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Sample records for 131i-whole body scan

  1. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99mTc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  2. Utility of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. (18)F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. (18)F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease.

  3. Correlation of 18F-FDG PET/CT findings with histopathological results in differentiated thyroid cancer patients who have increased thyroglobulin or antithyroglobulin antibody levels and negative 131I whole-body scan results.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Elgin; Aras, Gulseren; Kucuk, N Ozlem

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation of 18F-FDG PET/CT findings with histopathological results in defining the recurrence of the disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who have increased thyroglobuline (Tg) or anti-Tg antibody (TgAb) levels and negative 131I whole-body scan (WBS) result. A total of 59 patients with DTC (44 women, 15 men; mean [SD] age, 48.2 [22.6] years) were included in the study. All of the patients had previous papillary thyroid cancer, and all of them had undergone radioiodine ablation after a total or near-total thyroidectomy. After radioiodine ablation, patients were followed up for approximately 2.5 years. In the follow-up, the patients with negative 131I-WBS results and increased Tg or TgAb levels under thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated conditions underwent an 18F-FDG PET/CT scan to determine any recurrence of disease. There were negative or uncertain findings in the neck ultrasonography and/or thorax CT in most of the patients. The 18F-FDG PET/CT findings were compared with the histopathological results in all patients. Although 49 patients had increased Tg levels, the remaining 10 patients had increased TgAb levels. In patients with high Tg levels, 18F-FDG PET/CT scan results were negative in 10 and positive in 39 patients. In this patient group, 18F-FDG PET/CT findings were true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative in 32, 3, 7, and 7 patients, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT in this group were calculated as 82%, 30%, 80%, 30%, and 71%, separately. In the receiver operating characteristic analysis, a 4.5 cutoff SUV(max) was calculated with 75% sensitivity and 70% specificity for predicting disease recurrence. Cutoff Tg level was calculated as 20.7 ng/mL with 75% sensitivity and 55% specificity. In 10 patients with high TgAb levels, 18F-FDG PET/CT was true positive, true negative and

  4. Prognostic significance of FDG PET/CT on the follow-up of patients of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with negative 131I whole-body scan and elevated thyroglobulin levels: correlation with clinical and histopathologic characteristics and long-term follow-up data.

    PubMed

    Vural, Gulin Ucmak; Akkas, Burcu Esen; Ercakmak, Nur; Basu, Sandip; Alavi, Abass

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed (a) to determine the clinical and histopathologic factors that are related to FDG avidity in the recurrence/metastases of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) who present with elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and negative 131I whole-body scans (WBSs), (b) to clarify Tg cutoff levels in this setting, and (c) to evaluate the impact of PET/CT on patient management strategies and hence to critically look into the importance of PET/CT in combination with Tg in clinical decision making. A total of 105 patients with DTC with negative 131I WBS and neck ultrasound but elevated Tg, who underwent FDG PET/CT for the suspicion of recurrent/metastatic disease, were included in this analysis. All patients had previously undergone total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation/therapy. PET/CT results were correlated with Tg levels and clinical and histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor compared with the follow-up data. PET/CT was true-positive in 69 patients (of which 23 had surgically amenable disease), true-negative in 20, false-positive in 6 patients and false-negative in 10 patients. Extrathyroidal spread was an independent risk factor related to FDG-avid recurrence. Tumor size was significantly higher in PET-positive patients than others, 2.25 (1.8) versus 1.5 (1.1) cm, P = 0.02. Significant correlation was observed between PET positivity and high Tg levels (P = 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated a Tg cutoff of 1.9 ng/mL under thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression, 38.2 ng/mL with thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation. Among PET-negative patients, no recurrence was detected in patients with undetectable/suppressible Tg in on-therapy state. PET positivity correlated with extrathyroidal spread, and elevated Tg in recurrent/metastatic DTC. FDG PET/CT in combination with Tg levels was crucial in defining management strategies in patients with DTC with negative 131I WBS. A negative FDG PET

  5. Radioiodine Accumulation in a Giant Ovarian Cystadenofibroma Detected Incidentally by 131-I Whole Body Scans

    PubMed Central

    Mebarki, Mohammed; Menemani, Abdelghani; Medjahedi, Abdelkader; Boualou, Fouad; Slama, Abdelhak; Ouguirti, Sarah; Kherbouche, Fatima Zahra; Berber, Nécib

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cystadenofibroma is a relatively rare tumor; it is usually asymptomatic and is found incidentally. We present the case of a 24-year-old female patient, who had undergone total thyroidectomy for thyroid papillary carcinoma, with an asymptomatic giant cystadenofibroma, incidentally discovered by diagnostic 131I-SPECT/CT WBSs. We summarize the clinical history, imaging data, and histopathological study on a rare case of radioiodine accumulation in cystadenofibroma, and we discuss the mechanism of uptake of radioiodine in this case. PMID:23119215

  6. Determination of Percent Body Fat Using 3D Whole Body Laser Scanning: A Preliminary Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    circumferences, 3D whole body laser scans and DEXA scans were performed on fifty-one men and women age 18-62. Mean percent body fat was not statistically...3D whole body laser scan , and DEXA scan to measure individuals during a one hour measurement session. 1 Report Documentation Page Form...underwent a 6 minute whole body DEXA scan using a GE Lunar Prodigy DEXA scanner running software version 7.53. Percent body fat was calculated from the

  7. Position determination systems. [using orbital antenna scan of celestial bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shores, P. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A system for an orbital antenna, operated at a synchronous altitude, to scan an area of a celestial body is disclosed. The antenna means comprises modules which are operated by a steering signal in a repetitive function for providing a scanning beam over the area. The scanning covers the entire area in a pattern and the azimuth of the scanning beam is transmitted to a control station on the celestial body simultaneous with signals from an activated ground beacon on the celestial body. The azimuth of the control station relative to the antenna is known and the location of the ground beacon is readily determined from the azimuth determinations.

  8. Scan posture definition and hip girth measurement: the impact on clothing design and body scanning.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simeon; Parker, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Ergonomic measurement is central to product design and development; especially for body worn products and clothing. However, there is a large variation in measurement definitions, complicated by new body scanning technology that captures measurements in a posture different to traditional manual methods. Investigations of hip measurement definitions in current clothing measurement practices supports analysis of the effect of scan posture and hip measurement definition on the circumferences of the hip. Here, the hip girth is a key clothing measurement that is not defined in current body scanning measurement standards. Sixty-four participants were scanned in the standard scan posture of a [TC](2) body scanner, and also in a natural posture similar to that of traditional manual measurement collection. Results indicate that scan posture affects hip girth circumferences, and that some current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. Recommendations are made concerning how the hip is defined in measurement practice and within body scanning for clothing product development. Practitioner Summary: The hip girth is an important measurement in garment design, yet its measurement protocol is not currently defined. We demonstrate that body posture during body scanning affects hip circumferences, and that current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. This paper also provides future measurement practice recommendations.

  9. Full-Body CT Scans - What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging Full-Body CT Scans - ... cancer, cardiac disease, and other abnormalities, clinics and medical imaging facilities nationwide are touting a new service for ...

  10. DatSCAN In Differential Diagnostics of Lewy Body Disease.

    PubMed

    Luzny, Jan; Ivanova, Katerina

    2016-06-01

    Differential diagnosis between Lewy body disease and Alzheimer´s disease might be difficult because of similarities of clinical symptoms in both neurodegenerative diseases. DatSCAN is a modern functional neuroimmaging method which differentiates between this similar diseases and helps in correct treatment strategy. We report our positive experience with DatSCAN in differentiating Lewy body disease from Alzheimer´s disease. This is a case report of a woman with Lewy body disease, initially diagnosed as Alzheimer´s disease. DatSCAN neuroimmaging method was used in differential diagnosis of dementia. Memory impairment, impaired activities of daily living, sleep and behavioral disturbances were present in our case. Donepezil was well tolerated, but haloperidol administration was followed by development of severe dystonia. DatSCAN showed deficient dopaminergic presynaptic transport in substantia nigra and striatum. This finding is typical for Lewy body disease not for Alzheimer´s disease. DatSCAN neuroimmaging is a suitable method for differentiating Lewy body disease from Alzheimer´s disease. Deficient dopaminergic presynaptic transport in substantia nigra and striatum is typical for Lewy body disease.

  11. Visual scanning of male and female bodies in infancy.

    PubMed

    White, Hannah; Hock, Alyson; Jubran, Rachel; Heck, Alison; Bhatt, Ramesh S

    2017-09-06

    This study addressed the development of attention to information that is socially relevant to adults by examining infants' (N=64) scanning patterns of male and female bodies. Infants exhibited systematic attention to regions associated with sex-related scanning by adults, with 3.5- and 6.5-month-olds looking longer at the torsos of females than of males and looking longer at the legs of males than of females. However, this pattern of looking was not found when infants were tested on headless bodies in Experiment 2, suggesting that infants' differential gaze pattern in Experiment 1 was not due to low-level stimulus features, such as clothing, and also indicating that facial/head information is necessary for infants to exhibit sex-specific scanning. We discuss implications for models of face and body knowledge development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 3D body scanning technology for fashion and apparel industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 3D body scanning technologies with applications to the fashion and apparel industry. Complete systems for the digitization of the human body exist since more than fifteen years. One of the main users of this technology with application in the textile field was the military industry. In fact, body scanning technology is being successfully employed since many years in military bases for a fast selection of the correct size of uniforms for the entire staff. Complete solutions were especially developed for this field of application. Many different research projects were issued for the exploitation of the same technology in the commercial field. Experiments were performed and start-up projects are to time running in different parts of the world by installing full body scanning systems in various locations such as shopping malls, boutiques or dedicated scanning centers. Everything is actually ready to be exploited and all the required hardware, software and solutions are available: full body scanning systems, software for the automatic and reliable extraction of body measurements, e-kiosk and web solutions for the presentation of garments, high-end and low-end virtual-try-on systems. However, complete solutions in this area have still not yet found the expected commercial success. Today, with the on-going large cost reduction given by the appearance of new competitors, methods for digitization of the human body becomes more interesting for the fashion and apparel industry. Therefore, a large expansion of these technologies is expected in the near future. To date, different methods are used commercially for the measurement of the human body. These can be divided into three major distinguished groups: laser-scanning, projection of light patterns, combination modeling and image processing. The different solutions have strengths and weaknesses that profile their suitability for specific applications. This paper gives an overview of their

  13. Assessment of body volume using three-dimensional photonic scanning.

    PubMed

    Wells, J C; Douros, I; Fuller, N J; Elia, M; Dekker, L

    2000-05-01

    Measurement of body volume (BV) can be used to estimate body composition using two- or multicomponent models. The traditional approach, underwater weighing (UWW), is awkward and unsuitable for many subjects. A newer alternative, whole body air displacement plethysmography (ADP), is less demanding but still unsuitable for young children, who may not remain still during the measurement. We have, therefore, considered whether a novel approach, three-dimensional photonic scanning, is a viable alternative. Duplicate measurements of body volume were obtained in 22 adults (11 of each sex; mean [SD] BMI, 21.8 [2.5] kg/m2) by UWW, ADP, and a Hamamatsu Bodyline Scanner (HBS) (Hamamatsu, Japan). Subjects wore a tight-fitting swimming costume for all three measurements, which were performed within one day of each other. Scans lasted 10 seconds, with the subject standing in a predefined position. The body surface skin was reconstructed using a B-spline-fitting model. In UWW, lung volume (LV) was measured simultaneously with underwater weight. In ADP and HBS, LV was predicted from weight and height. Results were compared using correlation and Bland and Altman analysis. Correlation analysis indicated that the scanner successfully ranked subjects in terms of BV. However, Bland and Altman analysis demonstrated that, relative to both UWW and ADP, HBS measured BV without bias but with limits of agreement between individuals of > 2 liters, equivalent to approximately 20% fat. Scan precision was 0.57 liter, or 4.1% fat. Although HBS cannot yet measure BV with sufficient accuracy to predict fatness, much of the error is probably due to difficulties in standardizing LV during the scan. Simultaneous measurement of LV with volume by HBS is expected to improve limits of agreement substantially. Occlusion is also an important source of error. The method offers many advantages over alternative techniques, because the measurement is brief, noninvasive, and suitable for repeat measurements.

  14. Brief guided imagery and body scanning interventions reduce food cravings.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jonathan; Fawson, Sophie; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David J

    2013-12-01

    Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory proposes that cravings occur when involuntary thoughts about food are elaborated; a key part of elaboration is affectively-charged imagery. Craving can be weakened by working memory tasks that block imagery. EI Theory predicts that cravings should also be reduced by preventing involuntary thoughts being elaborated in the first place. Research has found that imagery techniques such as body scanning and guided imagery can reduce the occurrence of food thoughts. This study tested the prediction that these techniques also reduce craving. We asked participants to abstain from food overnight, and then to carry out 10 min of body scanning, guided imagery, or a control mind wandering task. They rated their craving at 10 points during the task on a single item measure, and before and after the task using the Craving Experience Questionnaire. While craving rose during the task for the mind wandering group, neither the guided imagery nor body scanning group showed an increase. These effects were not detected by the CEQ, suggesting that they are only present during the competing task. As they require no devices or materials and are unobtrusive, brief guided imagery strategies might form useful components of weight loss programmes that attempt to address cravings.

  15. Scanning 3D full human bodies using Kinects.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Ligang; Pan, Zhigeng; Yan, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Depth camera such as Microsoft Kinect, is much cheaper than conventional 3D scanning devices, and thus it can be acquired for everyday users easily. However, the depth data captured by Kinect over a certain distance is of extreme low quality. In this paper, we present a novel scanning system for capturing 3D full human body models by using multiple Kinects. To avoid the interference phenomena, we use two Kinects to capture the upper part and lower part of a human body respectively without overlapping region. A third Kinect is used to capture the middle part of the human body from the opposite direction. We propose a practical approach for registering the various body parts of different views under non-rigid deformation. First, a rough mesh template is constructed and used to deform successive frames pairwisely. Second, global alignment is performed to distribute errors in the deformation space, which can solve the loop closure problem efficiently. Misalignment caused by complex occlusion can also be handled reasonably by our global alignment algorithm. The experimental results have shown the efficiency and applicability of our system. Our system obtains impressive results in a few minutes with low price devices, thus is practically useful for generating personalized avatars for everyday users. Our system has been used for 3D human animation and virtual try on, and can further facilitate a range of home–oriented virtual reality (VR) applications.

  16. Hologic QDR 2000 whole-body scans: a comparison of three combinations of scan modes and analysis software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, E.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.

    1995-01-01

    This study reports on the short-term in vivo precision and absolute measurements of three combinations of whole-body scan modes and analysis software using a Hologic QDR 2000 dual-energy X-ray densitometer. A group of 21 normal, healthy volunteers (11 male and 10 female) were scanned six times, receiving one pencil-beam and one array whole-body scan on three occasions approximately 1 week apart. The following combinations of scan modes and analysis software were used: pencil-beam scans analyzed with Hologic's standard whole-body software (PB scans); the same pencil-beam analyzed with Hologic's newer "enhanced" software (EPB scans); and array scans analyzed with the enhanced software (EA scans). Precision values (% coefficient of variation, %CV) were calculated for whole-body and regional bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass, lean mass, %fat and total mass. In general, there was no significant difference among the three scan types with respect to short-term precision of BMD and only slight differences in the precision of BMC. Precision of BMC and BMD for all three scan types was excellent: < 1% CV for whole-body values, with most regional values in the 1%-2% range. Pencil-beam scans demonstrated significantly better soft tissue precision than did array scans. Precision errors for whole-body lean mass were: 0.9% (PB), 1.1% (EPB) and 1.9% (EA). Precision errors for whole-body fat mass were: 1.7% (PB), 2.4% (EPB) and 5.6% (EA). EPB precision errors were slightly higher than PB precision errors for lean, fat and %fat measurements of all regions except the head, although these differences were significant only for the fat and % fat of the arms and legs. In addition EPB precision values exhibited greater individual variability than PB precision values. Finally, absolute values of bone and soft tissue were compared among the three combinations of scan and analysis modes. BMC, BMD, fat mass, %fat and lean mass were significantly different between

  17. Hologic QDR 2000 whole-body scans: a comparison of three combinations of scan modes and analysis software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, E.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.

    1995-01-01

    This study reports on the short-term in vivo precision and absolute measurements of three combinations of whole-body scan modes and analysis software using a Hologic QDR 2000 dual-energy X-ray densitometer. A group of 21 normal, healthy volunteers (11 male and 10 female) were scanned six times, receiving one pencil-beam and one array whole-body scan on three occasions approximately 1 week apart. The following combinations of scan modes and analysis software were used: pencil-beam scans analyzed with Hologic's standard whole-body software (PB scans); the same pencil-beam analyzed with Hologic's newer "enhanced" software (EPB scans); and array scans analyzed with the enhanced software (EA scans). Precision values (% coefficient of variation, %CV) were calculated for whole-body and regional bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass, lean mass, %fat and total mass. In general, there was no significant difference among the three scan types with respect to short-term precision of BMD and only slight differences in the precision of BMC. Precision of BMC and BMD for all three scan types was excellent: < 1% CV for whole-body values, with most regional values in the 1%-2% range. Pencil-beam scans demonstrated significantly better soft tissue precision than did array scans. Precision errors for whole-body lean mass were: 0.9% (PB), 1.1% (EPB) and 1.9% (EA). Precision errors for whole-body fat mass were: 1.7% (PB), 2.4% (EPB) and 5.6% (EA). EPB precision errors were slightly higher than PB precision errors for lean, fat and %fat measurements of all regions except the head, although these differences were significant only for the fat and % fat of the arms and legs. In addition EPB precision values exhibited greater individual variability than PB precision values. Finally, absolute values of bone and soft tissue were compared among the three combinations of scan and analysis modes. BMC, BMD, fat mass, %fat and lean mass were significantly different between

  18. Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addleman, Stephen R.

    1997-03-01

    With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

  19. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning: need for new formulae?

    PubMed

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik; Hougen, Hans Petter; Lynnerup, Niels; Hesse, Birger

    2017-03-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using Mimics software, and BSA values were automatically extracted from the program. They were compared with nine predictive equations from the literature. Remarkably, close correlations (r > 0·90) were found between BSA values from CT scans and those from the predictive formulae. A mean BSA of the 54 cadavers of 1·84-1·87 m(2) was calculated by all formulae except one, SD values varying between 0·171 and 0·223 m(2) . T-tests revealed significant differences between mean BSA values calculated with CT and three of the formulae. Regression analyses showed intercepts >(0;0) and slopes <1·0 using all predictive equations, with the CT scan determination as gold standard. It is concluded that DuBois and DuBois' equation can be safely used in normal-weight male subjects with high accuracy, but it seems likely that BSA is underestimated in underweight subjects and overestimated in overweight individuals. Creation of new formulae specific for overweight subjects and children may be needed.

  20. Sequential serum thyroglobulin determinations, /sup 131/I scans, and /sup 131/I uptakes after triiodothyronine withdrawal in patients with thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.B.; Line, B.R.; Goldman, J.M.; Robbins, J.

    1981-12-01

    To develop guidelines for the timing and interpretation of thyroglobulin (TG) measurements in patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer, we performed /sup 131/I whole body scans and uptakes with simultaneous serum TG and TSH determinations in 49 patients with this disease. In 15 patients, TG measurements were obtained initially while the patient was receiving T/sub 3/ therapy and then were repeated serially within a period of up to 35 days after T/sub 3/ withdrawal. In 9 patients with functioning thyroid tissue, the changes in TG paralleled the changes in TSH levels. Before stopping T/sub 3/, TG measurements were a poor indicator of function, since 14 of 15 patients had suppressed TG levels (<10 ng/ml). After 2 weeks off T/sub 3/, TG increased in all 5 patients with scan evidence of metastases, in 2 of 4 subjects with residual thyroid bed uptake, and in 2 of 6 patients with no uptake. In 23 patients, both the scan and serum TG measurements were performed 2 and 4 weeks after stopping T/sub 3/. At 4 weeks, compared to 2 weeks, TG levels were nearly the same in 17 (a change of <5 ng/ml and <50%), decreased in 1, and increased in 5 subjects. In 44 patients whose measurements were free of interference from anti-TG, 106 scans and serum TG determinations were performed after stopping thyroid hormone replacement. Scan evidence of metastases was always (22 scans) associated with high serum TG levels (>10 ng/ml), but high serum TG levels did not distinguish metastases from residual thyroid tissue. The serum TG level was greater than 10 ng/ml in 5 of 28 instances (18%) of negative scans, while scans were positive in 14 of 32 instances (44%) where TG levels were less than 2 ng/ml.

  1. Scanning the body, sequencing the genome: Dealing with unsolicited findings.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Roel H P; Cornelis, Candice; Newson, Ainsley J; Bunnik, Eline M; Bredenoord, Annelien L

    2017-10-04

    The introduction of novel diagnostic techniques in clinical domains such as genomics and radiology has led to a rich ethical debate on how to handle unsolicited findings that result from these innovations. Yet while unsolicited findings arise in both genomics and radiology, most of the relevant literature to date has tended to focus on only one of these domains. In this article, we synthesize and critically assess similarities and differences between "scanning the body" and "sequencing the genome" from an ethical perspective. After briefly describing the novel diagnostic contexts leading to unsolicited findings, we synthesize and reflect on six core ethical issues that relate to both specialties: terminology; benefits and risks; autonomy; disclosure of unsolicited findings to children; uncertainty; and filters and routine screening. We identify ethical rationales that pertain to both fields and may contribute to more ethically sound policies. Considerations of preserving public trust and ensuring that people perceive healthcare policies as fair also support the need for a combined debate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Apparatus for scanning the surface of a cylindrical body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakich, R. B.; Woodbury, R. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A laser scanning system for providing a two-dimensional display of a cylindrical surface, such as to display striae of a fired bullet is described. The cylinder is scanned along its axis by vibrating one mirror in the laser beam path, and is scanned in a direction normal to its axis by vibrating a second mirror in a direction normal to the first or by rotating the bullet. Scan control signals are adjusted in phase to produce a synchronized display of a video signal obtained from detection of scattered light from the surface thus scanned by a laser beam.

  3. Human body surface area: measurement and prediction using three dimensional body scans.

    PubMed

    Tikuisis, P; Meunier, P; Jubenville, C E

    2001-08-01

    The development of three dimensional laser scanning technology and sophisticated graphics editing software have allowed an alternative and potentially more accurate determination of body surface area (BSA). Raw whole-body scans of 641 adults (395 men and 246 women) were obtained from the anthropometric data base of the Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource project. Following surface restoration of the scans (i.e. patching and smoothing), BSA was calculated. A representative subset of the entire sample population involving 12 men and 12 women (G24) was selected for detailed measurements of hand surface area (SAhand) and ratios of surface area to volume (SA/VOL) of various body segments. Regression equations involving wrist circumference and arm length were used to predict SAhand of the remaining population. The overall [mean (SD)] of BSA were 2.03 (0.19) and 1.73 (0.19) m2 for men and women, respectively. Various prediction equations were tested and although most predicted the measured BSA reasonably closely, residual analysis revealed an overprediction with increasing body size in most cases. Separate non-linear regressions for each sex yielded the following best-fit equations (with root mean square errors of about 1.3%): BSA (cm2) = 128.1 x m0.44 x h0.60 for men and BSA = 147.4 x m0.47 x h0.55 for women, where m, body mass, is in kilograms and h, height, is in centimetres. The SA/VOL ratios of the various body segments were higher for the women compared to the men of G24, significantly for the head plus neck (by 7%), torso (19%), upper arms (15%), forearms (20%), hands (18%), and feet (11%). The SA/VOL for both sexes ranged from approximately 12.m-1 for the pelvic region to 104-123.m-1 for the hands, and shape differences were a factor for the torso and lower leg.

  4. An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs.

    PubMed

    Tanck, Esther; Deenen, J C W; Huisman, Henk Jan; Kooloos, Jan G; Huizenga, Henk; Verdonschot, Nico

    2010-01-21

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients.

  5. Development and Verification of Body Armor Target Geometry Created Using Computed Tomography Scans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-13

    ARL-MR-0957 ● JULY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Development and Verification of Body Armor Target Geometry Created Using...Army Research Laboratory Development and Verification of Body Armor Target Geometry Created Using Computed Tomography Scans by Autumn R Kulaga... Development and Verification of Body Armor Target Geometry Created Using Computed Tomography Scans 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  6. Detecting submerged bodies: controlled research using side-scan sonar to detect submerged proxy cadavers.

    PubMed

    Healy, Carrie A; Schultz, John J; Parker, Kenneth; Lowers, Bim

    2015-05-01

    Forensic investigators routinely deploy side-scan sonar for submerged body searches. This study adds to the limited body of literature by undertaking a controlled project to understand how variables affect detection of submerged bodies using side-scan sonar. Research consisted of two phases using small and medium-sized pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses as proxies for human bodies to investigate the effects of terrain, body size, frequency, swath width, and state of decomposition. Results demonstrated that a clear, flat, sandy pond floor terrain was optimal for detection of the target as irregular terrain and/or vegetation are major limitations that can obscure the target. A higher frequency towfish was preferred for small bodies, and a 20 m swath width allowed greater visibility and easier maneuverability of the boat in this environment. Also, the medium-sized carcasses were discernable throughout the 81-day study period, indicating that it is possible to detect bodies undergoing decomposition with side-scan sonar.

  7. Generating animated sequences from 3D whole-body scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pargas, Roy P.; Chhatriwala, Murtuza; Mulfinger, Daniel; Deshmukh, Pushkar; Vadhiyar, Sathish

    1999-03-01

    3D images of human subjects are, today, easily obtained using 3D wholebody scanners. 3D human images can provide static information about the physical characteristics of a person, information valuable to professionals such as clothing designers, anthropometrists, medical doctors, physical therapists, athletic trainers, and sculptors. Can 3D human images can be used to provide e more than static physical information. This research described in this paper attempts to answer the question by explaining a way that animated sequences may be generated from a single 3D scan. The process stars by subdividing the human image into segments and mapping the segments to those of a human model defined in a human-motion simulation package. The simulation software provides information used to display movement of the human image. Snapshots of the movement are captured and assembled to create an animated sequence. All of the postures and motion of the human images come from a single 3D scan. This paper describes the process involved in animating human figures from static 3D wholebody scans, presents an example of a generated animated sequence, and discusses possible applications of this approach.

  8. Body composition by DEXA in older adults: accuracy and influence of scan mode.

    PubMed

    Clasey, J L; Hartman, M L; Kanaley, J; Wideman, L; Teates, C D; Bouchard, C; Weltman, A

    1997-04-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measures bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), fat-free mass (FFM), and provides estimates of percent body fat. Changes in scan mode geometry (pencil beam vs array) may impact these measures and body composition estimates using multi-compartment models. Forty-one adults, ages 59-79 yr, were scanned in each mode and also underwent hydrostatic weighing and measurement of total body water (tritiated water dilution). The effect of scan mode on measurement of DEXA BMC, BMD, FFM, and percent body fat (DEXA %Fat) was examined. The effect of scan mode on percentage body fat determined by a 4-compartment body composition model (4 Comp %Fat) and comparison of DEXA %Fat and 4 Comp %Fat were also examined. BMC and DEXA %Fat were greater (1.3% and 3.9%, respectively, P < 0.01), and BMD and FFM were lower (1.1% and 1.9%, respectively, P < 0.01) with the array scan mode. The 4 Comp %Fat was significantly greater (0.2%) when the array scan mode measurements of total body bone mineral were used; however, these differences were physiologically inconsequential. Comparison between DEXA %Fat and 4 Comp %Fat measures revealed a total error of +/-5.0% in the older adults examined. These results indicate significant scan mode differences in total body BMC, BMD, FFM, and DEXA %Fat measurements and demonstrate the importance of using a single DEXA scan mode for clinical investigation, particularly with longitudinal studies. For all investigations with DEXA, the scan mode should be reported. Furthermore, the error associated with using DEXA alone to estimate percent fat in an older population suggests that this technique is unacceptable in a research setting.

  9. Techniques for undertaking dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry whole-body scans to estimate body composition in tall and/or broad subjects.

    PubMed

    Nana, Alisa; Slater, Gary J; Hopkins, Will G; Burke, Louise M

    2012-10-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is becoming a popular tool to measure body composition, owing to its ease of operation and comprehensive analysis. However, some people, especially athletes, are taller and/or broader than the active scanning area of the DXA bed and must be scanned in sections. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of DXA measures of whole-body composition summed from 2 or 3 partial scans. Physically active young adults (15 women, 15 men) underwent 1 whole-body and 4 partial DXA scans in a single testing session under standardized conditions. The partial scanning areas were head, whole body from the bottom of the chin down, and right and left sides of the body. Body-composition estimates from whole body were compared with estimates from summed partial scans to simulate different techniques to accommodate tall and/or broad subjects relative to the whole-body scan. Magnitudes of differences in the estimates were assessed by standardization. In simulating tall subjects, summation of partial scans that included the head scan overestimated whole-body composition by ~3 kg of lean mass and ~1 kg of fat mass, with substantial technical error of measurement. In simulating broad subjects, summation of right and left body scans produced no substantial differences in body composition than those of the whole-body scan. Summing partial DXA scans provides accurate body-composition estimates for broad subjects, but other strategies are needed to accommodate tall subjects.

  10. Three-dimensional body scanning system for apparel mass-customization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bugao; Huang, Yaxiong; Yu, Weiping; Chen, Tong

    2002-07-01

    Mass customization is a new manufacturing trend in which mass-market products (e.g., apparel) are quickly modified one at a time based on customers' needs. It is an effective competing strategy for maximizing customers' satisfaction and minimizing inventory costs. An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body scanning system, body size extraction methods, and body modeling algorithms. The scanning system utilizes the multiline triangulation technique to rapidly acquire surface data on a body, and provides accurate body measurements, many of which are not available with conventional methods. Cubic B-spline curves are used to connect and smooth body curves. From the scanned data, a body form can be constructed using linear Coons surfaces. The body form can be used as a digital model of the body for 3-D garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment. This scanning system and its application software enable apparel manufacturers to provide custom design services to consumers seeking personal-fit garments.

  11. Optimization of transmission and emission scan duration in 3D whole-body PET

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, T.; Kinahan, P.E.; Townsend, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    Whole-body PET imaging is being increasingly used to identify and localize malignant disease remote from the site of the primary tumor. Patients are typically scanned at multiple contiguous bed positions over an axial length of 75-100 cm. For oncology patients, the total scan duration should not exceed about an hour and therefore only 5-10 minutes of imaging can be performed at each bed position. To minimize the total scan duration, the transmission scan is often omitted and the emission scan reconstructed without attenuation correction. However, whole-body scans reconstructed without attenuation correction can lead to incorrect diagnosis, particularly for tumors located deep within the body. We have performed a series of torso phantom measurements to investigate the optimal partition of scan time between the emission and transmission scans for a fixed total scan duration. We find that a transmission fraction of about 0.4 is optimal for a 5 min and 10 min total acquisition time per bed position. The optimal partition depends on the way the attenuation correction factors are calculated and on the reconstruction algorithm.

  12. Equatorial sandhoppers use body scans to detect the earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, A

    2006-01-01

    Adults of Talorchestia martensii were individually released in a confined environment, with and without the natural magnetic field, under the sun and in a dark room. The sandhoppers scanned the horizontal component of the magnetic field by left and right oscillations of the entire major body axis. The frequency of this behaviour increased in a zeroed magnetic field, as did the frequencies of other behavioural indicators that reflect the difficulty in identifying the ecologically efficient orientation direction (sea-land axis). Therefore, like head scans in birds, body scans seem to be used by equatorial sandhoppers to detect the magnetic symmetry plane.

  13. Clinical application of surface projection in the localization of metal foreign bodies using computed tomography scan

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Changwen; Xing, Guangfu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the clinical efficacy of surface projection in the localization and removal of metal foreign bodies using CT scan. Methods: Total 795 cases with 1008 metal foreign bodies were treated at our hospital in 2012. Pre-operative surface projection was performed to localize foreign bodies in patients under the guidance of CT scan. The removal path from the skin surface to foreign body and puncture site were then determined. Finally, the foreign bodies were extracted using proper foreign body forceps which were chosen according to the size, depth and position of the foreign bodies in different parts of the human body. The incision length, operative time and intraoperative blood loss were recorded. Additionally, outpatient follow-up was scheduled post-operatively for 1 week. Results: The accurate localization rate under the guidance of CT scan was 100%, and 1008 pieces of metal foreign bodies were all successfully removed with a removal rate of 100%. The mean incision length was 0.4 ± 0.1 cm, the mean operative time was 4.1 ± 2.0 min and the intraoperative blood loss was 1.1 ± 0.5 ml. These results showed minimal invasiveness, shorter operative time and minimal blood loss, respectively. Additionally, the results of outpatient follow-up showed that the wound healed spontaneously. Moreover, there were no significant bleeding, incision infections or complications. Conclusion: Surface projection may be an accurate and effective method for the pre-operative localization and extraction of metal foreign bodies. Advances in knowledge: (1) Surface projection was applied for localization of metal foreign bodies in our study. (2) The accurate localization rate of surface projection under the guidance of CT scan was 100%. (3) All foreign bodies were successfully removed with a removal rate of 100%. (4) Surface projection technique has advantages in the removal of foreign bodies. PMID:26194590

  14. Clinical application of surface projection in the localization of metal foreign bodies using computed tomography scan.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hexiang; Shi, Changwen; Xing, Guangfu

    2015-10-01

    To analyse the clinical efficacy of surface projection in the localization and removal of metal foreign bodies using CT scan. Total 795 cases with 1008 metal foreign bodies were treated at our hospital in 2012. Pre-operative surface projection was performed to localize foreign bodies in patients under the guidance of CT scan. The removal path from the skin surface to foreign body and puncture site were then determined. Finally, the foreign bodies were extracted using proper foreign body forceps which were chosen according to the size, depth and position of the foreign bodies in different parts of the human body. The incision length, operative time and intraoperative blood loss were recorded. Additionally, outpatient follow-up was scheduled post-operatively for 1 week. The accurate localization rate under the guidance of CT scan was 100%, and 1008 pieces of metal foreign bodies were all successfully removed with a removal rate of 100%. The mean incision length was 0.4 ± 0.1 cm, the mean operative time was 4.1 ± 2.0 min and the intraoperative blood loss was 1.1 ± 0.5 ml. These results showed minimal invasiveness, shorter operative time and minimal blood loss, respectively. Additionally, the results of outpatient follow-up showed that the wound healed spontaneously. Moreover, there were no significant bleeding, incision infections or complications. Surface projection may be an accurate and effective method for the pre-operative localization and extraction of metal foreign bodies. (1) Surface projection was applied for localization of metal foreign bodies in our study. (2) The accurate localization rate of surface projection under the guidance of CT scan was 100%. (3) All foreign bodies were successfully removed with a removal rate of 100%. (4) Surface projection technique has advantages in the removal of foreign bodies.

  15. Machine learning for the automatic localisation of foetal body parts in cine-MRI scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Christopher; Nowlan, Niamh C.; Hayat, Tayyib T. A.; Malamateniou, Christina; Rutherford, Mary; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Rueckert, Daniel; Kainz, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Being able to automate the location of individual foetal body parts has the potential to dramatically reduce the work required to analyse time resolved foetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (cine-MRI) scans, for example, for use in the automatic evaluation of the foetal development. Currently, manual preprocessing of every scan is required to locate body parts before analysis can be performed, leading to a significant time overhead. With the volume of scans becoming available set to increase as cine-MRI scans become more prevalent in clinical practice, this stage of manual preprocessing is a bottleneck, limiting the data available for further analysis. Any tools which can automate this process will therefore save many hours of research time and increase the rate of new discoveries in what is a key area in understanding early human development. Here we present a series of techniques which can be applied to foetal cine-MRI scans in order to first locate and then differentiate between individual body parts. A novel approach to maternal movement suppression and segmentation using Fourier transforms is put forward as a preprocessing step, allowing for easy extraction of short movements of individual foetal body parts via the clustering of optical flow vector fields. These body part movements are compared to a labelled database and probabilistically classified before being spatially and temporally combined to give a final estimate for the location of each body part.

  16. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  17. A functional-based segmentation of human body scans in arbitrary postures.

    PubMed

    Werghi, Naoufel; Xiao, Yijun; Siebert, Jan Paul

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a general framework that aims to address the task of segmenting three-dimensional (3-D) scan data representing the human form into subsets which correspond to functional human body parts. Such a task is challenging due to the articulated and deformable nature of the human body. A salient feature of this framework is that it is able to cope with various body postures and is in addition robust to noise, holes, irregular sampling and rigid transformations. Although whole human body scanners are now capable of routinely capturing the shape of the whole body in machine readable format, they have not yet realized their potential to provide automatic extraction of key body measurements. Automated production of anthropometric databases is a prerequisite to satisfying the needs of certain industrial sectors (e.g., the clothing industry). This implies that in order to extract specific measurements of interest, whole body 3-D scan data must be segmented by machine into subsets corresponding to functional human body parts. However, previously reported attempts at automating the segmentation process suffer from various limitations, such as being restricted to a standard specific posture and being vulnerable to scan data artifacts. Our human body segmentation algorithm advances the state of the art to overcome the above limitations and we present experimental results obtained using both real and synthetic data that confirm the validity, effectiveness, and robustness of our approach.

  18. CT scan range estimation using multiple body parts detection: let PACS learn the CT image content.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunliang; Lundström, Claes

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient CT scan range estimation method that is based on the analysis of image data itself instead of metadata analysis. This makes it possible to quantitatively compare the scan range of two studies. In our study, 3D stacks are first projected to 2D coronal images via a ray casting-like process. Trained 2D body part classifiers are then used to recognize different body parts in the projected image. The detected candidate regions go into a structure grouping process to eliminate false-positive detections. Finally, the scale and position of the patient relative to the projected figure are estimated based on the detected body parts via a structural voting. The start and end lines of the CT scan are projected to a standard human figure. The position readout is normalized so that the bottom of the feet represents 0.0, and the top of the head is 1.0. Classifiers for 18 body parts were trained using 184 CT scans. The final application was tested on 136 randomly selected heterogeneous CT scans. Ground truth was generated by asking two human observers to mark the start and end positions of each scan on the standard human figure. When compared with the human observers, the mean absolute error of the proposed method is 1.2% (max: 3.5%) and 1.6% (max: 5.4%) for the start and end positions, respectively. We proposed a scan range estimation method using multiple body parts detection and relative structure position analysis. In our preliminary tests, the proposed method delivered promising results.

  19. Modeling Main Body of Overcrossing Bridge Based on Vehicle-Borne Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Chen, M.; Wei, Z.; Zhong, R.

    2017-09-01

    Vehicle-borne laser scanning (VBLS) is widely used to collect urban data for various mapping and modelling systems. This paper proposes a strategy of feature extraction and 3d model reconstruction for main body of overcrossing bridges based on VBLS point clouds. As the bridges usually have a large span, and the clouds data is often affected by obstacles, we have to use round-trip cloud data to avoid missing part. To begin with, pick out the cloud of the bridge body by an interactive clip-box, and group points by scan-line, then sort the points by scanning angle on each scan line. Since the position under the vehicle have a fixed scan-angle, a virtual path can be obtained. Secondly, extract horizontal line segments perpendicular to the virtual path along adjacent scan-lines, and then cluster line segments into long line-strings, which represent the top and bottom edge. Finally, regularize the line-strings and build 3d surface model of the bridge body. Experimental studies have demonstrated its efficiency and accuracy in case of building bridge model. Modelling the stairs at the both end of the bridge will be the direction of the next step.

  20. Robust automatic measurement of 3D scanned models for the human body fat estimation.

    PubMed

    Giachetti, Andrea; Lovato, Christian; Piscitelli, Francesco; Milanese, Chiara; Zancanaro, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic tool for estimating geometrical parameters from 3-D human scans independent on pose and robustly against the topological noise. It is based on an automatic segmentation of body parts exploiting curve skeleton processing and ad hoc heuristics able to remove problems due to different acquisition poses and body types. The software is able to locate body trunk and limbs, detect their directions, and compute parameters like volumes, areas, girths, and lengths. Experimental results demonstrate that measurements provided by our system on 3-D body scans of normal and overweight subjects acquired in different poses are highly correlated with the body fat estimates obtained on the same subjects with dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. In particular, maximal lengths and girths, not requiring precise localization of anatomical landmarks, demonstrate a good correlation (up to 96%) with the body fat and trunk fat. Regression models based on our automatic measurements can be used to predict body fat values reasonably well.

  1. Compensation of body shake errors in terahertz beam scanning single frequency holography for standoff personnel screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Chao; Sun, Zhao-Yang; Zhao, Yu; Wu, Shi-You; Fang, Guang-You

    2016-08-01

    In the terahertz (THz) band, the inherent shake of the human body may strongly impair the image quality of a beam scanning single frequency holography system for personnel screening. To realize accurate shake compensation in imaging processing, it is quite necessary to develop a high-precision measure system. However, in many cases, different parts of a human body may shake to different extents, resulting in greatly increasing the difficulty in conducting a reasonable measurement of body shake errors for image reconstruction. In this paper, a body shake error compensation algorithm based on the raw data is proposed. To analyze the effect of the body shake on the raw data, a model of echoed signal is rebuilt with considering both the beam scanning mode and the body shake. According to the rebuilt signal model, we derive the body shake error estimated method to compensate for the phase error. Simulation on the reconstruction of point targets with shake errors and proof-of-principle experiments on the human body in the 0.2-THz band are both performed to confirm the effectiveness of the body shake compensation algorithm proposed. Project supported by the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. YYYJ-1123).

  2. Validity of Three-Dimensional Photonic Scanning Technique for Estimating Percent Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Shitara, K; Kanehisa, H; Fukunaga, T; Yanai, T; Kawakami, Y

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional photonic scanning (3DPS) was recently developed to measure dimensions of a human body surface. The purpose of this study was to explore the validity of body volume measured by 3DPS for estimating the percent body fat (%fat). Design, setting, participants, and measurement: The body volumes were determined by 3DPS in 52 women. The body volume was corrected for residual lung volume. The %fat was estimated from body density and compared with the corresponding reference value determined by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). No significant difference was found for the mean values of %fat obtained by 3DPS (22.2 ± 7.6%) and DXA (23.5 ± 4.9%). The root mean square error of %fat between 3DPS and reference technique was 6.0%. For each body segment, there was a significant positive correlation between 3DPS- and DXA-values, although the corresponding value for the head was slightly larger in 3DPS than in DXA. Residual lung volume was negatively correlated with the estimated error in %fat. The body volume determined with 3DPS is potentially useful for estimating %fat. A possible strategy for enhancing the measurement accuracy of %fat might be to refine the protocol for preparing the subject's hair prior to scanning and to improve the accuracy in the measurement of residual lung volume.

  3. Longitudinal DXA Studies: Minimum scanning interval for pediatric assessment of body fat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, has led to the increased use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for assessment of body fat mass (TBF) in pediatric populations. We examined DXA precision, in order to determine suitable scanning intervals for the measurement of change...

  4. Use of ultrasound scanning and body condition score to evaluate composition traits in mature beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The experiment was designed to validate the use of ultrasound to evaluate body composition in mature beef cows. Both precision and accuracy of measurement were assessed. Cull cows (n = 87) selected for highly variable fatness were used. Two experienced ultrasound technicians scanned and assigned ...

  5. Immediate effects of a brief mindfulness-based body scan on patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ussher, Michael; Spatz, Amy; Copland, Claire; Nicolaou, Andrew; Cargill, Abbey; Amini-Tabrizi, Nina; McCracken, Lance M

    2014-02-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has benefits for those with chronic pain. MBSR typically entails an intensive 8-week intervention. The effects of very brief mindfulness interventions are unknown. Among those with chronic pain, the immediate effects of a 10 min mindfulness-based body scan were compared with a control intervention. Fifty-five adult outpatients were randomly assigned to either: (1) mindfulness-based body scan (n = 27) or (2) a reading about natural history (control group, n = 28), provided via a 10 min audio-recording. Interventions were delivered twice across 24 h; once in the clinic and once in participants' 'normal' environment. Immediately before and after listening to the recording, participants rated pain severity, pain related distress, perceived ability for daily activities, perceived likelihood of pain interfering with social relations, and mindfulness. In the clinic, there was a significant reduction in ratings for pain related distress and for pain interfering with social relations for the body scan group compared with the control group (p = 0.005; p = 0.036, respectively). In the normal environment none of the ratings were significantly different between the groups. These data suggest that, in a clinic setting, a brief body scan has immediate benefits for those experiencing chronic pain. These benefits need to be confirmed in the field.

  6. Body shape and size in 6-year old children: assessment by three-dimensional photonic scanning

    PubMed Central

    Santos, L P; Ong, K K; Day, F; Wells, J C K; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Victora, C G; Barros, A J D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Body shape and size are typically described using measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, which predict disease risks in adults. However, this approach may underestimate the true variability in childhood body shape and size. Objective: To use a comprehensive three-dimensional photonic scan approach to describe variation in childhood body shape and size. Subjects/Methods: At age 6 years, 3350 children from the population-based 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study were assessed by three-dimensional photonic scanner, traditional anthropometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on height and 24 photonic scan variables (circumferences, lengths/widths, volumes and surface areas). Results: PCA identified four independent components of children's body shape and size, which we termed: Corpulence, Central:peripheral ratio, Height and arm lengths, and Shoulder diameter. Corpulence showed strong correlations with traditional anthropometric and body composition measures (r>0.90 with weight, BMI, waist circumference and fat mass; r>0.70 with height, lean mass and bone mass); in contrast, the other three components showed weak or moderate correlations with those measures (all r<0.45). There was no sex difference in Corpulence, but boys had higher Central:peripheral ratio, Height and arm lengths and Shoulder diameter values than girls. Furthermore, children with low birth weight had lower Corpulence and Height and arm lengths but higher Central:peripheral ratio and Shoulder diameter than other children. Children from high socio-economic position (SEP) families had higher Corpulence and Height and arm lengths than other children. Finally, white children had higher Corpulence and Central:peripheral ratio than mixed or black children. Conclusions: Comprehensive assessment by three-dimensional photonic scanning identified components of childhood body shape and size not captured by traditional anthropometry or

  7. A novel approach for fit analysis of thermal protective clothing using three-dimensional body scanning.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Li, Jun

    2014-11-01

    The garment fit played an important role in protective performance, comfort and mobility. The purpose of this study is to quantify the air gap to quantitatively characterize a three-dimensional (3-D) garment fit using a 3-D body scanning technique. A method for processing of scanned data was developed to investigate the air gap size and distribution between the clothing and human body. The mesh model formed from nude and clothed body was aligned, superimposed and sectioned using Rapidform software. The air gap size and distribution over the body surface were analyzed. The total air volume was also calculated. The effects of fabric properties and garment size on air gap distribution were explored. The results indicated that average air gap of the fit clothing was around 25-30 mm and the overall air gap distribution was similar. The air gap was unevenly distributed over the body and it was strongly associated with the body parts, fabric properties and garment size. The research will help understand the overall clothing fit and its association with protection, thermal and movement comfort, and provide guidelines for clothing engineers to improve thermal performance and reduce physiological burden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Scanning your body is different from performing body movements: a double dissociation between body representational neglect and apraxia.

    PubMed

    Groh-Bordin, Christian; Glocker, Daniela; Bittl, Petra; Keller, Ingo; Preger, Rudolf; Hildebrandt, Helmut; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2009-03-01

    Body representational neglect (BRN) and apraxia can be found after left hemisphere (LH) lesions. Additionally, both disorders recruit knowledge about certain body parts, their position in space, and their spatial relationship to each other. Hence, the present study examined whether BRN and apraxia can be functionally dissociated at the behavioral and neural level. 23 LH lesioned patients were examined with a standardized body neglect test (Vest test) and a standardized test of apraxia (imitation of meaningless gestures). At the behavioral level BRN and apraxia showed a double dissociation. Moreover, these deficits were associated with specific brain lesions: while BRN was related to lesions in Brodmann areas 6 and 44 and frontal white matter, apraxia was linked to lesions in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and parietal and central white matter. The results are discussed as indicating dissociable representations of the human body within the left cerebral hemisphere.

  9. Many-body transitions in a single molecule visualized by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Fabian; Ijäs, Mari; Drost, Robert; Hämäläinen, Sampsa K.; Harju, Ari; Seitsonen, Ari P.; Liljeroth, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Many-body effects arise from the collective behaviour of large numbers of interacting particles, for example, electrons, and the properties of such a system cannot be understood considering only single or non-interacting particles. Despite the generality of the many-body picture, there are only a few examples of experimentally observing such effects in molecular systems. Measurements of the local density of states of single molecules by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy is usually interpreted in terms of single-particle molecular orbitals. Here, we show that the simple single-particle picture fails qualitatively to account for the resonances in the tunnelling spectra of different charge states of cobalt phthalocyanine molecules. Instead, these resonances can be understood as a series of many-body excitations of the different ground states of the molecule. Our theoretical approach opens an accessible route beyond the single-particle picture in quantifying many-body states in molecules.

  10. Mining three-dimensional anthropometric body surface scanning data for hypertension detection.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chaochang; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Hsu, Pei-Lun; Hsu, Chi-I; Lee, Po-Chi; Chiou, Wen-Ko; Liu, Thu-Hua; Chuang, Yi-Chou; Hwang, Chorng-Jer

    2007-05-01

    Hypertension is a major disease, being one of the top ten causes of death in Taiwan. The exploration of three-dimensional (3-D) anthropometry scanning data along with other existing subject medical profiles using data mining techniques becomes an important research issue for medical decision support. This research attempts to construct a prediction model for hypertension using anthropometric body surface scanning data. This research adopts classification trees to reveal the relationship between a subject's 3-D scanning data and hypertension disease using the hybrid of the association rule algorithm (ARA) and genetic algorithms (GAs) approach. The ARA is adopted to obtain useful clues based on which the GA is able to proceed its searching tasks in a more efficient way. The proposed approach was experimented and compared with a regular genetic algorithm in predicting a subject's hypertension disease. Better computational efficiency and more accurate prediction results from the proposed approach are demonstrated.

  11. Brief body-scan meditation practice improves somatosensory perceptual decision making.

    PubMed

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Brown, Richard J; Lloyd, Donna M

    2013-03-01

    We have previously found that attention to internal somatic sensations (interoceptive attention) during a heart beat perception task increases the misperception of external touch on a somatic signal detection task (SSDT), during which healthy participants erroneously report feeling near-threshold vibrations presented to their fingertip in the absence of a stimulus. However, it has been suggested that mindful interoceptive attention should result in more accurate somatic perception, due to its non-evaluative and controlled nature. To investigate this possibility, 62 participants completed the SSDT before and after a period of brief body-scan mindfulness meditation training, or a control intervention (listening to a recorded story). The meditation intervention reduced tactile misperception and increased sensitivity during the SSDT. This finding suggests that the perceptual effects of interoceptive attention depend on its particular nature, and raises the possibility that body-scan meditation could reduce the misperception of physical symptoms in individuals with medically unexplained symptoms.

  12. Unusual false-positive radioiodine whole-body scans in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, M; Saletnich, I; Rufini, V; Troncone, L

    1997-06-01

    Radioiodine whole-body imaging is the most accurate method in the diagnosis of metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer. However, false-positive images rarely occur. The authors report unusual cases of thymic hyperplasia and post-traumatic skull changes mimicking mediastinal, skull, or cerebral metastases. Nonthyroidal causes were diagnosed by other radionuclide studies (bone and brain scintigraphy) and CT scans. Follow-up and undetectable thyroglobulin levels helped confirm the benign cause.

  13. D Scanning of Live Pigs System and its Application in Body Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Wang, K.; Su, W.; Zhu, D. H.; Liu, W. L.; Xing, Ch.; Chen, Z. R.

    2017-09-01

    The shape of a live pig is an important indicator of its health and value, whether for breeding or for carcass quality. This paper implements a prototype system for live single pig body surface 3d scanning based on two consumer depth cameras, utilizing the 3d point clouds data. These cameras are calibrated in advance to have a common coordinate system. The live 3D point clouds stream of moving single pig is obtained by two Xtion Pro Live sensors from different viewpoints simultaneously. A novel detection method is proposed and applied to automatically detect the frames containing pigs with the correct posture from the point clouds stream, according to the geometric characteristics of pig's shape. The proposed method is incorporated in a hybrid scheme, that serves as the preprocessing step in a body measurements framework for pigs. Experimental results show the portability of our scanning system and effectiveness of our detection method. Furthermore, an updated this point cloud preprocessing software for livestock body measurements can be downloaded freely from https://github.com/LiveStockShapeAnalysis to livestock industry, research community and can be used for monitoring livestock growth status.

  14. Usefulness of nuclear whole-body bone scanning for diagnosis of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Hector; McDevitt, Joseph; Öz, Orhan K; Wachsmann, Jason

    2017-10-01

    Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, is rare in the United States. Given its rarity, as well as the pathognomonic dermatologic findings, there are few cases in which nuclear medicine imaging plays a role in the diagnostic workup. We present a 39-year-old man who presented with chronic abdominal pain, skin ulcers, and hypercalcemia who underwent computed tomography of the chest and a whole-body bone scan to evaluate for possible underlying neoplasm due to his profound hypercalcemia. Although the diagnosis of leprosy had been established by lower-extremity skin biopsy upon admission, workup for other potential concurrent etiologies of hypercalcemia was performed before initiating therapy. We present the computed tomography scans, nuclear medicine images, and corresponding skin findings of this case.

  15. Immediate total-body CT scanning versus conventional imaging and selective CT scanning in patients with severe trauma (REACT-2): a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sierink, Joanne C; Treskes, Kaij; Edwards, Michael J R; Beuker, Benn J A; den Hartog, Dennis; Hohmann, Joachim; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Luitse, Jan S K; Beenen, Ludo F M; Hollmann, Markus W; Goslings, J Carel

    2016-08-13

    Published work suggests a survival benefit for patients with trauma who undergo total-body CT scanning during the initial trauma assessment; however, level 1 evidence is absent. We aimed to assess the effect of total-body CT scanning compared with the standard work-up on in-hospital mortality in patients with trauma. We undertook an international, multicentre, randomised controlled trial at four hospitals in the Netherlands and one in Switzerland. Patients aged 18 years or older with trauma with compromised vital parameters, clinical suspicion of life-threatening injuries, or severe injury were randomly assigned (1:1) by ALEA randomisation to immediate total-body CT scanning or to a standard work-up with conventional imaging supplemented with selective CT scanning. Neither doctors nor patients were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, analysed in the intention-to-treat population and in subgroups of patients with polytrauma and those with traumatic brain injury. The χ(2) test was used to assess differences in mortality. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01523626. Between April 22, 2011, and Jan 1, 2014, 5475 patients were assessed for eligibility, 1403 of whom were randomly assigned: 702 to immediate total-body CT scanning and 701 to the standard work-up. 541 patients in the immediate total-body CT scanning group and 542 in the standard work-up group were included in the primary analysis. In-hospital mortality did not differ between groups (total-body CT 86 [16%] of 541 vs standard work-up 85 [16%] of 542; p=0.92). In-hospital mortality also did not differ between groups in subgroup analyses in patients with polytrauma (total-body CT 81 [22%] of 362 vs standard work-up 82 [25%] of 331; p=0.46) and traumatic brain injury (68 [38%] of 178 vs 66 [44%] of 151; p=0.31). Three serious adverse events were reported in patients in the total-body CT group (1%), one in the standard work-up group (<1%), and

  16. On segmenting the three-dimensional scan data of a human body.

    PubMed

    Nurre, J H; Connor, J; Lewark, E A; Collier, J S

    2000-08-01

    Software for categorizing a cloud of more than 300,000 three-dimensional (3-D) surface data points, captured from a human subject, is presented. The software is part of an incremental approach that progressively refines the identification of human anthropometric landmarks. The first phase of identification is to orient and segment the human body data points. A step-by-step method for these tasks is presented. One of the algorithms, a discrete point cusp detector, plays a fundamental role in separating the data cloud. The theory and operation of the algorithm is explained. The discrete cusp detector can be used to separate any two cylindrical objects, in (3-D) data, whose boundaries touch. The software has been tested on over a hundred different body scan data sets and shown to be robust.

  17. Non-Gaussian smoothing of low-count transmission scans for PET whole-body studies.

    PubMed

    Pawitan, Y; Bettinardi, V; Teräs, M

    2005-01-01

    A non-Gaussian smoothing (NGS) technique is developed for filtering low count transmission (TR) data to be used for attenuation correction (AC) of positron emission tomography (PET) studies. The method is based on a statistical technique known as the generalized linear mixed model that allows an inverse link function that avoids the inversion of the observed transmission data. The NGS technique has been implemented in the sinogram domain in one-dimensional mode as angle-by-angle computation. To make it adaptive as a function of the TR count statistics we also develop and validate an objective procedure to choose an optimal smoothing parameter. The technique is assessed using experimental phantoms, simulating PET whole-body studies, and applied to real patient data. Different experimental conditions, in terms of TR scan time (from 1 h to 1 min), covering a wide range of TR counting statistic are considered. The method is evaluated, in terms of mean squared error (MSE), by comparing pixel by pixel the distribution for high counts statistics TR scan (1 h) with the corresponding counts distribution for low count statistics TR scans (e.g., 1 min). The smoothing parameter selection is shown to have high efficiency, meaning that it tends to choose values close to the unknown best value. Furthermore, the counts distribution of emission (EM) images, reconstructed with AC generated using low count TR data (1 min), are within 5% of the corresponding EM images reconstructed with AC generated using the high count statistics TR data (1 h). An application to a real patient whole-body PET study shows the promise of the technique for routine use.

  18. Relating Linear and Volumetric Variables Through Body Scanning to Improve Human Interfaces in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Ferrer, Mike A.; Young, Karen S.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Designing space suits and vehicles for the diverse human population present unique challenges for the methods of traditional anthropometry. Space suits are bulky and allow the operator to shift position within the suit and inhibit the ability to identify body landmarks. Limited suit sizing options also cause variability in fit and performance between similarly sized individuals. Space vehicles are restrictive in volume in both the fit and the ability to collect data. NASA's Anthropometric and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) has utilized 3D scanning to shift from traditional linear anthropometry to explore and examine volumetric capabilities to provide anthropometric solutions for design. Overall, the key goals are to improve the human-system performance and develop new processes to aid in the design and evaluation of space systems. Four case studies are presented that illustrate the shift from purely linear analyses to an augmented volumetric toolset to predict and analyze the human within the space suit and vehicle. The first case study involves the calculation of maximal head volume to estimate total free volume in the helmet for proper air exchange. Traditional linear measurements resulted in an inaccurate representation of the head shape, yet limited data exists for the determination of a large head volume. Steps were first taken to identify and classify a maximum head volume and the resulting comparisons to the estimate are presented in this paper. This study illustrates the gap between linear components of anthropometry and the need for overall volume metrics in order to provide solutions. A second case study examines the overlay of the space suit scans and components onto scanned individuals to quantify fit and clearance to aid in sizing the suit to the individual. Restrictions in space suit size availability present unique challenges to optimally fit the individual within a limited sizing range while maintaining performance. Quantification of the clearance and

  19. Fully automated shape model positioning for bone segmentation in whole-body CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränzle, A.; Sumkauskaite, M.; Hillengass, J.; Bäuerle, T.; Bendl, R.

    2014-03-01

    Analysing osteolytic and osteoblastic bone lesions in systematically affected skeletons, e.g. in multiple myeloma or bone metastasis, is a complex task. Quantification of the degree of bone destruction needs segmentation of all lesions but cannot be managed manually. Automatic bone lesion detection is necessary. Our future objective is comparing modified bones with healthy shape models. For applying model based strategies successfully, identification and position information of single bones is necessary. A solution to these requirements based on bone medullary cavities is presented in this paper. Medullary cavities are useful for shape model positioning since they have similar position and orientation as the bone itself but can be separated more easily. Skeleton segmentation is done by simple thresholding. Inside the skeleton medullary cavities are segmented by a flood filling algorithm. The filled regions are considered as medullary cavity objects. To provide automatic shape model selection, medullary cavity objects are assigned to bone structures with pattern recognition. To get a good starting position for shape models, principal component analysis of medullary cavities is performed. Bone identification was tested on 14 whole-body low-dose CT scans of multiple myeloma patients. Random forest classification assigns medullary cavities of long bones to the corresponding bone (overall accuracy 90%). Centroid and first principal component of medullary cavity are sufficiently similar to those of bone (mean centroid difference 21.7 mm, mean difference angle 1.54° for all long bones of one example patient) and therefore suitable for shape model initialization. This method enables locating long bone structures in whole-body CT scans and provides useful information for a reasonable shape model initialization.

  20. Short-term autonomic and cardiovascular effects of mindfulness body scan meditation.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Blaine; Eclache, Marie; Goldman, Natalie

    2006-12-01

    Recent research suggests that the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program has positive effects on health, but little is known about the immediate physiological effects of different components of the program. To examine the short-term autonomic and cardiovascular effects of one of the techniques employed in mindfulness meditation training, a basic body scan meditation. In Study 1, 32 healthy young adults (23 women, 9 men) were assigned randomly to either a meditation, progressive muscular relaxation or wait-list control group. Each participated in two laboratory sessions 4 weeks apart in which they practiced their assigned technique. In Study 2, using a within-subjects design, 30 healthy young adults (15 women, 15 men) participated in two laboratory sessions in which they practiced meditation or listened to an audiotape of a popular novel in counterbalanced order. Heart rate, cardiac respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and blood pressure were measured in both studies. Additional measures derived from impedance cardiography were obtained in Study 2. In both studies, participants displayed significantly greater increases in RSA while meditating than while engaging in other relaxing activities. A significant decrease in cardiac pre-ejection period was observed while participants meditated in Study 2. This suggests that simultaneous increases in cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity may explain the lack of an effect on heart rate. Female participants in Study 2 exhibited a significantly larger decrease in diastolic blood pressure during meditation than the novel, whereas men had greater increases in cardiac output during meditation compared to the novel. The results indicate both similarities and differences in the physiological responses to body scan meditation and other relaxing activities.

  1. Automated prostate segmentation in whole-body MRI scans for epidemiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habes, Mohamad; Schiller, Thilo; Rosenberg, Christian; Burchardt, Martin; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    The whole prostatic volume (PV) is an important indicator for benign prostate hyperplasia. Correlating the PV with other clinical parameters in a population-based prospective cohort study (SHIP-2) requires valid prostate segmentation in a large number of whole-body MRI scans. The axial proton density fast spin echo fat saturated sequence is used for prostate screening in SHIP-2. Our automated segmentation method is based on support vector machines (SVM). We used three-dimensional neighborhood information to build classification vectors from automatically generated features and randomly selected 16 MR examinations for validation. The Hausdorff distance reached a mean value of 5.048 ± 2.413, and a mean value of 5.613 ± 2.897 compared to manual segmentation by observers A and B. The comparison between volume measurement of SVM-based segmentation and manual segmentation of observers A and B depicts a strong correlation resulting in Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (ρ) of 0.936 and 0.859, respectively. Our automated methodology based on SVM for prostate segmentation can segment the prostate in WBI scans with good segmentation quality and has considerable potential for integration in epidemiological studies.

  2. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  3. Improvement of Interoceptive Processes after an 8-Week Body Scan Intervention.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dana; Messner, Matthias; Pollatos, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Interoceptive processes are defined as ability to detect sensations arising within the body. There is a growing body of research investigating ways of improving interoceptive processes. One promising approach increasing the attention to bodily sensations is the body scan (BS), a method stemming from mindfulness-based stress reduction. Research so far revealed only heterogenous findings of meditational practice and mindfulness-based stress reduction on interoceptive processes. Even more importantly, there is no study considering the effect of an 8-week BS intervention on interoceptive processes and the distinguishable subdomains of interoception. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to examine the effects of a BS intervention on different interoceptive subdomains over 8 weeks of training in two different samples. Methods: In study 1, healthy participants executed a 20 min standardized audiotaped BS in the BS intervention group (n = 25) each day over 8 weeks. The control group (n = 24) listened to an audio book for the same amount of time. In study 2, the BS group (n = 18) was compared to an inactive control group (n = 18). In both studies, three measurement points were realized and interoceptive accuracy (IAc) - using a heartbeat perception task - as well as interoceptive sensibility (IS) - using confidence ratings for the heartbeat perception task and the subscale 'interoceptive awareness' of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) - were assessed. Results: In study 1, we found, as a descriptive trend, IAc and confidence ratings to be increased irrespective of the condition. However, post hoc analysis revealed a significant improvement of IAc between T1 and T3 in the BS intervention only. IS revealed to be unaffected by the interventions. In study 2, we observed a significant positive effect of the BS intervention on IAc and confidence ratings compared to the inactive controls. As in study 1, IS (EDI-2) was unaffected by the intervention

  4. Whole-body CT screening: scan delay and contrast injection duration for optimal enhancement of abdominal organs and deep vessels.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Haruo; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Tomimatsu, Hideto; Sakurai, Kota; Goshima, Satoshi; Kawada, Hiroshi; Noda, Yoshifumi; Miyoshi, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    To assess the optimal scan delays and contrast injection durations for contrast-enhanced whole-body computed tomography (CT). One hundred forty-two patients were randomized into three groups: protocol A-scan delay of 65 s after starting contrast injection over 30 s; protocol B-105 and 70 s; and protocol C-145 and 110 s, respectively. Contrast enhancement and diagnostic acceptability were assessed. Qualitative assessment was subtle among the three protocols. Homogenous enhancement of deep veins was more assuredly achieved with protocol C. With protocol C, qualitatively acceptable enhancement can be obtained in whole-body CT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial of immediate total-body CT scanning in trauma patients (REACT-2)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) scanning has become essential in the early diagnostic phase of trauma care because of its high diagnostic accuracy. The introduction of multi-slice CT scanners and infrastructural improvements made total-body CT scanning technically feasible and its usage is currently becoming common practice in several trauma centers. However, literature provides limited evidence whether immediate total-body CT leads to better clinical outcome then conventional radiographic imaging supplemented with selective CT scanning in trauma patients. The aim of the REACT-2 trial is to determine the value of immediate total-body CT scanning in trauma patients. Methods/design The REACT-2 trial is an international, multicenter randomized clinical trial. All participating trauma centers have a multi-slice CT scanner located in the trauma room or at the Emergency Department (ED). All adult, non-pregnant, severely injured trauma patients according to predefined criteria will be included. Patients in whom direct scanning will hamper necessary cardiopulmonary resuscitation or who require an immediate operation because of imminent death (both as judged by the trauma team leader) are excluded. Randomization will be computer assisted. The intervention group will receive a contrast-enhanced total-body CT scan (head to pelvis) during the primary survey. The control group will be evaluated according to local conventional trauma imaging protocols (based on ATLS guidelines) supplemented with selective CT scanning. Primary outcome will be in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes are differences in mortality and morbidity during the first year post trauma, several trauma work-up time intervals, radiation exposure, general health and quality of life at 6 and 12 months post trauma and cost-effectiveness. Discussion The REACT-2 trial is a multicenter randomized clinical trial that will provide evidence on the value of immediate total-body CT scanning during the primary

  6. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial of immediate total-body CT scanning in trauma patients (REACT-2).

    PubMed

    Sierink, Joanne C; Saltzherr, Teun Peter; Beenen, Ludo F M; Luitse, Jan S K; Hollmann, Markus W; Reitsma, Johannes B; Edwards, Michael J R; Hohmann, Joachim; Beuker, Benn J A; Patka, Peter; Suliburk, James W; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Goslings, J Carel

    2012-03-30

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning has become essential in the early diagnostic phase of trauma care because of its high diagnostic accuracy. The introduction of multi-slice CT scanners and infrastructural improvements made total-body CT scanning technically feasible and its usage is currently becoming common practice in several trauma centers. However, literature provides limited evidence whether immediate total-body CT leads to better clinical outcome then conventional radiographic imaging supplemented with selective CT scanning in trauma patients. The aim of the REACT-2 trial is to determine the value of immediate total-body CT scanning in trauma patients. The REACT-2 trial is an international, multicenter randomized clinical trial. All participating trauma centers have a multi-slice CT scanner located in the trauma room or at the Emergency Department (ED). All adult, non-pregnant, severely injured trauma patients according to predefined criteria will be included. Patients in whom direct scanning will hamper necessary cardiopulmonary resuscitation or who require an immediate operation because of imminent death (both as judged by the trauma team leader) are excluded. Randomization will be computer assisted. The intervention group will receive a contrast-enhanced total-body CT scan (head to pelvis) during the primary survey. The control group will be evaluated according to local conventional trauma imaging protocols (based on ATLS guidelines) supplemented with selective CT scanning. Primary outcome will be in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes are differences in mortality and morbidity during the first year post trauma, several trauma work-up time intervals, radiation exposure, general health and quality of life at 6 and 12 months post trauma and cost-effectiveness. The REACT-2 trial is a multicenter randomized clinical trial that will provide evidence on the value of immediate total-body CT scanning during the primary survey of severely injured trauma patients

  7. CT-PET weighted image fusion for separately scanned whole body rat

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jung W.; Kwon, Oh-Kyu; Scheinost, Dustin; Sinusas, Albert J.; Cline, Gary W.; Papademetris, Xenophon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The limited resolution and lack of spatial information in positron emission tomography (PET) images require the complementary anatomic information from the computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, multimodality image fusion techniques such as PET/CT are critical in mapping the functional images to structural images and thus facilitate the interpretation of PET studies. In our experimental situation, the CT and PET images are acquired in separate scanners at different times and the inherent differences in the imaging protocols produce significant nonrigid changes between the two acquisitions in addition to dissimilar image characteristics. The registration conditions are also poor because CT images have artifacts due to the limitation of current scanning settings, while PET images are very blurry (in transmission-PET) and have vague anatomical structure boundaries (in emission-PET). Methods: The authors present a new method for whole body small animal multimodal registration. In particular, the authors register whole body rat CT image and PET images using a weighted demons algorithm. The authors use both the transmission-PET and the emission-PET images in the registration process emphasizing particular regions of the moving transmission-PET image using the emission-PET image. After a rigid transformation and a histogram matching between the CT and the transmission-PET images, the authors deformably register the transmission-PET image to the CT image with weights based on the intensity-normalized emission-PET image. For the deformable registration process, the authors develop a weighted demons registration method that can give preferences to particular regions of the input image using a weight image. Results: The authors validate the results with nine rat image sets using the M-Hausdorff distance (M-HD) similarity measure with different outlier-suppression parameters (OSP). In comparison with standard methods such as the

  8. A very low-cost 3D scanning system for whole-body imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy; Kerlin, Scott

    2015-05-01

    A low-cost, high resolution 3D scanning system has been developed at the University of North Dakota that creates 3D models (complete with color and texture data) using hardware and software with a cost of approximately $5,000. This paper presents the design, testing and initial uses for this scanning hardware; it also discusses the efficacy of this technology for a variety of applications and the utility of being able to capture high-quality scans at low cost. A discussion of the required operating conditions and the limitations that this places on the applications the scanner is suitable for is also included.

  9. Total Body Scanning with Strontium-85 in the Diagnosis of Metastatic Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, W. J.; Orange, R. P.

    1965-01-01

    To demonstrate skeletal metastases before radiographic changes were apparent, Sr85 scans were carried out on 46 patients who complained of sketetal pain but whose radiographs were negative. Positive scans were obtained in 34 patients, 20 of whom were subsequently shown to have metastases; three did not have skeletal metastases a year or more later; the outcome is unknown in 11 patients. Twelve patients had negative scans: three ultimately developed metastases, six did not, and three were inconclusive. Autoradiographs demonstrated Sr85 concentrations in areas of reactive osteogenesis. Although not specific for skeletal metastases, Sr85 scans are most helpful in substantiating this diagnosis when radiographic changes are absent. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5839221

  10. Towards the imaging of Weibel-Palade body biogenesis by serial block face-scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mourik, M J; Faas, F G A; Zimmermann, H; Eikenboom, J; Koster, A J

    2015-08-01

    Electron microscopy is used in biological research to study the ultrastructure at high resolution to obtain information on specific cellular processes. Serial block face-scanning electron microscopy is a relatively novel electron microscopy imaging technique that allows three-dimensional characterization of the ultrastructure in both tissues and cells by measuring volumes of thousands of cubic micrometres yet at nanometre-scale resolution. In the scanning electron microscope, repeatedly an image is acquired followed by the removal of a thin layer resin embedded biological material by either a microtome or a focused ion beam. In this way, each recorded image contains novel structural information which can be used for three-dimensional analysis. Here, we explore focused ion beam facilitated serial block face-scanning electron microscopy to study the endothelial cell-specific storage organelles, the Weibel-Palade bodies, during their biogenesis at the Golgi apparatus. Weibel-Palade bodies predominantly contain the coagulation protein Von Willebrand factor which is secreted by the cell upon vascular damage. Using focused ion beam facilitated serial block face-scanning electron microscopy we show that the technique has the sensitivity to clearly reveal subcellular details like mitochondrial cristae and small vesicles with a diameter of about 50 nm. Also, we reveal numerous associations between Weibel-Palade bodies and Golgi stacks which became conceivable in large-scale three-dimensional data. We demonstrate that serial block face-scanning electron microscopy is a promising tool that offers an alternative for electron tomography to study subcellular organelle interactions in the context of a complete cell.

  11. Towards the imaging of Weibel–Palade body biogenesis by serial block face-scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mourik, MJ; Faas, FGA; Zimmermann, H; Eikenboom, J; Koster, AJ

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy is used in biological research to study the ultrastructure at high resolution to obtain information on specific cellular processes. Serial block face-scanning electron microscopy is a relatively novel electron microscopy imaging technique that allows three-dimensional characterization of the ultrastructure in both tissues and cells by measuring volumes of thousands of cubic micrometres yet at nanometre-scale resolution. In the scanning electron microscope, repeatedly an image is acquired followed by the removal of a thin layer resin embedded biological material by either a microtome or a focused ion beam. In this way, each recorded image contains novel structural information which can be used for three-dimensional analysis. Here, we explore focused ion beam facilitated serial block face-scanning electron microscopy to study the endothelial cell–specific storage organelles, the Weibel–Palade bodies, during their biogenesis at the Golgi apparatus. Weibel–Palade bodies predominantly contain the coagulation protein Von Willebrand factor which is secreted by the cell upon vascular damage. Using focused ion beam facilitated serial block face-scanning electron microscopy we show that the technique has the sensitivity to clearly reveal subcellular details like mitochondrial cristae and small vesicles with a diameter of about 50 nm. Also, we reveal numerous associations between Weibel–Palade bodies and Golgi stacks which became conceivable in large-scale three-dimensional data. We demonstrate that serial block face-scanning electron microscopy is a promising tool that offers an alternative for electron tomography to study subcellular organelle interactions in the context of a complete cell. PMID:25644989

  12. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-15

    Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 'gold-standard' interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The

  13. VIRO 3D: fast three-dimensional full-body scanning for humans and other living objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Norbert; Minge, Bernhard

    1998-03-01

    The development of a family of partial and whole body scanners provides a complete technology for fully three-dimensional and contact-free scans on human bodies or other living objects within seconds. This paper gives insight into the design and the functional principles of the whole body scanner VIRO 3D operating on the basis of the laser split-beam method. The arrangement of up to 24 camera/laser combinations, thus dividing the area into different camera fields and an all- around sensor configuration travelling in vertical direction allow the complete 360-degree-scan of an object within 6 - 20 seconds. Due to a special calibration process the different sensors are matched and the measured data are combined. Up to 10 million 3D measuring points with a resolution of approximately 1 mm are processed in all coordinate axes to generate a 3D model. By means of high-performance processors in combination with real-time image processing chips the image data from almost any number of sensors can be recorded and evaluated synchronously in video real-time. VIRO 3D scanning systems have already been successfully implemented in various applications and will open up new perspectives in different other fields, ranging from industry, orthopaedic medicine, plastic surgery to art and photography.

  14. CT Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cross-sectional pictures of your body. Doctors use CT scans to look for Broken bones Cancers Blood clots Signs of heart disease Internal bleeding During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table ...

  15. Low-voltage scanning electron microscopy study of lampbrush chromosomes and nuclear bodies in avian and amphibian oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kulikova, Tatiana; Khodyuchenko, Tatiana; Petrov, Yuri; Krasikova, Alla

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus is a highly compartmentalized part of the cell where the key processes of genome functionality are realized through the formation of non-membranous nuclear domains. Physically nuclear domains appear as liquid droplets with different viscosity stably maintained throughout the interphase or during the long diplotene stage of meiosis. Since nuclear body surface represents boundary between two liquid phases, the ultrastructural surface topography of nuclear domains is of an outstanding interest. The aim of this study was to examine ultrathin surface topography of the amphibian and avian oocyte nuclear structures such as lampbrush chromosomes, nucleoli, histone-locus bodies, Cajal body-like bodies, and the interchromatin granule clusters via low-voltage scanning electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate that nuclear bodies with similar molecular composition may differ dramatically in the surface topography and vice versa, nuclear bodies that do not share common molecular components may possess similar topographical characteristics. We also have analyzed surface distribution of particular nuclear antigens (double stranded DNA, coilin and splicing snRNA) using indirect immunogold labeling with subsequent secondary electron detection of gold nanoparticles. We suggest that ultrastructural surface morphology reflects functional status of a nuclear body. PMID:27857188

  16. Prediction of Body Surface Area Based on 3-Dimensional Laser Scans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    the area of these triangles can be summed to provide a measurement of the surface area of the shape (in this case, the body image ). The software also...hands and feet were added to that of the major body image to arrive at the total area. In addition, the following anthropometric variables were

  17. Body mass estimations for Plateosaurus engelhardti using laser scanning and 3D reconstruction methods.

    PubMed

    Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Suthau, Tim; Bellmann, Anke; Friedrich, Andreas; Schwanebeck, Thomas; Stoinski, Stefan; Trippel, Tobias; Kirsch, Karl; Hellwich, Olaf

    2007-08-01

    Both body mass and surface area are factors determining the essence of any living organism. This should also hold true for an extinct organism such as a dinosaur. The present report discusses the use of a new 3D laser scanner method to establish body masses and surface areas of an Asian elephant (Zoological Museum of Copenhagen, Denmark) and of Plateosaurus engelhardti, a prosauropod from the Upper Triassic, exhibited at the Paleontological Museum in Tübingen (Germany). This method was used to study the effect that slight changes in body shape had on body mass for P. engelhardti. It was established that body volumes varied between 0.79 m(3) (slim version) and 1.14 m(3) (robust version), resulting in a presumable body mass of 630 and 912 kg, respectively. The total body surface areas ranged between 8.8 and 10.2 m(2), of which, in both reconstructions of P. engelhardti, approximately 33% account for the thorax area alone. The main difference between the two models is in the tail and hind limb reconstruction. The tail of the slim version has a surface area of 1.98 m(2), whereas that of the robust version has a surface area of 2.73 m(2). The body volumes calculated for the slim version were as follows: head 0.006 m(3), neck 0.016 m(3), fore limbs 0.020 m(3), hind limbs 0.08 m(3), thoracic cavity 0.533 m(3), and tail 0.136 m(3). For the robust model, the following volumes were established: 0.01 m(3) head, neck 0.026 m(3), fore limbs 0.025 m(3), hind limbs 0.18 m(3), thoracic cavity 0.616 m(3), and finally, tail 0.28 m(3). Based on these body volumes, scaling equations were used to assess the size that the organs of this extinct dinosaur have.

  18. Body mass estimations for Plateosaurus engelhardti using laser scanning and 3D reconstruction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Suthau, Tim; Bellmann, Anke; Friedrich, Andreas; Schwanebeck, Thomas; Stoinski, Stefan; Trippel, Tobias; Kirsch, Karl; Hellwich, Olaf

    2007-08-01

    Both body mass and surface area are factors determining the essence of any living organism. This should also hold true for an extinct organism such as a dinosaur. The present report discusses the use of a new 3D laser scanner method to establish body masses and surface areas of an Asian elephant (Zoological Museum of Copenhagen, Denmark) and of Plateosaurus engelhardti, a prosauropod from the Upper Triassic, exhibited at the Paleontological Museum in Tübingen (Germany). This method was used to study the effect that slight changes in body shape had on body mass for P. engelhardti. It was established that body volumes varied between 0.79 m3 (slim version) and 1.14 m3 (robust version), resulting in a presumable body mass of 630 and 912 kg, respectively. The total body surface areas ranged between 8.8 and 10.2 m2, of which, in both reconstructions of P. engelhardti, ˜33% account for the thorax area alone. The main difference between the two models is in the tail and hind limb reconstruction. The tail of the slim version has a surface area of 1.98 m2, whereas that of the robust version has a surface area of 2.73 m2. The body volumes calculated for the slim version were as follows: head 0.006 m3, neck 0.016 m3, fore limbs 0.020 m3, hind limbs 0.08 m3, thoracic cavity 0.533 m3, and tail 0.136 m3. For the robust model, the following volumes were established: 0.01 m3 head, neck 0.026 m3, fore limbs 0.025 m3, hind limbs 0.18 m3, thoracic cavity 0.616 m3, and finally, tail 0.28 m3. Based on these body volumes, scaling equations were used to assess the size that the organs of this extinct dinosaur have.

  19. Determining scanned body part from DICOM study description for relevant prior study matching.

    PubMed

    Mabotuwana, Thusitha; Qian, Yuechen

    2013-01-01

    The typical radiology reporting workflow involves the radiologist first looking at one or more relevant prior studies before interpreting the current study. To improve workflow efficiency, PACS systems can display relevant prior imaging studies, typically based on a study's anatomy as indicated in the Body Part Examined field of the DICOM header. The content of the Body Part Examined field can be very generic. For instance, an imaging study to exclude pancreatitis and another one to exclude renal stones will both have "abdomen" in their body part field, making it difficult to differentiate them. To improve prior study matching and support better study filtering, in this paper, we present a rule-based approach to determine specific body parts contained in the free-text DICOM Study Description field. Algorithms were trained using a production dataset of 1200 randomly selected unique study descriptions and validated against a test dataset of 404 study descriptions. Our validation resulted in 99.94% accuracy. The proposed technique suggests that a rule-based approach can be used for domain specific body part extraction from DICOM headers.

  20. [Retrospective computation of the ISS in multiple trauma patients: Potential pitfalls and limitations of findings in full body CT scans].

    PubMed

    Bogner, V; Brumann, M; Kusmenkov, T; Kanz, K G; Wierer, M; Berger, F; Mutschler, W

    2016-03-01

    The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is a well-established anatomical scoring system for polytraumatized patients. However, any inaccuracy in the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) directly increases the ISS impreciseness. Using the full body computed tomography (CT) scan report, ISS computation can be associated with certain pitfalls. This study evaluates interpretation variations depending on radiological reports and indicates requirements to reliably determine the ISS. The ISS of 81 polytraumatized patients was calculated based on the full body CT scan report. If an injury could not be attributed to a precise AIS cipher, the minimal and maximal ISS was computed. Real ISS included all conducted investigations, intraoperative findings, and final medical reports. The differences in ISS min, ISS max, and ISS real were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05) and plotted in a linear regression analysis. Mean ISS min was 24.0 (± 0.7 SEM) points, mean ISS real 38.6 (±1.3 SEM) and mean ISS max was 48.3 (±1.4 SEM) points. All means were significantly different compared to one another (p<0.001). The difference between possible and real ISS showed a distinctive variation. Mean deviation was 9.7 (±0.9 SEM) points downward and 14.5 (±1.1 SEM) points upward. The difference between deviation to ISS min and ISS max was highly significant (p<0.001). Objectification of injury severity in polytraumatized patients using the ISS is an internationally well-established method in clinical and scientific settings. The full body CT scan report must meet distinct criteria and has to be written in acquaintance to the AIS scale if intended to be used for correct ISS computation.

  1. Longitudinal DXA studies: minimum scanning interval for pediatric assessment of body fat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increased prevalence of obesity in the United States has led to the increased use of Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for assessment of body fat (TBF). The importance of early intervention has focused attention on pediatric populations. We used DXA precision analyses to determine suitable ...

  2. Automatic measurement extraction for apparel from a three-dimensional body scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pargas, Roy P.; Staples, Nancy J.; Davis, J. Steve

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a project involving computer assisted measurement extraction from a three-dimensional (3D) noncontact fullbody scan. It explains the motivation behind the project, describes briefly the research plan and provides details on the measurement extraction software currently being developed. The software provides the user with tools to take measurements from a digitized image. In addition, a measurement extraction language allows the user to develop macros, or short programs, designed to automate the measurement extraction process. The paper concludes with a description of the current status of the project.

  3. Physics-based Simulation of Human Posture Using 3D Whole Body Scanning Technology for Astronaut Space Suit Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyu-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years high precision three-dimensional (3D) full body laser scanners have been developed to be used as a powerful anthropometry tool for quantification of the morphology of the human body. The full body scanner can quickly extract body characteristics in non-contact fashion. It is required for the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) to have capabilities for kinematics simulation of a digital human at various postures whereas the laser scanner only allows capturing a single static posture at each time. During this summer fellowship period a theoretical study has been conducted to estimate an arbitrary posture with a series of example postures through finite element (FE) approximation and found that four-point isoparametric FE approximation would result in reasonable maximum position errors less than 5%. Subsequent pilot scan experiments demonstrated that a bead marker with a nominal size of 6 mm could be used as a marker for digitizing 3-D coordinates of anatomical landmarks for further kinematic analysis. Two sessions of human subject testing were conducted for reconstruction of an arbitrary postures from a set of example postures for each joint motion for the forearm/hand complex and the whole upper extremity.

  4. Methodologies for Development of Patient Specific Bone Models from Human Body CT Scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougule, Vikas Narayan; Mulay, Arati Vinayak; Ahuja, Bharatkumar Bhagatraj

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with development of algorithm for physical replication of patient specific human bone and construction of corresponding implants/inserts RP models by using Reverse Engineering approach from non-invasive medical images for surgical purpose. In medical field, the volumetric data i.e. voxel and triangular facet based models are primarily used for bio-modelling and visualization, which requires huge memory space. On the other side, recent advances in Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology provides additional facilities/functions for design, prototyping and manufacturing of any object having freeform surfaces based on boundary representation techniques. This work presents a process to physical replication of 3D rapid prototyping (RP) physical models of human bone from various CAD modeling techniques developed by using 3D point cloud data which is obtained from non-invasive CT/MRI scans in DICOM 3.0 format. This point cloud data is used for construction of 3D CAD model by fitting B-spline curves through these points and then fitting surface between these curve networks by using swept blend techniques. This process also can be achieved by generating the triangular mesh directly from 3D point cloud data without developing any surface model using any commercial CAD software. The generated STL file from 3D point cloud data is used as a basic input for RP process. The Delaunay tetrahedralization approach is used to process the 3D point cloud data to obtain STL file. CT scan data of Metacarpus (human bone) is used as the case study for the generation of the 3D RP model. A 3D physical model of the human bone is generated on rapid prototyping machine and its virtual reality model is presented for visualization. The generated CAD model by different techniques is compared for the accuracy and reliability. The results of this research work are assessed for clinical reliability in replication of human bone in medical field.

  5. Obtaining quantitative global tumoral state indicators based on whole-body PET/CT scans: a breast cancer case study.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, Frederic; Domenech, Anna; Escalera, Sergio

    2014-04-01

    In this work we address the need for the computation of quantitative global tumoral state indicators from oncological whole-body PET/computed tomography scans. The combination of such indicators with other oncological information such as tumor markers or biopsy results would prove useful in oncological decision-making scenarios. From an ordering of 100 breast cancer patients on the basis of oncological state through visual analysis by a consensus of nuclear medicine specialists, a set of numerical indicators computed from image analysis of the PET/computed tomography scan is presented, which attempts to summarize a patient's oncological state in a quantitative manner taking into consideration the total tumor volume, aggressiveness, and spread. Results obtained by comparative analysis of the proposed indicators with respect to the experts' evaluation show up to 87% Pearson's correlation coefficient when providing expert-guided PET metabolic tumor volume segmentation and 64% correlation when using completely automatic image analysis techniques. Global quantitative tumor information obtained by whole-body PET/CT image analysis can prove useful in clinical nuclear medicine settings and oncological decision-making scenarios. The completely automatic computation of such indicators would improve its impact as time efficiency and specialist independence would be achieved.

  6. [Radiation Dose of Body Surface at Sensitive Organs and Its Protective Precaution in Head CT Scanning:Initial Experience.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chun-Chao; Pu, Jin; Li, Lei; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Kai; Li, Yu-Ming; Peng, Wan-Lin; Zhang, Jin-Ge; Li, Zhen-Lin

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the radiation dose of body surface at sensitive organs using different protective precaution in head CT scanning. The standard phantom received head routine sequence scanning with dual-source computed tomography.The phantoms were scanned with three different protective precaution:group A (without protective clothing),group B (wearing lead collar and cover lead clothes),group C (wearing lead collar and clothes without cuffs).The thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) was placed on the body surface corresponding to sensitive organs to measure radiation dose. The volume of CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) in group A,B and C were same,44.06 mGy and 634 mGy×cm,respectively.There was no statistic significant difference between group A,B and C of radiation dose in non-protective region (P=0.712).The radiation dose in the neck region under the cover of lead collar in group A,B and C were (2.57 ± 0.65) mGy,(2.30 ± 1.10) mGy and (2.48 ± 0.90) mGy,respectively,without statistic significant difference between groups (P=0.816).However,the radiation dose in abdominal region of group A was (0.66±0.37) mGy,which was significantly higher than that of group B [(0.18 ± 0.18) mGy] and group C [(0.18±0.16) mGy],The radiation dose in dorsal region of group A was (0.55±0.43) mGy,which was significantly higher than that of group B [(0.28±0.22) mGy],while that of group C [(0.14±0.12) mGy] was significantly lower than group B. Compared to traditional lead coverage,lead collar and cloth can decrease the radiation dose of body surface and sensitive organs in head scan with dual source CT.

  7. Hounsfield Units ranges in CT-scans of bog bodies and mummies.

    PubMed

    Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Mummification processes, either artificial or natural, preserve the tissues from postmortem decay, but change them from their original state. In this study we provided the first comprehensive set of Hounsfield Unit (HU) ranges specific for tissues mummified under different environmental conditions (peat bog, cold-dry and hot-dry environment). We also analyzed the impact of different museal preservation techniques on the HU ranges, as e.g. in the Tollund Man and Grauballe Man, two bog bodies from Denmark. The HU results for mummies were compared with HU results from forensic cases, cremated and inhumated ancient human skeletal remains, and fossil animal bones. Knowledge of the typical HU range for the different tissues in mummies may help to avoid misinterpretation of increased or reduced radiodensity as evidence of paleopathological conditions. Finally, we demonstrate the practical benefit of using our re-defined HU ranges by showing the improved results of 3D visualization from automatic segmentation in an Inca mummy from Mount Llullaillaco.

  8. Visualization of UV exposure of the human body based on data from a scanning UV-measuring system.

    PubMed

    Hoeppe, P; Oppenrieder, A; Erianto, C; Koepke, P; Reuder, J; Seefeldner, M; Nowak, D

    2004-09-01

    In general, measurements of UV radition are related to horizontal surfaces, as in the case of the internationally standardized and applied UV index, for example. In order to obtain more relevant information on UV exposure of humans the new measuring system ASCARATIS (Angle SCAnning RAdiometer for determination of erythemally weighted irradiance on TIlted Surfaces) was developed and built. Three systems of ASCARATIS have been in operation at different locations in Bavaria for 3 years, providing erythemally weighted UV irradiation data for 27 differently inclined surfaces every 2 min. On the basis of these data virtual three-dimensional models of the human body surface consisting of about 20,000 triangles could be created and each of these triangles coloured according to its UV irradiation. This allowed the UV exposure of the human body to be visualized for any kind of body posture and spatial orientation on the basis of real measuring data. The results of the UV measurements on inclined surfaces have shown that measuring UV radiation on horizontal surfaces, as done routinely worldwide, often underestimates the UV exposure of the human skin. Especially at times of the day or year with low solar elevations the UV exposure of parts of the human skin can be many times higher than that of the horizontal surface. Examples of three-dimensional modelling of the human UV irradiation are shown for different times of the day and year, altitudes above sea level, body postures and genders. In these examples the UV "hotspots" can be detected and, among other things, used to inform and educate the public about UV radiation.

  9. Estimation of radiation dose to patients from (18) FDG whole body PET/CT investigations using dynamic PET scan protocol.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Aruna; Jaimini, Abhinav; Tripathi, Madhavi; D'Souza, Maria; Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Mishra, Anil K; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing concern over the radiation exposure of patients from undergoing 18FDG PET/CT (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography) whole body investigations. The aim of the present study was to study the kinetics of 18FDG distributions and estimate the radiation dose received by patients undergoing 18FDG whole body PET/CT investigations. Dynamic PET scans in different regions of the body were performed in 49 patients so as to measure percentage uptake of 18FDG in brain, liver, spleen, adrenals, kidneys and stomach. The residence time in these organs was calculated and radiation dose was estimated using OLINDA software. The radiation dose from the CT component was computed using the software CT-Expo and measured using computed tomography dose index (CTDI) phantom and ionization chamber. As per the clinical protocol, the patients were refrained from eating and drinking for a minimum period of 4 h prior to the study. The estimated residence time in males was 0.196 h (brain), 0.09 h (liver), 0.007 h (spleen), 0.0006 h (adrenals), 0.013 h (kidneys) and 0.005 h (stomach) whereas it was 0.189 h (brain), 0.11 h (liver), 0.01 h (spleen), 0.0007 h (adrenals), 0.02 h (kidneys) and 0.004 h (stomach) in females. The effective dose was found to be 0.020 mSv/MBq in males and 0.025 mSv/MBq in females from internally administered 18FDG and 6.8 mSv in males and 7.9 mSv in females from the CT component. For an administered activity of 370 MBq of 18FDG, the effective dose from PET/CT investigations was estimated to be 14.2 mSv in males and 17.2 mSv in females. The present results did not demonstrate significant difference in the kinetics of 18FDG distribution in male and female patients. The estimated PET/CT doses were found to be higher than many other conventional diagnostic radiology examinations suggesting that all efforts should be made to clinically justify and carefully weigh the risk-benefit ratios prior to every 18FDG whole body PET

  10. Estimation of radiation dose to patients from 18FDG whole body PET/CT investigations using dynamic PET scan protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Aruna; Jaimini, Abhinav; Tripathi, Madhavi; D’Souza, Maria; Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Mishra, Anil K.; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: There is a growing concern over the radiation exposure of patients from undergoing 18FDG PET/CT (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography) whole body investigations. The aim of the present study was to study the kinetics of 18FDG distributions and estimate the radiation dose received by patients undergoing 18FDG whole body PET/CT investigations. Methods: Dynamic PET scans in different regions of the body were performed in 49 patients so as to measure percentage uptake of 18FDG in brain, liver, spleen, adrenals, kidneys and stomach. The residence time in these organs was calculated and radiation dose was estimated using OLINDA software. The radiation dose from the CT component was computed using the software CT-Expo and measured using computed tomography dose index (CTDI) phantom and ionization chamber. As per the clinical protocol, the patients were refrained from eating and drinking for a minimum period of 4 h prior to the study. Results: The estimated residence time in males was 0.196 h (brain), 0.09 h (liver), 0.007 h (spleen), 0.0006 h (adrenals), 0.013 h (kidneys) and 0.005 h (stomach) whereas it was 0.189 h (brain), 0.11 h (liver), 0.01 h (spleen), 0.0007 h (adrenals), 0.02 h (kidneys) and 0.004 h (stomach) in females. The effective dose was found to be 0.020 mSv/MBq in males and 0.025 mSv/MBq in females from internally administered 18FDG and 6.8 mSv in males and 7.9 mSv in females from the CT component. For an administered activity of 370 MBq of 18FDG, the effective dose from PET/CT investigations was estimated to be 14.2 mSv in males and 17.2 mSv in females. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results did not demonstrate significant difference in the kinetics of 18FDG distribution in male and female patients. The estimated PET/CT doses were found to be higher than many other conventional diagnostic radiology examinations suggesting that all efforts should be made to clinically justify and

  11. A Set of Image Processing Algorithms for Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Nuclear Medicine Whole Body Bone Scan Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jia-Yann; Kao, Pan-Fu; Chen, Yung-Sheng

    2007-06-01

    Adjustment of brightness and contrast in nuclear medicine whole body bone scan images may confuse nuclear medicine physicians when identifying small bone lesions as well as making the identification of subtle bone lesion changes in sequential studies difficult. In this study, we developed a computer-aided diagnosis system, based on the fuzzy sets histogram thresholding method and anatomical knowledge-based image segmentation method that was able to analyze and quantify raw image data and identify the possible location of a lesion. To locate anatomical reference points, the fuzzy sets histogram thresholding method was adopted as a first processing stage to suppress the soft tissue in the bone images. Anatomical knowledge-based image segmentation method was then applied to segment the skeletal frame into different regions of homogeneous bones. For the different segmented bone regions, the lesion thresholds were set at different cut-offs. To obtain lesion thresholds in different segmented regions, the ranges and standard deviations of the image's gray-level distribution were obtained from 100 normal patients' whole body bone images and then, another 62 patients' images were used for testing. The two groups of images were independent. The sensitivity and the mean number of false lesions detected were used as performance indices to evaluate the proposed system. The overall sensitivity of the system is 92.1% (222 of 241) and 7.58 false detections per patient scan image. With a high sensitivity and an acceptable false lesions detection rate, this computer-aided automatic lesion detection system is demonstrated as useful and will probably in the future be able to help nuclear medicine physicians to identify possible bone lesions.

  12. Renal scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... and urinate often to help remove the radioactive material from the body. How to Prepare for the Test Tell your health care provider if you take ... drink additional fluids before the scan. How the Test will ... into the vein. However, you will not feel the radioactive material. The scanning table may be hard and cold. ...

  13. Anthropometric Measures, Body Mass Index and Pancreatic Cancer: a Pooled Analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan)

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Alan A.; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Kooperberg, Charles; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Steplowski, Emily; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gross, Myron D.; Jacobs, Eric J.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Amundadottir, Laufey; Bamlet, William R.; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bingham, Sheila A.; Boeing, Heiner; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clipp, Sandra; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hartge, Patricia; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Kraft, Peter; Lynch, Shannon M.; Manjer, Jonas; Manson, JoAnn E.; McTiernan, Anne; McWilliams, Robert R.; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Palli, Domenico; Rohan, Thomas E.; Slimani, Nadia; Thomas, Gilles; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolpin, Brian M.; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Patel, Alpa V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pooled data were analyzed from the NCI Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) to study the association between pre-diagnostic anthropometric measures and risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods PanScan applied a nested case-control study design and included 2,170 cases and 2,209 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression for cohort-specific quartiles of body mass index (BMI), weight, height, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), as well as conventional BMI categories: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obese (30.0-34.9 kg/m2), and severely obese (≥35.0 kg/m2). Models were adjusted for potential confounders. Results Among all subjects, a positive association between increasing BMI and risk of pancreatic cancer was observed (adjusted OR for the highest vs. lowest BMI quartile = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.12-1.58, Ptrend < 0.001). Among men, the adjusted OR for pancreatic cancer for the highest vs. lowest quartile of BMI was 1.33 (95% CI = 1.04-1.69, Ptrend <0.03). Among women, the adjusted OR for pancreatic cancer for the highest quartile of BMI was 1.34 (95% CI = 1.05-1.70, Ptrend = 0.01). Increased WHR was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer among women (adjusted OR for the highest vs. lowest quartile = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.31-2.69, Ptrend = 0.003) but less so in men. Conclusion The findings provide strong support for a positive association between BMI and pancreatic cancer risk. In addition, centralized fat distribution may increase pancreatic cancer risk, especially in women. PMID:20458087

  14. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... during the procedure. Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins, may affect the CT images and ... may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the ...

  15. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  16. SU-D-217A-06: Impact of Anterior-Posterior (AP) and Posterior-Anterior (PA) Scout Scans on the CT Radiation Dose in the Whole Body PET/CT Scan.

    PubMed

    Luo, D; Pan, T

    2012-06-01

    CT can contribute over 50% of radiation dose in the whole body (WB) PET/CT scan. Tube current modulation (TCM) is a standard technique for reducing CT radiation dose to the patient by changing the tube current with the patient size, and is controlled by a very low-dose scoutscan, which assumes the patient is positioned at the center of the CT gantry opening. However, most patients are not positioned at the center due to practicality or to avoid claustrophobic or to reduce time of radiation exposure from the patient to the technologist. We study the impact of the AP and PA scout scans to the patient radiation exposure from CT. Ina retrospective study of 200 patients, each received two WB PET/CT scans: one with AP, and the other one with PA. The helical CT with TCM and PET acquisitions were identical in both scans. Separation of the two scans was about 10 months in average. The scans were performed on four GE PET/CT scanners: three 16- and one 64-slice with the same TCM settings. The 200patients were selected for the same scan coverage and similar body weight (difference = 3 kg). The tube current in each slice and average exposure tothe patient were recorded and compared. The AP scout caused lower radiation dose on 94% of the patients. Both the tube current, and radiation exposure were reduced by 46±30 mA and 1.6±1.0 mGy, respectively. The effective radiation dose is reduced by 1.7±1.2 mSv. These results were statistically significant (p<0.00001). The AP scout caused significantly less radiation dose than the PA scout in the CT scan of the whole-body PET/CT scan. Care should be taken to select theorientation of the scout scan to achieve appropriate radiation exposure to the patient when TCM is applied. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. An autosomal genomic scan for loci linked to type II diabetes mellitus and body-mass index in Pima Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, R L; Ehm, M G; Pettitt, D J; Prochazka, M; Thompson, D B; Timberlake, D; Foroud, T; Kobes, S; Baier, L; Burns, D K; Almasy, L; Blangero, J; Garvey, W T; Bennett, P H; Knowler, W C

    1998-01-01

    Genetic factors influence the development of type II diabetes mellitus, but genetic loci for the most common forms of diabetes have not been identified. A genomic scan was conducted to identify loci linked to diabetes and body-mass index (BMI) in Pima Indians, a Native American population with a high prevalence of type II diabetes. Among 264 nuclear families containing 966 siblings, 516 autosomal markers with a median distance between adjacent markers of 6.4 cM were genotyped. Variance-components methods were used to test for linkage with an age-adjusted diabetes score and with BMI. In multipoint analyses, the strongest evidence for linkage with age-adjusted diabetes (LOD = 1.7) was on chromosome 11q, in the region that was also linked most strongly with BMI (LOD = 3.6). Bivariate linkage analyses strongly rejected both the null hypothesis of no linkage with either trait and the null hypothesis of no contribution of the locus to the covariation among the two traits. Sib-pair analyses suggest additional potential diabetes-susceptibility loci on chromosomes 1q and 7q. PMID:9758619

  18. Comparison of 3D laser-based photonic scans and manual anthropometric measurements of body size and shape in a validation study of 123 young Swiss men.

    PubMed

    Koepke, Nikola; Zwahlen, Marcel; Wells, Jonathan C; Bender, Nicole; Henneberg, Maciej; Rühli, Frank J; Staub, Kaspar

    2017-01-01

    Manual anthropometric measurements are time-consuming and challenging to perform within acceptable intra- and inter-individual error margins in large studies. Three-dimensional (3D) laser body scanners provide a fast and precise alternative: within a few seconds the system produces a 3D image of the body topography and calculates some 150 standardised body size measurements. The aim was to enhance the small number of existing validation studies and compare scan and manual techniques based on five selected measurements. We assessed the agreement between two repeated measurements within the two methods, analysed the direct agreement between the two methods, and explored the differences between the techniques when used in regressions assessing the effect of health related determinants on body shape indices. We performed two repeated body scans on 123 volunteering young men using a Vitus Smart XXL body scanner. We manually measured height, waist, hip, buttock, and chest circumferences twice for each participant according to the WHO guidelines. The participants also filled in a basic questionnaire. Mean differences between the two scan measurements were smaller than between the two manual measurements, and precision as well as intra-class correlation coefficients were higher. Both techniques were strongly correlated. When comparing means between both techniques we found significant differences: Height was systematically shorter by 2.1 cm, whereas waist, hip and bust circumference measurements were larger in the scans by 1.17-4.37 cm. In consequence, body shape indices also became larger and the prevalence of overweight was greater when calculated from the scans. Between 4.1% and 7.3% of the probands changed risk category from normal to overweight when classified based on the scans. However, when employing regression analyses the two measurement techniques resulted in very similar coefficients, confidence intervals, and p-values. For performing a large number of

  19. Comparison of 3D laser-based photonic scans and manual anthropometric measurements of body size and shape in a validation study of 123 young Swiss men

    PubMed Central

    Zwahlen, Marcel; Wells, Jonathan C.; Bender, Nicole; Henneberg, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Background Manual anthropometric measurements are time-consuming and challenging to perform within acceptable intra- and inter-individual error margins in large studies. Three-dimensional (3D) laser body scanners provide a fast and precise alternative: within a few seconds the system produces a 3D image of the body topography and calculates some 150 standardised body size measurements. Objective The aim was to enhance the small number of existing validation studies and compare scan and manual techniques based on five selected measurements. We assessed the agreement between two repeated measurements within the two methods, analysed the direct agreement between the two methods, and explored the differences between the techniques when used in regressions assessing the effect of health related determinants on body shape indices. Methods We performed two repeated body scans on 123 volunteering young men using a Vitus Smart XXL body scanner. We manually measured height, waist, hip, buttock, and chest circumferences twice for each participant according to the WHO guidelines. The participants also filled in a basic questionnaire. Results Mean differences between the two scan measurements were smaller than between the two manual measurements, and precision as well as intra-class correlation coefficients were higher. Both techniques were strongly correlated. When comparing means between both techniques we found significant differences: Height was systematically shorter by 2.1 cm, whereas waist, hip and bust circumference measurements were larger in the scans by 1.17–4.37 cm. In consequence, body shape indices also became larger and the prevalence of overweight was greater when calculated from the scans. Between 4.1% and 7.3% of the probands changed risk category from normal to overweight when classified based on the scans. However, when employing regression analyses the two measurement techniques resulted in very similar coefficients, confidence intervals, and p

  20. New routine for nuclear medicine technologists to determine when to add SPECT/CT to a whole-body bone scan.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Asal; Thorsson, Ola; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2014-03-01

    Bone scintigraphy is usually obtained as a whole-body scan producing 2 images: an anterior view and a posterior view. Sometimes abnormal findings in the spine are difficult to distinguish on whole-body bone scans. SPECT/CT may be performed to localize and interpret a lesion correctly and to help differentiate between benign and metastatic lesions. The assessment of whether SPECT/CT is needed is usually made by a physician. The aim of this study was to evaluate our new routine for nuclear medicine technologists to determine when to add SPECT/CT to whole-body bone scintigraphy. A 3-part educational course was developed for the nuclear medicine technologists. The first part was to learn criteria for when SPECT/CT should be added to a whole-body bone scan. The second part was to review a selection of training whole-body bone scans illustrating the criteria. The third part was to pass a test of whether whole-body bone scans should be supplemented by SPECT/CT. The nuclear medicine technologists and the physicians agreed that SPECT/CT was required in 63 cases and not required in 27 cases. The resulting percentage agreement was 90%, and the κ value was 0.77. There was disagreement in 10 cases. In 6 of these cases only the nuclear medicine technologists wanted to add SPECT/CT, and in 4 of these cases only the physicians wanted to add SPECT/CT. After participating in the training course developed in this project, the nuclear medicine technologists were able to decide whether a SPECT/CT study is needed. An implication of this result is that the effectiveness of the nuclear medicine department should be improved after our new routine is implemented. The successful outcome of this project may stimulate departments to take on similar quality-improvement projects in the future.

  1. Assessment of a Microsoft Kinect-based 3D scanning system for taking body segment girth measurements: a comparison to ISAK and ISO standards.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Sean; Wheat, Jon; Heller, Ben; Choppin, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Use of anthropometric data to infer sporting performance is increasing in popularity, particularly within elite sport programmes. Measurement typically follows standards set by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). However, such techniques are time consuming, which reduces their practicality. Schranz et al. recently suggested 3D body scanners could replace current measurement techniques; however, current systems are costly. Recent interest in natural user interaction has led to a range of low-cost depth cameras capable of producing 3D body scans, from which anthropometrics can be calculated. A scanning system comprising 4 depth cameras was used to scan 4 cylinders, representative of the body segments. Girth measurements were calculated from the 3D scans and compared to gold standard measurements. Requirements of a Level 1 ISAK practitioner were met in all 4 cylinders, and ISO standards for scan-derived girth measurements were met in the 2 larger cylinders only. A fixed measurement bias was identified that could be corrected with a simple offset factor. Further work is required to determine comparable performance across a wider range of measurements performed upon living participants. Nevertheless, findings of the study suggest such a system offers many advantages over current techniques, having a range of potential applications.

  2. Brain metastases detectability of routine whole body (18)F-FDG PET and low dose CT scanning in 2502 asymptomatic patients with solid extracranial tumors.

    PubMed

    Bochev, Pavel; Klisarova, Aneliya; Kaprelyan, Ara; Chaushev, Borislav; Dancheva, Zhivka

    2012-01-01

    As fluorine-18-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( (18)F-FDG PET/CT) is gaining wider availability, more and more patients with malignancies undergo whole body PET/CT, mostly to assess tumor spread in the rest of the body, but not in the brain. Brain is a common site of metastatic spread in patients with solid extracranial tumors. Gold standard in the diagnosis of brain metastases remains magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However MRI is not routinely indicated and is not available for all cancer patients. Fluorine-18-FDG PET is considered as having poor sensitivity in detecting brain metastases, but this may not be true for PET/CT. The aim of our study was to assess the value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of brain metastases found by whole body scan including the brain, in patients with solid extracranial neoplasms. A total of 2502 patients with solid extracranial neoplasms were studied. All patients underwent a routine whole body (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan with the whole brain included in the scanned field. Patients with known or suspected brain metastases were preliminary excluded from the study. Hypermetabolic and ring-like brain lesions on the PET scan were considered as metastases. Lesions with CT characteristics of brain metastases were regarded as such irrespective of their metabolic pattern. Lesions in doubt were verified by MRI during first testing or on follow-up or by operation. Our results showed that brain lesions, indicative of and verified to be metastases were detected in 25 out of the 2502 patients (1%), with lung cancer being the most common primary. Twenty three out of these 25 patients had no neurological symptoms by the time of the scan. The detection rate of brain metastases was relatively low, but information was obtained with a minimum increase of radiation burden. In conclusion, whole body (18)F-FDG PET/CT detected brain metastases in 1% of the patients if brain was included in the scanned field. Brain

  3. 3D surface and body documentation in forensic medicine: 3-D/CAD Photogrammetry merged with 3D radiological scanning.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Wirth, Joachim; Vock, Peter; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-01

    A main goal of forensic medicine is to document and to translate medical findings to a language and/or visualization that is readable and understandable for judicial persons and for medical laymen. Therefore, in addition to classical methods, scientific cutting-edge technologies can and should be used. Through the use of the Forensic, 3-D/CAD-supported Photogrammetric method the documentation of so-called "morphologic fingerprints" has been realized. Forensic, 3-D/CAD-supported Photogrammetry creates morphologic data models of the injury and of the suspected injury-causing instrument allowing the evaluation of a match between the injury and the instrument. In addition to the photogrammetric body surface registration, the radiological documentation provided by a volume scan (i.e., spiral, multi-detector CT, or MRI) registers the sub-surface injury, which is not visible to Photogrammetry. The new, combined method of merging Photogrammetry and Radiology data sets creates the potential to perform many kinds of reconstructions and postprocessing of (patterned) injuries in the realm of forensic medical case work. Using this merging method of colored photogrammetric surface and gray-scale radiological internal documentation, a great step towards a new kind of reality-based, high-tech wound documentation and visualization in forensic medicine is made. The combination of the methods of 3D/CAD Photogrammetry and Radiology has the advantage of being observer-independent, non-subjective, non-invasive, digitally storable over years or decades and even transferable over the web for second opinion.

  4. Assessing the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT scan after stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pastis, Nicholas J; Greer, Travis J; Tanner, Nichole T; Wahlquist, Amy E; Gordon, Leonie L; Sharma, Anand K; Koch, Nicholas C; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2014-08-01

    Although stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an established treatment option for early-stage lung cancer, there are no guidelines for reassessing patients for local treatment failure or intrathoracic recurrence after treatment. This study reports the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT scanning when used to evaluate patients after SBRT. Charts were reviewed of all patients who received SBRT and a subsequent FDG PET-CT scan at a university hospital over a 5-year period. Pretreatment and 3-month posttreatment tumor characteristics on PET-CT scan and outcome data (adverse events from SBRT, need for repeat biopsy, rate of local treatment failure and recurrent disease, and all-cause mortality) were recorded. Eighty-eight patients were included in the study. Fourteen percent of patients (12 of 88) had positive 3-month PET scans. Of the positive results, 67% (eight of 12) were true positives. Eighty-six percent (76 of 88 patients) had negative 3-month FDG PET-CT scans, with 89% (68 of 76) true negatives. FDG PET-CT scan performed 3 months after SBRT for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) had a sensitivity of 50% (95% CI, 0.26-0.75), a specificity of 94% (95% CI, 0.89-1.0), a positive predictive value of 67% (95% CI, 0.4-0.93), and a negative predictive value of 89% (95% CI, 0.83- 0.96). FDG PET-CT scan 3 months after treatment of NSCLC with SBRT was a specific but insensitive test for the detection of recurrence or treatment failure. Serial CT scans should be used for early surveillance following SBRT, whereas FDG PET-CT scans should be reserved to define suspected metastatic disease or to evaluate new abnormalities on CT scan, or for possible reassessment later in the follow-up period after radiation-related inflammation subsides.

  5. Patient experience and perceived acceptability of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for staging colorectal and lung cancer compared with current staging scans: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Stuart; Janes, Sam; Halligan, Steve; Morton, Alison; Navani, Neal; Oliver, Alf; Rockall, Andrea; Teague, Jonathan; Miles, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the experience and acceptability of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) staging compared with standard scans among patients with highly suspected or known colorectal or lung cancer. Design Qualitative study using one-to-one interviews with thematic analysis. Setting Patients recruited from 10 hospitals in London, East and South East England between March 2013 and July 2014. Participants 51 patients (31 male, age range 40–89 years), with varying levels of social deprivation, were recruited consecutively from two parallel clinical trials comparing the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of WB-MRI with standard scans for staging colorectal and lung cancer (‘Streamline-C’ and ‘Streamline-L’). WB-MRI was offered as an additional scan as part of the trials. Results In general WB-MRI presented a greater challenge than standard scans, although all but four patients completed the WB-MRI. Key challenges were enclosed space, noise and scan duration; reduced patient tolerance was associated with claustrophobia, pulmonary symptoms and existing comorbidities. Coping strategies facilitated scan tolerance and were grouped into (1) those intended to help with physical and emotional challenges, and (2) those focused on motivation to complete the scan, for example focusing on health benefit. Our study suggests that good staff communication could reduce anxiety and boost coping strategies. Conclusions Although WB-MRI was perceived as more challenging than standard scans, it was sufficiently acceptable and tolerated by most patients to potentially replace them if appropriate. Trial registration number ISRCTN43958015 and ISRCTN50436483. PMID:28882915

  6. Patient experience and perceived acceptability of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for staging colorectal and lung cancer compared with current staging scans: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ruth; Taylor, Stuart; Janes, Sam; Halligan, Steve; Morton, Alison; Navani, Neal; Oliver, Alf; Rockall, Andrea; Teague, Jonathan; Miles, Anne

    2017-09-06

    To describe the experience and acceptability of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) staging compared with standard scans among patients with highly suspected or known colorectal or lung cancer. Qualitative study using one-to-one interviews with thematic analysis. Patients recruited from 10 hospitals in London, East and South East England between March 2013 and July 2014. 51 patients (31 male, age range 40-89 years), with varying levels of social deprivation, were recruited consecutively from two parallel clinical trials comparing the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of WB-MRI with standard scans for staging colorectal and lung cancer ('Streamline-C' and 'Streamline-L'). WB-MRI was offered as an additional scan as part of the trials. In general WB-MRI presented a greater challenge than standard scans, although all but four patients completed the WB-MRI. Key challenges were enclosed space, noise and scan duration; reduced patient tolerance was associated with claustrophobia, pulmonary symptoms and existing comorbidities. Coping strategies facilitated scan tolerance and were grouped into (1) those intended to help with physical and emotional challenges, and (2) those focused on motivation to complete the scan, for example focusing on health benefit. Our study suggests that good staff communication could reduce anxiety and boost coping strategies. Although WB-MRI was perceived as more challenging than standard scans, it was sufficiently acceptable and tolerated by most patients to potentially replace them if appropriate. ISRCTN43958015 and ISRCTN50436483. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. The role of thallium-201 whole body scan with pelvic SPECT in patients with uterine cervical cancer treated by radiation therapy: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chen, Shang-Wen; Yang, Shih-Neng; Sun, Shung-Shung

    2003-10-01

    Evaluation of tumor extent before treatment and its response to therapy is important. The aim of this report is to assess the usefulness with thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging study including whole body scan and pelvic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with uterine cervical cancers treated by radiation therapy. Before irradiation, eleven patients received detailed physical examination and Tl-201 imaging studies. A 4-score grading system was set for evaluation. The interval between Tl-201 imaging follow-up and completion of radiotherapy is one to four months, and its findings were compared with those from CT scan and clinical evidence. Before radiation, left supraclavicular and paraaortic lymphadenopathy was identified in one patient from whole body scan. Accumulation of Tl-201 uptake is observed from pelvic SPECT in all patients. It seems that patients with more tumor bulk had more intense uptake, except for one case with history of suspected pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). After radiotherapy, complete or partial regression is observed. For 6 patients with complete regression (score = 0), no evidence of recurrence is confirmed by follow-up examinations. For three patients with little residual uptake (score = 1), one is suspected with residual density and she is under close follow-up, the other two patients seem due to uterine myoma or short latency. These three patients received another Tl-201 scan 6 months after irradiation completion and the score became zero. One patient with residual intense uptake (score = 2) suffered from relapse in the pelvis and abdomen. This preliminary report indicates that Tl-201 whole body scan and pelvic SPECT has potential in the assessment of response to radiotherapy in patients with uterine cervical cancers. However, further studies including more cases and longer follow-up are needed.

  8. High rates of clinically relevant incidental findings by total-body CT scanning in trauma patients; results of the REACT-2 trial.

    PubMed

    Treskes, K; Bos, S A; Beenen, L F M; Sierink, J C; Edwards, M J R; Beuker, B J A; Muradin, G S R; Hohmann, J; Luitse, J S K; Hollmann, M W; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Goslings, J C

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether there is a difference in frequency and clinical relevance of incidental findings detected by total-body computed tomography scanning (TBCT) compared to those by the standard work-up (STWU) with selective computed tomography (CT) scanning. Trauma patients from five trauma centres were randomized between April 2011 and January 2014 to TBCT imaging or STWU consisting of conventional imaging with selective CT scanning. Incidental findings were divided into three categories: 1) major finding, may cause mortality; 2) moderate finding, may cause morbidity; and 3) minor finding, hardly relevant. Generalized estimating equations were applied to assess differences in incidental findings. In total, 1083 patients were enrolled, of which 541 patients (49.9 %) were randomized for TBCT and 542 patients (50.1 %) for STWU. Major findings were detected in 23 patients (4.3 %) in the TBCT group compared to 9 patients (1.7 %) in the STWU group (adjusted rate ratio 2.851; 95%CI 1.337-6.077; p < 0.007). Findings of moderate relevance were detected in 120 patients (22.2 %) in the TBCT group compared to 86 patients (15.9 %) in the STWU group (adjusted rate ratio 1.421; 95%CI 1.088-1.854; p < 0.010). Compared to selective CT scanning, more patients with clinically relevant incidental findings can be expected by TBCT scanning. • Total-body CT scanning in trauma results in 1.5 times more incidental findings. • Evaluation by TBCT in trauma results in more patients with incidental findings. • In every category of clinical relevance, TBCT detects more incidental findings.

  9. Effective detection of the tumors causing osteomalacia using [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body scan.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hongli; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming; Wang, Zhenghua; Tian, Jian; Xing, Xiaoping; Jin, Jin; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhang, Jingjing

    2013-11-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an endocrine disorder caused by tumors producing excessive fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). The causative tumors are generally small, slow-growing benign mesenchymal tumors. The only cure of the disease depends on resection of the tumors, which are extremely difficult to localize due to their small sizes and rare locations. Since these tumors are known to express somatostatin receptors, this research was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body imaging in this clinical setting Images of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scans and clinical chart from 183 patients with hypophosphatemia and clinically suspected TIO were retrospectively reviewed. The scan findings were compared to the results of histopathological examinations and clinical follow-ups. Among 183 patients, 72 were confirmed to have TIO while 103 patients were found to have other causes of hypophosphatemia. The possibility of TIO could not be either diagnosed or excluded in the remaining 8 patients. For analytical purposes, these 8 patients who could neither be diagnosed nor excluded as having TIO were regarded as having the disease, bringing the total of TIO patients to 80. The 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scan identified 69 tumors in 80 patients with TIO, which rendered a sensitivity of 86.3% (69/80). 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy excluded 102 patients without TIO with a specificity of 99.1% (102/103). The overall accuracy of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC whole body scan in the localization of tumors responsible for osteomalacia is 93.4% (171/183). Whole body 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC imaging is effective in the localization of occult tumors causing TIO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating radiation effective doses from whole body computed tomography scans based on U.S. soldier patient height and weight

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to explore how a patient's height and weight can be used to predict the effective dose to a reference phantom with similar height and weight from a chest abdomen pelvis computed tomography scan when machine-based parameters are unknown. Since machine-based scanning parameters can be misplaced or lost, a predictive model will enable the medical professional to quantify a patient's cumulative radiation dose. Methods One hundred mathematical phantoms of varying heights and weights were defined within an x-ray Monte Carlo based software code in order to calculate organ absorbed doses and effective doses from a chest abdomen pelvis scan. Regression analysis was used to develop an effective dose predictive model. The regression model was experimentally verified using anthropomorphic phantoms and validated against a real patient population. Results Estimates of the effective doses as calculated by the predictive model were within 10% of the estimates of the effective doses using experimentally measured absorbed doses within the anthropomorphic phantoms. Comparisons of the patient population effective doses show that the predictive model is within 33% of current methods of estimating effective dose using machine-based parameters. Conclusions A patient's height and weight can be used to estimate the effective dose from a chest abdomen pelvis computed tomography scan. The presented predictive model can be used interchangeably with current effective dose estimating techniques that rely on computed tomography machine-based techniques. PMID:22004072

  11. Whole-body biodistribution and the influence of body activity on brain kinetic analysis of the (11)C-PiB PET scan.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Go; Nishio, Tomoyuki; Adachi, Kazuhiko; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Senda, Michio

    2017-09-11

    Dynamic (11)C-PiB PET imaging with kinetic analysis has been performed for accurate quantification of amyloid binding in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we measured the whole-body biodistribution of (11)C-PiB in nine subjects. We then evaluated the effect of body activity on quantitative accuracy of brain (11)C-PiB three-dimensional (3D) dynamic PET. Based on clinical biodistribution data, we conducted phantom experiments to estimate the effect of body activity on quantification of the brain 3D dynamic (11)C-PiB PET data and the error introduced by body activity using six different PET camera models. One of the PET cameras was used to acquire (11)C-PiB brain 3D dynamic PET data on a patient with AD. We calculated the distribution volume ratio (DVR) in two kinetic methods using both the original human time-activity-curve (TAC) data and the TAC corrected for the error caused by body activity. In the early phase, both healthy subjects and patients with AD showed a biodistribution of (11)C-PiB that reflected regional blood flow. In the simulated early phase of the phantom experiments, activity outside the field of view led to a maximum 6.0% overestimation of brain activity in the vertex region. Conversely, the effect of body activity on the DVR estimate was small (≤1.2%), probably because the tested kinetic methods did not rely heavily on early phase data. These results indicate that the effect of body activity on brain (11)C-PiB PET quantification is generally small and that it depends on the method of kinetic analysis, the region of interest, and the PET camera model used.

  12. [Ethical issues raised by direct-to-consumer personal genome analysis and whole body scans: discussion and contextualisation of a report by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics].

    PubMed

    Buyx, Alena M; Strech, Daniel; Schmidt, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of personalised medicine has many different facets, further to the application of pharmacogenetics. We examine here (direct-to-consumer) personal genome analysis and whole body scans and summarise findings from the Nuffield Council's on Bioethics recent report "Medical profiling and online medicine: the ethics of 'personalised healthcare' in a consumer age". We describe the current situation in Germany with regard to access to such services, and contextualise the Nuffield Council's report with summaries of position statements by German professional bodies. We conclude with three points that merit examination further to the analyses of the Nuffield Council's report and the German professional bodies. These concern the role of indirect evidence in considering restrictive policies, the question of whether regulations should require commercial providers to contribute to the generation of better evidence, and the option of using data from evaluations in combination with indirect evidence in justifying restrictive policies.

  13. Whole body 16-row multislice CT in emergency room: effects of different protocols on scanning time, image quality and radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Fanucci, Ezio; Fiaschetti, Valeria; Rotili, Anna; Floris, Roberto; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two different scanning protocols in patients suspected to have multiple trauma using multidetector 16-row computed tomography (CT) to better define scanning time, imaging quality and radiation exposure. Forty-six patients, between March 2004 and March 2005, with suspected multiple trauma (cerebral, spine, chest, abdominal and pelvis) were evaluated with two different protocols: Protocol "A" 26 patients; Protocol "B" 20 patients. Protocol A consists of a single-pass continuous whole-body acquisition (from vertex to pubic symphysis), whereas Protocol B of conventional segmented acquisition with scanning of body segments individually. Both protocols were performed using a multidetector 16-rows CT (Light-Speed 16, General Electric Medical System, Milwaukee, WI, USA) with the same technical factors. Radiation dose was evaluated in two ways: computer tomography dose index (CTDI) = dose measured in central and peripheral region of the subjects as a direct result of a CT section acquisition of T millimeters thick (independent from the two protocols) and dose length product (DLP) = total dose deposited over the length of the acquisition (dependent from the two protocols). Image quality was rated according to the following scores: 1, excellent; 2, good; 3, satisfactory; 4, moderate and 5, poor. The results were compared using Wilcoxon's test to identify significant difference in terms of image quality, scanning time, radiation exposure and presence of artifacts, assuming significance at a p value of <0.05. In the single-pass scanning, DLP was 2.671 mGy x cm and a total scan time of 35 s. In whole-body protocols, we have seen artifacts due to arm adduction in thorax and less image quality in brain. In the conventional segmented study, DLP was 3.217 mGy x cm and a total scan time of 65 s; this protocol offered less extraction capabilities of off-axial on focused images of the entire spine, aorta, facial bones or hip without rescanning

  14. Comfort and pressure distribution in a human contour shaped aircraft seat (developed with 3D scans of the human body).

    PubMed

    Smulders, M; Berghman, K; Koenraads, M; Kane, J A; Krishna, K; Carter, T K; Schultheis, U

    2016-08-12

    The concept of comfort is one way for the growing airline market to differentiate and build customer loyalty. This work follows the idea that increasing the contact area between human and seat can have a positive effect on comfort [5, 6, 7]. To improve comfort, reduce weight and optimise space used, a human contour shaped seat shell and cushioning was developed. First the most common activities, the corresponding postures and seat inclination angles were defined. The imprints of these postures on a rescue mat were 3D scanned and an average human contour curve was defined. The outcome was transferred to a prototype seat that was used to test the effect on perceived comfort/discomfort and pressure distribution. The resulting human contour based prototype seat has comfort and discomfort scores comparable to a traditional seat. The prototype seat had a significantly lower average pressure between subjects' buttocks and the seat pan over a traditional seat. This study shows that it is possible to design a seat pan and backrest based on the different contours of study subjects using 3D scan technology. However, translating the 3D scans into a prototype seat also showed that this can only be seen as a first step; additionally biomechanical information and calculations are needed to create ergonomic seats. Furthermore, it is not possible to capture all different human shapes and postures and translate these into one human contour shape that fits all activities and all human sizes.

  15. Association between Body Mass Index and Bone Mineral Density in Patients Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Ajman, UAE.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Tarek; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Ahmed, Amal; Alshamsi, Salma Obaid Saeed; Al Ali, Mariyam Saif Salim Humaid Bin Bader; Al Balsooshi, Khawla Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is a good indicator for measurements of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) which measures the density of minerals present in the bones using a special scan. This study was conducted to assess the association between BMI and status of BMD among 101 individuals who underwent Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. 39 subjects had normal and 62 had low bone mineral density. BMD was low in 82.4% of people with normal BMI, 78.1% among overweight, and 44.2% among obese. There was a statistically significant association between these two variables (P < .001). Low BMD was recorded in 59.1% of females and 76.9% of males. Association between advancing age and lower BMI is an important risk factor in the occurrence of low BMD.

  16. Technical note: Criterion validity of whole body surface area equations: a comparison using 3D laser scanning.

    PubMed

    Daniell, Nathan; Olds, Timothy; Tomkinson, Grant

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of whole body surface area (WBSA) have important applications in numerous fields including biological anthropology, clinical medicine, biomechanics, and sports science. Currently, WBSA is most often estimated using predictive equations due to the complex and time consuming methods required for direct measurement. The main aim of this study was to identify whether there were significant and meaningful differences between WBSA measurements taken using a whole body three-dimensional (3D) scanner (criterion measure) and the estimates derived from each WBSA equation identified from a systematic review. The study also aimed to determine whether differences varied according to body mass index (BMI), sex, or athletic status. Fifteen WBSA equations were compared with direct measurements taken on 1,714 young adult subjects, aged 18-30 years, using the Vitus Smart 3D whole body scanner, including 1,452 subjects (753 males, 699 females) from the general Australian population and 262 rowers (148 males, 114 females). Mixed-design analysis of variances determined significant differences and accuracy was quantified using Bland-Altman analysis and effect sizes. Thirteen of the 15 equations overestimated WBSA. With a few exceptions, equations were accurate with a low-systematic error (bias ≤2%) and low-random error (standard deviation of the differences 1.5-3.0%). However, BMI did have a substantial impact with the accuracy of some WBSA equations varying between the four BMI categories. The Shuter and Aslani: Eur J Appl Physiol 82 (2000) 250-254 equation was identified as the most accurate equation and should be used for Western populations 18-30 years of age. Care must be taken when deciding which equation to use when estimating WBSA.

  17. The control of fruiting body formation in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Auersw. by regulation of hyphal development : An analysis based on scanning electron and light microscopic observations.

    PubMed

    Hock, B; Bahn, M; Walk, R A; Nitschke, U

    1978-01-01

    The morphological effects of biotin and L-arginine on fruiting body formation of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora are investigated by scanning electron and light microscopy. Biotin is recognized as an elongation factor and arginine as a branching factor in vegetative and reproductive hyphae. In the absence of exogenous biotin, development is blocked after the ascogonium-core hypha stage of protoperithecial morphogenesis, whereas linear growth of the myceliar front is maintained. The addition of exogenous arginine to a biotin deficient culture induces the formation of numerous side branches even in the older mycelium. Fruiting body formation, however, remains blocked at the protoperithecial stage as before, because of the inability of the side branches to elongate. When biotin and arginine are administered simultaneously, a most vigorous branching and growth are induced in the older mycelium, accompanied by a rapid and maximal formation of fruiting bodies. The results are summarized in a model of the exogenous control of hyphal morphogenesis. The model is designed to explain the relationship between fruiting and hyphal density as well as the edge effect on fruiting body formation.

  18. [Total body MRI in early detection of bone metastasis and its indication in comparison to bone scan and other imaging techniques].

    PubMed

    Luna, Antonio; Vilanova, Joan C; Alcalá Mata, Lidia

    2015-04-01

    Bone metastases are a recognized prognostic factor in patients with prostate cancer. Currently, Tc99 bone scan is the most frequently used imaging technique for their detection, showing a high sensitivity but a limited specificity. Thus, new morphological and mainly functional imaging techniques based on PET and MRI, or hybrid techniques such as PET-CT or PET-MRI have been introduced to improve metastases detection, estimation of total tumor load and for therapeutic monitoring. In this clinical scenario, total body MRI has arisen as a very promising technique in detection and therapeutic monitoring of bone metastases of prostate cancer, because it neither uses ionizing radiation nor needs the administration of contrast media. The incorporation of MR diffusion to the morphologic total body MRI protocols provides functional information, improving the sensitivity in oncological lesions detection in general and osteolytic bone metastases of PCa in particular. Its integration in protocols with morphological sequences and its quantification through ADC maps enables us to better understand metastatic bone disease patterns and their changes with different therapies. Total body D MRI enables the early classification of the response to treatment with evident advantages over other imaging techniques and the purely morphological approach with MRI. In any case, prospective and cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to establish the role of total-body D MRI in the management of patients with PCa.

  19. In Thyroidectomized Thyroid Cancer Patients, False-Positive I-131 Whole Body Scans Are Often Caused by Inflammation Rather Than Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garger, Yana Basis; Winfeld, Mathew; Friedman, Kent; Blum, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To show that I-131 false-positive results on whole-body scans (WBSs) after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer may be a result of inflammation unassociated with the cancer. Methods. We performed a retrospective image analysis of our database of thyroid cancer patients who underwent WBS from January 2008 to January 2012 to identify and stratify false positives. Results. A total of 564 patients underwent WBS during the study period; 96 patients were referred for 99 I-131 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) scans to better interpret cryptic findings. Among them, 73 scans were shown to be falsely positive; 40/73 or 54.7% of false-positive findings were a result of inflammation. Of the findings, 17 were in the head, 1 in the neck, 4 in the chest, 3 in the abdomen, and 14 in the pelvis; 1 had a knee abscess. Conclusions. In our series, inflammation caused the majority of false-positive WBSs. I-131 SPECT/CT is powerful in the differentiation of inflammation from thyroid cancer. By excluding metastatic disease, one can properly prognosticate outcome and avoid unnecessary, potentially harmful treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. PMID:26977418

  20. Examination of forensic entomology evidence using computed tomography scanning: case studies and refinement of techniques for estimating maggot mass volumes in bodies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Aidan; Archer, Melanie; Leigh-Shaw, Lyndie; Pais, Mike; O'Donnell, Chris; Wallman, James

    2012-09-01

    A new technique has recently been developed for estimating the volume of maggot masses on deceased persons using post-mortem CT scans. This allows volume to be measured non-invasively and factored into maggot mass temperature calculations for both casework and research. Examination of admission scans also allows exploration of entomological evidence in anatomical areas not usually exposed by autopsy (e.g. nasal cavities and facial sinuses), and before autopsy disrupts the maggot distribution on a body. This paper expands on work already completed by providing the x-ray attenuation coefficient by way of Hounsfield unit (HU) values for various maggot species, maggot masses and human tissue adjacent to masses. Specifically, this study looked at the HU values for four forensically important blowfly larvae: Lucilia cuprina, L. sericata, Calliphora stygia and C. vicina. The Calliphora species had significantly lower HU values than the Lucilia species. This might be explained by histological analysis, which revealed a non-significant trend, suggesting that Calliphora maggots have a higher fat content than the Lucilia maggots. It is apparent that the variation in the x-ray attenuation coefficient usually precludes its use as a tool for delineating the maggot mass from human tissue and that morphology is the dominant method for delineating a mass. This paper also includes three case studies, which reveal different applications for interpreting entomological evidence using post-mortem CT scans.

  1. Presence of matrix vesicles in the body of odontoblasts and in the inner third of dentinal tissue: A scanning electron microscopyc study

    PubMed Central

    Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela; Reyes-Gasga, José

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this report is to present the results of a scanning electron microscopic study on the presence of matrix vesicles (MVs) found in human dentine. Study Design: Dentin tissue from 20 human bicuspids was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy. Results: MVs were found as outgrowths of the cellular membrane of the odontoblastic body, the more proximal portion of the odontoblastic process before entering the dentinal tubule and in the odontoblastic process within the inner third of the dentin. Size of MVs varied depending on location. In the inner third of dentin, they were seen in diverse positions; as membranal outgrowths, deriving from the odontoblastic process, lying free in the intratubular space and attached to the dentinal wall. Sometimes, they were seen organized forming groups of different sizes and shapes or as multivesicular chains running from the surface of the odontoblastic process to the tubular wall. MVs were present in places never considered: 1) the body of odontoblasts; 2) the most proximal part of the odontoblastic processes before entering the circumpulpal dentine and also: 3) in the inner third of dentinal tissue. Conclusions: According to our results, MVs not only participate during mantle dentin mineralization during early dentinogenesis, they also contribute during the mineralization process of the inner dentin. Key words:Dentin, microvesicles, secretory vesicles, dentin formation, dentin secretion. PMID:23385510

  2. Intrathoracic stomach mimicking bone metastasis from thyroid cancer in whole-body iodine-131 scan diagnosed by SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Francisco Javier; la Riva-Pérez, Pablo Antonio de; Calvo-Morón, Cinta; Buján-Lloret, Cristina; Cambil-Molina, Teresa; Castro-Montaño, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The whole-body iodine-131 scintigraphy is an imaging technique in monitoring patients with a history of thyroid cancer. Although the rate of false positives is negligible, it is not nonexistent. We report the case of an intervened and treated patient for thyroid cancer with good clinical and biochemical response. Scintigraphic findings were consistent with unsuspected bone metastasis. Fused SPECT/CT data allowed accurate diagnosis of giant diaphragmatic hernia associated with intrathoracic stomach, a very rare pathology that can lead to false positive results.

  3. Quantification of the postural and technical errors in asymptomatic adults using direct 3D whole body scan measurements of standing posture.

    PubMed

    Tomkinson, Grant R; Shaw, Linda G

    2013-02-01

    Measurement repeatability has important decision-making implications for clinicians and researchers when assessing individuals. The aims of this study were to quantify: (a) the repeatability of direct measurements of standing posture using three dimensional (3D) whole body scanning, and (b) the magnitude of the postural and technical errors involved. Fifty-two asymptomatic adults were scanned twice, 24h apart, using the Vitus Smart 3D whole body scanner. Eleven clinically relevant standing postural measurements were calculated from scan-extracted data. The process was repeated with 10 shop mannequins. Systematic error was expressed as absolute changes in means and as standardised effect sizes, with random (within-subject) error expressed as the typical error. Technical error was calculated as the typical error in the measurement of mannequins; total error as the typical error in the measurement of subjects; and postural error as the square root of the difference between the squared total error and the squared technical error. Most standing postural measurements demonstrated good repeatability, with median (95% CI) systematic and random errors of -0.1° (1.1°) and 2.8° (1.9°), respectively. However, head and neck postures demonstrated poor repeatability due to large random errors brought about by large postural errors. Overall, most of the error was due to postural error rather than technical error. The relatively small technical errors highlight that this 3D measurement process is generally repeatable, while the relatively large postural errors related to the head and neck suggest that these postures probably lack the precision to be clinically useful using this procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Protective Shielding Utilization for Radiation Dose Reduction in Adult Patients Undergoing Body Scanning Using Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Safiullah, Shoaib; Patel, Roshan; Uribe, Brittany; Spradling, Kyle; Lall, Chandana; Zhang, Lishi; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Clayman, Ralph V; Landman, Jaime

    2017-08-14

    Ionizing radiation is implicated in nearly 2% of malignancies in the United States; radiation shields prevent unnecessary radiation exposure during medical imaging. Contemporary radiation shield utilization for adult patients in the United States is poorly defined. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of protective shielding utilization in adult patients undergoing CT scans in United States' hospitals. An online survey was sent to established radiology departments randomly selected from the 2015 American Hospital Association Guide. Radiology departments conducting adult CT imaging were eligible; among 370 eligible departments, 215 departments accepted the study participation request. Questions focused on shielding practices during CT imaging of the eyes, thyroid, breasts, and gonads. Prevalence data were stratified per hospital location, size, and type. Main outcomes included overall protective shielding utilization, respondents' belief and knowledge regarding radiation safety, and organ-specific shielding prevalence. Sixty-seven of 215 (31%) hospitals completed the survey; 66 (99%) reported familiarity with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle and 56 (84%) affirmed their belief that shielding is beneficial. Only 60% of hospitals employed shielding during CT imaging; among these institutions, shielding varied based on CT study: abdominopelvic CT (13, 33%), head CT (33, 83%), or chest CT (30, 75%). Among surveyed hospitals, 40% do not utilize CT shielding despite the majority acknowledging the ALARA principle and agreeing that shielding is a beneficial practice. Failure to address the low prevalence of protective shielding may lead to poor community health due to increased risk of radiation-related cancers.

  5. Comparison of regional fat mass measurement by whole body DXA scans and anthropometric measures to predict insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and controls.

    PubMed

    Glintborg, Dorte; Petersen, Maria Houborg; Ravn, Pernille; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Andersen, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by obesity and insulin resistance. Measures of regional obesity may be used to predict insulin resistance. In the present study we compared fat distribution in patients with PCOS vs. controls and established the best measure of fat mass to predict insulin resistance in patients with PCOS. The study was cross-sectional in an academic tertiary-care medical center with 167 premenopausal women with PCOS and 110 controls matched for ethnicity, BMI and age. Total and regional fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist) and fasting metabolic analyses [insulin, glucose, lipids, Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), lipid accumulation product, and visceral adiposity index] were determined. Trial registration numbers: NCT00451568, NCT00145340. Women with PCOS had higher central fat mass (waist, waist-hip ratio, and upper/lower fat ratio) compared with controls. In bivariate associations, the strongest associations were found between HOMA-IR and the fat mass measures trunk fat (r = 0.59), waist (r = 0.57) and BMI (r = 0.56), all p < 0.001. During multiple regression analyses, trunk fat, waist and BMI were the best predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2 ) = 0.48, 0.49, and 0.47, respectively). Women with PCOS were characterized by central obesity. Trunk fat, waist and BMI were the best predictors of HOMA-IR in PCOS, but only limited information regarding insulin resistance was gained by whole body DXA scan. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Evaluation of radiation dose and image quality of CT scan for whole-body pediatric PET/CT: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching-Ching; Liu, Shu-Hsin; Mok, Greta S P; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to tailor the CT imaging protocols for pediatric patients undergoing whole-body PET/CT examinations with appropriate attention to radiation exposure while maintaining adequate image quality for anatomic delineation of PET findings and attenuation correction of PET emission data. The measurements were made by using three anthropomorphic phantoms representative of 1-, 5-, and 10-year-old children with tube voltages of 80, 100, and 120 kVp, tube currents of 10, 40, 80, and 120 mA, and exposure time of 0.5 s at 1.75:1 pitch. Radiation dose estimates were derived from the dose-length product and were used to calculate risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer. The influence of image noise on image contrast and attenuation map for CT scans were evaluated based on Pearson's correlation coefficient and covariance, respectively. Multiple linear regression methods were used to investigate the effects of patient age, tube voltage, and tube current on radiation-induced cancer risk and image noise for CT scans. The effective dose obtained using three anthropomorphic phantoms and 12 combinations of kVp and mA ranged from 0.09 to 4.08 mSv. Based on our results, CT scans acquired with 80 kVp/60 mA, 80 kVp/80 mA, and 100 kVp/60 mA could be performed on 1-, 5-, and 10-year-old children, respectively, to minimize cancer risk due to CT scans while maintaining the accuracy of attenuation map and CT image contrast. The effective doses of the proposed protocols for 1-, 5- and 10-year-old children were 0.65, 0.86, and 1.065 mSv, respectively. Low-dose pediatric CT protocols were proposed to balance the tradeoff between radiation-induced cancer risk and image quality for patients ranging in age from 1 to 10 years old undergoing whole-body PET/CT examinations.

  7. Evaluation of radiation dose and image quality of CT scan for whole-body pediatric PET/CT: A phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ching-Ching; Liu, Shu-Hsin; Mok, Greta S. P.; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to tailor the CT imaging protocols for pediatric patients undergoing whole-body PET/CT examinations with appropriate attention to radiation exposure while maintaining adequate image quality for anatomic delineation of PET findings and attenuation correction of PET emission data. Methods: The measurements were made by using three anthropomorphic phantoms representative of 1-, 5-, and 10-year-old children with tube voltages of 80, 100, and 120 kVp, tube currents of 10, 40, 80, and 120 mA, and exposure time of 0.5 s at 1.75:1 pitch. Radiation dose estimates were derived from the dose-length product and were used to calculate risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer. The influence of image noise on image contrast and attenuation map for CT scans were evaluated based on Pearson's correlation coefficient and covariance, respectively. Multiple linear regression methods were used to investigate the effects of patient age, tube voltage, and tube current on radiation-induced cancer risk and image noise for CT scans. Results: The effective dose obtained using three anthropomorphic phantoms and 12 combinations of kVp and mA ranged from 0.09 to 4.08 mSv. Based on our results, CT scans acquired with 80 kVp/60 mA, 80 kVp/80 mA, and 100 kVp/60 mA could be performed on 1-, 5-, and 10-year-old children, respectively, to minimize cancer risk due to CT scans while maintaining the accuracy of attenuation map and CT image contrast. The effective doses of the proposed protocols for 1-, 5- and 10-year-old children were 0.65, 0.86, and 1.065 mSv, respectively. Conclusions: Low-dose pediatric CT protocols were proposed to balance the tradeoff between radiation-induced cancer risk and image quality for patients ranging in age from 1 to 10 years old undergoing whole-body PET/CT examinations.

  8. Evaluation of the genetic overlap between osteoarthritis with body mass index and height using genome-wide association scan data

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Katherine S; Chapman, Kay; Day-Williams, Aaron; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Southam, Lorraine; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Arden, Nigel; Aslam, Nadim; Birrell, Fraser; Carluke, Ian; Carr, Andrew; Deloukas, Panos; Doherty, Michael; Loughlin, John; McCaskie, Andrew; Ollier, William E R; Rai, Ashok; Ralston, Stuart; Reed, Mike R; Spector, Timothy D; Valdes, Ana M; Wallis, Gillian A; Wilkinson, Mark; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) is one of the major risk factors for osteoarthritis. In addition, genetic overlap has been reported between osteoarthritis and normal adult height variation. We investigated whether this relationship is due to a shared genetic aetiology on a genome-wide scale. Methods We compared genetic association summary statistics (effect size, p value) for BMI and height from the GIANT consortium genome-wide association study (GWAS) with genetic association summary statistics from the arcOGEN consortium osteoarthritis GWAS. Significance was evaluated by permutation. Replication of osteoarthritis association of the highlighted signals was investigated in an independent dataset. Phenotypic information of height and BMI was accounted for in a separate analysis using osteoarthritis-free controls. Results We found significant overlap between osteoarthritis and height (p=3.3×10−5 for signals with p≤0.05) when the GIANT and arcOGEN GWAS were compared. For signals with p≤0.001 we found 17 shared signals between osteoarthritis and height and four between osteoarthritis and BMI. However, only one of the height or BMI signals that had shown evidence of association with osteoarthritis in the arcOGEN GWAS was also associated with osteoarthritis in the independent dataset: rs12149832, within the FTO gene (combined p=2.3×10−5). As expected, this signal was attenuated when we adjusted for BMI. Conclusions We found a significant excess of shared signals between both osteoarthritis and height and osteoarthritis and BMI, suggestive of a common genetic aetiology. However, only one signal showed association with osteoarthritis when followed up in a new dataset. PMID:22956599

  9. An investigation of three-dimensional scanning of human body surfaces and its use in the design and manufacture of prostheses.

    PubMed

    Bibb, R; Freeman, P; Brown, R; Sugar, A; Evans, P; Bocca, A

    2000-01-01

    The capture of highly accurate data describing the complex surfaces of the human body may prove extremely useful in many medical situations. The data provide a method of measuring and recording changes to the surface of a patient's soft tissue. The data may be applied to computer-controlled manufacturing techniques, such as rapid prototyping (RP). This enables accurate physical replicas of the patient topography to be produced. Such models may be used as an aid in the design and manufacture of prostheses. This paper describes an investigation aimed at identifying problems that may be encountered when scanning patients and describes the application of the resulting data in the design and manufacture of facial prostheses. The results of the experiment are presented together with a discussion of the accuracy and potential advantages afforded by this approach.

  10. WE-G-BRD-07: Investigation of Distal Lung Atelectasis Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using Regional Lung Volume Changes Between Pre- and Post- Treatment CT Scans

    SciTech Connect

    Diot, Q; Kavanagh, B; Miften, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a quantitative method using lung deformations to differentiate between radiation-induced fibrosis and potential airway stenosis with distal atelectasis in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods: Twenty-four lung patients with large radiation-induced density increases outside the high dose region had their pre- and post-treatment CT scans manually registered. They received SBRT treatments at our institution between 2002 and 2009 in 3 or 5 fractions, to a median total dose of 54Gy (range, 30–60). At least 50 anatomical landmarks inside the lung (airway branches) were paired for the pre- and post-treatment scans to guide the deformable registration of the lung structure, which was then interpolated to the whole lung using splines. Local volume changes between the planning and follow-up scans were calculated using the deformation field Jacobian. Hyperdense regions were classified as atelectatic or fibrotic based on correlations between regional density increases and significant volume contractions compared to the surrounding tissues. Results: Out of 24 patients, only 7 demonstrated a volume contraction that was at least one σ larger than the remaining lung average. Because they did not receive high doses, these shrunk hyperdense regions were likely showing distal atelectasis resulting from radiation-induced airway stenosis rather than conventional fibrosis. On average, the hyperdense regions extended 9.2 cm farther than the GTV contours but not significantly more than 8.6 cm for the other patients (p>0.05), indicating that a large offset between the radiation and hyperdense region centers is not a good surrogate for atelectasis. Conclusion: A method based on the relative comparison of volume changes between different dates was developed to identify potential lung regions experiencing distal atelectasis. Such a tool is essential to study which lung structures need to be avoided to prevent

  11. The evolution of computed tomography from organ-selective to whole-body scanning in managing unconscious patients with multiple trauma: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Cheng-Jueng; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chan, De-Chuan; Chou, Yu-Ching; Liang, Chia-Ming; Hsu, Sheng-Der

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the benefit of whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) scanning for unconscious adult patients suffering from high-energy multiple trauma compared with the conventional stepwise approach of organ-selective CT.Totally, 144 unconscious patients with high-energy multiple trauma from single level I trauma center in North Taiwan were enrolled from January 2009 to December 2013. All patients were managed by a well-trained trauma team and were suitable for CT examination. The enrolled patients are all transferred directly from the scene of an accident, not from other medical institutions with a definitive diagnosis. The scanning regions of WBCT include head, neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. We analyzed differences between non-WBCT and WBCT groups, including gender, age, hospital stay, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, Revised Trauma Score, time in emergency department (ED), medical cost, and survival outcome.Fifty-five patients received the conventional approach for treating trauma, and 89 patients received immediate WBCT scanning after an initial examination. Patients' time in ED was significantly shorter in the WBCT group in comparison with the non-WBCT group (158.62 ± 80.13 vs 216.56 ± 168.32 min, P = 0.02). After adjusting for all possible confounding factors, we also found that survival outcome of the WBCT group was better than that of the non-WBCT group (odds ratio: 0.21, 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.75, P = 0.016).Early performing WBCT during initial trauma management is a better approach for treating unconscious patients with high-energy multiple trauma.

  12. TU-CD-304-04: Scanning Field Total Body Irradiation Using Dynamic Arc with Variable Dose Rate and Gantry Speed

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, B; Xu, H; Mutaf, Y; Prado, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Enable a scanning field total body irradiation (TBI) technique, using dynamic arcs, which is biologically equivalent to a moving couch TBI. Methods: Patient is treated slightly above the floor and the treatment field scans across the patient by a moving gantry. MLC positions change during gantry motion to keep same field opening at the level of the treatment plane (170 cm). This is done to mimic the same geometry as the moving couch TBI technique which has been used in our institution for over 10 years. The dose rate and the gantry speed are determined considering a constant speed of the moving field, variations in SSD and slanted depths resulting from oblique gantry angles. An Eclipse (Varian) planning system is commissioned to accommodate the extended SSD. The dosimetric foundations of the technique have been thoroughly investigated using phantom measurements. Results: Dose uniformity better than 2% across 180 cm length at 10cm depth is achieved by moving the gantry from −55 to +55 deg. Treatment range can be extended by increasing gantry range. No device such as a gravity-oriented compensator is needed to achieve a uniform dose. It is feasible to modify the dose distribution by adjusting the dose rate at each gantry angle to compensate for body thickness differences. Total treatment time for 2 Gy AP/PA fields is 40–50 minutes excluding patient set up time, at the machine dose rate of 100 MU/min. Conclusion: This novel yet transportable moving field technique enables TBI treatment in a small treatment room with less program development preparation than other techniques. Treatment length can be extended per need, and. MLC-based thickness compensation and partial lung blocking are also possible.

  13. Body size and ability to pass through a restricted space: Observations from 3D scanning of 210 male UK offshore workers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Arthur; Ledingham, Robert; Furnace, Graham; Nevill, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Offshore workers are subjected to a unique physical and cultural environment which has the ability to affect their size and shape. Because they are heavier than the UK adult population we hypothesized they would have larger torso dimensions which would adversely affect their ability to pass one another in a restricted space. A sample of 210 male offshore workers was selected across the full weight range, and measured using 3D body scanning for shape. Bideltoid breadth and maximum chest depth were extracted from the scans and compared with reference population data. In addition a size algorithm previously calculated on 44 individuals was applied to adjust for wearing a survival suit and re-breather device. Mean bideltoid breadth and chest depth was 51.4 cm and 27.9 cm in the offshore workers, compared with 49.7 cm and 25.4 cm respectively in the UK population as a whole. Considering the probability of two randomly selected people passing within a restricted space of 100 cm and 80 cm, offshore workers are 28% and 34% less likely to pass face to face and face to side respectively, as compared with UK adults, an effect which is exacerbated when wearing personal protective equipment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Respiratory-gated time-of-flight PET/CT during whole-body scan for lung lesions: feasibility in a routine clinical setting and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzawa, Naohisa; Ichikawa, Yasutaka; Ishida, Masaki; Tomita, Yoya; Nakayama, Ryohei; Sakuma, Hajime

    2016-12-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of respiratory gating during whole-body scan for lung lesions in routine (18)F-FDG PET/CT examinations using a time-of-flight (TOF)-capable scanner to determine the effect of respiratory gating on reduction of both misregistration (between CT and PET) and image blurring, and on improvement of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Patients with lung lesions who received FDG PET/CT were prospectively studied. Misregistration, volume of PET (Vp), and SUVmax were compared between ungated and gated images. The difference in respiratory gating effects was compared between lesions located in the upper or middle lobes (UML) and the lower lobe (LL). The correlation between three parameters (% change in misregistration, % change in Vp, and lesion size) and % change in SUVmax was analyzed. The study population consisted of 60 patients (37 males, 23 females; age 68 ± 12 years) with lung lesions (2.5 ± 1.7 cm). Fifty-eight out of sixty respiratory gating studies were successfully completed with a total scan time of 20.9 ± 1.9 min. Eight patients' data were not suitable for analysis, while the remaining 50 patients' data were analyzed. Respiratory gating reduced both misregistration by 21.4 % (p < 0.001) and Vp by 14.2 % (p < 0.001). The SUVmax of gated images improved by 14.8 % (p < 0.001). The % change in misregistration, Vp, and SUVmax by respiratory gating tended to be larger in LL lesions than in UML lesions. The correlation with % change in SUVmax was stronger in % change in Vp (r = 0.57) than % change in misregistration (r = 0.35). There was no statistically significant correlation between lesion size and % change in SUVmax (r = -0.20). Respiratory gating during whole-body scan in routine TOF PET/CT examinations is feasible and can reduce both misregistration and PET image blurring, and improve the SUVmax of lung lesions located primarily in the LL.

  15. Usefulness of target delineation based on the two extreme phases of a four-dimensional computed tomography scan in stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seong Soon; Huh, Gil Ja; Park, Suk Young; Yang, Po Song; Cho, EunYoun

    2015-01-01

    Background An evaluation of the usefulness of target delineation based only on the two extreme phases of a four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) scan in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods Seventeen patients treated with SBRT via 4D CT scans for lung cancer were retrospectively enrolled. Volumetric and geometric analyses were performed for the internal target volumes (ITVs) and planning target volumes (PTVs) generated using different respiratory phases (all phases and 2 extreme phases) and setup margins (3 mm and 5 mm). Results As the setup margins were added to the ITVs, the overlap percentage between the PTVs based on all phases and the two extreme phases increased (85.1% for ITVs, 89.8% for PTVs_3 mm, and 91.3% for PTVs_5 mm), and there were no differences according to the tumor parameters, such as the gross tumor volume and 3D mobility. The missing-volume differences for ITVs derived from cone-beam CT images also decreased, with values of 5.3% between ITVs, 0.5% between PTVs_3 mm, and 0.2% between PTVs_5 mm. Compared with the plan based on all phases and a 3 mm margin, the average lung-dose differences found for the PTV based on the two extreme phases and a 5 mm margin were 0.41 Gy for the mean lung dose and 0.93% for V20. Conclusions Regardless of tumor characteristics, PTV construction based only on the two extreme phases and a 5 mm setup margin may be a useful tool for reducing the clinical workload involved in target delineation in SBRT for lung cancer. PMID:26273368

  16. Comparing whole body 18F-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography and technetium-99m methylene diophosphate bone scan to detect bone metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsia, T C; Shen, Y Y; Yen, R F; Kao, C H; Changlai, S P

    2002-01-01

    Despite advances in morphological imaging, some patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are found to have non-resectable disease at surgery or die of recurrence within a year of surgery. At present, metastatic bone involvement is usually assessed using conventional technetium-99m methylene diophosphate (Tc-99m MDP) whole body bone scan (bone scan), which has a high sensitivity but a poor specificity. We have attempted to evaluate the usefulness of whole body positron emission tomography with 18F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET) for the detection of malignant bone metastases of NSCLC, and to compare FDG-PET results with Bone Scan findings. Forty-eight patients with biopsy-proven NSCLC and suspected to have stage IV disease underwent whole body bone scan and FDG-PET to detect bone metastases. The final diagnoses of bone metastases were established by operative, histopathological findings or clinical follow-up longer than 1 year by additional radiographs or following FDG-PET/Tc-99m MDP bone scan findings showing progressively and extensively widespread bone lesions. A total of 138 bone lesions found on either FDG-PET or Tc-99m MDP bone scan were evaluated. Among the 106 metastatic and 32 benign bone lesions, FDG-PET and Tc-99m MDP bone scan could accurately diagnose 99 and 98, as well as 30 and 2 metastatic and benign bone lesions, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of FDG-PET and Tc-99m MDP bone scan were 93.4% and 92.5%, as well as 93.5% and 72.5%, respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that FDG-PET with the same sensitivity and a better accuracy than those of Tc-99m MDP bone scan to detect metastatic bone lesions in patients with biopsy-proven NSCLC and suspected to have stage IV disease.

  17. Sex-limited genome-wide linkage scan for body mass index in an unselected sample of 933 Australian twin families.

    PubMed

    Cornes, Belinda K; Medland, Sarah E; Ferreira, Manuel A R; Morley, Katherine I; Duffy, David L; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G

    2005-12-01

    Genes involved in pathways regulating body weight may operate differently in men and women. To determine whether sex-limited genes influence the obesity-related phenotype body mass index (BMI), we have conducted a general nonscalar sex-limited genome-wide linkage scan using variance components analysis in Mx (Neale, 2002). BMI measurements and genotypic data were available for 2053 Australian female and male adult twins and their siblings from 933 families. Clinical measures of BMI were available for 64.4% of these individuals, while only self-reported measures were available for the remaining participants. The mean age of participants was 39.0 years of age (SD 12.1 years). The use of a sex-limited linkage model identified areas on the genome where quantitative trait loci (QTL) effects differ between the sexes, particularly on chromosome 8 and 20, providing us with evidence that some of the genes responsible for BMI may have different effects in men and women. Our highest linkage peak was observed at 12q24 (-log10p = 3.02), which was near the recommended threshold for suggestive linkage (-log10p = 3.13). Previous studies have found evidence for a quantitative trait locus on 12q24 affecting BMI in a wide range of populations, and candidate genes for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a consequence of obesity, have also been mapped to this region. We also identified many peaks near a -log10p of 2 (threshold for replicating an existing finding) in many areas across the genome that are within regions previously identified by other studies, as well as in locations that harbor genes known to influence weight regulation.

  18. VirtoScan - a mobile, low-cost photogrammetry setup for fast post-mortem 3D full-body documentations in x-ray computed tomography and autopsy suites.

    PubMed

    Kottner, Sören; Ebert, Lars C; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Braun, Marcel; Thali, Michael J; Gascho, Dominic

    2017-03-01

    Injuries such as bite marks or boot prints can leave distinct patterns on the body's surface and can be used for 3D reconstructions. Although various systems for 3D surface imaging have been introduced in the forensic field, most techniques are both cost-intensive and time-consuming. In this article, we present the VirtoScan, a mobile, multi-camera rig based on close-range photogrammetry. The system can be integrated into automated PMCT scanning procedures or used manually together with lifting carts, autopsy tables and examination couch. The VirtoScan is based on a moveable frame that carries 7 digital single-lens reflex cameras. A remote control is attached to each camera and allows the simultaneous triggering of the shutter release of all cameras. Data acquisition in combination with the PMCT scanning procedures took 3:34 min for the 3D surface documentation of one side of the body compared to 20:20 min of acquisition time when using our in-house standard. A surface model comparison between the high resolution output from our in-house standard and a high resolution model from the multi-camera rig showed a mean surface deviation of 0.36 mm for the whole body scan and 0.13 mm for a second comparison of a detailed section of the scan. The use of the multi-camera rig reduces the acquisition time for whole-body surface documentations in medico-legal examinations and provides a low-cost 3D surface scanning alternative for forensic investigations.

  19. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, Warren C.; Blau, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  20. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  1. Reduction of misclassification rates of obesity by body mass index using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to improve subsequent prediction of per cent fat mass in a Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, S D; Astrup, A V; Skovgaard, I M

    2011-04-01

    •  Body mass index (BMI) is not accurate in the classification of excess body fat, failing to identify as many as half of individuals with excess per cent fat mass. •  Normal-weight obesity, which goes undiagnosed when BMI is the only measure of adiposity utilized, has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular comorbidities and mortality. •  Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an accurate and relatively inexpensive method for indirect assessment of body composition. •  The formulae developed allow the clinician to utilize information from one baseline DXA scan to calculate a patient's per cent fat mass with a future change in weight, thus allowing the clinician to more accurately determine whether and when an individual patient should be classified as obese and thus be managed appropriately. •  The formulae developed enable the clinician to calculate a patient-specific BMI treatment goal, below which the patient would no longer meet the per cent fat mass criteria for obesity. Recognition is increasing for the errors of body mass index (BMI) in classification of excess body fat. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is accurate to assess body fat mass per cent (%FM), but is underutilized clinically. We examined the prevalence of obesity misclassification by BMI in comparison to body %FM by DXA scanning, and whether there is a time-stable individual relation between the %FM and the BMI in patients scanned several times. We aimed to develop a formula where, based on a single DXA scan, %FM could be predicted following a change in weight, and a patient-specific BMI threshold could be calculated (BMIT ), above which the patient would be obese by %FM criteria. Data were collected from individuals who had a DXA scan as part of a nutritional research study at the University of Copenhagen. BMI incorrectly classified 48/329 (14.6%) of men and 52/589 (8.8%) of women. The majority of men with BMI 25-27 kg m(-2) and women

  2. TH-C-18A-12: Evaluation of the Impact of Body Size and Tube Output Limits in the Optimization of Fast Scanning with High-Pitch Dual Source CT

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez Giraldo, J; Mileto, A.; Hurwitz, L.; Marin, D.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of body size and tube power limits in the optimization of fast scanning with high-pitch dual source CT (DSCT). Methods: A previously validated MERCURY phantom, made of polyethylene, with circular cross-section of diameters 16, 23, 30 and 37cm, and connected through tapered sections, was scanned using a second generation DSCT system. The DSCT operates with two independently controlled x-ray tube generators offering up to 200 kW power reserve (100 kW per tube). The entire length of the phantom (42cm) was scanned with two protocols using: A)Standard single-source CT (SSCT) protocol with pitch of 0.8, and B) DSCT protocol with high-pitch values ranging from 1.6 to 3.2 (0.2 steps). All scans used 120 kVp with 150 quality reference mAs using automatic exposure control. Scanner radiation output (CTDIvol) and effective mAs values were extracted retrospectively from DICOM files for each slice. Image noise was recorded. All variables were assessed relative to phantom diameter. Results: With standard-pitch SSCT, the scanner radiation output (and tube-current) were progressively adapted with increasing size, from 6 mGy (120 mAs) up to 15 mGy (270 mAs) from the thinnest (16cm) to the thickest diameter (37 cm), respectively. By comparison, using high-pitch (3.2), the scanner output was bounded at about 8 mGy (140 mAs), independent of phantom diameter. Although relative to standard-pitch, the high-pitch led to lower radiation output for the same scan, the image noise was higher, particularly for larger diameters. To match the radiation output adaptation of standard-pitch, a high-pitch mode of 1.6 was needed, with the advantage of scanning twice as fast. Conclusion: To maximize the benefits of fast scanning with high-pitch DSCT, the body size and tube power limits of the system need to be considered such that a good balance between speed of acquisition and image quality are warranted. JCRG is an employee of Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc.

  3. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, (123)I-MIBG and (99m)Tc-MDP whole-body scans, in detecting recurrence of an adult adrenal neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Skoura, Evangelia; Oikonomopoulos, Georgios; Vasileiou, Spyridon; Kyprianou, Diogenis; Koumakis, Georgios; Datseris, Ioannis E

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid malignancy in children, but is rare in adults. We report the case of a 33 year old man with recurrence of neuroblastoma, 2 years after the excision of the primary tumor in the right adrenal gland. The iodine-123-radioiodinated metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) and (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scans and the fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) findings in this patient are presented. First, we applied (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy that detected increased uptake at the right adrenal gland region and probably at liver lesions and in several bones. Then, the (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan revealed also increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical in bones, but there was a discrepancy between these two studies concerning the number and location of the lesions. Then, (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed, which showed increased uptake of (18)F-FDG at the right adrenal gland region with extension to the liver and also in multiple bones. Additionally, an aortocaval lymph node was detected. In conclusion, this case indicated that (18)F-FDG PET/CT has defined the extent of the recurrence of neuroblastoma in a better way than (123)I-MIBG and (99m)Tc-MDP together.

  4. Longitudinal changes in ultrasonic measurements of body composition during growth in Suffolk ram lambs and evaluation of alternative adjustment strategies for ultrasonic scan data.

    PubMed

    Emenheiser, J C; Greiner, S P; Lewis, R M; Notter, D R

    2010-04-01

    Four equations were used to compare alternative procedures to adjust ultrasonic estimates (y) of backfat thickness (BF) and LM area (LMA) for BW using data from a series of 7 scans on 24 Suffolk ram lambs born in 2007. Equations were linear, linear + quadratic, allometric (y = alphaBW(beta)), and allometric + BW (ABW; y = alphaBW(beta)e(gammaW)). Goodness of fit was very similar between equations over the range of the data. Resulting adjustment equations were tested using 3 serial scans on winter-born Suffolk (n = 150), Hampshire (n = 36), and Dorset (n = 43) rams and 52 fall-born Dorset rams tested at the Virginia Ram Test in 1999 through 2002. Partial correlations (accounting for the effect of year) between predicted and actual measures ranged from 0.78 to 0.87 for BF and 0.66 to 0.93 for LMA in winter-born rams and from 0.70 to 0.71 for BF and 0.72 to 0.78 for LMA in fall-born rams. No significant differences in predictive ability existed between equations for BF or LMA (P > 0.05), and there was no indication that the allometric equation was a better predictor than linear within the range of the data. Adjustment equations were also tested using serial scan data from 37 Suffolk ewe lambs born in the same contemporary group as the rams used to derive the prediction equations but fed for a substantially slower rate of BW gain. Correlations between predicted and actual values of BF and LMA indicated lambs were too young and small at the first scan (77 d, 32.4 kg) to reliably predict carcass measures at typical slaughter weights. For prediction using data from the 2 subsequent scans, at mean ages >96 d and mean BW >39 kg, correlations between predicted and actual values were 0.72 to 0.74 for BF and 0.54 to 0.76 for LMA. Little difference existed between equations for predicting BF. For LMA, the ABW form was a weaker predictor than the others, and the linear equation was slightly superior to allometric. Therefore, it appears the linear and allometric forms are both

  5. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you Are pregnant Have pieces of metal in your body. You might have metal in your body if you have a shrapnel ... injury or if you are a welder. Have metal or electronic devices in your body, such as ...

  6. Implementation of VITUS 3D Whole Body Scanning for Item Size Selection & Integration to ARN Systems for Issuing at Ft. Jackson

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-27

    Human Solutions and the management staff at the CIPP to the fitters in the importance of using the recommended sizes. 3.5 Pilot Process – Initial Data...SD The WBX 3D Whole Body Scanner was installed at Marine Corps Recruit Depot during April 2001, replacing the older WB4 model put in service in 1998

  7. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... rays given off by the radioactive material. A computer displays images of the thyroid gland. Other scans ... It is an even gray color on the computer image without darker or lighter areas. What Abnormal ...

  8. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. A related test is gallium scan ... Brown ML, Forstrom LA, et al. Society of nuclear medicine procedure guideline for gallium scintigraphy in inflammation. ...

  9. Liver scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... cirrhosis or hepatitis ) Superior vena cava obstruction Splenic infarction (tissue death) Tumors Risks Radiation from any scan ... Hepatitis Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Liver disease Splenic infarction SVC obstruction Review Date 1/18/2015 Updated ...

  10. How Your Doctor Sees You: A Guide to the Body in X Rays and Scans Angus Robert How Your Doctor Sees You: A Guide to the Body in X Rays and Scans 191pp £12.99 Farthings Publishing 9781291731132 129173113X [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    THE FORM, functions and inner workings of the human body are fascinating. This anatomy guide presents a range of medical images to illustrate how hospital doctors see the human body in their everyday practice.

  11. VIRTOPSY--scientific documentation, reconstruction and animation in forensic: individual and real 3D data based geo-metric approach including optical body/object surface and radiological CT/MRI scanning.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Buck, Ursula; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Vock, Peter; Sonnenschein, Martin; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2005-03-01

    Until today, most of the documentation of forensic relevant medical findings is limited to traditional 2D photography, 2D conventional radiographs, sketches and verbal description. There are still some limitations of the classic documentation in forensic science especially if a 3D documentation is necessary. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate new 3D real data based geo-metric technology approaches. This paper present approaches to a 3D geo-metric documentation of injuries on the body surface and internal injuries in the living and deceased cases. Using modern imaging methods such as photogrammetry, optical surface and radiological CT/MRI scanning in combination it could be demonstrated that a real, full 3D data based individual documentation of the body surface and internal structures is possible in a non-invasive and non-destructive manner. Using the data merging/fusing and animation possibilities, it is possible to answer reconstructive questions of the dynamic development of patterned injuries (morphologic imprints) and to evaluate the possibility, that they are matchable or linkable to suspected injury-causing instruments. For the first time, to our knowledge, the method of optical and radiological 3D scanning was used to document the forensic relevant injuries of human body in combination with vehicle damages. By this complementary documentation approach, individual forensic real data based analysis and animation were possible linking body injuries to vehicle deformations or damages. These data allow conclusions to be drawn for automobile accident research, optimization of vehicle safety (pedestrian and passenger) and for further development of crash dummies. Real 3D data based documentation opens a new horizon for scientific reconstruction and animation by bringing added value and a real quality improvement in forensic science.

  12. Total body computed tomography scan in the initial work-up of Binet stage A chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients: Results of the prospective, multicenter O-CLL1-GISL study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Massimo; Cutrona, Giovanna; Fabris, Sonia; Pesce, Emanuela Anna; Baldini, Luca; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Musolino, Caterina; Di Tonno, Paolo; Di Renzo, Nicola; Molica, Stefano; Brugiatelli, Maura; Ilariucci, Fiorella; Zupo, Simona; Matis, Serena; Maura, Francesco; Vigna, Ernesto; Angrilli, Francesco; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Quarta, Giovanni; Iannitto, Emilio; Fragasso, Alberto; Musto, Pellegrino; Spriano, Mauro; Vincelli, Iolanda; Vallisa, Daniele; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Mauro, Francesca Romana; Foà, Robin; Federico, Massimo; Neri, Antonino; Ferrarini, Manlio; Morabito, Fortunato

    2013-07-01

    Total body computed tomography (TB-CT) scan is not mandatory in the diagnostic/staging algorithm of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The aim of this study was to determine the value and prognostic significance of TB-CT scan in early stage CLL patients. Baseline TB-CT scan was performed in 240 Binet stage A CLL patients (179 Rai low- and 61 Rai intermediate-risk) included in a prospective multicenter observational study (clinicaltrial.gov ID:NCT00917549). The cohort included 69 clinical monoclonal B lymphocytosis (cMBLs). Patients were restaged considering only radiological data. Following TB-CT scans, 20% of cases reclassified as radiologic Binet (r-Binet) stage B. r-Binet B patients showed a higher incidence of unfavorable cytogenetic abnormalities (P = 0.027), as well as a shorter PFS (P = 0.001). At multivariate analysis, r-Binet stage [HR = 2.48; P = 0.004] and IGHV mutational status [HR = 3.01; P = 0.002] retained an independent predictive value for PFS. Among 179 Rai low-risk cases, 100 were redefined as r-Rai intermediate-risk based upon TB-CT scan data, showing a higher rate of cases with higher ZAP-70 (P = 0.033) and CD38 expression (P = 0.029) and β2-microglobulin levels (P < 0.0001), as well as a shorter PFS than those with r-Rai low-risk (P = 0.008). r-Rai stage [HR = 2.78; P = 0.046] and IGHV mutational status [HR = 4.25; P = 0.009] retained a significant predictive value for PFS at multivariate analysis. Forty-two percent of cMBL patients were reclassified as r-small lymphocytic lymphomas (r-SLLs) by TB-CT scan. TB-CT scan appears to provide relevant information in early stage CLL related to the potential and the timing of patients to progress towards the more advanced disease stages.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of whole-body bone scans in the pre-liver transplant assessment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Santiago; Balbinotto Neto, Giácomo; Kiss, Guillermo; Brandão, Ajacio

    2016-04-01

    Bone metastases (BM) are rare in patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In many centers, liver transplantation (LTx) policies require patients with HCC to undergo bone scans (BSs). We retrospectively assessed the benefit of BS for patients with a diagnosis of HCC wait-listed for LTx. BS was performed in 259 of 328 patients (78.9%) and was suggestive of BM in only one (0.4%). At follow-up, 276 patients had received LTx, of whom 207 had undergone BS. Histopathological examination of explants failed to confirm the presence of HCC in 20 patients from the BS group. The survival and recurrence rates of the 187 patients with confirmed HCC in the explant who underwent BS as part of pre-LTx assessment and 69 patients who did not undergo BS were compared. The one- and five-yr post-transplant survival rates were 81% and 69%, respectively, in the BS group vs. 78% and 62%, respectively, in patients who did not undergo BS (p = 0.25). The one- and five-yr post-LTx recurrence rates were 4.8% and 10.7%, respectively, in the BS group vs. 2.9% and 10.1%, respectively, in patients who did not undergo BS (p = 0.46). BS generated expenditures of US$39 296 and was not cost-effective. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Bone Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... injected, then shortly after the injection, and again two to four hours later. To better see some bones in your body, your doctor might order additional imaging called single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). This imaging can help ...

  15. CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... creates detailed pictures of the body, including the brain, chest, spine, and abdomen. The test may be used to: Diagnose an infection Guide a surgeon to the right area during a biopsy Identify masses and tumors, including cancer Study blood vessels Normal Results Results are considered normal ...

  16. Prediction of treatment response to ¹³¹I therapy by diffuse hepatic uptake intensity on post-therapy whole-body scan in patients with distant metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Jun, Sungmin; Lee, Jong Jin; Park, Seol Hoon; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee; Ryu, Jin-Sook

    2015-08-01

    A diffuse hepatic uptake (DHU) on radioiodine whole-body scans (WBS) after (131)I therapy is caused by (131)I-labeled iodoproteins, particularly (131)I-labeled thyroglobulin (Tg). We hypothesized that the DHU intensity after (131)I therapy might correlate with subsequent serum Tg reduction, suggesting that DHU reflects destruction of functioning thyroid tissue as measured by serum Tg. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and (131)I WBSs of 47 patients treated with (131)I therapy for distant metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer (M:F = 15:32, median age 45 years, range 11-74 years). All patients received post-ablative (131)I scans (PAWBS) at first (131)I ablation after total thyroidectomy and post-therapy (131)I scan (PTWBS) at second (131)I therapy. The DHU intensities of the PAWBS and PTWBS were classified into 3 grades: 1, faint; 2, modest; and 3, intense. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated Tg (sTg) levels were measured at the time of each therapy and 1 year after the second (131)I therapy. One year after the second (131)I therapy, 10 patients (21.3%) were in remission and 37 (78.7%) had persistent disease. The DHU intensity on PAWBS correlated with the percentage sTg reduction at the next follow-up point (σ = 0.466, p = 0.0016). The patients with intense DHU on PTWBS tended to have a higher percentage sTg reduction than the other patients, although statistical significances were marginal (Spearman's rank correlation: σ = 0.304, p = 0.054; Kruskal-Wallis test: p = 0.067). In univariate analysis, the DHU grades on PAWBS and the initial sTg levels were significantly different between patients in remission and those with persistent disease (PAWBS: p = 0.022; initial sTg: p = 0.0059). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for initial sTg levels, a DHU grade of 3 on PAWBS was an independent predictor of remission (PAWBS: p = 0.028; initial sTg <100 ng/ml: p = 0.043). In patients with iodine-avid distant metastases

  17. "Hidden" bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma: a clinical note.

    PubMed

    Sioka, C; Skarulis, M C; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Heiss, J D; Reynolds, J C

    2014-01-01

    The (131)I-iodide ((131)I) whole-body scan, for thyroid carcinoma is at times difficult to interpret. In a diagnostic whole body (131)I scan of a patient with follicular carcinoma, a posterior skull lesion was partially hidden by overlapping facial structures. On lateral head view, the abnormality was clearly evident. SPECT/CT and MRI showed the lesion originated in the occipital bone and had enlarged into the posterior fossa. The mass was surgically removed and the patient received (131)I therapy for residual tissue. The study demonstrates a pitfall in the reading of two dimensional radioiodine images which can be overcome by SPECT or lateral imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of NaI(TL) detector in a shadow-shield scanning bed whole-body monitor for uniform and axial cavity activity distribution in a BOMAB phantom.

    PubMed

    Akar, D K; Patni, H K; Nadar, M Y; Ghare, V P; Rao, D D

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the simulation results for 10.16 cm diameter and 7.62 cm thickness NaI(Tl) detector response, which is housed in a partially shielded scanning bed whole-body monitor (WBM), due to activity distributed in the axial cavities provided in the Indian reference BOMAB phantom. Experimental detection efficiency (DE) for axial cavity activity distribution (ACAD) in this phantom for photon emissions of (133)Ba, (137)Cs and (60)Co is used to validate DEs estimated using Monte Carlo code FLUKA. Simulations are also carried out to estimate DEs due to uniform activity distribution (UAD) as in the standard BOMAB phantom. The results show that the DE is ∼3.8 % higher for UAD when compared with ACAD in the case of (40)K (1460 keV) and this relative difference increases to ∼7.0 % for (133)Ba (∼356 keV) photons. The corresponding correction factors for calibration with Indian phantom are provided. DEs are also simulated for activity distributed as a planar disc at the centre of the axial cavity in each part of the BOMAB phantom (PDAD) and the deviations of these DEs are within 1 % of the ACAD results. Thus, PDAD can also be used for ACAD in scanning geometry. An analytical solution for transmitted mono-energetic photons from a two-dimensional slab is provided for qualitative explanation of difference in DEs due to variation in activity distributions in the phantom. The effect on DEs due to different phantom part dimensions is also studied and lower DEs are observed for larger parts.

  20. Metabolite localization by atmospheric pressure high-resolution scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging in whole-body sections and individual organs of the rove beetle Paederus riparius.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Schott, Matthias; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging provides for non-targeted, label-free chemical imaging. In this study, atmospheric pressure high-resolution scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI MSI) was used for the first time to describe the chemical distribution of the defensive compounds pederin, pseudopederin, and pederon in tissue sections (16 μm thick) of the rove beetle Paederus riparius. The whole-insect tissue section was scanned with a 20-μm step size. Mass resolution of the orbital trapping mass spectrometer was set to 100,000 at m/z 200. Additionally, organ-specific compounds were identified for brain, nerve cord, eggs, gut, ovaries, and malpighian tubules. To confirm the distribution of the specific compounds, individual organs from the insect were dissected, and MSI experiments were performed on the dissected organs. Three ganglia of the nerve cord, with a dimension of 250-500 μm, were measured with 10-μm spatial resolution. High-quality m/z images, based on high spatial resolution and high mass accuracy were generated. These features helped to assign mass spectral peaks with high confidence. Mass accuracy of the imaging experiments was <3 ppm root mean square error, and mapping of different compound classes from a single experiment was possible. This approach improved the understanding of the biochemistry of P. riparius. Concentration differences and distributions of pederin and its analogues could be visualized in the whole-insect section. Without any labeling, we assigned key lipids for specific organs to describe their location in the body and to identify morphological structures with a specificity higher than with staining or immunohistology methods.

  1. Aortic and Hepatic Contrast Enhancement During Hepatic-Arterial and Portal Venous Phase Computed Tomography Scanning: Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis Using Age, Sex, Total Body Weight, Height, and Cardiac Output.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takanori; Nakaura, Takeshi; Funama, Yoshinori; Higaki, Toru; Kiguchi, Masao; Imada, Naoyuki; Sato, Tomoyasu; Awai, Kazuo

    We evaluated the effect of the age, sex, total body weight (TBW), height (HT) and cardiac output (CO) of patients on aortic and hepatic contrast enhancement during hepatic-arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) computed tomography (CT) scanning. This prospective study received institutional review board approval; prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all 168 patients. All were examined using our routine protocol; the contrast material was 600 mg/kg iodine. Cardiac output was measured with a portable electrical velocimeter within 5 minutes of starting the CT scan. We calculated contrast enhancement (per gram of iodine: [INCREMENT]HU/gI) of the abdominal aorta during the HAP and of the liver parenchyma during the PVP. We performed univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis between all patient characteristics and the [INCREMENT]HU/gI of aortic- and liver parenchymal enhancement. Univariate linear regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the [INCREMENT]HU/gI and the age, sex, TBW, HT, and CO (all P < 0.001). However, multivariate linear regression analysis showed that only the TBW and CO were of independent predictive value (P < 0.001). Also, only the CO was independently and negatively related to aortic enhancement during HAP and to liver parenchymal enhancement when the contrast material injection protocol was adjusted for the TBW (P < 0.001). By multivariate linear regression analysis only the TBW and CO were significantly correlated with aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement; the age, sex, and HT were not. The CO was the only independent factor affecting aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement at hepatic CT when the protocol was adjusted for the TBW.

  2. Meta-analysis of genome-wide scans for total body BMD in children and adults reveals allelic heterogeneity and age-specific effects at the WNT16 locus.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P; Estrada, Karol; Eriksson, Joel; Liu, Jeff; Reppe, Sjur; Evans, David M; Heppe, Denise H M; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Herrera, Lizbeth; Ring, Susan M; Kruithof, Claudia J; Timpson, Nicholas J; Zillikens, M Carola; Olstad, Ole K; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Richards, J Brent; St Pourcain, Beate; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Smith, George Davey; Lorentzon, Mattias; Gautvik, Kaare M; Uitterlinden, André G; Brommage, Robert; Ohlsson, Claes; Tobias, Jonathan H; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    To identify genetic loci influencing bone accrual, we performed a genome-wide association scan for total-body bone mineral density (TB-BMD) variation in 2,660 children of different ethnicities. We discovered variants in 7q31.31 associated with BMD measurements, with the lowest P = 4.1 × 10(-11) observed for rs917727 with minor allele frequency of 0.37. We sought replication for all SNPs located ± 500 kb from rs917727 in 11,052 additional individuals from five independent studies including children and adults, together with de novo genotyping of rs3801387 (in perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs917727) in 1,014 mothers of children from the discovery cohort. The top signal mapping in the surroundings of WNT16 was replicated across studies with a meta-analysis P = 2.6 × 10(-31) and an effect size explaining between 0.6%-1.8% of TB-BMD variance. Conditional analyses on this signal revealed a secondary signal for total body BMD (P = 1.42 × 10(-10)) for rs4609139 and mapping to C7orf58. We also examined the genomic region for association with skull BMD to test if the associations were independent of skeletal loading. We identified two signals influencing skull BMD variation, including rs917727 (P = 1.9 × 10(-16)) and rs7801723 (P = 8.9 × 10(-28)), also mapping to C7orf58 (r(2) = 0.50 with rs4609139). Wnt16 knockout (KO) mice with reduced total body BMD and gene expression profiles in human bone biopsies support a role of C7orf58 and WNT16 on the BMD phenotypes observed at the human population level. In summary, we detected two independent signals influencing total body and skull BMD variation in children and adults, thus demonstrating the presence of allelic heterogeneity at the WNT16 locus. One of the skull BMD signals mapping to C7orf58 is mostly driven by children, suggesting temporal determination on peak bone mass acquisition. Our life-course approach postulates that these genetic effects influencing peak bone mass accrual may impact the risk of

  3. Circular Scan Streak Tube Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1980-01-01

    A streak tube having circular scan was designed, built and tested. Continuous circular scan, easily derived from out of phase sine waves applied to the conventional deflection plates, permits the timing of pulses traveling long baselines. At the tube's output a circular array of 720 elements is scanned to provide 30 to 40 picosecond resolution. Initial difficulties with electron bombarded silicon arrays were circumvented by using microchannel plates within the streak tube to provide the needed electronic amplification and digital sensitivity and coupling the 720 element arrays to the electron beam by means of a phosphor on a fiber optics. Two ceramic body tubes with S-20 photocathodes were tested and delivered.

  4. A rare case report of very low thyroglobulin and a negative whole-body scan in a patient with a solid variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Sun, Danyang; Ming, Hui; Zhang, Guizhi; Tan, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: The early detection of recurrent differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) cells in postsurgery DTC patients relies on the sensitivity of measuring both the level of thyroglobulin (Tg) and 131-iodine distribution on a whole-body scan (WBS). Recent studies have defined patients who subsequently have no evidence of disease as those who have a stimulated Tg level <1 ng/mL with no other radiological or clinical evidence of disease. Patient Concerns: A woman patient with solid variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (SVPTC) had undergone twice thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection and radioactive therapy. Recently, she was found to have lung and brain metastases despite a very low serum Tg level and a negative WBS. Nowadays, the patients have suggested targeted treatment, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, may be worthy of consideration to prevent the related events. Diagnoses: She was diagnosed as PTC. Interventions: She had undergone twice thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection and radioactive therapy. Outcomes: She was found to have lung and brain metastases despite a very low serum Tg level and a negative WBS. Lessons: We aim to suggest that patients with SVPTC should be treated cautiously because they may have a higher frequency of distant metastases and a less favorable prognosis compared with patients with classical papillary thyroid cancer. PMID:28207517

  5. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computer-aided Tomography (CT) images are often complementary. In most cases, MRI is good for viewing soft tissue but not bone, while CT images are good for bone but not always good for soft tissue discrimination. Physicians and engineers in the Department of Radiology at the University of Michigan Hospitals are developing a technique for combining the best features of MRI and CT scans to increase the accuracy of discriminating one type of body tissue from another. One of their research tools is a computer program called HICAP. The program can be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue in body images.

  6. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... your provider should weigh this risk against the benefits of getting a correct diagnosis for a medical ...

  7. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  8. Improvement of CAT scanned images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Digital enhancement procedure improves definition of images. Tomogram is generated from large number of X-ray beams. Beams are collimated and small in diameter. Scanning device passes beams sequentially through human subject at many different angles. Battery of transducers opposite subject senses attenuated signals. Signals are transmitted to computer where they are used in construction of image on transverse plane through body.

  9. Improvement of CAT scanned images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Digital enhancement procedure improves definition of images. Tomogram is generated from large number of X-ray beams. Beams are collimated and small in diameter. Scanning device passes beams sequentially through human subject at many different angles. Battery of transducers opposite subject senses attenuated signals. Signals are transmitted to computer where they are used in construction of image on transverse plane through body.

  10. Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans

    DOE PAGES

    Lupini, Andrew R.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; ...

    2016-06-13

    Here, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has emerged as one of the foremost techniques to analyze materials at atomic resolution. However, two practical difficulties inherent to STEM imaging are: radiation damage imparted by the electron beam, which can potentially damage or otherwise modify the specimen and slow-scan image acquisition, which limits the ability to capture dynamic changes at high temporal resolution. Furthermore, due in part to scan flyback corrections, typical raster scan methods result in an uneven distribution of dose across the scanned area. A method to allow extremely fast scanning with a uniform residence time would enable imaging atmore » low electron doses, ameliorating radiation damage and at the same time permitting image acquisition at higher frame-rates while maintaining atomic resolution. The practical complication is that rastering the STEM probe at higher speeds causes significant image distortions. Non-square scan patterns provide a solution to this dilemma and can be tailored for low dose imaging conditions. Here, we develop a method for imaging with alternative scan patterns and investigate their performance at very high scan speeds. A general analysis for spiral scanning is presented here for the following spiral scan functions: Archimedean, Fermat, and constant linear velocity spirals, which were tested for STEM imaging. The quality of spiral scan STEM images is generally comparable with STEM images from conventional raster scans, and the dose uniformity can be improved.« less

  11. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... axial tomography." Translated, that means a scanner takes computer pictures of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is ... Policy Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web ...

  12. Occult Candida thyroid abscess diagnosed by gallium-67 scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, M.C.; Blattner, S. )

    1990-06-01

    A clinically silent fungal thyroid abscess was identified by Ga-67 citrate scanning and successfully drained surgically in a young leukemic patient. Whole-body radionuclide scanning remains a valuable method to help diagnose persistent fever in the immunocompromised host.

  13. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy; HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... It will then flow with bile into the gallbladder and then the duodenum or small intestine. For ...

  14. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOEpatents

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  15. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  16. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  17. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Mann DL, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... 2016:chap 133. Radiologyinfo.org. Computed tomography (CT) - abdomen and pelvis. Updated June 16, 2016. www.radiologyinfo. ...

  19. Scanning mirror arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Stetson, N.B.

    1982-08-31

    An image forming scanning mechanism without obturation in its optical path comprises first and second reflectors that are pivotally actuated about respective orthogonal axes. The scanning reflectors are positioned so that radiant energy in a first optical path from an object field impinges upon a vertical-scan reflector where it is directed to a horizontal-scan reflector and whereupon it is directed back onto the vertical-scan reflector from whence it is reflected along a second optical path in a different plane from the first optical path. The pivotal axes of the vertical-scan reflector and the horizontal-scan reflector are perpendicular to path of radiant energy reflected therefrom. A detector is positioned to receive radiant energy from elemental areas of an object field. The orthogonal disposition of the first and second pivotal axes provides a distortion free image signal from the detector that is comparable with the x-y scan pattern of conventional television display circuits.

  20. Bone density scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A bone density scan measures the density of bone in a person. The lower the density of a bone the ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and ...

  1. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  2. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation.

  3. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  4. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  5. Radionucleotide scanning in osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, W.; Kanat, I.O.

    1986-07-01

    Radionucleotide bone scanning can be an excellent adjunct to the standard radiograph and clinical findings in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone scans have the ability to detect osteomyelitis far in advance of the standard radiograph. The sequential use of technetium and gallium has been useful in differentiating cellulitis and osteomyelitis. Serial scanning with technetium and gallium may be used to monitor the response of osteomyelitis to antibiotic therapy.

  6. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedures, or treatments, as they can interfere with test results: Gallium (Ga) scan within the past month Hemodialysis ... Not feeling well (malaise) Pain Often, other imaging tests such as an ultrasound or CT scan may be done first. Normal Results Normal findings would show no abnormal gathering of ...

  7. PET scan for breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. ... A PET scan is most often used when other tests, such as MRI scan or CT scan, DO NOT provide enough information. A breast PET scan is used only after a woman has ...

  8. Orbit CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... machine's x-ray beam rotates around you. A computer creates separate images of the body area, called ... on a monitor, or printed on film. The computer can create three-dimensional models of the body ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses ... camera, also called a scintillation camera, detects radioactive energy that is emitted from the patient's body and ...

  10. Resonant scanning mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John; Newman, Mike; Gutierrez, Homero; Hoffman, Charlie; Quakenbush, Tim; Waldeck, Dan; Leone, Christopher; Ostaszewski, Miro

    2014-10-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. developed a Resonant Scanning Mechanism (RSM) capable of combining a 250- Hz resonant scan about one axis with a two-hertz triangular scan about the orthogonal axis. The RSM enables a rapid, high-density scan over a significant field of regard (FOR) while minimizing size, weight, and power requirements. The azimuth scan axis is bearing mounted allowing for 30° of mechanical travel, while the resonant elevation axis is flexure and spring mounted with five degrees of mechanical travel. Pointing-knowledge error during quiescent static pointing at room temperature across the full range is better than 100 μrad RMS per axis. The compact design of the RSM, roughly the size of a soda can, makes it an ideal mechanism for use on low-altitude aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Unique aspects of the opto-mechanical design include i) resonant springs which allow for a high-frequency scan axis with low power consumption; and ii) an independent lower-frequency scan axis allowing for a wide FOR. The pointing control system operates each axis independently and employs i) a position loop for the azimuth axis; and ii) a unique combination of parallel frequency and amplitude control loops for the elevation axis. All control and pointing algorithms are hosted on a 200-MHz microcontroller with 516 KB of RAM on a compact 3"×4" digital controller, also of Ball design.

  11. Body lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body lice are tiny insects (scientific name is Pediculus humanus corporis ) that are spread through close contact ... disease Images Body louse Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) Body louse, female and larvae Head louse ...

  12. Carotid Body Tumor.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Satvinder S; Kumar T, Lokesh

    2017-08-14

    A 17 year old girl presented with a progressively increasing swelling in her neck since 9 months. On examination a2*3 cm, firm, pulsatile swelling was felt in the left anterior triangle. The CT scan of the mass was suggestive of a carotid body tumor and urinary cathecholamines were negative. The mass was excised completely.

  13. Cardiac CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... rate. Before the test, a contrast dye, often iodine, may be injected into a vein in your ... should not receive more CT scans than the number that clinical guidelines recommend. Another risk is that ...

  14. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your blood and travels to your heart. Nuclear heart scans use single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) to detect the energy from the tracer to make pictures of your ...

  15. Cervical MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the part of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  16. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  17. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  18. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Diane; Stolz, Christopher J.; Wu, Zhouling; Huber, Robert; Weinzapfel, Carolyn

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  19. Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

  20. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  1. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  2. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  3. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology ... complete. A coronary calcium scan uses a special scanner such as an electron beam CT or a multidetector CT (MDCT) machine. ...

  4. Multiple Reflector Scanning Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bing

    Narrow beamwidth antenna systems are important to remote sensing applications and point-to-point communication systems. In many applications the main beam of the antenna radiation pattern must be scannable over a region of space. Scanning by mechanically skewing the entire antenna assembly is difficult and in many situations is unacceptable. Performance during scan is, of course, also very important. Traditional reflector systems employing the well-focused paraboloidal -shaped main reflector accomplish scan by motion of a few feeds, or by phase steering a focal plane feed array. Such scanning systems can experience significant gain loss. Traditional reflecting systems with a spherical main reflector have low aperture efficiency and poor side lobe and cross polarization performance. This dissertation introduces a new approach to the design of scanning spherical reflector systems, in which the performance weaknesses of high cross polarization and high side lobe levels are avoided. Moreover, the low aperture utilization common in spherical reflectors is overcome. As an improvement to this new spherical main reflector configuration, a flat mirror reflector is introduced to minimize the mechanical difficulties to scan the main beam. In addition to the reflector system design, reflector antenna performance evaluation is also important. The temperature resolution issue important for earth observation radiometer antennas is studied, and a new method to evaluate and optimize such temperature resolution is introduced.

  5. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  6. Impact of target-to-background ratio, target size, emission scan duration, and activity on physical figures of merit for a 3D LSO-based whole body PET/CT scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Brambilla, M.; Matheoud, R.; Secco, C.; Sacchetti, G.; Comi, S.; Rudoni, M.; Carriero, A.; Inglese, E.

    2007-10-15

    The aim of our work is to describe the way in which physical figures of merit such as contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) behave when varying acquisition parameters such as emission scan duration (ESD) or activity at the start of acquisition (A{sub acq}) that in clinical practice can be selected by the user, or object properties such as target dimensions or target-to-background (T/B) ratio, which depend uniquely on the intrinsic characteristics of the object being imaged. Figures of merit, used to characterize image quality and quantitative accuracy for a 3D-LSO based PET/CT scanner, were studied as a function of ESD and A{sub acq} for different target sizes and T/B ratios using a multivariate approach in a wide range of conditions approaching the ones that can be encountered in clinical practice. An annular ring of water bags of 3 cm thickness was fitted over an IEC phantom in order to obtain counting rates similar to those found in average patients. The average scatter fraction (SF) of the modified IEC phantom was similar to the mean SF measured on patients with a similar scanner. A supplemental set of micro-hollow spheres was positioned inside the phantom. The NEMA NU 2-2001 scatter phantom was positioned at the end of the IEC phantom to approximate the clinical situation of having activity that extends beyond the scanner. The phantoms were filled with a solution of water and {sup 18}F (12 kBq/mL) and the spheres with various T/B ratios of 22.5, 10.3, and 3.6. Sequential imaging was performed to acquire PET images with varying background activity concentrations of about 12, 9, 6.4, 5.3, and 3.1 kBq/mL, positioned on the linear portion of the phantom's NECR curve, well below peak NECR of 61.2 kcps that is reached at 31.8 kBq/mL. The ESD was set to 1, 2, 3, and 4 min/bed. With T/B ratios of 3.6, 10.3, and 22.5, the 13.0, 8.1, and 6.5 mm spheres were detectable for the whole ranges of background activity concentration and ESD, respectively. The ESD resulted as the most

  7. Impact of target-to-background ratio, target size, emission scan duration, and activity on physical figures of merit for a 3D LSO-based whole body PET/CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, M; Matheoud, R; Secco, C; Sacchetti, G; Comi, S; Rudoni, M; Carriero, A; Inglese, E

    2007-10-01

    The aim of our work is to describe the way in which physical figures of merit such as contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) behave when varying acquisition parameters such as emission scan duration (ESD) or activity at the start of acquisition (A(acq)) that in clinical practice can be selected by the user, or object properties such as target dimensions or target-to-background (T/B) ratio, which depend uniquely on the intrinsic characteristics of the object being imaged. Figures of merit, used to characterize image quality and quantitative accuracy for a 3D-LSO based PET/CT scanner, were studied as a function of ESD and A(acq) for different target sizes and T/B ratios using a multivariate approach in a wide range of conditions approaching the ones that can be encountered in clinical practice. An annular ring of water bags of 3 cm thickness was fitted over an IEC phantom in order to obtain counting rates similar to those found in average patients. The average scatter fraction (SF) of the modified IEC phantom was similar to the mean SF measured on patients with a similar scanner. A supplemental set of micro-hollow spheres was positioned inside the phantom. The NEMA NU 2-2001 scatter phantom was positioned at the end of the IEC phantom to approximate the clinical situation of having activity that extends beyond the scanner. The phantoms were filled with a solution of water and 18F (12 kBq/mL) and the spheres with various T/B ratios of 22.5, 10.3, and 3.6. Sequential imaging was performed to acquire PET images with varying background activity concentrations of about 12, 9, 6.4, 5.3, and 3.1 kBq/mL, positioned on the linear portion of the phantom's NECR curve, well below peak NECR of 61.2 kcps that is reached at 31.8 kBq/mL. The ESD was set to 1, 2, 3, and 4 min/bed. With T/B ratios of 3.6, 10.3, and 22.5, the 13.0, 8.1, and 6.5 mm spheres were detectable for the whole ranges of background activity concentration and ESD, respectively. The ESD resulted as the most significant

  8. Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

  9. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  10. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  11. Can whole-body magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging replace Tc 99m bone scanning and computed tomography for single-step detection of metastases in patients with high-risk prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Lecouvet, Frédéric E; El Mouedden, Jawad; Collette, Laurence; Coche, Emmanuel; Danse, Etienne; Jamar, François; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Vande Berg, Bruno; Omoumi, Patrick; Tombal, Bertrand

    2012-07-01

    Technetium Tc 99m bone scintigraphy (BS) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis and abdomen are universally recommended for detecting prostate cancer (PCa) metastases in cancer of all stages. However, this two-step approach has limited sensitivity and specificity. Evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) as a one-step screening test for PCa metastases. One hundred consecutive PCa patients at high risk for metastases prospectively underwent WBMRI, CT, and BS completed with targeted x-rays (BS/TXR) in case of equivocal BS. Four independent reviewers reviewed the images. This study compares the diagnostic performance of WBMRI, CT, BS, and BS/TXR in detecting PCa metastases using area under the curve (AUC) receiver operator characteristics. A best valuable comparator (BVC) approach was used to adjudicate final metastatic status in the absence of pathologic evaluation. Based on the BVC, 68 patients had metastases. The sensitivity of BS/TXR and WBMRI for detecting bone metastases was 86% and 98-100%, respectively (p<0.04), and specificity was 98% and 98-100%, respectively. The first and second WBMRI readers respectively identified bone metastases in 7 and 8 of 55 patients with negative BS/TXR. The sensitivity of CT and WBMRI for detecting enlarged lymph nodes was similar, at 77-82% for both; specificity was 95-96% and 96-98%, respectively. The sensitivity of the combination of BS/TXR plus CT and WBMRI for detecting bone metastases and/or enlarged lymph nodes was 84% and 91-94%, respectively (p=0.03-0.10); specificities were 94-97% and 91-96%, respectively. The 95% confidence interval of the difference between the AUC of the worst WBMRI reading and the AUC of any of the BS/TXR plus CT lay within the noninferiority margin of ±10% AUC. WBMRI outperforms BS/TXR in detecting bone metastases and performs as well as CT for enlarged lymph node evaluation. WBMRI can replace the current multimodality

  12. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  13. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably.

  14. Beam scanning binary logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hideo; Mukai, Seiji; Watanabe, Masanobu; Mori, Masahiko; Yajima, Hiroyoshi

    1990-07-01

    A beam-scanning laser diode (BSLD) is presently applied to a novel optoelectronic logic operation, designated 'beam-scanning binary logic' (BSBL), that covers the implementation of both the basic logic gates and a spatial code encoder for photodetection, while allowing a greater reduction of the number of active devices than ordinary binary logic operations. BSBL executes multifunctional logic operations simultaneously. The data connections between logic gates in BSLD are flexible, due to the ability to electrically control both output power and laser-beam direction.

  15. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOEpatents

    George, John S.

    2000-03-14

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  16. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  17. CT Scans - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tomography) Scan - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section CT ( ... Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section CT ( ...

  18. The Organizational Scan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald; Jackson, Stephanie D.

    1997-01-01

    Performance technologists like quick, cheap analysis that is rigorous and comprehensive. This article presents the organization scan model which makes successful compromises between the technologist's obligation to be rigorous and comprehensive and the sponsor's obligation to save money and time. Includes "Societal Bottom Line: Measurable…

  19. ICV Echo Ultrasound Scan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-31

    View of Integrated Cardiovascular (ICV) Echo Ultrasound Scan,in the Columbus module. ICV aims to quantify the extent,time course and clinical significance of cardiac atrophy (decrease in the size of the heart muscle) in space. Photo was taken during Expedition 34.

  20. Environmental Scanning Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    In response to the change in the provincial economy from natural-resource-based industries to service-oriented industries, Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia (BC) conducted an environmental scan of the social and economic trends in the college's service region that will most likely affect prospective students' educational and…

  1. Teaching the SCANS Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

    SCANS (the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) provides definitions of the knowledge students and workers need for workplace success and methods for applying these principles in communities throughout the United States. This document contains six articles that give education and training practitioners practical suggestions for…

  2. SCANS: The Missing Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price-Machado, Donna

    Three specific classroom techniques for teaching vocational English as a Second Language to adults are discussed. They are three items on the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) list of "easy things" to do to integrate workplace basics into the classroom, designed to encourage a student-focused classroom. They…

  3. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  4. Cervical spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the body area, called ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  5. Thoracic spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the body area. These ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  6. Pelvic CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of contrast given into a vein contains iodine. If a person with an iodine allergy is given this type of contrast, nausea ... steroids before the test. The kidneys help remove iodine out of the body. Those with kidney disease ...

  7. Heart CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of contrast given into a vein contains iodine. If a person with an iodine allergy is given this type of contrast, nausea ... steroids before the test. The kidneys help remove iodine out of the body. Those with kidney disease ...

  8. Sinus CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of contrast given into a vein contains iodine. A person with an iodine allergy may have nausea or vomiting, sneezing, itching, ... steroids before the test. The kidneys help remove iodine out of the body. Those with kidney disease ...

  9. Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Jerry L.

    1981-01-01

    Body composition refers to the types and amounts of tissues which make up the body. The most acceptable method for assessing body composition is underwater weighing. A subcutaneous skinfold provides a quantitative measurement of fat below the skin. The skinfold technique permits a valid estimate of the body's total fat content. (JN)

  10. Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Jerry L.

    1981-01-01

    Body composition refers to the types and amounts of tissues which make up the body. The most acceptable method for assessing body composition is underwater weighing. A subcutaneous skinfold provides a quantitative measurement of fat below the skin. The skinfold technique permits a valid estimate of the body's total fat content. (JN)

  11. Bone scanning in clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelman, I. )

    1987-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

  12. Body lift.

    PubMed

    Capella, Joseph F

    2008-01-01

    The body in the patient who has lost a massive amount of weight presents an extreme form of traditional esthetic and functional body contour concerns. Routine body contouring procedures usually produce only suboptimal results in this patient population. The body lift described herein is an excellent alternative to treat the body contour deformity of the patient who has undergone bariatric surgery. As with every technique, careful patient selection, education, and preparation are critical to minimizing complications and optimizing outcome.

  13. Scanning thermal plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1975-01-01

    Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.

  14. Scanning thermal plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1975-01-01

    Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.

  15. The Scanning Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, T.; Zhang, Z. X.; Huang, S.

    2012-07-01

    The paper proposes a new photogrammetry method, the scanning photogrammetry, to solve the problem that large targets can hardly be processed as a whole one in close-range photogrammetry. The method enlarges the view angle and intersection angle effectively by rotating camera in horizontal and vertical direction when photographing large targets. Meanwhile, it is a kind of multi-baseline photogrammetry which increases matching reliability and improves the quality and quantity of observations. Besides, in order to acquire images automatically, we develop the photograph scanner which ensures the efficiency and quality of photography. And the scanning photogrammetry system has been successfully used in deformation monitoring of Wumen Circumvallation in the Forbidden City. In the experiments, data is processed automatically by classical triangulation and self-calibration bundle adjustment. The result proves that the precision can meet with the deformation monitoring requirements and data processing efficiency accomplishes to engineering measurement applications.

  16. Photon scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Goudonnet, J.P.; Salomon, L.; De Fornel, F.; Chabrier, G. . Lab. de Physique du Solide); Warmack, R.J.; Ferrell, T.L. )

    1990-01-01

    The Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (PSTM) is the photon analogue of the electron Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). It uses the evanescent field due to the total internal reflection of a light beam in a Total Internal Reflection (TIR) prism. The sample, mounted on the base of the prism, modulates the evanescent field. A sharpened optical fiber probes this field, and the collected light is processed to generate an image of the topography and the chemical composition of the surface. We give, in this paper, a description of the microscope and discuss the influence of several parameters such as -- polarization of light, angle of incidence, shape of the end of the fiber -- on the resolution. Images of various samples -- glass samples, teflon spheres -- are presented. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Scanning holographic optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, L A; Panas, Robert M; Spadaccini, C M; Hopkins, J B

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this Letter is to introduce a new optical tweezers approach, called scanning holographic optical tweezers (SHOT), which drastically increases the working area (WA) of the holographic-optical tweezers (HOT) approach, while maintaining tightly focused laser traps. A 12-fold increase in the WA is demonstrated. The SHOT approach achieves its utility by combining the large WA of the scanning optical tweezers (SOT) approach with the flexibility of the HOT approach for simultaneously moving differently structured optical traps in and out of the focal plane. This Letter also demonstrates a new heuristic control algorithm for combining the functionality of the SOT and HOT approaches to efficiently allocate the available laser power among a large number of traps. The proposed approach shows promise for substantially increasing the number of particles that can be handled simultaneously, which would enable optical tweezers additive fabrication technologies to rapidly assemble microgranular materials and structures in reasonable build times.

  18. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; ...

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. Thus, this approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  19. Optical scanning holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung; Doh, Kyu B.; Schilling, Bradley W.; Wu, Ming H.; Shinoda, Kazunori K.; Suzuki, Yoshiji

    1995-03-01

    We first review a newly developed 3D imaging technique called optical scanning holography (OSH), and discuss recording and reconstruction of a point object using the principle of OSH. We then derive 3D holographic magnification, using three points configured as a 3D object. Finally, we demonstrated 3D imaging capability of OSH by holographically recording two planar objects at different depths and reconstructing the hologram digitally.

  20. Scanning drop sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  1. Scanning drop sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  2. Fly-scan ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  3. Underwater laser scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Roswell W.; Duntley, Seibert Q.; Ensminger, Richard L.; Petzold, Theodore J.; Smith, Raymond C.

    1991-12-01

    A system is described that produces high quality images through turbid waters by means of time encoded reflected light transmitted by scattering. The system consists of a compact battery operated laser scanning unit that scans the underwater scene with the laser beam in a manner similar to a television raster. Light reflected from any object in the scene varies in accordance with the reflectance of the minute spot being illuminated. This time varying intensity (TVI) signal is transmitted through the water to a remote receiver by both scattered and unscattered light where the received signal may be stored and/or displayed. The underwater laser scanning unit can be moved freely about the field of interest by scuba diver or ROV, unencumbered by entangling umbilicals, and can send real-time images over distances of 15 to 20 attenuation lengths to observers in a shirt-sleeve environment for critical viewing on an image display monitor. This previously undescribed system was developed in the early 1970s for proof of concept tests and used technology that is now 18 or more years old. The physical principles and the experimental hardware are described and examples are given of images providing exquisite detail that were made in an experimental tank together with some images obtained in ocean trials.

  4. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  5. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  6. Body Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, K. Allen

    1989-01-01

    Described are activities for measuring the human body. The activities include measurements and calculations, calculating volume and density, problems related to body measurement, and using a nomogram. Several charts, illustrations, and a nomogram are provided. (YP)

  7. Body Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, K. Allen

    1989-01-01

    Described are activities for measuring the human body. The activities include measurements and calculations, calculating volume and density, problems related to body measurement, and using a nomogram. Several charts, illustrations, and a nomogram are provided. (YP)

  8. Ringworm (Body)

    MedlinePlus

    Ringworm (body) Overview Ringworm of the body is a fungal infection that develops on the top layer of your skin. It's characterized by ... clearer skin in the middle. It may itch. Ringworm gets its name because of its appearance. No ...

  9. Skeletal Scintigraphy (Bone Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... like? Special camera or imaging devices used in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also called a scintillation camera, detects radioactive energy that is emitted from the patient's body and ...

  10. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  11. Battery scanning system

    SciTech Connect

    Dieu, L.F.

    1984-11-20

    A battery scanning system which is capable of monitoring and displaying the voltage of each cell in a battery or upon command provides the cell voltage distribution by displaying the cell number and voltage value of highest and lowest cell. The system has a digital logic system, display, input switches for operator generated variables, an alarm, relays, relay selection gates, an optically coupled isolation amplifier, power source and an analog-digital converter. The optically coupled analog amplifier electrically isolates the system from the battery so that large voltage offsets will not adversely affect the automatic measuring of the cells.

  12. Real Scan Evolution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Computer Image Generation Visual Simulation Computer Graphics Al gortthm Geometric Model tng 1%ABSTRACT (C.tla. -mm. .00n ad N ue-e""V ONd Ofmi* OF 61"knsee...envtronments. modeled as a single valued el evatYo fnction of horizontal location. The objecttve of the development was to analyze the feasibility of a real...generator capable of creating complex Imagery .in real time? Is the solution amenable to efficient off-lne modeling of complex environments? The Real Scan

  13. Scanning Quantum Dot Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Green, Matthew F. B.; Leinen, Philipp; Deilmann, Thorsten; Krüger, Peter; Rohlfing, Michael; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a scanning probe technique that enables three-dimensional imaging of local electrostatic potential fields with subnanometer resolution. Registering single electron charging events of a molecular quantum dot attached to the tip of an atomic force microscope operated at 5 K, equipped with a qPlus tuning fork, we image the quadrupole field of a single molecule. To demonstrate quantitative measurements, we investigate the dipole field of a single metal adatom adsorbed on a metal surface. We show that because of its high sensitivity the technique can probe electrostatic potentials at large distances from their sources, which should allow for the imaging of samples with increased surface roughness.

  14. Controlled Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskell, Todd G.; Sarid, Dror; Workman, Richard K.; Pyle, Jason L.

    1997-03-01

    A method for real-time monitoring of the quality and quantity of silicon oxide grown on silicon using conducting-tip scanning probe lithography has been developed. The sub-picoampere tip-sample currents measured during lithography in ambient conditions are shown to be proportional to the amount of silicon oxide being grown. In addition, we have demonstrated the ability to control the composition of the grown material by altering the lithographic environment. Silicon nitride growth is shown to result from lithography on silicon samples in an environment of annhydrous ammonia.

  15. Optimal threshold of stimulated serum thyroglobulin level for (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hong; Zhang, Hu; Yu, Yong-Li; Gao, Yun-Chao

    2017-06-01

    This study was to explore the optimal threshold of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (s-Tg) for patients who were to receive (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/CT scan owing to clinical suspicion of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) recurrence but negative post-therapeutic (131)I whole-body scan ((131)I-WBS). A total of 60 qualified patients underwent PET/CT scanning from October 2010 to July 2014. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses showed that s-Tg levels over 49 μg/L led to the highest diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT to detect recurrence, with a sensitivity of 89.5% and a specificity of 90.9%. Besides, bivariate correlation analysis showed positive correlation between s-Tg levels and the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of (18)F-FDG in patients with positive PET/CT scanning, suggesting a significant influence of TSH both on Tg release and uptake of (18)F-FDG. So, positive PET/CT imaging is expected when patients have negative (131)I-WBS but s-Tg levels over 49 μg/L.

  16. Scans Solo: A One-Person Environmental Scanning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    An effective environmental scan will improve the quality of community college planning and decision making by alerting institutional leaders to the challenges and opportunities in the environment. Scanning can be done in three ways: (1) establishing a scanning committee to gather and synthesize information to guide planning; (2) sponsoring a…

  17. Free motion scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Sword, Charles K.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasonic scanner system and method for the imaging of a part system, the scanner comprising: a probe assembly spaced apart from the surface of the part including at least two tracking signals for emitting radiation and a transmitter for emitting ultrasonic waves onto a surface in order to induce at least a portion of the waves to be reflected from the part, at least one detector for receiving the radiation wherein the detector is positioned to receive the radiation from the tracking signals, an analyzer for recognizing a three-dimensional location of the tracking signals based on the emitted radiation, a differential converter for generating an output signal representative of the waveform of the reflected waves, and a device such as a computer for relating said tracking signal location with the output signal and projecting an image of the resulting data. The scanner and method are particularly useful to acquire ultrasonic inspection data by scanning the probe over a complex part surface in an arbitrary scanning pattern.

  18. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, D.A. |

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  19. Photon scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reddick, R.C.; Warmack, R.J.; Chilcott, D.W.; Sharp, S.L.; Ferrell, T.L. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN )

    1990-12-01

    An optical tunneling microscope is presented that operates in exactly the same way as the electron scanning tunneling microscope (ESTM). It takes advantage of evanescent fields generated by the total internal reflection (TIR) of light at the interface between materials of different optical densities. The photon scanning tunneling microscope (PSTM) employs an optically conducting probe tip to map spatial variations in the evanescent and scattered field intensity distributions adjacent to a sample surface, which forms or is placed on the TIR surface. These variations are due to the local topography, morphology, and optical activity of the surface and form the basis of imaging. Evanescent field theory is discussed and the evanescent field intensity as a function of surface-probe separation is calculated using several probe tip models. After a description of PSTM construction and operation, evanescent field intensity measurements are shown to agree with the model calculations. PSTM images of various sample surfaces demonstrate subwavelength resolution exceeding that of conventional optical microscopy, especially in the vertical dimension. Limitations and interpretation of PSTM images are discussed as well as the PSTMs applicability to other forms of surface analysis.

  20. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan involves two nuclear scan tests to measure breathing (ventilation) and circulation ( ... In: Mettler FA, Guiberteau MJ, eds. Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  1. Rotational scanning atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ulčinas, A; Vaitekonis, Š

    2017-03-10

    A non-raster scanning technique for atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging which combines rotational and translational motion is presented. The use of rotational motion for the fast scan axis allows us to significantly increase the scanning speed while imaging a large area (diameter > 30 μm). An image reconstruction algorithm and the factors influencing the resolution of the technique are discussed. The experimental results show the potential of the rotational scanning technique for high-throughput large area AFM investigation.

  2. Rotational scanning atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulčinas, A.; Vaitekonis, Š.

    2017-03-01

    A non-raster scanning technique for atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging which combines rotational and translational motion is presented. The use of rotational motion for the fast scan axis allows us to significantly increase the scanning speed while imaging a large area (diameter > 30 μm). An image reconstruction algorithm and the factors influencing the resolution of the technique are discussed. The experimental results show the potential of the rotational scanning technique for high-throughput large area AFM investigation.

  3. The Scanning Process: Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, William L.; Morrison, James L.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning the external environment will become more essential to colleges in the coming decade. Developing an environmental scanning system can identify important emerging issues that may constitute either threats or opportunities. The organizational features of a mature scanning process are described. (MLW)

  4. Telescopic horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan

    2014-12-20

    The problem of "distortionless" viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems (mainly "binoculars") remains problematic. The so called "globe effect" is only partially counteracted in modern designs. Theories addressing the phenomenon have never reached definitive closure. In this paper, we show that exact distortionless viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems is not possible in general, but that it is in principle possible in-very frequent in battle field and marine applications-the case of horizon scanning. However, this involves cylindrical optical elements. For opto-electronic systems, a full solution is more readily feasible. The solution involves a novel interpretation of the relevant constraints and objectives. For final design decisions, it is not necessary to rely on a corpus of psychophysical (or ergonomic) data, although one has to decide whether the instrument is intended as an extension of the eye or as a "pictorial" device.

  5. Fetal cardiac scanning today.

    PubMed

    Allan, Lindsey

    2010-07-01

    The ability to examine the structure of the fetal heart in real-time started over 30 years ago now. The field has seen very great advances since then, both in terms of technical improvements in ultrasound equipment and in dissemination of operator skills. A great deal has been learnt about normal cardiac function in the human fetus throughout gestation and how it is affected by pathologies of pregnancy. There is increasing recognition of abnormal heart structure during routine obstetric scanning, allowing referral for specialist diagnosis and counselling. It is now possible to make accurate diagnosis of cardiac malformations as early as 12 weeks of gestation. Early diagnosis of a major cardiac malformation in the fetus can provide the parents with a comprehensive prognosis, enabling them to make the most informed choice about the management of the pregnancy.

  6. A scanning cavity microscope

    PubMed Central

    Mader, Matthias; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a high-finesse scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1,700-fold signal enhancement compared with diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross-section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity less than 1 nm2; we show a method to improve the spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for optical studies of nanomaterials, molecules and biological nanosystems. PMID:26105690

  7. Scanning the periphery.

    PubMed

    Day, George S; Schoemaker, Paul J H

    2005-11-01

    Companies often face new rivals, technologies, regulations, and other environmental changes that seem to come out of left field. How can they see these changes sooner and capitalize on them? Such changes often begin as weak signals on what the authors call the periphery, or the blurry zone at the edge of an organization's vision. As with human peripheral vision, these signals are difficult to see and interpret but can be vital to success or survival. Unfortunately, most companies lack a systematic method for determining where on the periphery they should be looking, how to interpret the weak signals they see, and how to allocate limited scanning resources. This article provides such a method-a question-based framework for helping companies scan the periphery more efficiently and effectively. The framework divides questions into three categories: learning from the past (What have been our past blind spots? What instructive analogies do other industries offer? Who in the industry is skilled at picking up weak signals and acting on them?); evaluating the present (What important signals are we rationalizing away? What are our mavericks, outliers, complainers, and defectors telling us? What are our peripheral customers and competitors really thinking?); and envisioning the future (What future surprises could really hurt or help us? What emerging technologies could change the game? Is there an unthinkable scenario that might disrupt our business?). Answering these questions is a good first step toward anticipating problems or opportunities that may appear on the business horizon. The article concludes with a self-test that companies can use to assess their need and capability for peripheral vision.

  8. Earth observing scanning polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Climate forcing by tropospheric aerosols is receiving increased attention because of the realization that the climate effects may be large, while our knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and temporal changes is very poor. Tropospheric aerosols cause a direct radiative forcing due simply to their scattering and absorption of solar radiation, as well as an indirect effect as cloud condensation nuclei which can modify the shortwave reflectivity of clouds. Sulfate aerosols tend to increase planetary albedo through both the direct and indirect effects; a cooling due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols has been estimated of order 1 W/sq m, noting that this is similar in magnitude to the present anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming. Other aerosols, including those from biomass burning and wind-blown desert dust are also of potential climatic importance. At present, the only global monitoring of tropospheric aerosols is a NOAA operational product, aerosol optical thickness, obtained using channel-1 (0.58-0.68 mu m) radiances from the AVHRR. With this single channel radiance data, one must use an approach which is based on the inferred excess of reflected radiance owing to scattering by the aerosols over that expected from theoretical calculations. This approach is suited only for situations where the surface has a low albedo that is well known a priori. Thus, the NOAA operational product is restricted to coverage over the ocean at AVHRR scan angles well away from sun glint, and aerosol changes are subject to confusion with changes caused by either optically thin or subpixel clouds. Because optically thin aerosols have only a small effect on the radiance, accurate measurements for optical thickness less than 0.1 (which is a typical background level) are precluded. Moreover, some of the largest and most important aerosol changes are expected over land. The Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP) instrument, based upon design heritage and analysis techniques

  9. Differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Spink, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has emerged as a powerful experimental technique for determining thermodynamic properties of biomacromolecules. The ability to monitor unfolding or phase transitions in proteins, polynucleotides, and lipid assemblies has not only provided data on thermodynamic stability for these important molecules, but also made it possible to examine the details of unfolding processes and to analyze the characteristics of intermediate states involved in the melting of biopolymers. The recent improvements in DSC instrumentation and software have generated new opportunities for the study of the effects of structure and changes in environment on the behavior of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. This review presents some of the details of application of DSC to the examination of the unfolding of biomolecules. After a brief introduction to DSC instrumentation used for the study of thermal transitions, the methods for obtaining basic thermodynamic information from the DSC curve are presented. Then, using DNA unfolding as an example, methods for the analysis of the melting transition are presented that allow deconvolution of the DSC curves to determine more subtle characteristics of the intermediate states involved in unfolding. Two types of transitions are presented for analysis, the first example being the unfolding of two large synthetic polynucleotides, which display high cooperativity in the melting process. The second example shows the application of DSC for the study of the unfolding of a simple hairpin oligonucleotide. Details of the data analysis are presented in a simple spreadsheet format.

  10. GPR scan assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Abbas M.; Salah, Hany; Massoud, Usama; Fouad, Mona; Abdel-Hafez, Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD). The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m) with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench) and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench) to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  11. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Nels W.

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  12. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  13. Body shape preferences: associations with rater body shape and sociosexuality.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael E; Pound, Nicholas; Dunn, James; Hopkins, Sian; Kang, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence of condition-dependent mate choice in many species, that is, individual preferences varying in strength according to the condition of the chooser. In humans, for example, people with more attractive faces/bodies, and who are higher in sociosexuality, exhibit stronger preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex faces/bodies. However, previous studies have tended to use only relatively simple, isolated measures of rater attractiveness. Here we use 3D body scanning technology to examine associations between strength of rater preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex bodies, and raters' body shape, self-perceived attractiveness, and sociosexuality. For 118 raters and 80 stimuli models, we used a 3D scanner to extract body measurements associated with attractiveness (male waist-chest ratio [WCR], female waist-hip ratio [WHR], and volume-height index [VHI] in both sexes) and also measured rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality. As expected, WHR and VHI were important predictors of female body attractiveness, while WCR and VHI were important predictors of male body attractiveness. Results indicated that male rater sociosexuality scores were positively associated with strength of preference for attractive (low) VHI and attractive (low) WHR in female bodies. Moreover, male rater self-perceived attractiveness was positively associated with strength of preference for low VHI in female bodies. The only evidence of condition-dependent preferences in females was a positive association between attractive VHI in female raters and preferences for attractive (low) WCR in male bodies. No other significant associations were observed in either sex between aspects of rater body shape and strength of preferences for attractive opposite-sex body traits. These results suggest that among male raters, rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality are important predictors of preference strength for attractive opposite

  14. Personnel screening with terahertz opto-mechanical scanning imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lan-tao; Liu, Xin; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2014-11-01

    We presented a passive THz opto-mechnical scanning imaging method using a single detector and a trihedral scanning mirror. The system improved the imaging speed through employing two flapping mirrors. Also the trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror were adopted. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 2.2m with the image range of 1.6m (W) ×1.6m (H), the imaging time was 2s, and the resolution was 3cm. We imaged human body with different objects concealed under their clothes, such as buckle, ceramic chip, etc.

  15. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-10-15

    We outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. The impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  16. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross J.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-10-15

    We outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. Thus, the impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  17. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross J.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. Furthermore, the impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  18. Precision of the CAESAR scan-extracted measurements.

    PubMed

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Daanen, Hein A M

    2006-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) body scanners are increasingly used to derive 1D body dimensions from 3D whole body scans for instance, as input for clothing grading systems to make made-to-measure clothing or for width and depth dimensions of a seated workstation. In this study, the precision of the scanner-derived 1D dimensions from the CAESAR survey, a multinational anthropometric survey, was investigated. Two combinations of scanning teams with 3D whole body scanners were compared, one called the US Team and the other the Dutch Team. Twenty subjects were measured three times by one scanner and one team, and three times by the other combination. The subjects were marked prior to scanning using small dots, and the linear distances between the dots were calculated after processing the scans. The mean absolute difference (MAD) of the repetitions was calculated and this was compared to reported acceptable errors in manual measurements from the US Army's ANSUR survey when similar measurements were available. In addition, the coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for all measurements. The results indicate that the CAESAR scan-extracted measurements are highly reproducible; for most measures the MAD is less than 5mm. In addition, more than 93% of the MAD values for CAESAR are significantly smaller than the ANSUR survey acceptable errors. Therefore, it is concluded that the type of scan-extracted measures used in CAESAR are as good as or better than comparable manual measurements. Scan-extracted measurements that do not use markers or are not straight-line distances are not represented here and additional studies would be needed to verify their precision.

  19. Automatic thoracic body region localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, PeiRui; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, YuBing; Xie, ShiPeng; Torigian, Drew A.

    2017-03-01

    Radiological imaging and image interpretation for clinical decision making are mostly specific to each body region such as head & neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and extremities. For automating image analysis and consistency of results, standardizing definitions of body regions and the various anatomic objects, tissue regions, and zones in them becomes essential. Assuming that a standardized definition of body regions is available, a fundamental early step needed in automated image and object analytics is to automatically trim the given image stack into image volumes exactly satisfying the body region definition. This paper presents a solution to this problem based on the concept of virtual landmarks and evaluates it on whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans. The method first selects a (set of) reference object(s), segments it (them) roughly, and identifies virtual landmarks for the object(s). The geometric relationship between these landmarks and the boundary locations of body regions in the craniocaudal direction is then learned through a neural network regressor, and the locations are predicted. Based on low-dose unenhanced CT images of 180 near whole-body PET/CT scans (which includes 34 whole-body PET/CT scans), the mean localization error for the boundaries of superior of thorax (TS) and inferior of thorax (TI), expressed as number of slices (slice spacing ≍ 4mm)), and using either the skeleton or the pleural spaces as reference objects, is found to be 3,2 (using skeleton) and 3, 5 (using pleural spaces) respectively, or in mm 13, 10 mm (using skeleton) and 10.5, 20 mm (using pleural spaces), respectively. Improvements of this performance via optimal selection of objects and virtual landmarks and other object analytics applications are currently being pursued. and the skeleton and pleural spaces used as a reference objects

  20. 3D measurement of the human body for apparel mass customization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bugao; Lin, Sheng; Chen, Tong

    2000-12-01

    An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body-scanning system using the multi-line triangulation technique, and methods for body size extraction and body modeling. The scanning system can rapidly acquire the surface data of a body, provide accurate body dimensions, many of which are not measurable with conventional methods, and also construct a body form based on the scanned data as a digital model of the body for 3D garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment.

  1. Body Image

    MedlinePlus

    ... spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Over-exercising ... conditions? Visit our Mental health section. Fact sheets Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Cosmetics and ...

  2. Bog bodies.

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-06-01

    In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma. Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp and shrink, leading to potential pitfalls in paleopathological diagnostics. Bog bodies have in several instances been crucial in determining the last meal, as gut contents may be preserved, and thus augment our knowledge on pre-historic diet by adding to, for example, stable isotope analyses. This article presents an overview of our knowledge about the taphomic processes as well as the methods used in bog body research.

  3. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Lung VQ Scan Related Topics Arrhythmia Cough Deep Vein Thrombosis Pulmonary Embolism Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... this topic. Related reading Chest X Ray Cough Deep Vein Thrombosis Pulmonary Embolism Rate This Content: Updated: December 9, 2016 Twitter ...

  4. New Window into the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Michael Vannier, MD, a former NASA engineer, recognized the similarity between NASA's computerized image processing technology and nuclear magnetic resonance. With technical assistance from Kennedy Space Center, he developed a computer program for Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology enabling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to scan body tissue for earlier diagnoses. Dr. Vannier feels that "satellite imaging" has opened a new window into the human body.

  5. Scanning Motion; Opto-Mechanical Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Roger S.

    1988-11-01

    The field of electro-optics has grown enormously in the last 25 years. As a consequence, both optics and optical engineering have mushroomed. The mechanical engineer, during this period, has been patiently providing the necessary support technology to achieve precision instrument design. Within the last 5 years, the discipline of opto-mechanical engineering has been emerging as a driving force to channel information to the precision mechanical engineer. In an overview article, "Opto-Mechanical Instrument Design", one of the key subtopics is "Scanning Motion." This paper is about that subtopic, specifically directed to the precision mechanical engineer and his involvement with Mirror Scanning Motion Systems. The purpose of this paper is to inform the mechanical engineer as to the many considerations necessary during the design and development of a precision instrument. The logical starting point will be the fundamentals for opto-mechanical engineering as established by Dan Vukobratovich. The glossary at the end is an attempt to define many of the terms in his notes, plus any others that have arisen. These definitions are not for the physicist, electrical engineer, or mathematician, but for the mechanical engineer. The body of this paper covers over fifty papers which can be located by using the key words "mirror" and "scanning" and limiting the search to the past 5 years.

  6. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  7. The value of brain scanning

    PubMed Central

    Riddoch, D.; Drolc, Z.

    1972-01-01

    Over a 3-year period, 667 brain scans were performed, of which the results in 632 have been analysed. Positive scans were found in 68% of 204 cerebral tumours. There was a high rate of detection of meningiomas and malignant gliomas. Scanning was less helpful in visualizing slowly growing gliomas, and those tumours situated in the mid-line or posterior fossa. Metastases occupied an intermediate position. Positive scans occurred in a proportion of patients following acute cerebro-vascular accidents, and in a few other miscellaneous disorders. Virtually all patients with transient cerebral ischaemia, migraine, epilepsy and presenile dementia had normal brain scans. The value and limitations of this investigation have been discussed. PMID:5076491

  8. Rapid-scan EPR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Sandra S.; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A.; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250 MHz.

  9. Virtual scanning--a new system of medical assessment and treatment: Part I. Assessment.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Graham; Ewing, Elena; Hankey, Alex

    2007-03-01

    We summarize fundamental concepts and research supporting Virtual Scanning, a Russian system of health assessment and treatment, which uses computer modeling of brain function to analyze color cognition and so identify and evaluate specific influences from all parts of the nervous system. In Virtual Scanning, quantitative estimates of deviation from predefined measures of good health of all body parts, including organs and organ systems, yield a body scan in virtual reality. Russian evaluations are summarized, with examples of instances in which Virtual Scanning was found to provide early warnings of clinical conditions before conventional tests had detected problems.

  10. Metastatic calcification of the stomach imaged on a bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Ryo, U.Y.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    A whole body bone scan obtained on a 21-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and chronic renal failure showed localization of the radionuclide diffusely in the stomach. The localization of the radionuclide represented metastatic calcification of the stomach caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  11. An automatic approach for 3D registration of CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yang; Saber, Eli; Dianat, Sohail; Vantaram, Sreenath Rao; Abhyankar, Vishwas

    2012-03-01

    CT (Computed tomography) is a widely employed imaging modality in the medical field. Normally, a volume of CT scans is prescribed by a doctor when a specific region of the body (typically neck to groin) is suspected of being abnormal. The doctors are required to make professional diagnoses based upon the obtained datasets. In this paper, we propose an automatic registration algorithm that helps healthcare personnel to automatically align corresponding scans from 'Study' to 'Atlas'. The proposed algorithm is capable of aligning both 'Atlas' and 'Study' into the same resolution through 3D interpolation. After retrieving the scanned slice volume in the 'Study' and the corresponding volume in the original 'Atlas' dataset, a 3D cross correlation method is used to identify and register various body parts.

  12. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images. In this photograph, a patient undergoes an open MRI.

  13. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  14. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  15. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images. In this photograph, a patient undergoes an open MRI.

  16. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Giulia M.R.; Breedijk, Ronald M.P.; Brandt, Rick A.J.; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H.C.; de Jong, Babette E.; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A.; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required. PMID:24298422

  17. Body parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayiter, Elif

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  18. Pointing and Scanning Control of Instruments Using Rotating Unbalanced Masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, John Y.

    1996-01-01

    Motions of telescopes, satellites, and other flight bodies have been controlled by various means in the past. For example, gimbal mounted devices can use electric motors to produce pointing and scanning motions. Reaction wheels, control moment gyros, and propellant-charged reaction jets are other technologies that have also been used. Each of these methods has its advantages, but all actuator systems used in a flight environment face the challenges of minimizing weight, reducing energy consumption, and maximizing reliability. Recently, Polites invented and patented the Rotating Unbalanced Mass (RUM) device as a means for generation scanning motion on flight experiments. RUM devices have been successfully used to generate various scanning motions. The basic principle: a RUM rotating at constant annular velocity exerts a cyclic centrifugal force on the instrument or main body, thus producing a periodic scanning motion. A system of RUM devices exerts no reaction forces on the main body, requires very little energy, and is very simple to construct and control. These are significant advantages over electric motors, reaction wheels, and control moment gyroscopes. Although the RUM device very easily produces scanning motion, an auxiliary control system may be required to maintain the proper orientation, or pointing of the main body. It has been suggested that RUM devices can be used to control pointing dynamics, as well as generate the desired periodic scanning motion. The idea is that the RUM velocity will not be constant, but will vary over the period of one RUM rotation. The thought is that the changing angular velocity produces a centrifugal force having time-varying magnitude and direction. The scope of the present research project is to further study the pointing control concept, and to implement a microcontroller program to control an experimental hardware system. This report is subdivided into three themes. The basic dynamic modeling and control principles are

  19. Radioisotope scanning of the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Bell, T. K.; Ferguson, R.; McIlrath, E. I.; Weaver, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    Lung scanning with macroaggregated albumin 131I was carried out in 128 patients. The technique appears to be without hazard. It is particularly useful in the detection of pulmonary embolism, but the pattern is non-specific and changes occur in other cardio-respiratory diseases. On the basis of these observations pulmonary scanning is regarded as a useful adjunct in the study of pulmonary embolism, but it cannot serve as a specific diagnostic procedure since similar patterns of scan may be found in many conditions. Images PMID:4230042

  20. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  1. Body Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  2. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... In some communities, a CT scan with special software can also be used to diagnose or monitor ... patient's bone mineral density. DEXA machines feature special software that compute and display the bone density measurements ...

  3. Studies in Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    refereed journals, as well as two books titled Scanning Force Microscopy, With Applications to Electric, Magnetic, and Atomic Forces published by Oxford University Press in 1991 and a revised edition in 1994.

  4. Retinal locus for scanning text.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, George T; Sharma, Manoj K; Grose, Susan A; Maino, Joseph H

    2006-01-01

    A method of mapping the retinal location of text during reading is described in which text position is plotted cumulatively on scanning laser ophthalmoscope retinal images. Retinal locations that contain text most often are the brightest in the cumulative plot, and locations that contain text least often are the darkest. In this way, the retinal area that most often contains text is determined. Text maps were plotted for eight control subjects without vision loss and eight subjects with central scotomas from macular degeneration. Control subjects' text maps showed that the fovea contained text most often. Text maps of five of the subjects with scotomas showed that they used the same peripheral retinal area to scan text and fixate. Text maps of the other three subjects with scotomas showed that they used separate areas to scan text and fixate. Retinal text maps may help evaluate rehabilitative strategies for training individuals with central scotomas to use a particular retinal area to scan text.

  5. Liver echinococcus - CT scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This upper abdominal CT scan shows multiple cysts in the liver, caused by dog tapeworm (echinococcus). Note the large circular cyst (seen on the left side of the screen) and multiple smaller cysts throughout ...

  6. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  7. Evaluation of the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Viani, Karina; Mosby, Terezie T

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition is a serious concern for children with cancer and nutrition screening may offer a simple alternative to nutrition assessment for identifying children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. The present paper aimed to evaluate the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN). SCAN was developed after an extensive review of currently available tools and published screening recommendation, consideration of pediatric oncology nutrition guidelines, piloting questions, and consulting with members of International Pediatric Oncology Nutrition Group. In Study 1, the accuracy and validity of SCAN against pediatric subjective global nutrition assessment (pediatric SGNA) was determined. In Study 2, subjects were classified as 'at risk of malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN and measures of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition were compared between the groups. The validation of SCAN against pediatric SGNA showed SCAN had 'excellent' accuracy (0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.00; p < 0.001), 100% sensitivity, 39% specificity, 56% positive predictive value and 100% negative predictive value. When subjects in Study 2 were classified into 'at risk of malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN, the 'at risk of malnutrition' group had significantly lower values for weight Z score (p = 0.001), BMI Z score (p = 0.001) and fat mass index (FMI) (p = 0.04), than the 'not at risk of malnutrition' group. This study shows that SCAN is a simple, quick and valid tool which can be used to identify children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual perception of male body attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Dai, W; Liu, F; Wu, J

    2005-02-07

    Based on 69 scanned Chinese male subjects and 25 Caucasian male subjects, the present study showed that the volume height index (VHI) is the most important visual cue to male body attractiveness of young Chinese viewers among the many body parameters examined in the study. VHI alone can explain ca. 73% of the variance of male body attractiveness ratings. The effect of VHI can be fitted with two half bell-shaped exponential curves with an optimal VHI at 17.6 l m(-2) and 18.0 l m(-2) for female raters and male raters, respectively. In addition to VHI, other body parameters or ratios can have small, but significant effects on male body attractiveness. Body proportions associated with fitness will enhance male body attractiveness. It was also found that there is an optimal waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) at 0.8 and deviations from this optimal WHR reduce male body attractiveness.

  9. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.

    2016-04-01

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annual energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.

  10. Deconvolution of sinusoidal rapid EPR scans.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-02-01

    In rapid scan EPR the magnetic field is scanned through the signal in a time that is short relative to electron spin relaxation times. Previously it was shown that the slow-scan lineshape could be recovered from triangular rapid scans by Fourier deconvolution. In this paper a general Fourier deconvolution method is described and demonstrated to recover the slow-scan lineshape from sinusoidal rapid scans. Since an analytical expression for the Fourier transform of the driving function for a sinusoidal scan was not readily apparent, a numerical method was developed to do the deconvolution. The slow scan EPR lineshapes recovered from rapid triangular and sinusoidal scans are in excellent agreement for lithium phthalocyanine, a trityl radical, and the nitroxyl radical, tempone. The availability of a method to deconvolute sinusoidal rapid scans makes it possible to scan faster than is feasible for triangular scans because of hardware limitations on triangular scans.

  11. Immersion ultrasonography: simultaneous A-scan and B-scan.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D J; Dallow, R L; Smith, M E

    1979-01-01

    In eyes with opaque media, ophthalmic ultrasound provides a unique source of information that can dramatically affect the course of patient management. In addition, when an ocular abnormality can be visualized, ultrasonography provides information that supplements and complements other diagnostic testing. It provides documentation and differentiation of abnormal states, such as vitreous hemorrhage and intraocular tumor, as well as differentiation of orbital tumors from inflammatory causes of exophthalmos. Additional capabilities of ultrasound are biometric determinations for calculation of intraocular lens implant powers and drug-effectiveness studies. Maximal information is derived from ultrasonography when A-scan and B-scan techniques are employed simultaneously. Flexibility of electronics, variable-frequency transducers, and the use of several different manual scanning patterns aid in detection and interpretation of results. The immersion system of ultrasonography provides these features optimally.

  12. Time requirements in performing body CT studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schoppe, W.D.; Hessel, S.J.; Adams, D.F.

    1981-08-01

    In computed tomography (CT), whole body examinations take 1.5 times as long as head studies. In 73 patients (11 thoracic studies, 25 abdominal examinations, 31 CT scans of abdomen and pelvis, and 6 examinations of pelvis alone), the average time for a CT study was 136 min. The active part of the procedure lasted 60 min. Seventy-six minutes were idle time. The physician's involvement in body CT was estimated to be 53 min for an average study, when scans were taken before and after administration of contrast material. There are time differences in body CT of various anatomic regions (thorax, 40 min; abdomen, 66 min; pelvic, 52 min). The complexity of body CT, the equipment of a CT department, and the approach to diagnosis are responsible for time requirements and physician's involvement in whole body CT.

  13. Obstacles to Industrial Implementation of Scanning Systems

    Treesearch

    Anders Astrom; Olog Broman; John Graffman; Anders Gronlund; Armas Jappinene; Jari Luostarinen; Jan Nystrom; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Initially the group discussed what is meant by scanning systems. An operational definition was adopted to consider scanning system in the current context to be nontraditional scanning. Where, traditional scanning is defined as scanning that has been industrially operational and relatively common for several years-a mature technology. For example,...

  14. Micromachined microscanners for optical scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Meng-Hsiung; Solgaard, Olav; Muller, Richard S.; Lau, Kam Y.

    1997-04-01

    We present the design and fabrication of surface- micromachined electrostatic-comb driven microscanners that have high angular precision over a large scan angle. When used as resonant scanners, these mirrors have fast scan rates with very low operating power. We use polysilicon microhinges, which allow the micromirrors to be lifted out of the plane of the substrate after processing is completed, to create high-aspect-ratio optical surfaces with dimensions in the hundreds of micrometers s while taking advantage of the planar surface-micromachining processing technology. Microscanners that are capable of high-speed scanning over large scan angles with high precision have been fabricated. Application of these actuated micromirrors in laser barcode scanning and optical-fiber switches have been demonstrated. These single-mirror scanners can be combined to form more complicated microscanners such as a two-mirror, two-axis raster scanner that have a wide range of applications in areas such as medicine, displays, printing, data storage, and communications.

  15. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Observation of Phonon Condensate

    DOE PAGES

    Altfeder, Igor; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Voevodin, Andrey A.; ...

    2017-02-22

    Using quantum tunneling of electrons into vibrating surface atoms, phonon oscillations can be observed on the atomic scale. Phonon interference patterns with unusually large signal amplitudes have been revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy in intercalated van der Waals heterostructures. Our results show that the effective radius of these phonon quasi-bound states, the real-space distribution of phonon standing wave amplitudes, the scattering phase shifts, and the nonlinear intermode coupling strongly depend on the presence of defect-induced scattering resonance. The observed coherence of these quasi-bound states most likely arises from phase- and frequency-synchronized dynamics of all phonon modes, and indicates the formationmore » of many-body condensate of optical phonons around resonant defects. We found that increasing the strength of the scattering resonance causes the increase of the condensate droplet radius without affecting the condensate fraction inside it. The condensate can be observed at room temperature.« less

  16. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Observation of Phonon Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Check, Michael H.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Robinson, Joshua A.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    Using quantum tunneling of electrons into vibrating surface atoms, phonon oscillations can be observed on the atomic scale. Phonon interference patterns with unusually large signal amplitudes have been revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy in intercalated van der Waals heterostructures. Our results show that the effective radius of these phonon quasi-bound states, the real-space distribution of phonon standing wave amplitudes, the scattering phase shifts, and the nonlinear intermode coupling strongly depend on the presence of defect-induced scattering resonance. The observed coherence of these quasi-bound states most likely arises from phase- and frequency-synchronized dynamics of all phonon modes, and indicates the formation of many-body condensate of optical phonons around resonant defects. We found that increasing the strength of the scattering resonance causes the increase of the condensate droplet radius without affecting the condensate fraction inside it. The condensate can be observed at room temperature. PMID:28225066

  17. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Observation of Phonon Condensate.

    PubMed

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Check, Michael H; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Robinson, Joshua A; Balatsky, Alexander V

    2017-02-22

    Using quantum tunneling of electrons into vibrating surface atoms, phonon oscillations can be observed on the atomic scale. Phonon interference patterns with unusually large signal amplitudes have been revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy in intercalated van der Waals heterostructures. Our results show that the effective radius of these phonon quasi-bound states, the real-space distribution of phonon standing wave amplitudes, the scattering phase shifts, and the nonlinear intermode coupling strongly depend on the presence of defect-induced scattering resonance. The observed coherence of these quasi-bound states most likely arises from phase- and frequency-synchronized dynamics of all phonon modes, and indicates the formation of many-body condensate of optical phonons around resonant defects. We found that increasing the strength of the scattering resonance causes the increase of the condensate droplet radius without affecting the condensate fraction inside it. The condensate can be observed at room temperature.

  18. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Observation of Phonon Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Check, Michael H.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Robinson, Joshua A.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2017-02-01

    Using quantum tunneling of electrons into vibrating surface atoms, phonon oscillations can be observed on the atomic scale. Phonon interference patterns with unusually large signal amplitudes have been revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy in intercalated van der Waals heterostructures. Our results show that the effective radius of these phonon quasi-bound states, the real-space distribution of phonon standing wave amplitudes, the scattering phase shifts, and the nonlinear intermode coupling strongly depend on the presence of defect-induced scattering resonance. The observed coherence of these quasi-bound states most likely arises from phase- and frequency-synchronized dynamics of all phonon modes, and indicates the formation of many-body condensate of optical phonons around resonant defects. We found that increasing the strength of the scattering resonance causes the increase of the condensate droplet radius without affecting the condensate fraction inside it. The condensate can be observed at room temperature.

  19. Hexamethyldisilazane for scanning electron microscopy of Gastrotricha.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, R; Litvaitis, M K

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated treatment with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as an alternative to critical-point drying (CPD) for preparing microscopic Gastrotricha for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We prepared large marine (2 mm) and small freshwater (100 microm) gastrotrichs using HMDS as the primary dehydration solvent and compared the results to earlier investigations using CPD. The results of HMDS dehydration are similar to or better than CPD for resolution of two important taxonomic features: cuticular ornamentation and patterns of ciliation. The body wall of both sculpted (Lepidodermella) and smooth (Dolichodasys) gastrotrichs retained excellent morphology as did the delicate sensory and locomotory cilia. The only unfavorable result of HMDS dehydration was an occasional coagulation of gold residue when the solvent had not fully evaporated before sputter-coating. We consider HMDS an effective alternative for preparing of gastrotrichs for SEM because it saves time and expense compared to CPD.

  20. Body Shape Preferences: Associations with Rater Body Shape and Sociosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Price, Michael E.; Pound, Nicholas; Dunn, James; Hopkins, Sian; Kang, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence of condition-dependent mate choice in many species, that is, individual preferences varying in strength according to the condition of the chooser. In humans, for example, people with more attractive faces/bodies, and who are higher in sociosexuality, exhibit stronger preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex faces/bodies. However, previous studies have tended to use only relatively simple, isolated measures of rater attractiveness. Here we use 3D body scanning technology to examine associations between strength of rater preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex bodies, and raters’ body shape, self-perceived attractiveness, and sociosexuality. For 118 raters and 80 stimuli models, we used a 3D scanner to extract body measurements associated with attractiveness (male waist-chest ratio [WCR], female waist-hip ratio [WHR], and volume-height index [VHI] in both sexes) and also measured rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality. As expected, WHR and VHI were important predictors of female body attractiveness, while WCR and VHI were important predictors of male body attractiveness. Results indicated that male rater sociosexuality scores were positively associated with strength of preference for attractive (low) VHI and attractive (low) WHR in female bodies. Moreover, male rater self-perceived attractiveness was positively associated with strength of preference for low VHI in female bodies. The only evidence of condition-dependent preferences in females was a positive association between attractive VHI in female raters and preferences for attractive (low) WCR in male bodies. No other significant associations were observed in either sex between aspects of rater body shape and strength of preferences for attractive opposite-sex body traits. These results suggest that among male raters, rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality are important predictors of preference strength for attractive opposite

  1. Application of in vivo laser scanning microscope in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, Juergen; Richter, H.; Otberg, N.; Lawrenz, F.; Blume-Peytavi, U.; Sterry, W.

    2003-10-01

    The state of the art of in-vivo and in-vitro penetration measurements of topically applied substances is described. Only optical techniques represent online measuring methods based on the absorption or scattering properties of the topically applied substances. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) has become a promising method for investigations in dermatology and skin physiology, after it was possible to analyze the skin surface on any body side in-vivo. In the present paper the application of a dermatological laser scanning microscope for penetration and distribution measurements of topically applied substances is described. The intercellular and follicular penetration pathways were studied.

  2. Evolution of differentiated thyroid cancer during pregnancy in a community University Hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cabezón, Carmen Amalia; Carrizo, Laura Carolina; Costanzo, Pablo René

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the presentation, follow-up and evolution of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) detected during pregnancy. Twenty nine women with DTC detected during pregnancy were analyzed. Group I (n = 13) was seen during pregnancy and DTC was diagnosed during gestation; detection of the nodule occurred during pregnancy (first trimester). Group II (n = 16) was seen after delivery; detection of the nodule occurred during pregnancy (second or third trimester). Complete thyroidectomy, ablative dose of radioactive iodine, and treatment with levothyroxine were performed. neck ultrasound; TSH, free T4, thyroglobulin, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies with and without treatment with levothyroxine; and 131I whole body scans. Histological diagnosis, lymph node metastases, tumor size and stage, complications from pregnancy, and DTC evolution were evaluated. 100% of the patients had papillary thyroid carcinoma. Lymph node metastases were detected in 13 (44.8%), and invasion of adjacent extrathyroid tissue in 2 patients. Tumor size was larger in Group II: 22.1 ± 10.9 versus 13.9 ± 3.5 mm; p = 0.03. No differences were found in the tumor stages between groups. All patients had full-term pregnancies and healthy newborns. 5.7 ± 4.3 years; one patient had persistent disease. DTC detected during pregnancy had a favorable evolution. Surgery may be postponed to the post-delivery period, unless there are risk factors that justify it during pregnancy.

  3. Studies in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror

    1995-06-01

    The following is a final report on our work in the field of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM), which has been funded by the AFOSR under Contract #F49620-92-J-0164. The AFOSR funding was instrumental in the establishment of a multi-lab facility at the Optical Sciences Center, which performs research in SPM using two ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) STM facilities, and several Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) facilities. The fabrication and characterization work performed in the SPM Laboratory is supplemented by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), available in other departments on campus. The report covers the following areas: (1) GaAs and CdSe Structures, (2) Optical Interactions on a nm and nsec Scales, (3) Fullerenes on Gold, (4) Fullerenes on MoS2, (5) Fullerenes on Si, (6) SiC, (7) Nanotubes, (8) Scanning Force Microscopy, and (9) Biology.

  4. Security scanning at 94GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderton, Rupert N.; Appleby, Roger; Beale, John E.; Coward, Peter R.; Price, Sean

    2006-05-01

    It is well known that millimetre waves can pass through clothing. In short range applications such as in the scanning of people for security purposes, operating at W band can be an advantage. The size of the equipment is decreased when compared to operation at Ka band and the equipments have similar performance. In this paper a W band mechanically scanned imager designed for imaging weapons and contraband hidden under clothing is discussed. This imager is based on a modified folded conical scan technology previously reported. In this design an additional optical element is added to give a Cassegrain configuration in image space. This increases the effective focal length and enables improved sampling of the image and provides more space for the receivers. This imager is constructed from low cost materials such as polystyrene, polythene and printed circuit board materials. The trade off between image spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity is discussed.

  5. Footwear scanning systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Fernandes, Justin L.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2017-07-25

    Methods and apparatus for scanning articles, such as footwear, to provide information regarding the contents of the articles are described. According to one aspect, a footwear scanning system includes a platform configured to contact footwear to be scanned, an antenna array configured to transmit electromagnetic waves through the platform into the footwear and to receive electromagnetic waves from the footwear and the platform, a transceiver coupled with antennas of the antenna array and configured to apply electrical signals to at least one of the antennas to generate the transmitted electromagnetic waves and to receive electrical signals from at least another of the antennas corresponding to the electromagnetic waves received by the others of the antennas, and processing circuitry configured to process the received electrical signals from the transceiver to provide information regarding contents within the footwear.

  6. Scanning laser polarimetry - a review.

    PubMed

    Da Pozzo, Stefano; Marchesan, Roberta; Ravalico, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Retinal ganglion cells and their axons represent the selective target of the disease. When visual function is still intact on standard automated perimetry and optic disc appearance is suspicious, an early diagnosis may be supported by the identification of a retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) defect in the peripapillary area. At present days, computer-based, real-time imaging of the peripapillary RNFL is available through instruments of easy use and with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. Scanning laser polarimetry is performed by a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with an integrated polarimeter (GDx-VCC). There is a considerable amount of scientific evidence about the role of this imaging technique for glaucoma diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe the principles of operation, the examination procedure, the clinical role, the results of main diagnostic studies and the future development of the software for the scanning laser polarimetry.

  7. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendra Kumar, R. T.; Hassan, S. U.; Sardan Sukas, O.; Eichhorn, V.; Krohs, F.; Fatikow, S.; Boggild, P.

    2009-09-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 µm long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard silicon processing. Using a microgripper they were detached from an array and fixed to a standard pyramidal AFM probe or alternatively inserted into a tipless cantilever equipped with a narrow slit. The nanobit-enhanced probes were used for imaging of deep trenches, without visible deformation, wear or dislocation of the tips of the nanobit after several scans. This approach allows an unprecedented freedom in adapting the shape and size of scanning probe tips to the surface topology or to the specific application.

  8. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips.

    PubMed

    Rajendra Kumar, R T; Hassan, S U; Sardan Sukas, O; Eichhorn, V; Krohs, F; Fatikow, S; Boggild, P

    2009-09-30

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 microm long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si(3)N(4) or SiO(2), fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard silicon processing. Using a microgripper they were detached from an array and fixed to a standard pyramidal AFM probe or alternatively inserted into a tipless cantilever equipped with a narrow slit. The nanobit-enhanced probes were used for imaging of deep trenches, without visible deformation, wear or dislocation of the tips of the nanobit after several scans. This approach allows an unprecedented freedom in adapting the shape and size of scanning probe tips to the surface topology or to the specific application.

  9. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  10. The combination of scanning electron and scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sapozhnikov, I. D.; Gorbenko, O. M. Felshtyn, M. L.; Golubok, A. O.

    2016-06-17

    We suggest the SPM module to combine SEM and SPM methods for studying surfaces. The module is based on the original mechanical moving and scanning system. The examples of studies of the steel surface microstructure in both SEM and SPM modes are presented.

  11. Conically scanned holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical scanning device utilizing a source of optical energy such as laser light backscattered from the earth's atmosphere or transmitted outward as in a lidar, a rotating holographic optical element having an axis of rotation perpendicular to the plane of its substrate, and having a stationary focus which may or may not be located on its axis of rotation, with the holographic optical element diffracting the source of optical energy at an angle to its rotation axis enabling a conical scanning area and a motor for supporting and rotating the rotating holographic optical element, is described.

  12. Digital laser scanning fundus camera.

    PubMed

    Plesch, A; Klingbeil, U; Bille, J

    1987-04-15

    Imaging and documentation of the human retina for clinical diagnostics are conventionally achieved by classical optical methods. We designed a digital laser scanning fundus camera. The optoelectronical instrument is based on scanning laser illumination of the retina and a modified video imaging procedure. It is coupled to a digital image buffer and a microcomputer for image storage and processing. Aside from its high sensitivity the LSF incorporates new ophthalmic imaging methods like polarization differential contrast. We give design considerations as well as a description of the instrument and its performance.

  13. Research With Scanning Tip Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    08ro P noiwe bae?041Le Research With Scanning Tip Microscopy AFOSR-89-0498 V AUTHOS)i Professor Dror Sarid 7. PFOUImNG 00ANIZATION NAMEIS) AND...forces and (b) surfaces. UNCLASS UNCLASS UNCLASS UL FINAL REPORT TO THE AFOSR ൱-, to J4ti. r Aat io Research in Scanning Tip Microscopy Dror Sarid Dtst...microscopy have been used to investigate (a) forces and (b) surfaces. a. Forces 1. Dror Sarid , Douglas lams, Volker Weissenberger, and L. Stephen Bell

  14. Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Poorya; Sung, Yongjin; Choi, Youngwoon; Lue, Niyom; Yaqoob, Zahid; So, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an interferometric optical microscope that provides three-dimensional refractive index map of a specimen by scanning the color of three illumination beams. Our design of the interferometer allows for simultaneous measurement of the scattered fields (both amplitude and phase) of such a complex input beam. By obviating the need for mechanical scanning of the illumination beam or detection objective lens; the proposed method can increase the speed of the optical tomography by orders of magnitude. We demonstrate our method using polystyrene beads of known refractive index value and live cells. PMID:26367632

  15. High precision prism scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Torales, G.; Flores, J. L.; Muñoz, Roberto X.

    2007-03-01

    Risley prisms are commonly used in continuous scanning manner. Each prism is capable of rotating separately about a common axis at different speeds. Scanning patterns are determined by the ratios of the wedge angles, the speed and direction of rotation of both prisms. The use of this system is conceptually simple. However, mechanical action in most applications becomes a challenge often solved by the design of complex control algorithms. We propose an electronic servomotor system that controls incremental and continuous rotations of the prisms wedges by means of an auto-tuning PID control using a Adaline Neural Network Algorithm, NNA.

  16. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; ...

    2016-04-13

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annualmore » energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30% of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. As a result, large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.« less

  17. CT scans through metal scanning technique versus hardware composition.

    PubMed

    Haramati, N; Staron, R B; Mazel-Sperling, K; Freeman, K; Nickoloff, E L; Barax, C; Feldman, F

    1994-01-01

    Streak artifact on CT scans of metal containing areas has been a long standing problem. Although several artifact reducing methods have been used to improve image quality, most have been limited by requiring specialized equipment or lengthy complex calculations that are not automated. Others have shown that increasing the beam energy results in increased thickness of metal that may be imaged by CT without severe image degradation. We have studied the image quality of bone surrounding metal both with titanium and cobalt-chrome prostheses using various scanning techniques. In a double blind fashion, 28 radiology residents and attendings were surveyed as to the best technique for imaging bone detail surrounding metal. A series of images was arranged of an implanted titanium prosthesis, a cobalt-chrome prosthesis and a pelvis repaired with stainless steel pelvic reconstruction plates. Scans were performed using three techniques: 120 kVp, 170 mA, 2 s, 360 degrees rotation, 140 kVp, 140 mA, 3 s, 360 degrees rotation, 140 kVp, 140 mA, 4 s, 420 degrees rotation. Titanium was superior to cobalt-chrome (p < .0001 Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test). No advantage was noted for higher kVp or increased scan arc of 420 degrees compared to the standard 360 degrees. Titanium allows improved bone detail surround the metal than CT cobalt-chrome. We have found no advantage to using either high kVp or a 420 degrees scan arc to improve the image quality of bone surrounded by metal.

  18. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  19. Infrared Scanning For Electrical Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbath, Steven E.

    1983-03-01

    Given the technological age that we have now entered, the purpose of this paper is to relate how infrared scanning can be used for an electrical preventative maintenance program. An infrared scanner is able to produce an image because objects give off infrared radiation in relationship to their temperature. Most electrical problems will show up as an increase in temperature, thereby making the infrared scanner a useful preventative maintenance tool. Because of the sensitivity of most of the scanners, .1 to .2 of a degree, virtually all electrical problems can be pinpointed long before they become a costly failure. One of the early uses of infrared scanning was to check the power company's electrical distribution system. Most of this was performed via aircraft or truck mounted scanning devices which necessitated its semi-permanent mounting. With the advent of small hand held infrared imagers, along with more portability of the larger systems, infrared scanning has gained more popularity in checking electrical distribution systems. But the distribution systems are now a scaled down model, mainly the in-plant electrical systems. By in-plant, I mean any distribution of electricity; once it leaves the power company's grid. This can be in a hospital, retail outlet, warehouse or manufacturing facility.

  20. Environmental Scanning, Vancouver Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    This 1994 environmental scanning report from Vancouver Community College (VCC) reviews the expected effects of the separation of VCC into a new Vancouver Community College and Langara College (LC). The report examines the projected service area student-intake capacity; student characteristics; population growth trends; other postsecondary…

  1. Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Ustun, Teoman E.; Bigelow, Chad E.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Webb, Robert H.

    2006-07-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is a powerful imaging tool with specialized applications limited to research and ophthalmology clinics due in part to instrument size, cost, and complexity. Conversely, low-cost retinal imaging devices have limited capabilities in screening, detection, and diagnosis of diseases. To fill the niche between these two, a hand-held, nonmydriatic line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO) is designed, constructed, and tested on normal human subjects. The LSLO has only one moving part and uses a novel optical approach to produce wide-field confocal fundus images. Imaging modes include multiwavelength illumination and live stereoscopic imaging with a split aperture. Image processing and display functions are controlled with two stacked prototype compact printed circuit boards. With near shot-noise limited performance, the digital LSLO camera requires low illumination power (<500 µW) at near-infrared wavelengths. The line-scanning principle of operation is examined in comparison to SLO and other imaging modes. The line-scanning approach produces high-contrast confocal images with nearly the same performance as a flying-spot SLO. The LSLO may significantly enhance SLO utility for routine use by ophthalmologists, optometrists, general practitioners, and also emergency medical personnel and technicians in the field for retinal disease detection and other diverse applications.

  2. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  3. Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy.

    PubMed

    De Wilde, Yannick; Formanek, Florian; Carminati, Rémi; Gralak, Boris; Lemoine, Paul-Arthur; Joulain, Karl; Mulet, Jean-Philippe; Chen, Yong; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2006-12-07

    In standard near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), a subwavelength probe acts as an optical 'stethoscope' to map the near field produced at the sample surface by external illumination. This technique has been applied using visible, infrared, terahertz and gigahertz radiation to illuminate the sample, providing a resolution well beyond the diffraction limit. NSOM is well suited to study surface waves such as surface plasmons or surface-phonon polaritons. Using an aperture NSOM with visible laser illumination, a near-field interference pattern around a corral structure has been observed, whose features were similar to the scanning tunnelling microscope image of the electronic waves in a quantum corral. Here we describe an infrared NSOM that operates without any external illumination: it is a near-field analogue of a night-vision camera, making use of the thermal infrared evanescent fields emitted by the surface, and behaves as an optical scanning tunnelling microscope. We therefore term this instrument a 'thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscope' (TRSTM). We show the first TRSTM images of thermally excited surface plasmons, and demonstrate spatial coherence effects in near-field thermal emission.

  4. Phase multiplying electronic scanning array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaton, A. F.

    1969-01-01

    Scanning array was designed with properties of low RF loss and phase control. The array consists of a series of special waveguides, hybrids made up of two variable reactance branch arms for input signals, an edge slot for the difference port, and a sum arm for the unradiated signal.

  5. Lewy bodies

    PubMed Central

    Shults, Clifford W.

    2006-01-01

    Lewy bodies (LB) in the substantia nigra are a cardinal pathological feature of Parkinson's disease, but they occur in a number of neurodegenerative diseases and can be widespread in the nervous system. The characteristics, locations, and composition of LB are reviewed, with particular attention to α-synuclein (α-SYN), which appears to be the major component of LB. The propensity for α-SYN, a presynaptic protein widely expressed in the brain, to aggregate is because of an amyloidogenic central region. The factors that favor the aggregation of α-SYN and mechanisms of toxicity are examined, and a mechanism through which aggregates of α-SYN could induce mitochondrial dysfunction and/or release of proapoptotic molecules is proposed. PMID:16449387

  6. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  7. Non-Contact Measurement Using A Laser Scanning Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modjarrad, Amir

    1989-03-01

    Traditional high accuracy touch-trigger probing can now be complemented by high speed, non-contact, profile scanning to give another "dimension" to the three-dimensional Co-ordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs). Some of the features of a specially developed laser scanning probe together with the trade-offs involved in the design of inspection systems that use triangulation are examined. Applications of such a laser probe on CMMs are numerous since high speed scanning allows inspection of many different components and surfaces. For example, car body panels, tyre moulds, aircraft wing skins, turbine blades, wax and clay models, plastics, etc. Other applications include in-process surveillance in manufacturing and food processing, robotics vision and many others. Some of these applications are discussed and practical examples, case studies and experimental results are given with particular reference to use on CMMs. In conclusion, future developments and market trends in high speed non-contact measurement are discussed.

  8. Comparative Geometrical Investigations of Hand-Held Scanning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Lindstaedt, M.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Misgaiski-Hass, M.

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of hand-held scanning systems by different manufacturers are becoming available on the market. However, their geometrical performance is little-known to many users. Therefore the Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has carried out geometrical accuracy tests with the following systems in co-operation with the Bochum University of Applied Sciences (Laboratory for Photogrammetry) as well as the Humboldt University in Berlin (Institute for Computer Science): DOTProduct DPI-7, Artec Spider, Mantis Vision F5 SR, Kinect v1 + v2, Structure Sensor and Google's Project Tango. In the framework of these comparative investigations geometrically stable reference bodies were used. The appropriate reference data were acquired by measurement with two structured light projection systems (AICON smartSCAN and GOM ATOS I 2M). The comprehensive test results of the different test scenarios are presented and critically discussed in this contribution.

  9. Automated fudicial labeling on human body data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewark, Erick A.; Nurre, Joseph H.

    1998-03-01

    The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner generates a high- resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The acquisition of anthropometric data from this data set is important for the development of custom sizing for the apparel industry. Software for locating anthropometric landmarks from a cloud of more than 200,000 three-dimensional data points, captured from a human subject, is presented. The first phase of identification is to locate externally placed fudicials on the human body using luminance information captured at scan time. The fudicials are then autonomously labeled and categorized according to their general position and anthropometric significance in the scan. Once registration of the landmarks is complete, body measurements may be extracted for apparel sizing.

  10. The lateral distal femoral DEXA scan in children: a chronology of growing bone?

    PubMed

    Tryon, Elyce; Szalay, Elizabeth A

    2008-11-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the current standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in children. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends scanning the total body and spine in children. However, in orthopedics, the total-body and spine DEXA scans are often rendered useless by the presence of metallic hardware and/or contractures. The lateral distal femoral DEXA scan was developed as a scan mode for children such as those with cerebral palsy who have contractures or metallic implants, which make it impossible to do total-body or spine scans. Unlike other DEXA scans, a single scan of the lateral distal femoral illustrates the density of the metaphyseal cancellous (newer) bone, the transitional, and the cortical (older) bone in 1 image. Because of this, we hypothesized that an individual lateral distal femoral scan could provide a map of bone health over time. The lateral distal femoral scans of 40 children whose bone growth was tainted by distant chemotherapy (chemotherapy group) were compared to the lateral distal femoral scans of 40 children whose bone environment had remained relatively stable over time (control group). The hypothesis was not confirmed by the data. The "Z-score difference," the difference between the Z-scores of the cancellous and cortical bone, for the chemotherapy group (0.16) and the control group (0.32) were not statistically different. While these results did not confirm the hypothesis, the lateral distal femoral scan remains a reproducible and useful DEXA scan in pediatric orthopedic clinical practice.

  11. Ultrasonic scanning of multilayer ceramic chip capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, F. N.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic scanning is compared to neutron radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM). Data show that SLAM and ultrasonic scanning evaluations are in good agreement. There is poor agreement between N-ray and both ultrasonic techniques because N-ray is insensitive to all but the grossest delaminations. Statistical analysis show a good correlation between ultrasonic scanning and destructive physical analysis.

  12. Labeled leukocyte scans for detection of retained polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenberger, P.; Graham, W.P. 3d.; Manders, E.K.; Basarab, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Complete removal of an infected polyurethane-covered breast prosthesis is difficult, and retained tissue-embedded foam can form a nidus for persistent infection. Scanning the chest wall after administration of indium-111 oxine-labeled autogenous leukocytes will locate areas of infection around retained fragments of foam, thereby facilitating their removal and allowing eventual successful reconstruction. This technique may deserve wider application for locating infected foreign bodies in a variety of patient problems.

  13. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    PubMed

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  14. Differential Multiphoton Laser Scanning Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Jeffrey J.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Chandler, Eric V.; Hoover, Erich E.; Young, Michael D.; Ding, Shi-you; Sylvester, Anne W.; Kleinfeld, David; Squier, Jeff A.

    2012-01-01

    Multifocal multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (mfMPLSM) in the biological and medical sciences has the potential to become a ubiquitous tool for obtaining high-resolution images at video rates. While current implementations of mfMPLSM achieve very high frame rates, they are limited in their applicability to essentially those biological samples that exhibit little or no scattering. In this paper, we report on a method for mfMPLSM in which whole-field detection with a single detector, rather than detection with a matrix of detectors, such as a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, is implemented. This advance makes mfMPLSM fully compatible for use in imaging through scattering media. Further, we demonstrate that this method makes it possible to simultaneously obtain multiple images and view differences in excitation parameters in a single scan of the specimen.

  15. A spectrum scanning Stokes polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, T. G.; House, L. L.; Hull, H. K.

    1980-02-01

    A photoelectric polarimeter for measuring line profiles in all four Stokes parameters has been built and operates on the SPO 40 cm coronagraph in a joint project with Sacramento Peak Observatory. A description of the optical and electronic systems and the calibration scheme is presented. Performance parameters determined from observations are also given. The polarimeter package consisting of a pair of KDP's, a quarter wave plate, and a polarizing beam splitter is located at the prime focus of the coronagraph. Modulation of the KDP's encodes polarization information into intensity signals that are electronically detected. The scanning of the spectrum, accomplished by rotating the grating, permits Stokes line profiles to be recorded on magnetic tape for processing. The instrument can be used to scan any line from 3900 to 7000 A with a spectral resolution of 0.01 A. Polarizations as small as 0.001% are detectable. The polarimeter and observing system are computer controlled.

  16. Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

  17. Scanning Probe Microscopy Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolhuis, T.; Pasop, J. R.; Abelmann, L.; Lodder, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    The numerous, proprietary file formats for Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) have caused problems in the field of both off-line quantitative, data analysis and comparison, as well as long-term archiving of measurement results. Because of the eminent roll SPM's are playing in the multidisciplinary scientific world of today, an open, XML-based, standard SPM data format, called Scanning Probe Microscopy Markup Language (SPML) is proposed. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) has proven to be well applicable for standardized, structured, scientific data formats in many other disciplines. The structure of SPML will be explained briefly. The versatility of SPML as well as the possibilities of documenting, publishing, searching and exchanging SPM-data will be shown in examples. This paper gives an overview of the proposed data format, while the complete description can be found at http://spml.net.

  18. Scanned Laser Illuminator/Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    matching high sensitivity, high resolution receiver. A CW- pumped Nd:YAG laser operated in a pulsed mode and providing a fan-shaped illumination beam...greatly improve the linearity of the scanner and to permit variable scan rate (non-resonant) operation. A cw- pumped NdiYAG laser is used as the...illustrate parallel development of the PIN diode /CCD sensor hybrid and the 100W laser . Al- though a detailed cost analysis for procurement of this large

  19. Scanning phononic lattices with ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Vines, R.E.; Wolfe, J.P.; Every, A.V.

    1999-11-01

    A method for probing the elastic properties of newly developed periodic structures using acoustic waves is introduced. Highly anisotropic transmission of surface acoustic waves is observed by continuously scanning the wave vector angle. Preliminary models of wave propagation through multilayers and two-dimensional lattices explain some of the experimental features, while other features can be attributed to the resonant excitation of interface waves. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Differential scanning calorimetry of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, P. I.

    1978-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry studies performed during the first year of this project demonstrated the occurrence of exothermic reactions associated with the production of volatile matter in or near the plastic region. The temperature and magnitude of the exothermic peak were observed to be strongly affected by the heating rate, sample mass and, to a lesser extent, by sample particle size. Thermal properties also were found to be influenced by oxidation of the coal sample due to weathering effects.

  1. Cloud Top Scanning radiometer (CTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A scanning radiometer to be used for measuring cloud radiances in each of three spectral regions is described. Significant features incorporated in the Cloud Top Scanner design are: (1) flexibility and growth potential through use of easily replaceable modular detectors and filters; (2) full aperture, multilevel inflight calibration; (3) inherent channel registration through employment of a single shared field stop; and (4) radiometric sensitivity margin in a compact optical design through use of Honeywell developed (Hg,Cd)Te detectors and preamplifiers.

  2. Mechanically scanned deployable antenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Mechanically Scanned Deployable Antenna which is launched by the STS (Space Shuttle) to provide radiometric brightness temperature maps of the Earth and oceans at selected frequency bands in the frequency range of 1.4 GHz to 11 GHz is presented. Unlike previous scanning radiometric systems, multiple radiometers for each frequency are required in order to fill in the resolution cells across the swath created by the 15 meter diameter spin stabilized system. This multiple beam radiometric system is sometimes designated as a ""whiskbroom'' system in that it combines the techniques of the scanning and ""pushbroom'' type systems. The definition of the feed system including possible feed elements and location, determination of the fundamental reflector feed offset geometry including offset angles and f/D ratio, preliminary estimates of the beam efficiency of the feed reflector system, a summary of reflector mesh losses at the proposed radiometric frequency bands, an overall conceptual configuration design and preliminary structural and thermal analyses are included.

  3. Value of 18F-FDG PET negativity and Tg suppressibility as markers of prognosis in patients with elevated Tg and 131I-negative differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TENIS syndrome).

    PubMed

    Ranade, Rohit; Kand, Purushottam; Basu, Sandip

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prognostic value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET negativity and thyroglobulin (Tg) suppressibility in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with elevated Tg and a negative radioiodine scan. The study population was selected from thyroid cancer patients registered at a large tertiary cancer care center for management and consisted of patients with metastatic thyroid cancer with elevated Tg on follow-up, negative 131I whole-body scan and negative 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) study. Patients with thyroid carcinoma were subjected to a thyroid-stimulating hormone-stimulated assessment on the basis of a 131I whole-body scan, serum Tg level and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of metastatic disease burden. The same patients were subjected to a follow-up evaluation of serum Tg and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan under thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression while on thyroxine sodium. Comparison was also made between the findings of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients demonstrating suppressible Tg. A total of 40 (25 male and 15 female) patients were included in the study. All patients had a negative whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT study but had stimulated Tg more than 5 ng/dl (range: 5.1-> 250 ng/ml), indicating the presence of disease. The patients demonstrated variable Tg suppressibility and were classified on the basis of the extent of Tg suppressibility (%Tg suppressibility > 90% in 21 patients; %Tg suppressibility 65-90% in 12 patients; and %Tg suppressibility < 65% in five patients; and no suppressibility in two patients). 18F-FDG PET was normal in all of these patients both on stimulation and on suppression. All patients were asymptomatic during this period. No definite correlation could be established between the status of metastasis or the histopathology and suppressibility of Tg. The average follow-up data available were for more than 3 years in 26 patients (two patients had no Tg suppressibility

  4. Robust near-infrared structured light scanning for 3D human model reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bo; Yang, Ruigang

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel sensing system, robust Near-infrared Structured Light Scanning (NIRSL) for three-dimensional human model scanning application. Human model scanning due to its nature of various hair and dress appearance and body motion has long been a challenging task. Previous structured light scanning methods typically emitted visible coded light patterns onto static and opaque objects to establish correspondence between a projector and a camera for triangulation. In the success of these methods rely on scanning objects with proper reflective surface for visible light, such as plaster, light colored cloth. Whereas for human model scanning application, conventional methods suffer from low signal to noise ratio caused by low contrast of visible light over the human body. The proposed robust NIRSL, as implemented with the near infrared light, is capable of recovering those dark surfaces, such as hair, dark jeans and black shoes under visible illumination. Moreover, successful structured light scan relies on the assumption that the subject is static during scanning. Due to the nature of body motion, it is very time sensitive to keep this assumption in the case of human model scan. The proposed sensing system, by utilizing the new near-infrared capable high speed LightCrafter DLP projector, is robust to motion, provides accurate and high resolution three-dimensional point cloud, making our system more efficient and robust for human model reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrate that our system is effective and efficient to scan real human models with various dark hair, jeans and shoes, robust to human body motion and produces accurate and high resolution 3D point cloud.

  5. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the Oriental scops owl (Otus scops).

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2009-05-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of an adult owl (Otus scops) was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the adult owl was about 1 cm long. Three parts were distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, the body and the root of the tongue. The conical region between the lingual apex and lingual root was very wide area. The conical papillae of the lingual body were inclined toward the posterior of the tongue. At low magnification of scanning electron microscopy, the desquamated cells were observed in the entire dorsal surface of the lingual apex. The connective tissue cores of the epithelium of the lingual apex showed the rod-shaped protrusions. The border between the lingual apex and body was clear and the small conical papillae were observed in the lingual body. The small and large conical papillae were observed on the lingual body. The many openings of the lingual glands existed in the lingual body and lingual root.

  6. Serial computed tomography scanning in acute pancreatitis: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    London, N J; Neoptolemos, J P; Lavelle, J; Bailey, I; James, D

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and two patients with acute pancreatitis had abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans within 72 hours of admission, at one week and at six weeks. Twenty eight attacks were clinically severe, 74 clinically mild. Ninety three (91%) admission scans, 85 (84%) one week scans, and 52 (51%) six week scans were abnormal. The aetiology of the pancreatitis could be inferred from 28 (27%) of admission scans, the CT sign of fatty liver having a sensitivity of 21% and specificity of 100% for alcoholic aetiology. The sensitivity of CT for gall stone aetiology was 34%, specificity 100%. The pancreatic size indices (max anteroposterior measurement of head x max anteroposterior measurement of body) of those patients with severe attacks were significantly greater than those with mild attacks on admission, at one week and at six weeks (p less than 0.004). Fourteen pseudocysts were detected by CT, five (36%) of which were clinically apparent. The pseudocyst size indices (max anteroposterior x max transverse measurement) of the pseudocysts which were clinically apparent were significantly greater than those which were not apparent (p less than 0.01) and only those pseudocysts with a size index greater than or equal to 15 cm2 required treatment. PMID:2651228

  7. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  8. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-05-15

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive.

  9. 47 CFR 15.121 - Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... converters used with scanning receivers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, scanning... in paragraph (c) of this section, scanning receivers shall reject any signals from the Cellular.... (c) Scanning receivers and frequency converters designed or marketed for use with scanning...

  10. Validity and reliability of total body volume and relative body fat mass from a 3-dimensional photonic body surface scanner

    PubMed Central

    Mähler, Anja; Boschmann, Michael; Jeran, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Objective Three-dimensional photonic body surface scanners (3DPS) feature a tool to estimate total body volume (BV) from 3D images of the human body, from which the relative body fat mass (%BF) can be calculated. However, information on validity and reliability of these measurements for application in epidemiological studies is limited. Methods Validity was assessed among 32 participants (men, 50%) aged 20–58 years. BV and %BF were assessed using a 3DPS (VitusSmart XXL) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) with a BOD POD® device using equations by Siri and Brozek. Three scans were obtained per participant (standard, relaxed, exhaled scan). Validity was evaluated based on the agreement of 3DPS with ADP using Bland Altman plots, correlation analysis and Wilcoxon signed ranks test for paired samples. Reliability was investigated in a separate sample of 18 participants (men, 67%) aged 25–66 years using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) based on two repeated 3DPS measurements four weeks apart. Results Mean BV and %BF were higher using 3DPS compared to ADP, (3DPS-ADP BV difference 1.1 ± 0.9 L, p<0.01; %BF difference 7.0 ± 5.6, p<0.01), yet the disagreement was not associated with gender, age or body mass index (BMI). Reliability was excellent for 3DPS BV (ICC, 0.998) and good for 3DPS %BF (ICC, 0.982). Results were similar for the standard scan and the relaxed scan but somewhat weaker for the exhaled scan. Conclusions Although BV and %BF are higher than ADP measurements, our data indicate good validity and reliability for an application of 3DPS in epidemiological studies. PMID:28672039

  11. Validity and reliability of total body volume and relative body fat mass from a 3-dimensional photonic body surface scanner.

    PubMed

    Adler, Carolin; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Jaeschke, Lina; Mähler, Anja; Boschmann, Michael; Jeran, Stephanie; Pischon, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional photonic body surface scanners (3DPS) feature a tool to estimate total body volume (BV) from 3D images of the human body, from which the relative body fat mass (%BF) can be calculated. However, information on validity and reliability of these measurements for application in epidemiological studies is limited. Validity was assessed among 32 participants (men, 50%) aged 20-58 years. BV and %BF were assessed using a 3DPS (VitusSmart XXL) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) with a BOD POD® device using equations by Siri and Brozek. Three scans were obtained per participant (standard, relaxed, exhaled scan). Validity was evaluated based on the agreement of 3DPS with ADP using Bland Altman plots, correlation analysis and Wilcoxon signed ranks test for paired samples. Reliability was investigated in a separate sample of 18 participants (men, 67%) aged 25-66 years using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) based on two repeated 3DPS measurements four weeks apart. Mean BV and %BF were higher using 3DPS compared to ADP, (3DPS-ADP BV difference 1.1 ± 0.9 L, p<0.01; %BF difference 7.0 ± 5.6, p<0.01), yet the disagreement was not associated with gender, age or body mass index (BMI). Reliability was excellent for 3DPS BV (ICC, 0.998) and good for 3DPS %BF (ICC, 0.982). Results were similar for the standard scan and the relaxed scan but somewhat weaker for the exhaled scan. Although BV and %BF are higher than ADP measurements, our data indicate good validity and reliability for an application of 3DPS in epidemiological studies.

  12. [Effects of transmission counts on image quality during simultaneous emission/transmission scan].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Oda, Keiichi; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2006-06-20

    We compared the pre-injection transmission scan with the simultaneous emission/transmission scan (SET) using a body phantom in positron emission tomography (PET) to study the factors affecting emission (EMIS) images with different transmission (TRAN) data. The results showed that total count, region, scan method, and EMIS component influenced the bias and noise statistics. This influence was further passed on to the EMIS data and affected the reconstructed image. However, the result of fixing EMIS scan time at 10 minutes was that the noise statistics of EMIS had a greater effect on image quality than TRAN. The optimal scan counts of SET in this study were 20 Mcounts, with a scan time of about 10 minutes (85.5 MBq, (68)Ge-(68)Ga radioactivity). In clinical use, optimal collection count differs, as radiation TRAN quantity depends on the size of the subject, even with fixed radioactivity of (68)Ge-(68)Ga.

  13. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the

  14. Scanning probe microscopy in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yeung, King Lun; Yao, Nan

    2004-09-01

    This review discusses the recent progress in the application of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in catalysis. SPM proves to be an invaluable technique for imaging catalytic surfaces and interfaces. Most SPM research is related to the structural and morphological transformation associated with catalyst preparation and use. Real-time SPM observation of surface dynamics including adsorption, diffusion and reaction, provides invaluable insights to the mechanism of catalysis. SPM is also used to shape and manipulate surfaces and surface processes. Fabrication of nanostructured catalysts, direct manipulation of adsorbed atoms and molecules and tip-mediated reactions are some examples of new SPM approach in catalyst research.

  15. High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna (HRSRA) for the purpose of tracking ground terminals and space craft communication applications. The present invention provides an alternative to using gimbaled parabolic dish antennas and direct radiating phased arrays. When compared to a gimbaled parabolic dish, the HRSRA offers the advantages of vibration free steering without incurring appreciable cost or prime power penalties. In addition, it offers full beam steering at a fraction of the cost of direct radiating arrays and is more efficient.

  16. Electronic imaging and scanning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.

    1977-01-01

    Frequency-variable illumination has been used previously to provide high resolution imaging in one dimension. The paper extends the results on this imaging by frequency scanning to derive the expression for a two-dimensional image. This is the Fourier transformation, with respect to the angle and frequency of illumination, of the electric field detected in the far-field region of the object. The case is considered of a rough object and it is shown that for roughness finer than the resolution of the imaging system, the image has a granular appearance corresponding to the classical speckle effect. Large scale phase perturbations lead to the elevation displacement effect.

  17. Aperture scanning Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is implemented through aperture scanning by an LCOS spatial light modulator at the back focal plane of the objective lens. This FPM configuration enables the capturing of the complex scattered field for a 3D sample both in the transmissive mode and the reflective mode. We further show that by combining with the compressive sensing theory, the reconstructed 2D complex scattered field can be used to recover the 3D sample scattering density. This implementation expands the scope of application for FPM and can be beneficial for areas such as tissue imaging and wafer inspection. PMID:27570705

  18. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    PubMed

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use.

  19. A quality improvement project to reduce hypothermia in infants undergoing MRI scanning.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Priti G; Porath, Janelle; Parekh, Uma; Dhar, Padmani; Wang, Ming; Hulse, Michael; Mujsce, Dennis; McQuillan, Patrick M

    2016-07-01

    Hypothermia prevention strategies during MRI scanning under general anesthesia in infants may pose a challenge due to the MRI scanner's technical constraints. Previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results related to increase or decrease in post-scan temperatures in children. We noted occurrences of post-scan hypothermia in anesthetized infants despite the use of routine passive warming techniques. The aims of our quality improvement project were (a) to identify variables associated with post-scan hypothermia in infants and (b) to develop and implement processes to reduce occurrence of hypothermia in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infants undergoing MRI. One hundred sixty-four infants undergoing MRI scanning were prospectively audited for post-scan body temperatures. A multidisciplinary team identified potential variables associated with post-scan hypothermia and designed preventative strategies: protocol development, risk factor identification, vigilance and use of a vacuum immobilizer. Another audit was performed, specifically focusing on NICU infants. In the initial phase, we found that younger age (P = 0.002), lower weight (P = 0.005), lower pre-scan temperature (P < 0.01), primary anesthetic technique with propofol (P < 0.01), advanced airway devices (P = 0.02) and being in the NICU (P < 0.01) were associated with higher odds for developing post-scan decrease in body temperature. Quality improvement processes decreased the occurrence of hypothermia in NICU infants undergoing MRI scanning from 65% to 18% (95% confidence interval for the difference, 26-70%, P < 0.001). Several variables, including being in the NICU, are associated with a decrease in post-scan temperature in infants undergoing MRI scanning under sedation/general anesthesia. Implementation of strategies to prevent hypothermia in infants may be challenging in the high-risk MRI environment. We were able to minimize this problem in clinical practice by

  20. Breast ultrasound scans - surgeons' expectations.

    PubMed

    Bednarski, Piotr; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Chrapowicki, Eryk; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dynamic development of mammary gland imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A challenge related to these studies is the increase in the precision of the anatomical assessment of breast, particularly for early detection of subclinical lesions, performance of ultrasound- guided biopsy procedures, and accurate preoperative location of pathological lesions so as to optimize the surgical treatment. Ultrasound imaging is a primary and baseline diagnostic procedure the patient with suspected pathological lesions within breast is referred to by the surgeon. Lesions visualized in ultrasound scans are classified according to the BI-RADS US assessment categories. The successive categories (2 through 6) encompass individual pathological lesions, estimating the risk of malignancy and provide guidelines for further diagnostic and therapeutic management. This article described the important aspects of ultrasonographic imaging of focal lesions within the breasts as significant from the standpoint of surgical treatment of patients falling within BI-RADS US categories 3, 4, 5, and 6. Attention is drawn to the importance of ultrasound scans in the assessment of axillary fossa lymph nodes before the decision regarding the surgical treatment.

  1. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Natural History Museum (NHM) is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN) as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL). This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities. PMID:22943137

  2. Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R. Rox; Webb, Robert H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    1999-01-01

    A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.

  3. Defect scanning technology in the works

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; R. Conners

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the defect scanning technology being developed by Virginia Tech and U.S. Forest Service scientists in Blacksburg, Virginia to scan full sized hardwood lumber at industrial speeds.

  4. Optical analysis of scanning microstereolithography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Suhas P.; Dubey, Shashikant; Gandhi, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Microstereolithography (MSL) is rapidly developing technique for micro-fabrication. Vector-by-vector scanning MSL has a potential to create true 3D micro-devices as compared to mostly planar (2D-2 1/2 D) devices fabricated by conventional MEMS techniques. Previous literature shows two different scanning methods:(1) Galvanomirror scanning, (2) Photoreactor tank scanning. Galvanomirror scanning technique has higher fabrication speed but poor resolution because of defocusing of laser spot on the resin surface. Photo-reactor tank scanning has higher resolution but produces a wavy structures and limited speed of fabrication. This paper proposes and develops an offaxis lens scanning technique for MSL and carries out optical analysis to compare its performance with the existing techniques mentioned above. The comparison clearly demonstrates improved performance with the proposed offaxis lens scanning technique.

  5. Rapid-scan EPR of immobilized nitroxides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Tseitlin, Mark; Elajaili, Hanan; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Clouston, Laura J; Boratyński, Przemysław J; Rajca, Andrzej; Stein, Richard; Mchaourab, Hassane; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-10-01

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of immobilized nitroxides were obtained by rapid scan at 293 K. Scan widths were 155 G with 13.4 kHz scan frequency for (14)N-perdeuterated tempone and for T4 lysozyme doubly spin labeled with an iodoacetamide spirocyclohexyl nitroxide and 100 G with 20.9 kHz scan frequency for (15)N-perdeuterated tempone. These wide scans were made possible by modifications to our rapid-scan driver, scan coils made of Litz wire, and the placement of highly conducting aluminum plates on the poles of a Bruker 10″ magnet to reduce resistive losses in the magnet pole faces. For the same data acquisition time, the signal-to-noise for the rapid-scan absorption spectra was about an order of magnitude higher than for continuous wave first-derivative spectra recorded with modulation amplitudes that do not broaden the lineshapes.

  6. Can Scans Predict Some Autism Cases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services. More Health News on Autism Spectrum Disorder MRI Scans Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Autism Spectrum Disorder MRI Scans About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  7. Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R. Rox; Webb, Robert H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    1999-01-01

    A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.

  8. Rapid-Scan EPR of Immobilized Nitroxides

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Tseitlin, Mark; Elajaili, Hanan; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Clouston, Laura J.; Boratyński, Przemysław J.; Rajca, Andrzej; Stein, Richard; Mchaourab, Hassane; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-01-01

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of immobilized nitroxides were obtained by rapid scan at 293 K. Scan widths were 155 G with 13.4 kHz scan frequency for 14N-perdeuterated tempone and for T4 lysozyme doubly spin labeled with an iodoacetamide spirocyclohexyl nitroxide and 100 G with 20.9 kHz scan frequency for 15N-perdeuterated tempone. These wide scans were made possible by modifications to our rapid-scan driver, scan coils made of Litz wire, and the placement of highly conducting aluminum plates on the poles of a Bruker 10" magnet to reduce resistive losses in the magnet pole faces. For the same data acquisition time, the signal-to-noise for the rapid-scan absorption spectra was about an order of magnitude higher than for continuous wave first-derivative spectra recorded with modulation amplitudes that do not broaden the lineshapes. PMID:25240151

  9. Radiation exposure in whole body CT screening.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Pamidighantam; Ratnam, S V; Rao, K V J

    2011-04-01

    Using a technology that "takes a look" at people's insides and promises early warnings of cancer, cardiac disease, and other abnormalities, clinics and medical imaging facilities nationwide are touting a new service for health conscious people: "Whole body CT screening" this typically involves scanning the body from the chin to below the hips with a form of x-ray imaging that produces cross-sectional images. In USA direct-to-consumer marketing of whole body CT is occurring today in many metropolitan areas. Free standing CT screening centres are being sited in shopping malls and other high density public areas, and these centres are being advertised in the electronic and print media. In this context the present article discussed the pros and cons of having such centres in India with the advent of multislice CT leading to fast scan times.

  10. [Multifaceted body. 2. The lived body].

    PubMed

    Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This second article distinguishes between the body as an object of knowledge or representation and the way the body is lived. This distinction which originates in phenomenological psychiatry aims to understand how the patient experiences his body and to surpass the classical somatic and psychiatric classifications.

  11. Surface scanning: an application to mammary surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigotti, Camilla; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Aliverti, Andrea; Pedotti, Antonio

    1998-04-01

    The possibility of mathematically describing the body surface represents a useful tool for several medical sectors, such as prosthetics or plastic surgery, and could improve diagnosis and objective evaluation of deformities and the follow-up of progressive diseases. The approach presented is based on the acquisition of a surface scanned by a laser beam. The 3D coordinates of the spot generated on the surface by the laser beam are computed by an automatic image analyzer. Using at least two different views of the subject, the 3D coordinates are obtained by stereophotogrammetry. A software package for graphic representation and extraction of linear superficial and volumetric features from the acquired surface has been developed and some preliminary results with mammary reconstruction are presented. A good mammary reconstruction after mastectomy must achieve two results. First, the reconstruction should follow the patients' wishes and second, the reconstructed breast should be as similar as possible to the contralateral one. To achieve these goals, a knowledge of breast volume, area, and shape features are essential for the surgeon. In such a context, this system could be a valuable tool in improving breast reconstructive surgery.

  12. [Scanning electron microscopy of Paragonimus proliferus].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ben-jiang

    2005-10-30

    To identify the species of Paragonimus proliferus with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) based on the surface structure of excysted metacercariae, adult worms and eggs. Crabs were collected from the endemic area of P. proliferus and excysted metacercariae were separated. Adult worms at different ages and eggs were obtained from the experimentally infected rats. After being fixed by 2.5% glutardialdehyde and 1% osmic acid, alcohol dehydration, gilded by ion spatter, the specimens were observed under SEM by STEREOSCAN-100. The cuticular spines of excysted metacercariae distributed in single pattern, bayonet-shaped or scale-shaped. There were 6 dome-shape papillae around the rim of the ventral sucker symmetrically arranged. The cuticular spines of different age adult worms distributed in group pattern, relatively denser and more regularly arranged in the anterior part than the posterior part of the worm body. The shape and arrangement of the cuticular spines on adult worms at different ages were basically uniform. The surface of eggshell including the operculum was generally smooth. The shell rim joining the operculum was thick and prominent. A knot-like prominence was observed at the aboperculum end. The cuticular spines of both excysted metacercariae and adult worms of P. proliferus show its own characteristics, but the size and shape of the cuticular spines among individuals or different parts of the same specimen show certain differences.

  13. Scanning electron microscopy of softened enamel.

    PubMed

    Eisenburger, M; Shellis, R P; Addy, M

    2004-01-01

    After exposing enamel specimens to 0.3% citric acid at pH 3.2 for various times, the acid was titrated to pH 7 before rinsing the specimens in water. After freeze-drying the specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. This procedure eliminates artefacts due to drying and mineral precipitation. The results showed that the outer region of softened enamel is much more delicate than previously thought, even after short (5- to 20-min) etching times. Mineral was lost from both prism boundaries and the prism bodies, resulting in a surface presenting thin, separate crystal bundles. In further studies, replicas of subsurface pores, created by resin impregnation, showed the softening depth to be several times greater than is suggested by techniques based on removing the softened enamel by physical forces. The results point to a need for improved methods of measuring softening depth. More importantly, it appears that the outer region of the softened layer remaining after an erosive challenge might be too fragile to resist frictional forces in vivo. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    PubMed Central

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  15. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike; Mix, Michael; Müller, Frank; Merk, Stefan; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo

    2005-05-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81+/-15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV(LBM)).

  16. A collection of Schottky-scan notes

    SciTech Connect

    Sabersky, A.P.

    1980-10-01

    This paper is a republication of ISR-RF notes and performance reports on work done in 1974-1975. The original notes have been edited, corrected and, in most cases, shortened. Discussed in this note are the following topics: noise, errors and the Schottky scan; speeding up the Schottky scan; Schottky markers and fast Schottky scans; and some engineering aspects of the fast Schottky scan.

  17. Scan speed control for tapping mode SPM

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the imaging speed of a scanning probe microscope in tapping mode, we propose to use a dynamic controller on 'parachuting' regions. Furthermore, we propose to use variable scan speed on 'upward step' regions, with the speed determined by the error signal of the closed-loop control. We offer line traces obtained on a calibration grating with 25-nm step height, using both standard scanning and our scanning method, as experimental evidence. PMID:22333220

  18. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  19. Immobilization of DNA for scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, D P; Bottomley, L A; Thundat, T; Brown, G M; Woychik, R P; Schrick, J J; Jacobson, K B; Warmack, R J

    1992-01-01

    Reproducible scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope images of entire molecules of uncoated plasmid DNA chemically bound to surfaces are presented. The chemically mediated immobilization of DNA to surfaces and subsequent scanning tunneling microscope imaging of DNA molecules demonstrate that the problem of molecular instability to forces exerted by the probe tip, inherent with scanning probe microscopes, can be prevented. Images PMID:1438201

  20. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1995-03-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  1. Mouse manipulation through single-switch scanning.

    PubMed

    Blackstien-Adler, Susie; Shein, Fraser; Quintal, Janet; Birch, Shae; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Given the current extensive reliance on the graphical user interface, independent access to computer software requires that users be able to manipulate a pointing device of some type (e.g., mouse, trackball) or be able to emulate a mouse by some other means (e.g., scanning). The purpose of the present study was to identify one or more optimal single-switch scanning mouse emulation strategies. Four alternative scanning strategies (continuous Cartesian, discrete Cartesian, rotational, and hybrid quadrant/continuous Cartesian) were selected for testing based on current market availability as well as on theoretical considerations of their potential speed and accuracy. Each strategy was evaluated using a repeated measures study design by means of a test program that permitted mouse emulation via any one of four scanning strategies in a motivating environment; response speed and accuracy could be automatically recorded and considered in view of the motor, cognitive, and perceptual demands of each scanning strategy. Ten individuals whose disabilities required them to operate a computer via single-switch scanning participated in the study. Results indicated that Cartesian scanning was the preferred and most effective scanning strategy. There were no significant differences between results from the Continuous Cartesian and Discrete Cartesian scanning strategies. Rotational scanning was quite slow with respect to the other strategies, although it was equally accurate. Hybrid Quadrant scanning improved access time but at the cost of fewer correct selections. These results demonstrated the importance of testing and comparing alternate single-switch scanning strategies.

  2. South Carolina Course Alignment Project: Environmental Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Policy Improvement Center (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    An "environmental scan" is designed to identify key issues of policy and practice in an area of interest so that action can be taken. By definition, an environmental scan focuses upon areas of concern. However, the results of an environmental scan are not designed to be either an indictment or endorsement of the current way of doing…

  3. Optical scanning tests of complex CMOS microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, M. E.; Erickson, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The new test method was based on the use of a raster-scanned optical stimulus in combination with special electrical test procedures. The raster-scanned optical stimulus was provided by an optical spot scanner, an instrument that combines a scanning optical microscope with electronic instrumentation to process and display the electric photoresponse signal induced in a device that is being tested.

  4. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far. PMID:25494244

  5. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-11-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  6. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy in Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Albert; Nebel, Michaela; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews recent work involving the application of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to the study of individual cultured living cells, with an emphasis on topographical and functional imaging of neuronal and secretory cells of the nervous and endocrine system. The basic principles of biological SECM and associated negative amperometric-feedback and generator/collector-mode SECM imaging are discussed, and successful use of the methodology for screening soft and fragile membranous objects is outlined. The drawbacks of the constant-height mode of probe movement and the benefits of the constant-distance mode of SECM operation are described. Finally, representative examples of constant-height and constant-distance mode SECM on a variety of live cells are highlighted to demonstrate the current status of single-cell SECM in general and of SECM in neuroscience in particular.

  7. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  8. UAVSAR Active Electronically Scanned Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory, A.; Chamberlain, Neil F.; Zawadzki, Mark S.; Brown, Kyle M.; Fisher, Charles D.; Figueroa, Harry S.; Hamilton, Gary A.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Vorperian, Vatche; Grando, Maurio B.

    2011-01-01

    The Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a pod-based, L-band (1.26 GHz), repeatpass, interferometric, synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) used for Earth science applications. Repeat-pass interferometric radar measurements from an airborne platform require an antenna that can be steered to maintain the same angle with respect to the flight track over a wide range of aircraft yaw angles. In order to be able to collect repeat-pass InSAR data over a wide range of wind conditions, UAVSAR employs an active electronically scanned array (AESA). During data collection, the UAVSAR flight software continuously reads the aircraft attitude state measured by the Embedded GPS/INS system (EGI) and electronically steers the beam so that it remains perpendicular to the flight track throughout the data collection

  9. Validation of the body scanner as a measuring tool for a rapid quantification of body shape.

    PubMed

    Bretschneider, Thorsten; Koop, Urte; Schreiner, Volker; Wenck, Horst; Jaspers, Sören

    2009-08-01

    Currently, the body scanner, using laser-triangulation, is one of the most precise measuring tools for the rapid quantification of body shape. The VITUS body scanner is a laser-based system based on a principle called triangulation and the scan produced describes the distance to a surface at each point in the picture. The body scanner has multiple applications such as determining body measurements for tailoring, anthropometric investigations and cosmetic surgery. There are also intensive investigations into the effect of weight gain and thus body shape on health risks. In order to be of value, the body scanner needs to generate precise, accurate and reproducible data. To determine the precision and reproducibility of the VITUS XXL 3D body scanner. The measurements of geometric shapes (cones, columns) and human body parts (mid-thigh) were compared using a measuring tape and the body scanner. The precision of the measurements of the circumferences of a truncated cone and a column was within 1 mm of the actual values (0.29%). The reproducibility of the measurements was very good. The standard deviation in the measurement of a truncated cone was only 0.13% of the actual value. Likewise, the standard deviation of the thigh measurement of 12 human subjects was <1%. These results show that the body scanner can accurately, precisely and reproducibly measure the circumference of objects and human body parts.

  10. Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Ju Bingfeng; Bai Xiaolong; Chen Jian

    2012-03-15

    The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope.

  11. Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope.

    PubMed

    Ju, Bing-Feng; Bai, Xiaolong; Chen, Jian

    2012-03-01

    The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope.

  12. Handheld probes and galvanometer scanning for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, V.-F.; Dobre, G.; Demian, D.; Cernat, R.; Sinescu, C.; Topala, F. I.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Hutiu, Gh.; Bradu, A.; Rolland, J. P.; Podoleanu, A. G.

    2015-09-01

    As part of the ongoing effort of the biomedical imaging community to move Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) systems from the lab to the clinical environment and produce OCT systems appropriate for multiple types of investigations in a medical department, handheld probes equipped with different types of scanners need to be developed. These allow different areas of a patient's body to be investigated using OCT with the same system and even without changing the patient's position. This paper reviews first the state of the art regarding OCT handheld probes. Novel probes with a uni-dimensional (1D) galvanometer-based scanner (GS) developed in our groups are presented. Their advantages and limitations are discussed. Aspects regarding the use of galvoscanners with regard to Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are pointed out, in relationship with our studies on optimal scanning functions of galvanometer devices in OCT. These scanning functions are briefly discussed with regard to their main parameters: profile, theoretical duty cycle, scan frequency, and scan amplitude. The optical design of the galvoscanner and refractive optics combination in the probe head, optimized for various applications, is considered. Perspectives of the field are pointed out in the final part of the paper.

  13. Simultaneously scanning two connected tips in a scanning tunneling microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wan-Ting; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.; Dreyer, M.

    2017-06-01

    We have modified a dual-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by electrically connecting the tips together with a short (3 mm) strip of flexible 25 μm thick Nb foil. For simultaneous topographic imaging with both tips, we moved each tip to within tunneling distance z of a surface and modulated one tip's z-piezo at 5 kHz and the other at 10 kHz. The resulting combined tunneling current has modulation at both frequencies which we detect using individual lock-in amplifiers. Each lock-in output is fed back to its corresponding tip's individual STM z-position controller to maintain a stable current in both junctions. During the tests at room temperature, simultaneous imaging was performed with both tips made of Pt-Ir on Au/mica and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples, where a small tip-to-tip mechanical coupling was observed. We describe the system's performance, show results from simultaneous imaging, and discuss the potential application of the system to imaging superconducting phase differences.

  14. Comparative investigation of body composition in male dogs using CT and body fat analysis software.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Kusumi, Akiko; Kitagawa, Masato; Kanayama, Kiichi; Otsuji, Kazuya

    2014-03-01

    In small animal veterinary practices, body condition score (BCS) is generally used to diagnose obesity. However, BCS does not constitute objective data. In this study, we investigated the value of using human body fat analysis software for male dogs. We also compared changes in body fat after neutering. Changes in body fat at the time of neutering (age 1 year) and 1 year later were compared by performing CT scanning and using human body fat analysis software. We found that body fat increased in all the individuals tested. In terms of the site of fat accumulation, subcutaneous fat was more pronounced than visceral fat with a marked increase on the dorsal side of the abdomen rather than the thorax.

  15. Comparative Investigation of Body Composition in Male Dogs Using CT and Body Fat Analysis Software

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; KUSUMI, Akiko; KITAGAWA, Masato; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; OTSUJI, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In small animal veterinary practices, body condition score (BCS) is generally used to diagnose obesity. However, BCS does not constitute objective data. In this study, we investigated the value of using human body fat analysis software for male dogs. We also compared changes in body fat after neutering. Changes in body fat at the time of neutering (age 1 year) and 1 year later were compared by performing CT scanning and using human body fat analysis software. We found that body fat increased in all the individuals tested. In terms of the site of fat accumulation, subcutaneous fat was more pronounced than visceral fat with a marked increase on the dorsal side of the abdomen rather than the thorax. PMID:24212506

  16. More-Realistic Digital Modeling of a Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogge, Renee

    2010-01-01

    A MATLAB computer program has been written to enable improved (relative to an older program) modeling of a human body for purposes of designing space suits and other hardware with which an astronaut must interact. The older program implements a kinematic model based on traditional anthropometric measurements that do provide important volume and surface information. The present program generates a three-dimensional (3D) whole-body model from 3D body-scan data. The program utilizes thin-plate spline theory to reposition the model without need for additional scans.

  17. Resolution recovery in planar bone scans: diagnostic value in metastatic disease.

    PubMed

    Grüning, Thomas; Brogsitter, Claudia; Jones, Ivor W; Heales, Jason C

    2012-12-01

    Recovery of spatial resolution lost through increasing lesion-to-detector distance can improve the spatial resolution of planar images. We compare two commercial solutions, HiScan (http://www.scivis.de) and Xact.bone (http://www.ultraspect.com), with unprocessed planar whole-body bone scans. Thirty-five patients with suspected bone metastases were scanned 3 h after injection of 600 MBq (99m)Tc-HMDP at 12 cm/min. Two patients with more than 20 lesions were used for reporter training and were excluded from the analysis. Two blinded reporters categorized each scan as benign, indeterminate or malignant and assigned individual lesions to those same categories. Image quality was first graded on a 1 (worst) to 10 (best) scale for each individual scan, and then all three scans of each patient were ranked according to image quality. Reporter A detected 65, 90 and 83 malignant lesions with the unprocessed scan, HiScan and Xact.bone and 23, 24 and 17 indeterminate lesions, respectively. Reporter B detected 60, 80 and 75 malignant lesions with the unprocessed scan, HiScan and Xact.bone and 17, 16 and 14 indeterminate lesions, respectively. To summarize, reporters A/B detected 38/33% and 28/25% more malignant lesions with HiScan and Xact.bone than with the unprocessed scan, respectively (Friedman's test, P<0.05). The number of indeterminate lesions did not increase, but the percentage of unclear lesions decreased. Mean image quality for the unprocessed scan, HiScan and Xact.bone was 6.5, 9.1 and 7.9 for reporter A and 5.6, 7.5 and 6.7 for reporter B, respectively (P<0.0001). HiScan was ranked best for image quality in 82% of patients and Xact.bone in 18%. Resolution recovery in planar whole-body bone scans significantly increases the absolute number of detectable malignant lesions, decreases the percentage of indeterminate lesions, significantly increases image quality and is an easy-to-implement addition to routine clinical practice.

  18. Acrometastasis of Neuroblastoma to the Great Toe Revealed by MIBG Scan.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kun; Zhuang, Hongming

    2017-02-03

    A 3-year-old boy with history of neuroblastoma underwent I-MIBG scan. The whole-body images showed relatively normal tracer distribution except for mild activity in the right foot, which was located in the first metatarsal on SPECT/CT images. The subsequent MRI scan of the right foot showed infiltration of the metatarsal of the right first toe. The findings were consistent with solitary acrometastasis of neuroblastoma to the great toe.

  19. Left face matching bias: right hemisphere dominance or scanning habits?

    PubMed

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Havard, Catriona

    2011-01-01

    A large body of work report a leftward bias in face processing. However, it is not clear whether this leftward bias purely reflects the dominance of the right hemisphere or is influenced by scanning habits developed by reading directions. Here, we report two experiments examining how well native readers of right to left Arabic scripts (Egyptians) could match (for identity) a target face that appeared with a companion to a line-up of 10 faces. There was a significant advantage for matching faces that appeared on the left. However, Experiment 2 found that the magnitude of this left face matching bias was almost three times weaker than the magnitude of the leftward bias shown by native readers of left to right English scripts (British). Accordingly, we suggest that the right hemisphere dominance for face processing underlies the leftward face perception bias, but with the interaction of scanning habits.

  20. Generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilin, Ilya V.; Safonov, Ilia V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Donchul

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the algorithm for generation of PDF with vector symbols from scanned documents. The complex multi-stage technique includes segmentation of the document to text/drawing areas and background, conversion of symbols to lines and Bezier curves, storing compressed background and foreground. In the paper we concentrate on symbol conversion that comprises segmentation of symbol bodies with resolution enhancement, contour tracing and approximation. Presented method outperforms competitive solutions and secures the best compression rate/quality ratio. Scaling of initial document to other sizes as well as several printing/scanning-to-PDF iterations expose advantages of proposed way for handling with document images. Numerical vectorization quality metric was elaborated. The outcomes of OCR software and user opinion survey confirm high quality of proposed method.

  1. Use of iDXA spine scans to evaluate total and visceral abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    Bea, J W; Hsu, C-H; Blew, R M; Irving, A P; Caan, B J; Kwan, M L; Abraham, I; Going, S B

    2017-09-08

    Abdominal fat may be a better predictor than body mass index (BMI) for risk of metabolically-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. We sought to validate the percent fat reported on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) regional spine scans (spine fat fraction, SFF) against abdominal fat obtained from total body scans using the iDXA machine (General Electric, Madison, WI), as previously done on the Prodigy model. Total body scans and regional spine scans were completed on the same day (N = 50). In alignment with the Prodigy-based study, the following regions of interest (ROI) were assessed from total body scans and compared to the SFF from regional spine scans: total abdominal fat at (1) lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 and (2) L2-Iliac Crest (L2-IC); (3) total trunk fat; and (4) visceral fat in the android region. Separate linear regression models were used to predict each total body scan ROI from SFF; models were validated by bootstrapping. The sample was 84% female, a mean age of 38.5 ± 17.4 years, and mean BMI of 23.0 ± 3.8 kg/m(2) . The SFF, adjusted for BMI, predicted L2-L4 and L2-IC total abdominal fat (%; Adj. R(2) : 0.90) and total trunk fat (%; Adj. R(2) : 0.88) well; visceral fat (%) adjusted R(2) was 0.83. Linear regression models adjusted for additional participant characteristics resulted in similar adjusted R(2) values. This replication of the strong correlation between SFF and abdominal fat measures on the iDXA in a new population confirms the previous Prodigy model findings and improves generalizability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    PubMed

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  3. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically < 10 Hz) that the

  4. Sweating and Body Odor

    MedlinePlus

    Sweating and body odor Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Sweating and body odor are facts of life for ... stress. Your body has two main types of sweat glands, and they produce two very different types ...

  5. Lewy Body Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  6. Whole-body vibration augments resistance training effects on body composition in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    Age-related changes in body composition are well-documented with a decrease in lean body mass and a redistribution of body fat generally observed. Resistance training alone has been shown to have positive effects on body composition, however, these benefits may be enhanced by the addition of a vibration stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8 months of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) on body composition in sedentary postmenopausal women. Fifty-five women were assigned to resistance only (RG, n=22), vibration plus resistance (VR, n=21) or non-exercising control (CG, n=12) groups. Resistance training (3 sets 10 repetitions 80% strength) was performed using isotonic weight training equipment and whole-body vibration was done with the use of the power plate (Northbrooke, IL) vibration platform for three times per week for 8 months. Total and regional body composition was assessed from the total body DXA scans at baseline (pre) and after 8 months (post) of training. In the VR group, total % body fat decreased from pre- to post-time points (p<0.05), whereas, the CG group had a significant increase in total % body fat (p<0.05). Both training groups exhibited significant increases in bone free lean tissue mass for the total body, arm and trunk regions from pre to post (p<0.05). CG did not show any changes in lean tissue. In older women, resistance training alone and with whole-body vibration resulted in positive body composition changes by increasing lean tissue. However, only the combination of resistance training and whole-body vibration was effective for decreasing percent body fat.

  7. Attenuation correction without transmission scan for the MAMMI breast PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano, A.; González, A.; Orero, A.; Moliner, L.; Carles, M.; Sánchez, F.; Benlloch, J. M.; Correcher, C.; Carrilero, V.; Seimetz, M.

    2011-08-01

    Whole-body Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners are required in order to span large Fields of View (FOV). Therefore, reaching the sensitivity and spatial resolution required for early stage breast tumor detection is not straightforward. MAMMI is a dedicated breast PET scanner with a ring geometry designed to provide PET images with a spatial resolution as high as 1.5 mm, being able to detect small breast tumors (<1cm). The patient lays down in prone position during the scan, thus making possible to image the whole breast, up to regions close to the base of the pectoral without the requirement of breast compression.Attenuation correction (AC) for PET data improves the image quality and the quantitative accuracy of radioactivity distribution determination. In dedicated, high resolution breast cancer scanners, this correction would enhance the proper diagnosis in early disease stages. In whole-body PET scanners, AC is usually taken into account with the use of transmission scans, either by external radioactive rod sources or by Computed Tomography (CT). This considerably increases the radiation dose administered to the patient and time needed for the exploration. In this work we propose a method for breast shape identification by means of PET image segmentation. The breast shape identification will be used for the determination of the AC. For the case of a specific breast PET scanner the procedure we propose should provide AC similar to that obtained by transmission scans as we take advantage of the breast anatomical simplicity. Experimental validation of the proposed approach with a dedicated breast PET prototype is also presented. The main advantage of this method is an important dose reduction since the transmission scan is not required.

  8. Comparison of CT scanning and radionuclide imaging in liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.L.; Esposito, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    Early experience with body CT suggested its usefulness in many diagnostic problems; jaundice, renal and pancreatic masses, and in the evaluation of relatively inaccessible parts of the body, such as the retroperitineum, mediastinum, and pelvis. Investigation of hepatic disease by CT was not unexpectedly compared to radionuclide liver scanning, the major preexisting modality for imaging the liver. In the evaluation of the jaundiced patient, CT rapidly assumed a major role, providing more specific information about the liver than the RN liver scan, as well as demonstrating adjacent organs. CT differentiate obstructive from non-obstructive jaundice. With respect to mass lesions of the liver, the RN liver scan is more sensitive than CT but less specific. The abnormalities on an isotope image of the liver consist of normal variants in configuration, extrinsic compression by adjacent structures, cysts, hemangiomata, abscesses, and neoplasms. These suspected lesions may then be better delineated by the CT image, and a more precise diagnosis made. The physiologic information provided by the RN liver scan is an added facet which is helpful in the patient with diffuse hepatic disease. The CT image will be normal in many of these patients, however, hemochromatosis and fatty infiltration lend themselves especially to density evaluation by CT. The evaluation of lymphoma is more thorough with CT. Structures other than the liver, such as lymph nodes, are visualized. Gallium, however, provides additional isotopic information in patients with lymphoma, and in addition, is known to be useful in the investigation of a febrile patient with an abscess. Newer isotopic agents expand hepatic imaging in other directions, visualizing the biliary tree and evaluating the jaundiced patient.

  9. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yu K; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-07

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  10. Scanning probe block copolymer lithography

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jinan; Huo, Fengwei; Zheng, Zijian; Giam, Louise R.; Shim, Wooyoung; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of individual nanoparticles into desired spatial arrangements over large areas is a prerequisite for exploiting their unique electrical, optical, and chemical properties. However, positioning single sub-10-nm nanoparticles in a specific location individually on a substrate remains challenging. Herein we have developed a unique approach, termed scanning probe block copolymer lithography, which enables one to control the growth and position of individual nanoparticles in situ. This technique relies on either dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) or polymer pen lithography (PPL) to transfer phase-separating block copolymer inks in the form of 100 or more nanometer features on an underlying substrate. Reduction of the metal ions via plasma results in the high-yield formation of single crystal nanoparticles per block copolymer feature. Because the size of each feature controls the number of metal atoms within it, the DPN or PPL step can be used to control precisely the size of each nanocrystal down to 4.8 ± 0.2 nm. PMID:21059942

  11. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  12. A New First-Scan Method for Two-Scan Labeling Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lifeng; Chao, Yuyan; Suzuki, Kenji

    This paper proposes a new first-scan method for two-scan labeling algorithms. In the first scan, our proposed method first scans every fourth image line, and processes the scan line and its two neighbor lines. Then, it processes the remaining lines from top to bottom one by one. Our method decreases the average number of times that must be checked to process a foreground pixel will; thus, the efficiency of labeling can be improved.

  13. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope.

    PubMed

    Favreau, Peter F; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F; Rich, Thomas C; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J

    2014-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications.

  14. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope

    PubMed Central

    Favreau, Peter F.; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F.; Rich, Thomas C.; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications. PMID:24727909

  15. Accurate body composition measures from whole-body silhouettes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bowen; Avila, Jesus I; Ng, Bennett K; Fan, Bo; Loo, Victoria; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan; Oberfield, Sharon; Winer, Karen; Zemel, Babette; Shepherd, John A

    2015-08-01

    Obesity and its consequences, such as diabetes, are global health issues that burden about 171 × 10(6) adult individuals worldwide. Fat mass index (FMI, kg/m(2)), fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg/m(2)), and percent fat mass may be useful to evaluate under- and overnutrition and muscle development in a clinical or research environment. This proof-of-concept study tested whether frontal whole-body silhouettes could be used to accurately measure body composition parameters using active shape modeling (ASM) techniques. Binary shape images (silhouettes) were generated from the skin outline of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole-body scans of 200 healthy children of ages from 6 to 16 yr. The silhouette shape variation from the average was described using an ASM, which computed principal components for unique modes of shape. Predictive models were derived from the modes for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat using stepwise linear regression. The models were compared to simple models using demographics alone [age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ)]. The authors found that 95% of the shape variation of the sampled population could be explained using 26 modes. In most cases, the body composition variables could be predicted similarly between demographics-only and shape-only models. However, the combination of shape with demographics improved all estimates of boys and girls compared to the demographics-only model. The best prediction models for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat agreed with the actual measures with R(2) adj. (the coefficient of determination adjusted for the number of parameters used in the model equation) values of 0.86, 0.95, and 0.75 for boys and 0.90, 0.89, and 0.69 for girls, respectively. Whole-body silhouettes in children may be useful to derive estimates of body composition including FMI, FFMI, and percent fat. These results support the feasibility of measuring body composition variables from simple cameras such as those found in cell

  16. Accurate body composition measures from whole-body silhouettes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bowen; Avila, Jesus I.; Ng, Bennett K.; Fan, Bo; Loo, Victoria; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Lappe, Joan; Oberfield, Sharon; Winer, Karen; Zemel, Babette; Shepherd, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Obesity and its consequences, such as diabetes, are global health issues that burden about 171 × 106 adult individuals worldwide. Fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2), fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg/m2), and percent fat mass may be useful to evaluate under- and overnutrition and muscle development in a clinical or research environment. This proof-of-concept study tested whether frontal whole-body silhouettes could be used to accurately measure body composition parameters using active shape modeling (ASM) techniques. Methods: Binary shape images (silhouettes) were generated from the skin outline of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole-body scans of 200 healthy children of ages from 6 to 16 yr. The silhouette shape variation from the average was described using an ASM, which computed principal components for unique modes of shape. Predictive models were derived from the modes for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat using stepwise linear regression. The models were compared to simple models using demographics alone [age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ)]. Results: The authors found that 95% of the shape variation of the sampled population could be explained using 26 modes. In most cases, the body composition variables could be predicted similarly between demographics-only and shape-only models. However, the combination of shape with demographics improved all estimates of boys and girls compared to the demographics-only model. The best prediction models for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat agreed with the actual measures with R2 adj. (the coefficient of determination adjusted for the number of parameters used in the model equation) values of 0.86, 0.95, and 0.75 for boys and 0.90, 0.89, and 0.69 for girls, respectively. Conclusions: Whole-body silhouettes in children may be useful to derive estimates of body composition including FMI, FFMI, and percent fat. These results support the feasibility of measuring body composition variables from simple

  17. Correlation-steered scanning for scanning probe microscopes to overcome thermal drift for ultra-long time scanning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liansheng; Long, Qian; Liu, Yongbin; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Zhihua

    2016-07-01

    The thermal effect is one of the most important factors that influence the accuracy of nanoscale measurement and the surface topography of samples in scanning probe microscopes (SPMs). We propose a method called correlation-steered scanning, which is capable of overcoming three-dimensional thermal drifts in real time for ultra-long time scanned images. The image is scanned band by band with overlapping parts between adjacent bands. The vertical drift can be considered as linear and can thus be eliminated together with the tilt of the sample by applying the flattening method. Each band is artificially divided into several blocks for conveniently calculating lateral drifts on the basis of the overlapping area of adjacent bands through digital image correlation. The calculated lateral drifts are compensated to steer the scanning of the subsequent blocks, thus ensuring that all bands are parallel to one another. Experimental results proved that images scanned by the proposed method exhibited less distortions than those obtained from the traditional raster scanning method. The nanoscale measurement results based on the image obtained by the proposed method also showed high accuracy, with an error of less than 1.5%. By scanning as many bands as needed, the correlation-steered scanning method can obtain a highly precise SPM image of an ultra-large area.

  18. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T

    2016-03-01

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions

    DOE PAGES

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T.

    2015-12-10

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method.

  20. The role of early 18F-FDG PET/CT in therapeutic management and ongoing risk stratification of high/intermediate-risk thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Triviño Ibáñez, E M; Muros, M A; Torres Vela, E; Llamas Elvira, J M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role in ongoing risk stratification of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) performed early after radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The aim of the study is to investigate whether 18F-FDG PET/CT performed early after RAI ablation is useful to detect disease and to influence therapy and ongoing risk stratification. Patients with high/intermediate risk of recurrent DTC were included. 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed within 6 months after RAI ablation. We confirmed results with other imaging techniques, pathology reports, or follow-up. We classified the patient response as excellent, acceptable, or incomplete. Modified Hicks criteria were used to evaluate clinical impact. We included 81 patients with high/intermediate risk of recurrent DTC. Forty-one (50.6%) had positive uptake in 18F-FDG PET/CT, with negative (131)I whole-body scan ((131)I WBS). Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 92.5, 90.2, and 91.4%, respectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT results had an impact on therapy in 38.3% of patients. One year after initial therapy, 45.7% showed excellent response, 8.6% acceptable response, and 45.7% incomplete response. A statistically significant relationship was found between negative 18F-FDG PET/CT and excellent response (80 vs. 12.2%, p < 0.001; OR 52.8). 18F-FDG PET/CT scan performed early in surveillance of patients with high/intermediate-risk thyroid carcinoma provides important additional information not available with conventional follow-up methods and had a high impact on therapy. A negative 18F-FDG PET/CT predicts an excellent response to therapy in the new ongoing risk stratification.

  1. Variability of Serum Thyroglobulin levels in post thyroidectomy patients with Well Differentiated Thyroid Cancer and the ATA guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Frieda; Martin, Ralph J; Figueroa, Jannette; Rincón, Fernando; Román, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the variability of stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in post thyroidectomy patients with Well Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (WDTC) and determine the frequency of non-detectable Tg in patients with evidence of functional thyroid tissue in 131-I Whole Body Scan (WBS). Methods Retrospective record review of patients referred to our clinic from 1990–2010 with WDTC. Demographic data, histology, staging, imaging studies, stimulated Tg values and the presence of Tg antibodies was documented. Whole Body radio iodine Scans were reviewed to assess the extension of functional thyroid tissue. Results A total of 142 cases were evaluated with 417 studies. There were 112 females, 30 males, median age 47. Tumor histology was 97 papillary, 4 had Hurthle cell variant, 33 papillary follicular variant, 12 follicular; 7 were multifocal. ATA classification was used, groups were divided into low (55%), and intermediate and high risk (45%). Final analysis was based on 84 patients, 170 studies with Tg values in the records. The cut off value for Tg was 2.0 ng/ml and for TgAb was >20 IU/ml. Residual functional tissue was present in 105 (62%) cases. Discordant Tg levels were found in 55% of the low risk patients, of those only 3 had TgAb. In the intermediate and high risk group 47% were discordant, 2 cases had TgAb. Conclusion The Tg variability and the high frequency of discordant positive WBS and negative Tg, raises questions on the recommendation of conservative management of low risk patients. Follow-up should include Tg assay and imaging studies. PMID:27623139

  2. Hierarchical parsing and semantic navigation of full body CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Sascha; Barbu, Adrian; Zhou, S. Kevin; Liu, David; Feulner, Johannes; Huber, Martin; Suehling, Michael; Cavallaro, Alexander; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2009-02-01

    Whole body CT scanning is a common diagnosis technique for discovering early signs of metastasis or for differential diagnosis. Automatic parsing and segmentation of multiple organs and semantic navigation inside the body can help the clinician in efficiently obtaining accurate diagnosis. However, dealing with the large amount of data of a full body scan is challenging and techniques are needed for the fast detection and segmentation of organs, e.g., heart, liver, kidneys, bladder, prostate, and spleen, and body landmarks, e.g., bronchial bifurcation, coccyx tip, sternum, lung tips. Solving the problem becomes even more challenging if partial body scans are used, where not all organs are present. We propose a new approach to this problem, in which a network of 1D and 3D landmarks is trained to quickly parse the 3D CT data and estimate which organs and landmarks are present as well as their most probable locations and boundaries. Using this approach, the segmentation of seven organs and detection of 19 body landmarks can be obtained in about 20 seconds with state-of-the-art accuracy and has been validated on 80 CT full or partial body scans.

  3. Mapping gray-scale image to 3D surface scanning data by ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jones, Peter R. M.

    1997-03-01

    The extraction and location of feature points from range imaging is an important but difficult task in machine vision based measurement systems. There exist some feature points which are not able to be detected from pure geometric characteristics, particularly in those measurement tasks related to the human body. The Loughborough Anthropometric Shadow Scanner (LASS) is a whole body surface scanner based on structured light technique. Certain applications of LASS require accurate location of anthropometric landmarks from the scanned data. This is sometimes impossible from existing raw data because some landmarks do not appear in the scanned data. Identification of these landmarks has to resort to surface texture of the scanned object. Modifications to LASS were made to allow gray-scale images to be captured before or after the object was scanned. Two-dimensional gray-scale image must be mapped to the scanned data to acquire the 3D coordinates of a landmark. The method to map 2D images to the scanned data is based on the colinearity conditions and ray-tracing method. If the camera center and image coordinates are known, the corresponding object point must lie on a ray starting from the camera center and connecting to the image coordinate. By intersecting the ray with the scanned surface of the object, the 3D coordinates of a point can be solved. Experimentation has demonstrated the feasibility of the method.

  4. Diagnostic Efficacy of UBI Scan in Musculoskeletal Infections.

    PubMed

    Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammadreza; Azarsina, Salman; Safdari, Farshad; Amoui, Mahasti; Hosseinzadeh, Samaneh

    2015-06-01

    Limited recent studies have demonstrated that 99mTc-UBI scan can be a helpful method in precise diagnosis of infection. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of 99mTc-UBI scan in detection of musculoskeletal infections. Fifty patients with suspected musculoskeletal infections (painful THA, TKA, implant and nonunion) were enrolled in this study. After injection of 99mTc-Ubiquicidin 29-41, up to 30 minutes, dynamic imaging was performed every 1 minute. Whole body anterior and posterior images were acquired at 60 and 120 min (5 min/frame). A polygonal region of interest (ROI) was drawn manually around the area of increased accumulation of tracer (lesion) and anatomically similar area on the contralateral side (background) and the lesion to background ratio (LBR) was calculated. Then, patients underwent surgical procedures to assess infection by tissue sampling and histopathologic studies as gold standard. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to find a cut-off value for LBR and determining the diagnostic efficacy of UBI scan in musculoskeletal infections. Histopathologic studies revealed infection in 38 patients. The mean LBR was significantly higher in infected patients (2.05 ± 0.41 vs. 1.52 ± 0.22; P < 0.001). ROC analysis showed that a cut-off point of 1.74 for LBR will have 94.7% sensitivity, 83.3% specificity and 92% accuracy for diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections. UBI scan is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation of patients with suspected musculoskeletal infection. However, UBI imaging has some limitations which result in some incorrect diagnoses. It is important to interpret the results of the scan with regard to the clinical findings.

  5. Basis for optronic ScanSAR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchese, Linda; Bourqui, Pascal; Turgeon, Sandra; Harnish, Bernd; Suess, Martin; Châteauneuf, François; Bergeron, Alain

    2011-11-01

    ScanSAR is an important imaging mode of operation for SAR systems. It allows extended range coverage albeit at the expense of azimuth resolution. Compared to stripmap, ScanSAR is used more for large swath coverage for mapping and monitoring over a wide area. Applications are numerous and include boreal forest mapping, wetland mapping and soil moisture monitoring. The goal of the present work was thus to explore the possibility of processing ScanSAR data optronicaly. Tests were performed with artificially bursted ASAR stripmap data demonstrating that reconstruction of ScanSAR data using the optronic SAR processor is feasible. This paper describes specifically how the data control and handling of ScanSAR data is performed to make it compatible with the optronic processor that was otherwise specifically designed for stripmap processing. As well, the ScanSAR images generated optronicaly are presented.

  6. Image scanning microscopy with radially polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yun; Zhang, Yunhai; Wei, Tongda; Huang, Wei; Shi, Yaqin

    2017-03-01

    In order to improve the resolution of image scanning microscopy, we present a method based on image scanning microscopy and radially polarized light. According to the theory of image scanning microscopy, we get the effective point spread function of image scanning microscopy with the longitudinal component of radially polarized light and a 1 AU detection area, and obtain imaging results of the analyzed samples using this method. Results show that the resolution can be enhanced by 7% compared with that in image scanning microscopy with circularly polarized light, and is 1.54-fold higher than that in confocal microscopy with a pinhole of 1 AU. Additionally, the peak intensity of ISM is 1.54-fold higher than that of a confocal microscopy with a pinhole of 1 AU. In conclusion, the combination of the image scanning microscopy and the radially polarized light could improve the resolution, and it could realize high-resolution and high SNR imaging at the same time.

  7. Background removal procedure for rapid scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Czechowski, Tomasz; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2009-01-01

    In rapid scan EPR the changing magnetic field creates a background signal with components at the scan frequency and its harmonics. The amplitude of the background signal increases with scan width and is more significant for weak EPR signals such as are obtained in the presence of magnetic field gradients. A procedure for distinguishing this background from the EPR signal is proposed, mathematically described, and tested for various experimental conditions.

  8. CT densities in delayed iodine hepatic scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Perkerson, R.B. Jr.; Erwin, B.C.; Baumgartner, B.R.; Phillips, V.M.; Torres, W.E.; Clements, J.L. Jr.; Gedgaudas-McClees, K.; Bernardino, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    Sixty patients underwent CT scanning of the liver prior to, immediately after, and four hours after intravenous administration of 60% meglumine diatrizoate. Twenty patients received a 50 ml bolus of contrast material, 20 received 100 ml, and 20 received 200 ml. In each group, delayed CT scanning safely raised the inherent density of the liver significantly. Thus, delayed scanning with doses presently used in abdominal and neurological CT examinations may be helpful in detecting hepatic lesions.

  9. Scanning Tip Microscopy With Applications To Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; Thall, Edmond H.; Iams, Douglas A.; Ingle, Jeffery T.; Henson, Tammy D.; Lee, Y. C.; Bell, L. Stephen

    1989-06-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy, denoted here scanning tip microscopy, are two powerful novel techniques for imaging surfaces with atomic resolution. We describe the underlying principles of these two techniques with special emphasis on an instrument developed in our laboratory that uses a laser diode to detect minute deflections of a tip as it raster scans the surface of a sample. Applications of these techniques to research in biology are assessed and their relative merits discussed.

  10. Radiogallium scan in P. carinii pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, K.L.; Bakshi, S.P.; Bender, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    A gallium scan performed on a patient with fever of unknown origin (FUO) revealed an abnormal uptake of radiotracer in the lungs despite negative chest roentgenographic examination and other routine diagnostic studies. Subsequent lung biopsy results confirmed the presence of Pneumocystis (P.) carinii infection. A repeat gallium scan obtained following appropriate antibiotic therapy was essentially normal. The importance of radiogallium scanning in an immunosuppressed patient with FUO is emphasized.

  11. [Body image and body image distortion].

    PubMed

    Ábrahám, Ildikó; Jambrik, Máté; John, Balázs; Németh, Adrienn Réka; Franczia, Nóra; Csenki, Laura

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this literature review is to integrate the results of various studies regarding body image and body image distortion into a unified framework. The concept of body image is complex and can be interpreted from multiple points of view. The first part of the study touches upon different age characteristics, attentional focus on the body, the early and important role of the body in identity formation, specific features in adolescence, gender differences, and the often-observed stability of body image (distortion), which may be present as a (trait) marker throughout the lifespan. The second part focuses on the organization of body image. The results of different studies on cognitive information processing are reviewed, the question of perceptual accuracy is addressed and the concepts of embodiment are examined. The third topic is body image distortion. First, the concept is contextualized along different continua, then discussed in a clinical sense along with the complexity of diagnostic methods, as well as the state and trait aspects of body image distortion. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(19): 723-730.

  12. [Multifaceted body. 3. The contextualised body].

    PubMed

    Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This third and last article focuses on the psychosomatic and socio-anthropological facets of the body and their contribution to its understanding.

  13. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Russell S.; Kortan, A. Refik

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * EXPERIMENTAL * X-RAY DIFFRACTION * SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY * STRUCTURE MODELLING BASED ON STM * COMPARISON WITH MODELS BASED ON BULK STUDIES * CONCLUSION * REFERENCES

  14. Scanning Tunneling Microscope For Use In Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Phillip B.

    1993-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope with subangstrom resolution developed to study surface structures. Although instrument used in air, designed especially for use in vacuum. Scanning head is assembly of small, mostly rigid components made of low-outgassing materials. Includes coarse-positioning mechanical-translation stage, on which specimen mounted by use of standard mounting stub. Tunneling tip mounted on piezoelectric fine-positioning tube. Application of suitable voltages to electrodes on piezoelectric tube controls scan of tunneling tip across surface of specimen. Electronic subsystem generates scanning voltages and collects data.

  15. Scanning Tunneling Microscope For Use In Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Phillip B.

    1993-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope with subangstrom resolution developed to study surface structures. Although instrument used in air, designed especially for use in vacuum. Scanning head is assembly of small, mostly rigid components made of low-outgassing materials. Includes coarse-positioning mechanical-translation stage, on which specimen mounted by use of standard mounting stub. Tunneling tip mounted on piezoelectric fine-positioning tube. Application of suitable voltages to electrodes on piezoelectric tube controls scan of tunneling tip across surface of specimen. Electronic subsystem generates scanning voltages and collects data.

  16. Scanned probe microscope for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiburin, Vil B.; Konnov, Nikolai P.; Shcherbakov, Anatolyi A.; Malakhaeva, Alina N.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Yuri P.

    1997-12-01

    In our biophysical laboratory has been developed a new scanned probe microscope (SPM) for biological application. The SPM allows to investigate a biological samples' surface by means of three different near field microscopes: scanning tunneling microscope (STM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM). The SPM is very rigid and can be operated in ordinary laboratory without any vibration isolation. The scanning area of the microscope is about 10 by 10 micrometers. Some different biological objects were visualized by means of the SPM viz. bacteria (E. Coli, plague, cholera, staphylococcus), macromolecules (DNA, plague proteins) and phage (T2).

  17. Predictors of radiolucent foreign body aspiration.

    PubMed

    Mortellaro, Vincent E; Iqbal, Corey; Fu, Roxanna; Curtis, Heather; Fike, Frankie B; St Peter, Shawn D

    2013-09-01

    Children frequently present for suspected foreign body aspiration, many have mild symptoms and/or negative radiographs raising the question of a radiolucent foreign body aspiration. Retrospective review of patients having bronchoscopy for suspected radiolucent foreign body aspiration from 2000 to 2010 collecting demographics, history, hospital presentation, radiographic, and operative details. Pearson's correlation was used between event history, presentation, radiographic details and bronchoscopically identified foreign body with P value <0.01. 138 patients, mean age 2.6 years, mean weight 15.6 kg, 68% male. Event symptoms: 81% witnessed events, 64% wheezing, 43% coughing, 39% choking, 6% stridor, and 0.7% lethargy. Hospital presentation: 70% persistent symptoms, wheezing 56%, coughing 15%, desaturations 11%, stridor 7%, choking 4%, and lethargy 1%. 92% of patients had a chest x-ray; air trapping found in 38%, and lung collapse in 21%. 2 patients received CT scans; 1 had lung collapse. Bronchoscopy identified foreign bodies in 93% of patients: food 68%, plastic 18%, non-descript 11%, rocks 3%. No correlations between event symptoms, hospital presentation, radiographs and foreign body presence. Event history, hospital presentation, and radiographs are insufficient in proving the absence of a radiolucent foreign body. Patients with suspected radiolucent foreign body aspiration should undergo diagnostic bronchoscopy prior to discharge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescence and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  19. Adolescence and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  20. Three-dimensional ultrasound scanning.

    PubMed

    Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace; Bax, Jeff

    2011-08-06

    The past two decades have witnessed developments of new imaging techniques that provide three-dimensional images about the interior of the human body in a manner never before available. Ultrasound (US) imaging is an important cost-effective technique used routinely in the management of a number of diseases. However, two-dimensional viewing of three-dimensional anatomy, using conventional two-dimensional US, limits our ability to quantify and visualize the anatomy and guide therapy, because multiple two-dimensional images must be integrated mentally. This practice is inefficient, and may lead to variability and incorrect diagnoses. Investigators and companies have addressed these limitations by developing three-dimensional US techniques. Thus, in this paper, we review the various techniques that are in current use in three-dimensional US imaging systems, with a particular emphasis placed on the geometric accuracy of the generation of three-dimensional images. The principles involved in three-dimensional US imaging are then illustrated with a diagnostic and an interventional application: (i) three-dimensional carotid US imaging for quantification and monitoring of carotid atherosclerosis and (ii) three-dimensional US-guided prostate biopsy.

  1. Three-dimensional ultrasound scanning

    PubMed Central

    Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace; Bax, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed developments of new imaging techniques that provide three-dimensional images about the interior of the human body in a manner never before available. Ultrasound (US) imaging is an important cost-effective technique used routinely in the management of a number of diseases. However, two-dimensional viewing of three-dimensional anatomy, using conventional two-dimensional US, limits our ability to quantify and visualize the anatomy and guide therapy, because multiple two-dimensional images must be integrated mentally. This practice is inefficient, and may lead to variability and incorrect diagnoses. Investigators and companies have addressed these limitations by developing three-dimensional US techniques. Thus, in this paper, we review the various techniques that are in current use in three-dimensional US imaging systems, with a particular emphasis placed on the geometric accuracy of the generation of three-dimensional images. The principles involved in three-dimensional US imaging are then illustrated with a diagnostic and an interventional application: (i) three-dimensional carotid US imaging for quantification and monitoring of carotid atherosclerosis and (ii) three-dimensional US-guided prostate biopsy. PMID:22866228

  2. Extracting Feature Points of the Human Body Using the Model of a 3D Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jeongeun; Ozawa, Shinji

    The purpose of this research is to recognize 3D shape features of a human body automatically using a 3D laser-scanning machine. In order to recognize the 3D shape features, we selected the 23 feature points of a body and modeled its 3D features. The set of 23 feature points consists of the motion axis of a joint, the main point for the bone structure of a human body. For extracting feature points of object model, we made 2.5D templates neighbor for each feature points were extracted according to the feature points of the standard model of human body. And the feature points were extracted by the template matching. The extracted feature points can be applied as body measurement, the 3D virtual fitting system for apparel etc.

  3. Validation of Body Condition Indices and Quantitative Magnetic Resonance in Estimating Body Composition in a Small Lizard

    PubMed Central

    WARNER, DANIEL A.; JOHNSON, MARIA S.; NAGY, TIM R.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of body condition are typically used to assess an individual’s quality, health, or energetic state. Most indices of body condition are based on linear relationships between body length and mass. Although these indices are simple to obtain, nonlethal, and useful indications of energetic state, their accuracy at predicting constituents of body condition (e.g., fat and lean mass) are often unknown. The objectives of this research were to (1) validate the accuracy of another simple and noninvasive method, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), at estimating body composition in a small-bodied lizard, Anolis sagrei, and (2) evaluate the accuracy of two indices of body condition (based on length–mass relationships) at predicting body fat, lean, and water mass. Comparisons of results from QMR scans to those from chemical carcass analysis reveal that QMR measures body fat, lean, and water mass with excellent accuracy in male and female lizards. With minor calibration from regression equations, QMR will be a reliable method of estimating body composition of A. sagrei. Body condition indices were positively related to absolute estimates of each constituent of body composition, but these relationships showed considerable variation around regression lines. In addition, condition indices did not predict fat, lean, or water mass when adjusted for body mass. Thus, our results emphasize the need for caution when interpreting body condition based upon linear measurements of animals. Overall, QMR provides an alternative noninvasive method for accurately measuring fat, lean, and water mass in these small-bodied animals. PMID:28035770

  4. A kind of specific osteolytic destruction of the vertebral bodies

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Baogan; Chen, Jinhong; Pang, Xiaodong; Hei, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This report describes two young patients with osteolytic destruction in two adjacent vertebral bodies along with the intervertebral disc, and reveals its possible mechanism. A lateral radiograph and CT scan displayed a giant osteolytic cavity in the L4 vertebral body. An MRI or CT scan with a two-dimensional reconstruction displayed the same changes in the L4 vertebral body and lower endplate erosion in the L3 vertebral body. A comprehensive preoperative evaluation did not identify a specific cause of vertebral destruction. Both patients underwent anterior lumbar fusion surgery. The lesions were removed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Histopathological study of the destructed vertebral bodies in the two patients revealed the disruption or atrophy of bone trabeculae with infiltration of a large amount of B-lymphocytes and macrophages into the marrow cavities. Studies of its pathogenesis reveal that it is likely to be a B-lymphocyte-mediated local immune inflammatory reaction in the lumbar spine. PMID:22675148

  5. [Metallic foreign bodies in the orbit].

    PubMed

    Skorek, Andrzej; Gębka, Andrzej; Babiński, Dariusz; Raczyńska, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Authors present a case of metallic foreign bodies (part of the hammer) in apex of the orbit in a 57-year-old man. In CT scan it was localized between rectus lateral muscle and optic nerve. We remove it through transantral approach. We discuss about diagnosis and indication to transnasal and transsinusal (trough maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses) approaches to the retrobulbar part of the orbit.

  6. Dual-resolution image reconstruction for region-of-interest CT scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S. O.; Shin, K. Y.; Yoo, S. K.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, K. H.; Huh, Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Kwon, O.-K.

    2014-07-01

    In ordinary CT scan, so called full field-of-view (FFOV) scan, in which the x-ray beam span covers the whole section of the body, a large number of projections are necessary to reconstruct high resolution images. However, excessive x-ray dose is a great concern in FFOV scan. Region-of-interest (ROI) scan is a method to visualize the ROI in high resolution while reducing the x-ray dose. But, ROI scan suffers from bright-band artifacts which may hamper CT-number accuracy. In this study, we propose an image reconstruction method to eliminate the band artifacts in the ROI scan. In addition to the ROI scan with high sampling rate in the view direction, we get FFOV projection data with much lower sampling rate. Then, we reconstruct images in the compressed sensing (CS) framework with dual resolutions, that is, high resolution in the ROI and low resolution outside the ROI. For the dual-resolution image reconstruction, we implemented the dual-CS reconstruction algorithm in which data fidelity and total variation (TV) terms were enforced twice in the framework of adaptive steepest descent projection onto convex sets (ASD-POCS). The proposed method has remarkably reduced the bright-band artifacts at around the ROI boundary, and it has also effectively suppressed the streak artifacts over the entire image. We expect the proposed method can be greatly used for dual-resolution imaging with reducing the radiation dose, artifacts and scan time.

  7. Lung Perfusion Scanning in Hepatic Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, N. N.; Ackrill, P.; Wood, J.

    1972-01-01

    Abnormal lung perfusion scans using radioactive particles were found in five out of six cases of hepatic cirrhosis with arterial hypoxaemia. None had clinical evidence of cardiopulmonary disease or signs of pulmonary embolism on arteriography. The scan defects are probably caused by a disorder of the pulmonary microvasculature, which may show regional variation in severity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4645896

  8. Scanning System -- Technology Worth a Look

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Richard W. Conners; D. Earl Kline

    1995-01-01

    In an effort to help automate the inspection for lumber defects, optical scanning systems are emerging as an alternative to the human eye. Although still in its infancy, scanning technology is being explored by machine companies and universities. This article was excerpted from "Machine Vision Systems for Grading and Processing Hardwood Lumber," by Philip...

  9. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  10. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery.

  11. Implementing SCANS. Highlight Zone: Research @ Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Arnold C.; Brainard, Scott

    Foremost among efforts over the last decade to improve the work-related skills required of all young people to meet the demands of American's workplaces was the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills Commission (SCANS). Integral to SCANS were its three-part foundation (basic skills, thinking skills, and personal qualities) and these…

  12. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  13. Camera Systems Rapidly Scan Large Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Needing a method to quickly scan large structures like an aircraft wing, Langley Research Center developed the line scanning thermography (LST) system. LST works in tandem with a moving infrared camera to capture how a material responds to changes in temperature. Princeton Junction, New Jersey-based MISTRAS Group Inc. now licenses the technology and uses it in power stations and industrial plants.

  14. Ultrasonic scanning for pallet part grading

    Treesearch

    Mohammed F. Kabir; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Mark E. Schafer; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Sorting and grading of wooden pallet parts are key factors for pallet manufacturing quality and pallet durability. The feasibility of ultrasonic scanning for defect detection in pallet manufacturing is examined in this report. Scanning was conducted by two pressure-contact rolling transducers in a pitch-catch arrangement. Pallet part deckboards were fed through the...

  15. The phase-scanned commutated array network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R.

    An array feed network has been developed to demonstrate the P-Scan principle incorporating separate elevation and azimuth antennas. The microwave lens, switches, phase shifters, and amplitude control are discussed, and beam formation is described. The increased scan of the system is addressed, and the results of tests on the system are discussed.

  16. Optical Scanning for Retrospective Conversion of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Morten

    1986-01-01

    This discussion of the use of optical scanning and computer formatting for retrospective conversion focuses on a series of applications known as Optical Scanning for Creation of Information Databases (OSCID). Prior research in this area and the usefulness of OSCID for creating low-priced machine-readable data representing older materials are…

  17. Torque-while-turnaround scan mirror assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkus, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    A scan mirror assembly which is part of a thematic mapper system is described with emphasis on mechanical aspects of the design. Features of the oscillating scan mirror mechanism include: a low level of structural vibration for the impact energies involved in mirror oscillation and return of energy lost during impact to the mirror by applying torque during the instant of impact.

  18. Adjustable Deflector For Ultrasonic C-Scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable deflector increases versatility of ultrasonic C-scan system equipped with two-axis (x-y) translation stage. Enables system to scan along additional axis perpendicular (z axis) or tilted (z' axis) with respect to y axis. Modification of two-axis scanner is economical alternative to more-complicated scanner.

  19. The Scanning Process: Methods and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, William L.; Morrison, James L.

    1983-01-01

    Developing a rational scanning process that reaches a balance between what is needed and what is possible within the limitations of an institution's resources is discussed. The different kinds of scanning, which kind to use at each stage of the process, and why are described. (MLW)

  20. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

    1982-08-01

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

  1. Rotation of images by scan mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the effects of scan mirrors on scene orientation or rotation for image forming systems. Some simple vector relationships are presented, which when combined with the anticipated application conditions, make it possible to easily assess image orientation effects resulting from scan mirrors. Examples are cited to demonstrate the application of the analysis.

  2. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  3. CERES Spatial Extent and Scan Modes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-08-09

    ... the images show top of atmosphere all sky longwave measurements. CERES ERBE-like instantaneous ES-8 and monthly ... to a Programmable Azimuth Plane Scan (PAPS) to collect measurements over the  Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS)  site. The Special-Scan image is an ...

  4. Laser Brazing with Beam Scanning: Experimental and Simulative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitmanek, M.; Dobler, M.; Graudenz, M.; Perret, W.; Göbel, G.; Schmidt, M.; Beyer, E.

    Laser beam brazing with copper based filler wire is a widely established technology for joining zinc-coated steel plates in the body-shop. Successful applications are the divided tailgate or the zero-gap joint, which represents the joint between the side panel and the roof-top of the body-in-white. These joints are in direct view to the customer, and therefore have to fulfil highest optical quality requirements. For this reason a stable and efficient laser brazing process is essential. In this paper the current results on quality improvement due to one dimensional laser beam deflections in feed direction are presented. Additionally to the experimental results a transient three-dimensional simulation model for the laser beam brazing process is taken into account. With this model the influence of scanning parameters on filler wire temperature and melt pool characteristics is analyzed. The theoretical predictions are in good accordance with the experimental results. They show that the beam scanning approach is a very promising method to increase process stability and seam quality.

  5. Full cycle rapid scan EPR deconvolution algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Rapid scan electron paramagnetic resonance (RS EPR) is a continuous-wave (CW) method that combines narrowband excitation and broadband detection. Sinusoidal magnetic field scans that span the entire EPR spectrum cause electron spin excitations twice during the scan period. Periodic transient RS signals are digitized and time-averaged. Deconvolution of absorption spectrum from the measured full-cycle signal is an ill-posed problem that does not have a stable solution because the magnetic field passes the same EPR line twice per sinusoidal scan during up- and down-field passages. As a result, RS signals consist of two contributions that need to be separated and postprocessed individually. Deconvolution of either of the contributions is a well-posed problem that has a stable solution. The current version of the RS EPR algorithm solves the separation problem by cutting the full-scan signal into two half-period pieces. This imposes a constraint on the experiment; the EPR signal must completely decay by the end of each half-scan in order to not be truncated. The constraint limits the maximum scan frequency and, therefore, the RS signal-to-noise gain. Faster scans permit the use of higher excitation powers without saturating the spin system, translating into a higher EPR sensitivity. A stable, full-scan algorithm is described in this paper that does not require truncation of the periodic response. This algorithm utilizes the additive property of linear systems: the response to a sum of two inputs is equal the sum of responses to each of the inputs separately. Based on this property, the mathematical model for CW RS EPR can be replaced by that of a sum of two independent full-cycle pulsed field-modulated experiments. In each of these experiments, the excitation power equals to zero during either up- or down-field scan. The full-cycle algorithm permits approaching the upper theoretical scan frequency limit; the transient spin system response must decay within the scan

  6. AVIRIS scan drive design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) images the ground with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 1 mrad. The IFOV is scanned 30 deg from left to right to provide the cross-track dimension of the image, while the aircraft's motion provides the along-track dimension. The scanning frequency is 12 Hz, with a scan efficiency of 70 percent. The scan mirror has an effective diameter of 5.7 in, and its positional accuracy is a small fraction of a milliradian of the nominal position-time profile. Described are the design and performance of the scan drive mechanism. Tradeoffs among various approaches are discussed, and the reasons given for the selection of the cam drive.

  7. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  8. Optical scanning holography for stereoscopic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Wen, Hsuan-Hsuan

    2016-10-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a scanning-type digital holographic recording technique. One of OSH's most important properties is that the OSH can record an incoherent hologram, which is free of speckle and thus is suitable for the applications of holographic display. The recording time of a scanning hologram is proportional to the sampling resolution. Hence the viewing angle as well as the resolution of a scanning hologram is limited for avoid too long recording. As a result, the viewing angle is not large enough for optical display. To solve this problem, we recorded two scanning holograms at different viewing angles. The two holograms are synthesized to a single stereoscopic hologram with two main viewing angles. In displaying, two views at the two main viewing angles are reconstructed. Because both views contain full-depth-resolved 3D scenes, the problem of accommodation conflict in conventional stereogram is avoided.

  9. Bone scan in metabolic bone diseases. Review.

    PubMed

    Abdelrazek, Saeid; Szumowski, Piotr; Rogowski, Franciszek; Kociura-Sawicka, Agnieszka; Mojsak, Małgorzata; Szorc, Małgorzata

    2012-08-25

    Metabolic bone disease encompasses a number of disorders that tend to present a generalized involvement of the whole skeleton. The disorders are mostly related to increased bone turnover and increased uptake of radiolabelled diphosphonate. Skeletal uptake of 99mTc-labelled diphosphonate depends primarily upon osteoblastic activity, and to a lesser extent, skeletal vascularity. A bone scan image therefore presents a functional display of total skeletal metabolism and has valuable role to play in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disorders. However, the bone scan appearances in metabolic bone disease are often non-specific, and their recognition depends on increased tracer uptake throughout the whole skeleton. It is the presence of local lesions, as in metastatic disease, that makes a bone scan appearance obviously abnormal. In the early stages, there will be difficulty in evaluating the bone scans from many patients with metabolic bone disease. However, in the more severe cases scan appearances can be quite striking and virtually diagnostic.

  10. Means for Positioning and Repositioning Scanning Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented for positioning a scanning instrument to point toward the center of the desired scan wherein the scan is achieved by rotating unbalanced masses (RUMs) rotating about fixed axes of rotation relative to and associated with the instrument, the RUMs being supported on drive shafts spaced from the center of the mass of the instrument and rotating 180 degrees out-of-phase with each other and in planes parallel to each other to achieve the scan. The elevation and cross-elevation angles of the instrument are sensed to determine any offset and offset time rate-of-change, and the magnitude and direction are converted to a RUM cycle angular velocity component to be superimposed on the nominal velocity of the RUMs. This RUM angular velocity component modulates the RUM angular velocity to cause the speed of the RUMs to increase and decrease during each revolution to drive the instrument toward the desired center of the scan.

  11. An Introduction to PunchScan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popoveniuc, Stefan; Hosp, Ben

    PunchScan is a precinct-read optical-scan balloting system that allows voters to take their ballot with them after scanning. This does not violate the secret ballot principle because the ballots cannot be read without secret information held by the distributed authority in charge of the election. In fact, this election authority will publish the ballots for everyone to see, allowing voters whose ballots were incorrectly omitted to complain. PunchScan vote-counting is performed in private by the election authority - who uses their secret information to decode the ballots - but is verified in public by an auditor.In this paper we describe how and why PunchScan works. We have kept most of the description at an outline level so that it may be used as a straw model of a cryptographic voting system.

  12. SU-F-I-32: Organ Doses from Pediatric Head CT Scan

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H; Liu, Q; Qiu, J; Zhuo, W; Majer, M; Knezevic, Z; Miljanic, S; Hrsak, H

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the organ doses of pediatric patients who undergoing head CT scan using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and compare it with measurements in anthropomorphic child phantom.. Methods: A ten years old children voxel phantom was developed from CT images, the voxel size of the phantom was 2mm*2mm*2mm. Organ doses from head CT scan were simulated using MCNPX software, 180 detectors were placed in the voxel phantom to tally the doses of the represented tissues or organs. When performing the simulation, 120 kVp and 88 mA were selected as the scan parameters. The scan range covered from the top of the head to the end of the chain, this protocol was used at CT simulator for radiotherapy. To validate the simulated results, organ doses were measured with radiophotoluminescence (RPL) detectors, placed in the 28 organs of the 10 years old CIRS ATOM phantom. Results: The organ doses results matched well between MC simulation and phantom measurements. The eyes dose was showed to be as expected the highest organ dose: 28.11 mGy by simulation and 27.34 mGy by measurement respectively. Doses for organs not included in the scan volume were much lower than those included in the scan volume, thymus doses were observed more than 10 mGy due the CT protocol for radiotherapy covered more body part than routine head CT scan. Conclusion: As the eyes are superficial organs, they may receive the highest radiation dose during the CT scan. Considering the relatively high radio sensitivity, using shielding material or organ based tube current modulation technique should be encouraged to reduce the eye radiation risks. Scan range was one of the most important factors that affects the organ doses during the CT scan. Use as short as reasonably possible scan range should be helpful to reduce the patient radiation dose. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(11475047)

  13. 47 CFR 15.121 - Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers. 15.121 Section 15.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.121 Scanning receivers and...

  14. 47 CFR 15.121 - Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers. 15.121 Section 15.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.121 Scanning receivers and...

  15. Renal Metastasis and Dual (18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose and 131I) Avid Skeletal Metastasis in a Patient with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Prashanth; Rekha, Pobbi Setty Radhakrishna Gupta; Prabhu, Meghana; Venkataramarao, Sunil Hejjaji; Raju, Nalini; Chandrasekhar, Naveen Hedne; Kannan, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) though usually behaves in an indolent manner, can have unusual metastatic presentation. Initial presentation of metastatic disease has been reported in 1–12% of DTC being less frequent in papillary (~2%) than in follicular (~10%) thyroid carcinoma. Renal metastasis from DTC is very rare. To our knowledge, only about 30 cases have been reported in the English literature to date. To make clinicians aware that management of such high-risk thyroid cancer frequently requires novel multimodality imaging and therapeutic techniques. A 72-year-old female is described who presented with abdominal pain and bilateral lower limbs swelling. Initial contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of abdomen showed a well-encapsulated mass in the upper pole of right kidney favoring a renal cell carcinoma. Postright sided radical nephrectomy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry reports suggested metastatic deposits from thyroid malignancy. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-CT demonstrated hypermetabolic nodule in the left lobe of thyroid and a lytic lesion involving left acetabulum suggestive of skeletal metastasis. Subsequently, ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid nodules in bilateral lobes confirmed thyroid malignancy (Bethesda 6/6). Total thyroidectomy revealed papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) (follicular variant-PTC [FV-PTC]). After surgery, 131I-whole body scan showed iodine avid lytic lesion in the left acetabulum. The present case is a rare scenario of a renal metastasis as the presenting feature of an FV-PTC. Dual avidity in metastatic thyroid cancers (iodine and FDG) is rare and based on the degree of dedifferentiation of the DTC. PMID:28242987

  16. Scan-based volume animation driven by locally adaptive articulated registrations.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Taehyun; Lewis, J P; Neumann, Ulrich; Nayak, Krishna S

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a complete system to create anatomically accurate example-based volume deformation and animation of articulated body regions, starting from multiple in vivo volume scans of a specific individual. In order to solve the correspondence problem across volume scans, a template volume is registered to each sample. The wide range of pose variations is first approximated by volume blend deformation (VBD), providing proper initialization of the articulated subject in different poses. A novel registration method is presented to efficiently reduce the computation cost while avoiding strong local minima inherent in complex articulated body volume registration. The algorithm highly constrains the degrees of freedom and search space involved in the nonlinear optimization, using hierarchical volume structures and locally constrained deformation based on the biharmonic clamped spline. Our registration step establishes a correspondence across scans, allowing a data-driven deformation approach in the volume domain. The results provide an occlusion-free person-specific 3D human body model, asymptotically accurate inner tissue deformations, and realistic volume animation of articulated movements driven by standard joint control estimated from the actual skeleton. Our approach also addresses the practical issues arising in using scans from living subjects. The robustness of our algorithms is tested by their applications on the hand, probably the most complex articulated region in the body, and the knee, a frequent subject area for medical imaging due to injuries.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788), Freeborn, 1923 and A. columbae (Linstow, 1903).

    PubMed

    Ashour, A A

    1994-08-01

    The morphology of the two ascaridoid nematodes Ascaridia galli and A. columbae was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The two nematodes were compared together and their specific characteristics were established, including lips, cephalic papillae, body cuticle, spicules and caudal papillae of the male.

  18. Skylab S-191 spectrometer single spectral scan analysis program. [user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downes, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    Documentation and user information for the S-191 single spectral scan analysis program are reported. A breakdown of the computational algorithms is supplied, followed by the program listing and examples of sample output. A copy of the flow chart which describes the driver routine in the body of the main program segment is included.

  19. Absolute accuracy of the Cyberware WB4 whole-body scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daanen, Hein A. M.; Taylor, Stacie E.; Brunsman, Matthew A.; Nurre, Joseph H.

    1997-03-01

    The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner is one of the first scanning systems in the world that generates a high resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory of Wright-Patterson AFB intends to use the scanner to enable quick and reliable acquisition of anthropometric data. For this purpose, a validation study was initiated to check the accuracy, reliability and errors of the system. A calibration object, consisting of two boxes and a cylinder, was scanned in several locations in the scanning space. The object dimensions in the resulting scans compared favorably to the actual dimensions of the calibration object.

  20. B-scan ultrasonography following open globe repair

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, M T; Yiu, G; Hart, L; Andreoli, C M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the accuracy and predictive ability of B-scan ultrasonography in the post-repair assessment of an open globe injury. Methods In all, 965 open globe injuries treated at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between 1 January 2000 and 1 June 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 427 ultrasound reports on 210 patients were analyzed. Ultrasound reports were examined for the following characteristics: vitreous hemorrhage, vitreous tag, retinal tear, RD (including subcategories total RD, partial RD, closed funnel RD, open funnel RD, and chronic RD), vitreous traction, vitreous debris, serous choroidal detachment, hemorrhagic choroidal detachment, kissing choroidal detachment, dislocated crystalline lens, dislocated intraocular lens (IOL), disrupted crystalline lens, intraocular foreign body (IOFB), intraocular air, irregular posterior globe contour, disorganized posterior intraocular contents, posterior vitreous detachment, choroidal vs retinal detachment, vitreal membranes, and choroidal thickening. The main outcome measure was visual outcome at final follow-up. Results Among 427 B-scan reports, there were a total of 57 retinal detachments, 19 retinal tears, 18 vitreous traction, 59 serous choroidal detachments, 47 hemorrhagic choroidal detachments, and 10 kissing choroidal detachments. Of patients with multiple studies, 26% developed retinal detachments or retinal tears on subsequent scans. Ultrasound had 100% positive predictive value for diagnosing retinal detachment and IOFB. The diagnoses of retinal detachment, disorganized posterior contents, hemorrhagic choroidal detachment, kissing choroidal detachment, and irregular posterior contour were associated with worse visual acuity at final follow-up. Disorganized posterior contents correlated with particularly poor outcomes. Conclusions B-scan ultrasonography is a proven, cost-effective imaging modality in the management of an open globe injury. This tool can offer both diagnostic and