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Sample records for 131i-labeled iodo-azomycin galactopyranoside

  1. The preparation and immunological properties of 131I-labelled adrenocorticotrophin

    PubMed Central

    Landon, J.; Livanou, Theodora; Greenwood, F. C.

    1967-01-01

    1. A procedure is described for preparing 131I-labelled adrenocorticotrophin suitable for use in radioimmunoassay. 2. Adsorption of labelled and unlabelled adrenocorticotrophin at low concentrations occurs to various surfaces despite the presence of diluent protein. Adsorption and desorption errors are minimized by low pH and by the use of polystyrene vials. 3. Preparations with low initial damage are obtained if the radioiodination is performed rapidly and the separation of 131I-labelled adrenocorticotrophin from unchanged [131I]iodide is carried out on cellulose columns by using dilute acid. 4. The immunological activity of 131I-labelled α1–24-adrenocorticotrophin, but not of 131I-labelled porcine adrenocorticotrophin, decreases with increasing specific radioactivity. The involvement of tyrosine residues in the immunological specificity of the α1–24-adrenocorticotrophin only is suggested to explain this finding. PMID:16742533

  2. Tumor immunotherapy in the mouse with the use of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Zalcberg, J.R.; Thompson, C.H.; Lichtenstein, M.; McKenzie, I.F.

    1984-03-01

    This report describes the use of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibodies in two experimental models for tumor immunotherapy. In vitro treatment of the radiation-induced murine thymoma ITT-1-75NS with radiolabeled anti-Ly-2.1 significantly impaired subsequent tumor growth in vivo. However, in vivo treatment of this tumor, which previously had been injected into C57BL/6 mice, was unsuccessful. By contrast, in vitro treatment of a human colorectal tumor cell line (COLO 205) with 131I-labeled 250-30.6--a monoclonal antibody directed against a secretory component of normal and malignant gastrointestinal epithelium--completely inhibited subsequent tumor growth in BALB/c nude (nu/nu) mice. Furthermore, in vivo treatment of preexisting human colorectal tumor xenografts significantly impaired progressive tumor growth. Although some tumor inhibition was also produced by unlabeled 250-30.6 antibody, this response was considerably amplified by treatment with (131I)-labeled 250-30.6 (P less than .05), suggesting that in vivo treatment of human tumors with the use of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibodies may be clinically beneficial. The antithyroid drug propylthiouracil was used to reduce dehalogenation of the radiolabeled immunoglobulins in an attempt to improve their therapeutic efficacy.

  3. Radionuclide (131)I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingyi; Zhao, Lingzhou; Cheng, Yongjun; Xiong, Zhijuan; Tang, Yueqin; Shen, Mingwu; Zhao, Jinhua; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-11-21

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive (131)I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5·NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and labeling of radioactive iodine-131 ((131)I). The generated multifunctional (131)I-G5·NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers were characterized via different methods. We show that prior to (131)I labeling, the G5·NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers conjugated with approximately 9.4 HPAO moieties per dendrimer are noncytotoxic at a concentration up to 20 μM and are able to target cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors (FAR), thanks to the modified FA ligands. In the presence of a phenol group, radioactive (131)I is able to be efficiently labeled onto the dendrimer platform with good stability and high radiochemical purity, and render the platform with an ability for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of an FAR-overexpressing xenografted tumor model in vivo. The designed strategy to use the facile dendrimer nanotechnology may be extended to develop various radioactive theranostic nanoplatforms for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of different types of cancer.

  4. Radionuclide 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Zhao, Lingzhou; Cheng, Yongjun; Xiong, Zhijuan; Tang, Yueqin; Shen, Mingwu; Zhao, Jinhua; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and labeling of radioactive iodine-131 (131I). The generated multifunctional 131I-G5.NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers were characterized via different methods. We show that prior to 131I labeling, the G5.NHAc-HPAO-PEG-FA dendrimers conjugated with approximately 9.4 HPAO moieties per dendrimer are noncytotoxic at a concentration up to 20 μM and are able to target cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors (FAR), thanks to the modified FA ligands. In the presence of a phenol group, radioactive 131I is able to be efficiently labeled onto the dendrimer platform with good stability and high radiochemical purity, and render the platform with an ability for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of an FAR-overexpressing xenografted tumor model in vivo. The designed strategy to use the facile dendrimer nanotechnology may be extended to develop various radioactive theranostic nanoplatforms for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of different types of cancer.We report the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of radioactive 131I-labeled multifunctional dendrimers for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of tumors. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 (G5.NH2) were sequentially modified with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO) and folic acid (FA) linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by acetylation modification of the dendrimer remaining surface amines and

  5. Localized beta dosimetry of sup 131 I -labeled antibodies in follicular lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, T.E.; Fisher, D.R. ); Press, O.W.; Eary, J.F. ); Weinstein, J.N. ); Badger, C.C.; Bernstein, I.D. )

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the multicellular dosimetry of {sup 131}I -labeled antibody in follicular lymphoma based on histological measurements on human tumor biopsy tissue. Photomicrographs of lymph node specimens were analyzed by first-order treatment to determine the mean values and statistical variations of the radii of follicles (260{plus minus}90 {mu}m), interfollicular distances (740{plus minus}160 {mu}m), and the number density of follicles (60{plus minus}18 in a volume of (2{times}1480 {mu}m){sup 3}). Based on these measurements, two geometrical models were developed for localized beta dosimetry. The first, a regular cubic lattice model, assumes no variation in follicular radius of follicles and interfollicular distance. The second, a randomized distribution model, is a more complicated but more realistic representation of observed histological specimens. In this model, Monte Carlo methods were used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of follicles by simulating the distribution of the radii of follicles, interfollicular distances, and the number density of follicles. Dose calculations were performed using Berger's point kernels for absorbed-dose distribution for beta particles in water, assuming the {sup 131}I -labeled antibodies as point sources. It was assumed that the activity concentration of the labeled antibody within the follicles was ten times the activity concentration in the interfollicular spaces. The spatial distribution of localized dose was calculated for a tumor having an average dose of 40 Gy. The localized dose was found to be highly nonuniform, ranging from 20 to 90 Gy, and varying by a factor of about 2 from the average tumor dose.

  6. Treatment of intracranial human glioma xenografts with 131I-labeled anti-tenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y; Bullard, D E; Humphrey, P A; Colapinto, E V; Friedman, H S; Zalutsky, M R; Coleman, R E; Bigner, D D

    1988-05-15

    Lack of tumor specificity renders current modalities for treating malignant glioma ineffective. The administration of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody (Mab) 81C6, which reacts with the glioma-associated extracellular matrix antigen, tenascin, to nude mice carrying s.c. human glioma xenografts has resulted in significant tumor growth delay and tumor regression. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of 131I-labeled 81C6 in athymic rats bearing intracranial human glioma xenografts, a more appropriate model for human gliomas. Mab 81C6, an IgG2b immunoglobulin, and an isotype-matched control Mab, 45.6, were labeled at 12.5-23.6 mCi/mg with chloramine-T. The Mabs were given i.v. at 1.25 and 2.5 mCi/animal for 131I-labeled 81C6, and 1.25 mCi for 131I-labeled 45.6 control. Therapeutic response was evaluated by survival prolongation using Wilcoxon rank sum analysis. Three experiments were done. No significant survival prolongation was found in the trial in which the average tumor size at the time of Mab administration was 60 +/- 14 mm3, two-thirds the size which causes animal death. In experiment 2, Mab was given at 16 +/- 14 mm3 average intracranial tumor volume. Statistically significant (P less than or equal to 0.005) survival prolongation was found for animals treated with 2.5 mCi 131I-labeled 81C6. In that experiment, male animals with intracranial xenografts had significantly shorter survival than females (P less than or equal to 0.005). When only female animals were used in the analysis, the 1.25-mCi 81C6 group also was found to have longer survival benefit (P less than or equal to 0.01). In the third experiment, only female animals were used and the tumor size at the initiation of treatment was 20 +/- 9 mm3. Highly significant survival prolongation again was found in both 1.25 (P = 0.001) and 2.5 mCi (P less than 0.001) 131I-labeled 81C6 groups. The estimated dose to intracranial tumors from 1.25 mCi of 131I-labeled Mab was 1585 rads for 81C6 and 168

  7. Uptake and localization of /sup 131/I-labeled anti-calcitonin immunoglobulins in rat medullary thyroid carcinoma tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gautvik, K.M.; Svindahl, K.; Skretting, A.; Stenberg, B.; Myhre, L.; Ekeland, A.; Johannesen, J.V.

    1982-09-15

    A medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) which has been transplanted repeatedly under the kidney capsule of Wag/Rij rats secretes calcitonin (CT) spontaneously. From 10--20 weeks after transplantation, immunoreactive serum calcitonin (iCT) is abnormally elevated and continues to rise parallel to tumor growth. The immunoglobulin fraction of the rabbit anti-CT antiserum raised against intact synthetic hormone, was purified and iodinated electrolytically. Specific activities of /sup 131/I-labeled immunoglobulin of 0.008--0.014 mCi/microgram protein were obtained with 80% preservation of CT binding activity. Wag/Rig rats with MCT tumor and increased serum iCT concentrations received intravenous injections of /sup 131/I-labeled immunoglobulins (0.054--0.811 mCi). The distribution of radioactivity in the rats was followed for 14 days using external scintigraphy in combination with radioactivity measurements of blood and different organs at the end of the observation period. The distribution of /sup 113/mIn was used as a marker for blood distribution. When the radioactivity ratios (/sup 131/I//sup 113/mIn) in tumor and different organs were related to that of blood which was set equal to unity, tumor tissue contained 3--6 times higher activity. Nonhyperimmune rabbit immunoglobulins or rabbit antirat prolactin immunoglobulins were not concentrated in MCT tissue, nor did anti-CT immunoglobulins localize in rat prolactin adenomas.

  8. Therapy to target renal cell carcinoma using 131I-labeled B7-H3 monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueqin; Zhang, Guangbo; Hou, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    B7-H3 is a tumor-associated antigen that plays a critical role in potential tumor-targeted therapy. In this study, we aimed to assess the radiobiological effect of 131I-labeled B7-H3 monoclonal antibody (131I-4H7) in nude mice with human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and evaluate the effect of 131I-4H7 on RCC treatment. The radiobiological activity and tumor uptake of 131I-4H7, and its effect on tumor growth were measured. 131I-4H7 was absorbed by the tumor and reached its maximal uptake rate (3.32% injected dose [ID]/g) at 24 h, at which point the drug concentration in the tumor was 7.36-, 2.06-, 1.80-, and 2.78-fold higher than that in muscle, kidneys, liver, and heart, respectively. Measurements and positron emission tomography–computed tomography imaging showed that tumor development was significantly inhibited by 131I-4H7. HE staining revealed that 131I-4H7 significantly injures tumor cells. Our results suggest that 131I-4H7 is markedly absorbed by the tumor and did suppress the development of RCC xenografted tumors in nude mice, which might provide a new candidate for antibody-mediated targeted radiotherapy in human RCC. PMID:27058890

  9. Radionuclide (131)I labeled reduced graphene oxide for nuclear imaging guided combined radio- and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Yi, Xuan; Huang, Min; Ning, Ping; Liu, Teng; Ge, Cuicui; Chai, Zhifang; Liu, Zhuang; Yang, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Nano-graphene and its derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine, including their applications in cancer theranostics. In this work, we develop 131I labeled, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated reduced nano-graphene oxide (RGO), obtaining 131I-RGO-PEG for nuclear imaging guided combined radiotherapy and photothermal therapy of cancer. Compared with free 131I, 131IRGO- PEG exhibits enhanced cellular uptake and thus improved radio-therapeutic efficacy against cancer cells. As revealed by gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of 131I-RGO-PEG is observed after its intravenous injection. While RGO exhibits strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and could induce effective photothermal heating of tumor under NIR light irradiation, 131I is able to emit high-energy X-ray to induce cancer killing as the result of radio ionization effect. By utilizing the combined photothermal therapy and radiotherapy, both of which are delivered by a single agent 131IRGO- PEG, effective elimination of tumors is achieved in our animal tumor model experiments. Toxicology studies further indicate that 131I-RGO-PEG induces no appreciable toxicity to mice at the treatment dose. Our work demonstrates the great promise of combing nuclear medicine and photothermal therapy as a novel therapeutic strategy to realize synergistic efficacy in cancer treatment.

  10. Radionuclide (131)I labeled reduced graphene oxide for nuclear imaging guided combined radio- and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Yi, Xuan; Huang, Min; Ning, Ping; Liu, Teng; Ge, Cuicui; Chai, Zhifang; Liu, Zhuang; Yang, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Nano-graphene and its derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine, including their applications in cancer theranostics. In this work, we develop 131I labeled, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated reduced nano-graphene oxide (RGO), obtaining 131I-RGO-PEG for nuclear imaging guided combined radiotherapy and photothermal therapy of cancer. Compared with free 131I, 131IRGO- PEG exhibits enhanced cellular uptake and thus improved radio-therapeutic efficacy against cancer cells. As revealed by gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of 131I-RGO-PEG is observed after its intravenous injection. While RGO exhibits strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and could induce effective photothermal heating of tumor under NIR light irradiation, 131I is able to emit high-energy X-ray to induce cancer killing as the result of radio ionization effect. By utilizing the combined photothermal therapy and radiotherapy, both of which are delivered by a single agent 131IRGO- PEG, effective elimination of tumors is achieved in our animal tumor model experiments. Toxicology studies further indicate that 131I-RGO-PEG induces no appreciable toxicity to mice at the treatment dose. Our work demonstrates the great promise of combing nuclear medicine and photothermal therapy as a novel therapeutic strategy to realize synergistic efficacy in cancer treatment. PMID:26188609

  11. Radioimmunotherapy of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts with 131I-labelled monoclonal antibody E48 IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Gerretsen, M.; Schrijvers, A. H.; van Walsum, M.; Braakhuis, B. J.; Quak, J. J.; Meijer, C. J.; Snow, G. B.; van Dongen, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) E48 reacts with a 22 kD antigen exclusively expressed in squamous and transitional epithelia and their neoplastic counterparts. Radiolabelled with 99mTc, MAb E48 is capable of targeting metastatic and recurrent disease in patients with head and neck cancer. In this study, the capacity of 131I-labelled MAb E48 to eradicate xenografts of human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) in nude mice was examined. Experimental groups received a single i.v. bolus injection of 400 microCi MAb E48 IgG (number of mice (n = 6, number of tumours (t) = 9) or 800 microCi MAb E48 IgG (n) = 5,t = 7), whereas control groups received either diluent (n = 3,t = 5), unlabelled MAb E48 IgG (n = 4,t = 5) or 800 microCi 131I-labelled isotype-matched control MAb (n = 6,t = 9). A 4.1-fold increase in the median tumour volume doubling time and regression of two out of ten tumours (20%) was observed in mice treated with 400 microCi. In mice treated with 800 microCi. In mice treated with 800 microCi, two out of seven tumours (29%) showed complete remission without regrowth during follow-up (greater than 3 months). Median tumour volume doubling time in the remaining five tumours was increased 7.8-fold. No antitumour effects were observed in mice injected with diluent, unlabelled MAb E48 or 131I-labelled control MAb. In the same xenograft model, chemotherapy with doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, bleomycin, methotrexate or 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine yielded a less profound effect on tumour volume doubling time. Increases in tumour volume doubling time with these chemotherapeutic agents were 4, 2.2, 2.1, 1.7, 0, and 2.6 respectively. Moreover, no cures were observed with any of these chemotherapeutic agents. From the tissue distribution of 800 microCi MAb E48, the absorbed cumulative radiation doses of tumour and various organs were calculated using the trapezoid integration method for the area under the curve. To tumour xenografts, 12,170 cGy was

  12. Radioimmunotherapy of human colon cancer xenografts by using {sup 131}I labeled-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ling; Xu Huiyun; Mi Li; Bian Huijie; Qin Jun; Xiong Hua; Feng Qiang; Wen Ning; Tian Rong; Xu Liqing; Shen Xiaomei; Tang Hao; Chen Zhinan . E-mail: znchen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Therapeutic efficacy, suitable dose, and administration times of {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2}, a new monoclonal antibody therapeutics specifically directed against a cell surface-associated glycoprotein of colon cancer, were investigated in this article. Methods and Materials: In human colon cancer xenografts, {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2} at the dose of 125 {mu}Ci, 375 {mu}Ci, and 1125 {mu}Ci were administrated intraperitoneally on Days 6 and 18 after implantation of HR8348 cells with CAb{sub 1} high reactivity. Survival time and tumor growth inhibition rate were used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2} in treatment of colon cancer xenografts. Results: Treatment of 125, 375, and 1125 {mu}Ci {sup 131}I-CAb1 F(ab'){sub 2} did not significantly decrease the mean survival time of nude mice when compared with nontreated groups (p = 0.276, 0.865, 0.582, respectively). Moreover, the mean survival times of nude mice receiving 375 {mu}Ci and 1125 {mu}Ci {sup 131}I-CAb1 F(ab'){sub 2} were significantly longer than that of 5-FU-treated groups (p 0.018 and 0.042). Tumor growth inhibition rates of the first therapy were 35.67% and 41.37%, with corresponding {sup 131}I-labeled antibody dosage of 375 {mu}Ci and 1125 {mu}Ci. After single attack dosage, second reinforcement therapy may rise efficacy significantly. Tumor growth inhibition rates of 125 {mu}Ci, 375 {mu}Ci, and 1125 {mu}Ci {sup 131}I-labeled antibody on Day 20 posttherapy were 42.65%, 56.56%, and 84.41%, respectively. Histopathology examination revealed that tissue necrosis of various degrees was found in {sup 131}I-CAb1 F(ab'){sub 2}-treated groups. Conclusion: {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2} is safe and effective for colon cancer. It may be a novel and potentially adjuvant therapeutics for colon cancer.

  13. Pharmacodynamic study of 131I-labeled CA215 antibody on an animal model of estrogen-resistant OC-3-VGH ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIANG-YUN; SU, XIN; XIE, CHEN-JING; LI, LEI; YAN, JIAN-YAN; SUN, ZU-YUE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the inhibitory effect of 131I-labeled ovarian cancer antigen 215 (131I-CA215) antibody on human OC-3-VGH ovarian cancer. A subcutaneous transplanted tumor model of estrogen-resistant human OC-3-VGH ovarian cancer in nude mice was established. The model mice were randomly divided into seven groups, which were the negative control (NC), positive control (PC; 60 mg/kg cyclophosphamide), high-dose CA215 antibody (HA; 10 mg/kg), low-dose CA215 antibody (LA; 2 mg/kg), high-dose 131I-CA215 antibody (131I-HA; 10 mg/kg + 125 μCi), medium-dose 131I-CA215 antibody (131I-MA; 6 mg/kg + 75 μCi) and low-dose 131I-CA215 antibody (131I-LA; 2 mg/kg + 25 μCi) groups. Each group received intraperitoneal administration for 14 consecutive days. At 24 h after the final administration, the tumor was removed and weighed to calculate the tumor inhibition rate (TIR) and the relative tumor increase rate (T/C). Compared with the NC group, the HA group, as well as the 31I-HA and 131I-MA antibody groups, exhibited significantly inhibited tumor growth. The relative T/C values were 54, 30 and 48%, respectively, and the TIRs were 33.59, 64.89 and 45.80%, respectively. All differences were statistically significant. The difference between the HA and 131I-HA groups also presented statistical significance. CA215 and 131I-CA215 antibodies can markedly inhibit OC-3-VGH ovarian cancer. The high-dose 131I-CA215 antibody demonstrated a clear synergetic effect. PMID:26622356

  14. Therapeutic Potential of 90Y- and 131I-Labeled Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody in Treating Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma with Pulmonary Involvement: A Monte Carlo–Based Dosimetric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hong; Du, Yong; Sgouros, George; Prideaux, Andrew; Frey, Eric; Wahl, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    targeting of lung metastases in NHL patients. 131I provided a therapeutic advantage over 90Y, especially in tumors with radii less than 2.0 cm and at lower tumor burdens. For both 90Y- and 131I-labeled antibodies, treatment is more efficacious when applied to metastatic NHL cases with lower tumor burdens. 131I has advantages over 90Y in treating smaller lung metastases. PMID:17204712

  15. Phenyl galactopyranosides - 13C CPMAS NMR and conformational analysis using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wałejko, Piotr; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Bukowicki, Jarosław; Witkowski, Stanisław; Wawer, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    Structural analyses of four compounds (phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (1), phenyl β-D-galactopyranoside (2), phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-galactopyranoside (3) and phenyl α-D-galactopyranoside (4)) have been performed using solid-state 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy and theoretical methods. Conformational analysis involved grid search and genetic algorithm (GAAGS). Low-energy conformers found by GAAGS were further optimized by DFT and chemical shifts were calculated using GIAO/DFT approach. 13C CPMAS NMR chemical shift of carbon C2 is indicative of the glycoside torsional angle. Separated or merged resonances of C2 and C6 suggest free rotation of phenyl ring in the solid phase.

  16. NOTE: Monte Carlo microdosimetry of 188Re- and 131I-labelled anti-CD20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-García, E.; Garnica-Garza, H. M.; Ferro-Flores, G.

    2006-10-01

    The radiolabelled monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 has the property of binding to the CD20 antigen expressed on the cell surface of B-lymphocytes, thus making it a useful tool in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this work, the event-by-event Monte Carlo code NOREC is used to calculate the single-event distribution function f1(z) in the cell nucleus using the beta spectra of the 188Re and 131I radionuclides. The simulated geometry consists of two concentric spheres representing the nucleus and the cell surface embedded in a semi-infinite water medium. An isotropic point source was placed on the cell surface to simulate the binding of the anti-CD20 labelled with either 188Re or 131I. The simulations were carried out for two combinations of cell surface and nucleus radii. A method was devised that allows one to calculate the contribution of betas of energy greater than 1 MeV, which cannot be simulated by the NOREC code, to the single-event distribution function. It is shown that disregarding this contribution leads to an overestimation of the frequency-mean specific energy of the order of 9 12%. In general, the antibody radiolabelled with 131I produces single-event distribution functions that yield higher frequency-mean specific energies.

  17. Protonated sugars: vibrational spectroscopy and conformational structure of protonated O-methyl α-D-galactopyranoside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudić, Svemir; Xie, Hong-bin; Gerber, R. Benny; Simons, John P.

    2012-08-01

    'Bridging' protons provide a common structural motif in biological assemblies such as proton wires and proton-bound dimers. Here we present a 'proof-of-principle' computational and vibrational spectroscopic investigation of an 'intra-molecular proton-bound dimer,' O-methyl α-D-galactopyranoside (αMeGal-H+), generated in the gas phase through photo-ionisation of its complex with phenol in a molecular beam. Its vibrational spectrum corresponds well with a classical molecular dynamics simulation conducted 'on-the-fly' and also with the lowest-energy structures predicted by DFT and ab initio calculations. They reveal proton-bound structures that bridge neighbouring pairs of oxygen atoms, preferentially O6 and O4, linked together within the carbohydrate scaffold. Motivated by the possibility of an entry into the microscopic mechanism of its acid (or enzyme)-catalysed hydrolysis, we also report the corresponding predictions for its singly hydrated complex.

  18. A rapid and sensitive fluorimetric β-galactosidase assay for coliform detection using chlorophenol red-β-D-galactopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Clémence; Shek, Norman; White, Dawn; Bowers, Raymond J; Brown, R Stephen; Brennan, John D

    2014-09-01

    We report on a new fluorimetric assay for β-galactosidase (β-gal) and faecal coliform bacteria that utilizes a long-wavelength dye, chlorophenol red-β-D-galactopyranoside (CPRG), that has been widely used for colorimetric assays. The novel feature of this new assay is the unexpected development of a large fluorescence response from liberated chorophenol red (CPR) upon complexation with poly-L-arginine (pR) in solution. The binding of CPR to pR occurs through the sulphonate group of CPR, causing formation of a charge-transfer complex and up to a 70-fold increase in emission intensity. A major advantage of the assay is the ability to utilize excitation and emission wavelengths in the red end of the spectrum, which avoids common interferences obtained when using UV-absorbing dyes such as 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-galactopyranoside. We provide data on the utility of CPRG as a fluorimetric reporter for both β-gal and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and demonstrate optimized reaction conditions for rapid and sensitive detection of E. coli at a level of 1 colony-forming unit (cfu)/10 mL after 12 h of culture followed by a 1-h assay, which is below the regulatory limit for testing of recreational water.

  19. Hydrolytic activity of alpha-galactosidases against deoxy derivatives of p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Hakamata, W; Nishio, T; Oku, T

    2000-02-11

    The four possible monodeoxy derivatives of p-nitrophenyl (PNP) alpha-D-galactopyranoside were synthesized, and hydrolytic activities of the alpha-galactosidase of green coffee bean, Mortierella vinacea and Aspergillus niger against them were elucidated. The 2- and 6-deoxy substrates were hydrolyzed by the enzymes from green coffee bean and M. vinacea, while they scarcely acted on the 3- and 4-deoxy compounds. On the other hand, A. niger alpha-galactosidase hydrolyzed only the 2-deoxy compound in these deoxy substrates, and the activity was very high. These results indicate that the presence of two hydroxyl groups (OH-3 and -4) is essential for the compounds to act as substrates for the enzymes of green coffee bean and M. vinacea, while the three hydroxyl groups (OH-3, -4, and -6) are necessary for the activity of the A. niger enzyme. The kinetic parameters (K(m) and Vmax) of the enzymes for the hydrolysis of PNP alpha-D-galactopyranoside and its deoxy derivatives were obtained from kinetic studies.

  20. Second antibody clearance of /sup 131/I-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen for improved tumor imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, R.M.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have investigated the use of a second antibody (SA) directed against the radiolabeled primary anti-tumor antibody (PA) to enhance the clearance rate of the PA from the circulation and nontarget tissues. Administration of 50 or 250 ..mu..g of anti-goat IgG (SA) hr after the administration of 10 ..mu..g of /sup 131/I-goat anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody (PA) to hamsters bearing human colonic tumor xenografts resulted in a 5-fold reduction in the level of circulating PA after 4 hr in comparison to the control group only given /sup 131/I-PA. The percentage of PA in the blood decreased rapidly over 72 hr in animals given 250 ..mu..g of the SA, but at 50 ..mu..g of SA the level of activity in the blood after 24 hr was similar to the control. Tumor accretion was identical after 4 hr, but after 24 hr the animals given 250 ..mu..g of SA had 2-3 fold less PA in the tumor than either the control group or the 50 ..mu..g dose of SA. Tumor/nontumor ratios for all major organs but the spleen improved 6-8 fold within 48 hr after injection of 250 ..mu..g of the SA with tumor/blood ratios as high as 40:1. A SA dose of 50 ..mu..g resulted in a significantly higher tumor/blood ratio after only 4 hr; tumor/nontumor ratios at later times were similar to the control group. Tumors located in the hind legs were visible in all groups by imaging 24 hr after injection of the SA, but only the 250 ..mu..g dose of SA showed a significant reduction in total body activity. These results suggest that the SA approach may be used to reduce the total background radioactivity while maintaining tumor accretion of /sup 131/I-PA to allow for selective tumor imaging.

  1. Further studies of the turnover of dog antithrombin III. Study of /sup 131/I-labelled antithrombin protease complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, B.; Bies, R.; Carlson, T.; Reeve, E.B.

    1983-04-15

    Fresh plasma containing /sup 131/I-antithrombin III (*I-AT) was coagulated and incubated at 37 degrees C for 2 hr. A ''complex peak,'' separated on heparin-agarose contained AT and *I-AT antigen but no heparin cofactor activity. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis showed only AT complexes. SDS PAGE showed 80% of the *I-AT in a major band (approximately 80,000 daltons), 15% in a minor band (approximately 100,000 daltons) and the rest in trace bands (approximately 60,000 and/or 115,000 daltons). Ammonia treatment of the complex peak released alpha-thrombin. After i.v. injection 80% of the complexed *I-AT, chiefly as the major band, left the plasma with t 1/2 approximately 15 min and was almost immediately catabolized to low molecular weight breakdown products. A major catabolic site was the liver. A simple kinetic model describes the findings approximately.

  2. Diastereoselective synthesis of (R)-(alkyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside by using beta-galactosidase (Aspergillus oryzae) in low-water media.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Abir B; Singh, Bhupender; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2008-01-01

    A beta-galactosidase (from Aspergillus oryzae) preparation viz. EPRP (enzyme precipitated and rinsed with propanol), obtained by the removal of bulk water by precipitation with n-propanol, showed higher biological activity than the lyophilized powder. FT-IR study confirmed that EPRP had retained the alpha-helical content of the native structure better than the lyophilized form. Use of this formulation of beta-galactosidase under low water conditions (temperature 55 degrees C, reaction time of 4 h) gave enantioselectivity, E > 1000 for the stereoselective synthesis of (R)-(1-phenylethyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside, starting from racemic 1-phenylethanol and D-galactose. For racemic 2-octanol also, EPRP worked better. Under similar conditions, (R)-(2-octyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside was formed with an enantioselectivity, E = 38.

  3. Effects of rhamnocitrin 4-β-D-galactopyranoside, isolated from Astragalus hamosus on toxicity models in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Krasteva, Ilina; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2014-01-01

    Background: Astragalus hamosus L. (Fabaceae) is used in herbal medicine as emollient, demulcent, phrodisiac, diuretic, laxative, and good for inflammation, ulcers, and leukoderma. It is useful in treating irritation of the mucous membranes, nervous affections, and catarrh. Objective: Rhamnocitrin 4-β-D-galactopyranoside (RGP), isolated from A. hamosus, was investigated for its possible protective effect on different models of toxicity in vitro on sub-cellular and cellular level. Materials and Methods: The effects of RGP were evaluated on isolated rat brain synaptosomes, prepared by Percoll reagent and on rat hepatocytes, isolated by two-stepped collagenase perfusion. Results: In synaptosomes, RGP had statistically significant protective effect, similar to those of silymarin, on 6-hydroxy (OH)-dopamine-induced oxidative stress. These results correlate with literature data about protective effects of kempferol and rhamnocitrin on oxidative damage in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. In rat hepatocytes, we investigate the effect of RGP on two models of liver toxicity: Bendamustine and cyclophosphamide. In these models, the compound had statistically significant cytoprotective and antioxidant activity, similar to those of silymarin. Conclusion: According to these results, we can suggest that such cytoprotective effect of RGP might be due to an influence on bendamustine and cyclophosphamide metabolism in rat hepatocytes. In isolated rat hepatocytes, in combination with bendamustine and cyclophosphamide and in 6-OH-dopamine-induced oxidative stress in isolated rat synaptosomes, RGP, isolated from A. hamosus, was effective protector and antioxidant. The effects were closed to those of flavonoid silymarin-the classical hepatoprotector and antioxidant. PMID:25298664

  4. Imaging Hypoxia in Orthotopic Rat Liver Tumors with Iodine 124–labeled Iodoazomycin Galactopyranoside PET1

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Christopher C.; Brader, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Chun, Yun Shin; Woo, Yanghee; Singh, Paramjeet; Carlin, Sean; Wen, Bixiu; Ling, C. Clifton; Hricak, Hedvig; Fong, Yuman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate iodine 124 (124I)-labeled iodoazomycin galactopyranoside (IAZGP) positron emission tomography (PET) in the detection of hypoxia in an orthotopic rat liver tumor model by comparing regions of high 124I-IAZGP uptake with independent measures of hypoxia and to determine the optimal time after injection to depict hypoxia. Materials and Methods: The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. Morris hepatoma tumors were established in the livers of 15 rats. Tumor oxygenation was measured in two rats with a fluorescence fiberoptic oxygen probe. 124I-IAZGP was coadministered with the established hypoxia markers pimonidazole and EF5 in nine rats; 12-hour PET data acquisition was performed 24 hours later. Tumor cryosections were analyzed with immunofluorescence and autoradiography. In the four remaining rats, serial 20- and 60-minute PET data acquisition was peformed up to 48 hours after tracer administration. Results: Oxygen probe measurements showed severe hypoxia (<1 mm Hg) distributed evenly throughout tumor tissue. Analysis of cryosections showed diffuse homogeneous uptake of 124I-IAZGP throughout all tumors. The 124I-IAZGP distribution correlated positively with pimonidazole (r = 0.78) and EF5 (r = 0.76) distribution. Tracer uptake in tumors was detectable with PET after 24 hours in seven of nine rats. In rats that underwent serial PET, tumor-to-liver contrast was sufficient to enable detection of hypoxia between 6 and 48 hours after tracer administration. The optimal ratio between signal intensity and tumor-to-liver contrast occurred 6 hours after tracer administration. Conclusion: Regions of high 124I-IAZGP uptake in orthotopic rat liver tumors are consistent with independent measures of hypoxia; visualization of hypoxia with 124I-IAZGP PET is optimal 6 hours after injection. © RSNA, 2008 PMID:18641253

  5. Synthetic mucin fragments: synthesis of O-sulfo and O-methyl derivatives of allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D- galactopyranoside as potential compounds for sulfotransferases.

    PubMed

    Jain, R K; Piskorz, C F; Matta, K L

    1995-10-01

    Allyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galact opy ranoside (1) was condensed with either 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (2) or 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-6-O-bromoacetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (14) in the presence of mercuric cyanide. Selective substitution with methyl, sulfo or both at desired positions, followed by the removal of protecting groups, afforded allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-methyl-alpha -D- galactopyranoside (5), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6- O-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (10), allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-sulfo-alpha- D- galactopyranoside sodium salt (13), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (17) and allyl O-(3-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (22). The structures of compounds 5, 10, 13, 17 and 22 were established by 13C NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy. PMID:8529223

  6. Synthetic mucin fragments: synthesis of O-sulfo and O-methyl derivatives of allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D- galactopyranoside as potential compounds for sulfotransferases.

    PubMed

    Jain, R K; Piskorz, C F; Matta, K L

    1995-10-01

    Allyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galact opy ranoside (1) was condensed with either 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (2) or 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-6-O-bromoacetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (14) in the presence of mercuric cyanide. Selective substitution with methyl, sulfo or both at desired positions, followed by the removal of protecting groups, afforded allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-methyl-alpha -D- galactopyranoside (5), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6- O-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (10), allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-sulfo-alpha- D- galactopyranoside sodium salt (13), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (17) and allyl O-(3-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (22). The structures of compounds 5, 10, 13, 17 and 22 were established by 13C NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy.

  7. Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of 211At- and 131I-labelled monoclonal antibody MOv18 in nude mice with intraperitoneal growth of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersson, H; Palm, S; Lindegren, S; Bäck, T; Jacobsson, L; Leser, G; Horvath, G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of the alpha-emitter Astatine-211 with the beta-emitter Iodine-131 bound to the specific monoclonal antibody MOv18. The measurements were performed in an ovarian cancer cell line (NIH:OVCAR 3) growing intraperitoneally in nude mice. Two weeks after the intraperitoneal inoculation of 1 x 10(7) cells of the human ovarian cancer cell line NIH:OVCAR-3 twenty mice were treated intraperitoneally with the specific monoclonal antibody MOv-18 labelled with either 211At (310-400 kBq) or 131I (5100-6200 kBq). The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of labelled antibody in tumour-free animals were studied and the resulting bone marrow dose was estimated. When the mice were treated with 211At-labelled antibody 9 out of 10 mice were free of macro- and microscopic tumour compared to 3 out of 10 when Iodine-131 was used. The equivalent dose to the bone marrow was 2.4-3.1 Sv from 211At- and 3.4-4.1 Sv from 131I-irradiation. The therapeutic efficacy of 211At-labelled specific antibody is very good and, at approximately equivalent bone marrow doses, better than that of 131I. PMID:11299770

  8. A comparison of 67Cu- and 131I-labelled forms of monoclonal antibodies SEN7 and SWA20 directed against small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Zangemeister-Wittke, U; Waibel, R; Schenker, T; Schubiger, P A; Stahel, R A

    1994-01-01

    The intact anti-SCLC monoclonal antibody (MAb) SEN7 and its F(ab')2 were labelled with the beta-emitting isotope 67Cu. Both materials retained their biological activity in vitro as determined by the Lindmo assay. In a direct comparison of in vivo distribution in a xenograph model, 131I- and 67Cu-labelled intact SEN7 showed similar absolute tumour accumulation. Blood levels were markedly lower in the case of the 67Cu-labelled antibody, resulting in improved tumour:blood ratios which reached a maximum of 13:1 compared with only 4.5:1 for 131I-SEN7. In the case of the 67Cu-labelled F(ab')2, very high accumulation of the nuclide was observed in the kidney. Levels of radio copper in liver and spleen were also found to be significantly raised when compared with radio iodine. SWA20, a MAb which had previously failed to show any selective in vivo accumulation in tumour xenografts when labelled with radio iodine showed higher and more stable tumour accumulation when labelled with 67Cu.

  9. A structure-activity study on the sucrose taste antagonist methyl 4,6-dichloro-4,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Vlahopoulos, V; Jakinovich, W

    1986-09-01

    In order to assess the effect of the antagonist methyl 4,6-dichloro-4,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (MAD-diCl-Gal) upon the gerbil's chorda tympani sucrose taste response, we tested several concentrations of this compound, as well as single concentrations of closely related derivatives, and found that MAD-diCl-Gal was the most potent inhibitor tested. It appears that the inhibition mechanism is very specific. For example, we have found that 2 chlorine atoms at the C-4 and C-6 positions on the glucopyranoside ring are required for inhibition. In addition, with regard to the orientation of the chlorine atoms, the galacto derivative seems to be more potent than the gluco derivative. We have also found that the methyl glycoside is more potent than the free sugar. With regard to the orientation of the methyl group, MAD-diCl-Gal is more potent than its beta-anomer. (Because of this discovery of the methyl group enhancement and orientation effect, we shall discontinue using the acronym diCl-Gal and replace it with the more specific MAD-diCl-Gal.) Of particular significance is the fact that there appears to be a structure-activity relationship between the most active stimulants and inhibitors in that the requirement for an axial orientation at C-1 and the enhancement by the methyl group at that position are the same in both cases. These results suggest that both the stimulator and the antagonist are acting at the same receptor site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3746425

  10. Suppressive effects of quercetin-3-O-(6″-Feruloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through down-regulation of PPARγ and C/EBPα expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Li, Xiao-Fan; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Ya-Ou; Cai, Guo-Ping

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic, costly disease, and flavonoids such as quercetin have been proven to play protective roles against it. This study investigated the suppressive effect of quercetin-3-O-(6″-feruloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (QFG) on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Quercetin-3-O-(6″-feruloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside and quercetin were both extracted from Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae, commonly known as guava) leaves and were evaluated for their suppressive effect on adipogenesis by means of oil red O staining and triglyceride assay. It was shown that QFG inhibited adipogenesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it exerted a stronger effect than did quercetin at the same concentration. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were conducted to further examine the differentiation expression of marker genes and transcriptional factors. Both mRNA and protein expression of the key adipogenic transcriptional factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT (cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine)/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), were inhibited by QFG. Moreover, the mRNA expression patterns of key participants in the Wnt-β-catenin pathway were not altered during the QFG-induced adipogenesis inhibition. These results suggest that QFG effectively suppresses adipogenesis and that it exerts its role mainly through the significant down-regulation of PPARγ and C/EBPα and, probably, via a Wnt-β-catenin independent pathway.

  11. Synthetic mucin fragments. Benzyl O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1----3)-O-beta-D- galactopyranosyl-(1----3)-O-[(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyran osy l)- (1----6)]-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside and benzyl O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1----3)-O-beta-D- galactopyranosyl-(1----3)-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1----6)]-2-ac eta mido- 2-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R L; Abbas, S A; Matta, K L

    1988-12-01

    Treatment of benzyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside with 4-methoxybenzaldehyde dimethyl acetal in N,N-dimethylformamide in the presence of 4-toluenesulfonic acid afforded the 4,6-O-(4-methoxybenzylidene) acetal, which was glycosylated with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (1). Reductive ring-opening of the acetal group provided a 6-O-(4-methoxybenzyl) derivative (4) which was glycosylated with 1, followed by removal of the 4-methoxybenzyl ether group, to give benzyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3,4-di-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyran osyl)- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (7). The disaccharide diol 5, obtained from 4, and benzyl O-(2-acetamido-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1----3) -O- (2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1----3)-2-acetamido-2-deox y- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (11) were similarly glycosylated with 1 to afford a trisaccharide derivative 9 and a tetrasaccharide derivative 14, respectively. Diol 11 was also condensed with 2-methyl-(3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-1,2-di-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyrano)-[2, 1-d]-2- oxazoline to give a tetrasaccharide derivative 16. O-Deacetylation of trisaccharides 7 and 9, and tetrasaccharides 14 and 16 furnished trisaccharides 8 and 10, and the title tetrasaccharides 15 and 17, respectively. The structures of compounds 8, 10, 15, and 17 were established by 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy.

  12. Synthetic mucin fragments. Benzyl O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1----3)-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)-(1----6)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside and O-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl-(1----3)-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)-(1----6)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactopyranose.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R L; Rutan, J F; Abbas, S A; Matta, K L

    1989-06-15

    Benzyl 2-acetamido-6-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-4,6-O-isopropylidene-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)-2-deoxy-3,4-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (2) was obtained by acetalation of its parent disaccharide with 2,2-dimethoxypropane in hot N,N-dimethylformamide and in the presence of 4-toluenesulfonic acid. Glycosylation of 2 with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (catalyzed by mercuric cyanide), followed by removal of the protecting groups afforded the title trisaccharide 7. A second product was also isolated, which was identified as a derivative of 7 having a 2-cyanopropyl group. Glycosylation of diacetal 2 with 2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl bromide (under catalysis by bromide ion), followed by systematic removal of the protecting groups furnished the title trisaccharide 13. The structures of both 7 and 13 were established by 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy.

  13. 3-O-beta-D-Galactopyranoside of quercetin as an active principle from high altitude Podophyllum hexandrum and evaluation of its radioprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Raman; Arora, Rajesh; Sagar, Ravinder K; Singh, Shikha; Puri, Satish C; Kumar, Raj; Singh, Surender; Sharmaa, Ashok K; Prasada, Jagdish; Khan, Haider A; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Dhar, Kanaya Lal; Spiteller, Michael; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2005-01-01

    The aqueous-ethanolic extract (AEE) of high altitude Podophyllum hexandrum has earlier been reported to render a radioprotective effect against lethal gamma radiation in in vitro model. AEE has also been reported to possess metal chelating and DNA protecting properties. The present study was undertaken to isolate and characterize the bioactive principle present in AEE and investigate its role in radiation protection. A novel molecule was found to be present in AEE and was assigned as 3-O-beta-D-galactoside of quercetin by acid hydrolysis, LC-MS, LC-APCI-MS/MS and 13C NMR spectra. Various biological activities were investigated at in vitro level. The antioxidant potential of AEE in lipid and aqueous phase was determined against numerous stresses. AEE was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) protective, i.e., against Fe2+ and Cu2+-induced linoleic acid degradation, respectively. Radiation-induced lipid oxidation studies revealed that AEE maximally works at a [lignan]/0.25 kGy ratio 400 (ratio of concentration of AEE divided by the radiation dose, i.e., 0.25 kGy) and no drug-induced lipid oxidation at all concentrations tested was found. In a time-dependent study, total antioxidant activity was maximally exhibited at 1 mg/ml. The site-specific and non-site-specific deoxyribose degradation assay exhibited a dose-dependant hydroxyl scavenging potential of AEE (0.05-500 microg/ml). The anti-lipid peroxidation ability of AEE against radiation (0.25 kGy)-induced lipid peroxidation was higher in case of neural tissue homogenate as compared to kidney homogenate [activity ratio: 0.039 (brain) < 0.24 (kidney)]. The protein protection study using bovine serum albumin was also done for two time intervals (2 h and 4 h) and significant (p < 0.05) protection was observed at 500 microg/ml (> 97%). This study implies that 3-O-beta-D-galactoside present in AEE renders radioprotection by protecting lipids, proteins in renal and neural model system against supra-lethal (0.25 kGy) gamma radiation.

  14. Solid-phase extraction on C18 silica as a purification strategy in the solution synthesis of a 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside library.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, U J; Fournier, E J; Hindsgaul, O

    1998-09-01

    A novel strategy for the purification of carbohydrate-based chemical libraries synthesized in solution was developed. Purification of reaction products was accomplished by means of solid-phase extraction enabled by protecting the 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-hydroxyl groups of a galactose derivative as their hydrophobic O-laurates. The presence of multiple O-laurates allowed adsorption of reaction products onto C18 silica while reagents and by-products were washed away with MeOH. Products were quantitatively eluted with pentane. Purification of products using solid-phase extraction offers the combined advantages of solution synthesis (normal solution reactivity and ease of reaction monitoring) with those of solid-phase synthesis (facile product isolation permitting the use of large excesses of reagents). To demonstrate the utility of the hydrophobic recovery-procedure, tetra-O-lauroyl-beta-D-galactopyranose-1-thiol was subjected to high-yielding reactions with a panel of Michael-acceptors and an alpha-chloro ketone. The resulting ketone adducts were then either reduced to the alcohols or reductively aminated with a selection of amino acids to give 30 different 1-thio-beta-D-galactosides as mixtures of four diastereomers after removal of protecting groups. At each step, the product was separated from the reagents and their by-products by simple adsorption onto C18 silica, washing with MeOH and elution of product with pentane. After completion of the combinatorial chemistry sequence, the O-laurates were cleaved by methanolysis and the product methyl laurate in turn removed from the desired water-soluble products by C18 adsorption. Individual library members were thus conveniently produced on 10-30 mg scales at purity levels of > 90%. One of the 1-thio-beta-D-galactosides thus produced was found to be a competitive inhibitor of the beta-galactosidase from E. coli with Ki value of 1.7 microM.

  15. Thrombus imaging with indium-111 and iodine-131-labeled fibrin-specific monoclonal antibody and its F(ab')2 and Fab fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Rosebrough, S.F.; Grossman, Z.D.; McAfee, J.G.; Kudryk, B.J.; Subramanian, G.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.A.; Witanowski, L.S.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.; Urrutia, E.; Zapf-Longo, C.

    1988-07-01

    We have previously reported successful imaging of fresh (2-4 hr old) and aged (1-5 days old) canine thrombi with /sup 131/I-labeled intact monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for fibrin. We now report thrombus imaging with /sup 131/I-labeled F(ab')2 and Fab and /sup 111/In-labeled intact MAb, F(ab')2, and Fab. Indium-111-labeled F(ab')2 proved to be the best imaging agent due to less nonspecific binding in the liver than whole IgG. Image quality was improved by the higher administered dose permissible with /sup 111/In and its better physical characteristics for imaging, compared to /sup 131/I. Immunofluorescence of fresh human histologic sections showed intact MAb and F(ab')2 binding to thrombi, pulmonary emboli, and atherosclerotic plaques, strengthening the feasibility of clinical thrombus imaging.

  16. Role of a gitogenin-type steroidal saponin (3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside-25R,5α-spirostane-2α,3β-diol), isolated from the leaves of Malvastrum coromandelianum in regulating thyrotoxicosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sunanda; Kar, Anand

    2016-10-01

    The hitherto unknown role of saponin in the regulation of thyrotoxicosis has been revealed in chemically-induced thyrotoxic rats. l-T4 (l-thyroxine) administration at pre-standardized dose of 500-μg/kg body weight for 12days increased the levels of thyroid hormones, enhanced the activity of hepatic 5'-monodeiodinase I (5'DI) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6Pase) as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) with a parallel decrease in the levels of antioxidative enzymes. However, administration of the isolated saponin for 15days ameliorated the T4-induced alterations in serum thyroid hormones, hepatic LPO, G-6-Pase and 5'DI activity, and improved the cellular antioxidant status, indicating its antithyroidal and antioxidative potential. These effects of the test compound were comparable to a reference antithyroid drug, Propylthiouracil (PTU), suggesting that the test saponin may act as a potent anti-thyroid agent. PMID:27561715

  17. Age-related changes in endothelial permeability and distribution volume of albumin in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Belmin, J; Corman, B; Merval, R; Tedgui, A

    1993-03-01

    Age-related changes in macromolecular transport across the arterial wall were investigated in 10-, 20-, and 30-mo-old WAG/Rij rats. Animals were injected with 125I- and 131I-labeled albumin, 90 and 5 min before they were killed, respectively. The transmural distribution of relative concentration of tracers in the aortic wall was obtained using en face serial sectioning technique. The apparent endothelial permeability to albumin calculated from the distribution of 5-min 131I-labeled albumin concentrations was significantly enhanced in 20- and 30-mo-old rats compared with 10-mo-old rats. The apparent distribution volume of albumin within the media, estimated as the mean medial 125I-labeled albumin concentration, was not significantly changed in 20-mo-old rats but was significantly decreased in the 30-mo-old animals. These age-related changes in the macromolecular transport suggest that the entry of plasma macromolecules in the aged arterial wall might be enhanced, whereas the efflux through the media may be impeded, possibly contributing to their trapping in the subendothelium. PMID:8456970

  18. Generation and characterization of human monoclonal antibody HMD4 against ovarian carcinoma and the study of radioimmunoimaging in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, H N; Cui, H; Feng, J; Fu, T Y; Wei, P; Fu, Z Y

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes of patients with ovarian carcinoma were immortalized by fusing them with a nonsecreting cell line of murine myeloma (Sp2/0-Ag14). By early cloning and recloning a hybrid cell line, named HMD4, was established. It has secreted human IgG for more than 15 months stably. Chromosome analysis corresponded with the characterization of human-mouse hybridoma. Large quantities of ascites were obtained after hybrid cells injection into the primed nude mice. Human IgG of light chain was detected and purified from the ascites. Twenty-six of 43 (60.5%) epithelial ovarian cancers were positively stained with HMD4 by ABC immunoperoxidase methods while nonepithelial ovarian cancers and almost all benign tumors and normal tissues were negative. The molecular weight of the antigen recognized by HMD4 was 55KDa determined by Western blotting. 131I labeled HMD4 was administered intraperitoneally to nude mice bearing human ovarian epithelial adenocarcinoma; 131I labeled normal human IgG and normal murine IgG were used as controls. Measurements of T/NT and T/B ratios of 131I-HMD4 were done. Radioimaging showed HMD4 clearly localized on tumor regions at 48 and 72 hours and the biodistribution and metabolism of the labeled HMD4 corresponded with the images. The above results indicate that HMD4 was specific to ovarian carcinoma, a hopeful clue for clinical applications.

  19. Generation and characterization of human monoclonal antibody HMD4 against ovarian carcinoma and the study of radioimmunoimaging in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, H.N.; Cui, H.; Feng, J.; Fu, T.Y.; Wei, P.; Fu, Z.Y. )

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes of patients with ovarian carcinoma were immortalized by fusing them with a nonsecreting cell line of murine myeloma (Sp2/0-Ag14). By early cloning and recloning a hybrid cell line, named HMD4, was established. It has secreted human IgG for more than 15 months stably. Chromosome analysis corresponded with the characterization of human-mouse hybridoma. Large quantities of ascites were obtained after hybrid cells injection into the primed nude mice. Human IgG of light chain was detected and purified from the ascites. Twenty-six of 43 (60.5%) epithelial ovarian cancers were positively stained with HMD4 by ABC immunoperoxidase methods while nonepithelial ovarian cancers and almost all benign tumors and normal tissues were negative. The molecular weight of the antigen recognized by HMD4 was 55KDa determined by Western blotting. 131I labeled HMD4 was administered intraperitoneally to nude mice bearing human ovarian epithelial adenocarcinoma; 131I labeled normal human IgG and normal murine IgG were used as controls. Measurements of T/NT and T/B ratios of 131I-HMD4 were done. Radioimaging showed HMD4 clearly localized on tumor regions at 48 and 72 hours and the biodistribution and metabolism of the labeled HMD4 corresponded with the images. The above results indicate that HMD4 was specific to ovarian carcinoma, a hopeful clue for clinical applications.

  20. Blood volume determination in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Riches, A. C.; Sharp, J. G.; Thomas, D. Brynmor; Smith, S. Vaughan

    1973-01-01

    1. The blood volume of the mouse has been measured using 59Fe-labelled red cells to determine the red cell volume and 131I-labelled human serum albumin to determine the plasma volume. 2. Values for the blood volume of 95·0 ± 1·5, 96·3 ± 2·7 and 84·7 ± 1·2 ml./kg body wt. were found for CSI female, CBA female and CBA male mice respectively. 3. A marked discrepancy was observed between the venous (cardiac) haematocrit and the whole body haematocrit. 4. The blood volume of the mouse must be determined from the red cell volume and the plasma volume, measured using appropriate labels, and not from the red cell volume or the plasma volume using the venous haematocrit. PMID:4687099

  1. The volume of vascular compartment in rat hind limb muscles

    PubMed Central

    Law, R. O.; Phelps, C. F.

    1966-01-01

    1. A non-recirculatory perfusion system has been developed suitable for the perfusion of the hind limbs of small experimental animals. 2. By means of it a solution of T. 1824-labelled serum albumin has been introduced into the vascular compartment of the hind limbs of female rats under isogravimetric conditions. Excision and analysis of certain muscles has been used to provide information concerning the percentage distribution of the labelled albumin within these muscles. 3. Experiments have been carried out in vivo employing [131I]labelled serum albumin and [51Cr]labelled erythrocytes in order to compare the vascular volumes determined under in vivo conditions and in perfusions, and to estimate the capillary haematocrit in vivo. 4. The physiological validity of the methods used and the results obtained has been discussed. PMID:5972152

  2. Tissue distribution and radiation dosimetry of astatine-211-labeled chimeric 81C6, an alpha-particle-emitting immunoconjugate.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Stabin, M G; Larsen, R H; Bigner, D D

    1997-04-01

    A paired-label study was performed in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous D-54 MG human glioma xenografts to compare the localization of human/mouse anti-tenascin chimeric antibody 81C6 labeled by reaction with N-succinimidyl 3-[211At]astatobenzoate and N-succinimidyl 3-[131I]iodobenzoate. Over the 48-h observation period, the distribution of 211At- and 131I-labeled antibody were quite similar in tumor and normal tissues except stomach. These data were used to calculate human radiation doses for both intravenously and intrathecal administered 211At-labeled chimeric 81C6 using a quality factor of 5 for alpha-emissions.

  3. Albumin Metabolism in Rabbits and Rats with Transplanted Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Wraight, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Albumin distributions and turnover rates have been studied using 131I labelled tracer material in rabbits with Vx2 carcinoma and rats bearing SP7 fibrosarcoma in comparison with control animals. Albumin concentrations were reduced in the tumour bearing animals but plasma volumes increased as the tumours developed. Relative increases were seen in the extravascular distribution of albumin, due partly to albumin pooling in and around the tumours and possibly also to general increases in capillary permeability. In the rats there was a considerable increase in the catabolic rate of albumin which was not related to urinary protein loss. The tumour bearing rabbits showed evidence both of increased catabolism and of decreased synthesis and the combination of the two effects resulted in a greater lowering of albumin concentration than was seen in the rats. Possible mechanisms for these findings and their significance in human malignant disease are discussed. PMID:5115834

  4. Lysosomal localization of β-fructofuranosidase-containing liposomes injected into rats. Some implications in the treatment of genetic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gregoriadis, Gregory; Ryman, Brenda E.

    1972-01-01

    Yeast β-fructofuranosidase (invertase) or 131I-labelled albumin were entrapped into liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and phosphatidic acid. Of the β-fructofuranosidase activity in the liposomal preparations 96–100% was latent. The following observations were made in experiments with rats injected with protein-containing liposomes. 1. After injection of β-fructofuranosidase-containing liposomes (220 units or 1.5mg of β-fructofuranosidase and 17.5mg of lipid), β-fructofuranosidase activity in blood retained its latency but the activity declined to 50% of the injected dose in 1h. Within 6h much of this activity was recovered in the liver and spleen (respectively 45% and 10% of that injected). For up to 21h after injection, the mitochondrial–lysosomal fraction was the principal location of the hepatic β-fructofuranosidase activity. 2. Lysosomal localization of liposomal protein was supported by the observed increase in the trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity during incubation of the lysosome-rich fraction of the liver of rats injected with liposomes containing 131I-labelled albumin. 3. Association of liposomal protein with lysosomes was demonstrated on subfractionation of the mitochondrial–lysosomal fraction of the liver of rats injected with β-fructofuranosidase-containing liposomes in a Ficoll–mannitol gradient. β-Fructofuranosidase, lysosomal and mitochondrial enzyme marker activities were found to exhibit similar distribution patterns along the gradient. However, in similar experiments with rats previously injected with Triton WR-1339 or dextran (known to alter the specific gravity of lysosomes), only β-fructofuranosidase and lysosomal marker moved along the gradient, in strikingly similar patterns. 4. The lysosomal localization of injected liposome-entrapped material can probably be utilized in the treatment of certain disorders in man. PMID:4646772

  5. Toxicity, immunogenicity, and tumor radioimmunodetecting ability of two human monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Steis, R.G.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; McCabe, R.; Bookman, M.A.; Reynolds, J.C.; Larson, S.M.; Smith, J.W. 2d.; Clark, J.W.; Dailey, V.; Del Vecchio, S. )

    1990-03-01

    Two human immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), 16.88 and 28A32, which react with cytoplasmic (28A32 and 16.88) or cell surface (28A32) determinants on human colon carcinoma cells, were administered intravenously to 26 patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma to determine if they could localize to sites of metastatic disease, if they had any antitumor or toxic effects, and to determine whether they would elicit an antihuman MoAb response. Serial scans showed tumor uptake of radioisotope in 12 of 16 patients receiving 131I-labeled 28A32 and in nine of 12 patients receiving 131I-labeled 16.88. No antitumor effects were seen with either antibody. No antibody-related toxic effects were observed following administration of 16.88, but two patients developed localized urticarial reactions following injection with antibody 28A32. No patient developed an antibody response to 16.88. Anti-28A32 reactivity was found in five of 12 (42%) normal sera and in seven of 23 (30%) patients before receiving any antibody. Following administration of 28A32, a low titer (1:10 dilution) of anti-28A32 developed in four patients with no preexisting antibody, a decrease in the preexisting titer was seen in three other patients, the titer remained constant in one patient, and no anti-28A32 was ever detected in six patients. In most cases, anti-28A32 activity was lost at dilutions greater than 1:10 and did not appear to affect antibody half-life in the serum or whole body retention of the antibody. We conclude that these human IgM MoAbs are capable of localizing at sites of disease in vivo, are nontoxic, and are poorly immunogenic in humans. Further studies to determine the specificity of targeting and to improve the delivery of antibody to sites of tumor are indicated.

  6. Exocellular components of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: identification of a specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Puccia, R; Schenkman, S; Gorin, P A; Travassos, L R

    1986-01-01

    Yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis grown in liquid medium produced exocellular components. Immunodiffusion reactions and immunoprecipitations of 131I-radiolabeled antigenic components with sera from patients having paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) were used to monitor the isolation of specific constituents. Components having the main antigenic activity (fCon A) were isolated by exclusion from a Bio-Gel P30 column, followed by successive binding of eluted material to a Sepharose-concanavalin A column, and elution. The product contained, from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, a minor 43,000-molecular-weight (MW) component (gp43), a polydisperse high-MW glycoconjugate, and a diffusely migrating 55,000-MW glycoprotein (gp55). Other components, including a 72,000-MW glycoprotein, were irregularly expressed. The high-MW glycoconjugate complex contained, on the basis of methylation and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data, a branched structure of mainly mannopyranosyl units. These were nonreducing ends, 6-O-, 2-O-, and 2,6-di-O-substituted, and the specific rotation of +16 degrees indicated that the glycosidic configurations of the units were alpha and beta in a ratio of ca. 1:1 (concanavalin A binding indicated that nonreducing ends or 2-O-substituted units or both of alpha-D-mannopyranose were present). A small proportion of nonreducing end units of D-galactopyranose were also present in this polysaccharide. gp55 is a glycoprotein containing a complex carbohydrate moiety with fucose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, either as terminal nonreducing units or substituted in positions indicated by methylation data. Both PCM and normal human sera precipitated the high-MW glycoconjugate from 131I-labeled fCon A preparations, whereas gp55 was unreactive with human sera. gp43 was a specific antigenic component of P. brasiliensis culture filtrates which could be isolated in a pure form by gel filtration column chromatography (Sephadex G150

  7. Use of chlorotoxin for targeting of primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Soroceanu, L; Gillespie, Y; Khazaeli, M B; Sontheimer, H

    1998-11-01

    Gliomas are primary brain tumors that arise from differentiated glial cells through a poorly understood malignant transformation. Although glioma cells retain some genetic and antigenic features common to glial cells, they show a remarkable degree of antigenic heterogeneity and variable mutations in their genome. Glioma cells have recently been shown to express a glioma-specific chloride ion channel (GCC) that is sensitive to chlorotoxin (CTX), a small peptide purified from Leiurus quinquestriatus scorpion venom [N. Ullrich et al, Neuroreport, 7: 1020-1024, 1996; and N. Ullrich and H. Sontheimer, Am. J. Physiol. (Cell Physiol.), 270: C1511-C1521, 1996]. Using native and recombinant 125I-labeled CTX, we show that toxin binding to glioma cells is specific and involves high affinity [dissociation constant (Kd)=4.2 nM] and low affinity (Kd=660 nml) binding sites. In radioreceptor assays, 125I-labeled CTX binds to a protein with Mr=72,000, presumably GCC or a receptor that modulates GCC activity. In vivo targeting and biodistribution experiments were obtained using 125I- and (131)I-labeled CTX injected into severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing xenografted gliomas. CTX selectively accumulated in the brain of tumor-bearing mice with calculated brain: muscle ratios of 36.4% of injected dose/g (ID/g), as compared to 12.4% ID/g in control animals. In the tumor-bearing severe combined immunodeficient mice, the vast majority of the brain-associated radioactivity was localized within the tumor (tumor:muscle ratio, 39.13% ID/g; contralateral brain:muscle ratio, 6.68%ID/g). Moreover, (131)I-labeled CTX distribution, visualized through in vivo imaging by gamma ray camera scans, demonstrates specific and persistent intratumoral localization of the radioactive ligand. Immunohistochemical studies using biotinylated and fluorescently tagged CTX show highly selective staining of glioma cells in vitro, in situ, and in sections of patient biopsies. Comparison tissues including

  8. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Su, Lan; Chen, Gang; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Huan; Liu, Ying-Xue; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2009-01-01

    Five new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were fully established by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as (23S,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-24-one-3beta,23-diol-3-O-{alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (24S,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,24-diol-3-O-{alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (2), 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostan-2alpha,3beta,22alpha,26-tetraol-3-O-{beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (3), 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostan-20(22)-en-2alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-{beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furostan-12-one-22-methoxy-3beta,26-diol-3-O-{alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (5). The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytostatic activity against HL-60 cells.

  9. Antibody production in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

    PubMed Central

    Coe, J. E.; Peel, L. F.

    1970-01-01

    Serum antibody was found by radioimmunoelectrophoresis (RIEP) in thirty-one of thirty-five bullfrogs (BF) immunized with one of four protein antigens. Rabbit γ-globulin (RGG) and hen egg albumin were the best antigens, whereas human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin induced a less consistent immune response. Although a IgM to IgG sequence of antibody production usually was detected with RGG as antigen, a similar sequence was infrequent with the other antigens and the initial response was usually a IgG antibody. IgM antibody was detected in the serum for a prolonged interval (>100 days) and precipitating quantities of IgG antibody were found more than 1 year after antigen inoculation. As measured by haemagglutination, the IgM antibody was routinely inactivated by mercaptoethanol (ME) treatment and IgG antibody was frequently inactivated by ME, although it still had antigen binding capacity by RIEP. IgG hemagglutinins, which were resistant to ME treatment, were found in some sera obtained from BF after booster injections of antigen. Immunoelectrophoretic examination of normal or immune BF sera revealed a prominent precipitin line of slow γ-mobility which did not bind 131I-labelled antigen but did bind 59Fe. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4097586

  10. Experimental radioimmunotherapy of a xenografted human colonic tumor (GW-39) producing carcinoembryonic antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenberg, D.M.; Gaffar, S.A.; Bennett, S.J.; Beach, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Experiments were undertaken to evaluate the antitumor effects of 131I-labeled goat antibody immunoglobulin G prepared against carcinoembryonic antigen in hamsters bearing the carcinoembryonic antigen-producing GW-39 human colonic carcinoma. At a single injection of 1 mCi 131I and higher, a marked growth inhibition of GW-39 tumors, as well as a considerable increase in the survival time of the tumor-bearing hamsters, could be achieved. At a dose of 1 mCi, the radioactive affinity-purified antibody appeared to be superior to radioactive normal goat immunoglobulin G in influencing tumor growth and survival time, but no significant difference could be seen at the higher dose of 2 mCi given. Radiobiological calculations indicated that the tumors received, at up to 20 days after therapy, 1325 rads for the specific antibody and only 411 rads for the normal immunoglobulin G preparation. These findings encourage the further evaluation of antibodies to tumor markers for isotopic cancer therapy.

  11. Intravenous administration of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor in patients of PiZ and PiM phenotype. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, K.M.; Smith, R.M.; Spragg, R.G.; Tisi, G.M.

    1988-06-24

    Nine patients with moderate pulmonary emphysema, six of PiZ phenotype and three of PiM phenotype, have received a single intravenous infusion of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (human) (A1PI), in a dose of 60 mg/kg over a 30-minute period. They also received a tracer dose (300 microCi) of /sup 131/I-labeled A1PI. No active or passive immunization against hepatitis was given. No acute toxicity was observed. Compared with baseline data, significant elevations of serum A1PI (measured both antigenically and as anti-elastase activity) occurred, with a serum half-life approximating 110 hours. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, obtained 48 hours after infusion, reflected a significant increase in A1PI concentration versus baseline bronchoalveolar lavage fluid values. Serial gamma camera images of the lungs confirmed persistence of enhanced lung radioactivity for several days. Urinary desmosine excretion did not change following A1PI infusion. During the period of follow-up thus far, no patient has had chronic toxicity, results of liver function tests have been stable, and there has been no development of hepatitis B antigen or antibodies to hepatitis B surface or core antigens.

  12. Synthesis, radioiodination and in vivo screening of novel potent iodinated and fluorinated radiotracers as melanoma imaging and therapeutic probes.

    PubMed

    Maisonial, Aurélie; Billaud, Emilie M F; Besse, Sophie; Rbah-Vidal, Latifa; Papon, Janine; Audin, Laurent; Bayle, Martine; Galmier, Marie-Josèphe; Tarrit, Sébastien; Borel, Michèle; Askienazy, Serge; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Moins, Nicole; Auzeloux, Philippe; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Chezal, Jean-Michel

    2013-05-01

    In order to develop new iodinated and fluorinated matched-pair radiotracers for Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)/Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma, we successfully synthesized and radiolabelled with iodine-125 seven new derivatives, starting from our previously described lead structure 3. The relevance of these radiotracers for gamma scintigraphic imaging of melanoma in rodent was assessed. The tumoural radioactivity uptake was most often high and specific even at early time points (12.1-18.3% ID/g at 3 h p.i. for [(125)I]39-42) and a fast clearance from the non-target organs was observed. Also, calculated effective doses that could be delivered to tumours when using corresponding [(131)I]-labelled analogues were generally higher than 100 cGy/MBq injected (98.9-150.5 cGy/MBq for [(131)I]39-42). These results make compounds 39-42 suitable candidates for (i) PET imaging of melanoma after labelling with fluorine-18 and (ii) targeted radionuclide therapy of disseminated melanoma after labelling with iodine-131.

  13. Methods of assessment of thrombosis in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of platelets and clotting factors in thrombosis on injured vessel and cardiovascular prostheses have been quantified with several tracers. Thrombus formation in vivo could be measured semiquantitatively in animal models and humans with /sup 111/In-labeled platelets, /sup 123/I- and /sup 131/I-labeled fibrinogen, /sup 111/In-labeled antibody to the fibrinogen receptor on the platelet membrane and to fibrin. Thrombus localization by imaging was possible for large thrombus in vessel with deep injury of thrombogenic surface in the acute phase. A single layer of adherent platelets could not be imaged, due to the high background radioactivity present in blood. Thrombogenicity of grafts was compared with that of contralateral vessel. The dynamic process of platelet deposition could be followed accurately using the in vivo imaging technique. In addition, in vitro quantification permits determination of platelet and fibrin density and of the number of fibrin monomers per platelet in thrombus. The roles of prostacyclin, thromboxane inhibitors, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs have also been evaluated in animals models and humans. The tracer techniques thus provide invaluable information about platelet-fibrin deposition, its organization and dissolution, and for development of less thrombogenic surfaces for use in cardiovascular prostheses. 53 references.

  14. Behaviour of 125I-fibrinogen and 131I-albumin in experimental galactosamine-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mahn, I; Merkel, H; Sattler, E L; Müller-Berghaus, G

    1977-01-01

    The turnover of 125I-labelled fibrinogen and 131I-labelled albumin was studied in the course of galactosamine-induced hepatitis in rabbits. In addition to galactosamine, some animals were treated with epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) to inhibit the activation of the fibrinolytic system. The infusion of galactosamine and EACA caused generation of fibrin-rich microclots in the renal glomerular capillaries in seven out of 12 rabbits. Correspondingly, the incorporation of 125I-radioactivity into liver, spleen, and kidneys was pronounced in galactosamine- and EACA-treated rabbits compared with control animals treated with EACA. An acceleration of the 125I-fibrinogen elimination from the plasma was observed between eight and 12 hours after the start of the galactosamine infusion. The administration of heparin in addition to galactosamine and EACA prevented the occurrence of intravascular coagulation, but shortened the survival times of the animals because of bleeding into visceral organs. The elimination of 131I-albumin in plasma as well as the distribution of 131I-radioactivity in organs were similar in all the rabbits independent of the treatment with galactosamine, EACA, or heparin. The experiments indicate that, in addition to diminished synthesis of coagulation factors, disseminated intravascular coagulation is involved in galactosamine-induced hepatitis and contributes to the haemostatic disorder. PMID:873336

  15. Pharmacokinetic studies of mouse monoclonal antibodies to a rat colon carcinoma: I. Comparison of biodistribution in normal rats, syngeneic tumor-bearing rats, or tumor-bearing nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, J.; Douillard, J.Y.; Burg, C.; Lizzio, E.F.; Ridge, J.; Levenbook, I.; Hoffman, T. )

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of two iodine-131-({sup 131}I) labeled murine anti-rat colon carcinoma monoclonal antibodies (D3 and E4) were compared in normal Sprague Dawley rats, syngeneic BDIX rats, or nude mice bearing that tumor. Results of antibody uptake after i.v. administration were analyzed in terms of accumulation and localization indices for normal tissues and tumor. Statistically significant differences between rat and mouse tissue biodistribution were found. D3, which reacts in vitro with the tumor and several normal rat tissues, cleared quickly from the blood of rats and was specifically targeted to several normal tissues, notably the lung. Virtually no targeting to the tumor was observed. Nude mice, however, showed a slower blood clearance and specific antibody targeting only in the tumor. Similar results were seen after injection of another antibody, E4, which is tumor-specific in vitro. Data suggest that studies on the xenogeneic nude mouse model may not necessarily be relevant to the choice of monoclonal antibodies for clinical diagnostic imaging or therapy.

  16. Disialoganglioside G(D2) loss following monoclonal antibody therapy is rare in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kramer, K; Gerald, W L; Kushner, B H; Larson, S M; Hameed, M; Cheung, N K

    1998-09-01

    Ganglioside GD2 is abundant on human neuroblastoma (NB). Monoclonal antibody 3F8 targeted to GD2 may have imaging and therapeutic potential. Antigen-negative clones can escape immune-mediated attack, leading to clinical resistance or recurrence. Among 95 evaluable patients treated i.v. with 3F8 (94 stage 4 and 1 stage 3), 66 received nonradiolabeled 3F8, 11 received 131I-labeled 3F8 (8-28 mCi/kg) with autologous bone marrow rescue, and 18 received both forms of treatment. Prior to treatment, 91 patients tested positive for GD2 reactivity by bone marrow immunofluorescence (n = 68), tumor immunohistochemistry (n = 20), or diagnostic radioimmunoscintigraphy only (n = 3). Of 62 patients who had refractory or recurrent NB following 3F8 treatment, 61 (98%) tested positive for GD2 reactivity by bone marrow immunofluorescence (n = 51) or tumor immunohistochemistry (n = 10). The sole tumor that lost GD2 expression underwent phenotypic transformation into a pheochromocytoma-like tumor. The persistence of GD2 expression in refractory or recurrent NB suggests that complete antigen loss is an uncommon event and cannot account for treatment failure.

  17. Reabsorption kinetics of albumin from pleural space of dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Miniati, M.; Parker, J.C.; Pistolesi, M.; Cartledge, J.T.; Martin, D.J.; Giuntini, C.; Taylor, A.E.

    1988-08-01

    The reabsorption of albumin from the pleural space was measured in eight dogs receiving 0.5 ml intrapleural injection of /sup 131/I-labeled albumin and a simultaneous intravenous injection of /sup 125/I-labeled albumin. Plasma curves for both tracers were obtained over 24 h. The /sup 125/I-albumin curve served as input function of albumin for interstitial spaces, including pleura, whereas the /sup 131/I-albumin curve represented the output function from pleural space. The frequency function of albumin transit times from pleural space to plasma was obtained by deconvolution of input-output plasma curves. Plasma recovery of /sup 131/I-albumin was complete by 24 h, and the mean transit time from pleura to plasma averaged 7.95 +/- 1.57 (SD) h. Albumin reabsorption occurred mainly via lymphatics as indicated by experiments in 16 additional dogs in which their right lymph ducts or thoracic ducts were ligated before intrapleural injection. A pleural lymph flow of 0.020 +/- 0.003 (SD) ml.kg-1.h-1 was estimated, which is balanced by a comparable filtration of fluid into the pleural space. This suggests that, under physiological conditions, the subpleural lymphatics represent an important control mechanism of pleural liquid pressure.

  18. Preclinical evaluation of 67Cu-labeled intact and fragmented anti-colon carcinoma monoclonal antibody MAb35.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Alberto, R; Blaeuenstein, P; Novak-Hofer, I; Maecke, H R; Schubiger, P A

    1993-12-01

    The anti-carcinoembryonic antigen murine monoclonal antibody MAb35 and its F(ab')2 fragment were labeled with 131I or the potential therapeutic nuclide 67Cu. In vivo distribution patterns were compared in nude mice bearing human tumor xenografts by coinjection of the 131I- and 67Cu-labeled materials, thereby minimizing variations due to xenograft and host animal. The results showed that the 67Cu-labeled intact MAb35 achieved twice the percentage of injected dose/g tumor when compared to its 131I-labeled counterpart, without significant impairment of the wholebody distribution pattern. However, this effect was not evident in the case of F(ab')2, where high uptake of 67Cu was found in the kidney without any enhancement of accumulation in the target xenografts. To investigate the underlying causes of the different distribution patterns observed, iodine labeling was also performed using a more stable linkage, and the results indicated that the observed differences cannot be explained by simple deiodination of conventionally labeled preparations. We conclude that the intact form of the 67Cu-labeled antibody may be superior to the F(ab')2 fragment for use in our intended clinical studies. Our continuing work on the processing of radiometal-labeled F(ab')2 fragments, at the systemic and cellular level, will hopefully lead to a strategy to circumvent the problem of high kidney accumulation.

  19. Chlorotoxin-Conjugated Multifunctional Dendrimers Labeled with Radionuclide 131I for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging and Radiotherapy of Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingzhou; Zhu, Jingyi; Cheng, Yongjun; Xiong, Zhijuan; Tang, Yueqin; Guo, Lilei; Shi, Xiangyang; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-09-01

    Chlorotoxin-conjugated multifunctional dendrimers labeled with radionuclide 131I were synthesized and utilized for targeted single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of cancer. In this study, generation five amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were used as a platform to be sequentially conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), targeting agent chlorotoxin (CTX), and 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid-OSu (HPAO). This was followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines and radiolabeling with 131I to form the targeted theranostic dendrimeric nanoplatform. We show that the dendrimer platform possessing approximately 7.7 CTX and 21.1 HPAO moieties on each dendrimer displays excellent cytocompatibility in a given concentration range (0-20 μM) and can specifically target cancer cells overexpressing matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) due to the attached CTX. With the attached HPAO moiety having the phenol group, the dendrimer platform can be effectively labeled with radioactive 131I with good stability and high radiochemical purity. Importantly, the 131I labeling renders the dendrimer platform with an ability to be used for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of an MMP2-overexpressing glioma model in vivo. The developed radiolabeled multifunctional dendrimeric nanoplatform may hold great promise to be used for targeted theranostics of human gliomas.

  20. Radioimmunoimaging of pneumocystis carinii infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Shane, L.B.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Lipszyc, H.; Walzer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinil pneumonia (PCP) is seen in patients with impaired immunity due to chemotherapeutic suppression or to a primary disorder, congenital or AIDS. Although radiogallium imaging has been helpful in the workup of PCP, it is non-specific. Since there is no early specific non-invasive method to diagnose PCP, the authors are developing an imaging technique using radiolabeled antibodies. Fulminant PCP was induced in rats by injecting cortisone, 20mg 2-3 times/wk for 8 wks. PC cells isolated from rat lung were injected into rabbits. The antiserum thus derived was separated and purified using Protein-A bound sepharose column with identification of IgG by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both rabbit antipneumocystis antibodies and purified IgG(Sigma) were iodinated with I-131 to a high specific activity (3-5..mu..Ci/ug) using a lactoperoxidase method. /sup 131/I-labeled specific and non-specific IgG were injected into rats with PC infection and imaged with an Anger camera. After sacrifice, I-131 activity/gram tissue (lung, liver, heart) was determined and expressed as organ ratios. An increased uptake of specific antibody in lungs of rats with PCP was demonstrated by organ counting and imaging. This increase was not seen in normal controls or rats injected with non-specific IgG. These data provide a basis for radioimmunoimaging of infectious diseases.

  1. 131I-Zn-Chlorophyll derivative photosensitizer for tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ocakoglu, Kasim; Er, Ozge; Kiyak, Guven; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Gunduz, Cumhur; Kayabasi, Cagla

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, the photodynamic therapy studies have gained considerable attention as an alternative method to surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which is commonly used to fight cancer. In this study, biological potentials of a benzyloxy bearing zinc(II) pheophorbide-a (Zn-PH-A) were investigated via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Zn-PH-A was labeled with (131)I with high efficiency (95.3 ± 2.7%) and its biodistribution studies were investigated on female Albino Wistar rats. The radiolabeled photosensitizer had been intravenously injected into the tail vein, and then the animals were sacrificed at 30, 60 and 120 min post injection. The percent of radioactivity per gram of organs (%ID/g) was determined. The radiolabeled Zn-PH-A showed high uptake in ovary. In addition, photodynamic therapy studies of the photosensitizer were conducted in EMT6, murine mammary carcinoma and HeLa, human cervix carcinoma cell lines. For the photodynamic therapy studies, the cells with Zn-PH-A were exposed to red light (650 nm) at the doses of 10-30 J/cm(2). The results showed that Zn-PH-A has stronger PDT effect in EMT6 than HeLa cell. Our present work demonstrates (131)I-labeled photosensitizer as a bifunctional agent (PDT and nuclear imaging) which could be improved in future by using EMT6 growing tumor in nude mice.

  2. The value of immunoscintigraphy for the operative retreatment of colorectal cancer. Limitations of a new diagnostic method

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelting, T.S.; Schlag, P.; Steinbaecher, M.K.; Kretzschmar, U.; Georgi, P.; Herfarth, C. )

    1989-08-15

    In 42 patients with suspected recurrent colorectal cancer, results of conventional diagnostic methods were compared with those of immunoscintigraphy. In 69% of all cases, the intraoperative findings of a second-look operation served for validation, whereas in 31% close follow-up was used. Recurrent tumors were successfully localized in 83% of patients by conventional methods, whereas immunoscintigraphy was expressive in 57% of cases. Immunoscintigraphy was disappointing especially because of its low sensitivity (23%) and low predictive value (positive, 33%; negative, 37%) with regard to successful diagnosis of extrahepatic tumors compared with the results of conventional methods (77% sensitivity; positive, 94%; negative, 79%). The rate of false-positive results was relatively high with immunoscintigraphy (n = 12), 83% of which were related to extrahepatic recurrent tumors. The value of immunoscintigraphy using an immunococktail of 131-I-labeled F(ab')2 fragments of monoclonal antibodies against CEA, with Ca 19-9 as an additional diagnostic tool for early detection of recurrent colorectal cancer, must therefore be viewed critically.

  3. Sandmeyer reaction repurposed for the site-selective, non-oxidizing radioiodination of fully-deprotected peptides: studies on the endogenous opioid peptide α-neoendorphin.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Julie E; Nagakura, Kunihiko; Pasternak, Anna R; Grinnell, Steven G; Majumdar, Susruta; Lewis, Jason S; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2013-08-01

    Standard radioiodination methods lack site-selectivity and either mask charges (Bolton-Hunter) or involve oxidative reaction conditions (chloramine-T). Opioid peptides are very sensitive to certain structural modifications, making these labeling methods untenable. In our model opioid peptide, α-neoendorphin, we replaced a tyrosyl hydroxyl with an iodine, and in cell lines stably expressing mu, delta, or kappa opioid receptors, we saw no negative effects on binding. We then optimized a repurposed Sandmeyer reaction using copper(I) catalysts with non-redoxing/non-nucleophilic ligands, bringing the radiochemical yield up to around 30%, and site-selectively incorporated radioactive iodine into this position under non-oxidizing reaction conditions, which should be broadly compatible with most peptides. The (125)I- and (131)I-labeled versions of the compound bound with high affinity to opioid receptors in mouse brain homogenates, thus demonstrating the general utility of the labeling strategy and of the peptide for exploring opioid binding sites. PMID:23796454

  4. Imatinib Analogs as Potential Agents for PET Imaging of Bcr-Abl/c-KIT Expression at a Kinase Level

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhenghong; Maxwell, David S.; Sun, Duoli; Bhanu Prasad, Basvoju A.; Pal, Ashutosh; Wang, Shimei; Balatoni, Julius; Ghosh, Pradip; Lim, Seok T.; Volgin, Andrei; Shavrin, Aleksander; Alauddin, Mian M.; Gelovani, Juri G.; Bornmann, William G.

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized two series of imatinib mesylate (STI-571) analogs to develop a Bcr-Abl and c-KIT receptor-specific labeling agent for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to measure Bcr-Abl and c-KIT expression levels in a mouse model. The methods of molecular modeling, synthesis of STI-571 and its analogs, in vitro kinase assays, and radiolabeling are described. Molecular modeling revealed that these analogs bind the same Bcr-Abl and c-KIT binding sites as those bound by STI-571. The analogs potently inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr-Abl and c-KIT, similarly to STI-571. [18F]-labeled STI-571 was prepared with high specific activity (75 GBq/μmol) by nucleophilic displacement and an average radiochemical yield of 12%. [131I]-labeled STI-571 was prepared with high purity (>95%) and an average radiochemical yield of 23%. The uptake rates of [18F]-STI-571 in K562 cells expressing Abl and in U87WT cells overexpressing c-KIT were significantly higher than those in the U87 cell and could be inhibited by STI-71 (confirming the specificity of uptake). PET scans of K562 and U87WT tumor-bearing mice with [18F]-STI-571 as a contrast agent showed visible tumor uptake and tumor-to-non-target contrast. PMID:24280068

  5. A physiological systems model for iodine for use in radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for iodine in the human body and proposes a biokinetic model for use in dose assessments for radioiodine. The model unifies and extends existing physiological systems models describing three subsystems of the iodine cycle in the body: circulating (extrathyroidal) inorganic iodide; thyroidal iodine (trapping and organic binding of iodide, and synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones); and extrathyroidal organic iodine. Thyroidal uptake of iodide is described as a function of daily stable iodine intake and requirements for thyroid hormones. Baseline parameter values are developed for adults with typical iodine intakes and hormone requirements. Estimated thyroid doses derived from the baseline parameter values and reference thyroid weights are higher than values predicted by the current model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for adults for intake of iodine isotopes with half-lives up to a few hours but consistent with ICRP predictions for longer-lived isotopes. For nearly all iodine isotopes, the proposed model yields order-of-magnitude differences from the ICRP s current iodine model for adults for stomach wall, salivary gland, and kidneys. Dose estimates for intravenously injected 131I-labeled thyroid hormones based on the present model differ substantially from current ICRP values for adult patients for some organs, including the thyroid. Subsequent studies will address age-specific biokinetics of iodine, reduction of doses from radioiodine due to thyroid blocking, and effects of dietary iodine levels and thyroid hormone requirements on thyroid doses from radioiodine.

  6. Hepatic apo B-100 lipoproteins and plasma LDL heterogeneity in African green monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, V.N.; Marzetta, C.A.; Rudel, L.L.; Zech, L.A.; Foster, D.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The contribution of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 lipoproteins to plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolic heterogeneity was examined in African green monkeys. Hepatic 3H-labeled very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) (d less than 1.006, where d is density in g/ml) or hepatic 131I-labeled LDL (1.030 less than d less than 1.063) were isolated from perfused livers and injected simultaneously with autologous plasma 125I-LDL into African green monkeys. Serial blood samples were taken, and the distribution of radioactivity among various subfractions of apo B-100 lipoproteins was determined using density-gradient ultracentrifugation. Compartmental models were developed to describe simultaneously the kinetics of hepatic lipoproteins and plasma LDL. In five of seven studies, the metabolic behavior of LDL derived from radiolabeled hepatic lipoprotein precursors differed from the metabolic behavior of radiolabeled autologous plasma LDL. These differences could be described by different models supporting two hypotheses with different physiological interpretations: (1) lipoproteins of donor and recipient animals are kinetically distinct, and/or (2) plasma LDL derived from various potential sources are kinetically distinct. Compartmental modeling was used to test these hypotheses, which were not accessible to testing by conventional experimental methodologies. The kinetic analyses of these studies suggest that plasma LDL may be derived from a variety of precursors, including hepatic VLDL and hepatic LDL, with each source giving rise to metabolically distinct plasma LDL.

  7. Tumor immunoscintigraphy by means of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies: Multicenter studies of the Italian National Research Council--Special Project Biomedical Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Siccardi, A.G. )

    1990-02-01

    Four radioimmunopharmaceuticals ({sup 99m}Tc- and 111In-labeled anti-melanoma and {sup 111}In- and {sup 131}I-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen F(ab')2 fragments derived from monoclonal antibodies 225.28S and F023C5) were developed by means of a collaborative effort coordinated by the Italian National Research Council, Special Project Biomedical Engineering. After appropriate pilot studies, the radioimmunopharmaceuticals, prepared by Sorin Biomedica (Saluggia, Italy), were distributed to 31 Nuclear Medicine departments in Italy and in 10 other European countries within the framework of three immunoscintigraphy multicenter studies. A total of 1245 patients were studied, 898 of whom carried 1725 documented tumor lesions; 1596 of 2193 tumor lesions (468 of which were previously unknown) were imaged by immunoscintigraphy in 785 of 990 lesion-bearing patients. Among the occult lesions, 173 were imaged in 92 patients admitted to the study as lesion-free patients. The results have been analyzed in terms of the reliability, reproducibility, and diagnostic usefulness of the method and of each immunoradiopharmaceutical.

  8. Uptake and depuration of 131I by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea: uptake from seawater.

    PubMed

    Vives i Batlle, J; Wilson, R C; McDonald, P; Parker, T G

    2005-01-01

    Uptake and depuration experiments for the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea have been performed using 131I-labelled seawater. Throughout the experimental phase the winkles were fed on unlabelled Chondrus crispus. 131I concentrations in winkles during uptake followed linear first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 11 days, whereas for depuration a triphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 4, 23 and 56 days was determined. In general, iodine turnover in winkles via labelled seawater appears to be slower than observed for other molluscs (2-3 days). Most of the activity prior to and after depuration is found to be in the shell, with indications that shell and soft parts accumulate and depurate 131I at a similar rate. The operculum displays the highest specific activity of all fractions with a concentration factor of 750 l kg(-1). Concentration factors for whole winkle, shell, soft parts and digestive gland are in the order of 40-60 l kg(-1), higher than the IAEA recommended CF value for iodine in molluscs of 10 l kg(-1). The 131I CF in winkles is closer to that of the conservative radionuclides 99Tc and 137Cs than the CF of the particle reactive radionuclides (239,240)Pu and 241Am. PMID:15465179

  9. Astatine-211 labeling of internalizing anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody using N-succinimidyl 5-[211At]astato-3-pyridinecarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Reist, C J; Foulon, C F; Alston, K; Bigner, D D; Zalutsky, M R

    1999-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) such as the anti-epidermal growth factor variant III (EGFRvIII) MAb L8A4 are rapidly internalized, which can lead to rapid loss of radioactivity from the tumor cell. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential utility of N-succinimidyl 5-[211At]astato-3-pyridinecarboxylate ([211At]SAPC) for labeling murine L8A4 with 211At. SAPC was synthesized by astatodestannylation of N-succinimidyl 5-tri-n-butylstannyl 3-pyridinecarboxylate and then coupled to L8A4 in approximately 50% yield. The affinity and immunoreactive fraction for 211At-labeled L8A4 were comparable to those obtained when the MAb was labeled with 131I via N-succinimidyl 5-[131I]iodo-3-pyridinecarboxylate (SIPC). Paired-label comparisons of the 211At- and 131I-labeled MAbs demonstrated similar internalization and catabolism by EGFRvIII-positive cells in vitro, and with the exception of the stomach, similar tissue distribution in athymic mice with EGFRvIII-expressing U87MGdeltaEGFR xenografts. These results suggest that SAPC may be a useful reagent for labeling L8A4, and possibly other internalizing proteins, with 211At.

  10. Radioimmunodetection of cancer with monoclonal antibodies: current status, problems, and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.L.; Unger, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    Early studies of immunoscintography with affinity-purified /sup 131/I-labeled polyclonal antibodies reactive against oncofetal antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were moderately successful in detecting metastatic colorectal carcinoma. However, because of low tumor to background ratios of isotope, background subtraction techniques using /sup 99/Tc-labeled albumin were required to visualize small lesions. Antisera were often of low titer and lacked specificity. These problems could be overcome for the most part following the development of highly specific monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against a variety of tumor-associated antigens. A number of clinical trials using /sup 131/I- or /sup 111/In-labeled MoAb to image tumors have demonstrated successful localization without the use of subtraction techniques. Variables limiting the usefulness of murine MoAb for diagnosis have included increased localization in liver and spleen, tumor vascularity and heterogeneity of antigen expression, and development of human antimurine globulins. Methods to overcome some of these problems are discussed. Radiolabeled MoAb appear useful as an adjunct to conventional diagnostic techniques both as a means to predict which antibodies might be useful for treatment and, in select patients, as a basis for treatment decisions. 163 references.

  11. The effects of Bordetella pertussis vaccine on cerebral vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Amiel, S A

    1976-12-01

    The effect of Bordetella pertussis vaccine on the cerebral vascular permeability in the mouse was studied by a radio-isotope method (131I-labelled HSA). Intravenous injection of 4 x 1010 heat-killed pertussis organisms caused a measurable increase in permeability in normal mice. Cryoinjury to the cerebral hemispheres resulted in a striking increase in vascular permeability at 24 h. This declined within 48 h and stabilized at a level fractionally higher than normal at 7 days ("healed lesion"). When pertussis organisms were injected into mice bearing ("healed lesion"). When pertussis organisms were injected into mice bearing "healed lesions" the increase in permeability was similar in magnitude to that in uninjured brain. The effect was increased by a second administration of pertussis 24 h after the first. The action of pertussis on a newly inflicted cryoinjury was protective. It is suggested that permeability changes in the cerebral vessels may be involved in the evolution of the encephalopathy attributed to the use of Bordetella pertussis vaccine in man.

  12. Clinical studies on the radioimmunodetection of tumors containing alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, D M; Kim, E E; Deland, F; Spremulli, E; Nelson, M O; Gockerman, J P; Primus, F J; Corgan, R L; Alpert, E

    1980-05-15

    This study reports the use of radiolabeled antibodies to alpha-fetoprotein for the detection and localization of hepatocellular and germ cell carcinomas. Twelve patients with histories of histologically-confirmed neoplasia received a total dose between 1.0 and 4.4 mCi of 131I-labeled goat IgG prepared against human alpha-fetoprotein. Total-body photoscans were taken with a gamma scintillation camera at various intervals after injection of the radioactive antibody. Computer subtraction of radioactive technetium background images from the antibody 131I scans permitted the visualization of all tumor sites known to be present in 4 patients with either primary hepatocellular cancer or metastatic germ cell carcinoma of the testis. In contrast to the results with the specific antibody, radioactive normal goat IgG given to one of these patients with metastatic embryonal carcinoma of the testis failed to show equivalent localization. Among 8 patients with diverse neoplasms not believed to contain alpha-fetoprotein, 5 of 19 tumor sites showed radioactive antibody accretion, although significantly less than in the patients with liver or testicular cancer. Circulating antigen levels of up to 15,000 ng per milliliter did not prevent successful tumor imaging after intravenous injection of the radioantibody. This investigation indicates that alpha-fetoprotein-containing tumors can be detected and localized in vivo by the method of radioimmunodetection.

  13. Clinical studies on the radioimmunodetection of tumors containing alpha-fetoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenberg, D.M.; Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.; Spremulli, E.; Nelson, M.O.; Gockerman, J.P.; Primus, F.J.; Corgan, R.L.; Alpert, E.

    1980-05-15

    This study reports the use of radiolabeled antibodies to alpha-fetoprotein for the detection and localization of hepatocellular and germ cell carcinomas. Twelve patients with histories of histologically-confirmed neoplasia received a total dose between 1.0 and 4.4 mCi of /sup 131/I-labeled goat IgG prepared against human alpha-fetoprotein. Total-body photoscans were taken with a gamma scintillation camera at various intervals after injection of the radioactive antibody. Computer subtraction of radioactive technetium background images from the antibody /sup 131/I scans permitted the visualization of all tumor sites known to be present in 4 patients with either primary hepatocellular cancer or metastatic germ cell carcinoma of the testis. Among 8 patients with diverse neoplasms not believed to contain alpha-fetoprotein, 5 of 19 tumor sites showed radioactive antibody accretion, although significantly less than in the patients with liver or testicular cancer. This investigation indicates that alpha-fetoprotein-containing tumors can be detected and localized in vivo by the method of radioimmunodetection.

  14. Iodophenylpentadecanoic acid-myocardial blood flow relationship during maximal exercise with coronary occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.H.; Martin, G.V.; Link, J.M.; Krohn, K.A.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Imaging {sup 123}I-labeled iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) uptake and clearance from the myocardium following exercise has been advocated as a means of detecting myocardial ischemia because fatty acid deposition is enhanced and clearance prolonged in regions of low flow. However, normal regional myocardial blood flows are markedly heterogeneous, and it is not known how this heterogeneity affects regional metabolism or substrate uptake and thus image interpretation. In five instrumented dogs running at near maximal workload on a treadmill, {sup 131}I-labeled IPPA and 15-micron 46Sc microspheres were injected into the left atrium after 30 sec of circumflex coronary artery occlusion. Microsphere and IPPA activity were determined in 250 mapped pieces of myocardium of approximately 400 mg. Myocardial blood flows (from microspheres) ranged from 0.05 to 7.6 ml/min/g. Deposition of IPPA was proportional to regional flows (r = 0.83) with an average retention of 25%. The mean endocardial-epicardial ratio for IPPA (0.90 {plus minus} 0.43) was similar to that for microspheres (0.94 {plus minus} 0.47; p = 0.08). Thus, initial IPPA deposition during treadmill exercise increases in proportion to regional myocardial blood flow over a range of flows from very low to five times normal.

  15. 131I-Zn-Chlorophyll derivative photosensitizer for tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ocakoglu, Kasim; Er, Ozge; Kiyak, Guven; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Gunduz, Cumhur; Kayabasi, Cagla

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, the photodynamic therapy studies have gained considerable attention as an alternative method to surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which is commonly used to fight cancer. In this study, biological potentials of a benzyloxy bearing zinc(II) pheophorbide-a (Zn-PH-A) were investigated via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Zn-PH-A was labeled with (131)I with high efficiency (95.3 ± 2.7%) and its biodistribution studies were investigated on female Albino Wistar rats. The radiolabeled photosensitizer had been intravenously injected into the tail vein, and then the animals were sacrificed at 30, 60 and 120 min post injection. The percent of radioactivity per gram of organs (%ID/g) was determined. The radiolabeled Zn-PH-A showed high uptake in ovary. In addition, photodynamic therapy studies of the photosensitizer were conducted in EMT6, murine mammary carcinoma and HeLa, human cervix carcinoma cell lines. For the photodynamic therapy studies, the cells with Zn-PH-A were exposed to red light (650 nm) at the doses of 10-30 J/cm(2). The results showed that Zn-PH-A has stronger PDT effect in EMT6 than HeLa cell. Our present work demonstrates (131)I-labeled photosensitizer as a bifunctional agent (PDT and nuclear imaging) which could be improved in future by using EMT6 growing tumor in nude mice. PMID:26226337

  16. Crystal structure of lactose permease in complex with an affinity inactivator yields unique insight into sugar recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Chaptal, Vincent; Kwon, Seunghyug; Sawaya, Michael R.; Guan, Lan; Kaback, H. Ronald; Abramson, Jeff

    2011-08-29

    Lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) with a single-Cys residue in place of A122 (helix IV) transports galactopyranosides and is specifically inactivated by methanethiosulfonyl-galactopyranosides (MTS-gal), which behave as unique suicide substrates. In order to study the mechanism of inactivation more precisely, we solved the structure of single-Cys122 LacY in complex with covalently bound MTS-gal. This structure exhibits an inward-facing conformation similar to that observed previously with a slight narrowing of the cytoplasmic cavity. MTS-gal is bound covalently, forming a disulfide bond with C122 and positioned between R144 and W151. E269, a residue essential for binding, coordinates the C-4 hydroxyl of the galactopyranoside moiety. The location of the sugar is in accord with many biochemical studies.

  17. New pregnane and steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Chen, Gang; Yi, Guo-Qing; Xu, Jian-Kun; Zhang, Tian-Long; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2010-03-01

    Three new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as 16beta-(4'-methyl-5'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-pentanoxy)-5alpha-pregn-3beta-ol-12,20-dione-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-pregn-16-en-20-one 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostan-20(22)-en-2alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (3).

  18. Acylated anthocyanins from the blue-violet flowers of Anemone coronaria.

    PubMed

    Saito, Norio; Toki, Kenjiro; Moriyama, Hidekazu; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2002-06-01

    Five polyacylated anthocyanins were isolated from blue-violet flowers of Anemone coronaria 'St. Brigid'. They were identified as delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside]-7-O-[6-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-3'-O-[beta-D-glucuronopyranoside], and its demalonylated form, delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(2-O-tartaryl)malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside]-7-O-[6-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-3'-O-[beta-D-glucuronopyranoside], and its cyanidin analog as well as delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(2-O-(tartaryl)malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside]-7-O-[6-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside].

  19. Two new steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wu, Biao; Chen, Gang; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2010-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as (23S,24R,25R)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (1) and (23S,24R,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (2).

  20. Two new furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Tun-Hai; Zhou, Hai-Ou; Li, Bo; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Si, Yun-Shan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Two new furostanol saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-3beta,26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence.

  1. Furostanol saponins from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Su, Lan; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Haifeng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis and colour reaction as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostane-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1); 26-O-β- D-glucopyranosyl-25(R)-5α-furostan-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2).

  2. Glycosidase profiles of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Kämpfer, P; Rauhoff, O; Dott, W

    1991-01-01

    A total of 712 strains representing 47 taxa of the family Enterobacteriaceae were tested for the ability to hydrolyze 14 4-methylumbelliferyl (4-MU)-linked substrates within 3 h of incubation. In addition to the well-known differentiation potential of the hydrolysis of 4-MU-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 4-MU-beta-D-glucuronide, and 4-MU-beta-D-xylopyranoside, the hydrolysis of some other fluorogenic substrates (e.g., 4-MU-beta-D-fucopyranoside, 4-MU-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide, and 4-MU-alpha-D-galactopyranoside) can also be used for species differentiation within the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:1757564

  3. NEW MEDIUM FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF TOTAL COLIFORMS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN WATER (PUBLISHED ERRATUM APPEARS IN APP ENVIRON MICROBIOL 1993 DEC;59(12):4378)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new membrane filter agar medium (MI agar) containing a chromogen, indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide, and a fluorogen, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was developed to simultaneously detect and enumerate Escherichia coli and total coliforms (TC) in water samples on the b...

  4. A new flavonoside from Leonurus heterophyllus.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yue; Wang, Jin-Hui; Li, Xian

    2005-06-01

    In a chemical investigation on the flavone composition of Leonurus heterophyllus a new flavonoside has been isolated. By means of physico-chemical evidences and spectral analysis its structure has been established as quercetin-3-O-[3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-(1-->6)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1).

  5. Recombinant anti-tenascin antibody constructs

    SciTech Connect

    ZALUTSKY, MICHAEL R

    2006-08-29

    The general objective of this research is to combine genetically derived molecular constructs reactive with tenascin, with appropriate radionuclides and labeling methods in order to generate more effective diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for oncologic nuclear medicine. Tenascin, a polymorphic extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is of interest because of its high expression on glioma, melanoma, as well as prostate and breast carcinoma. Recently, we have also documented high levels of tenascin in lymphomas, particularly those of higher grade, making the potential clinical impact of tenascin-specific radiodiagnostics and therapeutics even greater. An essential feature of our work plan is the ability to exploit our extensive clinical experience in order to design second-generation constructs with properties which could improve clinical efficacy. To date, we have treated over 150 brain tumor patients with 131I-labeled murine 81C6, an antibody which binds specifically to the alternatively spliced fibronectin type III repeats CD of the tenascin molecule. During the current grant period, we have made several observations which form the basis for our proposed specific aims. First, tissue distribution and catabolism experiments in animal models have demonstrated enhanced stability for a chimeric construct composed of murine variable regions and human IgG2 constant domains. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic studies in patients with 131I-labeled chimeric 81C6 have shown significantly longer retention in glioma tumor resection cavities compared with its murine parent. Second, we have initiated the first clinical trial of an endoradiotherapeutic labeled with the 7.2-hr -particle emitter 211At. Twelve glioma patients have received 211At-labeled chimeric 81C6 directly into their brain tumor resection cavity, and very encouraging results have been obtained. Now that the feasibility of human studies with 211At, has been demonstrated, the development and evaluation of anti

  6. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.H.; Casper, S.; Corgan, R.L.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-03-15

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with /sup 131/I at a total dose of at least 1.0 ..mu..Ci. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the /sup 131/I-labeled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with /sup 131/I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the apparent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures.

  7. Process of iodination of thyroglobulin and its maturation. I. Properties and distribution of thyroglobulin labeled with radioiodine in pig thyroid slices.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, S; Hosoya, T

    1979-04-01

    Pig thyroid slices were incubated with Na131I and the 17--19S 131I-labeled thyroglobulin isolated was subjected to dissociation with 0.3 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS) on sucrose density gradient centrifugation and to iodoamino acid analysis. During the incubation, initially dissociable thyroglobulin was gradually altered to 0.3 mM SDS-resistant species with increasing incorporation of iodine. Microsome-bound, poorly iodinated thyroglobulin and preformed thyroglobulin were chemically iodinated and then subjected to analysis of dissociability and iodoamino acid contents with newly incorporated iodine. The results indicated that the behavior of the former thyroglobulin resembled that of 131I-thyroglobulin obtained from the slices. Then, thyroid slices were incubated for 3 min with Na131I and 3H-leucine with or without 10-min chase incubation. The sucrose density gradient centrifugation patterns of 131I and 3H-radioactivity of cytoplasmic extracts indicated that 131I-thyroglobulin is contained in particulates, especially in vesicles with low density(d=1.12) and that some of them are released into the soluble fraction within 10 min. The vesicles contained peroxidase and NADH-cytochrome c reductase, and are probably exocytotic vesicles in the apical area of cytoplasm of follicular cells. No positive evidence was obtained that plasma membranes participate in the iodination of thyroglobulin under the present experimental conditions. These results suggest that, in the incubation of thyroid slices, iodine atoms are preferentially incorporated into newly synthesized, less iodinated thyroglobulin, rather than preformed thyroglobulin, and that the iodination occurs, at least to a certain degree, in apical vesicles before the thyroglobulin is secreted into the colloid lumen. PMID:457625

  8. Lithium clearance in mineralocorticoid escape in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, W.H.; Koomans, H.A.; Mees, E.J.D.

    1987-03-01

    Lithium clearance (C/sub Li/) has been advanced as an indicator of Na delivery from the proximal tubules. The authors studied C/sub Li/ in eight healthy males before and after mineralocorticoid escape, a maneuver that may induce suppression of fractional proximal Na reabsorption (FPR/sub Na/). FPR/sub Na/ was also estimated from changes in maximal free water clearance (C/sub H/sub 2/O/). Plasma volume was measured as the /sup 131/I-labeled albumin distribution space. Extracellular fluid volume was estimated as the /sup 82/Br vector distribution volume. According to the latter method, FPR/sub Na/ dropped whereas inulin clearance rose. The changes in C/sub Li/ were surprisingly large. If lithium is a valid marker of Na handling in the proximal tubule in humans, this change would imply a fall in FPR/sub Na/, suggesting a much larger shift in tubular Na reabsorption in escape than hitherto suspected. In addition, it would suggest that the inevitable back diffusion of a part of the solute-free water in the distal nephron, and thus overestimation of FPR/sub Na/ by the C/sub H/sub 2/O/ method, increases importantly during escape. Alternately, lithium may not be a good marker of proximal tubular Na handling. For instance, both lithium reabsorption and escape may take place beyond the proximal tubule, or lithium may be excreted in the distal nephron in certain conditions. Present methods do not permit further analysis of these options in the human model.

  9. Modulation of hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes in diabetic rats by dietary myo-inositol

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Santarelli, E.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Sherman, W.R.; Williamson, J.R. )

    1990-03-01

    To assess the potential of myo-inositol-supplemented diets to prevent diabetes-induced vascular functional changes, we examined the effects of diets supplemented with 0.5, 1, or 2% myo-inositol on blood flow and vascular filtration function in nondiabetic control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes (STZ-D). After 1 mo of diabetes and dietary myo-inositol supplementation, (1) 131I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) permeation of vessels was assessed in multiple tissues, (2) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated as renal plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA, (3) regional blood flows were measured with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres, and (4) endogenous albumin and IgG urinary excretion rates were quantified by radial immunodiffusion assay. In STZ-D rats, 131I-BSA tissue clearance increased significantly (2- to 4-fold) in the anterior uvea, choroid-sclera, retina, sciatic nerve, aorta, new granulation tissue, diaphragm, and kidney but was unchanged in skin, forelimb muscle, and heart. myo-Inositol-supplemented diets reduced diabetes-induced increases in 131I-BSA clearance (in a dose-dependent manner) in all tissues; however, only in new granulation tissue and diaphragm did the 2% myo-inositol diet completely normalize vascular albumin permeation. Diabetes-induced increases in GFR and in urinary albumin and IgG excretion were also substantially reduced or normalized by dietary myo-inositol supplements. Increased blood flow in anterior uvea, choroid-sclera, kidney, new granulation tissue, and skeletal muscle in STZ-D rats also was substantially reduced or normalized by the 2% myo-inositol diet. myo-Inositol had minimal if any effects on the above parameters in control rats.

  10. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach. Annual report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    We plan to extend our success in treating B cell malignancies with {sup 131}I labeled Lym-1 by a major effort in therapy with {sup 67}Cu Lym-1. Yttrium-90 labeled by a macrocycle, DOTA will be studied in patients as a continuation of the {sup 111}In-BAD (DOTA) Lym-1 studies. Excellent images and pharmacokinetics of the {sup 111}In-BAD(DOTA)-Lym-1 studies. Lymphomas and related diseases represent a special case for radioimmunotherapy because of their documented radiosensitivity and immunodeficiency, and thus offer a unique opportunity to conduct therapeutic feasibility studies in a responsive human model. Using marine and chimeric L6 and other MoAb to breast cancer, we have applied the strategies that were developed in taking Lym-1 antibody from the bench to the patient. We have examined a number of monoclonal antibodies for treatment of breast cancer and chose chimeric L6 for prototype studies because of certain characteristics. The chemistry of attachment of conjugates to antibodies and their impact on immunological targeting biological activities (cytotoxicity), metabolic fate, and therapeutic index will continue to be a major strength and function of this program. This grant has supported the conception, synthesis, and development of the first macrocylic, bifunctional chelating agent TETA (6-p-nitrobenzyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazatetradecane-N,N{prime},N{double_prime}, N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and its derivatives, including Lym-1-2IT-BAT), for use in Cu-67-based radioimmunodiagnosis and therapy. This work has led to the further development of several new macrocylic bifunctional chelating agents for copper, indium, yttrium and other metals. In addition, successful Cu-67 labelings of Lym-1-2IT-BAT for human radiopharmaceutical have shown patient pharmacokinetics of {sup 67}Cu-BAT(TETA)-Lym-1 with promising therapeutic dosimetry.

  11. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    SciTech Connect

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    We plan to extend our success in treating B cell malignancies with {sup 131}I labeled Lym-1 by a major effort in therapy with {sup 67}Cu Lym-1. Yttrium-90 labeled by a macrocycle, DOTA will be studied in patients as a continuation of the {sup 111}In-BAD (DOTA) Lym-1 studies. Excellent images and pharmacokinetics of the {sup 111}In-BAD(DOTA)-Lym-1 studies. Lymphomas and related diseases represent a special case for radioimmunotherapy because of their documented radiosensitivity and immunodeficiency, and thus offer a unique opportunity to conduct therapeutic feasibility studies in a responsive human model. Using marine and chimeric L6 and other MoAb to breast cancer, we have applied the strategies that were developed in taking Lym-1 antibody from the bench to the patient. We have examined a number of monoclonal antibodies for treatment of breast cancer and chose chimeric L6 for prototype studies because of certain characteristics. The chemistry of attachment of conjugates to antibodies and their impact on immunological targeting biological activities (cytotoxicity), metabolic fate, and therapeutic index will continue to be a major strength and function of this program. This grant has supported the conception, synthesis, and development of the first macrocylic, bifunctional chelating agent TETA (6-p-nitrobenzyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazatetradecane-N,N{prime},N{double prime}, N{prime}{double prime}-tetraacetic acid and its derivatives, including Lym-1-2IT-BAT), for use in Cu-67-based radioimmunodiagnosis and therapy. This work has led to the further development of several new macrocylic bifunctional chelating agents for copper, indium, yttrium and other metals. In addition, successful Cu-67 labelings of Lym-1-2IT-BAT for human radiopharmaceutical have shown patient pharmacokinetics of {sup 67}Cu-BAT(TETA)-Lym-1 with promising therapeutic dosimetry.

  12. Sulfhydryl site-specific cross-linking and labeling of monoclonal antibodies by a fluorescent equilibrium transfer alkylation cross-link reagent.

    PubMed

    del Rosario, R B; Wahl, R L; Brocchini, S J; Lawton, R G; Smith, R H

    1990-01-01

    The site-specific intramolecular cross-linking of sulfhydryls of monoclonal antibodies via a new class of "equilibrium transfer alkylation cross-link (ETAC) reagents" is described. Following complete or partial reduction of interchain disulfides with dithiothreitol (DTT), two murine IgG2a monoclonal antibodies, 225.28S and 5G6.4, were reacted with alpha,alpha-bis[(p-tolylsulfonyl)methyl]-m-aminoacetophenone (ETAC 1a) and a fluorescent conjugated derivative, sulforhodamine B m-(alpha,alpha-bis(p-tolysulfonylmethyl)acetyl)anilide derivative (ETAC 1b). Reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the products from 1b indicated the formation of S-ETAC-S interchain heavy and light chain cross-links (approximately 23-34% overall yield by video-camera densitometry) which do not undergo disulfide-thiol exchange with DTT at 100 degrees C. In contrast, no interchain cross-links were observed upon reaction of unreduced or reduced antibody wherein the thiols have been previously alkylated with iodoacetamide. These results indicated site-specific cross-linking of interchain sulfhydryls and places their distance within 3-4 A. Flow cytometry of the ETAC 1b 5G6.4 cross-linked product using 77 IP3 human ovarian carcinoma target cells showed positive binding and retention of immunoreactivity. The in vivo biodistributions of 131I-labeled intact 5G6.4 and 125I-labeled reduced 5G6.4 + ETAC 1a product in rats were essentially identical over a period of 24 h. The present study illustrates the potential applications of labelable ETAC reagents as thiol-specific probes for a wide variety of immunological studies. PMID:2128870

  13. Carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunodetection in the evaluation of colorectal cancer and in the detection of occult neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenberg, D.M.; Kim, E.E.; Bennett, S.J.; Nelson, M.O.; Deland, F.H.

    1983-03-01

    Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer was evaluated in 51 patients by injecting /sup 131/I-labeled goat antibody immunoglobulin G against carcinoembryonic antigen and performing total-body photoscans with a gamma scintillation camera 24 and 48 h later. The scintigrams were then processed by computer to subtract the images of the /sup 99m/Tc-serum albumin and pertechnetate administered, which reflect background and nontarget radioactivity, from the /sup 131/I-antibody scans. The results indicate that radioimmunodetection is a safe and a potentially clinically useful cancer detection method, which in this study demonstrated primary colorectal carcinomas in 10 of 12 (83%) of the patients evaluated preoperatively and between 87% (46 of 53) and 92% (49 of 53) of known metastatic tumor sites. Thus, the method's overall sensitivity (true-positive rate) was 86%-91% on a tumor-site basis. A false-negative rate of between 9% and 14% and a false-positive rate of less than 4% were found. In 11 of the 51 patients evaluated, tumor sites were detected that were not found by other clinical methods of cancer detection. These sites of tumor were then confirmed later, as much as 40 wk after radioimmunodetection was performed. It is concluded that in colorectal cancer patients, the current method of carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunodetection can contribute to the preoperative clinical staging of the patients, assist in the postoperative evaluation of tumor recurrence or spread, complement other methods used to assess tumor response to therapy, support the indication of a rising carcinoembryonic antigen titer (when other methods cannot detect tumor) for second-look surgery, and confirm the findings of other detection measures that are less tumor-specific.

  14. Comparative tissue distribution in mice of the alpha-emitter 211At and 131I as labels of a monoclonal antibody and F(ab')2 fragment.

    PubMed

    Garg, P K; Harrison, C L; Zalutsky, M R

    1990-06-15

    Because it decays by the emission of short-range, high-energy alpha-particles, the radiohalogen 211At might be a particularly useful nuclide for some types of radioimmunotherapy. However, no suitable gamma-emitting nuclide of astatine exists which would permit either imaging prior to therapy to obtain radiation dosimetry estimates or performing experiments in paired-label format. Since iodine is the halogen above astatine in the periodic table, we investigated whether the in vivo distribution of 131I could be used to mimic the biodistribution of 211At. In this study, the N-succinimidyl 3-(trialkylstannyl)benzoate method was used to label C110 IgG, an antibody directed against carcinoembryonic antigen, and its (Fab')2 fragment with 211At and 131I. Paired-label experiments were performed in normal mice comparing the tissue distribution of 211At- versus 131I-labeled C110 IgG and F(ab')2 as well as [211At]astatide versus [131I]iodide and m-[211At]astatobenzoic acid versus m-[131I]iodobenzoic acid, potential catabolites of proteins radiohalogenated via the N-succinimidyl 3-(trialkylstannyl)benzoate method. With the exception of thyroid, retention of astatide in tissues was higher than that of iodide; and, with the halobenzoic acids, uptake of 211At was higher than 135I in thyroid, stomach, and spleen. Use of the N-succinimidyl 3-(trialkylstannyl)benzoate method to label C110 IgG with 211At and 131I resulted in similar distributions of the two nuclides. In contrast, loss of 211At from the F(ab')2 fragment was considerably more rapid than 131I, suggesting that different astatination methods may be required for use with F(ab')2 fragments. PMID:2340501

  15. Molecularly Targeted Therapy of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Xenografts with Radio-iodinated Anti-VEGFR2 Murine-Human Chimeric Fab

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianfei; Tang, Qi; Wang, Changjun; Yu, Huixin; Feng, Zhenqing; Zhu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is traditionally regarded as an important therapeutic target in a wide variety of malignancies, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously generated a murine-human anti-VEGFR2 chimeric Fab (cFab), named FA8H1, which has the potential to treat VEGFR2-overexpressing solid tumors. Here, we investigated whether FA8H1 can be used as a carrier in molecularly targeted therapy in HCC xenograft models. FA8H1 was labeled with 131I, and two HCC xenograft models were generated using BEL-7402 (high VEGFR2-expressing) and SMMC-7721 (low VEGFR2-expressing) cells, which were selected from five HCC cell lines. The biodistribution of 131I-FA8H1 was determined in both models by Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography and therapeutic effects were monitored in nude mice bearing BEL-7402 xenografts. Finally, we determined the involvement of necrosis and apoptotic pathways in treated mice using immunohistochemistry. 131I-FA8H1 levels were dramatically reduced in blood and other viscera. The therapeutic effect of 131I-labeled FA8H1 in the BEL-7402 model was significantly better than that by 131I and FA8H1 alone. We observed extensive necrosis in the treated tumors, and both FasL and caspase 3 were up-regulated. Thus, 131I-anti-VEGFR2 cFab has the potential to be used for molecularly targeted treatment of HCC overexpressing VEGFR2. PMID:26021484

  16. Isolation of plasma and nuclear membranes of thymocytes. II. Biochemical composition

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Thymocyte plasma and nuclear membranes obtained by the procedure described in the accompanying paper were analyzed for their biochemical composition. Plasma membranes were very rich in phospholipid, cholesterol, sialic aicd; they did not contain nucleic acids. In comparison, nuclear membranes had a lower phospholipid to protein ratio and contained much less sialic acid and cholesterol. 50% of the cellular cholesterol and of the membrane-bound sialic acid were found in the plasma membranes, 14% in the nuclear membranes. Live cells were labeled with 131I, and the acid-insoluble radioactivity was followed in the subfractions. A good correlation with the distribution and enrichment of plasma membrane market-enzymes was obtained. Label enrichment was about 50-fold in the two lightest of the three plasma membrane fractions. 60% of the label was contained in the plasma membranes, only 4% in the nuclear membranes. Cross-contamination of these two types of membranes was thus negligible. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis revealed three different patterns specific for, respectively, plasma membranes, the microsomal-mitochondrial fraction, and nuclear membranes. Each pattern was characterized by a set of proteins and glycoproteins, among which high molecular weight glycoproteins could be considered as marker-proteins of, respectively, 280,000, 260,000, and 230,000 daltons. 131I-labeling of live cells tagged with a very high specific activity three glycoproteins of mol wt 280,000, 200,000, and 135,000 daltons. Nuclear membranes prepared from labeled isolated nuclei had a set of labeled proteins completely different from plasma membranes. PMID:307000

  17. Anti-cancer activity of curcumin loaded nanoparticles in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yallapu, Murali M.; Khan, Sheema; Maher, Diane M.; Ebeling, Mara C.; Sundram, Vasudha; Chauhan, Neeraj; Ganju, Aditya; Balakrishna, Swati; Gupta, Brij K.; Zafar, Nadeem; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer disease in men in the Unites States and its management remains challenge in everyday oncology practice. Thus, advanced therapeutic strategies are required to treat prostate cancer patients. Curcumin (CUR) is a promising anticancer agent for various cancer types. The objective of this study was to evaluate therapeutic potential of novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)- CUR nanoparticles (PLGA-CUR NPs) for prostate cancer treatment. Our results indicate that PLGA-CUR NPs efficiently internalize in prostate cancer cells and release biologically active CUR in cytosolic compartment of cells for effective therapeutic activity. Cell proliferation (MTS), clonogenic, and Western blot analyses reveal that PLGA-CUR NPs can effectively inhibit proliferation and colony formation ability of prostate cancer cells than free CUR. PLGA-CUR NPs showed superior tumor regression compared to CUR in xenograft mice. Further investigations reveal that PLGA-CUR NPs inhibit nuclear β-catenin and AR expression in cells and in tumor xenograft tissues. It also suppresses STAT3 and AKT phosphorylation and leads to apoptosis via inhibition of key anti-apoptotic proteins, MCL-1, Bcl-xL and caused induction of PARP cleavage. Additionally, PLGA-CUR NPs significant downregulation of oncogenic miR21 and up-regulation of miR-205 was observed with PLGA-CUR NPs treatment as determined by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses. A superior anti-cancer potential was attained with PSMA antibody conjugated PLGA-CUR NPs in prostate cancer cells and a significant tumor targeting of 131I labelled PSMA antibody was achieved with PLGA-CUR NPs in prostate cancer xenograft mice model. In conclusion, PLGA-CUR NPs can significantly accumulate and exhibit superior anticancer activity in prostate cancer. PMID:25028336

  18. Curative radioimmunotherapy of human mammary carcinoma xenografts with iodine-131-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Senekowitsch, R.; Reidel, G.; Moellenstaedt, S.Kr.; Kriegel, H.; Pabst, H.W. )

    1989-04-01

    The radioiodinated monoclonal antibody BW 495/36 showed an exceptionally high uptake and long residence time in human ductal mammary carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. There was a mean tumor uptake of 82%/g 24 hr p.i., decreasing with a biologic half-life of approximately 6 days, to 15%/g by Day 16. The tumor-to-blood ratio increased from 2.8 to 21.4 and the percentage of the whole-body retention recovered in the tumor from 47% to 80% during the same time interval. The therapeutic efficiency of two injections of 7.4 MBq {sup 131}I-BW 495/36 was evaluated by comparing the tumor size with that in mice injected with either the same amount of the unlabeled MoAb, the same radioactivity of an {sup 131}I-labeled nonspecific MoAb, or with saline only. The high tumor accumulation of {sup 131}I-BW 495/36 led to a total tumor dose of 77 Gy resulting in a mean reduction in tumor diameter of 50%, corresponding to a reduction in tumor volume of 88% within 42 days p.i. Unlabeled MoAb had no effect on tumor growth compared with controls, whereas {sup 131}I nonspecific antibody caused a slight inhibition of tumor growth. Histologic tumor sections showed large areas of necrosis and a pronounced vacuolation of the tumor cell cytoplasm between Days 7 and 30 p.i. By Day 42 all remaining tissue in the tumor was identified as mouse connective tissue.

  19. 131I-Anti-CD45 Antibody Plus Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide before Allogeneic Hematophoietic Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Remission

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Eary, Janet F.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, Ted; Ruffner, Katherine; Nemecek, Eneida; Sickle, Eileen; Durack, Larry; Carreras, Jeanette; Horowitz, Mary; Press, Oliver W.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, Paul J.; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Matthews, Dana C.

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to improve outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we conducted a Phase I/II study in which targeted irradiation delivered by 131I-anti-CD45 antibody was combined with targeted busulfan (BU; area-under-curve, 600-900 ng/ml) and cyclophosphamide (CY; 120 mg/kg). Fifty-two of 59 patients (88%) receiving a trace 131I-labeled dose of 0.5 mg/kg anti-CD45 murine antibody had higher estimated absorbed radiation in bone marrow and spleen than in any other organ. Forty-six patients were treated with 102-298 mCi 131I delivering an estimated 5.3-19 (mean 11.3) Gy to marrow, 17-72 (mean 29.7) Gy to spleen, and 3.5 Gy (n=4) to 5.25 Gy (n=42) to the liver. The estimated 3-year non-relapse mortality and disease-free survival (DFS) were 21% and 61%, respectively. These results were compared to those from 509 similar International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry patients transplanted using BU/CY alone. After adjusting for differences in age and cytogenetics-risk, the hazard of mortality among all antibody-treated patients was 0.65 times that of the Registry patients (95% CI 0.39-1.08; p=.09). The addition of targeted hematopoietic irradiation to conventional BU/CY is feasible and well tolerated, and Phase II results are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further study.

  20. Implications of current therapeutic approaches in colorectal cancer for other gastrointestinal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Lembersky, B C

    1991-02-01

    Novel immunotherapeutic strategies for combating colon cancer are also being explored in pancreatic, hepatic, and esophageal cancers. Preliminary clinical trials in patients with pancreatic cancer suggest a therapeutic role for anti-idiotypic antibodies against tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs)--eg, CO17-1A, BW 494/32--but not for MoAbs when used alone. Adding low doses of interferon gamma to CO17-1A enhances in vitro antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against pancreatic tumor cells; CO17-1A plus a regimen of 5-FU/doxorubicin/mitomycin has resulted in beneficial therapeutic effect. Treatments with immunotoxins, radiolabeled MoAbs, and adoptive immunotherapy are still being tested preclinically. In 105 patients with unresectable hepatocellular cancer, a 7% complete and 41% partial regression rate with 131I-labeled antiferritin has been reported. In several patients, radiolabeled antiferritin caused sufficient shrinkage of lesions to permit curative resection. Pretreatment with low-dose doxorubicin may improve the efficacy of low-dose radiolabeled antiferritin antibody therapy. Chemoembolization of primary hepatocellular carcinoma, based on the concept of regional therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer, has shown considerable palliative and survival benefit in patients with unresectable disease. Although adoptive immunotherapy has been used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, the results have been disappointing. The development of immunotherapeutic approaches to esophageal cancer is less advanced than that for other gastrointestinal malignancies. Paralleling the successful use of 5-FU/interferon alfa-2a in colon cancer are two phase II studies that have evaluated this combination in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. The objective response rate (27%) was encouraging. PMID:1992529

  1. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, E E; Deland, F H; Casper, S; Corgan, R L; Primus, F J; Goldenberg, D M

    1980-03-15

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with 131-I at a total dose of at least 1.0 muCi. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the 131-I-labelled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with 131-I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the appraent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures.

  2. Two new steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Su, Lan; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Qiao, Li; Zhou, Yu-Zhi; Yang, Rui-Ping; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2009-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins and two known flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis and chemical reaction as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5 alpha-furostan-12-one-3beta,22 alpha,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5 alpha-furostan-22-methoxy-2 alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3-gentiobioside (3), and isorhamnetin-3-gentiobioside (4).

  3. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  4. Two new steroidal glucosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Tun-Hai; Liu, Yue; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Si, Yun-Shan; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2009-06-01

    Two new furostanol saponins, tribufurosides D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. With the help of chemical and spectral analyses (IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR), the structures of the two new furostanol saponins were established as 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-12-one-2alpha,3beta,22alpha,26-tetraol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furost-12-one-2alpha,3beta,22alpha,26-tetraol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (2).

  5. Two new furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tunhai; Xu, Yajuan; Liu, Yue; Xie, Shengxu; Si, Yunshan; Xu, Dongming

    2009-09-01

    Two new furostanol glycosides, named tribufurosides I (1) J (2), were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. by a combination of chemical and spectroscopic methods. Its structures were established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-12-one-2alpha,3beta,22alpha,26-tetraol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-2alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2).

  6. Anthocyanins from the scarlet flowers of Anemone coronaria.

    PubMed

    Toki, K; Saito, N; Shigihara, A; Honda, T

    2001-04-01

    Three acylated anthocyanins were isolated from the scarlet flowers of Anemone coronaria 'St. Brigid Red' along with a known pigment, pelargonidin 3-lathyroside. The structures of the acylated pigments were based on a pelargonidin 3-lathyroside skeleton acylated at different positions with malonic acid. The first pigment was identified as pelargonidin 3-O-[2-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside], the second was pelargonidin 3-O-[2-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(methyl-malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside], and the third was (6''-O-(pelargonidin 3-O-[2''-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl]))((4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-trans-caffeoyl)-O-tartatryl)malonate.

  7. Sugar inhibition of the lectin jacalin: comparison of three assays.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, S R; Freitas, C S

    1989-01-01

    1. Three assays were used to test nine sugars for inhibition of jacalin activity prepared from Artocarpus integrifolia. Rat spleen proliferation was unsuitable since the measurement of the effects of sugars against jacalin binding was complicated by their simultaneous metabolic effects on the cells. 2. Based partly on a sheep red blood cell hemagglutination assay and mainly on human serum protein precipitation, the following potencies in relation to D(+)-galactose (taken as 1) were obtained: 1-0-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, 40; methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside and D(+)-galactose, 1; 1-0-methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, 0.4; 1-0-methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 0.2; D(+)-mannose, 0.12; beta-D-(-)-fructose, 0.08; alpha-D(+)-glucose and 1-0-methyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, less than 0.04.

  8. The first report on flavonoid isolation from Annona crassiflora Mart.

    PubMed

    Lage, Gisele Avelar; Medeiros, Felipe da Silva; Furtado, Werônica de Lima; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida; de Souza Filho, José Dias; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos

    2014-01-01

    Annona crassiflora, a native tree from Brazilian Cerrado, is reported to possess several ethnomedical uses. Here, we report the isolation and unambiguous characterisation of the flavonoids quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosil(1 → 6)-O-α-L-arabinoside (1), known as peltatoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2), quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-L-arabinopiranoside (4) and the ( - )-epicatechin (5) from the hydroalcoholic portion of the leaf ethanolic extract. Their structures were elucidated by using 1D and 2D NMR, ESI-MS, UV/Vis spectroscopy, optical rotation analysis and literature data comparison. The leaf ethanolic extract and its isolated compounds were evaluated by using antimicrobial, antioxidant and larvicidal assays, expressing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. This is the first report on flavonoid isolation from A. crassiflora.

  9. New steroidal saponins from Agave lophantha Schiede and their pharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalik, S M; Miyase, T; Melek, F R; el-Shabraway, O A; Mahmoud, I I; Mina, S A

    2002-08-01

    The structures of one new monodesmosidic spirostanoside and one new bisdesmosidic furanostanol glycoside isolated from leaves of Agave lophantha Schiede have been determined by means of spectroscopic and chemical methods as (25R)-5 beta-spirostan-3 beta-ol-3-O-(beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->4)beta-D -glucopyranosyl(1-->3)[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)]beta-D -galactopyranoside) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(25R)-5 beta-furost-20(22)-ene-3 beta, 26-diol-3-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->3)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1--2)] beta-D-galactopyranoside), respectively. The 1H and 13C NMR resonances of the two compounds were assigned by NMR (1H, 13C, HOHAHA, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOE difference) studies. The pharmacological activities of the saponin containing fraction are discussed.

  10. Steroidal saponins from Hemerocallis fulva var. kwanso.

    PubMed

    Konishi, T; Fujiwara, Y; Konoshima, T; Kiyosawa, S; Nishi, M; Miyahara, K

    2001-03-01

    Two steroidal saponins, hemeroside A and B, were isolated from the aerial part of Hemerocallis fulva var. kwanso for the first time. The structures of these compounds were established as 24S-hydroxy-neotokorogenin 1-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl 24-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and isorhodeasapogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) through NMR experiments. PMID:11253923

  11. Catalytic and regioselective oxidation of carbohydrates to synthesize keto-sugars under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Wataru

    2014-09-19

    A new catalytic and regioselective approach for the synthesis of keto-sugars is described. An organotin catalyst, Oc2SnCl2, in the presence of trimethylphenylammonium tribromide ([TMPhA](+)Br3(-)) accelerates the regioselective oxidation at the "axial"-OH group of 1,2-diol moieties in galactopyranosides. The reaction conditions can also be used for the regioselective oxidation of various carbohydrates.

  12. Characterization of new β-galactosidase from acidophilic fungus, Teratosphaeria acidotherma AIU BGA-1.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Kimiyasu; Yamashita, Miho; Chiba, Serina; Takahashi, Naomi; Koyama, Takahumi

    2013-09-01

    The β-galactosidase exhibiting high activity from an extremely acidic pH region to neutral pH region was efficiently purified from an acidophilic fungus, Teratosphaeria acidotherma AIU BGA-1, using affinity chromatography with Toyopearl resins immobilized 4-aminophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside. The enzyme was stable in the pH range from 1.5 to 7.0, and exhibited optimal activity at pH 2.5-4.0 and 70°C. 2-Nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside, 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside and lactose were rapidly hydrolyzed, and the apparent Km values were estimated to be 0.19 mM, 1.2 mM and 170 mM, respectively. Thus, the enzyme can be used in the wide pH range for hydrolysis of lactose. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 140 kDa with two hetero subunits of 86 kDa and 50 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the small subunit was found to be NTRMIIFNDK. These enzymatic and physicochemical characteristics are remarkably different from those of the previously known β-galactosidases.

  13. Induction of beta-galactosidase in Streptomyces violaceus.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Hardisson, C

    1979-07-01

    Synthesis of beta-galactosidase by Streptomyces violaceus was induced by D-galactose and L-arabinose, and to a lesser extent by lactose, D-arabinose, and methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside. The synthesis of the enzyme was linear and started to increase 2--3 h after induction by galactose, reaching a maximum after 5--7 h. The highest level of specific activity was observed in 2% galactose, with an increase of 45 times over the basal level in glycerol. Isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and methyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (TMG) inhibited induction by D-galactose, but did not influence enzymatic activity. Cellular extracts hydrolyzed O-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, but did not significantly hydrolyze lactose, melibiose, p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucoside, or p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Rifampicin and chloramphenicol inhibited beta-galactosidase synthesis in non-preinduced and in preinduced cells. The inhibition by chloramphenicol was reversible. PMID:113072

  14. alpha-Galactoside binding lectin from Artocarpus hirsuta: characterization of the sugar specificity and binding site.

    PubMed

    Gurjar, M M; Khan, M I; Gaikwad, S M

    1998-07-23

    The hemagglutinin from the seeds of Artocarpus hirsuta was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and CM-sephadex. The native protein of molecular mass 60,000 (gel filtration) is made up of two pairs of unidentical subunits, alpha and beta with molecular masses of 15,800 and 14,130. The lectin is basic in nature (pI 8.5) and a glycoprotein with neutral sugar content of 6.25%. Rabbit as well as human erythrocytes (A, B and O) are agglutinated by the lectin. The lectin activity is neither affected by Ca2+, Mg2+ or Mn2+ nor by EDTA. Methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside, pNP-alpha-D-galactopyranoside and pNP-alpha-D-N-acetylgalactosamine are the best inhibitors of the lectin. 4-Methylumbelliferyl-alpha-galactopyranoside fluorescence was quenched on binding to A. hirsuta lectin. The sugar has two binding sites per tetramer of the lectin with a Ka of 3.5x105 M-1 at 25 degrees C. Chemical modification studies indicate that the net positive charge associated with epsilon-NH2 of lysine residues and the phenyl ring of tyrosine are essential for the sugar binding activity of A. hirsuta lectin.

  15. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β,12β-triol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed. PMID:23859261

  16. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated. PMID:24939800

  17. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated.

  18. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β,12β-triol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed.

  19. Ground-state, transition-state, and metal-cation effects of the 2-hydroxyl group on beta-D-galactopyranosyl transfer catalyzed by beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli, lac Z).

    PubMed

    Richard, John P; McCall, Deborah A; Heo, Christina K; Toteva, Maria M

    2005-09-01

    Substitution of the C2-OH group by C2-H at 4-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside to give 4-nitrophenyl-2-deoxy-beta-d-galactopyranoside causes (1) a change in the rate-determining step for beta-galactosidase-catalyzed sugar hydrolysis from formation to breakdown of a covalent intermediate; (2) a 14 000-fold decrease in the second-order rate constant k(3)/K(d) for enzyme-catalyzed transfer of the beta-d-galactopyranosyl group from the substrate to form a covalent adduct to the enzyme; and (3) a larger 320 000-fold decrease in the first-order rate constant k(s) for hydrolysis of this covalent adduct. Only a small fraction (ca. 7%) of the 2-OH substituent effect is expressed in the ground-state Michaelis complex, so that the (apparent) strong interactions between the enzyme and 2-OH group that stabilize the transition state for beta-d-galactopyranosyl transfer only develop upon moving from the Michaelis complex to the transition state. Mg(2+) activates beta-galactosidase for cleavage of both 4-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside and 4-nitrophenyl-2-deoxy-beta-d-galactopyranoside. This suggests that Mg(2+) activation does not involve interactions with the 2-OH group. The removal of Mg(2+) from beta-galactosidase causes a change in the rate-determining step for enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl-2-deoxy-beta-d-galactopyranoside from breakdown to formation of the covalent intermediate. The observed 2-OH effect would require a very large (10-11 kcal/mol) stabilization of the transition state for beta-d-galactopyranosyl group transfer to water by interactions between beta-galactosidase and the neutral 2-OH group. We suggest that the apparent effect of the neutral substituent is more simply rationalized by ionization of the 2-OH to form a 2-O(-) anion, which provides effective electrostatic stabilization of the cationic transition state for glycoside cleavage at an active site of relatively low dielectric constant.

  20. THE SUBCELLULAR DISTRIBUTION OF ANTIGEN IN MACROPHAGES

    PubMed Central

    Kölsch, E.; Mitchison, N. A.

    1968-01-01

    The intracellular fate of phagocytosed antigens in cells from peritoneal exudate in CBA mice has been studied by using 126I and 131I labeled antigens. After uptake of labeled antigen, cells were homogenized and the subcellular fractions were analyzed by isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose gradient. The uptake of heat-denatured BSA (c BSA) by these cells in vivo is 3.5 µg/mg c BSA injected/108 cells. The uptake by cells in animals which were exposed 2 days earlier to 900 r whole body irradiation is slightly lower but does not differ significantly. 90% of the phagocytosed material is degraded within 2–3 hr, the residual 10% is retained at least over an 8 hr periods. Using a pulse and chase technique, with 125I and 131I c BSA in vitro and in vivo it was shown that newly phagocytosed antigen is found mainly in a lysosomal turnover compartment of a density 1.19 g cm–3. Antigen which has been in the cells for longer was found in a denser fraction (1.26 g cm–3). In a comparison of nhrmal and X-irradiated cells it can be shown that after irradiation with 900 r less c BSA is found in this storage compartment. Binding of the antigen to the subcellular fractions, and its behavior towards several detergents has been studied. Subcellular fractions do not have the increased immunogenic capacity of antigen enclosed in living macrophages. Two synthetic polypeptide antigens, poly(D-Tyr, D-Glu, D-Ala) and poly-(L-Tyr, L-Glu) have a different subcellular distribution from c BSA, BSA, or bovine gamma globulin. Apart from also being found in the 1.26 storage compartment the polypeptide antigens are mainly located in a 1.15 compartment and only to a small extent in the 1.19 compartment. The half-life of these antigens in the cells is much longer than the half-life of the protein antigens studied. The finding of several subcellular compartments is discussed in connection with the functions possibly performed by macrophages. PMID:5682940

  1. Characterization of a double-sided silicon strip detector autoradiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Örbom, Anders Ahlstedt, Jonas; Östlund, Karl; Strand, Sven-Erik; Serén, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro; Kotiluoto, Petri; Hauge, Håvard; Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.; Dahlbom, Magnus

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The most commonly used technology currently used for autoradiography is storage phosphor screens, which has many benefits such as a large field of view but lacks particle-counting detection of the time and energy of each detected radionuclide decay. A number of alternative designs, using either solid state or scintillator detectors, have been developed to address these issues. The aim of this study is to characterize the imaging performance of one such instrument, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) system for digital autoradiography. A novel aspect of this work is that the instrument, in contrast to previous prototype systems using the same detector type, provides the ability for user accessible imaging with higher throughput. Studies were performed to compare its spatial resolution to that of storage phosphor screens and test the implementation of multiradionuclide ex vivo imaging in a mouse preclinical animal study. Methods: Detector background counts were determined by measuring a nonradioactive sample slide for 52 h. Energy spectra and detection efficiency were measured for seven commonly used radionuclides under representative conditions for tissue imaging. System dead time was measured by imaging {sup 18}F samples of at least 5 kBq and studying the changes in count rate over time. A line source of {sup 58}Co was manufactured by irradiating a 10 μm nickel wire with fast neutrons in a research reactor. Samples of this wire were imaged in both the DSSD and storage phosphor screen systems and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) measured for the line profiles. Multiradionuclide imaging was employed in a two animal study to examine the intratumoral distribution of a {sup 125}I-labeled monoclonal antibody and a {sup 131}I-labeled engineered fragment (diabody) injected in the same mouse, both targeting carcinoembryonic antigen. Results: Detector background was 1.81 × 10{sup −6} counts per second per 50 × 50 μm pixel. Energy spectra and

  2. Transcript Analysis for Internal Biodosimetry Using Peripheral Blood from Neuroblastoma Patients Treated with (131)I-mIBG, a Targeted Radionuclide.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, David A; Karski, Erin E; Kohlgruber, Ayano; Koneru, Harsha; Matthay, Katherine K; Allen, Shelly; Hartmann, Christine L; Peterson, Leif E; DuBois, Steven G; Coleman, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    Calculating internal dose from therapeutic radionuclides currently relies on estimates made from multiple radiation exposure measurements, converted to absorbed dose in specific organs using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. As an alternative biodosimetric approach, we utilized gene expression analysis of whole blood from patients receiving targeted radiotherapy. Collected blood from patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma who received (131)I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-mIBG) at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) was used to compare calculated internal dose with the modulation of chosen gene expression. A total of 40 patients, median age 9 years, had blood drawn at baseline, 72 and 96 h after (131)I-mIBG infusion. Whole-body absorbed dose was calculated for each patient based on the cumulated activity determined from injected mIBG activity and patient-specific time-activity curves combined with (131)I whole-body S factors. We then assessed transcripts that were the most significant for describing the mixed therapeutic treatments over time using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Modulation was evaluated statistically using multiple regression analysis for data at 0, 72 and 96 h. A total of 10 genes were analyzed across 40 patients: CDKN1A; FDXR; GADD45A; BCLXL; STAT5B; BAX; BCL2; DDB2; XPC; and MDM2. Six genes were significantly modulated upon exposure to (131)I-mIBG at 72 h, as well as at 96 h. Four genes varied significantly with absorbed dose when controlling for time. A gene expression biodosimetry model was developed to predict absorbed dose based on modulation of gene transcripts within whole blood. Three transcripts explained over 98% of the variance in the modulation of gene expression over the 96 h (CDKN1A, BAX and DDB2). To our knowledge, this is a novel study, which uses whole blood collected from patients treated with a radiopharmaceutical, to characterize biomarkers that may be useful

  3. Copper-67 as a therapeutic nuclide for radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Novak-Hofer, Ilse; Schubiger, P August

    2002-06-01

    The application of the beta particle-emitting nuclide 67Cu in radioimmunotherapy is reviewed. The production of the nuclide is outlined, and different production modes are discussed with an emphasis on cyclotron production. A short survey of copper chelators currently used for antibody labelling and their impact on the pharmacokinetics of 67Cu-labelled immunoconjugates is provided. Protocols for antibody labelling with 67Cu as well as quality control procedures for 67Cu-labelled antibodies are described. Preclinical data on the biological properties of 67Cu-labelled immunoconjugates are reported and discussed. 67Cu-labelled antibodies show higher and more persistent tumour uptake than their radioiodinated counterparts due to accumulation of labelled metabolites in tumour cells. Biodistribution of 67Cu-labelled antibody fragments has been improved by selection of negatively charged chelators and peptide linkers. Pharmacokinetic analysis of the accumulated dose in tumour and critical organs such as the kidney and liver indicates that, despite this improvement, intact 67Cu-labelled antibodies achieve higher tumour uptake and better therapeutic ratios than 67Cu-labelled antibody fragments and that they are at present the logical choice for clinical studies. Clinical studies using 67Cu-labelled antibodies in lymphoma, colon carcinoma and bladder cancer patients are reviewed. Some of the advantages over radioiodinated antibodies found in the preclinical work, such as higher tumour uptake and better tumour/blood ratios, have also been found with systemic application in lymphoma and colon carcinoma. However, in both lymphoma and colon carcinoma patients, the radiation dose to the liver has been found to be higher from 67Cu- than from 131I-labelled antibodies. The intravesical application of 67Cu-labelled antibody has been shown to be a promising approach for targetting cytotoxic radiation to superficial bladder tumours, without detectable systemic absorption. Given the

  4. N-Acetylgalactosamino Dendrons as Clearing Agents to Enhance Liver Targeting of Model Antibody-Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Barney; Cheal, Sarah M.; Torchon, Geralda; Dilhas, Anna; Yang, Guangbin; Pu, Jun; Punzalan, Blesida; Larson, Steven M.; Ouerfelli, Ouathek

    2014-01-01

    Dendrimer clearing agents represent a unique class of compounds for use in multistep targeting (MST) in radioimmunotherapy and imaging. These compounds were developed to facilitate the removal of excess tumor-targeting monoclonal antibody (mAb) prior to administration of the radionuclide to minimize exposure of normal tissue to radiation. Clearing agents are designed to capture the circulating mAb, and target it to the liver for metabolism. Glycodendrons are ideally suited for MST applications as these highly branched compounds are chemically well-defined thus advantageous over heterogeneous macromolecules. Previous studies have described glycodendron 3 as a clearing agent for use in three-step MST protocols, and early in vivo assessment of 3 showed promise. However, synthetic challenges have hampered its availability for further development. In this report we describe a new sequence of chemical steps which enables the straightforward synthesis and analytical characterization of this class of dendrons. With accessibility and analytical identification solved, we sought to evaluate both lower and higher generation dendrons for hepatocyte targeting as well as clearance of a model protein. We prepared a series of clearing agents where a single biotin is connected to glycodendrons displaying four, eight, sixteen or thirty-two α-thio-N-acetylgalactosamine (α–SGalNAc) units, resulting in compounds with molecular weights ranging from 2 to 17 kDa, respectively. These compounds were fully characterized by LCMS and NMR. We then evaluated the capacity of these agents to clear a model 131I-labeled single chain variable fragment antibody-streptavidin (131I-scFv-SAv) fusion protein from blood and tissue in mice, and compared their clearing efficiencies to that of a 500 kDa dextran-biotin conjugate. Glycodendrons and dextran-biotin exhibited enhanced blood clearance of the scFv-SAv construct. Biodistribution analysis showed liver targeting/uptake of the scFv-SAv construct to

  5. Characterization, quantification, and bioactivities of anthocyanins in Cornus species.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P; Schutzki, Robert; Chandra, Amitabh; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2002-04-24

    Cornus mas, Cornus officinalis, Cornus controversa, and Cornus kousa (Cornaceae) bear edible fruits that are consumed in parts of Europe and Asia. This study undertook the investigation of the presence and levels of anthocyanins in the fruits of these Cornus species by HPLC. The anthocyanins present in Cornelian cherries, C. mas, are delphinidin 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside (1), cyanidin 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside (2), and pelargonidin 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside (3). C. officinalis contains only anthocyanins 1-3, similar to C. mas, but in different proportions. However, C. controversa contains anthocyanins 1-3 among other anthocyanins, but Chinese dogwood, C. kousa, did not contain 1-3. The contents of pure anthocyanins 1, 2, and 3 in 1 kg of fresh fruits of C. mas, C. officinalis, and C. controversa were 280, 1079, and 710 ppm; 11, 77, and 230 ppm; and 600, 1000, and 700 ppm, respectively. In cyclooxygenase (COX)-I and -II enzyme inhibitory assays, anthocyanins 1-3 (all 40 microM) showed activities of 9.2 and 11.7%; 7.6 and 12.4%; and 5.3 and 7.8%, respectively, compared to Naproxen (54.3 and 41.3%; 10 microM), ibuprofen (47.5 and 39.8%; 10 microM), Celebrex (46.2 and 66.3%; 1.67 ppm), and Vioxx (23.8 and 88.1%, 1.67 ppm). In the antioxidant assay, anthocyanins 1-3 (all 40 microM) showed activities of 70.2, 60.1, and 40.3%, respectively. At 10 microM concentration, commercial synthetic antioxidants tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole, and vitamin E gave 83.2, 79.7, 82.1, and 10.2% of antioxidant activity, respectively. PMID:11958615

  6. Practical synthesis of the disaccharide epitope, D-galactopyranosyl-alpha-1,3-D-galactopyranose, by using 1,2;5,6-di-O-cyclohexylidene-alpha-D-galactofuranose as the glycosyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, I; Ohrui, H

    2000-09-01

    D-Galactosyl-alpha-1,3-D-galactopyranose (1) was chemically prepared in a good yield by coupling phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside (5) or 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (8) with 1,2:5,6-di-O-cyclohexylidene-alpha-D-galactofuranose (3) with subsequent de-O-benzylation and de-O-cyclohexylidenation of the resulting protected alpha1,3-disaccharide.

  7. Synthesis and conformational studies of carrabiose and its 4'-sulphate and 2,4'-disulphate.

    PubMed

    Parra, E; Caro, H N; Jiménez-Barbero, J; Martín-Lomas, M; Bernabé, M

    1990-12-15

    Methyl alpha-carrabioside (13), and its 4-sulphate (19) and 2,4-disulphate (20) have been synthesised via glycosylation of methyl 3,6-anhydro-2-O-benzyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside with 2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-benzyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl bromide and subsequent partial or complete debenzylation, sulphation, and deprotection of the resulting disaccharide derivatives. Conformational studies have been carried out on 13, 19, and 20 on the basis of 1D and 2D 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations. PMID:2085818

  8. A new furostanol glycoside from Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yajuan; Liu, Yonghong; Xu, Tunhai; Xie, Shengxu; Si, Yunshan; Liu, Yue; Zhou, Haiou; Liu, Tonghua; Xu, Dongming

    2010-01-27

    Besides two known glycosides, a new furostanol glycoside was isolated from the Fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The structure of the new furostanol glycoside was established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furostane-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta, 26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) on the basis of 1D and 2D-NMR techniques, including COSY, HMBC, and HMQC correlations.

  9. Two new furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tun-Hai; Xu, Ya-Juan; Xie, Sheng-Xiu; Zhao, Hong-Feng; Han, Dong; Li, Yu; Niu, Jian-Zhao; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Two new furostanol saponins, tribufurosides B (1) and C (2), were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. With the help of chemical and spectral analyses (IR, MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR), the structures of two new furostanol saponins were established as 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-2alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-d-galactopyranosyl(1 --> 2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 2)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (1) and (25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta, 26-diol-26-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2).

  10. A new phenylpropanoid glycoside from Cirsium setosum.

    PubMed

    Ke, Rui; Zhu, En-Yuan; Chou, Gui-xin

    2010-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Cirsium setosum (Willd.) MB., 70% ethanol extract of the aerial parts was subjected to column chromatography. One new phenylpropanoid glycoside, sinapyl alcohol 9-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-4-O-beta-D-glucopyanoside (1) was isolated, along with three known compounds: lycoperodine-1 (2), apigenin-7-O-(6"-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (3) and quercetin (4). The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. Compound 2 was obtained from Cirsium genus for the first time, compounds 3 and 4 were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  11. Acylated flavonol tri- and tetraglycosides in the flavonoid metabolome of Cladrastis kentukea (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Rowe, Emily R; Lewis, Gwilym P; Veitch, Nigel C

    2011-04-01

    The foliar metabolome of Cladrastis kentukea (Leguminosae) contains a complex mixture of flavonoids including acylated derivatives of the 3-O-rhamnosyl(1→2)[rhamnosyl(1→6)]-galactosides of kaempferol and quercetin and their 7-O-rhamnosides, together with an array of non-acylated kaempferol and quercetin di-, tri- and tetraglycosides. Thirteen of the acylated flavonoids, 12 of which had not been reported previously, were characterised by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Eight of these were the four isomers of kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E/Z-p-coumaroyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) and their 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosides, and three were isomers of quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E/Z-p-coumaroyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) - the remaining 4Z isomer was identified by LC-UV-MS analysis of a crude extract. The final two acylated flavonoids characterised by NMR were the 3E and 4E isomers of kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E-feruloyl-β-d-galactopyranoside)-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside while the 3Z and 4Z isomers were again detected by LC-UV-MS. Using the observed fragmentation behaviour of the isolated compounds following a variety of MS experiments, a further 18 acylated flavonoids were given tentative structures by LC-MS analysis of a crude extract. Acylated flavonoids were absent from the flowers of C. kentukea, which contained an array of non-acylated kaempferol and quercetin glycosides. Immature fruits contained kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-galactopyranoside and its 7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside as the major flavonoids with acylated flavonoids, different from those in the leaves, only present as minor constituents. The presence of acylated flavonoids distinguishes the foliar flavonoid metabolome of C. kentukea from that of a closely related legume, Styphnolobium japonicum, which contains a similar

  12. Spirostane, furostane and cholestane saponins from Persian leek with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Senatore, Mauro; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2013-11-15

    A phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Persian leek afforded the isolation of two new spirostane glycosides, persicosides A (1) and B (2), four new furostane glycosides, isolated as a couple of inseparable mixture, persicosides C1/C2 (3a/3b) and D1/D2 (4a/4b), one cholestane glycoside, persicoside E (5), together with the furostane glycosides ceposides A1/A2 and C1/C2 (6a/6b and 7a/7b), tropeosides A1/A2 and B1/B2 (8a/8b and 9a/9b), and ascalonicoside A1/A2 (10a/10b), already described in white onion, red Tropea onion, and shallot, respectively. Structure elucidation of the compounds was carried out by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR spectroscopy and MS spectrometry, and by chemical evidences. The chemical structure of new compounds were identified as (25S)-spirostan-2α,3β,6β-triol 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)] [β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (1), (25S)-spirostan-2α,3β,6β-triol 3-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)] [α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside (2), furosta-1β,3β,22ξ,26-tetraol 5-en 1-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl 26-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranoside (3a,3b), furosta-2α,3β,22ξ,26-tetraol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl 26-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4a,4b), (22S)-cholesta-1β,3β,16β,22β-tetraol 5-en 1-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl 16-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranoside (5). Antifungal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against the fungal pathogens, Penicillium italicum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma harzianum and Botrytis cinerea. Persicosides A and B showed the higher activity on the tested fungi highlighting the positive effect of the spirostane skeleton on the antifungal activity.

  13. Spirostane, furostane and cholestane saponins from Persian leek with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Senatore, Mauro; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2013-11-15

    A phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Persian leek afforded the isolation of two new spirostane glycosides, persicosides A (1) and B (2), four new furostane glycosides, isolated as a couple of inseparable mixture, persicosides C1/C2 (3a/3b) and D1/D2 (4a/4b), one cholestane glycoside, persicoside E (5), together with the furostane glycosides ceposides A1/A2 and C1/C2 (6a/6b and 7a/7b), tropeosides A1/A2 and B1/B2 (8a/8b and 9a/9b), and ascalonicoside A1/A2 (10a/10b), already described in white onion, red Tropea onion, and shallot, respectively. Structure elucidation of the compounds was carried out by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR spectroscopy and MS spectrometry, and by chemical evidences. The chemical structure of new compounds were identified as (25S)-spirostan-2α,3β,6β-triol 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)] [β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (1), (25S)-spirostan-2α,3β,6β-triol 3-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)] [α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside (2), furosta-1β,3β,22ξ,26-tetraol 5-en 1-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl 26-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranoside (3a,3b), furosta-2α,3β,22ξ,26-tetraol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl 26-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4a,4b), (22S)-cholesta-1β,3β,16β,22β-tetraol 5-en 1-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl 16-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranoside (5). Antifungal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against the fungal pathogens, Penicillium italicum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma harzianum and Botrytis cinerea. Persicosides A and B showed the higher activity on the tested fungi highlighting the positive effect of the spirostane skeleton on the antifungal activity. PMID:23790946

  14. Flavonoids from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Monika

    2005-01-01

    In the course of chemotaxonomic study of the genus Prunus, seven flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Prunus serotina Ehrh., characterized by UV and NMR spectroscopy, and identified finally as three quercetin monosides: hyperoside, avicularin, reynoutrin, three quercetin biosides: 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside as well isorhamnetin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The presence of determined flavonoids in the flowers was confirmed by TLC. PMID:16161354

  15. Inhibition of β-galactosidases with mono- and disaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, O. S.; Atyaksheva, L. F.; Chukhrai, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    It was demonstrated that, in reactions of the hydrolysis of model substrate 2-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (2-NPGP) monosaccharides D-fructose and D-xylose with hydroxyl substituents oppositely directed at the neighboring carbon atoms in the furan ring, as in D-glucose, act as noncompetitive inhibitors of β-galactosidase from E. coli; for mushroom, β-galactosidases from P. canescens and A. oryzae D-galactose is a stronger inhibitor. It was also found that the inhibition constant is the highest in the case of the most active enzyme ( E. coli) and is the lowest for the least active one ( P. canescens).

  16. Structure-Reactivity Relationships for β-Galactosidase (Escherichia coli, lac Z): A Second Derivative Effect on β(nuc) for Addition of Alkyl Alcohols to an Oxocarbenium Ion Reaction Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Richard, John P; Heo, Christina K; Toteva, Maria M

    2008-07-01

    Velocities for the synthesis of trifluoroethyl 2-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranoside by transfer of the 2-deoxygalactosyl group from β-galactosidase to trifluoroethanol were determined from studies of the β-galactosidase-catalyzed cleavage of 4-nitrophenyl-2-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranoside as the difference in rates of appearance of 4-nitrophenoxide anion and 2-D-deoxygalactose. These data were used to calculate a rate constant ratio of k(ROH)/k(s) = 2.3 M(-1) for partitioning of the intermediate between addition of trifluoroethanol and solvent water. Velocities for the synthesis of other alkyl 2-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranosides by transfer of the 2-deoxygalactosyl group from β-galactosidase to alkyl alcohols were determined from the effect of alkyl alcohols on the velocity of β-galactosidase-catalyzed cleavage of 4-nitrophenyl-2-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranoside in a reaction where breakdown of the intermediate is rate determining. These data were used to calculate rate constant ratios k(ROH)/k(s) for the reactions of eight alkyl alcohols. Absolute rate constants k(ROH) (M(-1) s(-1)) were calculated from k(ROH)/k(s) and k(s) = 0.002 s(-1) for the addition of water. A Brønsted coefficient of β(nuc) = -0.07 ± 0.08 was determined as the slope of a logarithmic correlation of k(ROH) against alcohol pK(a). The change from a 2-OH to a 2-H substituent at the β-D-galactopyranosyl intermediate causes a 0.12 ± 0.04 increase in the value of β(nuc) for alcohol addition. This anti-Hammond effect provides evidence that general basecatalyzed addition of alcohols to an enzyme bound β-D-galactopyranosyl oxocarbenium ion intermediate proceeds along a reaction coordinate in which there is strong coupling between carbon-oxygen bond formation and proton transfer from the alcohol to a basic residue at the enzyme.

  17. Steroidal saponins from the leaves of Agave macroacantha.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Jacqueline; Lavaud, Catherine; Harakat, Dominique

    2010-07-01

    A new monodesmosidic spirostanol saponin, along with three known saponins was isolated from Agave macroacantha Zucc leaves. The structure of the new saponin was established as hecogenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->4) beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->3)[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)] beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4) beta-D-galactopyranoside. The (1)H and (13)C resonances of the four compounds were assigned using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR techniques including (1)H, (13)C, COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC NMR and confirmed by mass spectrometry.

  18. A new steroidal saponin from Agave attenuata.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Tatiana Paz; Silva, Graziela de Medeiros; da Silva, Bernadete Pereira; Parente, José Paz

    2004-04-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the leaves of Agave attenuata. Its structure was established as (3beta,beta,25S)-spirostan-3-yl O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside. The structural identification was performed using detailed analyses of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra including 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques (COSY, HETCOR, and COLOC) and chemical conversions. The hemolytic activity of the steroidal saponin was evaluated using an in vitro assay.

  19. Screening of Panamanian Plant Extracts for Pesticidal Properties and HPLC-Based Identification of Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Guldbrandsen, Niels; De Mieri, Maria; Gupta, Mahabir; Seiser, Tobias; Wiebe, Christine; Dickhaut, Joachim; Reingruber, Rüdiger; Sorgenfrei, Oliver; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    A library of 600 taxonomically diverse Panamanian plant extracts was screened for fungicidal, insecticidal, and herbicidal activities. A total of 19 active extracts were submitted to HPLC-based activity profiling, and extracts of Bocconia frutescens, Miconia affinis, Myrcia splendens, Combretum aff. laxum, and Erythroxylum macrophyllum were selected for the isolation of compounds. Chelerythrine (2), macarpine (3), dihydrosanguinarine (5), and arjunolic acid (8) showed moderate-to-good fungicidal activity. Myricetin-3-O-(6’’-O-galloyl)-β-galactopyranoside (13) showed moderate insecticidal activity, but no compound with herbicidal activity was identified. PMID:26839818

  20. Novel acidophilic β-galactosidase with high activity at extremely acidic pH region from Teratosphaeria acidotherma AIU BGA-1.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Serina; Yamada, Miwa; Isobe, Kimiyasu

    2015-09-01

    A β-galactosidase exhibiting maximal activity at pH 1.0 was purified from Teratosphaeria acidotherma AIU BGA-1. The enzyme had a molecular mass of 180 kDa and consisted of two heterosubunits of 120 kDa and 66 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the large subunit was found to be SPNLQDIVTVDGESY. These physicochemical properties differed from those of other microbial β-galactosidases. At pH values of 1.5 and pH 4.5, the enzyme exhibited its highest activity at temperatures of 70°C and 80°C, respectively. Thus, the enzyme exhibited the lowest optimal pH and highest optimal temperature among the microbial β-galactosidases thus reported. The enzyme retained more than 80% of its original activity in the pH range from 2.0 to 8.0 by incubation at 50°C for 30 min. The enzyme hydrolyzed 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-fucopyranoside, 2-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, and 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-galacto-pyranoside at relative reaction rates of 100, 59, and 24, respectively, at pH 1.5, and its affinity for β-D-galactopyranosides was higher than that for β-D-fucopyranosides. The enzyme also efficiently hydrolyzed lactose in milk and whey from yoghurt at pH 1.5.

  1. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production

    PubMed Central

    Walmagh, Maarten; Zhao, Renfei; Desmet, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Trehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals), medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside) or galactotrehalose (α-d-galactopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside), offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. “Greener” alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis. PMID:26084050

  2. Probing the Influence of a 4,6-O-Acetal on the Reactivity of Galactopyranosyl Donors: Verification of the Disarming Influence of the trans-gauche Conformation of C5–C6 Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Moumé-Pymbock, Myriame; Furukawa, Takayuki; Mondal, Sujit; Crich, David

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a 4,6-O-alkylidene acetal on the rate of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl galactopyranosides and of spontaneous hydrolysis of 2,4-dinitrophenyl galactopyranosides has been studied through the synthesis and hydrolysis of analogs in which O6 is replaced by a methoxymethylene unit in which the methoxy group adopts either an equatorial or an axial position according to the configuration. Consistent with earlier studies under both acid-catalyzed and spontaneous hydrolysis conditions the alkylidene acetal, or its 7-carba analog, retards hydrolysis with respect to comparable systems lacking the cyclic protecting group. The configuration at C7 in the 7-carba analogs does not influence the rate of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis but has a minor influence on the rate of spontaneous hydrolysis of the 2,4-dinitrophenyl galactosides, confirming earlier studies on the role played by the hydroxymethyl group conformation on glycoside reactivity. The benzylidene acetal is found to stabilize the α-anomer of galactopyranose derivatives relative to monocyclic analogs. Reasons for the α-selectivity of 4,6-O-benzylidene-protected galactopyranosyl donors bearing neighboring group-active protecting groups at O2 are discussed. PMID:23984633

  3. Comments on Methods to Suppress Endogenous β-Galactosidase Activity in Mouse Tissues Expressing the LacZ Reporter Gene.

    PubMed

    Merkwitz, Claudia; Blaschuk, Orest; Schulz, Angela; Ricken, Albert Markus

    2016-10-01

    The Escherichia coli LacZ gene (encoding β-galactosidase) is a widely used reporter for gene regulation analysis in transgenic mice. Determination of β-galactosidase activity is classically performed using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-galactopyranoside/ferri-/ferrocyanide (X-Gal/FeCN) histochemistry. Uncertainty about the origin of the β-galactosidase signal is encountered in tissues containing high levels of endogenous β-galactosidase. Here, we show that reliable results can nevertheless be obtained in these tissues by performing the histochemical reaction under slightly basic pH conditions (pH 8-9). We further demonstrate that in this context, analysis of tissue sections may be advantageous over that of conventional whole-mount tissues because poor dye penetration and remaining tissue acidity are avoided in tissue sections. We also recommend that bacterial debris should always be carefully removed from the luminal surface of gastrointestinal tract specimens unless staining of resident microflora is deliberately used as an internal positive control in the assay. Finally, we show that 6-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-galactopyranoside with nitrotetrazolium blue chloride works well as an alternative chromogenic substrate for visualizing LacZ reporter gene expression in cryostat sections. Its use in high endogenous β-galactosidase-expressing organs is superior over the use of X-Gal/FeCN at slightly basic pH conditions. PMID:27555495

  4. beta-Galactosidase activity assay using far-red-shifted fluorescent substrate DDAOG.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haibiao; Zhang, Bin; Little, Garrick; Kovar, Joy; Chen, Huaxian; Xie, Wen; Schutz-Geschwender, Amy; Olive, D Michael

    2009-03-01

    beta-Galactosidase (beta-gal) is commonly used as a reporter gene in biological research, and a wide variety of substrates have been developed to assay its activity. One substrate, 9H-(1,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one-7-yl) beta-d-galactopyranoside (DDAOG), can be cleaved by beta-gal to produce 7-hydroxy-9H(I,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one) (DDAO). On excitation, DDAO generates a far-red-shifted fluorescent signal. Using this substrate, we developed a beta-gal activity assay method. The DDAO signal was stable for at least 18h. The signal intensity was linearly related to both the enzyme amount and substrate concentration. An optimized buffer for the beta-gal/DDAOG assay was also formulated. When compared with the colorimetric substrate o-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside (ONPG), the signal-to-background ratio of the DDAOG method was approximately 12-fold higher. The beta-gal/DDAOG assay method was also tested in transiently transfected cells employing both pharmacologically and genetically inducible gene expression systems. The ability to detect signal induction is comparable to a similar assay using luciferase as the signal generating moiety. The beta-gal/DDAOG assay method should provide a fluorescent reporter assay system for the wide variety of beta-gal systems currently in use. PMID:19103143

  5. Functional and immunochemical characterization of a mutant of Escherichia coli energy uncoupled for lactose transport

    SciTech Connect

    Herzlinger, D.; Carrasco, N.; Kaback, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Right-side-out cytoplasmic membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli ML 308-22, a mutant ''uncoupled'' for beta-galactoside/H/sup +/ symport are specifically defective in the ability to catalyze accumulation of methyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside (TMG) in the presence of an H/sup +/ electrochemical gradient (interior negative and alkaline). Furthermore, the rate of carrier-mediated efflux under nonenergized conditions is slow and unaffected by ambient pH from pH 5.5 to 7.5, and TMG-induced H/sup +/ influx is only about 15% of that observed in vesicles containing wild-type lac permease (ML 308-225). Alternatively, ML 308-22 vesicles bind p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside and monoclonal antibody 4B1 to the same extent as ML 308-225 vesicles and catalyze facilitated diffusion and equilibrium exchange as well as ML 308-225 vesicles. When entrance counterflow is studied with external substrate at saturating and subsaturating concentrations, it is apparent that the mutation simulates the effects of deuterium oxide. That is, the mutation has no effect on the rate or extent of counterflow when external substrate is saturating but stimulates the efficiency of counterflow when external substrate is below the apparent K/sub m/. Moreover, although replacement of protium with deuterium stimulates counterflow in ML 308-225 vesicles when external substrate is subsaturating, the isotope has no effect on the mutant vesicles under the same conditions.

  6. Intestinal lactase as an autologous beta-galactosidase reporter gene for in vivo gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Siamak; Eckley, Lorna; Sawyer, Greta J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Dong, Xuebin; Freund, Jean-Noel; Fabre, John W

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal lactase has potential as an autologous beta-galactosidase reporter gene for long-term gene expression studies in vivo, using chromogenic, luminescent, and fluorogenic substrates developed for Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. In normal rat tissues, reactivity with a chromogenic fucopyranoside (X-Fuc, the preferred substrate of lactase) was present only at the lumenal surface of small intestine epithelial cells. Full-length lactase (domains I-IV), mature lactase (domains III and IV), and a cytosolic form of mature lactase (domains III and IV, without the signal sequence or transmembrane region) were evaluated. Transfection of HuH-7 cells in vitro, and hydrodynamic gene delivery to the liver in vivo, resulted in excellent gene expression. The full-length and mature (homodimeric, membrane-bound) forms reacted strongly with X-Fuc but not with the corresponding galactopyranoside (X-Gal). However, the presumptively monomeric cytosolic lactase unexpectedly reacted equally well with both substrates. The fluorogenic substrate fluorescein-di-beta-D-galactopyranoside was cleaved by cytosolic lactase, but not by full-length or mature lactase. Full-length lactase, when expressed ectopically in hepatocytes in vivo, localized exclusively to the bile canalicular membrane. Intestinal lactase is highly homologous in mice, rats, and humans and has considerable potential for evaluating long-term gene expression in experimental animals and the clinic.

  7. Antifungal Saponins from the Maya Medicinal Plant Cestrum schlechtendahlii G. Don (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Ta, Chieu Anh Kim; Guerrero-Analco, J Antonio; Roberts, Elizabeth; Liu, Rui; Mogg, Christopher D; Saleem, Ammar; Otárola-Rojas, Marco; Poveda, Luis; Sanchez-Vindas, Pablo; Cal, Victor; Caal, Federico; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Smith, Myron L; Arnason, John T

    2016-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract (80% EtOH) of the leaves of Cestrum schlechtendahlii, a plant used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers for treatment of athlete's foot, resulted in the isolation and identification of two spirostanol saponins (1 and 2). Structure elucidation by MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods identified them to be the known saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and new saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2). While 2 showed little or no antifungal activity at the highest concentration tested, 1 inhibited growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15-25 μM), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Fusarium graminearum (MIC of 132-198 μM).

  8. Role of endosymbiotic zooxanthellae and coral mucus in the adhesion of the coral-bleaching pathogen Vibrio shiloi to its host.

    PubMed

    Banin, E; Israely, T; Fine, M; Loya, Y; Rosenberg, E

    2001-05-15

    Vibrio shiloi, the causative agent of bleaching the coral Oculina patagonica in the Mediterranean Sea, adheres to its coral host by a beta-D-galactopyranoside-containing receptor on the coral surface. The receptor is present in the coral mucus, since V. shiloi adhered avidly to mucus-coated ELISA plates. Adhesion was inhibited by methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside. Removal of the mucus from O. patagonica resulted in a delay in adhesion of V. shiloi to the coral, corresponding to regeneration of the mucus. DCMU inhibited the recovery of adhesion of the bacteria to the mucus-depleted corals, indicating that active photosynthesis by the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae was necessary for the synthesis or secretion of the receptor. Further evidence of the role of the zooxanthellae in producing the receptor came from a study of adhesion of V. shiloi to different species of corals. The bacteria failed to adhere to bleached corals and white (azooxanthellate) O. patagonica cave corals, both of which lacked the algae. In addition, V. shiloi adhered to two Mediterranean corals (Madracis and Cladocora) that contained zooxanthellae and did not adhere to two azooxanthellate Mediterranean corals (Phyllangia and Polycyathus). V. shiloi demonstrated positive chemotaxis towards the mucus of O. patagonica. The data demonstrate that endosymbiotic zooxanthellae contribute to the production of coral mucus and that V. shiloi infects only mucus-containing, zooxanthellate corals.

  9. Comments on Methods to Suppress Endogenous β-Galactosidase Activity in Mouse Tissues Expressing the LacZ Reporter Gene.

    PubMed

    Merkwitz, Claudia; Blaschuk, Orest; Schulz, Angela; Ricken, Albert Markus

    2016-10-01

    The Escherichia coli LacZ gene (encoding β-galactosidase) is a widely used reporter for gene regulation analysis in transgenic mice. Determination of β-galactosidase activity is classically performed using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-galactopyranoside/ferri-/ferrocyanide (X-Gal/FeCN) histochemistry. Uncertainty about the origin of the β-galactosidase signal is encountered in tissues containing high levels of endogenous β-galactosidase. Here, we show that reliable results can nevertheless be obtained in these tissues by performing the histochemical reaction under slightly basic pH conditions (pH 8-9). We further demonstrate that in this context, analysis of tissue sections may be advantageous over that of conventional whole-mount tissues because poor dye penetration and remaining tissue acidity are avoided in tissue sections. We also recommend that bacterial debris should always be carefully removed from the luminal surface of gastrointestinal tract specimens unless staining of resident microflora is deliberately used as an internal positive control in the assay. Finally, we show that 6-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-galactopyranoside with nitrotetrazolium blue chloride works well as an alternative chromogenic substrate for visualizing LacZ reporter gene expression in cryostat sections. Its use in high endogenous β-galactosidase-expressing organs is superior over the use of X-Gal/FeCN at slightly basic pH conditions.

  10. Galactosylation of caffeic acid by an engineered β-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lili; Guo, Yuchuan; Xu, Lijuan; Qi, Tingting; Jin, Lan; Xu, Li; Xiao, Min

    2015-04-01

    Glycosylation is useful for improving the chemical properties and physiological functions of biologically and pharmacologically important compounds. The glycosylation of phenolic compounds can increase their solubility and stability in water. The addition of galactose residue has special meaning as it facilitates targeted delivery of drugs to the liver cancer cells with abundant galactose acceptors on the cell surface. In this work, the engineered β-galactosidase W980F from Lactobacillus bulgaricus L3 was utilized for the glycosylation of caffeic acid, a well-known phenolic phytochemical with broad bioactivities. The reaction was performed by incubation of the enzyme with 200 mM of lactose and 100 mM of caffeic acid at 45°C for 1 h. The product was purified and analyzed by MS and NMR spectra. The MS revealed a signal of [M-H]‒ at m/z 341.09, suggesting monogalactosylated products of caffeic acid (Mr 342). The NMR spectra further identified the products to be caffeic acid 3'-O-β- galactopyranoside and caffeic acid 4'-O-β-galactopyranoside in a ratio of 1:3. This was the first discovery that caffeic acid could be galactosylated by the engineered glycosidase.

  11. Farinose alpine Primula species: phytochemical and morphological investigations.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Paola S; Flamini, Guido; Christodoulou, Michael S; Rodondi, Graziella; Vitalini, Sara; Passarella, Daniele; Fico, Gelsomina

    2014-02-01

    This work investigated the epicuticular and tissue flavonoids, the volatiles and the glandular trichome structure of the leaves of four species of Primula L. that grow in the Italian Eastern Alps. Primula albenensis Banfi and Ferlinghetti, P. auricula L., P. farinosa L., P. halleri Gmelin produce farinose exudates that are deposited on the leaf surface as filamentous crystalloids. In addition to compounds already known, a new flavone, the 3,5-dihydroxyflavone, was isolated from the acetone extract of leaf farinas and three new flavonol glycosides, 3'-O-(β-galactopyranosyl)-2'-hydroxyflavone, isorhamnetin 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-O-β-galactopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-O-β-galactopyranoside, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves. All the structures were elucidated on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR data and 2D NMR techniques, as well as on HPLC-MS. The leaf-volatiles emitted by these Primula species were mainly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, with the exception of P. albenensis, which produced almost exclusively a non-terpene derivative; P. halleri flowers were also examined and the volatiles emitted by the flower parts (corolla and calyx) were compared with the corresponding leaves.

  12. Novel flavonol glycosides from the aerial parts of lentil (Lens culinaris).

    PubMed

    Żuchowski, Jerzy; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna

    2014-11-06

    While the phytochemical composition of lentil (Lens culinaris) seeds is well described in scientific literature, there is very little available data about secondary metabolites from lentil leaves and stems. Our research reveals that the aerial parts of lentil are a rich source of flavonoids. Six kaempferol and twelve quercetin glycosides were isolated, their structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and chemical methods. This group includes 16 compounds which have not been previously described in the scientific literature: quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucuropyranoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-galacto-pyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucuropyranoside (3), their derivatives 4-10,12-15,17,18 acylated with caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, or 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid and kaempferol 3-O-{[(6-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)}-β-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (11). Their DPPH scavenging activity was also evaluated. This is probably the first detailed description of flavonoids from the aerial parts of lentil.

  13. Characterization of galactosidases from Aspergillus niger: purification of a novel alpha-galactosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Manzanares, P; de Graaff, L H; Visser, J

    1998-04-01

    An enzyme with beta-galactosidase activity and three proteins exhibiting alpha-galactosidase activity were purified from a culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger grown on arabinoxylan. beta-galactosidase, optimally active at pH 4 and 60-65 degrees C, was active against p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, lactose, and pectic galactan. It was not able to release galactose from sugar beet pectin or lemon pectin. Its action on pectic galactan was increased by the presence of beta-galactanase. The three forms of alpha-galactosidase activity that showed different molecular masses and pIs were found to have the same mass after deglycosylation with N-glycanase F and to be the same protein based on their N-terminal amino acid sequence data. The purified alpha-galactosidase was shown to be different from alpha-galactosidase A from A. niger. This confirmed the existence of at least two different alpha-galactosidases in A. niger. alpha-Galactosidase, optimally active at pH 4.5 and 50-55 degrees C, was active toward p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, melibiose, raffinose, stachyose, and locust bean gum, on which substrate it exhibited synergism with beta-mannanase.

  14. Molecular Characterization of the α-Galactosidase SCO0284 from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), a Family 27 Glycosyl Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Temuujin, Uyangaa; Park, Jae Seon; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2016-09-28

    The SCO0284 gene of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is predicted to encode an α-galactosidase (680 amino acids) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 27. In this study, the SCO0284 coding region was cloned and overexpressed in Streptomyces lividans TK24. The mature form of SCO0284 (641 amino acids, 68 kDa) was purified from culture broth by gel filtration chromatography, with 83.3-fold purification and a yield of 11.2%. Purified SCO0284 showed strong activity against p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside, melibiose, raffinose, and stachyose, and no activity toward lactose, agar (galactan), and neoagarooligosaccharides, indicating that it is an α-galactosidase. Optimal enzyme activity was observed at 40°C and pH 7.0. The addition of metal ions or EDTA did not affect the enzyme activity, indicating that no metal cofactor is required. The kinetic parameters Vmax and Km for p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside were 1.6 mg/ml (0.0053 M) and 71.4 U/mg, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the hydrolyzed products of melibiose, raffinose, and stachyose showed perfect matches with the masses of the sodium adducts of the hydrolyzed products, galactose (M+Na, 203), melibiose (M+Na, 365), and raffinose (M+Na, 527), respectively, indicating that it specifically cleaves the α-1,6-glycosidic bond of the substrate, releasing the terminal D-galactose.

  15. Preparation and X-ray characterization of four new crystal forms of jacalin, a lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, R; Dhanaraj, V; Mahanta, S K; Surolia, A; Vijayan, M

    1991-10-01

    Four new crystal forms of the anti-T lectin from jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) have been prepared and characterized. Three of them, two monoclinic (P21, a = 59.4 A, b = 83.3 A, c = 63.5 A, beta = 107.7 degrees; C2, a = 106.1 A, b = 53.9 A, c = 128.0 A, beta = 95.0 A) and one orthorhombic (C222(1), a = 98.1 A, b = 67.3 A, c = 95.1 A) were grown with 2-methylpentan-2,4-diol (MPD) as the precipitant while the fourth, an hexagonal form (P6(1)22, a = b = 129.6 A, c = 157.9 A), was obtained in the presence of methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside with polyethylene glycol 4000 as the precipitant. The reported relative molecular mass (Mr) of the lectin was found to be inconsistent with the solvent content of the crystals estimated using measured densities. The Mr was redetermined using size-exclusion chromatography in the presence of methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside and Ferguson-plot analysis of mobilities in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The redetermined Mr (66,000) is consistent with the measured crystal densities. The orthorhombic and the hexagonal forms, which have one half molecule and one molecule, respectively, in the asymmetric unit, are suitable for high-resolution X-ray analysis.

  16. Porphyrin binding to jacalin is facilitated by the inherent plasticity of the carbohydrate-binding site: novel mode of lectin-ligand interaction.

    PubMed

    Goel, M; Anuradha, P; Kaur, K J; Maiya, B G; Swamy, M J; Salunke, D M

    2004-02-01

    The crystal structure of the complex of meso-tetrasulfonatophenylporphyrin (H(2)TPPS) with jack fruit (Artocarpus integriflora) agglutinin (jacalin) has been determined at 1.8 A resolution. A porphyrin pair is sandwiched between two symmetry-related jacalin monomers in the crystal, leading to a cross-linking network of protein molecules. Apart from the stacking interactions, H(2)TPPS also forms hydrogen bonds, some involving water bridges, with jacalin at the carbohydrate-binding site. The residues that are involved in rendering galactopyranoside specificity to jacalin undergo conformational adjustments in order to accommodate the H(2)TPPS molecule. The water molecules at the carbohydrate-binding site of jacalin cement the jacalin-porphyrin interactions, optimizing their complementarity. Interactions of porphyrin with jacalin are relatively weak compared with those observed between galactopyranoside and jacalin, perhaps because the former largely involves water-mediated hydrogen bonds. While H(2)TPPS binds to jacalin at the carbohydrate-binding site as in the case of ConA, its mode of interaction with jacalin is very different. H(2)TPPS does not enter the carbohydrate-binding cavity of jacalin. Instead, it sits over the binding site. While the porphyrin binding is mediated by replicating the hydrogen-bonding network of mannopyranoside through the sulfonate atoms in the case of ConA, the plasticity associated with the carbohydrate-binding site accommodates the pluripotent porphyrin molecule in the case of jacalin through an entirely different set of interactions.

  17. Evaluation of beta-galactosidase activity in tissue in the presence of blood.

    PubMed

    Pelisek, J; Armeanu, S; Nikol, S

    2000-01-01

    The reporter gene for beta-galactosidase is frequently used to determine the efficiency of gene transfer in arteries. However, blood is often present in arterial explants and may compromise the results by the presence of hemoglobin. The light absorption of hemoglobin is similar to the absorption of several colorimetric products of the commonly used beta-galactosidase substrates, including o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) and chlorophenol red galactopyranoside (CPRG). This may result in false-positive measurements of beta-galactosidase enzyme activity. The aim of this investigation was to determine the most appropriate method for quantification of beta-galactosidase activity in the presence of blood. Colorimetric substrates (ONPG, CPRG) or the chemiluminescent Galacton-Plus substrate were used, and light absorption was measured at different concentrations of erythrocyte extract. Among the beta-galactosidase substrates tested, CPRG was the most appropriate, allowing detection of enzyme activity at concentrations as low as 0.05 mU, independent of blood contamination. Addition of reducer stabilized enzyme activity for at least 5 h. Endogenous beta-galactosidase activity was evaluated and used to correct results. CPRG substrate, in combination with the reducer agent mercaptoethanol, was found to be the optimal reagent for quantifying beta-galactosidase activity in the presence of blood after nonviral in vivo reporter gene transfection, even with a relatively low transfer efficiency.

  18. Engineered antibodies take center stage.

    PubMed

    Huston, J S; George, A J

    2001-01-01

    implications across many disciplines. The growth in antibody engineering was highlighted by the attendance of some 600 participants at the meeting, doubling that of the 1999 meeting. Dramatic clinical acceptance of monoclonal antibodies during the past two years has fostered this growth, with sales in 2000 of 1.8 billion dollars and projections for 2001 of 3 billion dollars. However, economic measures cannot begin to convey the medical revolution that is being effected by these first humanized and chimerized monoclonal antibodies. At this juncture, the 10 monoclonal antibody therapeutics in clinical use are of murine origin, of which 3 are entirely murine (OKT3, Mylotarg, 90Y-labeled Bexxar), 4 have been chimerized (human constant domains replacing murine) (ReoPro, Rituxan and its 131I-labeled analogue (Zevalin), Simulect, Remicade) and 3 were chimerized and humanized (human residues being substituted for at least some mouse-specific framework residues in VH and VL) (Zenapax, Herceptin, Synagis). Fully humanized anti-CD52 (CAMPATH-1H) has also been approved by the FDA for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and should become available in late 2001. Humanization was initially developed by Dr. Greg Winter at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Cambridge, UK), who presented the meeting's keynote address, "Antibodies as a Paradigm for Molecular Evolution". His pioneering work in antibody phage display libraries has been reformulated into a daring approach to develop truly novel proteins with genetically paired structural elements. He described studies in combinatorial protein engineering with enormous implications for both industrial and therapeutic applications of macromolecules.

  19. Evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness of 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Ji, Yan-Hui; Li, Cheng-Xia; Liu, Zhong-Yun; Li, Ning; Fang, Lei; Chang, Jin; Tan, Jian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological effects of internal irradiation, and the therapeutic effectiveness was assessed of 131I-labeled anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) liposomes, derived from cetuximab, when used as a tumor-targeting carrier in a colorectal cancer mouse model. METHODS: We described the liposomes and characterized their EGFR-targeted binding and cellular uptake in EGFR-overexpressing LS180 colorectal cancer cells. After intra-tumor injections of 74 MBq (740 MBq/mL) 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL, we investigated the biological effects of internal irradiation and the therapeutic efficacy of 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL on colorectal cancer in a male BALB/c mouse model. Tumor size, body weight, histopathology, and SPECT imaging were monitored for 33 d post-therapy. RESULTS: The rapid radioiodine uptake of 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL and 131I-BSA-PCL reached maximum levels at 4 h after incubation, and the 131I uptake of 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL was higher than that of 131I-BSA-PCL in vitro. The 131I tissue distribution assay revealed that 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL was markedly taken up by the tumor. Furthermore, a tissue distribution assay revealed that 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL was markedly taken up by the tumor and reached its maximal uptake value of 21.0 ± 1.01 %ID/g (%ID/g is the percentage injected dose per gram of tissue) at 72 h following therapy; the drug concentration in the tumor was higher than that in the liver, heart, colon, or spleen. Tumor size measurements showed that tumor development was significantly inhibited by treatments with 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL and 131I-BSA-PCL. The volume of tumor increased, and treatment rate with 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL was 124% ± 7%, lower than that with 131I-BSA-PCL (127% ± 9%), 131I (143% ± 7%), and normal saline (146% ± 10%). The percentage losses in original body weights were 39% ± 3%, 41% ± 4%, 49% ± 5%, and 55% ± 13%, respectively. The best survival and cure rates were obtained in the group treated with 131I

  20. Jacalin: isolation, characterization, and influence of various factors on its interaction with human IgA1, as assessed by precipitation and latex agglutination.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, K; Collet-Cassart, D; Kobayashi, K; Vaerman, J P

    1988-01-01

    An IgA1-specific lectin, Jacalin, was isolated from dried seeds of the jackfruit, Artocarpus integrifolia, by affinity binding to IgA1-Sepharose and elution with D-galactose. Jacalin is a glycoprotein with two non-covalently bound subunits (15 and 18 K). Interactions between Jacalin and human Igs were studied by precipitation in gel and in solution, and by agglutination of IgA1-coated latex by Jacalin. Jacalin precipitated only with IgA1-containing samples, including monomers, polymers, monoclonal, polyclonal and secretory IgA1, but not IgA2 of both A2m(1) and A2m(2) allotypes, nor with IgG1, 2, 3 and 4, IgM, IgD, and IgE; after neuraminidase treatment, only IgA1 and IgD were precipitated. Jacalin had a relatively broad pH range of activity in both precipitation and agglutination of IgA1-latex. Bivalent metal cations (Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Cd), EDTA, Triton X-100, Tween-20, Na deoxycholate and ionic strength did not influence these reactions. Na dodecylsulphate, guanidine and urea inhibited the reactions whereas NP-40 rather enhanced them. Among 39 types of sugar tested, 10 displayed inhibitory activity, decreasing in the following order: p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, 1-O-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, D-melibiose, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, GalNAc, stachyose, 1-O-methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside, D-galactose, D-galactosamine and 1-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside. IgA1, treated with neuraminidase or not, but not the other human Igs, was also an excellent inhibitor of agglutination, being more powerful than the best sugars studied. Only neuraminidase-treated IgD was also inhibitory, but less so than IgA1. Jacalin preferentially bound to alpha-linked non-reducing D-galactose. The configuration of OH-groups at C-2, C-4 and C-6 of D-galactose was important for the reaction. Jacalin recognizes terminal Gal beta 1-3GalNac-, as in the IgA1-hinge, and/or GalNAc-, but not Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc-, nor Gal beta 1-6GlcNAc-, nor their sialylayted

  1. The constituents and their bioactivities of Houttuynia cordata.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shu-Chen; Su, Chung-Ren; Ku, Yuh-Chi; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2009-11-01

    Chemical investigation on the whole plant of Houttuynia cordata has resulted in the isolation of two new compounds, named as houttuynoside A (1) and houttuynamide A (2), together with thirty-eight known compounds. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. In the inhibitory effects on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) assay, norcepharadione B (10) showed good inhibitory activity against the replication of HSV-1. In addition, the antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of some isolated compounds were also evaluated. Among these compounds, quercitrin (25) and quercetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (26) showed excellent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging property with IC50 values of 31 and 63 microM, respectively. Cepharadione B (9) exhibited strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 170 microM.

  2. Antiviral effect of flavonol glycosides isolated from the leaf of Zanthoxylum piperitum on influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Ha, Song-Yi; Youn, Hana; Song, Chang-Seon; Kang, Se Chan; Bae, Jong Jin; Kim, Hee Tae; Lee, Kwang Min; Eom, Tae Hoon; Kim, In Su; Kwak, Jong Hwan

    2014-04-01

    The ethanol extract of Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC. showed in vitro antiviral activity against influenza A virus. Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of Z. piperitum leaf by means of activity-guided chromatographic separation. Structures of isolated compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (1), quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (3) by comparing their spectral data with literature values. The anti-influenza viral activity of isolates was evaluated using a plaque reduction assay against influenza A/NWS/33 (H1N1) virus. The compounds also were subjected to neuraminidase inhibition assay in influenza A/NWS/33 virus. Compounds 1-3 exhibited antiviral activity against an influenza A virus in vitro, and inhibited the neuraminidase activity at relatively high concentrations.

  3. Distinct chemotypes of Tephrosia vogelii and implications for their use in pest control and soil enrichment.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Philip C; Kite, Geoffrey C; Lewis, Gwilym P; Forest, Félix; Nyirenda, Stephen P; Belmain, Steven R; Sileshi, Gudeta W; Veitch, Nigel C

    2012-06-01

    unrecorded flavonol glycosides present in T. candida were determined using cryoprobe NMR spectroscopy and MS as the 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-β-galactopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-galactopyranoside, 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-galactopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, and 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[(3-O-E-feruloyl)-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-galactopyranosides of 6-hydroxykaempferol 6-methyl ether. Tentative structures for a further 37 flavonol glycosides of T. candida were assigned by LC-MS/MS. The correct chemotype of T. vogelii (i.e. C1) needs to be promoted for use by farmers in pest control applications. PMID:22483325

  4. Flavonoid glycosides from Prunus armeniaca and the antibacterial activity of a crude extract.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Fahima; Ahmed, Rehana; Mahmood, Azhar; Ahmad, Zaheer; Bibi, Nazia; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2007-08-01

    Investigations on the chemical constituents of the fruits of Prunus armeniaca have led to the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, 4',5,7-trihydroxy flavone-7-O-[beta-D-mannopyranosyl (1'''-->2")]-beta-D-allopyranoside (1) and 3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-3',5'-di-methoxy flavone 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1'''-->6")]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), from the butanolic fraction of the fruits. The butanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through spectral studies, including 2D-NMR (COSY, NOESY, J-resolved), HMQC and HMBC experiments.

  5. New chlorogenin hexasaccharide isolated from Agave fourcroydes with cytotoxic and cell cycle inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Sakai, Shinobu; Kawahara, Nobuo; Goda, Yukihiro; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Ishibashi, Masami

    2004-07-15

    A new chlorogenin hexasaccharide (1) was isolated from leaves of Agave fourcroydes (Agavaceae). The structure of the new saponin was elucidated as chlorogenin 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside] (1) by spectroscopic analysis and the result of acidic hydrolysis. The new saponin (1) as well as known hexasaccharides (3 and 5) isolated here showed cytotoxicity against HeLa cells, and 1 exhibited a cell cycle inhibitory effect at the G2/M stage at the concentration of 7.5 and 10 microg/mL.

  6. Officinalioside, a new lignan glucoside from Borago officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Samy, Mamdouh Nabil; Hamed, Ashraf Nageeb El-Sayed; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A new lignan glucoside, officinalioside (1), was isolated from n-BuOH fraction of the aerial parts of Borago officinalis L., together with four known compounds: actinidioionoside (2), roseoside (3), crotalionoside C (4) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (5). The structure of the new compound was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50: 52.6 ± 1.70 and 41.3 ± 0.25 μM, respectively) comparable with that of the standard trolox (16.6 ± 2.2 μM) without any significant cytotoxicity towards human cell line A549 (IC50 > 100 μM). PMID:26382913

  7. Activation of a beta-galactosidase recombinant provirus: application to titration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HIV-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Rocancourt, D; Bonnerot, C; Jouin, H; Emerman, M; Nicolas, J F

    1990-06-01

    A quantitative bioassay for human immunodeficiency viruses has been developed on the basis of the ability of the tat gene to transactivate the expression of an integrated beta-galactosidase gene in a HeLa-CD4+ cell line. Infection by a single virion of HIV-1 or HIV-2 corresponds to a unique blue syncytium or a cell cluster detected after fixation and addition of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (a beta-galactosidase substrate). The number of infected lymphoid cells in a culture (stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cell lines) can also be quantified by cell-to-cell transmission of HIV into the HeLa-CD4(+)-beta-galactosidase monolayer. Infections by simian immunodeficiency viruses are similarly detected. This assay has been used to determine the dose response of drugs, the half-life of HIV at 37 degrees C, and the appearance of infectious particles after virus infection.

  8. Characterization of phenolic compounds in Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) exocarp.

    PubMed

    Feuereisen, Michelle M; Hoppe, Julia; Zimmermann, Benno F; Weber, Fabian; Schulze-Kaysers, Nadine; Schieber, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phenolic composition of Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) exocarp extract. Using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis, four anthocyanins, three biflavonoids, gallic acid, and two types of hydrolyzable tannins (galloyl glucoses, galloyl shikimic acids) were tentatively identified. The structure of the so far unknown 7-O-methylpelargonidin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside was elucidated by 2D NMR. Within the group of gallotannins, galloyl shikimic acids with uncommon degrees of galloylation (tetra- to hexagalloyl shikimic acids) were detected. Among the biflavonoids, I3',II8-biapigenin (amentoflavone), I6,II8-biapigenin (agathisflavone), and II-2,3-dihydro-I3',II8-biapigenin were identified, which have already been described for Anacardiaceae. From the results of the present study together with previous findings on the phenolic profile of other Anacardiaceae plants, it is concluded that 7-methoxylated flavonoids are a chemotaxonomic trait frequently found in this family.

  9. Isolation and antioxidant activity of galloyl flavonol glycosides from the seashore plant, Pemphis acidula.

    PubMed

    Masuda, T; Iritani, K; Yonemori, S; Oyama, Y; Takeda, Y

    2001-06-01

    Four kinds of galloyl flavonol glycosides were found in the leaf extract of Pemphis acidula, a plant growing on the subtropical seashore. Their chemical structures were elucidated to be quercetin or kaempferol 6"-O-galloyl-beta-D-glycosides by using spectroscopic and chemical analyses. One of the flavonols, kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-galloyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside), was newly isolated from natural sources and its structure was completely determined in this investigation. The antioxidant-related activities of the galloyl flavonoids were examined by the DPPH antiradical activity, inhibition of methyl linoleate oxidation, and inhibition of oxidative cell death. These results were compared with those of the corresponding non-galloylated flavonol glycosides and their aglycones. The galloyl flavonoids showed more efficient activity than that of the corresponding flavonol glycosides, but not more than that of the corresponding aglycones in the three assays applied.

  10. Lactose-positive Vibrio in seawater: a cause of pneumonia and septicemia in a drowning victim.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, M T; Avery, D M

    1980-01-01

    Lactose-positive Vibrio is a recently recognized marine organism that has pathogenic potential for humans. An organism was isolated from the sputum and blood of a man who was resuscitated after drowning in the sea. The isolates from both sources had the characteristics of lactose-positive Vibrio, which include positive oxidase, citrate, indole, and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside reactions and negative Voges-Proskauer, urease, and sucrose reactions. Seawater samples from 21 sites around Galveston Island were cultured for lactose-positive Vibrio over a period of 4 weeks, and 36% of the samples yielded the organism. The environmental isolates were very similar to the clinical isolates in biochemical reactions and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. The results indicate that lactose-positive Vibrio is a common organism in the marine environment and that it should be considered in the diagnosis of infections, including pneumonia, associated with exposure to the sea. PMID:7381003

  11. Constitutive phenolics of Harpephyllum caffrum (Anacardiaceae) and their biological effects on human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Nawwar, Mahmoud; Hussein, Sahar; Ayoub, Nahla; Hashim, Amani; El-Sharawy, Reham; Lindequist, Urlike; Harms, Manualle; Wende, Kristian

    2011-12-01

    Assessment of the UV protecting potential of an aqueous methanol leaf extract of Harpephyllum caffrum proved that it possesses a distinct radical scavenging effect and inhibits the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 by human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) following UV radiation. Phytochemical investigation of this extract led to isolation and structural determination of the hitherto unknown phenolics, kaempferol 3-O-(2″-sulphatogalactopyranoside), its quercetin analogue and 3-methoxyellagic acid 4-O-galactopyranoside in addition to 18 known phenolic compounds. The structures were determined by spectroscopic and conventional methods of analysis. Flavonoid sulphatoglycosides which have been rarely found in nature were major phenolic constituents of this plant, and this is the first report of the isolation of any of them from Anacardiaceae. The extract was found to diminish UV phototoxic reaction of keratinocytes. However, the isolated kaempferol sulphatogalactopyranoside did not interact with UVB triggered IL-6 production of HaCaT keratinocytes.

  12. Anti-inflammatory polyphenol constituents derived from Cissus pteroclada Hayata.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Jie; Xu, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Dan-Dan; Qin, Jiang-Ke; Ye, Gao-Jie; Deng, Qing-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A new bergenin derivative, bergenin-11-O-α-d-galactopyranoside (compound 1), together with seven known polyphenolic compounds, were isolated from the stem of Cissus pteroclada Hayata. The structures of the 8 compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Moreover, the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of compounds (1-8) in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were also investigated. Our results revealed that compound 1 inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators NO and PGE2 and the expression of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS and COX-2. PMID:27374242

  13. Antiurease activity of plants growing in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hřibová, Petra; Khazneh, Elian; Žemlička, Milan; Švajdlenka, Emil; Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Elokely, Khaled M; Ross, Samir A

    2014-01-01

    The antiurease activity of the aqueous extracts of 42 plants growing in the Czech Republic was investigated. A phenol-hypochlorite reaction was used for the determination of ammonia produced by urease. The inhibitory activity of the extracts at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL varied from 17.8% to 80.0%. Extracts from six Potentilla species expressed inhibitory activity against jack bean urease. They were further investigated for their phenolic constituents and the major compounds were subjected to molecular docking. The results revealed that both jack bean urease and Helicobacter pylori urease were inhibited by quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside-6″-gallate (1), myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (2), tiliroside (3) and B-type procyanidin (4). The antiurease activity of the investigated Potentilla species is probably due to the presence of complex phenolic constituents such as flavonoid glycosides and catechin dimers.

  14. Stereochemical course of hydrolytic reaction catalyzed by alpha-galactosidase from cold adaptable marine bacterium of genus Pseudoalteromonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakunina, Irina; Balabanova, Larissa; Golotin, Vasiliy; Slepchenko, Lyubov; Isakov, Vladimir; Rasskazov, Valeriy

    2014-10-01

    The recombinant α-galactosidase of the marine bacterium (α-PsGal) was synthesized with the use of the plasmid 40Gal, consisting of plasmid pET-40b (+) (Novagen) and the gene corresponding to the open reading frame of the mature α-galactosidase of marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KMM 701, transformed into the E. coli Rosetta(DE3) cells. In order to understand the mechanism of action, the stereochemistry of hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl α-D-galactopyranoside (4-NPGP) by α-PsGal was measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The kinetics of formation of α- and β-anomer of galactose showed that α-anomer initially formed and accumulated, and then an appreciable amount of β-anomer appeared as a result of mutarotation. The data clearly show that the enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-NPGP proceeds with the retention of anomeric configuration, probably, due to a double displacement mechanism of reaction.

  15. Effect of the pH in the formation of β-galactosidase microparticles produced by a spray-drying process.

    PubMed

    Estevinho, Berta N; Ramos, Irena; Rocha, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of pH in the microencapsulation process, using a modified chitosan to microencapsulate the enzyme β-galactosidase, by a spray-drying technique. Structural analysis of the surface of the particles was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing that the obtained microparticles have an average diameter smaller than 3.5 μm and in general a regular shape. The activity of the enzyme was studied by spectrophotometric methods using the substrate O-nitrophenyl-β,D-galactopyranoside (ONPG). The parameters of Michaelis-Menten were calculated. The value of Km decreases with the decrease of the pH, which can be associated to an increase of the affinity between the enzyme and substrate to smaller pH's. The highest value of the parameter Vmax, representing the maximum reaction rate at a given enzyme concentration, was obtained at pH 6.

  16. Adsorption of β-galactosidase on silica and aluminosilicate adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Dobryakova, I. V.; Pilipenko, O. S.

    2015-03-01

    It is shown that adsorption of β-galactosidase of Aspergillus oryzae fungi on mesoporous and biporous silica and aluminosilicate adsorbents and the rate of the process grow along with the diameter of the pores of the adsorbent. It is found that the shape of the adsorption isotherms changes as well, depending on the texture of the adsorbent: the Michaelis constant rises from 0.3 mM for the enzyme in solution to 0.4-0.5 mM for the enzyme on a surface in the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside. It is concluded that β-galactosidase displays its maximum activity on the surface of biporous adsorbents.

  17. Expression of a mouse metallothionein-Escherichia coli. beta. -galactosidase fusion gene (MT-. beta. gal) in early mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, M.E.; Meneses, J.J.; Pedersen, R.A. )

    1989-08-01

    The authors have microinjected DNA containing the inducible mouse metallothionein-I (MT-I) promoter, coupled to the structural gene for Escherichia coli {beta}-galactosidase (lacZ), into the pronuclei of one-cell mouse embryos. A qualitative histochemical assay, with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) as a substrate, was used to detect expression of lacZ at several preimplantation stages. They observed staining indicative of exogenous {beta}-galactosidase activity in 5-17% of DNA-injected embryos assayed at preimplantation stages after 16-24 h treatment with ZnSO{sub 4}. Thus, lacZ can be used as an indicator gene for promoter function during early mouse embryogenesis, and the incorporation of the MT-I promoter into fusion genes can be a useful means of controlling the expression of exogenous genes in preimplantation mouse embryos.

  18. In Situ Hybridization Methods for Mouse Whole Mounts and Tissue Sections with and Without Additional β-Galactosidase Staining

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Kishigami, Satoshi; Mishina, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    In situ hybridization is a powerful method for detecting endogenous mRNA sequences in morphologically preserved samples. We provide in situ hybridization methods, which are specifically optimized for mouse embryonic samples as whole mounts and section tissues. Additionally, β-Galactosidase (β-gal) is a popular reporter for detecting the expression of endogenous or exogenous genes. We reveal that 6-chloro-3-indoxyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (S-gal) is a more sensitive substrate for β-gal activity than 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactoside (X-gal). S-gal is advantageous where β-gal activity is limited including early stage mouse embryos. As a result of the increased sensitivity as well as the color compatibility of S-gal, we successfully combined β-gal staining using S-gal with in situ hybridization using DIG-labeled probes in both whole mounts and sections. PMID:24318810

  19. Distinct chemotypes of Tephrosia vogelii and implications for their use in pest control and soil enrichment.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Philip C; Kite, Geoffrey C; Lewis, Gwilym P; Forest, Félix; Nyirenda, Stephen P; Belmain, Steven R; Sileshi, Gudeta W; Veitch, Nigel C

    2012-06-01

    unrecorded flavonol glycosides present in T. candida were determined using cryoprobe NMR spectroscopy and MS as the 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-β-galactopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-galactopyranoside, 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-galactopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, and 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[(3-O-E-feruloyl)-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-galactopyranosides of 6-hydroxykaempferol 6-methyl ether. Tentative structures for a further 37 flavonol glycosides of T. candida were assigned by LC-MS/MS. The correct chemotype of T. vogelii (i.e. C1) needs to be promoted for use by farmers in pest control applications.

  20. Studies on the flavone glycosides from Fructus Kochiae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun-Hui; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Nian; Kong, De-Yun; Hua, Mo-Li

    2014-01-01

    A series of flavone glycosides were isolated from Fructus Kochiae for the first time, including two new flavone glycosides. The structures were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. Two new flavone glycosides are quercetin 3-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-sophoroside (2). The others are quercetin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), quercetin 3-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-galactopyranoside (4), quercetin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), and quercetin 7-O-β-d-sophoroside (6). PMID:23919635

  1. High-performance liquid chromatographic identification of flavonoid monoglycosides from Prunus serotina ehrh.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Monika

    2005-01-01

    Five minor flavonoid monosides, glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol, together with three previously isolated compounds were identified cochromatographically in P. serotina Ehrh. leaves and flowers (inflorescences) using RP-HPLC and TLC techniques and finally determined as quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside (avicularin), 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (guaijaverin), 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (reynoutrin), 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin), 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (hyperoside) followed by kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside (juglanin), 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin). Moreover, two further minor flavonols were isolated from the leaves, characterized by hydrolysis experiments, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and identified finally as isorhamnetin 3-O-alpha-arabinofuranoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-xylopyranoside, the rare natural products. PMID:16583982

  2. [Chemical constituents from Solanum rostratum].

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Juan; Wang, Shan; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wei, Shou-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Ten compounds were isolated from the aerial part of Solanum rostratum by means of various chromatographic techniques such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified as dioscin (1), hypoglaucin H (2), hyperin (3), isoquercitrin (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (5), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (6), smilaxchinoside A (7), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3beta, 20alpha,26-triol-25 (R) -delta5,22-dienofurostan-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2) -[ alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)] -beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), beta-sitosterol (9), and daucosterol (10), on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Among them ,compounds 7 and 8 were isolated from the genus Solanum for the first time, and the remaining compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  3. Developing a Biosensor for Estrogens in Water Samples: Study ofthe Real-time Response of Live Cells of the Estrogen-sensitive YeastStrain RMY/ER-ERE using Fluorescence Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wozei, E.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Holman, H-Y.N.

    2005-07-13

    Using a fluorescein di-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) substrate we show that in live cells of an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE with human estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes {beta}-galactosidase, the uptake of 17 {beta}-estradiol (E2) and the subsequent production of {beta}-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximal enzyme-catalyzed product formation evident after about 30 minutes of exposure to E2. This finding which agrees with the well-known rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions could have implications for shortening the duration of environmental sample screening and monitoring regimes using yeast-based estrogen assays, and the development of biosensors for environmental estrogens to complement quantification methods.

  4. Developing a Biosensor for Estrogens in Water Samples: Study ofthe Real-time Response of Live Cells of the Estrogen-sensitive YeastStrain RMY/ER-ERE using Fluorescence Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wozei, E.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Holman, H-Y.N.

    2006-01-01

    Using a fluorescein di-{beta}-d-galactopyranoside (FDG) substrate we show that in live cells of an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE with human estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes {beta}-galactosidase, the uptake of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and the subsequent production of {beta}-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximal enzyme-catalyzed product formation evident after about 30 min of exposure to E2. This finding which agrees with the well-known rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions could have implications for shortening the duration of environmental sample screening and monitoring regimes using yeast-based estrogen assays, and the development of biosensors for environmental estrogens to complement quantification methods.

  5. Lectins in fish skin: do they play a role in host-monogenean interactions?

    PubMed

    Buchmann, K

    2001-09-01

    Mucus samples from rainbow trout skin with or without infections by Gyrodactylus derjavini were tested for the presence of lectins reacting with mannose, galactose and lactose. The samples inhibited the binding of biotinylated lectins (from Canavalia ensiformis, Artocarpus integrifolia and Erythrina corallodendron, respectively) to microtitre plates with covalently bound carbohydrates (mannopyranoside, galactopyranoside and lactose, respectively). However, the inhibition of C. ensiformis and A. integrifolia lectins was slightly greater when mucus from infected (but recovering) fish was used, suggesting an increase of mannose and galactose binding lectins in fish skin exposed to parasites. As mannose, galactose and lactose are present on the glycocalyx of Gyrodactylus derjavini, it is suggested that lectins could play a dual role in interactions between fish hosts and their monogenean parasites. Thus, recognition between parasite and host and also host responses towards parasite infections could both, at least partly, involve carbohydrate-lectin binding.

  6. Fluorimetric studies on saccharide binding to the basic lectin from Artocarpus hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, S M; Gurjar, M M; Khan, M I

    1998-09-01

    The binding of Artocarpus hirsuta lectin to galactose and its derivatives was examined by fluorescence spectroscopy. The intrinsic fluorescence intensity of the lectin was enhanced by 55% upon binding to methyl alpha-galactose without any change in the emission maximum (333 nm). 4-Methyl umbellifery alpha-galactopyranoside showed 100% quenching of its fluorescence intensity upon binding to the lectin without any shift in the emission maximum (373 nm). The association constant for the binding of the above sugars to the lectin decreases with increasing temperature. Methyl group in the alpha anomeric position of galactose enhanced the binding while that in the beta position reduced the binding to the lectin. Solute quenching studies of the lectin using acrylamide, potassium iodide and cesium chloride indicated that the tryptophan residues were fully accessible to the neutral quencher, while only partly accessible to the ionic quenchers.

  7. Phenolics of Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) fruits: identification of anthocyanins and gallic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pawlowska, Agata Maria; De Leo, Marinella; Braca, Alessandra

    2006-12-27

    Arbutus unedo L., the strawberry tree (Ericaceae family), is an evergreen shrub or small tree, typical of the Mediterranean fringe and climate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the profile of the phenolic constituents of A. unedo fruits. Seven compounds were purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography of the MeOH extract followed by HPLC and were characterized as arbutin, beta-D-glucogalline, gallic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-galloylquinic acid, 5-O-galloylquinic acid, 3-O-galloylshikimic acid, and 5-O-galloylshikimic acid, by means of NMR and ESI-MS analyses. Moreover, LC-PDA-MS analysis of the red pigment of A. unedo fruits revealed the presence of three anthocyanins recognized as cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-arabinopyranoside. These pigments were also quantified. PMID:17177565

  8. Officinalioside, a new lignan glucoside from Borago officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Samy, Mamdouh Nabil; Hamed, Ashraf Nageeb El-Sayed; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A new lignan glucoside, officinalioside (1), was isolated from n-BuOH fraction of the aerial parts of Borago officinalis L., together with four known compounds: actinidioionoside (2), roseoside (3), crotalionoside C (4) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (5). The structure of the new compound was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50: 52.6 ± 1.70 and 41.3 ± 0.25 μM, respectively) comparable with that of the standard trolox (16.6 ± 2.2 μM) without any significant cytotoxicity towards human cell line A549 (IC50 > 100 μM).

  9. Two new steroidal saponins from dried fermented residues of leaf-juices of Agave sisalana forma Dong No. 1.

    PubMed

    Ding, Y; Tian, R H; Yang, C R; Chen, Y Y; Nohara, T

    1993-03-01

    In a previous paper, we reported the isolation and structure determination of three new steroidal saponins, dongnosides C (3), D (2) and E (1) from the dried fermented residues of leaf-juices of Agave sisalana forma Dong No. 1. In a continuing study on this plant, two additional new major steroidal saponins, named dongnosides B (4) and A (5), were obtained. Their structures were characterized respectively as tigogenin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamonpyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)- [beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactop yranoside and 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta- D- xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  10. A new bioactive steroidal saponin from Agave attenuata.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bernadete P; de Sousa, Allyne C; Silva, Graziela M; Mendes, Tatiana P; Parente, José P

    2002-01-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the leaves of Agave attenuata Salm-Dyck. Its structure was established as (3beta,5beta,22alpha,25S)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-22-methoxyfurostan-3-yl O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside. The structural identification was performed using detailed analyses of 1H and 13C NMR spectra including 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques (COSY, HETCOR and COLOC) and chemical conversions. The haemolytic potential of the steroidal saponin was evaluated and the anti-inflammatory activity was performed using the capillary permeability assay.

  11. O-glycan inhibitors generate aryl-glycans, induce apoptosis and lead to growth inhibition in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Patsos, Georgios; Hebbe-Viton, Virginie; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine; Masselot, David; San Martin, Raul; Greenwood, Rosemary; Paraskeva, Christos; Klein, Andreas; Graessmann, Monika; Michalski, Jean Claude; Gallagher, Timothy; Corfield, Anthony

    2009-04-01

    Our studies provide direct evidence that O-glycosylation pathways play a role in the regulation of cell growth through apoptosis and proliferation pathways. A series of small molecular weight analogs of the GalNAc-alpha-1-O-serine/threonine structure based on 1-benzyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-O-d-galactopyranoside have been synthesized and tested in the human colorectal cancer cell lines PC/AA/C1/SB10C and HCA7/C29. Three inhibitors, 1-benzyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-O-D-galactopyranoside, and the corresponding 2-azido- and C-glycoside analogs were screened in these colorectal cancer cell lines at 0.5 mM and showed induction of apoptosis and downregulation of proliferation. Treatment of both cell lines with inhibitors led to changes in glycosylation detected with peanut lectin. The inhibition of glycosyltransferase activity in cell homogenates from human colorectal mucosal cells and cultured cell lines could be shown. The competitive action of the inhibitors resulted in the intracellular formation of 28 aryl-glycan products which were identified by MALDI and electrospray mass spectroscopy. The structures showed a differential pattern for each of the inhibitors in both cell lines. Gene array analysis of the glycogenes illustrated a pattern of glycosyltransferases that matched the glycan structures found in glycoproteins and aryl-glycans formed in the PC/AA/C1/SB10C cells; however, there was no action of the three inhibitors on glycogene transcript levels. The inhibitors act at both intermediary metabolic and genomic levels, resulting in altered protein glycosylation and aryl-glycan formation. These events may play a part in growth arrest.

  12. New medium for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, K P; Rankin, C C; Roybal, Y R; Stelma, G N; Scarpino, P V; Dufour, A P

    1993-01-01

    A new membrane filter agar medium (MI agar) containing a chromogen, indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide, and a fluorogen, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was developed to simultaneously detect and enumerate Escherichia coli and total coliforms (TC) in water samples on the basis of their enzyme activities. TC produced beta-galactosidase, which cleaved 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside to form 4-methylumbelliferone, a compound that fluoresced under longwave UV light (366 nm), while E. coli produced beta-glucuronidase, which cleaved indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide to form a blue color. The new medium TC and E. coli recoveries were compared with those of mEndo agar and two E. coli media, mTEC agar and nutrient agar supplemented with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide, using natural water samples and spiked drinking water samples. On average, the new medium recovered 1.8 times as many TC as mEndo agar, with greatly reduced background counts (< or = 7%). These differences were statistically significant (significance level, 0.05). Although the overall analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between the E. coli recoveries on MI agar and mTEC agar, the new medium recovered more E. coli in 16 of 23 samples (69.6%). Both MI agar and mTEC agar recovered significantly more E. coli than nutrient agar supplemented with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide. Specificities for E. coli, TC, and noncoliforms on MI agar were 95.7% (66 of 69 samples), 93.1% (161 of 173 samples), and 93.8% (61 of 65 samples), respectively. The E. coli false-positive and false-negative rates were both 4.3%. This selective and specific medium, which employs familiar membrane filter technology [corrected] to analyze several types of water samples, is less expensive than the liquid chromogen and fluorogen media and may be useful for compliance monitoring of drinking water. PMID:8285660

  13. Flavonol tetraglycosides and other constituents from leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum (Leguminosae) and related taxa.

    PubMed

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Stoneham, Charlotte A; Veitch, Nigel C

    2007-05-01

    Two flavonol tetraglycosides comprising a trisaccharide at C-3 and a monosaccharide at C-7 were isolated from the leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott and characterised as the 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosides of quercetin and kaempferol. The 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside of kaempferol, the 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-glucopyranosides of kaempferol and quercetin and the 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-galactopyranoside of kaempferol were also obtained from this species for the first time. Some or all of these flavonol tetra- and triglycosides were detected in 17 of 18 specimens of S. japonicum examined from living and herbarium material, although the most abundant flavonoid in the leaves was generally quercetin 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-glucopyranoside (rutin). The triglycosides, but not the tetraglycosides, were detected in herbarium specimens of Styphnolobium burseroides M. Sousa, Rudd & Medrano and Styphnolobium monteviridis M. Sousa & Rudd, but specimens of Styphnolobium affine (Torrey & A. Gray) Walp. contained a different profile of flavonol glycosides. The flavonol tetra- and triglycosides of S. japonicum were also present in leaves of Cladrastis kentukea (Dum. Cours.) Rudd, a representative of a genus placed close to Styphnolobium in current molecular phylogenies. An additional constituent obtained from leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum was identified as the maltol derivative, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one 3-O-(4'-O-p-coumaroyl-6'-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl))-beta-glucopyranoside. PMID:17462679

  14. NMR studies on the interaction of sugars with the C-terminal domain of an R-type lectin from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Hemmi, Hikaru; Kuno, Atsushi; Ito, Shigeyasu; Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Hasegawa, Tsunemi; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2009-04-01

    The R-type lectin EW29, isolated from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, consists of two homologous domains (14,500 Da) showing 27% identity with each other. The C-terminal domain (Ch; C-half) of EW29 (EW29Ch) has two sugar-binding sites in subdomains alpha and gamma, and the protein uses these sugar-binding sites for its function as a single-domain-type hemagglutinin. In order to determine the sugar-binding ability and specificity for each of the two sugar-binding sites in EW29Ch, ligand-induced chemical-shift changes in EW29Ch were monitored using (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra as a function of increasing concentrations of lactose, melibiose, D-galactose, methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside and methyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. Shift perturbation patterns for well-resolved resonances confirmed that all of these sugars associated independently with the two sugar-binding sites of EW29Ch. NMR titration experiments showed that the sugar-binding site in subdomain alpha had a slow or intermediate exchange regime on the chemical-shift timescale (K(d) = 10(-2) to 10(-1) mM), whereas that in subdomain gamma had a fast exchange regime for these sugars (K(d) = 2-6 mM). Thus, our results suggest that the two sugar-binding sites of EW29Ch in the same molecule retain its hemagglutinating activity, but this activity is 10-fold lower than that of the whole protein because EW29Ch has two sugar-binding sites in the same molecule, one of which has a weak binding mode. PMID:19292877

  15. Synthesis of di- to penta-saccharides related to the O-specific polysaccharide of Shigella dysenteriae type 1, and their nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Pozsgay, V; Coxon, B; Yeh, H

    1993-10-01

    The syntheses of oligosaccharide fragments of the O-specific polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 are described, including disaccharides methyl O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (1), and methyl O-(2-deoxy-2-propionamido-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L- rhamnopyranoside (2), trisaccharide methyl O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D- glucopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (3), tetrasaccharide methyl O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)- O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamno -pyranoside (4), and pentasaccharide methyl O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl- (1-->3)-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-L- rhamnopyranoside (5). The following monosaccharide building blocks were used as starting compounds: methyl 6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-3,4-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-galact opy ranoside (8), methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-2-O-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1-thio-beta-D- galactopyranoside (11), methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-azido-2-deoxy-1-thio-alpha- D-glucopyranoside (16), methyl 2-azido-4,6-O-benzylidene-2-deoxy-1-thio-alpha-D- glucopyranoside (18), methyl 2,4-di-O-benzyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (21), methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-1-thio-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (22), 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl bromide (23), and methyl 4-O-benzyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (24). Nuclear magnetic resonance data indicate that oligosaccharides 4 and 5 partially mimic the conformation of the O-specific polysaccharide of S. dys. type 1. PMID:7521746

  16. Flavonol tetraglycosides from fruits of Styphnolobium japonicum (Leguminosae) and the authentication of Fructus Sophorae and Flos Sophorae.

    PubMed

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Veitch, Nigel C; Boalch, Martha E; Lewis, Gwilym P; Leon, Christine J; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2009-04-01

    The dried fruits and seeds of Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott (syn. Sophora japonica L.) are used in traditional Chinese medicine and known as Fructus Sophorae or Huai Jiao. The major flavonoids in these fruits and seeds were studied by LC-MS and other spectroscopic techniques to aid the chemical authentication of Fructus Sophorae. Among the flavonoids were two previously unreported kaempferol glycosides: kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-beta-xylopyranosyl(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)[beta-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-glucopyranoside, the structures of which were determined by NMR. Two further tetraglycosides were identified for the first time in S. japonicum as kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside; the latter was the main flavonoid in mature seeds. The chromatographic profiles of 27 recorded flavonoids were relatively consistent among fruits of similar ages collected from five trees of S. japonicum, and those of maturing unripe and ripe fruits were similar to a market sample of Fructus Sophorae, and thus provide useful markers for authentication of this herbal ingredient. The flower buds (Huai Mi) and flowers (Huai Hua) of S. japonicum (collectively Flos Sophorae) contained rutin as the main flavonoid and lacked the flavone glycosides that were present in flower buds and flowers of Sophora flavescens Ait., reported to be occasional substitutes for Flos Sophorae. The single major flavonoid in fruits of S. flavescens was determined as 3'-hydroxydaidzein. PMID:19447452

  17. Hydrophobic Tail Length, Degree of Fluorination and Headgroup Stereochemistry are Determinants of the Biocompatibility of (Fluorinated) Carbohydrate Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueshu; Turánek, Jaroslav; Knötigová, Pavlína; Kudláčková, Hana; Mašek, Josef; Parkin, Sean; Rankin, Stephen E; Knutson, Barbara L; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    A series of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon carbohydrate surfactants with different headgroups (i.e., gluco-, galacto- and maltopyranoside) and (fluorinated) alkyl tails (i.e., C7 and C14 to C19) was synthesized to investigate trends in their cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity, and how surfactant-lipid interactions of selected surfactants contribute to these two measures of biocompatibility. All surfactants displayed low cytotoxicity (EC50 = 25 to > 250 μM) and low haemolytic activity (EC50 = 0.2 to > 3.3 mM), with headgroup structure, tail length and degree of fluorination being important structural determinants for both endpoints. The EC50 values of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon glucopyranoside surfactants displayed a “cut-off” effect (i.e., a maximum with respect to the chain length). According to steady-state fluorescence anisotropy studies, short chain (C7) surfactants partitioned less readily into model membranes, which explains their low cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity. Interestingly, galactopyranosides were less toxic compared to glucopyranosides with the same hydrophobic tail. Although both surfactant types only differ in the stereochemistry of the 4-OH group, hexadecyl gluco- and galactopyranoside surfactants had similar apparent membrane partition coefficients, but differed in their overall effect on the phase behaviour of DPPC model membranes, as assessed using steady-state fluorescence anisotropy studies. These observations suggest that highly selective surfactant-lipid interactions may be responsible for the differential cytotoxicity and, possible, haemolytic activity of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon carbohydrate surfactants intended for a variety of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. PMID:19481909

  18. Significant conformational changes in an antigenic carbohydrate epitope upon binding to a monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Glaudemans, C.P.J.; Lerner, L.; Daves, G.D. Jr.; Kovac, P.; Bax, A. ); Venable, R. )

    1990-12-01

    Transferred nulcear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (TRNOE) was used to observe changes in a ligand's conformation upon binding to its specific antibody. The ligands studied were methyl O-{beta}-D-galactopyranosyl(1{yields}6)-4-deoxy-4-fluoro-{beta}-D galactopyranoside (me4FGal{sub 2}) and its selectively deuteriated analogue, methyl O-{beta}-D-galactopyranosyl(1{yields}6)-4-deoxy-2-deuterio-4-fluoro-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (me4F2dGal{sub 2}). The monoclonal antibody was mouse IgA X24. The solution conformation of the free ligand me4F2dGal{sub 2} was inferred from measurements of vicinal {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H coupling constants, long-range {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C coupling constants, and NOE cross-peak intensities. For free ligand, both galactosyl residues adopt a regular chair conformation, but the NMR spectra are incompatible with a single unique conformation of the glycosidic linkage. Analysis of {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H and {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C constants indicates that the major conformer has an extended conformation. TRNOE measurements on me4FGal{sub 2} and me4F2dGal{sub 2} in the presence of the specific antibody indicate that the pyranose ring pucker of each galactose ring remains unchanged, but rotations about the glycosidic linkage occur upon binding to X24. Computer calculations indicate that there are two sets of torsion angles that satisfy the observed NMR constraints. A new method, based on changes in the fluorine longitudinal relaxation rate, is used to measure the ligand-antibody dissociation rate constant.

  19. Biochemical and phylogenetic analyses of a cold-active {beta}-galactosidase from the lactic acid bacterium Carnobacterium piscicola BA

    SciTech Connect

    Coombs, J.M.; Brenchley, J.E.

    1999-12-01

    The authors are investigating glycosyl hydrolases from new psychrophilic isolates to examine the adaptations of enzymes to low temperatures. A {beta}-galactosidase from isolate BA, which they have classified as a strain of the lactic acid bacterium Carnobacterium piscicola, was capable of hydrolyzing the chromogen 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) at 4 C and possessed higher activity in crude cell lysates at 25 than at 37 C. Sequence analysis of a cloned DNA fragment encoding this activity revealed a gene cluster containing three glycosyl hydrolases with homology to an {alpha}-galactosidase and two {beta}-galactosidases. The larger of the two {beta}-galactosidase genes, bgaB, encoded the 76.9-kDa cold-active enzyme. This gene was homologous to family 42 glycosyl hydrolases, a group which contains several thermophilic enzymes but none from lactic acid bacteria. The bgaB gene from isolate BA was subcloned in Escherichia coli, and its enzyme, BgaB, was purified. The purified enzyme was highly unstable and required 10% glycerol to maintain activity. Its optimal temperature for activity was 30 C, and it was inactivated at 40 C in 10 min. The K{sub m} of freshly purified enzyme at 30 C was 1.7 mM, and the V{sub max} was 450 {micro}mol {sm{underscore}bullet} min{sup {minus}1}{sm{underscore}bullet}mg{sup {minus}1} with o-nitrophenyl {beta}-D-galactopyranoside. This cold-active enzyme is interesting because it is homologous to a thermophilic enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus, and comparisons could provide information about structural features important for activity at low temperatures.

  20. Binding specificity of serum amyloid P component for the pyruvate acetal of galactose

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a normal plasma protein that is of interest because of its presence in amyloid deposits, its presence in normal human glomerular basement membrane, and its stable evolutionary conservation. It has calcium-dependent ligand-binding specificity for amyloid fibrils, fibronectin (Fn), C4-binding protein (C4bp), and agarose. Although the binding to agarose, a linear galactan hydrocolloid derived from some marine algae, is unlikely per se to be related to the physiological function of SAP, it does provide a model system in which to explore the precise ligand requirements of SAP. We report here that the amount of SAP from human, mouse, and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) serum able to bind to agarose from different sources reflect precisely their pyruvate content. Methylation with diazomethane of the carboxyl groups in the pyruvate moiety of agarose completely abolishes SAP binding to agarose. The pyruvate in agarose exists as the 4,6-pyruvate acetal of beta-D-galactopyranose. We have therefore synthesized this galactoside, using a novel procedure, established its structure by analysis of its nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and shown that it completely inhibits all known calcium- dependent binding reactions of SAP. The R isomer of the cyclic acetal, methyl 4,6-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (MO beta DG) was effective at millimolar concentration and was more potent than its noncyclic analogue, while pyruvate, D-galactose, and methyl beta-D- galactopyranoside were without effect. The autologous protein ligands of SAP presumably, therefore express a structural determinant(s) that stereochemically resembles MO beta DG. Availability of this specific, well-characterized, low molecular weight ligand for SAP should facilitate further investigation of the function of SAP and its role in physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:6707579

  1. Characterization of a psychrotrophic Arthrobacter gene and its cold-active beta-galactosidase.

    PubMed Central

    Trimbur, D E; Gutshall, K R; Prema, P; Brenchley, J E

    1994-01-01

    Enzymes with high specific activities at low temperatures have potential uses for chemical conversions when low temperatures are required, as in the food industry. Psychrotrophic microorganisms which grow at low temperatures may be a valuable source of cold-active enzymes that have higher activities at low temperatures than enzymes found for mesophilic microorganisms. To find cold-active beta-galactosidases, we isolated and characterized several psychrotrophic microorganisms. One isolate, B7, is an Arthrobacter strain which produces beta-galactosidase when grown in lactose minimal media. Extracts have a specific activity at 30 degrees C of 2 U/mg with o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside as a substrate. Two isozymes were detected when extracts were subjected to electrophoresis in a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and stained for activity with 5-bromo-4-chloro-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal). When chromosomal DNA was prepared and transformed into Escherichia coli, three different genes encoding beta-galactosidase activity were obtained. We have subcloned and sequenced one of these beta-galactosidase genes from the Arthrobacter isolate B7. On the basis of amino acid sequence alignment, the gene was found to have probable catalytic sites homologous to those from the E. coli lacZ gene. The gene encoded a protein of 1,016 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 111 kDa. The enzyme was purified and characterized. The beta-galactosidase from isolate B7 has kinetic properties similar to those of the E. coli lacZ beta-galactosidase but has a temperature optimum 20 degrees C lower than that of the E. coli enzyme. Images PMID:7811090

  2. A beta-D-galactosidase from nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) cotyledons. Purification, properties, and demonstration that xyloglucan is the natural substrate.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M; Bowman, Y J; Dea, I C; Reid, J S

    1988-03-25

    beta-D-Galactosidase activity has been detected previously in the cotyledons of germinated nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) seeds and has been linked to the hydrolysis in vivo of storage xyloglucan (amyloid) (Edwards, M., Dea, I. C. M., Bulpin, P. V., and Reid, J. S. G. (1985) Planta (Berl.) 163, 133-140). The major beta-D-galactosidase present in extracts from the cotyledons of 9-day seedlings has now been purified to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme (Mr 97,000, no subunits) comprised a range of closely related molecular species ranging in isoelectric point from pH 6.6 to 7.1. Further purification to give a single protein band on isoelectric focusing (pI = 7.1) was achieved by chromatofocusing. The pH optimum of the enzyme (mixed molecular species) was 4.0-5.0 (stable from pH 3-10), and the temperature optimum was 50 degrees C (stable to 50 degrees C). It hydrolyzed lactose and beta-D-galactopyranosides but not melibiose and alpha-D-galactopyranosides. It did not release the terminal nonreducing alpha-D-galactopyranosyl residues from seed galactomannans, but catalyzed the rapid removal of terminal nonreducing beta-D-galactopyranosyl residues from xyloglucans. On the basis of the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyze xyloglucans, the kinetics of xyloglucan hydrolysis, and an experimental demonstration of a clear correlation between xyloglucan depletion and the activity in vitro of this enzyme, it is argued that the cell-wall storage xyloglucan of the nasturtium seed is its natural substrate.

  3. Metabolite profiling of the leaves of the Brazilian folk medicine Sideroxylon obtusifolium.

    PubMed

    Passos Oliveira, Adriana; Raith, Melanie; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Rocha, Leandro Machado; Hamburger, Matthias; Potterat, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. & Schult.) T. D. Penn. (family Sapotaceae) is a tree native to Central and South America. Infusions of the bark and the leaves are used in Brazilian folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory remedy. However, information on the constituents of S. obtusifolium remains scarce, and only common pentacyclic triterpenoids have been previously reported. HPLC-DAD/MS analyses revealed that saponins and flavonoids were the main constituents of the leaves. From the butanol-soluble fraction of an ethanolic extract, a total of four saponins and ten flavonol glycosides were isolated by a combination of chromatographic methods including Sephadex LH-20, MPLC, and HPLC. Their structures were established by acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods, mainly MS (n), 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The compounds include the new triterpene glycoside 3-O-( β-D-glucopyranosyl)-protobassic acid 28-O- β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-O-[O- β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 3)- β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-O- α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)- α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester ( 1), as well as the new flavonol glycosides, quercetin-3-O-(O- α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2)-O-[ β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]- β-D-galactopyranoside) ( 6) and kaempferol-3-O-(O- α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[ β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]- β-D-galactopyranoside) ( 8). In addition, catechin and a glycerogalactolipid, gingerglycolipid A, were obtained from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. The isolated compounds could be used in the future as chemical markers for quality control of this herbal drug.

  4. IgA binding lectins isolated from distinct Artocarpus species demonstrate differential specificity.

    PubMed

    Hashim, O H; Ng, C L; Gendeh, S; Nik Jaafar, M I

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of jacalin, a group of lectins from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus), has attracted considerable attention due to its numerous interesting immunological properties as well as its usefulness in the isolation of various serum proteins. We have further identified a similar lectin from the seeds of Champedak (Artocarpus integer) which we refer to as lectin-C and performed comparative studies with two types of jacalin isolated from different batches of the Malaysian jackfruit seeds (jacalin-M1 and jacalin-M2). The three purified lectins demonstrated equivalent apparent Mr of about 52,500, each of which comprised of a combination of two types of non-covalently-linked subunits with apparent Mr of approximately 13,300 and 16,000. The lectins demonstrated equal haemagglutinating activity against human erythrocytes of blood groups A, B, AB and O. Our data also demonstrated that lectin-C, jacalin-M1 and jacalin-M2 are similar by selectively precipitating human serum IgA1 and colostral sIgA but not IgA2, IgD, IgG and IgM. When immunoelectrophoresis was performed on normal human sera and reacted with the lectins, single precipitin arcs corresponding to IgA immunoprecipitates were detected with lectin-C and jacalin-MI. Jacalin-M2, however, exhibited two closely associated precipitin arcs. The binding of these lectins with IgA was pronouncedly inhibited in the presence of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 1-o-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, D-melibiose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-galactose. The data therefore provide evidence on the differential specificity of IgA binding lectins isolated from seeds of similar as well as distinct Artocarpus species.

  5. Purification and characterization of a thermostable beta-galactosidase from kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. PDR14.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shyamasri; Kayastha, Arvind M; Seckler, Robert

    2003-04-01

    Using five different steps, beta-Galactosidase has been purified from kidney beans to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 90-fold purification with a specific activity of 281 units mg-1 protein. A single band was observed in native PAGE. Activity staining of the native gel with 5-bromo 4-chloro 3-indoxyl beta-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) at pH 4.0 also produced a single band. Analytical gel filtration in Superdex G-75 revealed the molecular mass of the native protein to be approximately 75 kD. 10% SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions showed two subunits of molecular masses, 45 and 30 kD, respectively. Hence, beta-galactosidase from kidney beans is a heterodimer. A typical protein profile with lambda max at 280 nm was observed and A280/A260 ratio was 1.52. The N-terminal sequence of the 45 kD band showed 86% sequence homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana and 85% with Lycopersicon esculentum putative beta-galactosidase sequences. The Electrospray Mass Spectrometric analysis of this band also revealed a peptide fragment that had 90% sequence homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana putative beta-galactosidase sequence. The N-terminal sequencing of the 30 kD band as well as mass spectrometric analysis both by MALDI-TOF and ES MS revealed certain sequences that matched with phytohemagglutinin of kidney beans. The optimum pH of the enzyme was 4.0 and it hydrolysed o- and p-nitrophenyl beta-D galactopyranoside with a Km value of 0.63 mmol/L and 0.74 mmol/L, respectively. The energy of activation calculated from the Arrhenius equation was 14.8 kcal/mol enzyme site. The enzyme was found to be comparatively thermostable showing maximum activity at 67 degrees C. Thermal denaturation of the enzyme at 65 degrees C obeys single exponential decay with first order-rate constant 0.105 min-1. Galactose, a hydrolytic product of this enzyme was a competitive inhibitor with a Ki of 2.7 mmol/L.

  6. Terpenoids, flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives from Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans.

    PubMed

    Rungsimakan, Supattra; Rowan, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    Three diterpenoids, 1-oxomicrostegiol (1), viroxocin (2), viridoquinone (3), were isolated from the roots of Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans. Five known diterpenoids, microstegiol (4), 7α-acetoxy-14-hydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (5; 7-O-acetylhorminone tautomer), 7α,14-dihydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (6; horminone tautomer), ferruginol and salvinolonyl 12-methyl ether (7) were also found in the roots together with 1-docosyl ferulate (8), and a mixture of 2-(4'-alkoxyphenyl) ethyl alkanoates (9). Two lupane triterpenoids, 2α-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol (10), and 3β-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-2α-ol (11) were found in the aerial parts together with known compounds, lup-20(29)-ene-2α,3β-diol (12), ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol glucoside. A known phenylpropanoid, trans-verbascoside (or acteoside; 13), was the main constituent in the polar fraction of the aerial part, and it is now reported in the genus Salvia for the first time. Other polyphenolic compounds were cis-verbascoside (14), leucosceptoside A (15), martynoside (16), caffeic acid, 6-O-caffeoyl-glucose (18), rosmarinic acid, salidroside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, and apigenin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside. The structures were determined by 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques. Compounds 6, 10, ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 775) with MIC 50 μM, 25 μM, 50 μM, 12.5 μM, 12.5 μM respectively. Ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were also active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6571), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 2599) with MIC 12.5-50 μM. 4 was also active against S.aureus (ATCC 6571) with MIC 50 μM. These values are consistent with previous studies on the antimicrobial activity of Salvia diterpenoids.

  7. Purification and characterization of a thermostable beta-galactosidase from kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. PDR14.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shyamasri; Kayastha, Arvind M; Seckler, Robert

    2003-04-01

    Using five different steps, beta-Galactosidase has been purified from kidney beans to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 90-fold purification with a specific activity of 281 units mg-1 protein. A single band was observed in native PAGE. Activity staining of the native gel with 5-bromo 4-chloro 3-indoxyl beta-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) at pH 4.0 also produced a single band. Analytical gel filtration in Superdex G-75 revealed the molecular mass of the native protein to be approximately 75 kD. 10% SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions showed two subunits of molecular masses, 45 and 30 kD, respectively. Hence, beta-galactosidase from kidney beans is a heterodimer. A typical protein profile with lambda max at 280 nm was observed and A280/A260 ratio was 1.52. The N-terminal sequence of the 45 kD band showed 86% sequence homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana and 85% with Lycopersicon esculentum putative beta-galactosidase sequences. The Electrospray Mass Spectrometric analysis of this band also revealed a peptide fragment that had 90% sequence homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana putative beta-galactosidase sequence. The N-terminal sequencing of the 30 kD band as well as mass spectrometric analysis both by MALDI-TOF and ES MS revealed certain sequences that matched with phytohemagglutinin of kidney beans. The optimum pH of the enzyme was 4.0 and it hydrolysed o- and p-nitrophenyl beta-D galactopyranoside with a Km value of 0.63 mmol/L and 0.74 mmol/L, respectively. The energy of activation calculated from the Arrhenius equation was 14.8 kcal/mol enzyme site. The enzyme was found to be comparatively thermostable showing maximum activity at 67 degrees C. Thermal denaturation of the enzyme at 65 degrees C obeys single exponential decay with first order-rate constant 0.105 min-1. Galactose, a hydrolytic product of this enzyme was a competitive inhibitor with a Ki of 2.7 mmol/L. PMID:12756912

  8. Enthalpic nature of the CH/pi interaction involved in the recognition of carbohydrates by aromatic compounds, confirmed by a novel interplay of NMR, calorimetry, and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Gualito, Karla; Alonso-Ríos, Rosa; Quiroz-García, Beatriz; Rojas-Aguilar, Aarón; Díaz, Dolores; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Cuevas, Gabriel

    2009-12-23

    Specific interactions between molecules, including those produced by a given solute, and the surrounding solvent are essential to drive molecular recognition processes. A simple molecule such as benzene is capable of recognizing and differentiating among very similar entities, such as methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (alpha-Me(5)Gal), methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (beta-Me(5)Gal), 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranose (beta-Ac(5)Gal), and methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (alpha-Me(5)Man). In order to determine if these complexes are formed, the interaction energy between benzene and the different carbohydrates was determined, using Calvet microcalorimetry, as the enthalpy of solvation. These enthalpy values were -89.0 +/- 2.0, -88.7 +/- 5.5, -132.5 +/- 6.2, and -78.8 +/- 3.9 kJ mol(-1) for the four complexes, respectively. Characterization of the different complexes was completed by establishing the molecular region where the interaction takes place using NMR. It was determined that beta-Me(5)Gal is stabilized by the CH/pi interaction produced by the nonpolar region of the carbohydrate on the alpha face. In contrast, alpha-Me(5)Man is not specifically solvated by benzene and does not present any stacking interaction. Although alpha-Me(5)Gal has a geometry similar to that of its epimer, the obtained NMR data seem to indicate that the axial methoxy group at the anomeric position increases the distance of the benzene molecules from the pyranose ring. Substitution of the methoxy groups by acetate moieties, as in beta-Ac(5)Gal, precludes the approach of benzene to produce the CH/pi interaction. In fact, the elevated stabilization energy of beta-Ac(5)Gal is probably due to the interaction between benzene and the methyl groups of the acetyls. Therefore, methoxy and acetyl substituents have different effects on the protons of the pyranose ring. PMID:19928848

  9. Aspergillus nidulans alpha-galactosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 36 catalyses the formation of alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides by transglycosylation.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Baumann, Martin J; Petersen, Bent O; Westphal, Yvonne; Hachem, Maher Abou; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Duus, Jens Ø; Schols, Henk A; Svensson, Birte

    2010-09-01

    The alpha-galactosidase from Aspergillus nidulans (AglC) belongs to a phylogenetic cluster containing eukaryotic alpha-galactosidases and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharide synthases of glycoside hydrolase family 36 (GH36). The recombinant AglC, produced in high yield (0.65 g.L(-1) culture) as His-tag fusion in Escherichia coli, catalysed efficient transglycosylation with alpha-(1-->6) regioselectivity from 40 mm 4-nitrophenol alpha-d-galactopyranoside, melibiose or raffinose, resulting in a 37-74% yield of 4-nitrophenol alpha-D-Galp-(1-->6)-D-Galp, alpha-D-Galp-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->6)-D-Glcp and alpha-D-Galp-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->6)-D-Glcp-(alpha1-->beta2)-d-Fruf (stachyose), respectively. Furthermore, among 10 monosaccharide acceptor candidates (400 mm) and the donor 4-nitrophenol alpha-D-galactopyranoside (40 mm), alpha-(1-->6) linked galactodisaccharides were also obtained with galactose, glucose and mannose in high yields of 39-58%. AglC did not transglycosylate monosaccharides without the 6-hydroxymethyl group, i.e. xylose, L-arabinose, L-fucose and L-rhamnose, or with axial 3-OH, i.e. gulose, allose, altrose and L-rhamnose. Structural modelling using Thermotoga maritima GH36 alpha-galactosidase as the template and superimposition of melibiose from the complex with human GH27 alpha-galactosidase supported that recognition at subsite +1 in AglC presumably requires a hydrogen bond between 3-OH and Trp358 and a hydrophobic environment around the C-6 hydroxymethyl group. In addition, successful transglycosylation of eight of 10 disaccharides (400 mm), except xylobiose and arabinobiose, indicated broad specificity for interaction with the +2 subsite. AglC thus transferred alpha-galactosyl to 6-OH of the terminal residue in the alpha-linked melibiose, maltose, trehalose, sucrose and turanose in 6-46% yield and the beta-linked lactose, lactulose and cellobiose in 28-38% yield. The product structures were identified using NMR and ESI-MS and five of the 13

  10. Detecting estrogenic activity in water samples withestrogen-sensitive yeast cells using spectrophotometry and fluorescencemicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wozei, E.; Holman, H-Y.N.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Borglin S.

    2006-03-15

    Environmental estrogens are environmental contaminants that can mimic the biological activities of the female hormone estrogen in the endocrine system, i.e. they act as endocrine disrupters. Several substances are reported to have estrogen-like activity or estrogenic activity. These include steroid hormones, synthetic estrogens (xenoestrogens), environmental pollutants and phytoestrogens (plant estrogens). Using the chromogenic substrate ortho-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) we show that an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE, with human estrogen receptor (hER{alpha}) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes the enzyme {beta}-galactosidase, is able to detect estrogenic activity in water samples over a wide range of spiked concentrations of the hormonal estrogen 17{beta}-estradiol (E2). Ortho-nitrophenol (ONP), the yellow product of this assay can be detected using spectrophotometry but requires cell lysis to release the enzyme and allow product formation. We improved this aspect in a fluorogenic assay by using fluorescein di-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) as a substrate. The product was visualized using fluorescence microscopy without the need to kill, fix or lyse the cells. We show that in live yeast cells, the uptake of E2 and the subsequent production of {beta}-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximum enzyme-catalyzed fluorescent product formation evident after about 30 minutes of exposure to E2. The fluorogenic assay was applied to a selection of estrogenic compounds and the Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectra of the cells obtained to better understand the yeast whole cell response to the compounds. The fluorogenic assay is most sensitive to E2, but the SR-FTIR spectra suggest that the cells respond to all the estrogenic compounds tested even when no fluorescent response was detected. These findings are promising and may shorten the duration of environmental water screening and monitoring regimes using

  11. Analysis of saccharide binding to Artocarpus integrifolia lectin reveals specific recognition of T-antigen (beta-D-Gal(1----3)D-GalNAc).

    PubMed

    Sastry, M V; Banarjee, P; Patanjali, S R; Swamy, M J; Swarnalatha, G V; Surolia, A

    1986-09-01

    The binding of Artocarpus integrifolia lectin to N-dansylgalactosamine (where dansyl is 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) leads to a 100% increase in dansyl fluorescence with a concomitant blue shift in the emission maximum by 10 nm. This binding is carbohydrate-specific and has an association constant of 1.74 X 10(4) M-1 at 20 degrees C. The lectin has two binding sites for N-dansylgalactosamine. The values of -delta H and -delta S for the binding of N-dansylgalactosamine are in the range of values reported for several lectin-monosaccharide interactions, indicating an absence of nonpolar interaction of the dansyl moiety of the sugar with the combining region of the protein. Dissociation of the bound N-dansylgalactosamine from its complex with the lectin and the consequent change in its fluorescence on addition of nonfluorescent sugars allowed evaluation of the association constant for competing ligands. The thermodynamic parameters for the binding of monosaccharides suggest that the OH groups at C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-6 in the D-galactose configuration are important loci for interaction with the lectin. The acetamido group at C-2 of 2-acetamido-2-deoxygalactopyranose and a methoxyl group at C-1 of methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside are presumably also involved in binding through nonpolar and van der Waals' interactions. The T-antigenic disaccharide Gal beta 1----3GalNAc binds very strongly to the lectin when compared with methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, the beta(1----3)-linked disaccharides such as Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc, and the beta(1----4)-linked disaccharides, N-acetyllactosamine and lactose. The major stabilizing force for the avid binding of T-antigenic disaccharide appears to be a favorable enthalpic contribution. The combining site of the lectin is, therefore, extended. These data taken together suggest that the Artocarpus lectin is specific toward the Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen. There are subtle differences in the overall topography of its

  12. Properties of potato lectin and the nature of its glycoprotein linkages

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Anthony K.; Desai, Nila N.; Neuberger, Albert; Creeth, J. Michael

    1978-01-01

    1. Potato lectin is a glycoprotein that contains about 47% (by weight) l-arabinose, 3% d-galactose and 11% hydroxyproline. It has a monomeric molecular weight of about 50000 and probably exists as a monomer–dimer system in aqueous solution, with the monomer predominating. It has a very high viscosity, which would indicate either that the molecule is very expanded or that it is an elongated ellipsoid. 2. After prolonged proteolytic digestion of a reduced and carboxymethylated derivative of the lectin, a glycopeptide was isolated (of mol.wt. 32000–34000) that included all the carbohydrate and hydroxyproline of the original glycoprotein but less than 30% of the total original amino acid residues. 3. The arabinose of the glycoprotein is present exclusively as the β-arabinofuranoside and this includes those residues that are directly linked to the hydroxyproline residues of the polypeptide chain. All the arabinose of the glycoprotein is linked to the polypeptide chain through the hydroxyproline residues; the ratio of arabinose to hydroxyproline is 3.4:1. Although α-arabinofuranosides are known to be present in arabinans and arabinogalactans, the natural occurrence of β-arabinofuranosides has not previously been reported. 4. Nine or ten serine residues of the polypeptide chain are substituted with single α-galactopyranoside residues that can be removed by the action of α-galactosidase from coffee beans but not by a β-galactosidase. This is the first report of an α-galactoside linkage to serine. The effect of α-galactosidase is much greater on a glycopeptide from which the arabinose has been already removed, which indicates a steric hindrance of the galactosidase action by adjacent chains of arabinosides. 5. In 0.5m-NaOH (pH13.7), galactose residues were removed from the serine residues of the glycopeptide by a process of β-elimination. This reaction took place very slowly in the intact glycopeptide but much more rapidly when the arabinofuranoside residues

  13. Antioxidative caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids from Hemerocallis fulva flowers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun-Lian; Lu, Chung-Kuang; Huang, Yeh-Jeng; Chen, Hong-Jhang

    2011-08-24

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HepG2 was used to screen hepatocyte protective compounds from the flowers of Hemerocallis fulva. Three new polyphenols, n-butyl 4-trans-O-caffeoylquinate (1), kaempferol 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]}-β-D-galactopyranoside (2), and chrysoeriol 7-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1→2)(2-O-trans-feruloyl)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (3), together with four caffeoylquinic acid derivatives (4-7), eight known flavones (8-15), one naphthalene glycoside, stelladerol (16), one tryptophan derivative (17), adenosine (18), and guanosine (19) were isolated from the bioactive fractions of the aqueous ethanol extract of H. fulva flowers. The structures of isolated compounds were characterized by means of spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 were described as first isolated natural products. Among the above-mentioned compounds, the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives are the major components with potent free radical scavenging activity in HepG2 cells and are for the first time isolated from H. fulva flowers. A convenient ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was also developed to simultaneously separate and identify caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids promptly. PMID:21761841

  14. Stealth lipoplex decorated with triazole-tethered galactosyl moieties: a strong hepatotropic gene vector.

    PubMed

    Govender, Dhineshree; Islam, Rafique Ul; De Koning, Charles B; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Arbuthnot, Patrick; Ariatti, Mario; Singh, Moganavelli

    2015-03-01

    Mono-antennary galacto derivatives of cholesterol are being actively developed to direct lipoplexes to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) on hepatocytes. Here we report on a novel ASGP-R ligand cholest-5-en-3-yl [1-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]methylcarbamate (4), assembled by a copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click chemistry), and compare it with cholest-5-en-3-yl-β-D-galactopyranoside (2) and cholest-5-en-3-yl [1-(β-D-galactopyranosyl-1'-oxy)phen-4-yl]carbamate (3), in liposome formulations with or without 5 mol% distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine poly(ethylene glycol)2000, intended for DNA delivery to ASGP-R-positive hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells and the ASGP-R-negative embryo kidney cell line HEK293. Transfection levels attained with lipoplex 4 were 100 and 300% greater than those for lipoplexes 2 and 3 respectively in HepG2 cells, while competition assays reduced transfection levels by up to 98%. Transfection activities achieved in HEK293 cells were up to three orders of magnitude lower. Therefore, 4 is representative of a new class of promising hepatotropic ligands for gene delivery.

  15. High-frequency intracellular transposition of a defective mammalian provirus detected by an in situ colorimetric assay.

    PubMed Central

    Tchenio, T; Heidmann, T

    1992-01-01

    We devised an indicator gene for retrotransposition, nlsLacZRT, which contains the Escherichia coli lacZ gene fused to a nuclear location signal (nlsLacZ), engineered in such a way that the gene is expressed only if the structure in which it has been inserted transposes itself through an RNA intermediate. A cloned murine leukemia retrovirus with an ecotropic host range (Moloney murine leukemia virus), rendered defective by a large deletion encompassing the three viral gag, pol, and env open reading frames, was marked with this indicator gene and introduced by transfection into heterologous feline cells. No beta-galactosidase activity could be detected among the clonal cell population, unless the defective provirus was complemented in trans by the gag-pol gene products. Under these conditions, cell variants which disclosed an easily detectable nuclear blue coloration upon in situ 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside staining were observed. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting of the beta-galactosidase-positive cells, followed by Southern blot analysis, demonstrated an unambiguous correlation between nlsLacZRT activation and retrotransposition of the marked provirus. Transposition occurs at a high frequency (up to 10(-4) events per cell per generation), which is dependent on the level of expression of the gag-pol gene and is concomitant with the release of noninfectious retroviruslike particles which are the hallmarks, but not the intermediates, of the intracellular transposition process. Images PMID:1371167

  16. Proteinase K activity determination with β-galactosidase as sensitive macromolecular substrate.

    PubMed

    Ghéczy, Nicolas; Küchler, Andreas; Walde, Peter

    2016-11-15

    Proteinase K from Engyodontium album (proK) is a relatively unspecific serine endopeptidase which is known to attack proteins yet in their native states. If the attacked protein is an enzyme, even a partial hydrolysis by proK may lead to an inactivation of the enzyme, which can be monitored by measuring the loss of catalytic activity of the attacked enzyme. E. coli β-galactosidase (β-Gal) was used in this work as such enzyme. It was found to be a convenient and sensitive macromolecular model substrate for comparing the "native protein-attacking ability" of free and immobilized proK at pH = 7.0 and 23 °C. The β-Gal activity was measured spectrophotometrically with o-nitrophenyl-β-galactopyranoside. Reproducible proK determinations were possible for as little as 4.3 ng proK by using a proK analyte solution of 10 nM. Compared to free proK, immobilized proK was much less efficient in inactivating β-Gal, most likely due to a decreased mobility of immobilized proK and a restricted accessibility of β-Gal to the active site of proK. Worth noting is, that under conditions at which β-Gal was completely inactivated by proK, the activity of hen egg lysozyme, horseradish peroxidase, or Aspergillus sp. glucose oxidase remained unaltered. PMID:27594349

  17. Cob(I)alamin reacts with sucralose to afford an alkylcobalamin: relevance to in vivo cobalamin and sucralose interaction.

    PubMed

    Motwani, Hitesh V; Qiu, Shiran; Golding, Bernard T; Kylin, Henrik; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2011-04-01

    Vitamin B(12), viz., cyano- or hydroxo-cobalamin, can be chemically or enzymatically converted into the derivatives methyl- and adenosyl-cobalamin, which are complex organometallic cofactors associated with several cobalamin-dependent enzymes. The reduced form of vitamin B(12), cob(I)alamin {Cbl(I)}, obtained by reduction of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl) with e.g. sodium borohydride, is one of the most powerful nucleophiles known. Cbl(I) was shown to react readily with the synthetic sweetener sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-β-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) in an aqueous system to form an alkylcobalamin (Suc-Cbl). This occurred by replacement of one of the three chlorine atoms of sucralose with a cobalamin moiety. The efficiency of trapping sucralose in presence of excess Cbl(I) was estimated to be >90%. Furthermore, in an in vitro study using human liver S9 with NADPH regeneration, in presence of OH-Cbl and sucralose, Suc-Cbl was shown to be formed. The Suc-Cbl was characterized primarily by LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS. Given the human consumption of sucralose from food and beverages, such a reaction between the sweetener and reduced vitamin B(12) could occur in vivo. PMID:21130828

  18. Hyaluronidase increases electrogene transfer efficiency in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Mennuni, Carmela; Calvaruso, Francesco; Zampaglione, Immacolata; Rizzuto, Gabriella; Rinaudo, Daniela; Dammassa, Ernesta; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Fattori, Elena; La Monica, Nicola

    2002-02-10

    Electrogene transfer (EGT) of plasmid DNA into skeletal muscle is a promising strategy for the treatment of muscle disorders and for the systemic secretion of therapeutic proteins. We report here that preinjecting hyaluronidase (HYAse) significantly increases the gene transfer efficiency of muscle EGT. Three constructs encoding mouse erythropoietin (pCMV/mEPO), secreted alkaline phosphatase (pCMV/SeAP), and luciferase (pGGluc) were electroinjected intramuscularly in BALB/c mice and rabbits with and without HYAse pretreatment. Preinjection 1 or 4 hr before EGT increased EPO gene expression by about 5-fold in mice and maintained higher gene expression than plasmid EGT alone. A similar increment in gene expression was observed on pretreatment with HYAse and electroinjection of pCMV/mEPO into rabbit tibialis muscle. The increment of gene expression in rabbits reached 17-fold on injection of plasmid pCMV/SeAP and 24-fold with plasmid pGGluc. Injection of a plasmid encoding beta-galactosidase (pCMV/beta gal/NLS) and subsequent staining with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside indicated that HYAse increased the tissue area involved in gene expression. No irreversible tissue damage was observed on histological analysis of treated muscles. HYAse is used in a variety of clinical applications, and thus the combination of HYAse pretreatment and muscle EGT may constitute an efficient gene transfer method to achieve therapeutic levels of gene expression.

  19. β-galactosidase Production by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142 Using Inexpensive Substrates in Solid-State Fermentation: Optimization by Orthogonal Arrays Design

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Samaneh; Khayati, Gholam; Faezi-Ghasemi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose is one of the most important biotechnological processes in the food industry, which is accomplished by enzyme β-galactosidase (β-gal, β-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.23), trivial called lactase. Orthogonal arrays design is an appropriate option for the optimization of biotechnological processes for the production of microbial enzymes. Methods: Design of experimental (DOE) methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was employed to screen the most significant levels of parameters, including the solid substrates (wheat straw, rice straw, and peanut pod), the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios, the incubation time, and the inducer. The level of β-gal production was measured by a photometric enzyme activity assay using the artificial substrate ortho-Nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside. Results: The results showed that C/N ratio (0.2% [w/v], incubation time (144 hour), and solid substrate (wheat straw) were the best conditions determined by the design of experiments using the Taguchi approach. Conclusion: Our finding showed that the use of rice straw and peanut pod, as solid-state substrates, led to 2.041-folds increase in the production of the enzyme, as compared to rice straw. In addition, the presence of an inducer did not have any significant impact on the enzyme production levels.

  20. A simple, robust enzymatic-based high-throughput screening method for antimicrobial peptides discovery against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppuswamy; Roy, Arpita; Sanikommu, Suma; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Pasupuleti, Mukesh

    2014-05-01

    The indiscriminate usage of antibiotics has created a major problem in the form of antibiotic resistance. Even though new antimicrobial drug discovery programs have been in place from the last two decades, still we are unsuccessful in identifying novel molecules that have a potential to become new therapeutic agents for the treatment of microbial infections. A major problem in most screening studies is the requirement of high-throughput techniques. Given this, we present here an enzyme-based robust method for screening antimicrobial agent's active against Escherichia coli. This method is based upon the ability of the intracellular innate enzyme to cleave o-nitrophenyl β-d-galactopyranoside (non-chromogenic) to o-nitrophenolate (ONP) (chromogenic) upon the membrane damage or disruption. In comparison with the other currently available methods, we believe that our method provides an opportunity for real-time monitoring of the antimicrobial agents action by measuring the ONP generation in a user-friendly manner. Even though this method can be applied to other strain, our experience shows that one has to be careful especially when the pigments or metabolites present in the bacteria have the same wavelength absorbance.

  1. PROTON-COUPLED DYNAMICS IN LACTOSE PERMEASE

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Magnus; Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta; Freites, J. Alfredo; Tobias, Douglas J.; Kaback, H. Ronald; White, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) catalyzes symport of a galactopyranoside and an H+ via an alternating access mechanism. The transition from an inward- to an outward-facing conformation of LacY involves sugar-release followed by deprotonation. Because the transition depends intimately upon the dynamics of LacY in a bilayer environment, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations may be the only means of following the accompanying structural changes in atomic detail. We describe here MD simulations of wild-type apo LacY in phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) lipids that features two protonation states of the critical Glu325. While the protonated system displays configurational stability, deprotonation of Glu325 causes significant structural rearrangements that bring into proximity sidechains important for H+ translocation and sugar binding and closes the internal cavity. Moreover, protonated LacY in phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipids shows that the observed dynamics are lipid-dependent. Together, the simulations describe early dynamics of the inward-to-outward transition of LacY that agree well with experimental data. PMID:23000385

  2. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation.

  3. A triterpene saponin from Tribulus terrestris attenuates apoptosis in cardiocyte via activating PKC signalling transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Li, Hong; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the role of hecogenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), which is a triterpene saponin of Tribulus terrestris in cardiocytes during chemical hypoxia-ischaemia in vitro. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion and treated with NaCN for 12 h. Cell apoptosis was defined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) and flow cytometry. [Ca(2+)] was measured by confocal microscopy. There was a marked increase in the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, by NaCN. This change was increased by the saponin 1. PKCepsilon protein contents were increased in the cardiocyte membrane fraction in response to NaCN. PKCepsilon activation was augmented by the saponin 1. Inhibition of PKCepsilon with inhibitory peptide prevented Bcl-2 expression. Moreover, the saponin attenuated the apoptosis in cardiocyte in response to NaCN. It is therefore suggested that the saponin 1 may play a role in cardiocyte survival via PKCepsilon and Bcl-2.

  4. 4,6-O-[1-Cyano-2-(2-iodophenyl)ethylidene] Acetals. Improved Second Generation Acetals for the Stereoselective Formation of β-d-Mannopyranosides and Regioselective Reductive Radical Fragmentation to β-d-Rhamnopyranosides. Scope and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Crich, David; Bowers, Albert A.

    2015-01-01

    The [1-cyano-2-(2-iodophenyl)]ethylidene group is introduced as an acetal protecting group for carbohydrate thioglycoside donors. The group is easily introduced under mild conditions, over short reaction times, and in presence of a wide variety of other protecting groups by the reaction of the 4,6-diol with triethyl (2-iodophenyl)orthoacetate and trimethylsilyl triflate, followed by trimethylsilyl cyanide and boron trifluoride etherate. The new protecting group conveys strong β-selectivity with thiomannoside donors and undergoes a tin mediated radical fragmentation to provide high yields of the synthetically challenging β-rhamnopyranosides. The method is also applicable to the glucopyranosides when high α-selectivity is observed in the coupling reaction and α-quinovosides are formed selectively in the radical fragmentation step. In the galactopyranoside series, α-glycosides are formed selectively on coupling to donors protected by the new system, but the radical fragmentation is unselective and gives mixtures of the 4- and 6-deoxy products. Variable temperature NMR studies for the glycosylation step, which helped define an optimal protocol, are described. PMID:16626126

  5. Enzyme kinetic measurements using a droplet-based microfluidic system with a concentration gradient.

    PubMed

    Bui, Minh-Phuong Ngoc; Li, Cheng Ai; Han, Kwi Nam; Choo, Jaebum; Lee, Eun Kyu; Seong, Gi Hun

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a microfluidic device that is capable of generating a concentration gradient followed by parallel droplet formation within channels with a simple T-junction geometry. Linear concentration gradient profiles can be obtained based on fluid diffusion under laminar flow. Optimized conditions for generating a linear concentration gradient and parallel droplet formation were investigated using fluorescent dye. The concentration gradient profile under diffusive mixing was dominated by the flow rate at sample inlets, while parallel droplet formation was affected by the channel geometry at both the inlet and outlet. The microfluidic device was experimentally characterized using optimal layout and operating conditions selected through a design process. Furthermore, in situ enzyme kinetic measurements of the β-galactosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of resorufin-β-d-galactopyranoside were performed to demonstrate the application potential of our simple, time-effective, and low sample volume microfluidic device. We expect that, in addition to enzyme kinetics, drug screening and clinical diagnostic tests can be rapidly and accurately performed using this droplet-based microfluidic system.

  6. Hollow fiber based affinity selection combined with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy for rapid screening lipase inhibitors from lotus leaf.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Zhang, Yufeng; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yiyu

    2013-06-27

    A novel kind of immobilized enzyme affinity selection strategy based on hollow fibers has been developed for screening inhibitors from extracts of medicinal plants. Lipases from porcine pancreas were adsorbed onto the surface of polypropylene hollow fibers to form a stable matrix for ligand fishing, which was called hollow fibers based affinity selection (HF-AS). A variety of factors related to binding capability, including enzyme concentration, incubation time, temperature, buffer pH and ion strength, were optimized using a known lipase inhibitor hesperidin. The proposed approach was applied in screening potential lipase bound ligands from extracts of lotus leaf, followed by rapid characterization of active compounds using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three flavonoids including quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-galactopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucuronide were identified as lipase inhibitors by the proposed HF-AS approach. Our findings suggested that the hollow fiber-based affinity selection could be a rapid and convenient approach for drug discovery from natural products resources. PMID:23764446

  7. Determination of selenium urinary metabolites by high temperature liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terol, A; Ardini, F; Basso, A; Grotti, M

    2015-02-01

    The coupling of high temperature liquid chromatography (HTLC) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for the determination of selenium metabolites in urine samples is reported for the first time. In order to achieve "ICPMS-friendly" chromatographic conditions, the retention on a graphite stationary phase of the major selenium urinary metabolites using only plain water with 2% methanol as the mobile phase was investigated. Under the optimal conditions (T=80°C, Ql=1.2 mL min(-1)), methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-d-galactopyranoside (selenosugar 1), methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-d-glucosopyranoside (selenosugar 2) and trimethylselenonium ion were efficiently separated in less than 7 min, without any interferences due to other common selenium species (selenite, selenate, selenocystine and selenomethionine) or detectable effect of the urine matrix. The limits of detection were 0.3-0.5 ng Se mL(-1), and the precision of the analytical procedure was better than 3% (RSD%, n=5). The HTLC-ICPMS method was applied to the analysis of urine samples from two volunteers before and after ingestion of Brazil nuts or selenium supplements. The developed procedure proved to be adequate for the analytical task, providing results consistent with previous studies. PMID:25582485

  8. Multivalent sialylation of β-thio-glycoclusters by Trypanosoma cruzi trans sialidase and analysis by high performance anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Agustí, Rosalía; Cano, María Emilia; Cagnoni, Alejandro J; Kovensky, José; de Lederkremer, Rosa M; Uhrig, María Laura

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis of multivalent sialylated glycoclusters is herein addressed by a chemoenzymatic approach using the trans-sialidase of Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTS). Multivalent β-thio-galactopyranosides and β-thio-lactosides were used as acceptor substrates and 3'-sialyllactose as the sialic acid donor. High performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) was shown to be an excellent technique for the analysis of the reaction products. Different eluting conditions were optimized to allow the simultaneous resolution of the sialylated species, as well as their neutral precursors. The TcTS efficiently transferred sialyl residues to di, tri, tetra and octa β-thiogalactosides. In the case of an octavalent thiolactoside, up to six polysialylated compounds could be resolved. Preparative sialylation reactions were performed using the tetravalent and octavalent acceptor substrates. The main sialylated derivatives could be unequivocally assigned by MALDI mass spectrometry. Inhibition of the transfer to the natural substrate, N-acetyllactosamine, was also studied. The octalactoside caused 82 % inhibition of sialic acid transfer when we used equimolar concentrations of donor, acceptor and inhibitor.

  9. Glycosylation inhibition reduces cholesterol accumulation in NPC1 protein-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Deffieu, Maika S; Lee, Peter L; Saha, Piyali; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2015-12-01

    Lysosomes are lined with a glycocalyx that protects the limiting membrane from the action of degradative enzymes. We tested the hypothesis that Niemann-Pick type C 1 (NPC1) protein aids the transfer of low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol across this glycocalyx. A prediction of this model is that cells will be less dependent upon NPC1 if their glycocalyx is decreased in density. Lysosome cholesterol content was significantly lower after treatment of NPC1-deficient human fibroblasts with benzyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside, an inhibitor of O-linked glycosylation. Direct biochemical measurement of cholesterol showed that lysosomes purified from NPC1-deficient fibroblasts contained at least 30% less cholesterol when O-linked glycosylation was blocked. As an independent means to modify protein glycosylation, we used Chinese hamster ovary ldl-D cells defective in UDP-Gal/UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase in which N- and O-linked glycosylation can be controlled. CRISPR generated, NPC1-deficient ldl-D cells supplemented with galactose accumulated more cholesterol than those in which sugar addition was blocked. In the absence of galactose supplementation, NPC1-deficient ldl-D cells also transported more cholesterol from lysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum, as monitored by an increase in cholesteryl [(14)C]-oleate levels. These experiments support a model in which NPC1 protein functions to transfer cholesterol past a lysosomal glycocalyx.

  10. The NMR studies on two new furostanol saponins from Agave sisalana leaves.

    PubMed

    Zou, Peng; Fu, Jing; Yu, He-shui; Zhang, Jie; Kang, Li-ping; Ma, Bai-ping; Yan, Xian-zhong

    2006-12-01

    The detailed NMR studies and full assignments of the 1H and 13C spectral data for two new furostanol saponins isolated from Agave sisalana leaves are described. Their structures were established using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR techniques including 1H, 13C, 1H-1H COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and HSQC-TOCSY, and also FAB-MS spectrometry and chemical methods. The structures were established as (25S)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-22 xi-hydroxyfurost-12-one-3beta-yl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galacto- pyranoside (1) and (25S)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-22xi-hydroxyfurost-5-en-12-one-3beta-yl-O-alpha-L-rhamno- pyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2).

  11. In vivo expression of beta-galactosidase by rat oviduct exposed to naked DNA or messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Rios, Mariana; Venegas, Alejandro; Croxatto, Horacio B

    2002-01-01

    Intra-oviductal administration of RNA obtained from oviducts of estradiol-treated rats resulted in accelerated egg transport (Ríos et al., 1997). It is probable that estradiol-induced messenger RNA (mRNA) entered oviductal cells and was translated into the proteins involved in accelerated egg transport. In order to test this interpretation we deposited in vivo 50 micrograms of pure beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) mRNA, 50 micrograms of pure DNA from the reporter gene beta-gal under SV40 promoter or the vehicle (control oviducts) into the oviductal lumen of rats. Twenty four hours later the beta-gal activity was assayed in oviductal tissue homogenates using o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside as a substrate. The administration of beta-gal mRNA and pSVBgal plasmid increased beta-gal activity by 71% and 142%, respectively, over the control oviducts. These results indicate that naked DNA and mRNA coding for beta-gal can enter oviductal cells and be translated into an active enzyme. They are consistent with the interpretation that embryo transport acceleration caused by the injection of estradiol-induced RNA in the oviduct involves translation of the injected mRNA. PMID:12462985

  12. Structure and cytotoxicity of steroidal glycosides from Allium schoenoprasum.

    PubMed

    Timité, Gaoussou; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2013-04-01

    A phytochemical analysis of the whole plant of Allium schoenoprasum, has led to the isolation of four spirostane-type glycosides (1-4), and four known steroidal saponins. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (20S,25S)-spirost-5-en-3β,12β,21-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (20S,25S)-spirost-5-en-3β,11α,21-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), laxogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,11α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (4). Four of the isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxic activity against the HCT 116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cell lines. PMID:23357597

  13. Targeting of lysosomes by liposomes modified with octadecyl-rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    Koshkaryev, Alexander; Thekkedath, Ritesh; Pagano, Cinzia; Meerovich, Igor; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of lysosome-targeted liposomes may significantly improve a delivery of therapeutic enzymes into lysosomes for the treatment of lysosome-associated diseases. The aim of this research was to achieve a specific intracellular targeting of lysosomes, by using liposomes modified with the lysosomotropic octadecyl-rhodamine B (RhB) and loaded with a model compound, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–dextran (FD). Plain and RhB-modified liposomes were prepared by hydration of lipid films and loaded with FD or with 5-dodecanoylaminofluorescein di-β-D-galactopyranoside (C12FDG), a specific substrate for the intralysosomal β-galactosidase. The delivery of these liposomes and their content to lysosomes in HeLa cells was investigated by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and subcellular fractionation. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that RhB-liposomes co-localize well with the specific lysosomal markers, unlike plain liposomes. The comparison of the FITC fluorescence of the lysosomes isolated by subcellular fractionation also showed that the efficiency of FD delivery into lysosomes by RhB-modified liposomes was significantly higher compared with plain liposomes. These results were additionally confirmed by the flow cytometry of the intact cells treated with C12FDG-loaded liposomes that also demonstrated increased lysosomal targeting by RhB-modified liposomes. The modification of the liposomal surface with a lysosomotropic ligand, such as octadecyl-RhB, can significantly increase the delivery of liposomal loads to lysosomes. PMID:21275828

  14. Flavonoids with acetylated branched glycans and bioactivity of Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Manal S; Elgindi, Omaima D; Bakr, Reham O

    2014-01-01

    The new acetylated kaempferol tetraglycoside, kaempferol-3-O-[2″(4-acetylrhamnopyranosyl)-3″-galactopyranosyl] robinobioside (1), was isolated from the aqueous methanolic leaf extract of Tipuana tipu Benth. The known kaempferol 3-[2″-(4-acetyl-rhamnosyl)] robinobioside (2), kaempferol 3-O-2″-rhamnopyranosylrutinoside (3), rutin (4), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-galactopyranoside (7), quarcetin 3-O-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol (9) and quercetin (10) together with the chlorogenic acid (11) were also isolated and characterised. Structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The methanol extract exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, IC50 28.96 μg/mL, compared with ascorbic acid (1.83 μg/mL) and tertiary-butylhydroquinone (1.92 μg/mL). The methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited potent cytotoxic activity; the former was found to be active against larynx and liver cell lines, while the latter being active against intestine and liver cell lines.

  15. A Novel Highly Thermostable Multifunctional Beta-Glycosidase from Crenarchaeon Acidilobus saccharovorans

    PubMed Central

    Gumerov, Vadim M.; Rakitin, Andrey L.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

    2015-01-01

    We expressed a putative β-galactosidase Asac_1390 from hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Acidilobus saccharovorans in Escherichia coli and purified the recombinant enzyme. Asac_1390 is composed of 490 amino acid residues and showed high sequence similarity to family 1 glycoside hydrolases from various thermophilic Crenarchaeota. The maximum activity was observed at pH 6.0 and 93°C. The half-life of the enzyme at 90°C was about 7 hours. Asac_1390 displayed high tolerance to glucose and exhibits hydrolytic activity towards cellobiose and various aryl glucosides. The hydrolytic activity with p-nitrophenyl (pNP) substrates followed the order pNP-β-D-galactopyranoside (328 U mg−1), pNP-β-D-glucopyranoside (246 U mg−1), pNP-β-D-xylopyranoside (72 U mg−1), and pNP-β-D-mannopyranoside (28 U mg−1). Thus the enzyme was actually a multifunctional β-glycosidase. Therefore, the utilization of Asac_1390 may contribute to facilitating the efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and help enhance bioconversion processes. PMID:26539062

  16. Oxidation increases mucin polymer cross-links to stiffen airway mucus gels.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaopeng; Hollinger, Martin; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E; Kerr, Sheena C; Dunican, Eleanor M; Daniel, Brian M; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Erzurum, Serpel C; Willard, Belinda; Hazen, Stanley L; Huang, Xiaozhu; Carrington, Stephen D; Oscarson, Stefan; Fahy, John V

    2015-02-25

    Airway mucus in cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly elastic, but the mechanism behind this pathology is unclear. We hypothesized that the biophysical properties of CF mucus are altered because of neutrophilic oxidative stress. Using confocal imaging, rheology, and biochemical measures of inflammation and oxidation, we found that CF airway mucus gels have a molecular architecture characterized by a core of mucin covered by a web of DNA and a rheological profile characterized by high elasticity that can be normalized by chemical reduction. We also found that high levels of reactive oxygen species in CF mucus correlated positively and significantly with high concentrations of the oxidized products of cysteine (disulfide cross-links). To directly determine whether oxidation can cross-link mucins to increase mucus elasticity, we exposed induced sputum from healthy subjects to oxidizing stimuli and found a marked and thiol-dependent increase in sputum elasticity. Targeting mucin disulfide cross-links using current thiol-amino structures such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) requires high drug concentrations to have mucolytic effects. We therefore synthesized a thiol-carbohydrate structure (methyl 6-thio-6-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) and found that it had stronger reducing activity than NAC and more potent and fast-acting mucolytic activity in CF sputum. Thus, oxidation arising from airway inflammation or environmental exposure contributes to pathologic mucus gel formation in the lung, which suggests that it can be targeted by thiol-modified carbohydrates. PMID:25717100

  17. Characterization and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides from Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) Kützing.

    PubMed

    Surayot, Utoomporn; Wang, JianGuo; Lee, Ju Hun; Kanongnuch, Chartchai; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee; You, SangGuan

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) isolated from freshwater green algae, Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) Kützing, and fractionated SPs were examined to investigate their molecular characteristics and immunomodulatory activity. The crude and fractionated SPs (F1, F2, and F3) consisted mostly of carbohydrates (68.5-85.3%), uronic acids (3.2-4.9%), and sulfates (2.2-12.2%) with various amounts of proteins (2.6-17.1%). D-galactose (23.5-27.3%), D-glucose (11.5-24.8%), L-fucose (19.0-26.7%), and L-rhamnose (16.4-18.3%) were the major monosaccharide units of these SPs with different levels of L-arabinose (3.0-9.4%), D-xylose (4.6-9.8%), and D-mannose (0.4-2.3%). The SPs contained two sub-fractions with molecular weights (Mw) ranging from 164 × 10(3) to 1460 × 10(3) g/mol. The crude and fractionated SPs strongly stimulated murine macrophages, producing considerable amounts of nitric oxide and various cytokines via up-regulation of their mRNA expression by activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways. The main backbone of the most immunoenhancing SP was (1→3)-L-Fucopyranoside, (1→4,6)-D-Glucopyranoside, and (1→4)-D-Galactopyranoside. PMID:25971153

  18. Surface activation of graphene oxide nanosheets by ultraviolet irradiation for highly efficient anti-bacterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Zhang, Linghe; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Yun, Kyusik

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anti-bacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiated GO nanosheets was carried out. Microscopic characterization revealed that the GO nanosheet-like structures had wavy features and wrinkles or thin grooves. Fundamental surface chemical states of GO nanosheets (before and after UV irradiation) were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results revealed that UV irradiated GO nanosheets have more pronounced anti-bacterial behavior than GO nanosheets and standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The MIC of UV irradiated GO nanosheets was 0.125 μg ml-1 for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 0.25 μg ml-1 for Bacillus subtilis and 0.5 μg ml-1 for Enterococcus faecalis, ensuring its potential as an anti-infective agent for controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration of normal GO nanosheets was determined to be two-fold higher than its corresponding MIC value, indicating promising bactericidal activity. The mechanism of anti-bacterial action was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of β-d-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside.

  19. Comparison of three quantification methods for the TZM-bl pseudovirus assay for screening of anti-HIV-1 agents.

    PubMed

    Xing, Liying; Wang, Shunyi; Hu, Qin; Li, Jingtao; Zeng, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The TZM-bl pseudovirus assay is commonly used to evaluate the efficacy of neutralizing antibodies and small molecular inhibitors in HIV-1 research. Here, to determine the optimal measurement method for screening anti-HIV-1 inhibitors, we compared three measurement methods based on firefly luciferase and β-galactosidase activities. The 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of the pseudoviruses were determined using the luciferase, β-galactosidase colorimetric, and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-gal) staining assays. Three commercial reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (azidothymidine, nevirapine, and lamivudine) were tested as reference drugs to compare the reproducibility, linear correlation, and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values determined using these methods. In the TCID50 assay, the sensitivity of β-galactosidase colorimetric assay was almost 562 times lower than that of the other two methods. Reproducible dose-response curves were obtained for the inhibitors with all methods; the IC50 values of the inhibitors were not significantly different. Linear regression analysis showed linear correlation between methods. Compared to the β-galactosidase colorimetric assay, the other two methods have the advantage of high sensitivity and are less affected by interference. In conclusion, the luciferase and X-gal staining assays, which can be applied either alone or combined, are recommended for anti-HIV-1 inhibitor screening. PMID:27016178

  20. Human excretory products of selenium are natural constituents of marine fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Kroepfl, Nina; Jensen, Kenneth B; Francesconi, Kevin A; Kuehnelt, Doris

    2015-10-01

    A selenosugar (selenosugar 1, methyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-D-galactopyranoside) was identified in aqueous extracts of muscle tissue of three marine fish species, mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), and tuna (Thunnus albacares), by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to elemental and high-resolution molecular mass spectrometry. Selenoneine (2-selenyl-Nα, Nα, Nα-trimethyl-L-histidine), a known selenium compound in fish, was the major form of selenium in the aqueous extracts, and the methylated derivative of selenoneine, namely Se-methylselenoneine, was also identified as a minor natural constituent in the fish. Selenosugar 1, a major urinary excretion product of selenium often found in organs and body fluids related to selenium excretion, has so far not been reported in muscle tissue. Se-methylselenoneine has been proposed as the main urinary metabolite from selenoneine. This first report of selenosugar 1 and Se-methylselenoneine as natural constituents of fish muscle tissue opens up a new perspective on the role of these compounds in selenium metabolism and is relevant to selenium supplementation studies. PMID:26253229

  1. Characterization of a protease-resistant α-galactosidase from the thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor miehei and its application in removal of raffinose family oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Katrolia, Priti; Jia, Huiyong; Yan, Qiaojuan; Song, Shuang; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Xu, Haibo

    2012-04-01

    The α-galactosidase gene, RmGal36, from Rhizomucor miehei was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene has an open reading frame of 2256bp encoding 751 amino acid residues. RmGal36 was optimally active at pH 4.5 and 60°C, but is stable between pH 4.5 and 10.0 and at a temperature of up to 55°C for 30min retaining more than 80% of its relative activity. It displayed remarkable resistance to proteases and its activity was not inhibited by galactose concentrations of 100mM. The relative specificity of RmGal36 towards various substrates is in the order of p-nitrophenyl α-galactopyranoside>melibiose>stachyose>raffinose, with a K(m) of 0.36, 16.9, 27.6, and 47.9mM, respectively. The enzyme completely hydrolyzed raffinose and stachyose present in soybeans and kidney beans at 50°C within 60min. These features make RmGal36 useful in the food and feed industries and in processing of beet-sugar. PMID:22349190

  2. Isolation and characterization of guinea-pig serum amyloid P component.

    PubMed Central

    Maudsley, S; Hind, C R; Munn, E A; Buttress, N; Pepys, M B

    1986-01-01

    A pentraxin was isolated from acute-phase guinea-pig serum by calcium-dependent affinity chromatography on agarose. It was immunochemically identical to guinea-pig amyloid P component and therefore has been called guinea-pig serum amyloid P component (SAP). Guinea-pig SAP has an apparent MW of between 265,000 and 300,000 by different techniques, and is composed of 10 noncovalently associated subunits arranged in two pentameric annular discs interacting face-to-face. It is apparently composed of two types of subunit, which run as a closely spaced doublet on reduced sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). At least one type of subunit is glycosylated. The serum concentration was 16 +/- 4 mg/l in outbred animals, rising to 25 +/- 4 mg/l in an acute-phase response. Binding to agarose correlated with the agarose pyruvate content and was completely abolished by diazomethane treatment of the agarose, which methylates the pyruvate carboxylic moiety. Binding was also inhibited in the presence of free methyl 4,6-o-(carboxyethylidine)-beta-D-galactopyranoside. No protein resembling C-reactive protein (CRP) was obtained by calcium-dependent affinity chromatography of acute-phase guinea-pig serum on phosphorylcholine (PC)-Sepharose, and it not clear whether a counterpart of CRP exists in this species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3770806

  3. A single-molecule digital enzyme assay using alkaline phosphatase with a cumarin-based fluorogenic substrate.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Yusuke; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Digitalization of fluorogenic enzymatic assays through the use of femtoliter chamber array technology is an emerging approach to realizing highly quantitative bioassays with single-molecule sensitivity. However, only a few digital fluorogenic enzyme assays have been reported, and the variations of the digital enzyme assays are basically limited to fluorescein- and resorufin-based fluorogenic assays. This limitation hampers the realization of a multiplex digital enzyme assay such as a digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In this study, after optimization of buffer conditions, we achieved a single-molecule digital enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay with a cumarin-based fluorogenic substrate, 4-methylunbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP). When ALP molecules were encapsulated in a 44-femtoliter chamber array at a low ratio of less than 1 molecule per chamber, each chamber showed a discrete fluorescence signal in an all-or-none manner, allowing the digital counting of the number of active enzyme molecules. The fraction of fluorescent chambers linearly decreased with the enzyme concentration, obeying the Poisson distribution as expected. We also demonstrated a dual-color digital enzyme assay with a ALP/4-MUP and β-galactosidase (β-gal)/resorufin-β-d-galactopyranoside combination. The activities of single ALP and β-gal molecules were clearly detected simultaneously. The method developed in this study will enable us to carry out a parallelized, multiplex digital ELISA.

  4. Sequence, internal homology and high-level expression of the gene for a DNA-(cytosine N4)-methyltransferase, M.Pvu II.

    PubMed Central

    Tao, T; Walter, J; Brennan, K J; Cotterman, M M; Blumenthal, R M

    1989-01-01

    The base sequence of the pvuIIM gene has been determined. This gene codes for a DNA-(cytosine N4)-methyltransferase, M.Pvu II. The base sequence contains a single large open reading frame that predicts a 38.3kDa polypeptide, consistent with experimental data. The pvuIIM gene contains some sequences common to DNA methyltransferases in general, but includes none of the sequences specifically conserved among DNA-(cytosine 5)-methyltransferases. The pvuIIM sequence also reveals an internal homology at the amino acid level, each half of which spans over 100 amino acids and is itself homologous to the sequences of some DNA-(adenine N6)-methyltransferases. A derivative of the pvuIIM plasmid was constructed to allow high-level production of M.Pvu II. Specifically, the composite Ptac promoter was inserted 5' to pvuIIM, intervening DNA was deleted, and the resulting construct was used to transform an mcrB laclq strain of Escherichia coli. When this transformant was induced with isopropyl-B-D-galactopyranoside (IPTG), growth rapidly ceased and M.Pvu II accumulated to the point of comprising over 10% of the total soluble protein. Images PMID:2662138

  5. Sensitive fluorescent microplate bioassay using recombinant Escherichia coli with multiple promoter-reporter units in tandem for detection of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Tani, Chiaki; Inoue, Koichi; Tani, Yuri; Harun-ur-Rashid, Md; Azuma, Norihiro; Ueda, Shunsaku; Yoshida, Kazuyuki; Maeda, Isamu

    2009-11-01

    Genetically modified bacterial biosensors can detect specific environmental compounds. Here, we attempted to establish a fluorescent microplate method to detect arsenic using recombinant Escherichia coli cells transformed with plasmids harboring three tandem copies of the ars promoter/operator-the gene for green fluorescent protein (gfp). In the biosensors, one copy of arsR, whose transcription is autoregulated by the ars promoter/operator and ArsR in the genome of E. coli, was placed in trans in another plasmid under the control of isopropyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside-inducible promoter. First, this manipulation enabled regulation of the arsR expression at an adequate level. Second, the copy number of reporter unit also affected signal and noise. When the plasmid harboring three copies of the reporter unit was used, the signal-to-noise ratio doubled and the detection limit decreased from 20 to 7.5 microg L(-1) As(III), compared to the use of the plasmid harboring one copy of the ars promoter/operator-arsR-gfp. Thus, segregation of arsR from the ars promoter/operator-gfp using two plasmids is effective in regulating the signal-to-noise ratio and the detection limit with the different functions.

  6. Purification and characterization of vanilla bean (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beta-D-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Odoux, Eric; Chauwin, Audrey; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2003-05-01

    Vanilla bean beta-D-glucosidase was purified to apparent homogeneity by successive anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size-exclusion chromatography. The enzyme is a tetramer (201 kDa) made up of four identical subunits (50 kDa). The optimum pH was 6.5, and the optimum temperature was 40 degrees C at pH 7.0. K(m) values for p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and glucovanillin were 1.1 and 20.0 mM, respectively; V(max) values were 4.5 and 5.0 microkat.mg(-1). The beta-D-glucosidase was competitively inhibited by glucono-delta-lactone and 1-deoxynojirimycin, with respective K(i) values of 670 and 152 microM, and not inhibited by 2 M glucose. The beta-D-glucosidase was not inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and DTNB and fully inhibited by 1.5-2 M 2-mercaptoethanol and 1,4-dithiothreitol. The enzyme showed decreasing activity on p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside. The enzyme was also active on prunasin, esculin, and salicin and inactive on cellobiose, gentiobiose, amygdalin, phloridzin, indoxyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and quercetin-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

  7. Kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of a halotolerant β-galactosidase produced by halotolerant Aspergillus tubingensis GR1.

    PubMed

    Raol, Gopalkumar G; Raol, B V; Prajapati, Vimal S; Patel, Kamlesh C

    2015-07-01

    β-Galactosidase from halotolerant Aspergillus tubingensis GR1 was purified by two-step purification process comprising ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The recovery of β-galactosidase after SEC was found to be 1.40% with 58.55-fold increase in specific activity. The molecular weight of β-galactosidase protein was found to be 93 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Activation energy for O-nitrophenol β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) hydrolysis was 32.88 kJ mol(-1), while temperature quotient (Q(10)) was found to be 1.375. The enzyme was found to be stable over wide pH range and thermally stable at 60-65°C up to 60 min of incubation while exhibited maximum activity at 65°C with pH 3.0. V(max), K(m), and K(cat) for ONPG were found to be 2000 U ml(-1), 8.33 mM (ONPG), and 101454 s(-1), respectively. Activation energy for irreversible inactivation Ea(d) of β-galactosidase was 100.017 kJ mol(-1). Thermodynamic parameters of irreversible inactivation of β-galactosidase and ONPG hydrolysis were also determined. However, β-galactosidase enzyme activity was activated significantly in the presence of 15% NaCl and hence shows activity up to 30% NaCl concentration.

  8. Structure-activity relationship of highly potent galactonoamidine inhibitors toward β-galactosidase (Aspergillus oryzae).

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiu-Hua; Claunch, Kailey A; Striegler, Susanne

    2014-11-13

    A small library of 22 N-substituted galactonoamidines was synthesized, and their structure-activity relationship for inhibition of the hydrolytic activity of β-galactosidase (Aspergillus oryzae) was evaluated. A fast screening assay in 96-well plate format was used to follow the enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside using UV-vis spectroscopy. The aglycon moiety of all compounds was found to have a profound effect on their inhibitory ability. In general, galactonoamidines derived from cyclic aliphatic and linear amines show higher inhibition activity than those derived from benzylamines. Hydrophobic interactions of the methyl group rather than π-π stacking interactions of the aromatic ring in p-methylbenzyl-D-galactonoamidine were identified to cause its transition-state-like character and the remarkably high inhibitory ability (K(i) = 8 nM). A flexible 3-carbon methylene spacer between the exo N atom of the sugar moiety and a phenyl group furthermore increased the observed apparent inhibition drastically.

  9. High level production of β-galactosidase exhibiting excellent milk-lactose degradation ability from Aspergillus oryzae by codon and fermentation optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Fei; Hou, Zhongwen; Yuan, Chao; Zhu, Xiqiang

    2014-03-01

    A β-galactosidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was engineered utilizing codon usage optimization to be constitutively and highly expressed in the Pichia pastoris SMD1168H strain in a high-cell-density fermentation. After fermentation for 96 h in a 50-L fermentor using glucose and glycerol as combined carbon sources, the recombinant enzyme in the culture supernatant had an activity of 4,239.07 U mL(-1) with o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside as the substrate, and produced a total of extracellular protein content of 7.267 g L(-1) in which the target protein (6.24 g L(-1)) occupied approximately 86 %. The recombinant β-galactosidase exhibited an excellent lactose hydrolysis ability. With 1,000 U of the enzyme in 100 mL milk, 92.44 % lactose was degraded within 24 h at 60 °C, and the enzyme could also accomplish the hydrolysis at low temperatures of 37, 25, and 10 °C. Thus, this engineered strain had significantly higher fermentation level of A. oryzae lactase than that before optimization and the β-galactosidase may have a good application potential in whey and milk industries.

  10. Characterization of the chemical diversity of glycosylated mycosporine-like amino acids in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Nazifi, Ehsan; Wada, Naoki; Asano, Tomoya; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Iwamuro, Yoshiaki; Chinaka, Satoshi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UV-absorbing pigments, and structurally unique glycosylated MAAs are found in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In this study, we examined two genotypes of N.commune colonies with different water extract UV-absorption spectra. We found structurally distinct MAAs in each genotype. The water extract from genotype A showed a UV-absorbing spectrum with an absorption maximum at 335nm. The extract contained the following compounds: 7-O-(β-arabinopyranosyl)-porphyra-334 (478Da), pentose-bound shinorine (464Da), hexose-bound porphyra-334 (508Da) and porphyra-334 (346Da). The water extract from genotype B showed a characteristic UV-absorbing spectrum with double absorption maxima at 312 and 340nm. The extract contained hybrid MAAs (1050Da and 880Da) with two distinct chromophores of 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one and 1,3-diaminocyclohexen linked to 2-O-(β-xylopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranoside. A novel 273-Da MAA with an absorption maximum at 310nm was also identified in genotype B. The MAA consisted of a 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one linked to a γ-aminobutyric acid chain. These MAAs had potent radical scavenging activities in vitro and the results confirmed that the MAAs have multiple roles as a UV protectant and an antioxidant relevant to anhydrobiosis in N. commune. The two genotypes of N. commune exclusively produced their own characteristic glycosylated MAAs, which supports that MAA composition could be a chemotaxonomic marker for the classification of N. commune.

  11. Detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water using T7 bacteriophage-conjugated magnetic probe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juhong; Alcaine, Samuel D; Jiang, Ziwen; Rotello, Vincent M; Nugen, Sam R

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a bacteriophage (phage)-based magnetic separation scheme for the rapid detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in drinking water. T7 phage is a lytic phage with a broad host range specificity for E. coli. Our scheme was as follows: (1) T7 bacteriophage-conjugated magnetic beads were used to capture and separate E. coli BL21 from drinking water; (2) subsequent phage-mediated lysis was used to release endemic β-galactosidase (β-gal) from the bound bacterial cells; (3) the release of β-gal was detected using chlorophenol red-β-d-galactopyranoside (CRPG), a colorimetric substrate which changes from yellow to red in the presence of β-gal. Using this strategy, we were able to detect E. coli at a concentration of 1 × 10(4) CFU·mL(-1) within 2.5 h. The specificity of the proposed magnetic probes toward E. coli was demonstrated against a background of competing bacteria. By incorporating a pre-enrichment step in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth supplemented with isopropyl β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), we were able to detect 10 CFU·mL(-1) in drinking water after 6 h of pre-enrichment. The colorimetric change can be determined either by visual observation or with a reader, allowing for a simple, rapid quantification of E. coli in resource-limited settings.

  12. Flavonoid Detection in Hydroethanolic Extract of Pouteria torta (Sapotaceae) Leaves by HPLC-DAD and the Determination of Its Mutagenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daryne L.M.G.; Rinaldo, Daniel; Varanda, Eliana A.; de Sousa, Juliana F.; Nasser, Ana L.M.; Silva, Ana C.Z.; Baldoqui, Débora C.; Vilegas, Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It is well known that phytotherapy has grown in popularity in recent years. Because a drug cannot be administered without ensuring its effectiveness and safety, the standardization and regulation of phytotherapeutic drugs are required by the global market and governmental authorities. This article describes a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection analysis method for the simultaneous detection of myricetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, and myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminopyranoside present in the hydroethanolic extract (ethanol/H2O, 7:3, v/v) of Pouteria torta. The mutagenic activity of the extract was evaluated on Salmonella typhimurium and by an in vivo micronucleus test on the peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice. The linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability, accuracy, and precision of the assay were evaluated. The analytical curves were linear and exhibited good repeatability (with a deviation of less than 5%) and demonstrated good recovery (within the 83–107% range). The results demonstrate that the hydroethanolic extract exhibited a mutagenic activity in both assays, suggesting caution in the use of this plant in folk medicine. PMID:25055245

  13. Enhanced thermal stability of lysosomal beta-D-galactosidase in parenchymal cells of tumour bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lenti, L.; Lipari, M.; Lombardi, D.; Zicari, A.; Dotta, A.; Pontieri, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal stability of the enzyme beta-D-galactosidase varies among different organs in normal C57Bl/6 mice, and increases in the same organs in mice with Lewis Lung carcinoma. Thermal stability of this enzyme is also increased by treatment of the mice with cell-free extracts of tumour cells or with inflammatory compounds such as carrageenan or orosomucoid. After desialylation, orosomucoid more effectively increases the heat stability of the enzyme. By contrast talc, which has no galactosyl groups, is without effect on the stability of the enzyme in vivo. Macrophages of tumour bearing mice release into the culture medium a more heat resistant enzyme than macrophages from control mice. In both cases the heat resistance of the secreted enzyme is higher when fetal calf serum is present in the culture medium. Bovine serum does not modify the thermal stability of beta-D-galactosidase in this system. Incubation of lysosomal fractions of various organs with the synthetic beta-D-galactosidase substrate, p-nitrophenyl-galactopyranoside, also strongly increases the heat resistance of the enzyme. The results suggest that one factor influencing the heat resistance of this enzyme may be complex formation between the enzyme and its substrates, an example of substrate protection of the enzyme. This may not be the only factor involved in enzyme stabilization in vivo. PMID:3099822

  14. Isolation of antioxidant phytoconstituents from the seeds of Lens culinaris Medik.

    PubMed

    Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohammed

    2015-05-15

    Lens culinaris Medik (Leguminosae) is an annual, bushy and herbaceous plant cultivated globally for its edible seeds. A methanolic extract of the seeds contained four new antioxidant compounds, namely β-sitosteryl-3-(2'-n-eicosanyloxy)-benzoate (3), n-octadec-9-enoyl-1-β-D-glucurano-pyranoside (4) α-D-galactopyranosyl-(6 → 1')-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(6' → 1″)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(6″ → 1‴)-α-d-galactopyranoside (5) and benzoyl-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(2a → 1b)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(2b → 1c)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6c → 1d)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6d → 1e)-O-α-D-gluco-pyranoside (6) along with two known compounds n-heptadecanyl n-octadec-9-enoate (1) and β-sitosterol (2) on the basis of chromatographic and spectral data analytical techniques. Compound 3 showed significant antioxidant activity compared to compounds 4, 5, and 6.

  15. Improving Properties of a Novel β-Galactosidase from Lactobacillus plantarum by Covalent Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Benavente, Rocio; Pessela, Benevides C; Curiel, Jose Antonio; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Guisán, Jose Manuel; Mancheño, Jose M; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Ruiz-Matute, Ana I; Corzo, Nieves

    2015-04-30

    A novel β-galactosidase from Lactobacillus plantarum (LPG) was over-expressed in E. coli and purified via a single chromatographic step by using lowly activated IMAC (immobilized metal for affinity chromatography) supports. The pure enzyme exhibited a high hydrolytic activity of 491 IU/mL towards o-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside. This value was conserved in the presence of different divalent cations and was quite resistant to the inhibition effects of different carbohydrates. The pure multimeric enzyme was stabilized by multipoint and multisubunit covalent attachment on glyoxyl-agarose. The glyoxyl-LPG immobilized preparation was over 20-fold more stable than the soluble enzyme or the one-point CNBr-LPG immobilized preparation at 50 °C. This β-galactosidase was successfully used in the hydrolysis of lactose and lactulose and formation of different oligosaccharides was detected. High production of galacto-oligosaccharides (35%) and oligosaccharides derived from lactulose (30%) was found and, for the first time, a new oligosaccharide derived from lactulose, tentatively identified as 3'-galactosyl lactulose, has been described.

  16. Specific and Reversible Immobilization of Proteins Tagged to the Affinity Polypeptide C-LytA on Functionalized Graphite Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Bello-Gil, Daniel; Maestro, Beatriz; Fonseca, Jennifer; Feliu, Juan M.; Climent, Víctor; Sanz, Jesús M.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a general method for the specific and reversible immobilization of proteins fused to the choline-binding module C-LytA on functionalized graphite electrodes. Graphite electrode surfaces were modified by diazonium chemistry to introduce carboxylic groups that were subsequently used to anchor mixed self-assembled monolayers consisting of N,N-diethylethylenediamine groups, acting as choline analogs, and ethanolamine groups as spacers. The ability of the prepared electrodes to specifically bind C-LytA-tagged recombinant proteins was tested with a C-LytA-β-galactosidase fusion protein. The binding, activity and stability of the immobilized protein was evaluated by electrochemically monitoring the formation of an electroactive product in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate 4-aminophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside. The hybrid protein was immobilized in an specific and reversible way, while retaining the catalytic activity. Moreover, these functionalized electrodes were shown to be highly stable and reusable. The method developed here can be envisaged as a general, immobilization procedure on the protein biosensor field. PMID:24498237

  17. Specific and reversible immobilization of proteins tagged to the affinity polypeptide C-LytA on functionalized graphite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bello-Gil, Daniel; Maestro, Beatriz; Fonseca, Jennifer; Feliu, Juan M; Climent, Víctor; Sanz, Jesús M

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a general method for the specific and reversible immobilization of proteins fused to the choline-binding module C-LytA on functionalized graphite electrodes. Graphite electrode surfaces were modified by diazonium chemistry to introduce carboxylic groups that were subsequently used to anchor mixed self-assembled monolayers consisting of N,N-diethylethylenediamine groups, acting as choline analogs, and ethanolamine groups as spacers. The ability of the prepared electrodes to specifically bind C-LytA-tagged recombinant proteins was tested with a C-LytA-β-galactosidase fusion protein. The binding, activity and stability of the immobilized protein was evaluated by electrochemically monitoring the formation of an electroactive product in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate 4-aminophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside. The hybrid protein was immobilized in an specific and reversible way, while retaining the catalytic activity. Moreover, these functionalized electrodes were shown to be highly stable and reusable. The method developed here can be envisaged as a general, immobilization procedure on the protein biosensor field. PMID:24498237

  18. Distribution and ecology of Vibrio vulnificus and other lactose-fermenting marine vibrios in coastal waters of the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J D; Warner, R A; Cleland, D R

    1982-12-01

    Water, sediment, plankton, and animal samples from five coastal sites from North Carolina to Georgia were sampled for their lactose-fermenting vibrio populations. Over 20% of all vibrios tested were sucrose negative and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) positive, suggesting identification as the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. These vibrios were isolated from all sample sites and sources (water, sediment, plankton, and animals). Correlations with several of 19 environmental parameters monitored at each site were found for total vibrios. The presence of ONPG-positive, sucrose-negative vibrios was correlated with hydrocarbon levels in the water and, in the case of plankton samples, with salinity. A total of 279 sucrose-negative, ONPG-positive isolates were subjected to numerical taxonomic analysis, which resulted in three major clusters. Cluster I corresponded to and included 11 reference strains of V. vulnificus. Cluster II contained the largest number (133) of isolates, of which the great majority were bioluminescent. Although having a resemblance to V. harveyi, the isolates were ONPG positive and many were H2S positive. Cluster III consisted of strains similar to the group F vibrios (V. fluvialis). Of all of the isolates, 55% were luminescent, of which over 20% were lethal when injected into mice. Problems involved in detecting lactose fermentation among marine vibrios and the potential pathogenicity of these organisms are discussed.

  19. Purification and Characterization of the Recombinant Thermus sp. Strain T2 α-Galactosidase Expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Mitsunori; Kaneko, Satoshi; Kuno, Atsushi; Koyama, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Shigeki; Park, Gwi-Gun; Sakakibara, Yoshikiyo; Kusakabe, Isao; Kobayashi, Hideyuki

    2001-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Thermus sp. strain T2 DNA coding for a thermostable α-galactosidase was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme predicts a polypeptide of 474 amino acids (Mr, 53,514). The observed homology between the deduced amino acid sequences of the enzyme and α-galactosidase from Thermus brockianus was over 70%. Thermus sp. strain T2 α-galactosidase was expressed in its active form in Escherichia coli and purified. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography data suggest that the enzyme is octameric. The enzyme was most active at 75°C for p-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranoside hydrolysis, and it retained 50% of its initial activity after 1 h of incubation at 70°C. The enzyme was extremely stable over a broad range of pH (pH 6 to 13) after treatment at 40°C for 1 h. The enzyme acted on the terminal α-galactosyl residue, not on the side chain residue, of the galactomanno-oligosaccharides as well as those of yeasts and Mortierella vinacea α-galactosidase I. The enzyme has only one Cys residue in the molecule. para-Chloromercuribenzoic acid completely inhibited the enzyme but did not affect the mutant enzyme which contained Ala instead of Cys, indicating that this Cys residue is not responsible for its catalytic function. PMID:11282611

  20. Cloning of the Gene Encoding a Novel Thermostable α-Galactosidase from Thermus brockianus ITI360

    PubMed Central

    Fridjonsson, Olafur; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Gehweiler, Axel; Rohrhirsch, Thilo; Mattes, Ralf

    1999-01-01

    An α-galactosidase gene from Thermus brockianus ITI360 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified. The gene, designated agaT, codes for a 476-residue polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 53,810 Da. The native structure of the recombinant enzyme (AgaT) was estimated to be a tetramer. AgaT displays amino acid sequence similarity to the α-galactosidases of Thermotoga neapolitana and Thermotoga maritima and a low-level sequence similarity to α-galactosidases of family 36 in the classification of glycosyl hydrolases. The enzyme is thermostable, with a temperature optimum of activity at 93°C with para-nitrophenyl-α-galactopyranoside as a substrate. Half-lives of inactivation at 92 and 80°C are 100 min and 17 h, respectively. The pH optimum is between 5.5 and 6.5. The enzyme displayed high affinity for oligomeric substrates. The Kms for melibiose and raffinose at 80°C were determined as 4.1 and 11.0 mM, respectively. The α-galactosidase gene in T. brockianus ITI360 was inactivated by integrational mutagenesis. Consequently, no α-galactosidase activity was detectable in crude extracts of the mutant strain, and it was unable to use melibiose or raffinose as a single carbohydrate source. PMID:10473401

  1. Characterization of a protease-resistant α-galactosidase from the thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor miehei and its application in removal of raffinose family oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Katrolia, Priti; Jia, Huiyong; Yan, Qiaojuan; Song, Shuang; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Xu, Haibo

    2012-04-01

    The α-galactosidase gene, RmGal36, from Rhizomucor miehei was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene has an open reading frame of 2256bp encoding 751 amino acid residues. RmGal36 was optimally active at pH 4.5 and 60°C, but is stable between pH 4.5 and 10.0 and at a temperature of up to 55°C for 30min retaining more than 80% of its relative activity. It displayed remarkable resistance to proteases and its activity was not inhibited by galactose concentrations of 100mM. The relative specificity of RmGal36 towards various substrates is in the order of p-nitrophenyl α-galactopyranoside>melibiose>stachyose>raffinose, with a K(m) of 0.36, 16.9, 27.6, and 47.9mM, respectively. The enzyme completely hydrolyzed raffinose and stachyose present in soybeans and kidney beans at 50°C within 60min. These features make RmGal36 useful in the food and feed industries and in processing of beet-sugar.

  2. A new α-galactosidase from symbiotic Flavobacterium sp. TN17 reveals four residues essential for α-galactosidase activity of gastrointestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junpei; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Cao, Yanan; Meng, Kun; Yang, Peilong; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Xiaoyan; Yao, Bin

    2010-12-01

    The α-galactosidase gene, galA17, was cloned from Flavobacterium sp. TN17, a symbiotic bacterium isolated from the gut of Batocera horsfieldi larvae. The 2,205-bp full-length gene encodes a 734-residue polypeptide (GalA17) containing a putative 28-residue signal peptide and a catalytic domain belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 36 (GH 36). The deduced amino acid sequence of galA17 was most similar to a putative α-galactosidase from Pedobacter sp. BAL39 (EDM38577; 66.6% identity) and a characterized α-galactosidase from Carnobacterium piscicola BA (AAL27305; 30.1%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that GalA17 was similar to GH 36 α-galactosidases from symbiotic bacteria sharing two putative catalytic motifs, KWD and SDXXDXXXR, in which D480, S548, D549, and R556 were essential for α-galactosidase activity based on site-directed mutagenesis. Purified recombinant GalA17 showed apparent optimal activity at pH 5.5 and 45°C; exhibited strong resistance to digestion by trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, collagenase, and proteinase K; and efficiently hydrolyzed several synthetic and natural substrates (p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside, stachyose, melibiose, raffinose, soybean meal, locust bean gum, and guar gum).

  3. Purification of thermostable α-galactosidase from Irpex lacteus and its use for hydrolysis of oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yajie; Song, Yi; Qiu, Yi; Shao, Xiaoming; Wang, Hexiang; Song, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    A monomeric α-galactosidase (ILGI) from the mushroom Irpex lacteus was purified 94.19-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity. ILGI exhibited a specific activity of 18.36 U mg(-1) and demonstrated a molecular mass of 60 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). ILGI was optimally active at 80 °C and pH 5.0, and it was stable over a temperature range of 4-70 °C and a wide pH range of 2.0-12.0. ILGI was completely inactivated by Ag(+) and Hg(2+) ions and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS). Moreover, ILGI exhibited good resistance to proteases. Galactose acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor with Ki and Kis of 3.34 and 0.29 mM, respectively. The α-galactosidase presented a broad substrate specificity, which included p-nitrophenyl α-D-galactopyranoside (pNPGal), melibiose, stachyose, and raffinose with Km values of 1.27, 3.24, 7.1, and 22.12 mM, correspondingly. ILGI exhibited efficient and complete hydrolysis to raffinose and stachyose. The aforementioned features of this enzyme suggest its potential value in food and feed industries.

  4. Preparation and properties of alpha-galactosidase chemically attached to activated chitin.

    PubMed

    Onal, Seçil; Telefoncu, Azmi

    2003-08-01

    alpha-Galactosidase (alpha-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.22) from watermelon was covalently immobilized on chitin. The immobilized alpha-galactosidase exhibited an activity of 0.61 U per g of carrier and an activity yield of 67%. The properties of free and immobilized alpha-galactosidase were also searched and compared. The results showed that, optimum conditions for activity were not affected by immobilization. The optimum pH and temperature for free and immobilized enzyme found as pH 6.0 and 65 degress C, respectively. Compared with the free enzyme, the temperature and pH stabilities of the immobilized enzyme were similar. Both the enzymes were stable between pH 2-10 and below 50 degrees C. The Km values for free and immobilized enzyme were determined using p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (PNPG) and raffinose as substrates. Operational stability of the immobilized enzyme was investigated by using both substrates. The operational half-life (t 1/2) was calculated as 34 h for PNPG and 28 h for raffinose. The immobilized alpha-galactosidase was also utilized in the hydrolysis of raffinose. The immobilization procedure on chitin was cheap and also easy to carry out, and the immobilized enzyme had good properties that the potential for practical application is considerable.

  5. Induction and characterization of an unusual alpha-D-galactosidase from Talaromyces flavus.

    PubMed

    Simerská, Pavla; Monti, Daniela; Cechová, Ivana; Pelantová, Helena; Macková, Martina; Bezouska, Karel; Riva, Sergio; Kren, Vladimír

    2007-01-30

    An extracellular alpha-d-galactosidase from Talaromyces flavus CCF 2686 with extremely broad and unusual acceptor specificity is produced exclusively in the presence of the specific inducer--6-deoxy-D-glucose (quinovose). The procedure for the preparation of this very expensive substance has been modified and optimized. Surprisingly, any of other common alpha-D-galactosidase inducers or substrates, e.g., D-galactose, melibiose and raffinose, did not stimulate its production. The crude alpha-D-galactosidase preparation was purified by anion-exchange chromatography and three isoenzymes with different substrate specificities were identified. The main isoenzyme (alphaGal1) was further purified by cation-exchange chromatography and fully characterized. When compared with other alpha-galactosidases and also with other isoenzymes produced by T. flavus, it showed a markedly different regioselectivity and also negligible hydrolytic activity towards melibiose. Moreover, it was active on polymeric substrates (locust bean gum, guar gum) and significantly inhibited by alpha-D-galactopyranosyl azide, D-galactose, D-xylose, melibiose, methyl alpha- and beta-D-galactopyranoside and lactose.

  6. Characterization and biotechnological application of an acid alpha-galactosidase from Tachigali multijuga Benth. seeds.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Lílian da Silva; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze; Callegari, Carina Marin; Reis, Angélica Pataro; Barbosa, Daianny Silveira; Borges, Eduardo Euclydes de Lima; Moreira, Maurilio Alves; de Rezende, Sebastião Tavares

    2008-10-01

    Tachigali multijuga Benth. seeds were found to contain protein (364 mg g(-1)dwt), lipids (24 mg g(-1)dwt), ash (35 mg g(-1)dwt), and carbohydrates (577 mg g(-1)dwt). Sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose concentrations were 8.3, 3.0, and 11.6 mg g(-1)dwt, respectively. alpha-Galactosidase activity increased during seed germination and reached a maximum level at 108 h after seed imbibition. The alpha-galactosidase purified from germinating seeds had an M(r) of 38,000 and maximal activity at pH 5.0-5.5 and 50 degrees C. The enzyme was stable at 35 degrees C and 40 degrees C, but lost 79% of its activity after 30 min at 50 degrees C. The activation energy (E(a)) values for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-d-galactopyranoside (pNPGal) and raffinose were 13.86 and 4.75 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The K(m) values for pNPGal, melibiose, raffinose, and stachyose were 0.45, 5.37, 39.62 and 48.80 mM, respectively. The enzyme was sensitive to inhibition by HgCl(2), SDS, AgNO(3), CuSO(4), and melibiose. d-Galactose was a competitive inhibitor (K(i)=2.74 mM). In addition to its ability to hydrolyze raffinose and stachyose, the enzyme also hydrolyzed galactomannan.

  7. Effects of carbohydrates on the oNPG converting activity of β-galactosidases.

    PubMed

    Warmerdam, Anja; Wang, Jue; Boom, Remko M; Janssen, Anja E M

    2013-07-01

    The effects of high concentrations of carbohydrates on the o-nitrophenyl β-d-galactopyranoside (oNPG) converting activity of β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans are studied to get a better understanding of the enzyme behavior in concentrated and complicated systems in which enzymatic synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides is usually performed. The components that were tested were glucose, galactose, lactose, sucrose, trehalose, raffinose, Vivinal GOS, dextran-6000, dextran-70,000, and sarcosine. Small carbohydrates act as acceptors in the reaction. This speeds up the limiting step, which is binding of the galactose residue with the acceptor and release of the product. Simultaneously, both inert and reacting additives seem to cause some molecular crowding, which results in a higher enzyme affinity for the substrate. The effect of molecular crowding on the enzyme activity is small compared to the effect of carbohydrates acting in the reactions as acceptors. The effects of reactants on β-galactosidases from B. circulans, A. oryzae, and K. lactis are compared.

  8. Debaryomyces hansenii UFV-1 intracellular alpha-galactosidase characterization and comparative studies with the extracellular enzyme.

    PubMed

    Viana, Pollyanna A; de Rezende, Sebastião T; Passos, Flávia Maria Lopes; Oliveira, Jamil S; Teixeira, Kádima N; Santos, Alexandre M C; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Rosa, José C; Santoro, Marcelo M; Guimarães, Valéria M

    2009-03-25

    Debaryomyces hansenii cells cultivated on galactose produced extracellular and intracellular alpha-galactosidases, which showed 54.5 and 54.8 kDa molecular mass (MALDI-TOF), 60 and 61 kDa (SDS-PAGE) and 5.15 and 4.15 pI values, respectively. The extracellular and intracellular deglycosylated forms presented 36 and 40 kDa molecular mass, with 40 and 34% carbohydrate content, respectively. The N-terminal sequences of the alpha-galactosidases were identical. Intracellular alpha-galactosidase showed smaller thermostability when compared to the extracellular enzyme. D. hansenii UFV-1 extracellular alpha-galactosidase presented higher kcat than the intracellular enzyme (7.16 vs 3.29 s-1, respectively) for the p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside substrate. The Km for hydrolysis of pNPalphaGal, melibiose, stachyose, and raffinose were 0.32, 2.12, 10.8, and 32.8 mM, respectively. The intracellular enzyme was a competitively inhibited by galactose (Ki = 0.70 mM), and it was inactivated by Cu(II) and Ag(I). Enzyme incubation with soy milk for 6 h at 55 degrees C reduced stachyose and raffinose amounts by 100 and 73%, respectively.

  9. Functional expression of a cDNA encoding pea (Pisum sativum L.) raffinose synthase, partial purification of the enzyme from maturing seeds, and steady-state kinetic analysis of raffinose synthesis.

    PubMed

    Peterbauer, Thomas; Mach, Lukas; Mucha, Jan; Richter, Andreas

    2002-09-01

    Raffinose (O-alpha- D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)- O-alpha- D-glucopyranosyl-(1<-->2)- O-beta- D-fructofuranoside) is a widespread oligosaccharide in plant seeds and other tissues. Raffinose synthase (EC 2.4.1.82) is the key enzyme that channels sucrose into the raffinose oligosaccharide pathway. We here report on the isolation of a cDNA encoding for raffinose synthase from maturing pea ( Pisum sativum L.) seeds. The coding region of the cDNA was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 insect cells. The recombinant enzyme, a protein of glycoside hydrolase family 36, displayed similar kinetic properties to raffinose synthase partially purified from maturing seeds by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Apart from the natural galactosyl donor galactinol ( O-alpha- D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->1)- L- myo-inositol), p-nitrophenyl alpha- D-galactopyranoside, an artificial substrate, was utilized as a galactosyl donor. An equilibrium constant of 4.1 was determined for the galactosyl transfer reaction from galactinol to sucrose. Steady-state kinetic analysis suggested that raffinose synthase is a transglycosidase operating by a ping-pong reaction mechanism and may also act as a glycoside hydrolase. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, a potent inhibitor for alpha-galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.22). The physiological implications of these observations are discussed.

  10. Proteinase K activity determination with β-galactosidase as sensitive macromolecular substrate.

    PubMed

    Ghéczy, Nicolas; Küchler, Andreas; Walde, Peter

    2016-11-15

    Proteinase K from Engyodontium album (proK) is a relatively unspecific serine endopeptidase which is known to attack proteins yet in their native states. If the attacked protein is an enzyme, even a partial hydrolysis by proK may lead to an inactivation of the enzyme, which can be monitored by measuring the loss of catalytic activity of the attacked enzyme. E. coli β-galactosidase (β-Gal) was used in this work as such enzyme. It was found to be a convenient and sensitive macromolecular model substrate for comparing the "native protein-attacking ability" of free and immobilized proK at pH = 7.0 and 23 °C. The β-Gal activity was measured spectrophotometrically with o-nitrophenyl-β-galactopyranoside. Reproducible proK determinations were possible for as little as 4.3 ng proK by using a proK analyte solution of 10 nM. Compared to free proK, immobilized proK was much less efficient in inactivating β-Gal, most likely due to a decreased mobility of immobilized proK and a restricted accessibility of β-Gal to the active site of proK. Worth noting is, that under conditions at which β-Gal was completely inactivated by proK, the activity of hen egg lysozyme, horseradish peroxidase, or Aspergillus sp. glucose oxidase remained unaltered.

  11. Oxidation increases mucin polymer cross-links to stiffen airway mucus gels.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaopeng; Hollinger, Martin; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E; Kerr, Sheena C; Dunican, Eleanor M; Daniel, Brian M; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Erzurum, Serpel C; Willard, Belinda; Hazen, Stanley L; Huang, Xiaozhu; Carrington, Stephen D; Oscarson, Stefan; Fahy, John V

    2015-02-25

    Airway mucus in cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly elastic, but the mechanism behind this pathology is unclear. We hypothesized that the biophysical properties of CF mucus are altered because of neutrophilic oxidative stress. Using confocal imaging, rheology, and biochemical measures of inflammation and oxidation, we found that CF airway mucus gels have a molecular architecture characterized by a core of mucin covered by a web of DNA and a rheological profile characterized by high elasticity that can be normalized by chemical reduction. We also found that high levels of reactive oxygen species in CF mucus correlated positively and significantly with high concentrations of the oxidized products of cysteine (disulfide cross-links). To directly determine whether oxidation can cross-link mucins to increase mucus elasticity, we exposed induced sputum from healthy subjects to oxidizing stimuli and found a marked and thiol-dependent increase in sputum elasticity. Targeting mucin disulfide cross-links using current thiol-amino structures such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) requires high drug concentrations to have mucolytic effects. We therefore synthesized a thiol-carbohydrate structure (methyl 6-thio-6-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) and found that it had stronger reducing activity than NAC and more potent and fast-acting mucolytic activity in CF sputum. Thus, oxidation arising from airway inflammation or environmental exposure contributes to pathologic mucus gel formation in the lung, which suggests that it can be targeted by thiol-modified carbohydrates.

  12. Benzoxazinoids from Scoparia dulcis (sweet broomweed) with antiproliferative activity against the DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wan-Hsun; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Lu, Rui-Wen; Chen, Shui-Tein; Chang, Chia-Chuan

    2012-11-01

    Sweet broomweed (Scoparia dulcis) is an edible perennial medicinal herb widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Four compounds, (2R)-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one 2-O-β-galactopyranoside [(2R)-HMBOA-2-O-Gal], 3,6-dimethoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (3,6-M2BOA), 3-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (3-OH-MBOA), and scutellarein 7-O-β-glucuronamide, along with eight known compounds, including two 7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(2H)-one 3-O-hexopyranosides [(2R)-HMBOA-2-O-Glc and (2R)-HDMBOA-2-O-Glc], 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA), acteoside, sodium scutellarin, p-coumaric acid, and two monosaccharides (fructose and glucose), were isolated from the aqueous extract of S. dulcis. Antiproliferative activities of the six benzoxazinoid compounds against the DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line were assayed, and one of these displayed an IC₅₀ of 65.8 μg/mL. PMID:22944352

  13. Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Buddleja crispa.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Nighat; Akhter, Musarrat; Khan, Rashid Ali; Afza, Nighat; Tareen, Rasool Bakh; Malik, Abdul

    2010-05-01

    Studies on the aerial parts of Buddleja crispa yielded 13 known compounds, nonyl benzoate, hexyl p-hydroxy-cinnamate, ginipin, gardiol, 1-heptacosanol, steroidal galactoside (22 R)-stigmasta-7,9 (11)-dien-22 beta-ol-3beta-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 3-methoxy benzoic acid, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Besides this two iridoid galactosides buddlejosides A, buddlejosides B and a benzofuran-type sesquiterpene buddlejone have been isolated from the ETOAC fraction of B. crispa. Together with the above compounds, methyl benzoate (1) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy benzoic acid (2) were also isolated. Compound 2 (C(8)H(8)O(4)) was identified by comparison of its data with those reported earlier, which was originally isolated from Onosma hispidum, and this is the first report of its isolation from this species. For compounds 1 and 2, the total alcoholic soluble extract, methanol soluble, chloroform soluble, ethyl acetate soluble and petroleum ether soluble extract of the aerial parts of B. crispa were screened for nematicidal activity against nematodes of freshly hatched second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode), exhibiting 92%, 40%, 88%, 83%, 82% and 50% mortality, respectively, of eloids M. incognita at 0.5% concentration. Compound 1 was more potent than the nematicide Azadirachta indica at the same concentration. Negative results were obtained for the nematicidal activity of petroleum ether extract of B. crispa leaves. PMID:20461624

  14. Mycosporine-like Amino Acids and Other Phytochemicals Directly Detected by High-Resolution NMR on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) Blue-Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2016-09-01

    This study describes for the first time the use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, AFA) blue-green algae directly on powder suspension. These algae are considered to be a "superfood", due to their complete nutritional profile that has proved to have important therapeutic effects. The main advantage of NMR spectroscopy is that it permits the detection of a number of metabolites all at once. The Klamath alga metabolome was revealed to be quite complex, and the most peculiar phytochemicals that can be detected directly on algae by NMR are mycosporine-like amino acids (porphyra-334, P334; shinorine, Shi) and low molecular weight glycosides (glyceryl β-d-galactopyranoside, GalpG; glyceryl 6-amino-6-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside, ADG), all compounds with a high nutraceutical value. The presence of cis-3,4-DhLys was revealed for the first time. This molecule could be involved in the anticancer properties ascribed to AFA.

  15. Structure of LacY with an α-substituted galactoside: Connecting the binding site to the protonation site

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Hemant; Finer-Moore, Janet S.; Kaback, H. Ronald; Stroud, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of a conformationally constrained mutant of the Escherichia coli lactose permease (the LacY double-Trp mutant Gly-46→Trp/Gly-262→Trp) with bound p-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranoside (α-NPG), a high-affinity lactose analog, is described. With the exception of Glu-126 (helix IV), side chains Trp-151 (helix V), Glu-269 (helix VIII), Arg-144 (helix V), His-322 (helix X), and Asn-272 (helix VIII) interact directly with the galactopyranosyl ring of α-NPG to provide specificity, as indicated by biochemical studies and shown directly by X-ray crystallography. In contrast, Phe-20, Met-23, and Phe-27 (helix I) are within van der Waals distance of the benzyl moiety of the analog and thereby increase binding affinity nonspecifically. Thus, the specificity of LacY for sugar is determined solely by side-chain interactions with the galactopyranosyl ring, whereas affinity is increased by nonspecific hydrophobic interactions with the anomeric substituent. PMID:26157133

  16. Mycosporine-like Amino Acids and Other Phytochemicals Directly Detected by High-Resolution NMR on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) Blue-Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2016-09-01

    This study describes for the first time the use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, AFA) blue-green algae directly on powder suspension. These algae are considered to be a "superfood", due to their complete nutritional profile that has proved to have important therapeutic effects. The main advantage of NMR spectroscopy is that it permits the detection of a number of metabolites all at once. The Klamath alga metabolome was revealed to be quite complex, and the most peculiar phytochemicals that can be detected directly on algae by NMR are mycosporine-like amino acids (porphyra-334, P334; shinorine, Shi) and low molecular weight glycosides (glyceryl β-d-galactopyranoside, GalpG; glyceryl 6-amino-6-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside, ADG), all compounds with a high nutraceutical value. The presence of cis-3,4-DhLys was revealed for the first time. This molecule could be involved in the anticancer properties ascribed to AFA. PMID:27537083

  17. Purification and properties of alpha-galactosidase from white-rot fungus Pleurotus florida.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam; Saraswathy, N; Sadasivam, S; Subha, K; Poorani, N

    2007-04-01

    alpha-Galactosidase was strongly induced in the white-rot fungus Pleurotus florida by arabinose than its natural substrates and was purified to homogeneity by acetone precipitation, ultrafiltration and DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. The enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of approximately equal to 99 kDa, as revealed by native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. alpha-Galactosidase was optimally active at 55 degrees C for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-alpha-galactopyranoside (PNPalphaG) and lost its 20% and 50% of original activity in 30 min at 60 degres C and 70 degrees C, respectively. The pH optimum of the enzyme was between 4.6 and 5.0. It was stable in a wide pH range (pH 4.0 to 9.0) at 55 degrees C for 2 h. The Ag+ and Hg2+ strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. Galactose, glucose, maltose and lactose also inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas N-bromosuccinimide treatment resulted in near total loss of acitivity. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme for PNPalphaG were found to be 1.1 mM, and 77 micromol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. alpha-Galactosidase immobilized in agar was more effective for the degradation of raffinose than in the sodium alginate. TLC results indicated its potential for the removal of raffinose and stachyose in soymilk.

  18. Preparation and characterization of recombinant dolphin fish (Coryphaena hippurus) growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Paduel, A; Chapnik-Cohen, N; Gertler, A; Elizur, A

    1999-08-01

    Dolphin fish (Coryphaena hippurus) growth hormone (dfGH) cDNA encoding the mature protein was cloned in a pET11a expression vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells upon induction with isopropyl-1-thio-beta-d-galactopyranoside as an insoluble protein. The expressed protein, contained within the inclusion-body pellet, was solubilized in 4.5 M urea, refolded at pH 11.3 in the presence of catalytic amounts of cysteine, and purified to homogeneity, as evidenced by SDS-PAGE. Gel filtration on a Superdex column under nondenaturing conditions and amino-terminal analysis showed the purified protein to be monomeric methionyl-dfGH. Binding assays of the (125)I-labeled dfGH to dolphin fish liver microsomal fraction resulted in high specific binding characterized by a K(a) of 0.77 nM(-1) and a B(max) of 285 fmol/mg microsomal fraction protein. The purified dfGH was capable of stimulating proliferation of FDC-P1-B9 cells transfected with rabbit growth hormone (GH) receptor. The maximal effect of dfGH was identical to that of human GH but their respective EC(50) values were 28 nM versus 0.095 nM. PMID:10425163

  19. pH-dependent aggregation of oligomeric Artocarpus hirsuta lectin on thermal denaturation.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Sushama M; Islam Khan, M

    2003-11-14

    The pH dependence of the activity, aggregation, and secondary structure of Artocarpus hirsuta lectin was studied using intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence, light scattering, and circular dichroism. The lectin is more stable in the neutral and acidic than in the alkaline pH range, which is also reflected in the binding constants of the lectin to methyl alpha-galactopyranoside (me alpha-gal). The aggregation of the protein due to heat denaturation is prevented at both extremes of pH. The binding of hydrophobic dye to the lectin takes place at pH 1-2, which increases with increasing temperature. The exposure of hydrophobic patches at pH 1 is reversible. The secondary structure of the lectin is intact in the pH range of 1-8 and is distorted above pH 9. Aggregation of the protein due to heat denaturation is also prevented in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl).

  20. Characterization of two glycoside hydrolase family 36 α-galactosidases: novel transglycosylation activity, lead-zinc tolerance, alkaline and multiple pH optima, and low-temperature activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junpei; Lu, Qian; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yiyan; Wu, Qian; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Xu, Bo; Ding, Junmei; Huang, Zunxi

    2016-03-01

    Two α-galactosidases, AgaAJB07 from Mesorhizobium and AgaAHJG4 from Streptomyces, were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant AgaAJB07 showed a 2.9-fold and 22.6-fold increase in kcat with a concomitant increase of 2.3-fold and 16.3-fold in Km in the presence of 0.5mM ZnSO4 and 30.0mM Pb(CH3COO)2, respectively. Recombinant AgaAHJG4 showed apparent optimal activity at pH 8.0 in McIlvaine or Tris-HCl buffer and 9.5 in glycine-NaOH or HCl-borax-NaOH buffer, retention of 23.6% and 43.2% activity when assayed at 10 and 20°C, respectively, and a half-life of approximately 2min at 50°C. The activation energies for p-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranoside hydrolysis by AgaAJB07 and AgaAHJG4 were 71.9±0.8 and 48.2±2.0kJmol(-1), respectively. Both AgaAJB07 and AgaAHJG4 exhibited transglycosylation activity, but they required different acceptors and produced different compounds. Furthermore, potential factors for alkaline and multiple pH optima and low-temperature adaptations of AgaAHJG4 were presumed. PMID:26471539

  1. Characterization and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides from Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) Kützing.

    PubMed

    Surayot, Utoomporn; Wang, JianGuo; Lee, Ju Hun; Kanongnuch, Chartchai; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee; You, SangGuan

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) isolated from freshwater green algae, Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) Kützing, and fractionated SPs were examined to investigate their molecular characteristics and immunomodulatory activity. The crude and fractionated SPs (F1, F2, and F3) consisted mostly of carbohydrates (68.5-85.3%), uronic acids (3.2-4.9%), and sulfates (2.2-12.2%) with various amounts of proteins (2.6-17.1%). D-galactose (23.5-27.3%), D-glucose (11.5-24.8%), L-fucose (19.0-26.7%), and L-rhamnose (16.4-18.3%) were the major monosaccharide units of these SPs with different levels of L-arabinose (3.0-9.4%), D-xylose (4.6-9.8%), and D-mannose (0.4-2.3%). The SPs contained two sub-fractions with molecular weights (Mw) ranging from 164 × 10(3) to 1460 × 10(3) g/mol. The crude and fractionated SPs strongly stimulated murine macrophages, producing considerable amounts of nitric oxide and various cytokines via up-regulation of their mRNA expression by activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways. The main backbone of the most immunoenhancing SP was (1→3)-L-Fucopyranoside, (1→4,6)-D-Glucopyranoside, and (1→4)-D-Galactopyranoside.

  2. Phenotypic differentiation of members of the family Vibrionaceae using miniaturized biochemical tests.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, P; Bette, W; Dott, W

    1987-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of 27 different chromogenic substrates and the assimilation of 44 carbon sources by 144 strains of Vibrio species of clinical importance, Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides were studied by standardized micromethods. Some classical biochemical tests were also performed using the test kit TTE-AS (Flow Laboratories GmbH, Meckenheim, FRG). Reading of results was done automatically by a photometer and test data were recorded and stored by a microcomputer. All species investigated could be differentiated using a set of 16 miniaturized biochemical tests which are: Indole production, esculin hydrolysis, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, arginine dihydrolase, fermentation of sucrose, enzymatic hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, gamma-L-glutamic acid-p-nitroanilide and the assimilation of L-arabinose, D-cellobiose, D-mannose, sucrose, D-mannitol, i-inositol, acetate and DL-lactate. Comparing the TTE-AS tests to conventional test results, 94.4% overall agreement was found. 87.6% of the miniaturized assimilation tests agreed to literature data. The described tests are easy to perform and seem to be suitable for routine laboratory use.

  3. Cloning, expression and purification of full length Rep78 of adeno-associated virus as a fusion protein with maltose binding protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Batchu, R B; Miles, D A; Rechtin, T M; Drake, R R; Hermonat, P L

    1995-03-17

    The adeno-associated virus (AAV) Rep78 protein is required for many aspects of AAV's life cycle including its DNA replication and the regulation of its gene expression. Because of increasing utilization of AAV as a gene therapy vector and its possible use as an anti-cancer/anti-viral agent, the complete characterization of its Rep78 regulatory protein is important. In order to study various functional aspects of Rep78, we have cloned and expressed the Rep78 gene in Escherichia coli using an inducible expression plasmid. The entire Rep78 open reading frame (nt 321 to 2185) was cloned into the LacZ inducible expression vector pMALc2. Upon induction of the Ptac promoter with isopropyl thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside (IPTG), Rep78 is produced as a fusion protein with maltose binding protein (MBP). This recombinant MBP-Rep78 protein displayed all the biochemical activities which are described for the wild type protein including binding to the AAV terminal repeats (TR), endonuclease activity, and helicase activity. Furthermore, for the first time, ATP binding by Rep78 is demonstrated.

  4. Factors affecting the adsorption of buchnericin LB, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus [correction of Lactocobacillus] buchneri.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Zeliha; Avşar, Yahya Kemal; Yildirim, Metin

    2002-01-01

    Buchnericin-LB adsorbs to gram-positive but not to gram-negative bacteria. The tested gram-positive bacteria were species of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, Staphylococcus; gram-negative bacteria belonged to the genera Salmonella, Escherichia, Yersinia and Pseudomonas. Buchnericin-LB adsorption depended on pH but not on time and temperature. Also some anions of salts and lipoteichoic acid reduced or inhibited its adsorption. Treatment of cells and cell walls of sensitive bacteria with detergents, organic solvents or enzymes did not affect subsequent binding of buchnericin-LB. Treatment with buchnericin-LB caused sensitive cells to lose high amounts of intracellular K+ ions and UV-absorbing materials and became more permeable to o-nitrophenol-beta-D-galactopyranoside. Buchnericin-LB (640-2560 AU/ml) decreased the colony forming units (99%) and absorbance values of Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. These results indicate that the mode of action of buchnericin-LB is bactericidal and its lethal effect is very rapid.

  5. Semi-rational approach for converting a GH36 α-glycosidase into an α-transglycosidase.

    PubMed

    Teze, David; Daligault, Franck; Ferrières, Vincent; Sanejouand, Yves-Henri; Tellier, Charles

    2015-04-01

    A large number of retaining glycosidases catalyze both hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions. In order to use them as catalysts for oligosaccharide synthesis, the balance between these two competing reactions has to be shifted toward transglycosylation. We previously designed a semi-rational approach to convert the Thermus thermophilus β-glycosidases into transglycosidases by mutating highly conserved residues located around the -1 subsite. In an attempt to verify that this strategy could be a generic approach to turn glycosidases into transglycosidases, Geobacillus stearothermophilus α-galactosidase (AgaB) was selected in order to obtain α-transgalactosidases. This is of particular interest as, to date, there are no efficient α-galactosynthases, despite the considerable importance of α-galactooligosaccharides. Thus, by site-directed mutagenesis on 14 AgaB residues, 26 single mutants and 22 double mutants were created and screened, of which 11 single mutants and 6 double mutants exhibited improved synthetic activity, producing 4-nitrophenyl α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1,6)-α-d-galactopyranoside in 26-57% yields against only 22% when native AgaB was used. It is interesting to note that the best variant was obtained by mutating a second-shell residue, with no direct interaction with the substrate or a catalytic amino acid. As this approach has proved to be efficient with both α- and β-glycosidases, it is a promising route to convert retaining glycosidases into transglycosidases. PMID:25395404

  6. Flavonol glycosides with lipid accumulation inhibitory activity and simultaneous quantitative analysis of 15 polyphenols and caffeine in the flower buds of Camellia sinensis from different regions by LCMS.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Miyake, Sohachiro; Miki, Yoshinobu; Okamoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2013-09-01

    A simultaneous quantitative analytical method for 15 major polyphenols, e.g. five catechins (1-5) and 10 flavonols (6-15), as functional constituents in the extracts of "tea flowers", the flower buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae), has been developed. The content of caffeine (16), which showed similar chromatographic behaviour under the analytical conditions, was also determined. To approve the validity of the newly developed protocol, thirteen extracts of the plant's flower buds collected from different regions, i.e. China, Taiwan, Japan and India, were evaluated. The results indicated that the assay was reproducible and precise, and could be readily underutilised for the quality evaluation of tea flowers on the basis of polyphenols' contents. It was noteworthy that the contents of two major constituents, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (10) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside (11), varied by region where the flower buds were produced. A new flavonol glycoside, chakaflavonoside B (17), which was isolated in the course of this analytical study, was found to show oleic acid-albumin-induced lipid accumulation inhibitory activity.

  7. Effect of an E461G mutation of beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli, lac Z) on pL rate profiles and solvent deuterium isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Richard, J P; Huber, R E; McCall, D A

    2001-06-01

    An E461G mutation of beta-galactosidase results in the disappearance of the high pL (L = H, D) downward break in the rate profiles for k(cat)/K(m) for wild-type enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside (Gal-OPNP) and a decrease from (k(cat))(HOH)/(k(cat))(DOD) = 1.7 to (k(cat))(HOH)/(k(cat))(DOD) = 1.2 in the solvent deuterium isotope effect. These observations provide evidence that the propionic acid side chain of Glu 461 is protonated at catalytically active free beta-galactosidase and they are consistent with a role for this residue in Brønsted acid catalysis at the leaving group. The earlier observation that this same E461G mutation results in the loss of a downward break at high pH in the rate profile for k(s) for transfer of the beta-D-galactopyranosyl group from beta-galactosidase to water cannot be simply explained by a mechanism in which the single side chain of Glu 461 functions to provide general acid catalysis in the rate limiting step for formation of the beta-D-galactopyranosyl intermediate and general base catalysis of breakdown of this intermediate. Evidence is presented that there may be different catalytic mechanisms, with different roles for the side chain for Glu-461, for nucleophilic addition of water and of small alkyl alcohols to the beta-D-galactopyranosyl reaction intermediate.

  8. First Glycoside Hydrolase Family 2 Enzymes from Thermus antranikianii and Thermus brockianus with β-Glucosidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Carola; Blank, Saskia; Antranikian, Garabed

    2015-01-01

    Two glycoside hydrolase encoding genes (tagh2 and tbgh2) were identified from different Thermus species using functional screening. Based on amino acid similarities, the enzymes were predicted to belong to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 2. Surprisingly, both enzymes (TaGH2 and TbGH2) showed twofold higher activities for the hydrolysis of nitrophenol-linked β-D-glucopyranoside than of -galactopyranoside. Specific activities of 3,966 U/mg for TaGH2 and 660 U/mg for TbGH2 were observed. In accordance, Km values for both enzymes were significantly lower when β-D-glucopyranoside was used as substrate. Furthermore, TaGH2 was able to hydrolyze cellobiose. TaGH2 and TbGH2 exhibited highest activity at 95 and 90°C at pH 6.5. Both enzymes were extremely thermostable and showed thermal activation up to 250% relative activity at temperatures of 50 and 60°C. Especially, TaGH2 displayed high tolerance toward numerous metal ions (Cu2+, Co2+, Zn2+), which are known as glycoside hydrolase inhibitors. In this study, the first thermoactive GH family 2 enzymes with β-glucosidase activity have been identified and characterized. The hydrolysis of cellobiose is a unique property of TaGH2 when compared to other enzymes of GH family 2. Our work contributes to a broader knowledge of substrate specificities in GH family 2. PMID:26090361

  9. Infection by retroviral vectors outside of their host range in the presence of replication-defective adenovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, R M; Wang, M; Steffen, D; Ledley, F D

    1995-01-01

    Retrovirus infection is normally limited to cells within a specific host range which express a cognate receptor that is recognized by the product of the env gene. We describe retrovirus infection of cells outside of their normal host range when the infection is performed in the presence of a replication-defective adenovirus (dl312). In the presence of adenovirus, several different ecotropic vectors are shown to infect human cell lines (HeLa and PLC/PRF), and a xenotropic vector is shown to infect murine cells (NIH 3T3). Infectivity is demonstrated by 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) staining, selection with G418 for neomycin resistance, and PCR identification of the provirus in infected cells. Infectivity is quantitatively dependent upon both the concentration of adenovirus (10(6) to 10(8) PFU/ml) and the concentration of retrovirus. Infection requires the simultaneous presence of adenovirus in the retrovirus infection medium and is not stimulated by preincubation and removal of adenovirus from the cells before retrovirus infection. The presence of adenovirus is shown to enhance the uptake of fluorescently labeled retrovirus particles into cells outside of their normal host range, demonstrating that the adenovirus enhances viral entry into cells in the absence of the recognized cognate receptor. This observation suggests new opportunities for developing safe retroviral vectors for gene therapy and new mechanisms for the pathogenesis of retroviral disease. PMID:7853530

  10. Architecture effects on multivalent interactions by polypeptide-based multivalent ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang

    protein materials, including structural as well as functional proteins. Therefore, polypeptide-based multivalent scaffolds are used to display ligands to assess the contribution of different architectural parameters to the multivalent binding events. In this work, a family of alanine-rich alpha-helical glycopolypeptides was designed and synthesized by a combination of protein engineering and chemical coupling, to display two types of saccharide ligands for two different multivalent binding systems. The valencies, chain length and spacing between adjacent ligands of these multivalent ligands were designed in order to study architecture effects on multivalent interactions. The polypeptides and their glycoconjugates were characterized via various methods, including SDS-PAGE, NMR, HPLC, amino acid analysis (AAA), MALDI, circular dichroism (CD) and GPC. In the first multivalent binding system, cholera toxin B pentamer (CT B5) was chosen to be the protein receptor due to its well-characterized structure, lack of significant steric interference of binding to multiple binding sites, and requirement of only simple monosaccharide as ligands. Galactopyranoside was incorporated into polypeptide scaffolds through amine-carboxylic acid coupling to the side chains of glutamic acid residues. The inhibition and binding to CT B5 of these glycopolypeptide ligands were evaluated by direct enzyme-linked assay (DELA). As a complement method, weak affinity chromatography (WAC) was also used to evaluate glycopolypeptides binding to a CT B5 immobilized column. The architecture effects on CT B 5 inhibition are discussed. In the second system, cell surface receptor L-selectin was targeted by polypeptide-based multivalent ligands containing disulfated galactopyranoside ligands, due to its important roles in various immunological activities. The effects of glycopolypeptide architectural variables L-selectin shedding were evaluated via ELISA-based assays. These polypeptide-based multivalent ligands

  11. A galactose-functionalized dendritic siRNA-nanovector to potentiate hepatitis C inhibition in liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Abirami; Reddy, B. Uma; Raghav, Nallani; Ravi, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Anuj; Maiti, Prabal K.; Sood, A. K.; Jayaraman, N.; Das, Saumitra

    2015-10-01

    A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse `off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of HCV RNA using a liver-targeted dendritic nano-vector functionalized with a galactopyranoside ligand (DG). Physico-chemical characterization revealed finer details of complexation of DG with siRNA, whereas molecular dynamic simulations demonstrated sugar moieties projecting ``out'' in the complex. Preferential delivery of siRNA to the liver was achieved through a highly specific ligand-receptor interaction between dendritic galactose and the asialoglycoprotein receptor. The siRNA-DG complex exhibited perinuclear localization in liver cells and co-localization with viral proteins. The histopathological studies showed the systemic tolerance and biocompatibility of DG. Further, whole body imaging and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the preferential delivery of the nucleic acid to mice liver. Significant decrease in HCV RNA levels (up to 75%) was achieved in HCV subgenomic replicon and full length HCV-JFH1 infectious cell culture systems. The multidisciplinary approach provides the `proof of concept' for restricted delivery of therapeutic siRNAs using a target oriented dendritic nano-vector.A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse `off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated

  12. Architecture effects on multivalent interactions by polypeptide-based multivalent ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang

    protein materials, including structural as well as functional proteins. Therefore, polypeptide-based multivalent scaffolds are used to display ligands to assess the contribution of different architectural parameters to the multivalent binding events. In this work, a family of alanine-rich alpha-helical glycopolypeptides was designed and synthesized by a combination of protein engineering and chemical coupling, to display two types of saccharide ligands for two different multivalent binding systems. The valencies, chain length and spacing between adjacent ligands of these multivalent ligands were designed in order to study architecture effects on multivalent interactions. The polypeptides and their glycoconjugates were characterized via various methods, including SDS-PAGE, NMR, HPLC, amino acid analysis (AAA), MALDI, circular dichroism (CD) and GPC. In the first multivalent binding system, cholera toxin B pentamer (CT B5) was chosen to be the protein receptor due to its well-characterized structure, lack of significant steric interference of binding to multiple binding sites, and requirement of only simple monosaccharide as ligands. Galactopyranoside was incorporated into polypeptide scaffolds through amine-carboxylic acid coupling to the side chains of glutamic acid residues. The inhibition and binding to CT B5 of these glycopolypeptide ligands were evaluated by direct enzyme-linked assay (DELA). As a complement method, weak affinity chromatography (WAC) was also used to evaluate glycopolypeptides binding to a CT B5 immobilized column. The architecture effects on CT B 5 inhibition are discussed. In the second system, cell surface receptor L-selectin was targeted by polypeptide-based multivalent ligands containing disulfated galactopyranoside ligands, due to its important roles in various immunological activities. The effects of glycopolypeptide architectural variables L-selectin shedding were evaluated via ELISA-based assays. These polypeptide-based multivalent ligands

  13. Mechanistic evaluation of MelA α-galactosidase from Citrobacter freundii: a family 4 glycosyl hydrolase in which oxidation is rate-limiting.

    PubMed

    Chakladar, Saswati; Cheng, Lydia; Choi, Mary; Liu, James; Bennet, Andrew J

    2011-05-24

    The MelA gene from Citrobacter freundii, which encodes a glycosyl hydrolase family 4 (GH4) α-galactosidase, has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of phenyl α-galactosides via a redox elimination-addition mechanism involving oxidation of the hydroxyl group at C-3 and elimination of phenol across the C-1-C-2 bond to give an enzyme-bound glycal intermediate. For optimal activity, the MelA enzyme requires two cofactors, NAD(+) and Mn(2+), and the addition of a reducing agent, such as mercaptoethanol. To delineate the mechanism of action for this GH4 enzyme, we measured leaving group effects, and the derived β(lg) values on V and V/K are indistinguishable from zero (-0.01 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.04, respectively). Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were measured for the weakly activated substrate phenyl α-D-galactopyranoside in which isotopic substitution was incorporated at C-1, C-2, or C-3. KIEs of 1.06 ± 0.07, 0.91 ± 0.04, and 1.02 ± 0.06 were measured on V for the 1-(2)H, 2-(2)H, and 3-(2)H isotopic substrates, respectively. The corresponding values on V/K were 1.13 ± 0.07, 1.74 ± 0.06, and 1.74 ± 0.05, respectively. To determine if the KIEs report on a single step or on a virtual transition state, we measured KIEs using doubly deuterated substrates. The measured (D)V/K KIEs for MelA-catalyzed hydrolysis of phenyl α-D-galactopyranoside on the dideuterated substrates, (D)V/K((3-D)/(2-D,3-D)) and (D)V/K((2-D)/(2-D,3-D)), are 1.71 ± 0.12 and 1.71 ± 0.13, respectively. In addition, the corresponding values on V, (D)V((3-D)/(2-D,3-D)) and (D)V((2-D)/(2-D,3-D)), are 0.91 ± 0.06 and 1.01 ± 0.06, respectively. These observations are consistent with oxidation at C-3, which occurs via the transfer of a hydride to the on-board NAD(+), being concerted with proton removal at C-2 and the fact that this step is the first irreversible step for the MelA α-galactosidase-catalyzed reactions of aryl

  14. Ipomoelin, a Jacalin-Related Lectin with a Compact Tetrameric Association and Versatile Carbohydrate Binding Properties Regulated by Its N Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Chieh; Liu, Kai-Lun; Hsu, Fang-Ciao; Jeng, Shih-Tong; Cheng, Yi-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Many proteins are induced in the plant defense response to biotic stress or mechanical wounding. One group is lectins. Ipomoelin (IPO) is one of the wound-inducible proteins of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Tainung 57) and is a Jacalin-related lectin (JRL). In this study, we resolved the crystal structures of IPO in its apo form and in complex with carbohydrates such as methyl α-D-mannopyranoside (Me-Man), methyl α-D-glucopyranoside (Me-Glc), and methyl α-D-galactopyranoside (Me-Gal) in different space groups. The packing diagrams indicated that IPO might represent a compact tetrameric association in the JRL family. The protomer of IPO showed a canonical β-prism fold with 12 strands of β-sheets but with 2 additional short β-strands at the N terminus. A truncated IPO (ΔN10IPO) by removing the 2 short β-strands of the N terminus was used to reveal its role in a tetrameric association. Gel filtration chromatography confirmed IPO as a tetrameric form in solution. Isothermal titration calorimetry determined the binding constants (KA) of IPO and ΔN10IPO against various carbohydrates. IPO could bind to Me-Man, Me-Glc, and Me-Gal with similar binding constants. In contrast, ΔN10IPO showed high binding ability to Me-Man and Me-Glc but could not bind to Me-Gal. Our structural and functional analysis of IPO revealed that its compact tetrameric association and carbohydrate binding polyspecificity could be regulated by the 2 additional N-terminal β-strands. The versatile carbohydrate binding properties of IPO might play a role in plant defense. PMID:22808208

  15. Selective Membrane Permeabilization by the Rotavirus VP5* Protein Is Abrogated by Mutations in an Internal Hydrophobic Domain

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, William; Denisova, Evgeniya; LaMonica, Rachel; Mackow, Erich R.

    2000-01-01

    Rotavirus infectivity is dependent on the proteolytic cleavage of the VP4 spike protein into VP8* and VP5* proteins. Proteolytically activated virus, as well as expressed VP5*, permeabilizes membranes, suggesting that cleavage exposes a membrane-interactive domain of VP5* which effects rapid viral entry. The VP5* protein contains a single long hydrophobic domain (VP5*-HD, residues 385 to 404) at an internal site. In order to address the role of the VP5*-HD in permeabilizing cellular membranes, we analyzed the entry of o-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (ONPG) into cells induced to express VP5* or mutated VP5* polypeptides. Following IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside) induction, VP5* and VP5* truncations containing the VP5*-HD permeabilized cells to the entry and cleavage of ONPG, while VP8* and control proteins had no effect on cellular permeability. Expression of VP5* deletions containing residues 265 to 474 or 265 to 404 permeabilized cells; however, C-terminal truncations which remove the conserved GGA (residues 399 to 401) within the HD abolished membrane permeability. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP5-HD further demonstrated a requirement for residues within the HD for VP5*-induced membrane permeability. Functional analysis of mutant VP5*s indicate that conserved glycines within the HD are required and suggest that a random coiled structure rather than the strictly hydrophobic character of the domain is required for permeability. Expressed VP5* did not alter bacterial growth kinetics or lyse bacteria following induction. Instead, VP5*-mediated size-selective membrane permeability, releasing 376-Da carboxyfluorescein but not 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran from preloaded liposomes. These findings suggest that the fundamental role for VP5* in the rotavirus entry process may be to expose triple-layered particles to low [Ca]i, which uncoats the virus, rather than to effect the detergent-like lysis of early endosomal membranes. PMID:10864647

  16. A novel agar formulation for isolation and direct enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from oyster tissue.

    PubMed

    Griffitt, Kimberly J; Grimes, D Jay

    2013-08-01

    A new selective and differential medium, Vibrio vulnificus X-Gal (VVX), was developed for direct enumeration of V. vulnificus (Vv) from oyster samples. This agar utilizes cellobiose and lactose as carbon sources, and the antibiotics colistin and polymyxin B as selective agents. Hydrolysis of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl- beta-d-galactopyranoside (x-gal), used in the agar as a lactose analog, produces an insoluble blue dye that makes lactose positive colonies easily distinguishable from any non-lactose fermenting bacteria. Various bacterial species were spot plated onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS), and CHROMagar Vibrio, two vibrio-specific selective agars, non-selective agar, and VVX to compare selectivity of VVX to other widely used media. A V. vulnificus pure culture was serially diluted on VVX and non-selective agar to determine the VVX percent recovery. Water and oyster samples were spread plated on VVX agar and allowed to incubate for 16-18 h at 33 °C. Blue and white colonies from VVX agar were picked and screened by end point PCR for the Vv hemolysin vvhA. VVX agar showed a significant improvement over TCBS and CHROMagar at preventing non-target growth. There was an 87.5% recovery compared to non-selective plating and a 98% positivity rate of blue colonies picked from oyster tissue plating. The findings suggest that this new agar is a fast, distinctive, and accurate method for enumeration of V. vulnificus from the environment.

  17. Analysis of animal and plant selenometabolites in roots of a selenium accumulator, Brassica rapa var. peruviridis, by speciation.

    PubMed

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Katayama, Ayane; Ogihara, Yurie; Yawata, Ayako; Anan, Yasumi

    2013-05-01

    Many studies have examined the metabolic pathway of selenium (Se) compounds in Se-accumulating plants (hereafter "Se accumulators") when the plants are exposed to inorganic Se, such as selenite and selenate. However, if we were to consider Se circulation in the biosphere, the metabolism of organic Se, in particular, selenometabolites of animals and plants, in plants should be elucidated. In this study, Brassica rapa var. peruviridis, a known Se accumulator, was hydroponically cultivated and then exposed to selenometabolites of animals and plants, such as methyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-d-galactopyranoside (selenosugar, SeSug), trimethylselenonium (TMSe), selenomethionine (SeMet), and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys). Then, the metabolic pathway of the organic Se compounds/selenometabolites in B. rapa var. peruviridis was investigated by speciation analysis. Two selenometabolites were detected in the roots when the plant was exposed to SeMet, MeSeCys, and SeSug. They were assigned to S-(methylseleno)-glutathione and MeSeCys using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS) and HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Contrary to SeMet, MeSeCys, and SeSug, TMSe was not metabolized even if it was more efficiently incorporated into the roots than the other Se compounds. The identified metabolites enabled us to propose a metabolic pathway for the organic Se metabolites except TMSe in the plant roots: a monomethylseleno moiety (CH3Se-) commonly existing in SeMet, MeSeCys, and SeSug was cleaved off and conjugated with GSH, and then the CH3Se group was transferred to O-acetylserine to form MeSeCys.

  18. Cloning and expression of a gene encoding a protein obtained from earthworm secretion that is a chemoattractant for garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Wang, D; Chen, P; Halpern, M

    1997-10-24

    The protein ES20, derived from earthworm shock secretion, is a vomeronasally mediated chemoattractant for garter snakes (Jiang, X. C., Inouchi, J., Wang, D., and Halpern, M. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 8736-8744). Based on its 15-residue N-terminal amino acid sequence, degenerative oligodeoxynucleotide probes were synthesized and used to screen a cDNA library that was constructed in sense orientation using a Uni-ZAPTM XR vector and XL1-Blue MRF' host. A gene was cloned from a polymerase chain reaction as well as from the cDNA library. A combination of the forward degenerative primer and T7 primer was used to obtain gene-specific DNA fragments, from which probes were synthesized and successfully used in screening the cDNA library. The ES20 gene is about 700 base pairs long and encodes 208 amino residues. The ES20 gene was excised from a recombinant plasmid pSK-ES20, ligated to pQE30 expression vector, and transformed into Escherichia coli strain JM109. The selected recombinant plasmids were transformed into expression host cell, E. coli M15[pREP4]. Three transformants were selected, induced with isopropyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside for fusion gene expression and an expressed 20-kDa fusion protein purified under denaturing conditions. This protein was refolded and gave a positive reaction against ES20-specific polyclonal antibodies. The fusion protein that had not been denatured remained as an aggregate and was an active chemoattractant for garter snakes. PMID:9341189

  19. Increased methotrexate resistance and dhfr gene amplification as a consequence of induced Ha-ras expression in NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Wani, M A; Xu, X; Stambrook, P J

    1994-05-01

    Oncogene activation and loss of tumor suppressor genes are known to play a role in tumor initiation as well as its progression. The potential roles of these genes in perturbation of genome stability has become a major interest. To better understand the relationship between expression of an oncogene and genetic instability, we have studied a cell line expressing an activated human Ha-ras under the control of bacterial lactose operon regulatory elements for changes in methotrexate resistance and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene amplification following mutant Ha-ras induction. In these cells mutant Ha-ras is directed by an inducible SV40 promoter containing a bacterial lac operator sequence which is repressed due to constitutive expression of bacterial lac repressor gene. The expression of this Ha-ras is specifically induced by the addition of isopropyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside (IPTG), a lactose analogue, to the culture medium. During single-step methotrexate selection, these cells showed an increased frequency of methotrexate resistance in the presence of IPTG. More than 60% of the methotrexate-resistant colonies showed a 2-6-fold amplification of the dhfr gene. One clone with rearranged dhfr had about 100-fold amplification of the gene. The increased capacity to amplify DNA in response to mutant Ha-ras induction was not locus specific since cells also displayed an increased frequency of resistance to N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartic acid in the presence of ITPG. Four of the methotrexate-resistant clones with amplified dhfr gene were cultured further in the presence or absence of IPTG and subsequently compared for their ability to grow in soft agar as a measure of transformation. In medium containing methotrexate but no IPTG, the clones were unable to grow in soft agar, indicating that methotrexate resistance due to gene amplification is separable from transformation. PMID:8162600

  20. Biochemical Characterization of an Extracellular β-Glucosidase from the Fungus, Penicillium italicum, Isolated from Rotten Citrus Peel

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ah-Reum; Hong, Joo Hee; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2012-01-01

    A β-glucosidase from Penicillium italicum was purified with a specific activity of 61.8 U/mg, using a chromatography system. The native form of the enzyme was an 88.5-kDa tetramer with a molecular mass of 354 kDa. Optimum activity was observed at pH 4.5 and 60℃, and the half-lives were 1,737, 330, 34, and 1 hr at 50, 55, 60, and 65℃, respectively. Its activity was inhibited by 47% by 5 mM Ni2+. The enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNP-Glu), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xyloside, and cellobiose, however, no activity was observed for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-lactopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, carboxymetyl cellulose, xylan, and cellulose, indicating that the enzyme was a β-glucosidase. The kcat/Km (s-1 mM-1) values for pNP-Glu and cellobiose were 15,770.4 mM and 6,361.4 mM, respectively. These values were the highest reported for β-glucosidases. Non-competitive inhibition of the enzyme by both glucose (Ki = 8.9 mM) and glucono-δ-lactone (Ki = 11.3 mM) was observed when pNP-Glu was used as the substrate. This is the first report of non-competitive inhibition of β-glucosidase by glucose and glucono-δ-lactone. PMID:23115510

  1. Optimization of a yeast estrogen screen and its applicability to study the release of estrogenic isoflavones from a soygerm powder.

    PubMed Central

    De Boever, P; Demaré, W; Vanderperren, E; Cooreman, K; Bossier, P; Verstraete, W

    2001-01-01

    Here we describe a redesigned protocol of the yeast estrogen screen developed by Routledge and Sumpter. The redesigned test comprises two steps. First, a large amount of yeast with estrogenic compounds is incubated for 24 hr. Subsequently, a mixture of cycloheximide and the chromogenic substrate chlorophenol red-beta-d-galactopyranoside (CPRG) is added. The cycloheximide stops protein synthesis and allows for an end-point measurement of beta-galactosidase activity generated during the first 24 hr. CPRG is converted to chlorophenol red and reflects beta-galactosidase activity, which is indicative of the estrogenic activity. The modifications shorten the duration of the assay at least 1 day and avoid interference of the estrogenic CPRG or chlorophenol red. The redesigned and the original protocol were used to study the estrogenic activity of bisphenol A, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDT, and isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein). Bisphenol A, methoxychlor, and genistein triggered higher levels of beta-galactosidase activity in the redesigned protocol. Estrogenic activity of p,p'-DDT could only be demonstrated with the redesigned protocol. Glycitein and daidzein failed to give a response with both protocols. We also studied deconjugation of beta-glycosidic isoflavones present in soygerm powder. Treatment of the soygerm powder with beta-glycosidase released isoflavones. The estrogenic response of the samples was confirmed with the redesigned protocol and correlated with the amount of genistein present. The release of isoflavones under conditions prevailing in the intestines was studied. Bacterial beta-glycosidase present in the large intestine released isoflavones, and moderate estrogenic activity could be demonstrated. PMID:11485867

  2. Disentangling eumelanin "black chromophore": visible absorption changes as signatures of oxidation state- and aggregation-dependent dynamic interactions in a model water-soluble 5,6-dihydroxyindole polymer.

    PubMed

    Pezzella, Alessandro; Iadonisi, Alfonso; Valerio, Silvia; Panzella, Lucia; Napolitano, Alessandra; Adinolfi, Matteo; d'Ischia, Marco

    2009-10-28

    A fundamental unsettled issue concerning eumelanins, the functional biopolymers of human skin and hair, is why they are black. The experimental difficulty lies in the virtual insolubility of these pigments, causing marked scattering effects and hindering characterization of the intrinsic absorption properties of the heterogeneous species produced by oxidative polymerization of 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) and related monomer precursors. The synthesis of spectrally robust, water-soluble DHI polymers is therefore an important goal in the prospects of disentangling intrinsic absorption properties of eumelanin components by circumventing scattering effects. Reported herein is the first water-soluble DHI polymer produced by oxidation of ad hoc designed 5,6-dihydroxy-3-indolyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1). The dark brown polymer exhibited a distinct band at 314 nm and a broad visible absorption, resembling that of natural eumelanins. Main isolable oligomer intermediates including 2,7'- and 2,4'-biindolyls 2 and 3, attest the close resemblance to the mode of coupling of the parent DHI. Sodium borohydride reduction caused decoloration and a marked absorbance decrease in the visible region around 550 nm, but did not affect the UV band at 314 nm. Measurements of absorbance variations with dilution indicated a linear response at 314 nm, but a significant deviation from linearity in the visible region, with the largest decrease around 500 nm. It is argued that eumelanin black color is not only intrinsically defined by the overlap of pi-electron conjugated chromophores within the individual polymer components, as commonly believed, but also by oxidation state- and aggregation-dependent interchromophoric interactions causing perturbations of the heterogeneous ensemble of pi-electron systems and overall spectral broadening.

  3. Effect of partitioning equilibria on the activity of beta-galactosidase in heterogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Julieta M; Ciklic, Iván; Perillo, María A

    2005-12-01

    We had demonstrated that membrane adsorption or penetration differentially modulated beta-Galactosidase (beta-Gal) activity against soluble substrates (Coll. and Surf., 24, 21, 2002). In a heterogeneous media, not only the enzyme but also the rest of the chemical species taking part in a chemical reaction would eventually interact with the available surfaces. The aim of the present work was to investigate if, in addition to changes in the intrinsic mechanism of the reaction at the lipid-water interface, the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions could be significantly affected by the partitioning of the substrate (ortho-nitro-phenyl galactopyranoside (ONPG)), the product (ortho-nitro-phenol (ONP)) and the enzyme (E. coli beta-Gal) towards the membrane. Multilamellar vesicles of sPC were used as model membranes. Membrane-water partition coefficients (Pm/w) were determined according to the theory and methodology developed previously (J. Neurosci. Meth. 36, 203, 1991). The values of Pm/w obtained (PONPG =0, PONP =50 and P beta-Gal = 118) were applied to a two-compartment model, which assumed a free access of the substrate to the enzyme and a nucleophile-like activatory effect exerted, within the membrane compartment, by the lipid-water interface. This model: (i) reproduced the lipid concentration-dependence we had observed previously in Vmax, (ii) predicted the values of k4 = 3.54 x 10(7) s-1 and the extinction coefficient of the aglycone in the membrane phase, 4012 M(-1) cm-1, with p < 0.0001 and p < 0.02, respectively, as well as for P beta-Gal =117 (which was poor (p=0.6716) but gave a numerical value within the same order of magnitude that the experimental value) and (iii) emphasized the importance of the more efficient reaction mechanism in the membrane phase compared with that in the aqueous phase (k4>k3).

  4. Screening and Optimization of Ligand Conjugates for Lysosomal Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Meerovich, Igor; Koshkaryev, Alexander; Thekkedath, Ritesh; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2011-01-01

    The use of lysosome-targeted liposomes may significantly improve the delivery of therapeutic enzymes and chaperones into lysosomes for the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders. The aim of this research was to synthesize new potentially lysosomotropic ligands on a base of Neutral Red and rhodamine B and to study their ability to enhance specific lysosomal delivery of surface-modified liposomes loaded with a model compound, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD). The delivery of these liposomes and their content to lysosomes in HeLa cells was investigated by confocal immunofluorescent microscopy, subcellular fractionation and flow cytometry. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that liposomes modified with derivatives of rhodamine B provide good rate of co-localization well the specific lysosomal markers. The comparison of fluorescence of FD in lysosomes isolated by subcellular fractionation also showed that the efficiency of lysosomal delivery of liposomal load by liposomes modified with some of synthesized ligands was significantly higher compared with plain liposomes. These results were additionally confirmed by the flow cytometry of the intact cells treated with liposomes loaded with with 5-dodecanoylaminofluorescein di-β-D-galactopyranoside, a specific substrate for the intralysosomal β-galactosidase, using a number of cell lines, including macrophages with induced phenotype of lysosomal enzyme deficiency; two of the synthesized ligands – rhodamine B DSPE-PEG2k-amide and 6-(3-(DSPE-PEG2k)-thioureido) rhodamine B – demonstrated enhanced lysosomal delivery, in some cases, higher than that for commercially available rhodamine B octadecyl ester, with the best results (the enhancement of the lysosomal delivery up to 75% greater in comparison to plain liposomes) shown for the cells with induced lysosomal enzyme deficiency phenotype. Use of liposomes modified with rhodamine B derivatives may be advantageous for the development of drug delivery systems for the

  5. New steroidal saponins and antiulcer activity from Solanum paniculatum L.

    PubMed

    Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; da Rocha, Cláudia Quintino; de Souza Rodrigues, Tamires; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Vilegas, Wagner

    2015-11-01

    Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) is a plant species widespread throughout tropical America, especially in the Brazilian Savanna region. It is used in Brazil for culinary purposes and in folk medicine to treat liver and gastric dysfunctions, as well as hangovers. Fractionation of the ethanolic extracts (70%) from aerial parts (leaves and twigs) of S. paniculatum led to the isolation of the two new saponins (22R, 23S, 25R)-3β, 6α, 23-trihydroxy-5α-spirostane 6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1" → 3"')-O-[β-D-quinovopyranosyl(1″' → 2')]-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1" → 3')]-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside (1) and diosgenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1" → 6')-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) together with four know compounds: caffeic acid (3), diosgenin β-D-glucopyranoside (4), rutin (5), and quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1"' → 6 ″)-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (6). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments along with HRESIMS analyses. Different doses (31.25-500 mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of leaves from S. paniculatum were evaluated against gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats. The lower dose of extract able to promote antiulcer effect was 125 mg/kg. The treatment with S. paniculatum by oral route was able to decrease gastric lesion area and also reduced levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the gastric mucosa. Our results reveal for the first time, steroidal saponins from S. paniculatum and the antiulcer effect of this species at this lower dose. PMID:25976806

  6. Bioactive compounds of Eriocaulon sieboldianum blocking proliferation and inducing apoptosis of HepG2 cells might be involved in Aurora kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanhua; Lu, Hongyuan; Ma, Hongda; Feng, Fan; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Jian; Xu, Yongnan; Zhao, Qingchun

    2015-12-01

    Eriocaulon sieboldianum (Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud.) is an edible and medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. Often in combination with other herbs, it is processed into healthcare beverages for expelling wind-heat, protecting eyes, and reducing blood lipids. Besides, its water decoction together with other herbs has been utilized to treat cancer in China. However, the active ingredients and the precise cellular mechanisms of E. sieboldianum remain to be elucidated. The Aurora kinase family plays critical roles in the regulation of cell division and has attracted great attention to the identification of small-molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors for potential treatment of cancer. A molecular docking study was employed for docking of the most bioactive compounds. Hispidulin (HPDL) and quercetin-3-O-(6''-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (QGGP) were singled out as potent inhibitors of Aurora kinase. Their inhibitory activity towards Aurora kinase was further confirmed by the obvious decrease in autophosphorylation of Aurora-A (Thr288) and Aurora-B (Thr232). Moreover, the induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells and the suppressed phosphorylation of histone H3 were also consistent with the inhibition of Aurora kinase. The data indicate that the E. sieboldianum extract and its two active compounds, HPDL and QGGP, could effectively induce apoptosis via p53, MAPKs and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. These findings could improve the understanding and enhance the development of drugs based on E. sieboldianum and raise its application value in anticancer therapy or prevention. In addition, our results indicated that Aurora kinase might be a novel target of HPDL and QGGP. PMID:26369427

  7. Bioactive compounds of Eriocaulon sieboldianum blocking proliferation and inducing apoptosis of HepG2 cells might be involved in Aurora kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanhua; Lu, Hongyuan; Ma, Hongda; Feng, Fan; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Jian; Xu, Yongnan; Zhao, Qingchun

    2015-12-01

    Eriocaulon sieboldianum (Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud.) is an edible and medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. Often in combination with other herbs, it is processed into healthcare beverages for expelling wind-heat, protecting eyes, and reducing blood lipids. Besides, its water decoction together with other herbs has been utilized to treat cancer in China. However, the active ingredients and the precise cellular mechanisms of E. sieboldianum remain to be elucidated. The Aurora kinase family plays critical roles in the regulation of cell division and has attracted great attention to the identification of small-molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors for potential treatment of cancer. A molecular docking study was employed for docking of the most bioactive compounds. Hispidulin (HPDL) and quercetin-3-O-(6''-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (QGGP) were singled out as potent inhibitors of Aurora kinase. Their inhibitory activity towards Aurora kinase was further confirmed by the obvious decrease in autophosphorylation of Aurora-A (Thr288) and Aurora-B (Thr232). Moreover, the induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells and the suppressed phosphorylation of histone H3 were also consistent with the inhibition of Aurora kinase. The data indicate that the E. sieboldianum extract and its two active compounds, HPDL and QGGP, could effectively induce apoptosis via p53, MAPKs and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. These findings could improve the understanding and enhance the development of drugs based on E. sieboldianum and raise its application value in anticancer therapy or prevention. In addition, our results indicated that Aurora kinase might be a novel target of HPDL and QGGP.

  8. Steroidal saponins from Chlorophytum deistelianum.

    PubMed

    Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Paululat, Thomas; Delemasure, Stéphanie; Dutartre, Patrick; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2016-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Chlorophytum deistelianum led to the isolation of four previously undescribed steroidal saponins called chlorodeistelianosides A-D with five known ones. Their structures were established mainly by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry as (25R)-3β-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-5α-spirostan-12-one, (24S,25S)-24-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3β-[(β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-5α-spirostan-12-one, (25R)-26-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2α-hydroxy-22α-methoxy-5α-furostan-3β-yl β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside, and (25R)-26-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3β-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-5α-furost-20(22)-en-12-one. Cytotoxicity of most compounds was evaluated against one human cancer cell line (SW480) and one rat cardiomyoblast cell line (H9c2). Among them, three known spirostane-type glycosides exhibited cytotoxicity on both cell lines with IC50 ranging from 8 to 10 μM. PMID:27012932

  9. Evaluation of the Organon-Teknika MICRO-ID LISTERIA system.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, E; Yersin, M N; Bille, J

    1992-06-01

    The MICRO-ID LISTERIA system, designed to identify Listeria isolates to species level within 24 h, was compared with conventional biochemical identification. MICRO-ID LISTERIA used in combination with the CAMP test correctly identified 409 (98.8%) of 414 strains isolated from human, animal, food, and environmental sources belonging to the seven species currently defined within the genus Listeria. The kit was easy to use and simple to interpret. However, 8 of the 15 tests (i.e., phenylalanine deaminase, hydrogen sulfide, indole, ornithine decarboxylase, lysine decarboxylase, malonate, urease, and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside) were considered superfluous for the differentiation of Listeria spp. The CAMP test was indispensable when using the MICRO-ID LISTERIA system, in particular to differentiate CAMP test-positive L. monocytogenes from the nonhemolytic, rhamnose-positive L. innocua. The hemolytic L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii strains and the nonhemolytic, non-rhamnose-acidifying L. welshimeri strains could also be differentiated from one another only on the basis of their CAMP test results. The very few strains of L. grayi and L. murrayi were easily differentiated from the other nonhemolytic species. Catalase-negative cocci should not be tested, because 12 out of 19 catalase-negative strains (all enterococci) in our test were misidentified as Listeria spp. The MICRO-ID LISTERIA system identified strains within 18 to 24 h and is thus less time-consuming than conventional tests. The system could, therefore, be used together with correctly done CAMP tests for the rapid identification of Listeria isolates, especially food and environmental isolates, for which rapid species differentiation is important.

  10. A β-galactosidase from chick pea (Cicer arietinum) seeds: its purification, biochemical properties and industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Devesh; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2012-09-15

    A β-galactosidase from Cicer arietinum seeds has been purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity using a combination of various fractionation and chromatographic techniques, giving a final specific activity of 220 units mg(-1), with approximately 1840 fold purification. Analysis of the protein by SDS-PAGE revealed two subunits with molecular masses of 48 and 38 kDa, respectively. These bands were further confirmed with LC-MS/MS, indicating that Chick pea β-galactosidase (CpGAL) is a heterodimer. Molecular mass was determined to be 85 kDa by Superose-12 FPLC column, which is in agreement with the molecular mass suggested by mass spectroscopy to be 83 kDa. The optimum pH of the enzyme was 2.8 and it hydrolysed o-nitrophenyl β-d galactopyranoside (ONPG) with a K(m) value of 1.73 mM at 37°C. The energy of activation (E(a)) calculated in the range of 35 to 60°C, using Arrhenius equation, was determined to be 11.32 kcal mol(-1). The enzyme could also hydrolyse lactose, with an optimum pH of 4.0 at 40°C. K(m) and E(a) for lactose hydrolysis was found to be 10mM and 10.57 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The enzyme was found to be comparatively thermostable showing maximum activity at 60°C for both ONPG and lactose. Galactose was found to be the competitive inhibitor. β-Galactosidase also exhibited glycoproteineous properties when applied on Con-A Sepharose column. The enzyme was localised in germinated seeds with X-gal activity staining and shown to be expressed prominently at grown radical tip and seed coat. Sequence alignment of CpGAL with other known plant β-galactosidase showed high amino acid sequence homology.

  11. Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Sco3487 from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), an Exo- and Endo-Type β-Agarase-Producing Neoagarobiose

    PubMed Central

    Temuujin, Uyangaa; Chi, Won-Jae; Chang, Yong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor can degrade agar, the main cell wall component of red macroalgae, for growth. To constitute a crucial carbon source for bacterial growth, the alternating α-(1,3) and β-(1,4) linkages between the 3,6-anhydro-l-galactoses and d-galactoses of agar must be hydrolyzed by α/β-agarases. In S. coelicolor, DagA was confirmed to be an endo-type β-agarase that degrades agar into neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose. Genomic sequencing data of S. coelicolor revealed that Sco3487, annotated as a putative hydrolase, has high similarity to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) GH50 β-agarases. Sco3487 encodes a primary translation product (88.5 kDa) of 798 amino acids, including a 45-amino-acid signal peptide. The sco3487 gene was cloned and expressed under the control of the ermE promoter in Streptomyces lividans TK24. β-Agarase activity was detected in transformant culture broth using the artificial chromogenic substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside. Mature Sco3487 (83.9 kDa) was purified 52-fold with a yield of 66% from the culture broth. The optimum pH and temperature for Sco3487 activity were 7.0 and 40°C, respectively. The Km and Vmax for agarose were 4.87 mg/ml (4 × 10−5 M) and 10.75 U/mg, respectively. Sco3487 did not require metal ions for its activity, but severe inhibition by Mn2+ and Cu2+ was observed. Thin-layer chromatography analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry of the Sco3487 hydrolysis products revealed that Sco3487 is both an exo- and endo-type β-agarase that degrades agarose, neoagarotetraose, and neoagarohexaose into neoagarobiose. PMID:22020647

  12. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening.

  13. Toxic Potential of Synthesized Graphene Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite in the Third Instar Larvae of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg9

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Khan, Wasi; Khanam, Saba; Jyoti, Smita; Naz, Falaq; Rahul; Singh, Braj Raj; Naqvi, Alim H.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the graphene zinc oxide nanocomposite (GZNC) was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for its toxic potential on third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg9. The synthesized GZNC was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The GZNC in 0.1% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was sonicated for 10 minutes and the final concentrations 0.033, 0.099, 0.199, and 3.996 μg/μL of diet were established. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on it separately for 24 and 48 hr. The hsp70 expression was measured by o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside assay, tissue damage was measured by trypan blue exclusion test, and β-galactosidase activity was monitored by in situ histochemical β-galactosidase staining. Oxidative stress was monitored by performing lipid peroxidation assay and total protein estimation. Ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining was performed on midgut cells for apoptotic index and the comet assay was performed for the DNA damage. The results of the present study showed that the exposure of 0.199 and 3.996 μg/μL of GZNC was toxic for both 24 hr and 48 hr of exposure. The doses of 0.033 μg/μL and 0.099 of GZNC showed no toxic effects on its exposure to the third instar larvae for 24 hr as well as 48 hr of duration. PMID:25025047

  14. Purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent novel lectin from Nymphaea nouchali tuber with antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Zubair, Md Abu; Nurujjaman, Md; Haque, Md Azizul; Hasan, Imtiaj; Islam, Md Farhadul; Hossain, Md Tanvir; Hossain, Md Anowar; Rakib, Md Abdur; Alam, Mohammad Taufiq; Shaha, Ranajit Kumar; Hossain, Md Tofazzal; Kimura, Yoshinobu; Absar, Nurul

    2011-12-01

    A lectin (termed NNTL) was purified from the extracts of Nymphaea nouchali tuber followed by anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, hydrophobic chromatography on HiTrap Phenyl HP and by repeated anion-exchange chromatography on HiTrap Q FF column. The molecular mass of the purified lectin was 27.0 ± 1.0 kDa, as estimated by SDS/PAGE both in the presence and in the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol. NNTL was an o-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside sugar-specific lectin that agglutinated rat, chicken and different groups of human blood cells and exhibited high agglutination activity over the pH range 5-9 and temperatures of 30-60 °C. The N-terminal sequence of NNTL did not show sequence similarity with any other lectin and the amino acid analysis revealed that NNTL was rich in leucine, methionine and glycine residues. NNTL was a glycoprotein containing 8% neutral sugar and showed toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with an LC(50) value of 120 ± 29 μg/ml and exerted strong agglutination activity against four pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea, Shigella shiga and Shigella sonnei). In addition, antiproliferative activity of this lectin against EAC (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma) cells showed 56% and 76% inhibition in vivo in mice at 1.5 and 3 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) respectively. NNTL was a divalent ion-dependent glycoprotein, which lost its activity markedly in the presence of denaturants. Furthermore, measurement of fluorescence spectra in the presence and absence of urea and CaCl(2) indicated the requirement of Ca(2+) for the stability of NNTL. PMID:21291421

  15. Purification and characterization of β-glucosidase from greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Kara, Hatibe Ertürk; Turan, Yusuf; Er, Aylin; Acar, Mesut; Tümay, Sabiha; Sinan, Selma

    2014-08-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is one of the most ruinous pests of honeycomb in the world. Beta-glucosidases are a type of digestive enzymes that hydrolytically catalyzes the beta-glycosidic linkage of glycosides. Characterization of the beta-glucosidase in G. mellonella could be a significant stage for a better comprehending of its role and establishing a safe and effective control procedure primarily against G. mellonella and also some other insect pests. Laboratory reared final instar stage larvae were randomly selected and homogenized for beta-glucosidase activity assay and subsequent analysis. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity by salting out with ammonium sulfate and using sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-1-naphthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purification was 58-fold with an overall enzyme yield of 29%. The molecular mass of the protein was estimated as ca. 42 kDa. The purified beta-glucosidase was effectively active on para/ortho-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranosides (p-/o-NPG) with Km values of 0.37 and 1.9 mM and Vmax values of 625 and 189 U/mg, respectively. It also exhibits different levels of activity against para-nitrophenyl-β-d-fucopyranoside (p-NPF), para/ortho-nitrophenyl β-d-galactopyranosides (p-/o-NPGal) and p-nitrophenyl 1-thio-β-d-glucopyranoside. The enzyme was competitively inhibited by beta-gluconolactone and also was very tolerant to glucose against p-NPG as substrate. The Ki and IC50 values of δ-gluconolactone were determined as 0.021 and 0.08 mM while the enzyme was more tolerant to glucose inhibition with IC50 value of 213.13 mM for p-NPG.

  16. Kinetic mechanism and characterization of human beta-galactosidase precursor secreted by permanently transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; McCarter, J D; Okamura-Oho, Y; Yaghi, F; Hinek, A; Withers, S G; Callahan, J W

    1994-11-15

    Chinese hamster ovary cell clones permanently transfected with the cDNA for human lysosomal beta-galactosidase secrete the enzyme precursor into the cell medium, from which it is purified to apparent homogeneity in a single step by affinity chromatography. The purified precursor is fully active, displays the same pH optimum and Km values as the mature placental enzyme, and has an intact C-terminus. The intact enzyme when chromatographed on a Sephacryl S-200 molecular-sieve column elutes as a 105,500 Da monomer, whereas on SDS/PAGE gels the polypeptide migrates as an 88 kDa polypeptide. A time course of digestion with glycopeptide-N-glycanase shows the gradual conversion of the precursor from an 88 to a 72 kDa protein, suggesting the presence of five N-linked oligosaccharides in the protein. The precursor is readily taken up in a mannose-6-phosphate-dependent manner into beta-galactosidase-deficient, GM1-gangliosidosis fibroblasts, and the enzyme activity is returned to normal levels. We show that the stereochemical course of enzymic hydrolysis involves the retention of the beta-configuration at the anomeric centre, suggesting a double-displacement mechanism. Furthermore, the enzyme is rapidly and irreversibly inactivated in the presence of the mechanism-based inactivator 2,4-dinitrophenyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-galactopyranoside, which implicates a covalent intermediate. The enzyme is also inactivated by 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylamino-propyl)carbodi-imide and by phenylglyoxal, which implicates carboxylate and arginine residues respectively in the active site. We conclude that the beta-galactosidase precursor is functionally identical to the mature lysosomal form of the enzyme and serves as an excellent enzyme source for investigation of structure-function relationships in the protein.

  17. Regioselective Acylation of Diols and Triols: The Cyanide Effect.

    PubMed

    Peng, Peng; Linseis, Michael; Winter, Rainer F; Schmidt, Richard R

    2016-05-11

    Central topics of carbohydrate chemistry embrace structural modifications of carbohydrates and oligosaccharide synthesis. Both require regioselectively protected building blocks that are mainly available via indirect multistep procedures. Hence, direct protection methods targeting a specific hydroxy group are demanded. Dual hydrogen bonding will eventually differentiate between differently positioned hydroxy groups. As cyanide is capable of various kinds of hydrogen bonding and as it is a quite strong sterically nondemanding base, regioselective O-acylations should be possible at low temperatures even at sterically congested positions, thus permitting formation and also isolation of the kinetic product. Indeed, 1,2-cis-diols, having an equatorial and an axial hydroxy group, benzoyl cyanide or acetyl cyanide as an acylating agent, and DMAP as a catalyst yield at -78 °C the thermodynamically unfavorable axial O-acylation product; acyl migration is not observed under these conditions. This phenomenon was substantiated with 3,4-O-unproteced galacto- and fucopyranosides and 2,3-O-unprotected mannopyranosides. Even for 3,4,6-O-unprotected galactopyranosides as triols, axial 4-O-acylation is appreciably faster than O-acylation of the primary 6-hydroxy group. The importance of hydrogen bonding for this unusual regioselectivity could be confirmed by NMR studies and DFT calculations, which indicate favorable hydrogen bonding of cyanide to the most acidic axial hydroxy group supported by hydrogen bonding of the equatorial hydroxy group to the axial oxygen. Thus, the "cyanide effect" is due to dual hydrogen bonding of the axial hydroxy group which enhances the nucleophilicity of the respective oxygen atom, permitting an even faster reaction for diols than for mono-ols. In contrast, fluoride as a counterion favors dual hydrogen bonding to both hydroxy groups leading to equatorial O-acylation. PMID:27104625

  18. Evaluation of the Organon-Teknika MICRO-ID LISTERIA system.

    PubMed Central

    Bannerman, E; Yersin, M N; Bille, J

    1992-01-01

    The MICRO-ID LISTERIA system, designed to identify Listeria isolates to species level within 24 h, was compared with conventional biochemical identification. MICRO-ID LISTERIA used in combination with the CAMP test correctly identified 409 (98.8%) of 414 strains isolated from human, animal, food, and environmental sources belonging to the seven species currently defined within the genus Listeria. The kit was easy to use and simple to interpret. However, 8 of the 15 tests (i.e., phenylalanine deaminase, hydrogen sulfide, indole, ornithine decarboxylase, lysine decarboxylase, malonate, urease, and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside) were considered superfluous for the differentiation of Listeria spp. The CAMP test was indispensable when using the MICRO-ID LISTERIA system, in particular to differentiate CAMP test-positive L. monocytogenes from the nonhemolytic, rhamnose-positive L. innocua. The hemolytic L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii strains and the nonhemolytic, non-rhamnose-acidifying L. welshimeri strains could also be differentiated from one another only on the basis of their CAMP test results. The very few strains of L. grayi and L. murrayi were easily differentiated from the other nonhemolytic species. Catalase-negative cocci should not be tested, because 12 out of 19 catalase-negative strains (all enterococci) in our test were misidentified as Listeria spp. The MICRO-ID LISTERIA system identified strains within 18 to 24 h and is thus less time-consuming than conventional tests. The system could, therefore, be used together with correctly done CAMP tests for the rapid identification of Listeria isolates, especially food and environmental isolates, for which rapid species differentiation is important. PMID:1622280

  19. Purification and characterization of β-glucosidase from greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Kara, Hatibe Ertürk; Turan, Yusuf; Er, Aylin; Acar, Mesut; Tümay, Sabiha; Sinan, Selma

    2014-08-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is one of the most ruinous pests of honeycomb in the world. Beta-glucosidases are a type of digestive enzymes that hydrolytically catalyzes the beta-glycosidic linkage of glycosides. Characterization of the beta-glucosidase in G. mellonella could be a significant stage for a better comprehending of its role and establishing a safe and effective control procedure primarily against G. mellonella and also some other insect pests. Laboratory reared final instar stage larvae were randomly selected and homogenized for beta-glucosidase activity assay and subsequent analysis. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity by salting out with ammonium sulfate and using sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-1-naphthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purification was 58-fold with an overall enzyme yield of 29%. The molecular mass of the protein was estimated as ca. 42 kDa. The purified beta-glucosidase was effectively active on para/ortho-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranosides (p-/o-NPG) with Km values of 0.37 and 1.9 mM and Vmax values of 625 and 189 U/mg, respectively. It also exhibits different levels of activity against para-nitrophenyl-β-d-fucopyranoside (p-NPF), para/ortho-nitrophenyl β-d-galactopyranosides (p-/o-NPGal) and p-nitrophenyl 1-thio-β-d-glucopyranoside. The enzyme was competitively inhibited by beta-gluconolactone and also was very tolerant to glucose against p-NPG as substrate. The Ki and IC50 values of δ-gluconolactone were determined as 0.021 and 0.08 mM while the enzyme was more tolerant to glucose inhibition with IC50 value of 213.13 mM for p-NPG. PMID:24789069

  20. Catalytic Mechanism of Human Alpha-galactosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Guce, A.; Clark, N; Salgado, E; Ivanen, D; Kulinskaya, A; Brumer, H; Garman, S

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme {alpha}-galactosidase ({alpha}-GAL, also known as {alpha}-GAL A; E.C. 3.2.1.22) is responsible for the breakdown of {alpha}-galactosides in the lysosome. Defects in human {alpha}-GAL lead to the development of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the buildup of {alpha}-galactosylated substrates in the tissues. {alpha}-GAL is an active target of clinical research: there are currently two treatment options for Fabry disease, recombinant enzyme replacement therapy (approved in the United States in 2003) and pharmacological chaperone therapy (currently in clinical trials). Previously, we have reported the structure of human {alpha}-GAL, which revealed the overall structure of the enzyme and established the locations of hundreds of mutations that lead to the development of Fabry disease. Here, we describe the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme derived from x-ray crystal structures of each of the four stages of the double displacement reaction mechanism. Use of a difluoro-{alpha}-galactopyranoside allowed trapping of a covalent intermediate. The ensemble of structures reveals distortion of the ligand into a {sup 1}S{sub 3} skew (or twist) boat conformation in the middle of the reaction cycle. The high resolution structures of each step in the catalytic cycle will allow for improved drug design efforts on {alpha}-GAL and other glycoside hydrolase family 27 enzymes by developing ligands that specifically target different states of the catalytic cycle. Additionally, the structures revealed a second ligand-binding site suitable for targeting by novel pharmacological chaperones.

  1. Measurement of Ligand-Induced Activation in Single Viable T Cells Using the lacZ Reporter Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karttunen, Jaana; Shastri, Nilabh

    1991-05-01

    We have used the bacterial β-galactosidase gene (lacZ) as a reporter gene for the rapid measurement of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of individual T cells. The reporter construct contained the lacZ gene under the control of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) element of the human interleukin 2 enhancer [Fiering, S., Northrop, J. P., Nolan, G. P., Matilla, P., Crabtree, G. R. & Herzenberg, L. A. (1990) Genes Dev. 4, 1823-1834]. The activity of the intracellular lacZ enzyme was analyzed by flow cytometric measurement of fluorescein accumulation in cells loaded with the fluorogenic β-galactosidase substrate fluorescein di-β-D-galactopyranoside. As a model system, the T-cell hybridoma BO4H9.1, which is specific for the lysozyme peptide (amino acids 74-88)/A^b complex, was transfected with the NF-AT-lacZ construct. lacZ activity was induced in 50-100% of the transfectant cells following exposure to pharmacological agents, to the physiological peptide/major histocompatibility complex ligand, or to other TCR-specific stimuli. Interestingly, increasing concentrations of the stimulus increased the fraction of lacZ^+ cells, but not the level of lacZ activity per cell. Even under widely varying levels of stimulus, the level of lacZ activity in individual lacZ^+ cells remained within a remarkably narrow range. These results demonstrate that TCR-mediated activation can be readily measured in single T cells and strongly suggest that, once committed to activation, the level of NF-AT transcriptional activity in individual T cells is independent of the form or concentration of stimulus. This assay is likely to prove useful for the study of early activation events in individual T cells and of TCR ligands.

  2. Characterization of an extremely thermostable but cold-adaptive β-galactosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus for use as a recombinant aggregation for batch lactose degradation at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing; Yan, Xufan; Zheng, Minhui; Yang, Ziwen

    2014-06-01

    β-Galactosidase (lactase), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose into glucose and galactose, is one of the most important enzymes used in dairy processing. In this study, a gene that encoded an extremely thermostable β-galactosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pflactase) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The recombinant enzyme was purified by heat treatment and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The enzyme displayed optimal activity at 90°C and pH 7.0 in phosphate buffer. The specific activity of the recombinant enzyme on o-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside was 10.2 U/mg at 0°C and 130.0dU/mg at 90°C. The half-lives of the enzyme were 31423.4, 8168.3, 4017.7, 547.4, 309.6, and 203.5 min at 70°C, 80°C, 85°C, 90°C, 95°C, and 100°C, respectively. The recombinant enzyme exhibited both β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activity. The active inclusion bodies of β-galactosidase were easily isolated by nonionic detergent treatment and directly used for lactose conversion in a repetitive batch mode. More than 54% (90°C) or 88% (10°C) of the original enzyme activity was retained after 10 conversion cycles under optimum conditions. These results suggest that the recombinant thermostable β-galactosidase may be suitable for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk processing.

  3. Identification and characterization of an unusual glycosyltransferase-like enzyme with β-galactosidase activity from a soil metagenomic library.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-di; Guo, Geng-shan; Li, Liang; Cao, Li-chuang; Tong, Ling; Ren, Guang-hui; Liu, Yu-huan

    2014-04-10

    Glycosyltransferases and glycoside hydrolases are two diversified groups of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in existence, they serve to build and break down the glycosidic bonds, respectively, and both categories have formed many sequence-based families. In this study, a novel gene (glyt110) conferring β-galactosidase activity was obtained from a metagenomic library of Turpan Basin soil. Sequence analysis revealed that glyt110 encoded a protein of 369 amino acids that, rather than belonging to a family typically known for β-galactosidase activity, belonged to glycosyltransferase family 4. Because of this unusual sequence information, the novel gene glyt110 was subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and the recombinant enzyme (Glyt110) was purified and characterized. Biochemical characterization revealed that the β-galactosidase activity of Glyt110 toward o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) and lactose were identified to be 314±18.3 and 32±2.7 U/mg, correspondingly. In addition, Glyt110 can synthesize galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) using lactose as substrate. A GOS yield of 47.2% (w/w) was achieved from 30% lactose solution at 50 °С, pH 8.0 after 10 h reaction. However, Glyt110 was unable to glycosylate either N-acetylated saccharides or lactose and galactose using UDP-gal as sugar donor, and its glycosyltransferase activity needs further investigation. These results indicated that Glyt110 is an unusual enzyme with β-galactosidase activity but phylogenetically related to glycosyltransferase. Our findings may provide opportunities to improve the insight into the relationship between glycosyltransferases and glycoside hydrolases and the sequence-based classification.

  4. A novel cold-adapted β-galactosidase isolated from Halomonas sp. S62: gene cloning, purification and enzymatic characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Xiang; Gao, Yun; Hu, Bo; Lu, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Jiao, Bing-Hua

    2013-08-01

    A novel 1,170 bp β-galactosidase gene sequence from Halomonas sp. S62 (BGalH) was identified through whole genome sequencing and was submitted to GenBank (Accession No. JQ337961). The BGalH gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells, and the enzymatic properties of recombinant BGalH were studied. According to the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results and the sequence alignment analysis, BGalH is a dimeric protein and cannot be classified into one of the known β-galactosidase families (GH1, GH2, GH35, GH42). The optimal pH and temperature were determined to be 7.0 and 45 °C, respectively; the K m and K cat were 2.9 mM and 390.3 s(-1), respectively, for the reaction with the substrate ortho-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside. At 0-20 °C, BGalH exhibited 50-70 % activity relative to its activity under the optimal conditions. BGalH was stable over a wide range of pHs (6.0-8.5) after a 1 h incubation (>93 % relative activity) and was thermostable at 50 °C and below (>60 % relative activity). The enzyme hydrolyzes lactose completely in milk over 24 h at 7 °C. The characteristics of this novel β-galactosidase suggest that BGalH may be a good candidate for medical researches and food industry applications.

  5. PREVALENCE, BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF AEROMONADS, VIBRIOS, AND PLESIOMONADS ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES AT A ZOO.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2015-06-01

    Aeromonas spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus , and Plesiomonas shigelloides are commonly implicated in foodborne and waterborne diarrheal illnesses of humans and other animals. The present study assessed the prevalence, biochemical characteristics, and antibiotic susceptibility of Aeromonas spp., V. parahaemolyticus , and P. shigelloides by analyzing samples from 729 sources at a zoo, including animal feces (n=607), watering facilities (n=104), and pond water samples (n=18). Of the 729 samples collected, 40 (5.5%) contained one of these four species of bacteria: A. hydrophila (n=16; 2.2%), A. sobria (n=12; 1.6%), V. parahaemolyticus (n=10; 1.4%), and P. shigelloides (n=2; 0.3%). The 16 isolates of A. hydrophila came from three fecal samples, eight watering facilities, and five pond water samples. The 12 isolates of A. sobria came from four fecal samples, three watering facilities, and five pond water samples. The 10 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus came from one fecal sample and nine watering facilities. The two isolates of P. shigelloides came from one watering facility and one pond water sample. Of the 40 isolates, 16 (40.0%), 21 (52.5%), and three (7.5%) originated from mammals, birds, and reptiles, respectively. All isolates tested positive for NO3, tryptophan, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, glucose assimilation, N-acetyl-glucosamine, maltose, gluconate, malate, and oxidase. Aeromonas spp. and V. parahaemolyticus exhibited similar biochemical characteristics, whereas P. shigelloides exhibited distinct fermentation characteristics. All the isolated strains exhibited hemolytic activity; variable results of DNase, protease, and Congo red uptake tests; and resistance to ampicillin, bacitracin, novobiocin, penicillin, and vancomycin. All the strains were sensitive to amikacin, chloramphenicol, colistin, gentamicin, kanamycin, norfloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfadimethoxazole. Because of the high proportion of asymptomatic carriers of these potentially pathogenic

  6. A Validated HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Caffeoyl Phenylethanoid Glucosides and Flavone 8-C-glycosides in Haberlea rhodopensis.

    PubMed

    Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina; Nedialkov, Paraskev; Giresser, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    A HPLC-UV method for analysis of the main compounds: caffeoyl phenylethanoid glucosides myconoside (1) and paucifloside (2) and flavone 8-C-glycosides: hispidulin 8-C-β-galactopyranoside (3), hispidulin 8-C-(2"-O-syringoyl-β-glucopyranoside) (4), hispidulin 8-C-(6-O-acetyl-β-glucopyranoside) (5) and hispidulin 8-C-(6-O-acetyl-2"-O-syringoyl--glucopyranoside) (6) in Haberlea rhodopensis leaves was developed and validated. Compound 3 was isolated for the first time from the title species. Ultrasound extraction with 80% methanol at room temperature allowed a good recovery of analytes (from 87.2 % for 1 to 109.8 % for 3) and the precision of the entire procedure was between 1.6% and 6.9%. The subsequent HPLC separation and quantification was achieved using a Hypersil ODS C18 column and UV detection at 280 nm. The mobile phase comprised methanol and 0.1 % o-phosphoric acid, and gradient elution mode was applied. The detection limits ranged from 0.042 μg/mL (6) to 0.18 μg/mL (5). The total amount in leaves of the assayed phenolic compounds was 374.2 mg/g. Myconoside was found to be the dominant compound in H. rhodopensis extract (332.2 ± 0.7 mg/g dw) and reached up to 88.8% of the analyzed mixture in leaves, while the total content of flavone C-glycosides was 17.1 mg/g dw. PMID:27534117

  7. Expression of Functional Human Sialyltransferases ST3Gal1 and ST6Gal1 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Soto, Maria Elena; Seibel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Sialyltransferases (STs) are disulfide-containing, type II transmembrane glycoproteins that catalyze the transfer of sialic acid to proteins and lipids and participate in the synthesis of the core structure oligosaccharides of human milk. Sialic acids are found at the outermost position of glycostructures, playing a key role in health and disease. Sialylation is also essential for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins (RTPs). Despite their importance, availability of sialyltransferases is limited due to the low levels of stable, soluble and active protein produced in bacterial expression systems, which hampers biochemical and structural studies on these enzymes and restricts biotechnological applications. We report the successful expression of active human sialyltransferases ST3Gal1 and ST6Gal1 in commercial Escherichia coli strains designed for production of disulfide-containing proteins. Fusion of hST3Gal1 with different solubility enhancers and substitution of exposed hydrophobic amino acids by negatively charged residues (supercharging-like approach) were performed to promote solubility and folding. Co-expression of sialyltransferases with the chaperon/foldases sulfhydryl oxidase, protein disulfide isomerase and disulfide isomerase C was explored to improve the formation of native disulfide bonds. Active sialyltransferases fused with maltose binding protein (MBP) were obtained in sufficient amounts for biochemical and structural studies when expressed under oxidative conditions and co-expression of folding factors increased the yields of active and properly folded sialyltransferases by 20%. Mutation of exposed hydrophobic amino acids increased recovery of active enzyme by 2.5-fold, yielding about 7 mg of purified protein per liter culture. Functionality of recombinant enzymes was evaluated in the synthesis of sialosides from the β-d-galactoside substrates lactose, N-acetyllactosamine and benzyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(β-d-galactopyranosyl)-α-d-galactopyranoside

  8. Cloning, purification and characterization of a thermostable β-galactosidase from Bacillus licheniformis strain KG9.

    PubMed

    Matpan Bekler, F; Stougaard, P; Güven, K; Gül Güven, R; Acer, Ö

    2015-06-28

    A thermo— and alkalitolerant Bacillus licheniformis KG9 isolated from Taşlıdere hot water spring in Batman/Turkey was found to produce a thermostable β—galactosidase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 16S rRNA gene from B. licheniformis strain KG9 was 99.9% identical to that of the genome sequenced B. licheniformis strain DSM 13. Analysis of the B. licheniformis DSM 13 genomic sequence revealed four putative β—galactosidase genes. PCR primers based on the genome sequence of strain DSM 13 were used to isolate the corresponding β—galactosidase genes from B. licheniformis strain KG9. The calculated molecular weights of the β—galactosidases I, II, III, and IV using sequencing data were 30, 79, 74, and 79 kDa, respectively. The genes were inserted into an expression vector and recombinant β—galactosidase was produced in Escherichia coli. Of the four β—galactosidase genes identified in strain KG9, three of them were expressed as active, intracellular enzymes in E. coli. One of the recombinant enzymes, β—galactosidase III, was purified and characterized. Optimal temperature and pH was determined to be at 60 ºC and pH 6.0, respectively. Km was determined to be 1.3 mM and 13.3 mM with oNPG (ortho—nitrophenyl—β—D—galactopyranoside) and lactose as substrates, respectively, and Vmax was measured to 1.96 μmol/min and 1.55 μmol/min with oNPG and lactose, respectively.

  9. A thermostable α-galactosidase from Lenzites elegans (Spreng.) ex Pat. MB445947: purification and properties.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, Diego; Quiroga, Emma; Sgariglia, Melina; Soberón, José; Vattuone, Marta A

    2012-08-01

    An α-galactosidase was isolated from a culture filtrate of Lenzites elegans (Spreng.) ex Pat. MB445947 grown on citric pectin as carbon source. It was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The relative molecular mass of the native purified enzyme was 158 kDa determined by gel filtration and it is a homodimer (Mr subunits = 61 kDa). The optimal temperature for enzyme activity was in the range 60-80 °C. This α-galactosidase showed a high thermostability, retaining 94 % of its activity after preincubation at 60 °C for 2 h. The optimal pH for the enzyme was 4.5 and it was stable from pH 3 to 7.5 when the preincubation took place at 60 °C for 2 h. It was active against several α-galactosides such as p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside, α-D-melibiose, raffinose and stachyose. The α-galactosidase is a glycoprotein with 26 % of structural sugars. Galactose was a non-competitive inhibitor with a Ki = 22 mM versus p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactoside and 12 mM versus α-D-melibiose as substrates. Glucose was a simple competitive inhibitor with a Ki = 10 mM. Cations such as Hg(2+) and p-chloromercuribenzoate were also inhibitors of this activity, suggesting the presence of -SH groups in the active site of the enzyme. On the basis of the sequence of the N-terminus (SPDTIVLDGTNFALN) the studied α-galactosidase would be a member of glycosyl hydrolase family 36 (GH 36). Given the high optimum temperature and heat stability of L. elegans α-galactosidase, this fungus may become a useful source of α-galactosidase production for multiple applications.

  10. Characterization of alpha-galactosidases from germinating soybean seed and their use for hydrolysis of oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, V M; de Rezende, S T; Moreira, M A; de Barros, E G; Felix, C R

    2001-09-01

    Raffinose oligosaccharides (RO) are the major factors responsible for flatulence following ingestion of soybean derived products. Removal of RO from seeds or soymilk would then have a positive impact on the acceptance of soy-based foods. Enzymic hydrolysis of the RO is accomplished by alpha-galactosidase. While the content of RO decreases during seed germination, the activity of alpha-galactosidase increases substantially. Two alpha-galactosidases were isolated from germinating seeds by partition in an aqueous two-phase system followed by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. One of the enzyme preparations (P1) showed a single protein with M(r) of 33 kDa, and the second (P2) had two proteins with M(r) of 31 and 33 kDa. Maximal activities against the synthetic substrate rho-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (rhoNPGal) were detected at pH 5.0-5.5 and 45-50 degrees C. Both enzymes were fairly stable at 40 degrees C, but lost most of their activities after 30 min at 50 degrees C. The K(m) values for hydrolysis of rhoNPGal by the P1 and P2 enzymes were 1.55 and 0.76 mM, respectively. The K(m) values determined for hydrolysis of raffinose and melibiose by the P2 enzyme were 5.53 and 5.34 mM, respectively and galactose was a competitive inhibitor (K(i)=0.65 mM). To different extents, both enzymes were sensitive to inhibition by galactose, melibiose, CuSO(4), and SDS. Sucrose and beta-mercaptoethanol showed discrete inhibitory effects on both enzymes.

  11. Characterization and site-directed mutagenesis of an α-galactosidase from the deep-sea bacterium Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haibo; Qin, Yongjun; Huang, Zongqing; Liu, Ziduo

    2014-03-01

    A novel gene (BmelA) (1323bp) encoding an α-galactosidase of 440 amino acids was cloned from the deep-sea bacterium Bacillus megaterium and the protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) with an estimated molecular mass of about 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 4, with the highest identity (74%) to α-galactosidase Mel4A from Bacillus halodurans among the characterized α-galactosidases. The recombinant BmelA displayed its maximum activity at 35 °C and pH 8.5-9.0 in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, and could hydrolyze different substrates with the Km values against p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside (pNP-α-Gal), raffinose and stachyose being 1.02±0.02, 2.24±0.11 and 3.42±0.17 mM, respectively. Besides, 4 mutants (I38 V, I38A, I38F and Q84A) were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis based on molecular modeling and sequence alignment. The kinetic analysis indicated that mutants I38 V and I38A exhibited a 1.7- and 1.4-fold increase over the wild type enzyme in catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) against pNP-α-Gal, respectively, while mutant I38F showed a 3.5-fold decrease against pNP-α-Gal and mutant Q84A almost completely lost its activity. All the results suggest that I38 and Q84 sites play a vital role in enzyme activity probably due to their steric and polar effects on the predicted "tunnel" structure and NAD+ binding to the enzyme.

  12. Internal transport properties of macroporous sugar polyacrylate hydrogels: microsphere diffusion described by phenomenological laws.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brett D; Soto, Carissa M; Taitt, Chris; Charles, Paul T

    2008-04-01

    We have determined the internal transport properties of heterogeneous, macroporous hydrogels based on the regioregular sugar polyacrylate poly(6-acryloyl-beta-O-methyl-galactopyranoside). This was accomplished by measuring the diffusive flux of variously sized polystyrene microspheres and combining these results with solutions of phenomenological transport laws (the Navier-Stokes equations and Fick's Law with an assumption of first-order irreversible sphere capture by the gel polymer). This enabled calculation of gel properties such as average pore diameters (ca. 11.76 microm) and the diffusivities of the polystyrene spheres in the gel. These values range from 76% to 83% of that in free solution and correlate closely with the equilibrium solution content of the gel (82.3%). This approach has also enabled calculation of the sphere capture rates (2.4 x 10(-3) to 9.6 x 10(-5) s(-1)). These low capture rates indicate that the gel is extremely non-adhesive towards the spheres, and a linear correlation with sphere form drag area (r(2) = 1) was found. The pore sizes of the hydrated gel were observed via DIC light microscopy and the visible effective diameters corresponded very closely to the calculated values (11.66 vs. 11.76 microm). The diffusion/capture of inert spheres in the hydrogel can thus be described in a non-destructive manner by straightforward application of phenomenological transport laws. This result is significant in that these laws were intended to describe macroscopic ensembles of very large numbers of particles in continuous media, not small numbers (i.e., hundreds) in discontinuous media.

  13. Hypomaturation Enamel Defects in Klk4 Knockout/LacZ Knockin Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Simmer, James P.; Hu, Yuanyuan; Lertlam, Rangsiyakorn; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Hu, Jan C.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Kallikrein 4 (Klk4) is believed to play an essential role in enamel biomineralization, because defects in KLK4 cause hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We used gene targeting to generate a knockin mouse that replaces the Klk4 gene sequence, starting at the translation initiation site, with a lacZ reporter gene. Correct targeting of the transgene was confirmed by Southern blot and PCR analyses. Histochemical X-gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) staining demonstrated expression of β-galactosidase in maturation stage ameloblasts. No X-gal staining was observed in secretory stage ameloblasts or in odontoblasts. Retained enamel proteins were observed in the maturation stage enamel of the Klk4 null mouse, but not in the Klk4 heterozygous or wild-type mice. The enamel layer in the Klk4 null mouse was normal in thickness and contained decussating enamel rods but was rapidly abraded following weaning, despite the mice being maintained on soft chow. In function the enamel readily fractured within the initial rod and interrod enamel above the parallel enamel covering the dentino-enamel junction. Despite the lack of Klk4 and the retention of enamel proteins, significant levels of crystal maturation occurred (although delayed), and the enamel achieved a mineral density in some places greater than that detected in bone and dentin. An important finding was that individual enamel crystallites of erupted teeth failed to grow together, interlock, and function as a unit. Instead, individual crystallites seemed to spill out of the enamel when fractured. These results demonstrate that Klk4 is essential for the removal of enamel proteins and the proper maturation of enamel crystals. PMID:19578120

  14. The effects of organic solvents on the efficiency and regioselectivity of N-acetyl-lactosamine synthesis, using the β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans in hydro-organic media.

    PubMed

    Bridiau, Nicolas; Issaoui, Neyssène; Maugard, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of N-acetyl-lactosamine (LacNAc) by the transgalactosylation of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), catalyzed by the β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans (BcβGal), was studied in hydro-organic media, starting from o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (oNPG) as a galactosyl donor. Thermal stability and synthesis activity of BcβGal were shown to depend on the organic solvent polarity, characterized by its Log P value. BcβGal was thus most stable in 10% (v/v) t-BuOH, an organic solvent found to have a stabilizing and/or weakly denaturing property, which was confirmed for high t-BuOH concentrations. In the same manner, the optimal synthesis yield increased as the Log P value of the organic solvent increased. The best results were obtained for reactions carried out in 10% (v/v) pyridine or 2-methyl-2-butanol, which gave 47% GlcNAc transgalactosylation yield based on starting oNPG, of which 23% (11 mM; 4.3 g/L) consisted in LacNAc synthesis. Furthermore, it was also established that both the GlcNAc transgalactosylation yield and the enzyme regioselectivity depended on the percentage of organic solvent used, the optimal percentage varying from 10 to 40% (v/v), depending on the solvent. This phenomenon was found to correlate mainly with the thermodynamic activity of water (a(w)) in the aqueous organic solvent mixture, which was found to be optimal when close to 0.96, whatever the organic solvent used. Finally, this study highlighted the fact that the regioselectivity of BcβGal for 1-4 linkage formation could be advantageously managed by controlling the a(w) parameter.

  15. Glycoproteins from the cell wall of Phaseolus coccineus.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, M A; Selvendran, R R

    1980-04-01

    1. The use of a modified sodium chlorite/acetic acid delignification procedure for the solubilization of a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein fraction from the depectinated cell walls of Phaseolus coccineus is described. 2. The crude glycoprotein was associated with some pectic material; hydroxyproline and serine were the most abundant amino acids, and arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid the predominant monosaccharides. 3. The bulk of the hydroxyproline is O-glycosidically substituted with tetra- and tri-arabinofuranosides. From methylation analysis the linkages in these arabinosides could be inferred. 4. Ion-exchange chromatography of the crude glycoprotein gave one major and two minor hydroxyproline-rich fractions, with similar amino acid but different monosaccharide composition. 5. In the major fraction, serine appears to be O-glycosidically substituted with a single galactopyranoside residue that can be removed by the action of alpha-galactosidase but not beta-galactosidase. Removal of arabinofuranoside residues by partial acid hydrolysis greatly enhanced the action of alpha-galactosidase. 6. Methylation followed by carboxy reduction with LiAl2H4 has shown the presence of (1 leads to 4)-linked galacturonic acid in the crude glycoprotein fraction but not in the major fraction from the ion-exchange column. Hence the bulk of the pectic material is not associated with the major glycoprotein component. It is suggested that the glycoprotein is held in the wall by phenolic cross-links. 7. Similarities with the glycopeptide moiety of potato lectin provides further evidence for a class of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins with common features.

  16. Enzymatic synthesis and characterization of hydroquinone galactoside using Kluyveromyces lactis lactase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Go-Eun; Lee, Jin-Ha; Jung, Sun-Hwa; Seo, Eun-Seong; Jin, Sheng-De; Kim, Ghahyun J; Cha, Jaeho; Kim, Eui-Joong; Park, Ki-Deok; Kim, Doman

    2010-09-01

    Hydroquinone galactoside (HQ-Gal) as a potential skin whitening agent was synthesized by the reaction of lactase (beta-galactosidase) from Kluyveromyces lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus circulans, and Thermus sp. with lactose as a donor and HQ as an acceptor. Among these lactases, the acceptor reaction involving HQ and lactose with K. lactis lactase showed a higher conversion ratio to HQ-Gal (60.27%). HQ-Gal was purified using butanol partitioning and silica gel column chromatography. The structure of the purified HQ-Gal was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance, and the ionic product was observed at m/z 295 (C12H16O7Na)+ using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. HQ-Gal was identified as 4-hydroxyphenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside. The optimum conditions for HQ-Gal synthesis by K. lactis determined using response surface methodology were 50 mM HQ, 60 mM lactose, and 20 U mL(-1) lactase. These conditions produced a yield of 2.01 g L(-1) HQ-Gal. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl scavenging activity was 3.31 mM, indicating a similar antioxidant activity compared to beta-arbutin (IC50=3.95 mM). The Ki value of HQ-Gal (0.75 mM) against tyrosinase was smaller than that of beta-arbutin (Ki=1.97 mM), indicating its superiority as an inhibitor. HQ-Gal inhibited (23%) melanin synthesis without being significantly toxic to the cells, while beta-arbutin exhibited only 8% reduction of melanin synthesis in B16 melanoma cells compared with the control. These results indicate that HQ-Gal may be a suitable functional component in the cosmetics industry.

  17. Further characterization and immunochemical studies on the carbohydrate specificity of jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) lectin.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, H; Chatterjee, B P

    1989-06-01

    The lectin from jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) seeds has been purified by Rivanol (6,9-diamino-2-ethoxyacridine lactate) treatment. The specific activity, molecular weights of parent lectin and its subunit, its glycoprotein nature, and hemagglutination-inhibition assays suggest that this preparation is identical to that obtained by affinity chromatography on melibiose-agarose adsorbent (Ahmed, H., and Chatterjee, B. P. (1986) in Lectins, Biology, Biochemistry, Clinical Biochemistry (Bøg-Hansen, T. C., and van Driessche, E., eds) Vol. 5, pp. 125-133, Walter de Gruyter, New York). The lectin strongly agglutinates human and several animal erythrocytes. The lectin contains five isolectins of pI values 7.1, 6.85, 5.5, 5.3, and 5.1. It is thermally stable and loses its activity above 75 degrees C. The hemagglutinating activity remains unchanged in the presence of bivalent cations viz., Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, etc. It is a metalloprotein. The lectin retains its activity by dialysis with acetic acid followed by EDTA. It agglutinates Ehrlich ascites cells. Equilibrium dialysis of lectin with melibiose and quenching of fluorescence of 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside by the lectin show that homotetrameric jackfruit lectin has two sugar-binding sites. The lectin precipitates well several galactomannans and glycoproteins having terminal D-Gal-alpha-(1----6)- or D-Gal-beta-(1----3)-D-GalNAc residues. It hardly or does not precipitate polysaccharides having terminal D-Gal-alpha-(1----3) residues. Quantitative precipitin-inhibition studies using various haptens suggest that the -OCH2- group at C-1 and -OH groups at C-4 and partially at C-6 in the alpha-glycoside of D-galactose configuration are important for lectin-sugar interaction.

  18. An interference-free and rapid electrochemical lateral-flow immunoassay for one-step ultrasensitive detection with serum.

    PubMed

    Akanda, Md Rajibul; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Tamilavan, Vellaiappillai; Park, Seonhwa; Kim, Sinyoung; Hyun, Myung Ho; Kim, Min-Gon; Yang, Haesik

    2014-03-21

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) of biomarkers in clinical samples is of great importance for rapid and cost-effective diagnosis. However, it is extremely challenging to develop an electrochemical POCT technique retaining both ultrasensitivity and simplicity. We report an interference-free electrochemical lateral-flow immunoassay that enables one-step ultrasensitive detection with serum. The electrochemical-chemical-chemical (ECC) redox cycling combined with an enzymatic reaction of an enzyme label is used to obtain high signal amplification. The ECC redox cycling involving Ru(NH3)6(3+), enzyme product, and tris(3-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) depends on pH, because the formal potentials of an enzyme product and TCEP increase with decreasing pH although that of Ru(NH3)6(3+) is pH-independent. With consideration of the pH dependence of ECC redox cycling, a noble combination of enzyme label, substrate, and product [β-galactosidase, 4-amino-1-naphthyl β-D-galactopyranoside, and 4-amino-1-naphthol, respectively] is introduced to ensure fast and selective ECC redox cycling of the enzyme product along with a low background level. The selective ECC redox cycling at a low applied potential (0.05 V vs. Ag/AgCl) minimizes the interference effect of electroactive species (L-ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, and uric acid) in serum. A detection limit of 0.1 pg mL(-1) for troponin I is obtained only 11 min after serum dropping without the use of an additional solution. Moreover, the lateral-flow immunoassay is applicable to the analysis of real clinical samples.

  19. The phosphotransferase system of Lactobacillus casei: regulation of carbon metabolism and connection to cold shock response.

    PubMed

    Monedero, Vicente; Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Beaufils, Sophie; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Genome sequencing of two different Lactobacillus casei strains (ATCC334 and BL23) is presently going on and preliminary data revealed that this lactic acid bacterium possesses numerous carbohydrate transport systems probably reflecting its capacity to proliferate under varying environmental conditions. Many carbohydrate transporters belong to the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), but all different kinds of non-PTS transporters are present as well and their substrates are known in a few cases. In L. casei regulation of carbohydrate transport and carbon metabolism is mainly achieved by PTS proteins. Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is mediated via several mechanisms, including the major P-Ser-HPr/catabolite control protein A (CcpA)-dependent mechanism. Catabolite response elements, the target sites for the P-Ser-HPr/CcpA complex, precede numerous genes and operons. PTS regulation domain-containing antiterminators and transcription activators are also present in both L. casei strains. Their activity is usually controlled by two PTS-mediated phosphorylation reactions exerting antagonistic effects on the transcription regulators: P~EIIB-dependent phosphorylation regulates induction of the corresponding genes and P~His-HPr-mediated phosphorylation plays a role in CCR. Carbohydrate transport of L. casei is also regulated via inducer exclusion and inducer expulsion. The presence of glucose, fructose, etc. leads to inhibition of the transport or metabolism of less favorable carbon sources (inducer exclusion) or to the export of accumulated non-metabolizable carbon sources (inducer expulsion). While P-Ser-HPr is essential for inducer exclusion of maltose, it is not necessary for the expulsion of accumulated thio-methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside. Surprisingly, recent evidence suggests that the PTS of L. casei also plays a role in cold shock response. PMID:17183208

  20. Effect of dichlorodifluoromethane on the appearance, viability, and integrity of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Prior, B A; Fennema, O; Pate, J

    1975-05-01

    Cultures of Escherichia coli H52 were treated with liquid dichlorodifluoromethane (fluorocarbon-12 [f-12]) for 2 h at 22 C and then examined microscopically. Treated cells tended to clump, and their cytoplasms were generally less dense and less uniform in appearance than those of control cells. E. coli ML30 was exposed to f-12 at a concentration of 1.25 X saturation for times up to 1,200 min at 22 C. Cells were examined for changes in viability (plate count), permeability (as measured by exit of alpha-[14-C]methylglucoside or uptake of omicron-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside), release of compounds absorbing at 260 nm, and lysis (changes in absorbance at 420 nm). Large losses of alpha-methylglucoside and of percentage of viability occurred after brief exposure to f-12. Release of compounds absorbing at 260 nm occurred more slowly than the aforementioned events, possibly because these molecules are larger than alpha-methylglucoside. During 1,200-min exposure to f-12, the number of survivors decreased from 10-9 to 10-4 organisms/ml, the loss of compounds absorbing at 260 nm amounted to 50 percent, and 32 percent lysis occurred. Most of these changes occurred during the first 300 min of treatment. Loss of alpha-methylglucoside was almost complete after 1-min exposure to f-12. These results suggest that death of the cell involves several stages, with a change of permeability, occurring first, followed by leakage of compounds of increasing size and, finally, lysis.

  1. Enzyme immobilization in novel alginate-chitosan core-shell microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Taqieddin, Ehab; Amiji, Mansoor

    2004-05-01

    Alginate-chitosan core-shell microcapsules were prepared in order to develop a biocompatible matrix for enzyme immobilization, where the protein is retained either in a liquid or solid core and the shell allows permeability control over substrates and products. The permeability coefficients of different molecular weight compounds (vitamin B2, vitamin B12, and myoglobin) were determined through sodium tripolyphosphate (Na-TPP)-crosslinked chitosan membrane. The microcapsule core was formed by crosslinking sodium alginate with either calcium or barium ions. The crosslinked alginate core was uniformly coated with a chitosan layer and crosslinked with Na-TPP. In the case of calcium alginate, the phosphate ions of Na-TPP were able to extract the calcium ions from alginate and liquefy the core. A model enzyme, beta-galactosidase, was immobilized in the alginate core and the catalytic activity was measured with o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG). Change in the activity of free and immobilized enzyme was determined at three different temperatures. Na-TPP crosslinked chitosan membranes were found to be permeable to solutes of up to 17,000Da molecular weight. The enzyme loading efficiency was higher in the barium alginate core (100%) as compared to the calcium alginate core (60%). The rate of ONPG conversion to o-nitrophenol was faster in the case of calcium alginate-chitosan microcapsules as compared to barium alginate-chitosan microcapsules. Barium alginate-chitosan microcapsules, however, did improve the stability of the enzyme at 37 degrees C relative to calcium alginate-chitosan microcapsules or free enzyme. This study illustrates a new method of enzyme immobilization for biotechnology applications using liquid or solid core and shell microcapsule technology.

  2. Solvent and solvent proton dependent steps in the galactose oxidase reaction.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, J J; Kosman, D J

    1987-06-16

    Solvent and solvent proton dependent steps involved in the mechanism of the enzyme galactose oxidase have been examined. The deuterium kinetic solvent isotope effect (KSIE) on the velocity of the galactose oxidase catalyzed oxidation of methyl beta-galactopyranoside by O2 was measured. Examination of the thermodynamic activation parameters for the reaction indicated that the isotope effect was attributable to a slightly less favorable delta H value, consistent with a KSIE on proton transfer. A detailed kinetic analysis was performed, examining the effect of D2O on the rate of reaction over the pH range 4.8-8.0. Both pL-rate profiles exhibited bell-shaped curves. Substitution of D2O as solvent shifted the pKes values for the enzymic central complex: pKes1 from 6.30 to 6.80 and pKes2 from 7.16 to 7.35. Analysis of the observed shifts in dissociation constants was performed with regard to potential hydrogenic sites. pKes1 can be attributed to a histidine imidazole, while pKes2 is tentatively assigned to a Cu2+-bound water molecule. A proton inventory was performed (KSIE = +1.55); the plot of kcat vs. mole fraction D2O was linear, indicating the existence of a single solvent-derived proton involved in a galactose oxidase rate-determining step (or steps). The pH dependence of CN- inhibition was also examined. The Ki-pH profile indicated that a group ionization, with pKa = 7.17, modulated CN- inhibition; Ki was at a minimum when this group was in the protonated state. The inhibition profile followed the alkaline limit of the pH-rate profile for the enzymic reaction, suggesting that the group displaced by CN- was also deprotonating above pH 7.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Evaluation of CHROMagar Orientation for differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species.

    PubMed Central

    Merlino, J; Siarakas, S; Robertson, G J; Funnell, G R; Gottlieb, T; Bradbury, R

    1996-01-01

    A new chromogenic plate medium, CHROMagar Orientation, was evaluated for use in the differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species by a multipoint inoculation (replicator) technique. In this study, 1,404 gram-negative bacilli and 74 enterococcal isolates were tested on CHROMagar Orientation. Six control American Type Culture Collection strains were also included with the testing to ensure quality control of the media. Of the Escherichia coli isolates (n = 588) tested, 99.3% produced a pink-to-red color. Only in four isolates that were O-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) negative did this result differ. Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris were well differentiated on this medium. P. mirabilis (n = 184) produced a clear colony with diffusible brown pigment around the periphery. By contrast, 15 of 16 P. vulgaris isolates produced bluish-green colonies with a slight brown background. All Aeromonas hydrophila isolates (n = 26) tested produced clear to pink colonies at 35 to 37 degrees C. This colony color changed to blue after 2 to 3 h of incubation at room temperature. A. hydrophila exhibited stronger color and better growth at 30 degrees C. Serratia marcescens (n = 29) demonstrated an aqua blue color that deepened to a darker blue when exposed to room temperature. All enterococcal isolates (n = 74) resulted in a blue color and gave pinpoint colonies on purity subcultures at 35 to 37 degrees C after 18 h of incubation. Similarity in color resulted in failure to discriminate accurately between Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter species. However, these species could be readily differentiated from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 151) was easily differentiated from members of the Enterobacteriaceae but was less easily distinguishable from other gram-negative nonmembers of the Enterobacteriaceae. The medium was found to facilitate easy visual detection of mixed

  4. Galactose-Functionalized PolyHIPE Scaffolds for Use in Routine Three Dimensional Culture of Mammalian Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is regarded as a more physiologically relevant method of growing cells in the laboratory compared to traditional monolayer cultures. Recently, the application of polystyrene-based scaffolds produced using polyHIPE technology (porous polymers derived from high internal phase emulsions) for routine 3D cell culture applications has generated very promising results in terms of improved replication of native cellular function in the laboratory. These materials, which are now available as commercial scaffolds, are superior to many other 3D cell substrates due to their high porosity, controllable morphology, and suitable mechanical strength. However, until now there have been no reports describing the surface-modification of these materials for enhanced cell adhesion and function. This study, therefore, describes the surface functionalization of these materials with galactose, a carbohydrate known to specifically bind to hepatocytes via the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), to further improve hepatocyte adhesion and function when growing on the scaffold. We first modify a typical polystyrene-based polyHIPE to produce a cell culture scaffold carrying pendent activated-ester functionality. This was achieved via the incorporation of pentafluorophenyl acrylate (PFPA) into the initial styrene (STY) emulsion, which upon polymerization formed a polyHIPE with a porosity of 92% and an average void diameter of 33 μm. Histological analysis showed that this polyHIPE was a suitable 3D scaffold for hepatocyte cell culture. Galactose-functionalized scaffolds were then prepared by attaching 2′-aminoethyl-β-d-galactopyranoside to this PFPA functionalized polyHIPE via displacement of the labile pentafluorophenyl group, to yield scaffolds with approximately ca. 7–9% surface carbohydrate. Experiments with primary rat hepatocytes showed that cellular albumin synthesis was greatly enhanced during the initial adhesion/settlement period of cells on

  5. Use of reporter genes to identify recessive trans-acting mutations specifically involved in the regulation of Aspergillus nidulans penicillin biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed Central

    Brakhage, A A; Van den Brulle, J

    1995-01-01

    Starting from three amino acid precursors, penicillin biosynthesis is catalyzed by three enzymes which are encoded by the following three genes: acvA (pcbAB), ipnA (pcbC), and aat (penDE). To identify trans-acting mutations which are specifically involved in the regulation of these secondary metabolism genes, a molecular approach was employed by using an Aspergillus nidulans strain (AXTII9) carrying acvA-uidA and ipnA-lacZ gene fusions integrated in double copies at the chromosomal argB gene. On minimal agar plates supplemented with X-Gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside), colonies of such a strain stained blue, which is indicative of ipnA-lacZ expression. After mutagenesis with UV light, colonies were isolated on agar plates with lactose as the carbon source, which produced only a faint blue color or no color at all. Such mutants (named Prg for penicillin regulation) most likely were defective in trans-acting genes. Control experiments revealed that the mutants studied still carried the correct number of gene fusions. In a fermentation run, mutants Prg-1 and Prg-6 exhibited only 20 to 50% of the ipnA-lacZ expression of the wild-type strain and produced only 20 to 30% of the penicillin produced by the wild-type strain. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis showed that these mutants contained reduced amounts of ipnA gene product, i.e., isopenicillin N synthase. Both mutant Prg-1 and mutant Prg-6 also differed in acvA-uidA expression levels from the wild type. Segregation analysis indicated that for both mutants the Prg phenotype resulted from mutation of a single gene. Two different complementation groups, which were designated prgA1 and prgB1, were identified. However, the specific activity of the aat (penDE) gene product, i.e., acyl coenzyme A:6-aminopenicillanic acid acyltransferase, was essentially the same for the mutants as for the wild-type strain, implying that the last step of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway is not affected by the trans

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel secreted glycosidase with multiple glycosidase activities in Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Imaki, Hidenori; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Taue, Chiharu; Masuda, Sachiko; Takao, Ayuko; Maeda, Nobuko; Tabata, Atsushi; Whiley, Robert A; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a known human pathogen and belongs to the anginosus group (S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus) of streptococci (AGS). We found a large open reading frame (6,708 bp) in the lac operon, and bioinformatic analysis suggested that this gene encodes a novel glycosidase that can exhibit β-d-galactosidase and N-acetyl-β-d-hexosaminidase activities. We, therefore, named this protein "multisubstrate glycosidase A" (MsgA). To test whether MsgA has these glycosidase activities, the msgA gene was disrupted in S. intermedius. The msgA-deficient mutant no longer showed cell- and supernatant-associated β-d-galactosidase, β-d-fucosidase, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, and N-acetyl-β-d-galactosaminidase activities, and all phenotypes were complemented in trans with a recombinant plasmid carrying msgA. Purified MsgA had all four of these glycosidase activities and exhibited the lowest Km with 4-methylumbelliferyl-linked N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminide and the highest kcat with 4-methylumbelliferyl-linked β-d-galactopyranoside. In addition, the purified LacZ domain of MsgA had β-d-galactosidase and β-d-fucosidase activities, and the GH20 domain exhibited both N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and N-acetyl-β-d-galactosaminidase activities. The β-d-galactosidase and β-d-fucosidase activities of MsgA are thermolabile, and the optimal temperature of the reaction was 40°C, whereas almost all enzymatic activities disappeared at 49°C. The optimal temperatures for the N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and N-acetyl-β-d-galactosaminidase activities were 58 and 55°C, respectively. The requirement of sialidase treatment to remove sialic acid residues of the glycan branch end for glycan degradation by MsgA on human α1-antitrypsin indicates that MsgA has exoglycosidase activities. MsgA and sialidase might have an important function in the production and utilization of monosaccharides from oligosaccharides, such as glycans for survival in a normal

  7. Identification of an exo-ß-1,3-D-galactanase from Fusarium oxysporum and the synergistic effect with related enzymes on degradation of type II arabinogalactan.

    PubMed

    Okawa, Mizuho; Fukamachi, Keiko; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Sakamoto, Tatsuji

    2013-11-01

    An exo-ß-1,3-D-galactanase (Fo/1,3Gal) was purified from the culture filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum 12S. A cDNA encoding Fo/1,3Gal was isolated by in vitro cloning. Module sequence analysis revealed a "GH43_6" domain and a "CBM35_galactosidase-like" domain in Fo/1,3Gal. The recombinant enzyme (rFo/1,3Gal) expressed in Pichia pastoris degraded ß-1,3-galactan and ß-1,3-galactobiose (Gal2), and released only galactose (Gal). In contrast, the enzyme did not hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl ß-D-galactopyranoside, ß-1,4-Gal2, or ß-1,6-Gal2. The enzyme also showed low activity towards native type II arabinogalactans such as larchwood arabinogalactan (LWAG) and gum arabic. Using LWAG as substrate, rFo/1,3Gal released Gal, ß-1,6-Gal2, ß-1,6-galactotriose (Gal3), and ß-1,6-Gal3 substituted with a single arabinofuranose residue accompanied with unidentified oligosaccharides, indicating that the enzyme can by-pass the branching points of ß-1,3-galactan backbones. A time course analysis of products released by rFo/1,3Gal on LWAG revealed that ß-1,6-Gal2 is the main side chain in LWAG and that the activity of rFo/1,3Gal was decreased when degrees of polymerization of side chains increase. rFo/1,3Gal worked synergistically with three other recombinant F. oxysporum enzymes (ß-1,6-galactanase, ß-L-arabinopyranosidase, and α-L-arabinofuranosidase) that degrade side chains, on the degradation of LWAG. However, the synergism was much lower than anticipated, probably because LWAG have longer side chains than the three enzymes used are able to remove or ß-1,3-galactan main chain is interrupted with glycosidic linkages that are different from the ß-1,3-galactosyl linkage. Affinity gel electrophoresis revealed that rFo/1,3Gal specifically bound to ß-1,3-galactan.

  8. Relationship between the Composition of Flavonoids and Flower Colors Variation in Tropical Water Lily (Nymphaea) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Manlan; Zheng, Xuchen; Shu, Qingyan; Li, Hui; Zhong, Peixing; Zhang, Huijin; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Lijin; Wang, Liangsheng

    2012-01-01

    Water lily, the member of the Nymphaeaceae family, is the symbol of Buddhism and Brahmanism in India. Despite its limited researches on flower color variations and formation mechanism, water lily has background of blue flowers and displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, blue to yellow, in nature. In this study, 34 flavonoids were identified among 35 tropical cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Among them, four anthocyanins: delphinidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-5-O-galactoside (Dp3Rh5Ga), delphinidin 3-O-(2″-O-galloyl-6″-O-oxalyl-rhamnoside) (Dp3galloyl-oxalylRh), delphinidin 3-O-(6″-O-acetyl-β-glucopyranoside) (Dp3acetylG) and cyanidin 3- O-(2″-O-galloyl-galactopyranoside)-5-O-rhamnoside (Cy3galloylGa5Rh), one chalcone: chalcononaringenin 2′-O-galactoside (Chal2′Ga) and twelve flavonols: myricetin 7-O-rhamnosyl-(1→2)-rhamnoside (My7RhRh), quercetin 7-O-galactosyl-(1→2)-rhamnoside (Qu7GaRh), quercetin 7-O-galactoside (Qu7Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galactosyl-(1→2)-rhamnoside (Km7GaRh), myricetin 3-O-galactoside (My3Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galloylgalactosyl-(1→2)-rhamnoside (Km7galloylGaRh), myricetin 3-O-galloylrhamnoside (My3galloylRh), kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (Km3Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-galactoside (Is7Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-xyloside (Is7Xy), kaempferol 3-O-(3″-acetylrhamnoside) (Km3-3″acetylRh) and quercetin 3-O-acetylgalactoside (Qu3acetylGa) were identified in the petals of tropic water lily for the first time. Meanwhile a multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. By comparing, the cultivars which were detected delphinidin 3-galactoside (Dp3Ga) presented amaranth, and detected delphinidin 3′-galactoside (Dp3′Ga) presented blue. However, the derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin were more complicated in red group. No anthocyanins were detected within

  9. Relationship between the composition of flavonoids and flower colors variation in tropical water lily (Nymphaea) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Manlan; Zheng, Xuchen; Shu, Qingyan; Li, Hui; Zhong, Peixing; Zhang, Huijin; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Lijin; Wang, Liangsheng

    2012-01-01

    Water lily, the member of the Nymphaeaceae family, is the symbol of Buddhism and Brahmanism in India. Despite its limited researches on flower color variations and formation mechanism, water lily has background of blue flowers and displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, blue to yellow, in nature. In this study, 34 flavonoids were identified among 35 tropical cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Among them, four anthocyanins: delphinidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-5-O-galactoside (Dp3Rh5Ga), delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-galloyl-6"-O-oxalyl-rhamnoside) (Dp3galloyl-oxalylRh), delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-acetyl-β-glucopyranoside) (Dp3acetylG) and cyanidin 3- O-(2"-O-galloyl-galactopyranoside)-5-O-rhamnoside (Cy3galloylGa5Rh), one chalcone: chalcononaringenin 2'-O-galactoside (Chal2'Ga) and twelve flavonols: myricetin 7-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 2)-rhamnoside (My7RhRh), quercetin 7-O-galactosyl-(1 → 2)-rhamnoside (Qu7GaRh), quercetin 7-O-galactoside (Qu7Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galactosyl-(1 → 2)-rhamnoside (Km7GaRh), myricetin 3-O-galactoside (My3Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galloylgalactosyl-(1 → 2)-rhamnoside (Km7galloylGaRh), myricetin 3-O-galloylrhamnoside (My3galloylRh), kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (Km3Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-galactoside (Is7Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-xyloside (Is7Xy), kaempferol 3-O-(3"-acetylrhamnoside) (Km3-3"acetylRh) and quercetin 3-O-acetylgalactoside (Qu3acetylGa) were identified in the petals of tropic water lily for the first time. Meanwhile a multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. By comparing, the cultivars which were detected delphinidin 3-galactoside (Dp3Ga) presented amaranth, and detected delphinidin 3'-galactoside (Dp3'Ga) presented blue. However, the derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin were more complicated in red group. No anthocyanins were detected within white and

  10. Inhibition of mucin-type O-glycosylation through metabolic processing and incorporation of N-thioglycolyl-D-galactosamine peracetate (Ac5GalNTGc).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Kavita; Kaul, Rachna; Garg, Monika; Shajahan, Asif; Jha, Saroj Kumar; Sampathkumar, Srinivasa-Gopalan

    2013-09-25

    Mucin-type O-glycans form one of the most abundant and complex post-translational modifications (PTM) on cell surface proteins that govern adhesion, migration, and trafficking of hematopoietic cells. Development of targeted approaches to probe functions of O-glycans is at an early stage. Among several approaches, small molecules with unique chemical functional groups that could modulate glycan biosynthesis form a critical tool. Herein, we show that metabolism of peracetyl N-acyl-D-galactosamine derivatives carrying an N-thioglycolyl (Ac5GalNTGc, 1) moiety-but not N-glycolyl (Ac5GalNGc, 2) and N-acetyl (Ac4GalNAc, 3)-through the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) salvage pathway induced abrogation of MAL-II and PNA epitopes in Jurkat cells. Mass spectrometry of permethylated O-glycans from Jurkat cells confirmed the presence of significant amounts of elaborated O-glycans (sialyl-T and disialyl-T) which were inhibited upon treatment with 1. O-Glycosylation of CD43, a cell surface antigen rich in O-glycans, was drastically reduced by 1 in a thiol-dependent manner. By contrast, only mild effects were observed for CD45 glycoforms. Direct metabolic incorporation of 1 was confirmed by thiol-selective Michael addition reaction of immunoprecipitated CD43-myc/FLAG. Mechanistically, CD43 glycoforms were unperturbed by peracetylated N-(3-acetylthiopropanoyl) (4), N-(4-acetylthiobutanoyl) (5), and N-methylthioacetyl (6) galactosamine derivatives, N-thioglycolyl-D-glucosamine (7, C-4 epimer of 1), and α-O-benzyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactopyranoside (8), confirming the critical requirement of both free sulfhydryl and galactosamine moieties for inhibition of mucin-type O-glycans. Similar, yet differential, effects of 1 were observed for CD43 glycoforms in multiple hematopoietic cells. Development of small molecules that could alter glycan patterns in an antigen-selective and cell-type selective manner might provide avenues for understanding biological functions of glycans. PMID

  11. An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Summary Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis. The most active compound, (4-{[(β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin. In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl β-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin αvβ3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site. These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis

  12. Evaluation of CHROMagar Orientation for differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species.

    PubMed

    Merlino, J; Siarakas, S; Robertson, G J; Funnell, G R; Gottlieb, T; Bradbury, R

    1996-07-01

    A new chromogenic plate medium, CHROMagar Orientation, was evaluated for use in the differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species by a multipoint inoculation (replicator) technique. In this study, 1,404 gram-negative bacilli and 74 enterococcal isolates were tested on CHROMagar Orientation. Six control American Type Culture Collection strains were also included with the testing to ensure quality control of the media. Of the Escherichia coli isolates (n = 588) tested, 99.3% produced a pink-to-red color. Only in four isolates that were O-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) negative did this result differ. Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris were well differentiated on this medium. P. mirabilis (n = 184) produced a clear colony with diffusible brown pigment around the periphery. By contrast, 15 of 16 P. vulgaris isolates produced bluish-green colonies with a slight brown background. All Aeromonas hydrophila isolates (n = 26) tested produced clear to pink colonies at 35 to 37 degrees C. This colony color changed to blue after 2 to 3 h of incubation at room temperature. A. hydrophila exhibited stronger color and better growth at 30 degrees C. Serratia marcescens (n = 29) demonstrated an aqua blue color that deepened to a darker blue when exposed to room temperature. All enterococcal isolates (n = 74) resulted in a blue color and gave pinpoint colonies on purity subcultures at 35 to 37 degrees C after 18 h of incubation. Similarity in color resulted in failure to discriminate accurately between Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter species. However, these species could be readily differentiated from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 151) was easily differentiated from members of the Enterobacteriaceae but was less easily distinguishable from other gram-negative nonmembers of the Enterobacteriaceae. The medium was found to facilitate easy visual detection of mixed

  13. The Gonococcal NlpD Protein Facilitates Cell Separation by Activating Peptidoglycan Cleavage by AmiC

    PubMed Central

    Stohl, Elizabeth A.; Lenz, Jonathan D.; Dillard, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Key steps in bacterial cell division are the synthesis and subsequent hydrolysis of septal peptidoglycan (PG), which allow efficient separation of daughter cells. Extensive studies in the Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium Escherichia coli have revealed that this hydrolysis is highly regulated spatially and temporally. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate Gram-negative, diplococcal pathogen and is the only causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. We investigated how cell separation proceeds in this diplococcal organism. We demonstrated that deletion of the nlpD gene in strain FA1090 leads to poor growth and to an altered colony and cell morphology. An isopropyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside (IPTG)-regulated nlpD complemented construct can restore these defects only when IPTG is supplied in the growth medium. Thin-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the nlpD mutant strain grew in large clumps containing live and dead bacteria, which was consistent with deficient cell separation. Biochemical analyses of purified NlpD protein showed that it was able to bind purified PG. Finally, we showed that, although NlpD has no hydrolase activity itself, NlpD potentiates the hydrolytic activity of AmiC. These results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae NlpD is required for proper cell growth and division through its interactions with the amidase AmiC. IMPORTANCE N. gonorrhoeae is the sole causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. The incidence of antibiotic-resistant gonococcal infections has risen sharply in recent years, and N. gonorrhoeae has been classified as a “superbug” by the CDC. Since there is a dearth of new antibiotics to combat gonococcal infections, elucidating the essential cellular process of N. gonorrhoeae may point to new targets for antimicrobial therapies. Cell division and separation is one such essential process. We identified and characterized the gonococcal nlpD gene and showed that

  14. Large-scale preparation and characterization of recombinant ovine placental lactogen.

    PubMed

    Sakal, E; Bignon, C; Grosclaude, J; Kantor, A; Shapira, R; Leibovitch, H; Helman, D; Nespoulous, C; Shamay, A; Rowlinson, S W; Djiane, J; Gertler, A

    1997-02-01

    To clone ovine placental lactogen (oPL) cDNA, total RNA from sheep placental cotyledon was reverse transcribed and the single-stranded cDNA was PCR-amplified with 5' and 3' primers containing, respectively, NcoI and PstI sites. The oPL cDNA fragment amplified between these two primers extended from A(-1) to the natural stop codon. The PCR product was gel-purified and subcloned into a Puc vector and the insert was sequenced on both strands, revealing several differences relative to the published sequence: S19N, S69N, D129E and R165Q. We assume that these differences can be accounted for by the high level of individual polymorphism, which has been described in detail for PLs of different species. The insert was subcloned into NcoI/ PstI-digested pTrc99A procaryotic expression plasmid and protein expression was induced by isopropyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside. Because of low expression, oPL's cDNA was further subcloned into pET8 procaryotic expression plasmid. Its expression in E. coli strain BL21 transformed with this vector yielded 30-40 mg/l. The expressed protein, found in the inclusion bodies, was refolded into a monomer and purified on a Q-Sepharose column to homogeneity. Structural analysis using circular dichroism revealed a spectrum similar to that of human GH (hGH) thereby indicating proper refolding. Gel filtration and binding experiments, including real-time kinetic measurements using the surface plasmon resonance method revealed that oPL forms transient homodimeric complexes with extracellular domains of prolactin receptors from rabbit, rat and bovine and with hGH receptor. The purified oPL was biologically active in an Nb2-11C cell proliferation bioassay, in its ability to stimulate beta-casein synthesis in explants of ovine and rabbit mammary gland and fat synthesis in explants of bovine mammary gland, and in a proliferation assay using FDC-P1 cells transfected with rabbit or hGH receptors. PMID:9071989

  15. Relationship between the composition of flavonoids and flower colors variation in tropical water lily (Nymphaea) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Manlan; Zheng, Xuchen; Shu, Qingyan; Li, Hui; Zhong, Peixing; Zhang, Huijin; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Lijin; Wang, Liangsheng

    2012-01-01

    Water lily, the member of the Nymphaeaceae family, is the symbol of Buddhism and Brahmanism in India. Despite its limited researches on flower color variations and formation mechanism, water lily has background of blue flowers and displays an exceptionally wide diversity of flower colors from purple, red, blue to yellow, in nature. In this study, 34 flavonoids were identified among 35 tropical cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Among them, four anthocyanins: delphinidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-5-O-galactoside (Dp3Rh5Ga), delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-galloyl-6"-O-oxalyl-rhamnoside) (Dp3galloyl-oxalylRh), delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-acetyl-β-glucopyranoside) (Dp3acetylG) and cyanidin 3- O-(2"-O-galloyl-galactopyranoside)-5-O-rhamnoside (Cy3galloylGa5Rh), one chalcone: chalcononaringenin 2'-O-galactoside (Chal2'Ga) and twelve flavonols: myricetin 7-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 2)-rhamnoside (My7RhRh), quercetin 7-O-galactosyl-(1 → 2)-rhamnoside (Qu7GaRh), quercetin 7-O-galactoside (Qu7Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galactosyl-(1 → 2)-rhamnoside (Km7GaRh), myricetin 3-O-galactoside (My3Ga), kaempferol 7-O-galloylgalactosyl-(1 → 2)-rhamnoside (Km7galloylGaRh), myricetin 3-O-galloylrhamnoside (My3galloylRh), kaempferol 3-O-galactoside (Km3Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-galactoside (Is7Ga), isorhamnetin 7-O-xyloside (Is7Xy), kaempferol 3-O-(3"-acetylrhamnoside) (Km3-3"acetylRh) and quercetin 3-O-acetylgalactoside (Qu3acetylGa) were identified in the petals of tropic water lily for the first time. Meanwhile a multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between pigments and flower color. By comparing, the cultivars which were detected delphinidin 3-galactoside (Dp3Ga) presented amaranth, and detected delphinidin 3'-galactoside (Dp3'Ga) presented blue. However, the derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin were more complicated in red group. No anthocyanins were detected within white and

  16. High-efficiency production of bioactive recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18 in Escherichia coli and its effects on hair follicle growth.

    PubMed

    Song, Lintao; Huang, Zhifeng; Chen, Yu; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Chao; Li, Xiaokun

    2014-01-01

    Using fusion tags, expression of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18 (rhFGF18) in mammalian cells and Escherichia coli has been extensively used for fundamental research and clinical applications, including chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, hair growth, and neuroprotection. However, high-level rhFGF18 expression is difficult and the products are often not homogeneous. Furthermore, fusion-tagged protein has higher immunogenicity and lower bioactivity, and the removal of the fused tag is expensive. To overcome the limitations of fusion-tagged expression of protein and to prepare soluble highly bioactive rhFGF18, we have developed a rapid and efficient expression strategy. Optimized hFGF18 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into pET22b and pET3c vectors, then transformed into E. coli strains Origima (DE3) and BL21 (DE3)PlysS. The best combination of plasmid and host strain was selected, and only Origima (DE3)/pET3c-rhFGF18 was screened for high-level expressed rhFGF18. Under optimal conditions in a 30-L fermentor, the average bacterial yield and expression level of rhFGF18 of three batches were more than 652 g and 30 % respectively, after treatment with 1 mM isopropyl-thio-β-galactopyranoside for 10 h at 25 °C. The target protein was purified by CM Sepharose FF and heparin affinity chromatography. The purity of rhFGF18 was shown by HPLC to be higher than 95 %, and the yield was 155 mg/L. In vitro MTT assays demonstrated that the purified rhFGF18 could stimulate significant proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, and animal experiments showed that rhFGF18 could effectively regulate hair growth. In conclusion, this may be a better method of producing rhFGF18 to meet the increasing demand in its pharmacological application.

  17. A new electrochemical substrate for rapid and sensitive in vivo monitoring of β-galactosidase gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Manibalan, Kesavan; Mani, Veerappan; Huang, Chih-Hung; Huang, Sheng-Tung; Chang, Pu-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    A 4-Methoxyphenyl-β-galactopyranoside (4-MPGal) substrate incorporating 4-methoxy phenol (4-MP) as an electrochemical reporter is described for the monitoring of β-Galactosidase (β-Gal) gene expressions. β-Gal derived from Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) were investigated, while a graphene oxide film modified electrode was employed as the transducer. The electrochemical signal of 4-MPG within 4-MPGal was masked by protecting their hydroxyl group with galactose. The externally added β-Gal triggered the deprotection through specific enzymatic hydrolysis with concomitant release of 4-MP. The apparent Km and Vmax values of 4-MPGal are determined to be 0.21 mM and 0.51 μM min(-1) mg of β-Gal(-1) (E. coli), which is consistent with the previous reports. To detect β-Gal derived from E. coli, cyclic voltammetry (CV) provides linear ranges of 12-1200 ng mL(-1) and 1.2-12 μg mL(-1) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 5 ng mL(-1), while differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) shows a linear range of 1.2-120 ng mL(-1) and LOD of 1 ng mL(-1). To detect β-Gal derived from A. oryzae, CV provides linear ranges of 0.1-100 ng mL(-1) and 0.1-1 μg mL(-1) with a LOD of 0.06 ng mL(-1), while DPV shows a linear range of 10 pg mL(-1)-10 ng mL(-1) with a LOD of 8 pg mL(-1). Moreover, we set up a platform for the real-time in vivo monitoring of β-Gal gene expressions in E. coli cultivated through microbiological culture. The developed sensing platform using 4-MPGal as a substrate is simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and advantageous over its laborious optical analogues.

  18. Metagenomic approach for the isolation of a thermostable β-galactosidase with high tolerance of galactose and glucose from soil samples of Turpan Basin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background β-Galactosidases can be used to produce low-lactose milk and dairy products for lactose intolerant people. Although commercial β-galactosidases have outstanding lactose hydrolysis ability, their thermostability is low, and reaction products have strong inhibition to these enzymes. In addition, the β-galactosidases possessing simultaneously high thermostability and tolerance of galactose and glucose are still seldom reported until now. Therefore, identification of novel β-galactosidases with high thermostability and tolerance to reaction products from unculturable microorganisms accounting for over 99% of microorganisms in the environment via metagenomic strategy is still urgently in demand. Results In the present study, a novel β-galactosidase (Gal308) consisting of 658 amino acids was identified from a metagenomic library from soil samples of Turpan Basin in China by functional screening. After being overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity, the enzymatic properties of Gal308 with N-terminal fusion tag were investigated. The recombinant enzyme displayed a pH optimum of 6.8 and a temperature optimum of 78°C, and was considerably stable in the temperature range of 40°C - 70°C with almost unchangeable activity after incubation for 60 min. Furthermore, Gal308 displayed a very high tolerance of galactose and glucose, with the highest inhibition constant Ki,gal (238 mM) and Ki,glu (1725 mM) among β-galactosidases. In addition, Gal308 also exhibited high enzymatic activity for its synthetic substrate o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG, 185 U/mg) and natural substrate lactose (47.6 U/mg). Conclusion This study will enrich the source of β-galactosidases, and attract some attentions to β-galactosidases from extreme habitats and metagenomic library. Furthermore, the recombinant Gal308 fused with 156 amino acids exhibits many novel properties including high activity and thermostability at high temperatures, the pH optimum

  19. Two β-Galactosidases from the Human Isolate Bifidobacterium breve DSM 20213: Molecular Cloning and Expression, Biochemical Characterization and Synthesis of Galacto-Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Suljic, Jasmina; Kittl, Roman; Pham, Ngoc Hung; Kosma, Paul; Haltrich, Dietmar; Nguyen, Thu-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Two β-galactosidases, β-gal I and β-gal II, from Bifidobacterium breve DSM 20213, which was isolated from the intestine of an infant, were overexpressed in Escherichia coli with co-expression of the chaperones GroEL/GroES, purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and biochemically characterized. Both β-gal I and β-gal II belong to glycoside hydrolase family 2 and are homodimers with native molecular masses of 220 and 211 kDa, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for hydrolysis of the two substrates o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (oNPG) and lactose were determined at pH 7.0 and 50°C for β-gal I, and at pH 6.5 and 55°C for β-gal II, respectively. The kcat/Km values for oNPG and lactose hydrolysis are 722 and 7.4 mM−1s−1 for β-gal I, and 543 and 25 mM−1s−1 for β-gal II. Both β-gal I and β-gal II are only moderately inhibited by their reaction products D-galactose and D-glucose. Both enzymes were found to be very well suited for the production of galacto-oligosaccharides with total GOS yields of 33% and 44% of total sugars obtained with β-gal I and β-gal II, respectively. The predominant transgalactosylation products are β-D-Galp-(1→6)-D-Glc (allolactose) and β-D-Galp-(1→3)-D-Lac, accounting together for more than 75% and 65% of the GOS formed by transgalactosylation by β-gal I and β-gal II, respectively, indicating that both enzymes have a propensity to synthesize β-(1→6) and β-(1→3)-linked GOS. The resulting GOS mixtures contained relatively high fractions of allolactose, which results from the fact that glucose is a far better acceptor for galactosyl transfer than galactose and lactose, and intramolecular transgalactosylation contributes significantly to the formation of this disaccharide. PMID:25089712

  20. Development of selective and differential medium for Shigella sonnei using three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and X-Gal.

    PubMed

    Na, G N; Kim, S A; Kwon, O C; Rhee, M S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new selective and differential medium for isolating Shigella sonnei (designated 3SD medium). The new medium was based on three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and a chromogenic substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, X-Gal). S. sonnei cannot ferment lactose, sorbitol, or xylose, but can ferment X-Gal, which generates turquoise-blue colonies with rough edges. Other bacteria (54 strains of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria) produced visually distinct colonies on 3SD medium (colorless or pink-violet colonies), or their growth was inhibited on 3SD medium. The optimum concentration of 50 mg/L X-Gal was selected because it yielded the highest level of morphological discrimination between S. sonnei and other bacteria, and this concentration was cost-effective. Bile salt concentration optimization was performed using healthy, heat-injured, and acid-injured S. sonnei. The recovery rate differed significantly depending on the bile salt concentration; media containing >1.0 g/L bile salt showed significantly lower recovery of stress-injured cells than medium containing 0.5 g/L bile salt (P<0.05). Growth of all Gram-positive bacteria was inhibited on medium containing 0.5 g/L bile salt; therefore, this concentration was used as the optimal concentration. Previous media used to isolate Shigella spp. (MacConkey, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Salmonella-Shigella agar) showed poor performance when used to support the growth of injured S. sonnei cells, whereas 3SD medium supported a high growth rate of injured and healthy cells (equivalent to that obtained with nutrient-rich tryptic soy agar). To validate the performance of 3SD medium with real specimens, S. sonnei and other bacteria were spiked into samples such as untreated water, carrot, salad, and oyster. 3SD medium showed superior specificity (100%) and sensitivity (100%) for S. sonnei, and yielded no false-positive or false-negative results

  1. Role of the ganSPQAB Operon in Degradation of Galactan by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Watzlawick, Hildegard; Morabbi Heravi, Kambiz; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2016-10-15

    Bacillus subtilis possesses different enzymes for the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides. This includes a gene cluster containing galactan degradation genes (ganA and ganB), two transporter component genes (ganQ and ganP), and the sugar-binding lipoprotein-encoding gene ganS (previously known as cycB). These genes form an operon that is regulated by GanR. The degradation of galactan by B. subtilis begins with the activity of extracellular GanB. GanB is an endo-β-1,4-galactanase and is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 53. This enzyme was active on high-molecular-weight arabinose-free galactan and mainly produced galactotetraose as well as galactotriose and galactobiose. These galacto-oligosaccharides may enter the cell via the GanQP transmembrane proteins of the galactan ABC transporter. The specificity of the galactan ABC transporter depends on the sugar-binding lipoprotein, GanS. Purified GanS was shown to bind galactotetraose and galactotriose using thermal shift assay. The energy for this transport is provided by MsmX, an ATP-binding protein. The transported galacto-oligosaccharides are further degraded by GanA. GanA is a β-galactosidase that belongs to GH family 42. The GanA enzyme was able to hydrolyze short-chain β-1,4-galacto-oligosaccharides as well as synthetic β-galactopyranosides into galactose. Thermal shift assay as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that galactobiose is the inducer of the galactan operon regulated by GanR. DNase I footprinting revealed that the GanR protein binds to an operator overlapping the -35 box of the σ(A)-type promoter of Pgan, which is located upstream of ganS IMPORTANCE: Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that utilizes different types of carbohydrates, such as pectin, as carbon sources. So far, most of the pectin degradation systems and enzymes have been thoroughly studied in B. subtilis Nevertheless, the B. subtilis utilization system of galactan, which is

  2. A biosensor platform for rapid detection of E. coli in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hesari, Nikou; Alum, Absar; Elzein, Mohamad; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2016-02-01

    There remains a need for rapid, specific and sensitive assays for the detection of bacterial indicators for water quality monitoring. In this study, a strategy for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water has been developed. This strategy is based on the use of the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide (MUG), which is hydrolyzed rapidly by the action of E. coli β-d-glucuronidase (GUD) enzyme to yield a fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) product that can be quantified and related to the number of E. coli cells present in water samples. In this study, the detection time required for the biosensor response ranged between 20 and 120 min, depending on the number of bacteria in the sample. This approach does not need extensive sample processing with a rapid detection capability. The specificity of the MUG substrate was examined in both, pure cultures of non-target bacterial genera such as Klebsiella, Salmonella, Enterobacter and Bacillus. Non-target substrates that included 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (MUGal) and l-leucine β-naphthylamide aminopeptidase (LLβ-N) were also investigated to identify nonspecific patterns of enzymatic activities in E. coli. GUD activity was found to be specific for E. coli and no further enzymatic activity was detected by other species. In addition, fluorescence assays were performed for the detection of E. coli to generate standard curves; and the sensitivity of the GUD enzymatic response was measured and repeatedly determined to be less than 10 E. coli cells in a reaction vial. The applicability of the method was tested by performing multiple fluorescence assays under pure and mixed bacterial flora in environmental samples. The results of this study showed that the fluorescence signals generated in samples using specific substrate molecules can be utilized to develop a bio-sensing platform for the detection of E. coli in drinking water. Furthermore, this system can be applied independently or

  3. Plant signal molecules activate the syrB gene, which is required for syringomycin production by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Y Y; Gross, D C

    1991-01-01

    The syrB gene is required for syringomycin production by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and full virulence during plant pathogenesis. Strain B3AR132 containing a syrB::lacZ fusion was used to detect transcriptional activation of the syrB gene in syringomycin minimal medium by plant metabolites with signal activity. Among 34 plant phenolic compounds tested, arbutin, phenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and salicin were shown to be strong inducers of syrB, giving rise to approximately 1,200 U of beta-galactosidase activity at 100 microM; esculin and helicin were moderate inducers, with about 250 to 400 U of beta-galactosidase activity at 100 microM. Acetosyringone and flavonoids that serve as signal molecules in Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species, respectively, did not induce the syrB::lacZ fusion. All syrB inducers were phenolic glucosides and none of the aglucone derivatives were active, suggesting that the beta-glycosidic linkage was necessary for signal activity. Phenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside containing galactose substituted for glucose in the beta-glycosidic linkage also lacked inducer activity. Phenolic signal activity was enhanced two- to fivefold by specific sugars common to plant tissues, including D-fructose, D-mannose, and sucrose. The effect of sugars on syrB induction was most noticeable at low concentrations of phenolic glucoside (i.e., 1 to 10 microM), indicating that sugars such as D-fructose increase the sensitivity of P. syringae pv. syringae to the phenolic plant signal. Besides induction of syrB, syringomycin biosynthesis by parental strain B3A-R was induced to yield over 250 U of toxin by the additions of arbutin and D-fructose to syringomycin minimal medium. These data indicate that syringomycin production by most strains of P. syringae pv. syringae is modulated by the perception of two classes of plant signal molecules and transduced to the transcriptional apparatus of syringomycin (syr) genes such as syrB. PMID:1885550

  4. Design of a coil satellite centrifuge and its performance on counter-current chromatographic separation of 4-methylumbelliferyl sugar derivatives with polar organic-aqueous two-phase solvent systems.

    PubMed

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Tokura, Koji; Kimura, Emiru; Takai, Midori; Harikai, Naoki; Yoshida, Kazunori; Yanagidaira, Kazuhiro; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-05-01

    A new high-speed counter-current chromatograph, named coil satellite centrifuge (CSC), was designed and fabricated in our laboratory. The CSC apparatus produces the satellite motion such that the coiled column simultaneously rotates around the sun axis (the angular velocity, ω1), the planet axis (ω2) and the satellite axis (the central axis of the column) (ω3). In order to achieve this triplicate rotary motion without twisting of the flow tube, the rotation of each axis was determined by the following formula: ω1=ω2+ω3. This relation enabled to lay out the flow tube without twisting by the simultaneous rotation of three axes. The flow tube was introduced from the bottom side of the apparatus into the sun axis of the first rotary frame reaching the upper side of the planet axis and connected to the column in the satellite axis. The performance of the apparatus was examined on separation of 4-methylumbelliferyl (MU) sugar derivatives as test samples with organic-aqueous two-phase solvent systems composed of ethyl acetate/1-butanol/water (3:2:5, v/v) for lower phase mobile and (1:4:5, v/v) for upper phase mobile. With lower phase mobile, five 4-MU sugar derivatives including β-D-cellobioside (Cel), β-D-glucopyranoside, α-D-mannopyranoside, β-D-fucopyranoside and α-L-fucopyranoside (α-L-Fuc) were separated with the combined rotation around each axis at counterclockwise (CCW) (ω1) - CCW (ω2) - CCW (ω3) by the flow tube distribution. With upper phase mobile, three 4-MU sugar derivatives including α-L-Fuc, β-D-galactopyranoside and Cel were separated with the combined rotation around each axis at clockwise (CW) (ω1) - CW (ω2) - CW (ω3) by the flow tube distribution. A series of experiments on peak resolution and stationary phase retention revealed that better partition efficiencies were obtained at the flow rate of 0.5 mL/min (column 1) and 0.8 mL/min (column 2) for lower phase mobile and 0.2 mL/min (column 1) and 0.4 mL/min (column 2) for upper phase

  5. Development of selective and differential medium for Shigella sonnei using three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and X-Gal.

    PubMed

    Na, G N; Kim, S A; Kwon, O C; Rhee, M S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new selective and differential medium for isolating Shigella sonnei (designated 3SD medium). The new medium was based on three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and a chromogenic substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, X-Gal). S. sonnei cannot ferment lactose, sorbitol, or xylose, but can ferment X-Gal, which generates turquoise-blue colonies with rough edges. Other bacteria (54 strains of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria) produced visually distinct colonies on 3SD medium (colorless or pink-violet colonies), or their growth was inhibited on 3SD medium. The optimum concentration of 50 mg/L X-Gal was selected because it yielded the highest level of morphological discrimination between S. sonnei and other bacteria, and this concentration was cost-effective. Bile salt concentration optimization was performed using healthy, heat-injured, and acid-injured S. sonnei. The recovery rate differed significantly depending on the bile salt concentration; media containing >1.0 g/L bile salt showed significantly lower recovery of stress-injured cells than medium containing 0.5 g/L bile salt (P<0.05). Growth of all Gram-positive bacteria was inhibited on medium containing 0.5 g/L bile salt; therefore, this concentration was used as the optimal concentration. Previous media used to isolate Shigella spp. (MacConkey, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Salmonella-Shigella agar) showed poor performance when used to support the growth of injured S. sonnei cells, whereas 3SD medium supported a high growth rate of injured and healthy cells (equivalent to that obtained with nutrient-rich tryptic soy agar). To validate the performance of 3SD medium with real specimens, S. sonnei and other bacteria were spiked into samples such as untreated water, carrot, salad, and oyster. 3SD medium showed superior specificity (100%) and sensitivity (100%) for S. sonnei, and yielded no false-positive or false-negative results

  6. New Isorhamnetin Derivatives from Salsola imbricata Forssk. Leaves with Distinct Anti-inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Samir M.; El Kashak, Walaa A.; Wink, Michael; El Raey, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Salsola imbricata Forssk. is a shrub widely growing in Egypt, used as a camel food, traditionally, used as anti-inflammatory agent. Literature survey showed no report about the anti-inflammatory activity of S. imbricata. Aim of the Study: This work was designed to study the phenolic constituents and to provide evidence for the traditional use of S. imbricata as an anti-inflammatory agent. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the total aqueous methanol extract and some isolated compounds were investigated in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells using nitric oxide assay. All chemical structures were identified on the basis of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimension nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: Nine phenolic compounds, among them two new natural products; isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronyl (1’’’→4’’) glucuronide (1) and its dimethyl ester; isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-di glucuronate dimethyl ester (2), two isorhamnetin glycosides: Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), and isorhamnetin (5). In addition, an alkaloidal phenolic; trans N-feruloyl tyramine (6), three phenolic acids: Isovanillic acid (7), ferulic acid (8), and p-hydroxy benzoic acid (9) were isolated from salsola imbricata leaves. All compounds were isolated and identified for the first time from this plant except compound (6). The extract and the tested compounds showed distintict anti-inflammatory activities with no toxicity on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Conclusion: The extract and the tested compounds showed distintict anti-inflammatory activities with no toxicity on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. SUMMARY Investigation of the chemical constituents of the leaves of Salsola imbricata led to isolation of two new isorhamnetin derivatives: isorhamnetin.3-O-β-D.glucuronyl (1’“→”) glucuronide (1) and its dimethyl ester (2), together with seven known phenolic compounds. The extract and the

  7. From Vibrational Spectroscopy to Force Fields and Structures of Saccharides: New Computational Algorithms and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pincu, Madeleine; Gerber, Robert Benny

    2013-07-17

    This work was undertaken with the main objective to investigate basic reactions that take place in relatively simple saccharides (mono-saccharides and cellobiose - the building block of cellulose) , in isolation and in cluster with few water molecules or with (gas-phase) clusters of few waters and ionic compounds (salt, isolated ions like H{sup +} or OH{sup -}). Within the context of this work, different potentials were investigated; among them, were the PM3 semi empirical potential, DFT/BLYP and a new hybrid potential constructed from MP2 for the harmonic part and from adjusted Hartree-Fock anharmonic interactions (VSCF-PT2). These potentials were evaluated by comparison with experimental data from published sources and from several collaborating groups. The findings show excellent agreement between experiments and predictions with the hybrid VSCF-PT2 potential and very good agreement with predictions obtained from dynamics with dispersion corrected DFT/BLYP potential. Investigation of hydration of cellobiose, was another topic of interest. Guided by a hydration motif demonstrated by our experimental collaborators (team of Prof J.P. Simons), we demonstrated large energetic and structural differences between the two species of cellobiose: cis and trans. The later, which is dominant in solid and liquid phases, is higher in energy in the gas-phase and compared to pure water, it does not disturb as much the network of H bonds. In contrast, the cis species exhibits asymmetric hydration in cluster with up to 25 waters, indicating that it has surfactant properties. Another highlight of this research effort was the successful first time spectrometric and spectroscopic study of a gas-phase protonated sugar derivative (alpha-D-Galactopyranoside) and its interpretation by Ab Initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. The findings demonstrate the formation of a motif in which a proton bridges between two Oxygen atoms (belonging to OH groups) at the sugar; The vibrational

  8. Trabulsiella guamensis, a new genus and species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that resembles Salmonella subgroups 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    McWhorter, A C; Haddock, R L; Nocon, F A; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Aleksić, S; Bockemühl, J; Farmer, J J

    1991-07-01

    In 1985 the vernacular name Enteric Group 90 was coined for a small group of strains that had been referred to our laboratory as probable strains of Salmonella but did not agglutinate in Salmonella typing antisera. By DNA-DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method, 32P), seven strains of Enteric Group 90 were found to be closely related (98 to 100% at 60 degrees C and 94 to 100% at 75 degrees C) to the first strain received (0370-85). The relatedness of Enteric Group 90 to 62 strains of other species of the family Enterobacteriaceae was only 6 to 41%, with the highest values obtained with strains of Salmonella, Kluyvera, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter. We propose a new genus, Trabulsiella, with a single new species, Trabulsiella guamensis, for the highly related group of eight strains formerly known as Enteric Group 90. The type strain is designated ATCC 49490 (CDC 0370-85). T. guamensis strains grew well at 36 degrees C and had positive reactions in the following tests: methyl red, citrate utilization (Simmons) (38% positive at day 1, 88% positive at 2 days), H2S production, lysine decarboxylase, arginine dihydrolase (50% positive at 2 days, 100% positive at 7 days), ornithine decarboxylase, motility, growth in KCN medium, mucate fermentation, acetate utilization, nitrate reduction to nitrite, weak tyrosine hydrolysis (88% positive at 2 days, 100% positive at 7 days), and ONPG (o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside) test. The strains fermented D-glucose with gas production and fermented L-arabinose, cellobiose, D-galactose, D-galacturonate, maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, L-rhamnose, D-sorbitol, trehalose, and D-xylose. T. guamensis strains had negative reactions in the following tests: indole production (13% positive), Voges-Proskauer, urea hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, malonate utilization, lipase (corn oil), DNase, oxidase, pigment production, and acid production from adonitol, D-arabitol, dulcitol, erythritol, myo-inositol, melibiose

  9. Structure-specificity relationships in Abp, a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6.

    PubMed

    Lansky, Shifra; Salama, Rachel; Solomon, Hodaya V; Feinberg, Hadar; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

    2014-11-01

    L-Arabinose sugar residues are relatively abundant in plants and are found mainly in arabinan polysaccharides and in other arabinose-containing polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectic arabinogalactans. The majority of the arabinose units in plants are present in the furanose form and only a small fraction of them are present in the pyranose form. The L-arabinan-utilization system in Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6, a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium, has recently been characterized, and one of the key enzymes was found to be an intracellular β-L-arabinopyranosidase (Abp). Abp, a GH27 enzyme, was shown to remove β-L-arabinopyranose residues from synthetic substrates and from the native substrates sugar beet arabinan and larch arabinogalactan. The Abp monomer is made up of 448 amino acids, and based on sequence homology it was suggested that Asp197 is the catalytic nucleophile and Asp255 is the catalytic acid/base. In the current study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of wild-type Abp (at 2.28 Å resolution) and its catalytic mutant Abp-D197A with (at 2.20 Å resolution) and without (at 2.30 Å resolution) a bound L-arabinose product are reported as determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures demonstrate that the three-dimensional structure of the Abp monomer correlates with the general fold observed for GH27 proteins, consisting of two main domains: an N-terminal TIM-barrel domain and a C-terminal all-β domain. The two catalytic residues are located in the TIM-barrel domain, such that their carboxylic functional groups are about 5.9 Å from each other, consistent with a retaining mechanism. An isoleucine residue (Ile67) located at a key position in the active site is shown to play a critical role in the substrate specificity of Abp, providing a structural basis for the high preference of the enzyme towards arabinopyranoside over galactopyranoside substrates. The crystal structure demonstrates that Abp is a tetramer

  10. Screening Mixtures of Small Molecules for Binding to Multiple Sites on the Surface Tetanus Toxin C Fragment by Bioaffinity NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Cosman, M; Zeller, L; Lightstone, F C; Krishnan, V V; Balhorn, R

    2002-01-01

    also contains 3-sialyllactose (another predicted site 1 binder) and bisbenzimide 33342 (non-binder). A series of five predicted Site-2 binders were then screened sequentially in the presence of the Site-1 binder doxorubicin. These experiments showed that the compounds lavendustin A and naphthofluorescein-di-({beta}-D-galactopyranoside) binds along with doxorubicin to TetC. Further experiments indicate that doxorubicin and lavendustin are potential candidates to use in preparing a bidendate inhibitor specific for TetC. The simultaneous binding of two different predicted Site-2 ligands to TetC suggests that they may bind multiple sites. Another possibility is that the conformations of the binding sites are dynamic and can bind multiple diverse ligands at a single site depending on the pre-existing conformation of the protein, especially when doxorubicin is already bound.

  11. Trabulsiella guamensis, a new genus and species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that resembles Salmonella subgroups 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    McWhorter, A C; Haddock, R L; Nocon, F A; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Aleksić, S; Bockemühl, J; Farmer, J J

    1991-07-01

    In 1985 the vernacular name Enteric Group 90 was coined for a small group of strains that had been referred to our laboratory as probable strains of Salmonella but did not agglutinate in Salmonella typing antisera. By DNA-DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method, 32P), seven strains of Enteric Group 90 were found to be closely related (98 to 100% at 60 degrees C and 94 to 100% at 75 degrees C) to the first strain received (0370-85). The relatedness of Enteric Group 90 to 62 strains of other species of the family Enterobacteriaceae was only 6 to 41%, with the highest values obtained with strains of Salmonella, Kluyvera, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter. We propose a new genus, Trabulsiella, with a single new species, Trabulsiella guamensis, for the highly related group of eight strains formerly known as Enteric Group 90. The type strain is designated ATCC 49490 (CDC 0370-85). T. guamensis strains grew well at 36 degrees C and had positive reactions in the following tests: methyl red, citrate utilization (Simmons) (38% positive at day 1, 88% positive at 2 days), H2S production, lysine decarboxylase, arginine dihydrolase (50% positive at 2 days, 100% positive at 7 days), ornithine decarboxylase, motility, growth in KCN medium, mucate fermentation, acetate utilization, nitrate reduction to nitrite, weak tyrosine hydrolysis (88% positive at 2 days, 100% positive at 7 days), and ONPG (o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside) test. The strains fermented D-glucose with gas production and fermented L-arabinose, cellobiose, D-galactose, D-galacturonate, maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, L-rhamnose, D-sorbitol, trehalose, and D-xylose. T. guamensis strains had negative reactions in the following tests: indole production (13% positive), Voges-Proskauer, urea hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, malonate utilization, lipase (corn oil), DNase, oxidase, pigment production, and acid production from adonitol, D-arabitol, dulcitol, erythritol, myo-inositol, melibiose

  12. Structure-specificity relationships in Abp, a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6.

    PubMed

    Lansky, Shifra; Salama, Rachel; Solomon, Hodaya V; Feinberg, Hadar; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

    2014-11-01

    L-Arabinose sugar residues are relatively abundant in plants and are found mainly in arabinan polysaccharides and in other arabinose-containing polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectic arabinogalactans. The majority of the arabinose units in plants are present in the furanose form and only a small fraction of them are present in the pyranose form. The L-arabinan-utilization system in Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6, a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium, has recently been characterized, and one of the key enzymes was found to be an intracellular β-L-arabinopyranosidase (Abp). Abp, a GH27 enzyme, was shown to remove β-L-arabinopyranose residues from synthetic substrates and from the native substrates sugar beet arabinan and larch arabinogalactan. The Abp monomer is made up of 448 amino acids, and based on sequence homology it was suggested that Asp197 is the catalytic nucleophile and Asp255 is the catalytic acid/base. In the current study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of wild-type Abp (at 2.28 Å resolution) and its catalytic mutant Abp-D197A with (at 2.20 Å resolution) and without (at 2.30 Å resolution) a bound L-arabinose product are reported as determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures demonstrate that the three-dimensional structure of the Abp monomer correlates with the general fold observed for GH27 proteins, consisting of two main domains: an N-terminal TIM-barrel domain and a C-terminal all-β domain. The two catalytic residues are located in the TIM-barrel domain, such that their carboxylic functional groups are about 5.9 Å from each other, consistent with a retaining mechanism. An isoleucine residue (Ile67) located at a key position in the active site is shown to play a critical role in the substrate specificity of Abp, providing a structural basis for the high preference of the enzyme towards arabinopyranoside over galactopyranoside substrates. The crystal structure demonstrates that Abp is a tetramer