. The study population consisted of 104 healthy males between the age of 34 and 45 years. Survey questionnaire and determination of plasma cotinine concentration were used to divide the group into smokers (62 males) and non-smokers (42 males). The arbitrary threshold value of plasma cotinine concentration was set to 15 ng/ml. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to estimate the plasma concentration of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, retinol and cotinine. Within the smoking part of the study population a significantly lower (by 12.5%) concentration of alpha-tocopherol, and non-significantly higher (by 15.7%) concentration of gamma-tocopherol was ascertained, when compared to the plasma concentration of those compounds in the non-smoking group. Practically no difference in concentration of retinol was found between the two studied groups. In order to determine the magnitude of interdependency between the extensiveness of exposure to tobacco smoke and the concentration of analyzed antioxidants, correlations between their plasma concentrations and plasma concentration of cotinine were investigated. A significant, moderate and negative correlation of alpha-tocopherol versus cotinin was determined, in the smoking group as well as in the entire study population (r = -0.291 and r = - 0,317, respectively). Other relationship: gamma-tocopherol versus cotinine and retinol versus cotinine did not show any correlation. The obtained results suggest that tobacco smoke weakens the organism's antioxidant barrier by decreasing the concentration of plasma alpha-tocopherol, while not influencing significantly the plasma

  18. Effect of the concentration of inherent mineral elements on the adsorption capacity of coconut shell-based activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Afrane, G; Achaw, Osei-Wusu

    2008-09-01

    Coconut shells of West Africa Tall, a local variety of the coconut species Cocos nucifera L., were taken from five different geographical locations in Ghana and examined for the presence and concentration levels of some selected mineral elements using atomic absorption spectrometer. Activated carbons were subsequently made from the shells by the physical method. The iodine adsorption characteristics of the activated carbons measured showed a definite relationship to the concentration levels of potassium and other mineral elements in the precursor shell. Samples with lower total minerals content recorded higher iodine numbers. It was observed that the origin of the shells was related to the concentration levels of the analyzed mineral elements in the shells, which in turn affected the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons. The results of this study have important implications for the sourcing of coconuts whose shells are used in the manufacture of activated carbons.

  19. The effects of cerium doping concentration on the properties and photocatalytic activity of bimetallic Mo/Ce catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaedini, Ghazaleh; Tasirin, Siti Masrinda; Aminayi, Payam

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the characterization and photocatalytic activity of MoO3 nanoparticles doped with various doping concentrations of cerium have been investigated. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the prepared catalysts confirmed that MoO3 particles have been successfully doped by cerium. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was performed to visualize the surface morphology of the obtained catalysts. The XRD patterns suggested that the crystallinity of the sample with the lowest doping concentration of 15 mol % was higher in comparison with samples of higher doping concentrations. The volume-averaged crystal sizes of the obtained catalysts were calculated to be 25, 28, and 32 nm for 15, 35, and 60 mol % samples, respectively. The photocatalytic activity along with the reaction kinetics of Ce-doped MoO3 nanoparticles have also been investigated through the dye degradation of methyl orange. The synthesized Ce-doped MoO3 particles with the lowest dopant concentration of 15 mol % exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for methyl orange dye degradation. It was observed that photo-degradation activity decreased with an increase in the doping concentration of cerium. The predicted rate constants for samples with 15, 35, and 60 mol % doping concentrations were found to be 0.0432, 0.035, and 0.029 min-1, respectively.

  20. Ethanol-Induced ADH Activity in Zebrafish: Differential Concentration-Dependent Effects on High- Versus Low-Affinity ADH Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Facciol, Amanda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish express enzymes that metabolize ethanol in a manner comparable to that of mammals, including humans. We previously demonstrated that acute ethanol exposure increases alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in an inverted U-shaped dose-dependent manner. It was hypothesized that the biphasic dose-response was due to the increased activity of a high-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to low concentrations of ethanol and increased activity of a low-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol. To test this hypothesis, we exposed zebrafish to different concentrations of ethanol (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0% v/v) for 30 min and measured the total ADH activity in the zebrafish liver. However, we also repeated this enzyme activity assay using a low concentration of the substrate (ethanol) to determine the activity of high-affinity ADH isoforms. We found that total ADH activity in response to ethanol induces an inverted U-shaped dose-response similar to our previous study. Using a lower substrate level in our enzyme assay targeting high-affinity isozymes, we found a similar dose-response. However, the difference in activity between the high and low substrate assays (high substrate activity - low substrate activity), which provide an index of activity for low-affinity ADH isoforms, revealed no significant effect of ethanol exposure. Our results suggest that the inverted U-shaped dose-response for total ADH activity in response to ethanol is driven primarily by high-affinity isoforms of ADH.

  1. Thyroid thermogenesis. Relationships between Na+-dependent respiration and Na+ + K+-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Asano, Y; Liberman, U A; Edelman, I S

    1976-02-01

    The effect of thyroid status on QO2, QO2 (t) and NaK-ATPase activity was examined in rat skeletal muscle. QO2(t) (i.e. Na+-transport-dependent respiration) was estimated with ouabain or Na+-free media supplemented with K+. In contrast to the effects of ouabain on ion composition, intracellular K+ was maintained at about 125 meq/liter, and intracellular Na+ was almost nil in the Na+-free media. The estimates of QO2(t) were independent of the considerable differences in tissue ion concentrations. The increase in QO2(t) account for 47% of the increase in QO2 in the transition from the hypothyroid to the euthyroid state and 84% of the increase in the transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state. Surgical thyroidectomy lowered NaK-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction (expressed per milligram protein) 32%; injections of triodothyronine (T3) increased this activity 75% in initially hypothyroid rats and 26% in initially euthyroid rats. Thyroidectomy was attended by significant falls in serum Ca and Pi concentrations. Administration of T3 resulted in further declines in serum Ca and marked increases in serum Ps concentrations. Similar effects were seen in 131I-treated rats, but the magnitude of the declines in serum Ca were less. The effects of T3 on QO2, QO2(t), and NaK-ATPase activity of skeletal muscle were indistinguishable in the 131I-ablated and surgically thyroidectomized rats. In thyroidectomized or euthyroid rats given repeated doses of T3, QO2(t) and NaA-ATPase activity increased proportionately. In thyroidectomized rats injected with single doses of T3, either 10, 50, or 250 mug/100 g body wt, QO2(t) increased linearly with NaK-ATPase activity. The kinetics of the NaK-ATPase activity was assessed with an ATP-generating system. T3 elicited a significant increase in Vmax with no change in Km for ATP.

  2. Effects of T-82, a new quinoline derivative, on cholinesterase activity and extracellular acetylcholine concentration in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Isoma, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Masago; Ohta, Megumi; Ogawa, Yoichiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Kohda, Tadayuki; Kamei, Junzo

    2002-02-01

    The effects of T-82 (2-[2-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)ethyl]-2,3-dihydro-9-methoxy-1H-pyrrolo [3,4-b]quinolin-1-one hemifumarate), a new quinoline derivative, on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and acetylcholine (ACh) release were compared with those of the well-known cholinesterase inhibitors tacrine and E2020. T-82, tacrine and E2020 all concentration-dependently inhibited AChE in rat brain homogenate (IC50 = 109.4, 84.2 and 11.8 nM, respectively). In addition, although tacrine strongly inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), T-82 and E2020 showed only weak activity on BuChE in human plasma. In ex vivo experiments, intraperitoneal administration of T-82 at a dose of 30 mg/kg inhibited AChE activity in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and parietal cortex of rats. The effect of T-82 on the extracellular ACh concentration in rat brain was measured using in vivo microdialysis. T-82 at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p. increased the extracellular ACh concentration in the hippocampus and striatum in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that T-82 activates the central cholinergic system by selectively inhibiting AChE activity, while weakly affecting peripheral BuChE activity, and that T-82 increases the extracellular ACh concentration in the brain, which is followed by inhibited AChE activity.

  3. Inter and intraindividual variations in plasma cholinesterase activity and substance concentration in employees of an organophosphorus insecticide factory.

    PubMed Central

    Brock, A

    1991-01-01

    During a period of 10 months, inter and intraindividual variations in plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity were studied in 331 employees of an organophosphorus insecticide factory, and in 193 healthy volunteers without occupational exposure to known ChE inhibitors. Repeated (n = 6) measurements of ChE activity and ChE substance concentration were performed in 410 subjects. The study showed substantial intraindividual variations of ChE activity and ChE substance concentration (up to 40%) in the employees and in the reference group. When effects due to sex, ChE-1 phenotype, body weight, and height were considered, one subgroup of employees of the organophosphorus insecticide factory showed a significantly lower average ChE activity than other subgroups; as ChE substance concentrations were found to be proportionally decreased, it was concluded that the low ChE activity was unrelated to occupational exposure. A combined determination of ChE activity and ChE substance concentration is recommended as a rational diagnostic tool when an unexpected decrease of plasma ChE activity is registered in people joining organophosphorus insecticide health surveillance programmes. PMID:1878314

  4. Concentration and Separation of Active Proteins from Potato Industry Waste Based on Low-Temperature Evaporation and Ethanol Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Ahokas, Mikko; Järvinen, Juho; Toivanen, Juho; Tanskanen, Juha P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Potato fruit juice, a residue of starch industry, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable raw-materials of food, cosmetic, and pharma industries. The recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice is limited by the lack of industrially feasible concentration and separation technologies. The present research thus aimed at development of such process for the separation of active protease inhibitors from potato fruit juice. Methods. Low temperature mechanical vapor recompression evaporation was applied for concentration of potato fruit juice followed by ethanol precipitation for recovery of active proteins. The effects of precipitation temperature and precipitative agents were investigated employing response surface modeling methodology. Results. Concentration of potato fruit juice by evaporation was successful without loss of trypsin inhibition activity. Precipitation using 6.5 M ethanol at low temperature (0–+4°C) was found suitable for the recovery of active protease inhibitors from the concentrate. Piloting at starch industry yielded 50% of total proteins, with a high quantity of active protease inhibitors and a minor inclusion of other proteins. Conclusion. Concentration by low-temperature evaporation, followed by ethanol precipitation of protease inhibitors at optimized temperature, is an attractive option for valorization of potato fruit juice. PMID:28299232

  5. Characterization of concentration gradients of a morphogenetically active retinoid in the chick limb bud

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    It has long been suggested that the generation of biological patterns depends in part on gradients of diffusible substances. In an attempt to bridge the gap between this largely theoretical concept and experimental embryology, we have examined the physiology of diffusion gradients in an actual embryonic field. In particular, we have generated in the chick wing bud concentration gradients of the morphogenetically active retinoid TTNPB, (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro- 5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-prope nyl] benzoic acid, a synthetic vitamin A compound. Upon local application of TTNPB the normal 234 digit pattern is duplicated in a way that correlates with the geometry of the underlying TTNPB gradient; low doses of TTNPB lead to a shallow gradient and an additional digit 2, whereas higher doses result in a steep, far-reaching gradient and patterns with additional digits 3 and 4. The experimentally measured TTNPB distribution along the anteroposterior axis, can be modeled by a local source and a dispersed sink. This model correctly predicts the site of specification of digit 2, and provides an empirical estimate of the diffusion coefficient (D) of retinoids in embryonic limb tissue. The numerical value of approximately 10(-7) cm2s-1 for D suggests that retinoids are not freely diffusible in the limb rudiment, but interact with the previously identified cellular retinoic acid binding protein. In addition, D affords an estimate of the time required to establish a diffusion gradient as 3 to 4 h. This time span is in a range compatible with the time scale of pattern specification in developing vertebrate limbs. Our studies support the view that diffusion of morphogenetic substances is a plausible mechanism of pat