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Sample records for 135-kilodalton membrane-associated proteins

  1. Lipid nanotechnologies for structural studies of membrane-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Stoilova-McPhie, Svetla; Grushin, Kirill; Dalm, Daniela; Miller, Jaimy

    2014-11-01

    We present a methodology of lipid nanotubes (LNT) and nanodisks technologies optimized in our laboratory for structural studies of membrane-associated proteins at close to physiological conditions. The application of these lipid nanotechnologies for structure determination by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is fundamental for understanding and modulating their function. The LNTs in our studies are single bilayer galactosylceramide based nanotubes of ∼20 nm inner diameter and a few microns in length, that self-assemble in aqueous solutions. The lipid nanodisks (NDs) are self-assembled discoid lipid bilayers of ∼10 nm diameter, which are stabilized in aqueous solutions by a belt of amphipathic helical scaffold proteins. By combining LNT and ND technologies, we can examine structurally how the membrane curvature and lipid composition modulates the function of the membrane-associated proteins. As proof of principle, we have engineered these lipid nanotechnologies to mimic the activated platelet's phosphtaidylserine rich membrane and have successfully assembled functional membrane-bound coagulation factor VIII in vitro for structure determination by cryo-EM. The macromolecular organization of the proteins bound to ND and LNT are further defined by fitting the known atomic structures within the calculated three-dimensional maps. The combination of LNT and ND technologies offers a means to control the design and assembly of a wide range of functional membrane-associated proteins and complexes for structural studies by cryo-EM. The presented results confirm the suitability of the developed methodology for studying the functional structure of membrane-associated proteins, such as the coagulation factors, at a close to physiological environment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Functional aspects of membrane association of reggie/flotillin proteins.

    PubMed

    Banning, Antje; Tomasovic, Ana; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2011-12-01

    Flotillin-2 and flotillin-1, also called reggie-1 and reggie-2, are ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved proteins. Originally, they were described as neuronal regeneration proteins, but they appear to function in a wide variety of cellular processes, such as membrane receptor signaling, endocytosis, phagocytosis and cell adhesion. The molecular details of the function of flotillins in these processes have only been partially clarified. Flotillins are associated with cholesterol and sphingolipid enriched membrane microdomains known as rafts, and some findings even suggest that they define their own kind of a microdomain. The mechanism of the membrane association of flotillins appears to rely mainly on acylation (myristoylation and/or palmitoylation), localizing flotillins onto the cytosolic side of the membranes, whereas no transmembrane domains are present. In addition, flotillins show a strong tendency to form homo- and hetero-oligomers with each other. In this review, we will summarize the recent findings on the function of flotillins and discuss the mechanisms that might regulate their function, such as membrane association, oligomerization and phosphorylation.

  3. Nanoscopic dynamics of bicontinous microemulsions: effect of membrane associated protein

    DOE PAGES

    Sharma, V. K.; Hayes, Douglas G.; Urban, Volker S.; ...

    2017-06-12

    Bicontinous microemulsions (BμE) generally consist of nanodomains formed by surfactant in a mixture of water and oil at nearly equal proportions and are potential candidates for the solubilization and purification of membrane proteins. In this paper, we present the first time report of nanoscopic dynamics of surfactant monolayers within BμEs formed by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) measured on the nanosecond to picosecond time scale using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). BμEs investigated herein consisted of middle phases isolated from Winsor-III microemulsion systems that were formed by mixing aqueous and oil solutions under optimal conditions. QENS data indicates thatmore » surfactants undergo two distinct motions, namely (i) lateral motion along the surface of the oil nanodomains and (ii) localized internal motion. Lateral motion can be described using a continuous diffusion model, from which the lateral diffusion coefficient is obtained. Internal motion of surfactant is described using a model which assumes that a fraction of the surfactants’ hydrogens undergoes localized translational diffusion that could be considered confined within a spherical volume. The effect of cytochrome c, an archetypal membrane-associated protein known to strongly partition near the surfactant head groups in BμEs (a trend supported by small-angle X-ray scattering [SAXS] analysis), on the dynamics of BμE has also been investigated. QENS results demonstrated that cytochrome c significantly hindered both the lateral and the internal motions of surfactant. The lateral motion was more strongly affected: a reduction of the lateral diffusion coefficient by 33% was measured. This change is mainly attributable to the strong association of cytochrome c with oppositely charged SDS. In contrast, analysis of SAXS data suggested that thermal fluctuations (for a longer length and slower time scale compared to QENS) were increased upon incorporation of cytochrome

  4. Differential expression in Phanerochaete chrysosporium of membrane- associated proteins relevant to lignin degradation

    Treesearch

    Semarjit Shary; Alexander N. Kapich; Ellen A. Panisko; Jon K. Magnuson; Daniel Cullen; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2008-01-01

    Fungal lignin-degrading systems likely include membrane-associated proteins that participate in diverse processes such as uptake and oxidation of lignin fragments, production of ligninolytic secondary metabolites, and defense of the mycelium against ligninolytic oxidants. Little is known about the nature or regulation of these membrane-associated components. We grew...

  5. Chicken Egg Shell Membrane Associated Proteins and Peptides.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Sarbjeet; Liyanage, Rohana; Kannan, Lakshmi; Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Lay, Jack O; Rath, Narayan C

    2015-11-11

    Egg shells are poultry industry byproducts with potential for use in various biological and agricultural applications. We have been interested in the membranes underlying the calcareous shell as a feed supplement, which showed potential to improve immunity and performance of post hatch poultry. Therefore, to determine their protein and peptide profiles, we extracted the egg shell membranes (ESM) from fresh unfertilized eggs with methanol and guanidine hydrochloride (GdHCl) to obtain soluble proteins for analysis by mass spectrometry. The methanol extract was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), electrospray ionization (ESI), high-performance reverse phase liquid chromatographic separation (HPLC), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine its peptide and protein profiles. The GdHCl extract was subjected to ESI-HPLC-MS/MS following trypsin digestion of reduced/alkylated proteins. Nine proteins from the methanol extract and >275 proteins from the GdHCl extract were tentatively identified. The results suggested the presence of several abundant proteins from egg whites, such as ovoalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme as well as many others associated with antimicrobial, biomechanical, cytoskeletal organizational, cell signaling, and enzyme activities. Collagens, keratin, agrin, and laminin were some of the structural proteins present in the ESM. The methanol-soluble fraction contained several clusterin peptides and defensins, particularly, two isoforms of gallin. The ratios of the two isoforms of gallin differed between the membranes obtained from brown and white eggs. The high abundance of several antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and other bioactive proteins in the ESM along with its potential to entrap various microbes and antigens may make it a suitable vehicle for oral immunization of post hatch poultry and improve their disease resistance.

  6. Membrane association of sucrose synthase: changes during the graviresponse and possible control by protein phosphorylation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, J. L.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) plays an important role in sucrose degradation and occurs both as a soluble and as a membrane-associated enzyme in higher plants. We show that membrane association can vary in vivo in response to gravistimulation, apparently involving SuSy dephosphorylation, and is a reversible process in vitro. Phosphorylation of SuSy has little effect on its activity but decreases its surface hydrophobicity as reported with the fluorescent probe bis-ANS. We postulate that phosphorylation of SuSy (and perhaps other membrane proteins) is involved in the release of the membrane-bound enzyme in part as a result of decreased surface hydrophobicity.

  7. Nodavirus RNA Replication Protein A Induces Membrane Association of Genomic RNA▿

    PubMed Central

    Van Wynsberghe, Priscilla M.; Chen, Hau-Ren; Ahlquist, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA virus genome replication occurs in membrane-associated RNA replication complexes, whose assembly remains poorly understood. Here we show that prior to RNA replication, the multifunctional, transmembrane RNA replication protein A of the nodavirus flock house virus (FHV) recruits FHV genomic RNA1 to a membrane-associated state in both Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Protein A has mitochondrial membrane-targeting, self-interaction, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and RNA capping domains. In the absence of RdRp activity due to an active site mutation (AD692E), protein A stimulated RNA1 accumulation by increasing RNA1 stability. Protein AD692E stimulated RNA1 accumulation in wild-type cells and in xrn1− yeast defective in decapped RNA decay, showing that increased RNA1 stability was not due to protein A-mediated RNA1 recapping. Increased RNA1 stability was closely linked with protein A-induced membrane association of the stabilized RNA and was highly selective for RNA1. Substantial N- and C-proximal regions of protein A were dispensable for these activities. However, increased RNA1 accumulation was eliminated by deleting protein A amino acids (aa) 1 to 370 but was restored completely by adding back the transmembrane domain (aa 1 to 35) and partially by adding back peripheral membrane association sequences in aa 36 to 370. Moreover, although RNA polymerase activity was not required, even small deletions in or around the RdRp domain abolished increased RNA1 accumulation. These and other results show that prior to negative-strand RNA synthesis, multiple domains of mitochondrially targeted protein A cooperate to selectively recruit FHV genomic RNA to membranes where RNA replication complexes form. PMID:17301137

  8. Identification of membrane-associated proteins from Campylobacter jejuni strains using complementary proteomics technologies.

    PubMed

    Cordwell, Stuart J; Len, Alice C L; Touma, Rachel G; Scott, Nichollas E; Falconer, Linda; Jones, David; Connolly, Angela; Crossett, Ben; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of food- and water-borne illness world-wide. The membrane-associated proteome of a recent C. jejuni gastrointestinal isolate (JHH1) was generated by sodium carbonate precipitation and ultracentrifugation followed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS as well as 2-DLC (strong cation exchange followed by RP chromatography) of trypsin digests coupled to MS/MS (2-DLC/MS/MS). 2-DE/MS identified 77 proteins, 44 of which were predicted membrane proteins, while 2-DLC/MS/MS identified 432 proteins, of which 206 were predicted to be membrane associated. A total of 453 unique proteins (27.4% of the C. jejuni theoretical proteome), including 187 bona fide membrane proteins were identified in this study. Membrane proteins were also compared between C. jejuni JHH1 and ATCC 700297 to identify factors potentially associated with increased gastrointestinal virulence. We identified 28 proteins that were significantly (>two-fold) more abundant in, or unique to, JHH1, including eight proteins involved in chemotaxis signal transduction and flagellar motility, the amino acid-binding surface antigens CjaA and CjaC, and four outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of unknown function (Cj0129c, Cj1031, Cj1279c, and Cj1721c). Immunoblotting using convalescent patient sera generated post-gastrointestinal infection revealed 13 (JHH1) and 12 (ATCC 700297) immunoreactive proteins. These included flagellin (FlaA) and CadF as well as Omp18, Omp50, Cj1721c, PEB1A, PEB2, and PEB4A. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of membrane-associated proteins from C. jejuni.

  9. MAMP (microbe-associated molecular pattern)-induced changes in plasma membrane-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Uhlíková, Hana; Solanský, Martin; Hrdinová, Vendula; Šedo, Ondrej; Kašparovský, Tomáš; Hejátko, Jan; Lochman, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Plant plasma membrane associated proteins play significant roles in Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern (MAMP) mediated defence responses including signal transduction, membrane transport or energetic metabolism. To elucidate the dynamics of proteins associated with plasma membrane in response to cryptogein, a well-known MAMP of defence reaction secreted by the oomycete Phytophthora cryptogea, 2D-Blue Native/SDS gel electrophoresis of plasma membrane fractions was employed. This approach revealed 21 up- or down-regulated protein spots of which 15 were successfully identified as proteins related to transport through plasma membrane, vesicle trafficking, and metabolic enzymes including cytosolic NADP-malic enzyme and glutamine synthetase. Observed changes in proteins were also confirmed on transcriptional level by qRT-PCR analysis. In addition, a significantly decreased accumulation of transcripts observed after employment of a mutant variant of cryptogein Leu41Phe, exhibiting a conspicuous defect in induction of resistance, sustains the contribution of identified proteins in cryptogein-triggered cellular responses. Our data provide further evidence for dynamic MAMP-induced changes in plasma membrane associated proteins.

  10. Immunogenic membrane-associated proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sudhir; Kosalai, K; Arora, Shalini; Namane, Abdelkader; Sharma, Pawan; Gaikwad, Anil N; Brodin, Priscille; Cole, Stewart T

    2005-07-01

    Membrane-associated proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis offer a challenge, as well as an opportunity, in the quest for better therapeutic and prophylactic interventions against tuberculosis. The authors have previously reported that extraction with the detergent Triton X-114 (TX-114) is a useful step in proteomic analysis of mycobacterial cell membranes, and detergent-soluble membrane proteins of mycobacteria are potent stimulators of human T cells. In this study 1-D and 2-D gel electrophoresis-based protocols were used for the analysis of proteins in the TX-114 extract of M. tuberculosis membranes. Peptide mass mapping (using MALDI-TOF-MS, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry) of 116 samples led to the identification of 105 proteins, 9 of which were new to the M. tuberculosis proteome. Functional orthologues of 73 of these proteins were also present in Mycobacterium leprae, suggesting their relative importance. Bioinformatics predicted that as many as 73% of the proteins had a hydrophobic disposition. 1-D gel electrophoresis revealed more hydrophobic/transmembrane and basic proteins than 2-D gel electrophoresis. Identified proteins fell into the following major categories: protein synthesis, cell wall biogenesis/architecture and conserved hypotheticals/unknowns. To identify immunodominant proteins of the detergent phase (DP), 14 low-molecular-mass fractions prepared by continuous-elution gel electrophoresis were subjected to T cell activation assays using blood samples from BCG-vaccinated healthy donors from a tuberculosis endemic area. Analysis of the responses (cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production) showed that the immunodominance of certain DP fractions was most probably due to ribosomal proteins, which is consistent with both their specificity for mycobacteria and their abundance. Other membrane-associated proteins, including transmembrane proteins/lipoproteins and ESAT-6, did not appear to contribute

  11. Fusions involving protein kinase C and membrane-associated proteins in benign fibrous histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Płaszczyca, Anna; Nilsson, Jenny; Magnusson, Linda; Brosjö, Otte; Larsson, Olle; Vult von Steyern, Fredrik; Domanski, Henryk A; Lilljebjörn, Henrik; Fioretos, Thoas; Tayebwa, Johnbosco; Mandahl, Nils; Nord, Karolin H; Mertens, Fredrik

    2014-08-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a mesenchymal tumor that most often occurs in the skin (so-called dermatofibroma), but may also appear in soft tissues (so-called deep BFH) and in the skeleton (so-called non-ossifying fibroma). The origin of BFH is unknown, and it has been questioned whether it is a true neoplasm. Chromosome banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, RNA sequencing, RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR were used to search for recurrent somatic mutations in a series of BFH. BFHs were found to harbor recurrent fusions of genes encoding membrane-associated proteins (podoplanin, CD63 and LAMTOR1) with genes encoding protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms PRKCB and PRKCD. PKCs are serine-threonine kinases that through their many phosphorylation targets are implicated in a variety of cellular processes, as well as tumor development. When inactive, the amino-terminal, regulatory domain of PKCs suppresses the activity of their catalytic domain. Upon activation, which requires several steps, they typically translocate to cell membranes, where they interact with different signaling pathways. The detected PDPN-PRKCB, CD63-PRKCD and LAMTOR1-PRKCD gene fusions are all predicted to result in chimeric proteins consisting of the membrane-binding part of PDPN, CD63 or LAMTOR1 and the entire catalytic domain of the PKC. This novel pathogenetic mechanism should result in constitutive kinase activity at an ectopic location. The results show that BFH indeed is a true neoplasm, and that distorted PKC activity is essential for tumorigenesis. The findings also provide means to differentiate BFH from other skin and soft tissue tumors. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Rare cancers.

  12. Nutrient-dependent methylation of a membrane-associated protein of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.C.; Alvarez, J.D.; Bernlohr, R.W. )

    1990-09-01

    Starvation of a mid-log-phase culture of Escherichia coli B/r for nitrogen, phosphate, or carbon resulted in methylation of a membrane-associated protein of about 43,000 daltons (P-43) in the presence of chloramphenicol and (methyl-3H)methionine. The in vivo methylation reaction occurred with a doubling time of 2 to 5 min and was followed by a slower demethylation process. Addition of the missing nutrient to a starving culture immediately prevented further methylation of P-43. P-43 methylation is not related to the methylated chemotaxis proteins because P-43 is methylated in response to a different spectrum of nutrients and because P-43 is methylated on lysine residues. The characteristics of P-43 are similar to those of a methylated protein previously described in Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis and are consistent with the proposal that methylation of this protein functions in nutrient sensing.

  13. Differential Expression in Phanerochaete chrysosporium of Membrane-Associated Proteins Relevant to Lignin Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Shary, Semarjit; Kapich, Alexander N.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Cullen, Dan; Hammel, Ken

    2008-10-02

    Fungal lignin-degrading systems must include membrane-associated proteins that participate in diverse processes such as uptake and oxidation of lignin fragments, secretion of ligninolytic secondary metabolites, and defense of the mycelium against ligninolytic oxidants. Despite their importance, little is known about the nature or regulation of these membrane-associated components. We grew the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium on cellulose or glucose as the carbon source and monitored the mineralization of a 14C-labeled synthetic lignin by these cultures to assess their ligninolytic competence. The results showed that the cellulose-grown cultures were ligninolytic, whereas the glucose-grown ones were not. We isolated microsomal membrane fractions from both types of culture and analyzed tryptic digests of them by shotgun liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the results against the predicted P. chrysosporium proteome showed that a catalase (Joint Genome Institute P. chrysosporium protein I.D. 124398), an alcohol oxidase (126879), two transporters (137220 and 132234), and two cytochrome P450s (5011 and 8912) were up-regulated under ligninolytic conditions. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays showed that RNA transcripts encoding all of these proteins were also up-regulated in ligninolytic cultures. Catalase 124398, alcohol oxidase 126879, and transporter 137220 were found in a proteomic analysis of partially purified plasma membranes from ligninolytic P. chrysosporium, and are therefore most likely associated with the outer envelope of the fungus.

  14. Proteomic analysis of membrane-associated proteins from rat liver autophagosomes.

    PubMed

    Øverbye, Anders; Fengsrud, Monica; Seglen, Per O

    2007-01-01

    Proteins associated with membranes from purified rat liver autophagosomes were separated by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis (zoom gels, pl 4-7 and 6-9), silver-stained and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Among >1,500 detectable protein spots, 58 (derived from 39 different known proteins) were at least twofold (and significantly) enriched in autophagosomal membranes relative to cytoplasmic membranes. All of these membrane-associated proteins were also present in the cytosol, many of them being truncated enzyme variants that would be expected to serve a binding rather than an enzymatic function. Eleven proteins were highly enriched (consistent with the theoretical maximum of 25x), corresponding to an exclusive membrane localization in the delimiting membrane of the autophagosome. Three of these were methyltransferases: betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (five variants); catechol O-methyltransferase (one phosphorylated and one unphosphorylated variant) and methionine adenosyltransferase, perhaps indicating that methylation/demethylation of membrane components could play a role in autophagy. A fourth highly enriched autophagosomal protein, phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein, is particularly interesting considering that the autophagic marker protein, LC3/ Atg8, is linked to autophagosomal membranes through its covalent conjugation with phosphatidylethanolamine (as the form LC3-II). LC3-II was not detectable on silver-stained 2D-gels, but could be shown by immunoblotting to be highly enriched in autophagosomal membranes. Other highly enriched proteins were heat shock cognate protein Hsc70 (one short and one long variant), peroxiredoxin 2, peroxiredoxin 6 (two variants), fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (one phosphorylated and one unphosphorylated variant), adenosine kinase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and selenium-binding protein 2. Hsc70, a chaperonin that plays an important role in the recognition and proteasomal degradation of aggregated

  15. Regulation of membrane associated protein kinase C activity by guanine nucleotide in rabbit peritoneal neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.K.; Devanney, J.F.

    1986-03-05

    Addition of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (0.1 ..mu..g/ml) or guanosine-5'-0-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP..gamma..S) (10..mu..M) to the membrane fraction from rabbit peritoneal neutrophils results in an increase of phosphorylation of several membrane proteins. To test whether membrane associated protein kinase C is involved in the activation, histone is added to the membrane as a substrate for protein kinase C. Phosphorylation of histone is determined by counting the gel pieces containing histone IIIS after separation from other membrane components by SDS-gel electrophoresis. In the presence of CaC12 (20 ..mu..M), GTP..gamma..S (10 ..mu..M) or PMA (0.1 ..mu..g/ml) stimulates the phosphorylation of histone IIIS (40% to 70% increase). To achieve this effect calcium is required for GTP..gamma..S but not for PMA. The effect of GTP..gamma..S but not PMA is inhibited in membranes obtained from cells pretreated with pertussis toxin. Membrane protein kinase C is solubilized with Triton X-100 (1%) and then applied to a DEAE-52 cellulose column chromatography. Two peaks of protein kinase C activity are observed. Peak one is eluted at 40 mM NaCl, peak two is eluted at 140 mM NaCl. The activity of peak one is stimulated with phosphatidylserine (PS) and PMA but not with PS and calcium. The activity of peak two is stimulated with either PS and PMA or PS and calcium. The results suggest that GTP binding protein is involved in the activation of membrane associated protein kinase C and the kinase may exist in two forms, calcium sensitive and calcium insensitive.

  16. Localization of Drosophila retinal degeneration B, a membrane- associated phosphatidylinositol transfer protein

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The Drosophila retinal degeneration B (rdgB) mutation causes abnormal photoreceptor response and light-enhanced retinal degeneration. Immunoblots using polyclonal anti-rdgB serum showed that rdgB is a 160- kD membrane protein. The antiserum localized the rdgB protein in photoreceptors, antennae, and regions of the Drosophila brain, indicating that the rdgB protein functions in many sensory and neuronal cells. In photoreceptors, the protein localized adjacent to the rhabdomeres, in the vicinity of the subrhabdomeric cisternae. The rdgB protein's amino-terminal 281 residues are > 40% identical to the rat brain phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PI-TP). A truncated rdgB protein, which contains only this amino-terminal domain, possesses a phosphatidylinositol transfer activity in vitro. The remaining 773 carboxyl terminal amino acids have additional functional domains. Nitrocellulose overlay experiments reveal that an acidic amino acid domain, adjacent to the PI transfer domain, binds 45Ca+2. Six hydrophobic segments are found in the middle of the putative translation product and likely function as membrane spanning domains. These results suggest that the rdgB protein, unlike the small soluble PI-TPs, is a membrane-associated PI-TP, which may be directly regulated by light-induced changes in intracellular calcium. PMID:8354691

  17. OCTOPUS, a polarly localised membrane-associated protein, regulates phloem differentiation entry in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Truernit, Elisabeth; Bauby, Hélène; Belcram, Katia; Barthélémy, Julien; Palauqui, Jean-Christophe

    2012-04-01

    Vascular development is embedded into the developmental context of plant organ differentiation and can be divided into the consecutive phases of vascular patterning and differentiation of specific vascular cell types (phloem and xylem). To date, only very few genetic determinants of phloem development are known. Here, we identify OCTOPUS (OPS) as a potentiator of phloem differentiation. OPS is a polarly localised membrane-associated protein that is initially expressed in provascular cells, and upon vascular cell type specification becomes restricted to the phloem cell lineage. OPS mutants display a reduction of cotyledon vascular pattern complexity and discontinuous phloem differentiation, whereas OPS overexpressers show accelerated progress of cotyledon vascular patterning and phloem differentiation. We propose that OPS participates in vascular differentiation by interpreting longitudinal signals that lead to the transformation of vascular initials into differentiating protophloem cells.

  18. The G protein-coupled receptor GPR31 promotes membrane association of KRAS.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbacher, Nicole; Tojal da Silva, Israel; Ramirez, Craig; Zhou, Yong; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Kuchay, Shafi; Shi, Jie; Thomas, Susan; Pagano, Michele; Hancock, John F; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Philips, Mark R

    2017-08-07

    The product of the KRAS oncogene, KRAS4B, promotes tumor growth when associated with the plasma membrane (PM). PM association is mediated, in part, by farnesylation of KRAS4B, but trafficking of nascent KRAS4B to the PM is incompletely understood. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify genes required for KRAS4B membrane association and identified a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR31. GPR31 associated with KRAS4B on cellular membranes in a farnesylation-dependent fashion, and retention of GPR31 on the endoplasmic reticulum inhibited delivery of KRAS4B to the PM. Silencing of GPR31 expression partially mislocalized KRAS4B, slowed the growth of KRAS-dependent tumor cells, and blocked KRAS-stimulated macropinocytosis. Our data suggest that GPR31 acts as a secretory pathway chaperone for KRAS4B. © 2017 Fehrenbacher et al.

  19. The role of myristoylation in the membrane association of the Lassa virus matrix protein Z

    PubMed Central

    Strecker, Thomas; Maisa, Anna; Daffis, Stephane; Eichler, Robert; Lenz, Oliver; Garten, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The Z protein is the matrix protein of arenaviruses and has been identified as the main driving force for budding. Both LCMV and Lassa virus Z proteins bud from cells in the absence of other viral proteins as enveloped virus-like particles. Z accumulates near the inner surface of the plasma membrane where budding takes place. Furthermore, biochemical data have shown that Z is strongly membrane associated. The primary sequence of Z lacks a typical transmembrane domain and until now it is not understood by which mechanism Z is able to interact with cellular membranes. In this report, we analyzed the role of N-terminal myristoylation for the membrane binding of Lassa virus Z. We show that disruption of the N-terminal myristoylation signal by substituting the N-terminal glycine with alanine (Z-G2A mutant) resulted in a significant reduction of Z protein association with cellular membranes. Furthermore, removal of the myristoylation site resulted in a relocalization of Z from a punctuate distribution to a more diffuse cellular distribution pattern. Finally, treatment of Lassa virus-infected cells with various myristoylation inhibitors drastically reduced efficient Lassa virus replication. Our data indicate that myristoylation of Z is critical for its binding ability to lipid membranes and thus, for effective virus budding. PMID:17083745

  20. Binding of lysozyme to phospholipid bilayers: evidence for protein aggregation upon membrane association.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Galyna P; Ioffe, Valeriya M; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2007-07-01

    Biological functions of lysozyme, including its antimicrobial, antitumor, and immune-modulatory activities have been suggested to be largely determined by the lipid binding properties of this protein. To gain further insight into these interactions on a molecular level the association of lysozyme to liposomes composed of either 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine or its mixtures with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-glycerol, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-phosphatidylserine, or bovine heart cardiolipin was studied by a combination of fluorescence techniques. The characteristics of the adsorption of lysozyme to lipid bilayers were investigated using fluorescein 5'-isothiocyanate labeled protein, responding to membrane association by a decrease in fluorescence. Upon increasing the content of anionic phospholipids in lipid vesicles, the binding isotherms changed from Langmuir-like to sigmoidal. Using adsorption models based on scaled particle and double-layer theories, this finding was rationalized in terms of self-association of the membrane-bound protein. The extent of quenching of lysozyme tryptophan fluorescence by acrylamide decreased upon membrane binding, revealing a conformational transition for the protein upon its surface association, resulting in a diminished access of the fluorophore to the aqueous phase. Steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of bilayer-incorporated probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was measured at varying lipid-to-protein molar ratios. Lysozyme was found to increase acyl-chain order for liposomes with the content of acidic phospholipid exceeding 10 mol %. Both electrostatic and hydrophobic protein-lipid interactions can be concluded to modulate the aggregation behavior of lysozyme when bound to lipid bilayers. Modulation of lysozyme aggregation propensity by membrane binding may have important implications for protein fibrillogenesis in vivo. Disruption of membrane integrity by the aggregated

  1. Binding of Lysozyme to Phospholipid Bilayers: Evidence for Protein Aggregation upon Membrane Association

    PubMed Central

    Gorbenko, Galyna P.; Ioffe, Valeriya M.; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.

    2007-01-01

    Biological functions of lysozyme, including its antimicrobial, antitumor, and immune-modulatory activities have been suggested to be largely determined by the lipid binding properties of this protein. To gain further insight into these interactions on a molecular level the association of lysozyme to liposomes composed of either 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine or its mixtures with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-glycerol, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-phosphatidylserine, or bovine heart cardiolipin was studied by a combination of fluorescence techniques. The characteristics of the adsorption of lysozyme to lipid bilayers were investigated using fluorescein 5′-isothiocyanate labeled protein, responding to membrane association by a decrease in fluorescence. Upon increasing the content of anionic phospholipids in lipid vesicles, the binding isotherms changed from Langmuir-like to sigmoidal. Using adsorption models based on scaled particle and double-layer theories, this finding was rationalized in terms of self-association of the membrane-bound protein. The extent of quenching of lysozyme tryptophan fluorescence by acrylamide decreased upon membrane binding, revealing a conformational transition for the protein upon its surface association, resulting in a diminished access of the fluorophore to the aqueous phase. Steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of bilayer-incorporated probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was measured at varying lipid-to-protein molar ratios. Lysozyme was found to increase acyl-chain order for liposomes with the content of acidic phospholipid exceeding 10 mol %. Both electrostatic and hydrophobic protein-lipid interactions can be concluded to modulate the aggregation behavior of lysozyme when bound to lipid bilayers. Modulation of lysozyme aggregation propensity by membrane binding may have important implications for protein fibrillogenesis in vivo. Disruption of membrane integrity by the aggregated

  2. Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP) Regulates Melanosomal pH and Influences Tyrosinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Yang, Seung Ha; Shin, Misun; Nam, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Dong-Hwa; Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ai-Young; Hwang, Daehee; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2015-01-01

    The SLC45A2 gene encodes a Membrane-Associated Transporter Protein (MATP). Mutations of this gene cause oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4). However, the molecular mechanism of its action in melanogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the role of MATP in melanin production. The SLC45A2 gene is highly enriched in human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines, and its protein, MATP, is located in melanosomes. The knockdown of MATP using siRNAs reduced melanin content and tyrosinase activity without any morphological change in melanosomes or the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins. Interestingly, the knockdown of MATP significantly lowered the melanosomal pH, as verified through DAMP analysis, suggesting that MATP regulates melanosomal pH and therefore affects tyrosinase activity. Finally, we found that the reduction of tyrosinase activity associated with the knockdown of MATP was readily recovered by copper treatment in the in vitro L-DOPA oxidase activity assay of tyrosinase. Considering that copper is an important element for tyrosinase activity and that its binding to tyrosinase depends on melanosomal pH, MATP may play an important role in regulating tyrosinase activity via controlling melanosomal pH. PMID:26057890

  3. FRAP Analysis of Membrane-Associated Proteins: Lateral Diffusion and Membrane-Cytoplasmic Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Goehring, Nathan W.; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Hyman, Anthony A.; Grill, Stephan W.

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining quantitative kinetic parameters from fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments generally requires a theoretical analysis of protein mobility and appropriate solutions for FRAP recovery derived for a given geometry. Here we provide a treatment of FRAP recovery for a molecule undergoing a combined process of reversible membrane association and lateral diffusion on the plasma membrane for two commonly used bleach geometries: stripes, and boxes. Such analysis is complicated by the fact that diffusion of a molecule during photobleaching can lead to broadening of the bleach area, resulting in significant deviations of the actual bleach shape from the desired bleach geometry, which creates difficulty in accurately measuring kinetic parameters. Here we overcome the problem of deviations between actual and idealized bleach geometries by parameterizing, more accurately, the initial postbleach state. This allows for reconstruction of an accurate and analytically tractable approximation of the actual fluorescence distribution. Through simulated FRAP experiments, we demonstrate that this method can be used to accurately measure a broad range of combinations of diffusion constants and exchange rates. Use of this method to analyze the plextrin homology domain of PLC-δ1 in Caenorhabditis elegans results in quantitative agreement with prior analysis of this domain in other cells using other methods. Because of the flexibility, relative ease of implementation, and its use of standard, easily obtainable bleach geometries, this method should be broadly applicable to investigation of protein dynamics at the plasma membrane. PMID:20959084

  4. Okadaic acid-induced inhibition of B-50 dephosphorylation by presynaptic membrane-associated protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Han, Y F; Dokas, L A

    1991-10-01

    The neuronal tissue-specific protein kinase C (PKC) substrate B-50 can be dephosphorylated by endogenous protein phosphatases (PPs) in synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs). The present study characterizes membrane-associated B-50 phosphatase activity by using okadaic acid (OA) and purified 32P-labeled substrates. At a low concentration of [gamma-32P]ATP, PKC-mediated [32P]phosphate incorporation into B-50 in SPMs reached a maximal value at 30 s, followed by dephosphorylation. OA, added 30 s after the initiation of phosphorylation, partially prevented the dephosphorylation of B-50 at 2 nM, a dose that inhibits PP-2A. At the higher concentration of 1 microM, a dose of OA that inhibits PP-1 as well as PP-2A, a nearly complete blockade of B-50 dephosphorylation was seen. Heat-stable PP inhibitor-2 (I-2) also inhibited dephosphorylation of B-50. The effects of OA and I-2 on B-50 phosphatase activity were additive. Endogenous PP-1- and PP-2A-like activities in SPMs were also demonstrated by their capabilities of dephosphorylating [32P]phosphorylase a and [32P]casein. With these exogenous substrates, sensitivities of the membrane-bound phosphatases to OA and I-2 were found to be similar to those of purified forms of these enzymes. These results indicate that PP-1- and PP-2A-like enzymes are the major B-50 phosphatases in SPMs.

  5. Impaired Geranylgeranyltransferase-I Regulation Reduces Membrane-Associated Rho-Protein Levels in Aged Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Afshordel, Sarah; Wood, W. Gibson; Igbavboa, Urule; Muller, Walter E.; Eckert, Gunter P.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic impairment rather than neuronal loss may be the leading cause of cognitive dysfunction in brain aging. Certain small Rho-GTPases are involved in synaptic plasticity, and their dysfunction is associated with brain aging and neurodegeneration. Rho-GTPases undergo prenylation by attachment of geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP) catalyzed by GGTase-I. We examined age-related changes in the abundance of Rho- and Rab proteins in membrane and cytosolic fractions as well as of GGTase-I in brain tissue of 3 and 23 mo old C57BL/6 mice. We report a shift in the cellular localization of Rho-GTPases towards reduced levels of membrane-associated and enhanced cytosolic levels of those proteins in aged mouse brain as compared with younger mice. The age-related reduction of membrane-associated Rho-proteins was associated with a reduction in GGTase-I levels that regulates binding of GGPP to Rho-GTPases. Proteins prenylated by GGTase-II were not reduced in aged brain indicating a specific targeting of GGTase-I in the aged brain. Inhibition of GGTase-I in vitro modeled the effects of aging we observed in vivo. We demonstrate for the first time a decrease of membrane-associated Rho proteins in aged brain in association with down-regulation of GGTase-I. This down-regulation could be one of the mechanisms causing age-related weakening of synaptic plasticity. PMID:24428713

  6. Ric-8 Proteins Are Molecular Chaperones That Direct Nascent G Protein α Subunit Membrane Association

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Meital; Pinter, Mary E.; Wright, Forrest A.; Chan, PuiYee; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Tall, Gregory G.

    2013-01-01

    Ric-8A (resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8A) and Ric-8B are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that enhance different heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein) signaling pathways by unknown mechanisms. Because transgenic disruption of Ric-8A or Ric-8B in mice caused early embryonic lethality, we derived viable Ric-8A– or Ric-8B–deleted embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from blastocysts of these mice. We observed pleiotropic G protein signaling defects in Ric-8A−/− ES cells, which resulted from reduced steady-state amounts of Gαi, Gαq, and Gα13 proteins to <5% of those of wild-type cells. The amounts of Gαs and total Gβ protein were partially reduced in Ric-8A−/− cells compared to those in wild-type cells, and only the amount of Gαs was reduced substantially in Ric-8B−/− cells. The abundances of mRNAs encoding the G protein α subunits were largely unchanged by loss of Ric-8A or Ric-8B. The plasma membrane residence of G proteins persisted in the absence of Ric-8 but was markedly reduced compared to that in wild-type cells. Endogenous Gαi and Gαq were efficiently translated in Ric-8A−/− cells but integrated into endomembranes poorly; however, the reduced amounts of G protein α subunits that reached the membrane still bound to nascent Gβγ. Finally, Gαi, Gαq, and Gβ1 proteins exhibited accelerated rates of degradation in Ric-8A−/− cells compared to those in wild-type cells. Together, these data suggest that Ric-8 proteins are molecular chaperones required for the initial association of nascent Gα subunits with cellular membranes. PMID:22114146

  7. Plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) from Jurkat cells contain STIM1 protein is PAM involved in the capacitative calcium entry?

    PubMed

    Kozieł, Katarzyna; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Onopiuk, Marta; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Wierzbicka, Katarzyna; Wilczyński, Grzegorz; Pinton, Paolo; Duszyński, Jerzy; Zabłocki, Krzysztof; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2009-12-01

    A proper cooperation between the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria seems to be essential for numerous cellular processes involved in Ca(2+) signalling and maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis. A presence of microsomal and mitochondrial proteins together with those characteristic for the plasma membrane in the fraction of the plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) indicates a formation of stabile interactions between these three structures. We isolated the plasma membrane associated membranes from Jurkat cells and found its significant enrichment in the plasma membrane markers including plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and CD3 as well as sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. In addition, two proteins involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, Orai1 located in the plasma membrane and an endoplasmic reticulum protein STIM1 were found in this fraction. Furthermore, we observed a rearrangement of STIM1-containing protein complexes isolated from Jurkat cells undergoing stimulation by thapsigargin. We suggest that the inter-membrane compartment composed of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum, and isolated as a stabile plasma membrane associated membranes fraction, might be involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and their formation and rebuilding have an important regulatory role in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  8. Membrane association of PspA depends on activation of the phage-shock-protein response in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Saori; Gueguen, Erwan; Horstman, N Kaye; Darwin, Andrew J

    2010-10-01

    Regulation of the bacterial phage-shock-protein (Psp) system involves communication between integral (PspBC) and peripheral (PspA) cytoplasmic membrane proteins and a soluble transcriptional activator (PspF). In this study protein subcellular localization studies were used to distinguish between spatial models for this putative signal transduction pathway in Yersinia enterocolitica. In non-inducing conditions PspA and PspF were almost exclusively in the soluble fraction, consistent with them forming an inhibitory complex in the cytoplasm. However, upon induction PspA, but not PspF, mainly associated with the membrane fraction. This membrane association was dependent on PspBC but independent of increased PspA concentration. Analysis of psp null, overexpression and altered function mutants further supported a model where PspA is predominantly membrane associated only when the system is induced. Activation of the Psp system normally leads to a large increase in PspA concentration and we found that this provided a second mechanism for its membrane association, which did not require PspBC. These data suggest that basal PspFABC protein levels constitute a regulatory switch that moves some PspA to the membrane when an inducing trigger is encountered. Once this switch is activated PspA concentration increases, which might then allow it to directly contact the membrane for its physiological function.

  9. Membrane association of PspA depends on activation of the phage-shock-protein response in Yersinia enterocolitica

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Saori; Gueguen, Erwan; Horstman, N. Kaye; Darwin, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Regulation of the bacterial phage-shock-protein (Psp) system involves communication between integral (PspBC) and peripheral (PspA) cytoplasmic membrane proteins and a soluble transcriptional activator (PspF). In this study protein subcellular localization studies were used to distinguish between spatial models for this putative signal transduction pathway in Yersinia enterocolitica. In non-inducing conditions PspA and PspF were almost exclusively in the soluble fraction, consistent with them forming an inhibitory complex in the cytoplasm. However, upon induction PspA, but not PspF, mainly associated with the membrane fraction. This membrane association was dependent on PspBC but independent of increased PspA concentration. Analysis of psp null, overexpression and altered function mutants further supported a model where PspA is predominantly membrane associated only when the system is induced. Activation of the Psp system normally leads to a large increase in PspA concentration and we found that this provided a second mechanism for its membrane association, which did not require PspBC. These data suggest that basal PspFABC protein levels constitute a regulatory switch that moves some PspA to the membrane when an inducing trigger is encountered. Once this switch is activated PspA concentration increases, which might then allow it to directly contact the membrane for its physiological function. PMID:20979344

  10. Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK), a novel membrane-associated, ankyrin repeat-containing protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Haider, K; Ponda, M; Cariappa, A; Rowitch, D; Pillai, S

    2001-06-15

    A novel murine membrane-associated protein kinase, PKK (protein kinase C-associated kinase), was cloned on the basis of its physical association with protein kinase Cbeta (PKCbeta). The regulated expression of PKK in mouse embryos is consistent with a role for this kinase in early embryogenesis. The human homolog of PKK has over 90% identity to its murine counterpart, has been localized to chromosome 21q22.3, and is identical to the PKCdelta-interacting kinase, DIK (Bahr, C., Rohwer, A., Stempka, L., Rincke, G., Marks, F., and Gschwendt, M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36350-36357). PKK comprises an N-terminal kinase domain and a C-terminal region containing 11 ankyrin repeats. PKK exhibits protein kinase activity in vitro and associates with cellular membranes. PKK exists in three discernible forms at steady state: an underphosphorylated form of 100 kDa; a soluble, cytosolic, phosphorylated form of 110 kDa; and a phosphorylated, detergent-insoluble form of 112 kDa. PKK is initially synthesized as an underphosphorylated soluble 100-kDa protein that is quantitatively converted to a detergent-soluble 110-kDa form. This conversion requires an active catalytic domain. Although PKK physically associates with PKCbeta, it does not phosphorylate this PKC isoform. However, PKK itself may be phosphorylated by PKCbeta. PKK represents a developmentally regulated protein kinase that can associate with membranes. The functional significance of its association with PKCbeta remains to be ascertained.

  11. Brain transcriptome-wide screen for HIV-1 Nef protein interaction partners reveals various membrane-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Kammula, Ellen C; Mötter, Jessica; Gorgels, Alexandra; Jonas, Esther; Hoffmann, Silke; Willbold, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 Nef protein contributes essentially to the pathology of AIDS by a variety of protein-protein-interactions within the host cell. The versatile functionality of Nef is partially attributed to different conformational states and posttranslational modifications, such as myristoylation. Up to now, many interaction partners of Nef have been identified using classical yeast two-hybrid screens. Such screens rely on transcriptional activation of reporter genes in the nucleus to detect interactions. Thus, the identification of Nef interaction partners that are integral membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins or other proteins that do not translocate into the nucleus is hampered. In the present study, a split-ubiquitin based yeast two-hybrid screen was used to identify novel membrane-localized interaction partners of Nef. More than 80% of the hereby identified interaction partners of Nef are transmembrane proteins. The identified hits are GPM6B, GPM6A, BAP31, TSPAN7, CYB5B, CD320/TCblR, VSIG4, PMEPA1, OCIAD1, ITGB1, CHN1, PH4, CLDN10, HSPA9, APR-3, PEBP1 and B3GNT, which are involved in diverse cellular processes like signaling, apoptosis, neurogenesis, cell adhesion and protein trafficking or quality control. For a subfraction of the hereby identified proteins we present data supporting their direct interaction with HIV-1 Nef. We discuss the results with respect to many phenotypes observed in HIV infected cells and patients. The identified Nef interaction partners may help to further elucidate the molecular basis of HIV-related diseases.

  12. Heterodimeric Capping Protein from Arabidopsis Is a Membrane-Associated, Actin-Binding Protein1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C.; Wang, Xia; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Huang, Shanjin; Szymanski, Daniel B.; Staiger, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a major regulator of cell morphogenesis and responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. The organization and activities of the cytoskeleton are choreographed by hundreds of accessory proteins. Many actin-binding proteins are thought to be stimulus-response regulators that bind to signaling phospholipids and change their activity upon lipid binding. Whether these proteins associate with and/or are regulated by signaling lipids in plant cells remains poorly understood. Heterodimeric capping protein (CP) is a conserved and ubiquitous regulator of actin dynamics. It binds to the barbed end of filaments with high affinity and modulates filament assembly and disassembly reactions in vitro. Direct interaction of CP with phospholipids, including phosphatidic acid, results in uncapping of filament ends in vitro. Live-cell imaging and reverse-genetic analyses of cp mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) recently provided compelling support for a model in which CP activity is negatively regulated by phosphatidic acid in vivo. Here, we used complementary biochemical, subcellular fractionation, and immunofluorescence microscopy approaches to elucidate CP-membrane association. We found that CP is moderately abundant in Arabidopsis tissues and present in a microsomal membrane fraction. Sucrose density gradient separation and immunoblotting with known compartment markers were used to demonstrate that CP is enriched on membrane-bound organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. This association could facilitate cross talk between the actin cytoskeleton and a wide spectrum of essential cellular functions such as organelle motility and signal transduction. PMID:25201878

  13. Potassium-dependent changes in the expression of membrane-associated proteins in barley roots

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, M.; Kulpa, J.; Siddiqi, M.Y.; Glass, A.D.M. )

    1990-04-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Halcyon) seedlings which has been grown in full strength complete inorganic nutrient media (containing 6 millimolar K{sup +}) had high internal K{sup +} concentrations and low values of K{sup +} ({sup 86}Rb{sup +}) influx when influx was measured from solutions containing 100 micromolar K{sup +}. Transfer of these plants to solutions lacking K{sup +} resulted in significant reductions of root and shoot K{sup +} concentrations and values of K{sup +} ({sup 86}Rb{sup +}) influx increased by greater than 10-fold within 3 days. When plants treated in this way were returned to complete solutions, containing K{sup +}, the changes induced by K{sup +} deprivation were reversed. Parallel studies of microsomal membranes by means of SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the expression of a group of polypeptides increased or decreased in parallel with changes of K{sup +} ({sup 86}Rb{sup +}) influx. Most prominent of these were 45 and 34 kilodalton polypeptides which specifically responded to K{sup +} status of the barley plants; their expression was not enhanced by N or P deprivation. The 45 kilodalton polypeptide was susceptible to degradation by a membrane associated protease when microsomes were washing in buffer containing 0.2 millimolar PMSF. This loss was prevented by increasing PMSF concentration to 2 millimolar.

  14. Membrane-Associated RING-CH Proteins Associate with Bap31 and Target CD81 and CD44 to Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bartee, Eric; Eyster, Craig A.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Mansouri, Mandana; Donaldson, Julie G.; Früh, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) proteins represent a family of transmembrane ubiquitin ligases modulating intracellular trafficking and turnover of transmembrane protein targets. While homologous proteins encoded by gamma-2 herpesviruses and leporipoxviruses have been studied extensively, limited information is available regarding the physiological targets of cellular MARCH proteins. To identify host cell proteins targeted by the human MARCH-VIII ubiquitin ligase we used stable isotope labeling of amino-acids in cell culture (SILAC) to monitor MARCH-dependent changes in the membrane proteomes of human fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, we observed that MARCH-VIII reduced the surface expression of Bap31, a chaperone that predominantly resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We demonstrate that Bap31 associates with the transmembrane domains of several MARCH proteins and controls intracellular transport of MARCH proteins. In addition, we observed that MARCH-VIII reduced the surface expression of the hyaluronic acid-receptor CD44 and both MARCH-VIII and MARCH-IV sequestered the tetraspanin CD81 in endo-lysosomal vesicles. Moreover, gene knockdown of MARCH-IV increased surface levels of endogenous CD81 suggesting a constitutive involvement of this family of ubiquitin ligases in the turnover of tetraspanins. Our data thus suggest a role of MARCH-VIII and MARCH-IV in the regulated turnover of CD81 and CD44, two ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional proteins. PMID:21151997

  15. Membrane-Associated RING-CH proteins associate with Bap31 and target CD81 and CD44 to lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Bartee, Eric; Eyster, Craig A; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Mansouri, Mandana; Donaldson, Julie G; Früh, Klaus

    2010-12-02

    Membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) proteins represent a family of transmembrane ubiquitin ligases modulating intracellular trafficking and turnover of transmembrane protein targets. While homologous proteins encoded by gamma-2 herpesviruses and leporipoxviruses have been studied extensively, limited information is available regarding the physiological targets of cellular MARCH proteins. To identify host cell proteins targeted by the human MARCH-VIII ubiquitin ligase we used stable isotope labeling of amino-acids in cell culture (SILAC) to monitor MARCH-dependent changes in the membrane proteomes of human fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, we observed that MARCH-VIII reduced the surface expression of Bap31, a chaperone that predominantly resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We demonstrate that Bap31 associates with the transmembrane domains of several MARCH proteins and controls intracellular transport of MARCH proteins. In addition, we observed that MARCH-VIII reduced the surface expression of the hyaluronic acid-receptor CD44 and both MARCH-VIII and MARCH-IV sequestered the tetraspanin CD81 in endo-lysosomal vesicles. Moreover, gene knockdown of MARCH-IV increased surface levels of endogenous CD81 suggesting a constitutive involvement of this family of ubiquitin ligases in the turnover of tetraspanins. Our data thus suggest a role of MARCH-VIII and MARCH-IV in the regulated turnover of CD81 and CD44, two ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional proteins.

  16. Changes in the Membrane-Associated Proteins of Exosomes Released from Human Macrophages after Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Gustavo; Wolfe, Lisa M.; Kruh-Garcia, Nicole A.; Dobos, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease worldwide. One obstacle hindering the elimination of TB is our lack of understanding of host-pathogen interactions. Exosomes, naturally loaded with microbial molecules, are circulating markers of TB. Changes in the host protein composition of exosomes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected cells have not been described, can contribute to our understanding of the disease process, and serve as a direct source of biomarkers or as capture targets to enrich for exosomes containing microbial molecules. Here, the protein composition of exosomes from Mtb-infected and uninfected THP-1-derived macrophages was evaluated by tandem-mass-spectrometry and differences in protein abundances were assessed. Our results show that infection with Mtb leads to significant changes in the protein composition of exosomes. Specifically, 41 proteins were significantly more abundant in exosomes from Mtb-infected cells; 63% of these were predicted to be membrane associated. Thus, we used a novel biotinylation strategy to verify protein localization, and confirmed the localization of some of these proteins in the exosomal membrane. Our findings reveal another important scenario where Mtb could be influencing changes in host cells that unveil new features of the host-pathogen interaction and may also be exploited as a source of biomarkers for TB. PMID:27897233

  17. New Method for Measuring the Anchoring Energy of Strongly-Bound Membrane-Associated Proteins [Method for measuring the anchoring energy of strongly-bound membrane-associated proteins].

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Michael S.; La Bauve, Elisa; Vernon, Briana C.; Ye, Dongmei; Rogers, David M.; Siegrist, Cathryn M.; Carson, Bryan; Rempe, Susan L.; Zheng, Aihua; Kielian, Margaret; Schreve, Andrew P.

    2016-02-01

    Here, we describe a new method to measure the activation energy required to remove a strongly-bound membrane-associated protein from a lipid membrane (anchoring energy). It is based on measuring the rate of release of a liposome-bound protein during centrifugation on a sucrose gradient as a function of time and temperature. The method was used to determine anchoring energy for the soluble dengue virus envelope protein (sE) strongly bound to 80:20 POPC:POPG liposomes at pH 5.5. We also measured the binding energy of sE at the same pH for the initial, predominantly reversible, phase of binding to a 70:30 PC:PG lipid bilayer. The anchoring energy (37 +/- 1.7 kcal/mol, 20% PG) was found to be much larger than the binding energy (7.8 +/- 0.3 kcal/mol for 30% PG, or est. 7.0 kcal/mol for 20% PG). This is consistent with data showing that free sE is a monomer at pH 5.5, but assembles into trimers after associating with membranes. But, trimerization alone is insufficient to account for the observed difference in energies, and we conclude that some energy dissipation occurs during the release process. This new method to determine anchoring energy should be useful to understand the complex interactions of integral monotopic proteins and strongly-bound peripheral membrane proteins with lipid membranes.

  18. 5-Lipoxygenase-activating protein rescues activity of 5-lipoxygenase mutations that delay nuclear membrane association and disrupt product formation.

    PubMed

    Gerstmeier, Jana; Newcomer, Marcia E; Dennhardt, Sophie; Romp, Erik; Fischer, Jana; Werz, Oliver; Garscha, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are proinflammatory lipid mediators formed from arachidonic acid in a 2-step reaction catalyzed by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) requiring the formation of 5-HPETE [5(S)-hydroperoxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid] and its subsequent transformation to LTA4 5-LOX is thought to receive arachidonic acid from the nuclear membrane-embedded 5-LOX-activating protein (FLAP). The crystal structure of 5-LOX revealed an active site concealed by F177 and Y181 (FY cork). We examined the influence of the FY cork on 5-LOX activity and membrane binding in HEK293 cells in the absence and presence of FLAP. Uncapping the 5-LOX active site by mutation of F177 and/or Y181 to alanine (5-LOX-F177A, 5-LOX-Y181A, 5-LOX-F177/Y181A) resulted in delayed and diminished 5-LOX membrane association in A23187-stimulated cells. For 5-LOX-F177A and 5-LOX-F177/Y181A, formation of 5-LOX products was dramatically reduced relative to 5-LOX-wild type (wt). Strikingly, coexpression of FLAP in A23187-activated HEK293 cells effectively restored formation of 5-H(p)ETE (5-hydroxy- and 5-peroxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid) by these same 5-LOX mutants (≈60-70% 5-LOX-wt levels) but not of LTA4 hydrolysis products. Yet 5-LOX-Y181A generated 5-H(p)ETE at levels comparable to 5-LOX-wt but reduced LTA4 hydrolysis products. Coexpression of FLAP partially restored LTA4 hydrolysis product formation by 5-LOX-Y181A. Together, the data suggest that the concealed FY cork impacts membrane association and that FLAP may help shield an uncapped active site.-Gerstmeier, J., Newcomer, M. E., Dennhardt, S., Romp, E., Fischer, J., Werz, O., Garscha, U. 5-Lipoxygenase-activating protein rescues activity of 5-lipoxygenase mutations that delay nuclear membrane association and disrupt product formation. © FASEB.

  19. Effect of Multimerization on Membrane Association of Rous Sarcoma Virus and HIV-1 Matrix Domain Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Robert A.; Kamynina, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In most retroviruses, plasma membrane (PM) association of the Gag structural protein is a critical step in viral assembly, relying in part on interaction between the highly basic Gag MA domain and the negatively charged inner leaflet of the PM. Assembly is thought to begin with Gag dimerization followed by multimerization, resulting in a hexameric lattice. To directly address the role of multimerization in membrane binding, we fused the MA domains of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and HIV-1 to the chemically inducible dimerization domain FK506-binding protein (FKBP) or to the hexameric protein CcmK4 from cyanobacteria. The cellular localization of the resulting green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged chimeric proteins was examined by fluorescence imaging, and the association of the proteins with liposomes was quantified by flotation in sucrose gradients, following synthesis in a reticulocyte extract or as purified proteins. Four lipid compositions were tested, representative of liposomes commonly reported in flotation experiments. By themselves, GFP-tagged RSV and HIV-1 MA proteins were largely cytoplasmic, but both hexamerized proteins were highly concentrated at the PM. Dimerization led to partial PM localization for HIV-1 MA. These in vivo effects of multimerization were reproduced in vitro. In flotation analyses, the intact RSV and HIV-1 Gag proteins were more similar to multimerized MA than to monomeric MA. RNA is reported to compete with acidic liposomes for HIV-1 Gag binding, and thus we also examined the effects of RNase treatment or tRNA addition on flotation. tRNA competed with liposomes in the case of some but not all lipid compositions and ionic strengths. Taken together, our results further underpin the model that multimerization is critical for PM association of retroviral Gag proteins. In addition, they suggest that the modulation of membrane binding by RNA, as previously reported for HIV-1, may not hold for RSV. PMID:24109216

  20. Role of plasma membrane-associated AKAPs for the regulation of cardiac IK1 current by protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Seyler, Claudia; Scherer, Daniel; Köpple, Christoph; Kulzer, Martin; Korkmaz, Sevil; Xynogalos, Panagiotis; Thomas, Dierk; Kaya, Ziya; Scholz, Eberhard; Backs, Johannes; Karle, Christoph; Katus, Hugo A; Zitron, Edgar

    2017-05-01

    The cardiac IK1 current stabilizes the resting membrane potential of cardiomyocytes. Protein kinase A (PKA) induces an inhibition of IK1 current which strongly promotes focal arrhythmogenesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation have only partially been elucidated yet. Furthermore, the role of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) in this regulation has not been examined to date. The objective of this project was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of IK1 by PKA and to identify novel molecular targets for antiarrhythmic therapy downstream β-adrenoreceptors. Patch clamp and voltage clamp experiments were used to record currents and co-immunoprecipitation, and co-localization experiments were performed to show spatial and functional coupling. Activation of PKA inhibited IK1 current in rat cardiomyocytes. This regulation was markedly attenuated by disrupting PKA-binding to AKAPs with the peptide inhibitor AKAP-IS. We observed functional and spatial coupling of the plasma membrane-associated AKAP15 and AKAP79 to Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channel subunits, but not to Kir2.3 channels. In contrast, AKAPyotiao had no functional effect on the PKA regulation of Kir channels. AKAP15 and AKAP79 co-immunoprecipitated with and co-localized to Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channel subunits in ventricular cardiomyocytes. In this study, we provide evidence for coupling of cardiac Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 subunits with the plasma membrane-bound AKAPs 15 and 79. Cardiac membrane-associated AKAPs are a functionally essential part of the regulatory cascade determining IK1 current function and may be novel molecular targets for antiarrhythmic therapy downstream from β-adrenoreceptors.

  1. The mechanism of membrane-associated steps in tail-anchored protein insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Mariappan, Malaiyalam; Mateja, Agnieszka; Dobosz, Malgorzata; Bove, Elia; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Keenan, Robert J.

    2012-06-19

    Tail-anchored (TA) membrane proteins destined for the endoplasmic reticulum are chaperoned by cytosolic targeting factors that deliver them to a membrane receptor for insertion. Although a basic framework for TA protein recognition is now emerging, the decisive targeting and membrane insertion steps are not understood. Here we reconstitute the TA protein insertion cycle with purified components, present crystal structures of key complexes between these components and perform mutational analyses based on the structures. We show that a committed targeting complex, formed by a TA protein bound to the chaperone ATPase Get3, is initially recruited to the membrane through an interaction with Get2. Once the targeting complex has been recruited, Get1 interacts with Get3 to drive TA protein release in an ATPase-dependent reaction. After releasing its TA protein cargo, the now-vacant Get3 recycles back to the cytosol concomitant with ATP binding. This work provides a detailed structural and mechanistic framework for the minimal TA protein insertion cycle.

  2. Protein–Protein and Protein–Membrane Associations in the Lignin Pathway[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bassard, Jean-Etienne; Richert, Ludovic; Geerinck, Jan; Renault, Hugues; Duval, Frédéric; Ullmann, Pascaline; Schmitt, Martine; Meyer, Etienne; Mutterer, Jerôme; Boerjan, Wout; De Jaeger, Geert; Mely, Yves; Goossens, Alain; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular organization of enzymes is proposed to orchestrate metabolic complexity and help channel intermediates in different pathways. Phenylpropanoid metabolism has to direct up to 30% of the carbon fixed by plants to the biosynthesis of lignin precursors. Effective coupling of the enzymes in the pathway thus seems to be required. Subcellular localization, mobility, protein–protein, and protein–membrane interactions of four consecutive enzymes around the main branch point leading to lignin precursors was investigated in leaf tissues of Nicotiana benthamiana and cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. CYP73A5 and CYP98A3, the two Arabidopsis cytochrome P450s (P450s) catalyzing para- and meta-hydroxylations of the phenolic ring of monolignols were found to colocalize in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and to form homo- and heteromers. They moved along with the fast remodeling plant ER, but their lateral diffusion on the ER surface was restricted, likely due to association with other ER proteins. The connecting soluble enzyme hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT), was found partially associated with the ER. Both HCT and the 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase relocalized closer to the membrane upon P450 expression. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy supports P450 colocalization and interaction with the soluble proteins, enhanced by the expression of the partner proteins. Protein relocalization was further enhanced in tissues undergoing wound repair. CYP98A3 was the most effective in driving protein association. PMID:23175744

  3. Z-scan fluorescence profile deconvolution of cytosolic and membrane-associated protein populations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth M; Hennen, Jared; Chen, Yan; Mueller, Joachim D

    2015-07-01

    This study introduces a technique that characterizes the spatial distribution of peripheral membrane proteins that associate reversibly with the plasma membrane. An axial scan through the cell generates a z-scan intensity profile of a fluorescently labeled peripheral membrane protein. This profile is analytically separated into membrane and cytoplasmic components by accounting for both the cell geometry and the point spread function. We experimentally validated the technique and characterized both the resolvability and stability of z-scan measurements. Furthermore, using the cellular brightness of green fluorescent protein, we were able to convert the fluorescence intensities into concentrations at the membrane and in the cytoplasm. We applied the technique to study the translocation of the pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C delta 1 labeled with green fluorescent protein on ionomycin treatment. Analysis of the z-scan fluorescence profiles revealed protein-specific cell height changes and allowed for comparison between the observed fluorescence changes and predictions based on the cellular surface area-to-volume ratio. The quantitative capability of z-scan fluorescence profile deconvolution offers opportunities for investigating peripheral membrane proteins in the living cell that were previously not accessible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Membrane-associated protein kinase activities in the developing mesocarp of grape berry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuan-Yue; Duan, Chang-Qing; Liang, Xiao-E; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2004-01-01

    Fruit development is a process involving various signals and gene expression. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases is known to play a key role in eukaryotic cell signalling and so may be involved in the regulation of fruit development. Using the method of exogenous substrate phosphorylation, we characterised the calcium-dependent and calmodulin-independent protein kinase (CDPK) activity and the myelin basic protein (MBP)-phosphoralating activity that could be due to a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-like activity in the developing mesocarp of grape berry. The CDPK activity was shown to be predominantly localised in the plasma membrane, while the MAPK-like activity was predominantly associated with endomembranes. The assays of bivalent cation requirement showed that Mn2+ could to a certain extent replace Mg2+ in the incubation system for the protein kinase activities. Both CDPK and MAPK-like activities were resistant to heat treatment. The activities of the two enzymes were fruit developmental stage-specific with the highest activities of both enzymes in the lag growth phase before the ripening stage, suggesting strongly the important roles of the detected CDPK and MAPK-like activities in the fruit development.

  5. Acyl-protein thioesterase 2 catalyzes the deacylation of peripheral membrane-associated GAP-43.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Vanesa M; Trenchi, Alejandra; Gomez, Guillermo A; Daniotti, Jose L

    2010-11-30

    An acylation/deacylation cycle is necessary to maintain the steady-state subcellular distribution and biological activity of S-acylated peripheral proteins. Despite the progress that has been made in identifying and characterizing palmitoyltransferases (PATs), much less is known about the thioesterases involved in protein deacylation. In this work, we investigated the deacylation of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), a dually acylated protein at cysteine residues 3 and 4. Using fluorescent fusion constructs, we measured in vivo the rate of deacylation of GAP-43 and its single acylated mutants in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 and human HeLa cells. Biochemical and live cell imaging experiments demonstrated that single acylated mutants were completely deacylated with similar kinetic in both cell types. By RT-PCR we observed that acyl-protein thioesterase 1 (APT-1), the only bona fide thioesterase shown to mediate deacylation in vivo, is expressed in HeLa cells, but not in CHO-K1 cells. However, APT-1 overexpression neither increased the deacylation rate of single acylated GAP-43 nor affected the steady-state subcellular distribution of dually acylated GAP-43 both in CHO-K1 and HeLa cells, indicating that GAP-43 deacylation is not mediated by APT-1. Accordingly, we performed a bioinformatic search to identify putative candidates with acyl-protein thioesterase activity. Among several candidates, we found that APT-2 is expressed both in CHO-K1 and HeLa cells and its overexpression increased the deacylation rate of single acylated GAP-43 and affected the steady-state localization of diacylated GAP-43 and H-Ras. Thus, the results demonstrate that APT-2 is the protein thioesterase involved in the acylation/deacylation cycle operating in GAP-43 subcellular distribution.

  6. Acyl-Protein Thioesterase 2 Catalizes the Deacylation of Peripheral Membrane-Associated GAP-43

    PubMed Central

    Tomatis, Vanesa M.; Trenchi, Alejandra; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Daniotti, Jose L.

    2010-01-01

    An acylation/deacylation cycle is necessary to maintain the steady-state subcellular distribution and biological activity of S-acylated peripheral proteins. Despite the progress that has been made in identifying and characterizing palmitoyltransferases (PATs), much less is known about the thioesterases involved in protein deacylation. In this work, we investigated the deacylation of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), a dually acylated protein at cysteine residues 3 and 4. Using fluorescent fusion constructs, we measured in vivo the rate of deacylation of GAP-43 and its single acylated mutants in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 and human HeLa cells. Biochemical and live cell imaging experiments demonstrated that single acylated mutants were completely deacylated with similar kinetic in both cell types. By RT-PCR we observed that acyl-protein thioesterase 1 (APT-1), the only bona fide thioesterase shown to mediate deacylation in vivo, is expressed in HeLa cells, but not in CHO-K1 cells. However, APT-1 overexpression neither increased the deacylation rate of single acylated GAP-43 nor affected the steady-state subcellular distribution of dually acylated GAP-43 both in CHO-K1 and HeLa cells, indicating that GAP-43 deacylation is not mediated by APT-1. Accordingly, we performed a bioinformatic search to identify putative candidates with acyl-protein thioesterase activity. Among several candidates, we found that APT-2 is expressed both in CHO-K1 and HeLa cells and its overexpression increased the deacylation rate of single acylated GAP-43 and affected the steady-state localization of diacylated GAP-43 and H-Ras. Thus, the results demonstrate that APT-2 is the protein thioesterase involved in the acylation/deacylation cycle operating in GAP-43 subcellular distribution. PMID:21152083

  7. Molecular basis of endosomal-membrane association for the dengue virus envelope protein

    DOE PAGES

    Rogers, David M.; Kent, Michael S.; Rempe, Susan B.

    2015-01-02

    Dengue virus is coated by an icosahedral shell of 90 envelope protein dimers that convert to trimers at low pH and promote fusion of its membrane with the membrane of the host endosome. We provide the first estimates for the free energy barrier and minimum for two key steps in this process: host membrane bending and protein–membrane binding. Both are studied using complementary membrane elastic, continuum electrostatics and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The predicted host membrane bending required to form an initial fusion stalk presents a 22–30 kcal/mol free energy barrier according to a constrained membrane elastic model. Combined continuummore » and molecular dynamics results predict a 15 kcal/mol free energy decrease on binding of each trimer of dengue envelope protein to a membrane with 30% anionic phosphatidylglycerol lipid. The bending cost depends on the preferred curvature of the lipids composing the host membrane leaflets, while the free energy gained for protein binding depends on the surface charge density of the host membrane. The fusion loop of the envelope protein inserts exactly at the level of the interface between the membrane's hydrophobic and head-group regions. As a result, the methods used in this work provide a means for further characterization of the structures and free energies of protein-assisted membrane fusion.« less

  8. Blue Light-Induced Phosphorylation of a Plasma Membrane-Associated Protein in Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, J. M.; Short, T. W.; Gallagher, S.; Briggs, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    Blue light induces a variety of photomorphogenic responses in higher plants, among them phototropic curvature, the bending of seedlings toward a unidirectional light source. In dark-grown coleoptiles of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings, blue light induces rapid phosphorylation of a 114-kD protein at fluence levels that are sufficient to stimulate phototropic curvature. Phosphorylation in response to blue light can be detected in vivo in coleoptile tips preincubated in 32Pi or in vitro in isolated membranes supplemented with [[gamma]-32P]ATP. Phosphorylation reaches a maximum level in vitro within 2 min following an inductive light pulse, but substantial labeling occurs within the first 15 s. Isolated membranes remain activated for several minutes following an in vitro blue light stimulus, even in the absence of exogenous ATP. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the 114-kD protein detected phosphoserine and a trace of phosphothreonine. The kinase involved in phosphorylating the protein in vitro is not dependent on calcium. The 114-kD protein itself has an apparent binding site for ATP, detected by incubating with the nonhydrolyzable analog, 5[prime]-p-fluorosulfonyl-benzoyladenosine. This result suggests that the 114-kD protein, which becomes phosphorylated in response to blue light, may also be capable of kinase activity. PMID:12231896

  9. The Membrane Associated RING-CH Proteins: A Family of E3 Ligases with Diverse Roles through the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Means, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery that conjugation of ubiquitin to proteins can drive proteolytic degradation, ubiquitination has been shown to perform a diverse range of functions in the cell. It plays an important role in endocytosis, signal transduction, trafficking of vesicles inside the cell, and even DNA repair. The process of ubiquitination-mediated control has turned out to be remarkably complex, involving a diverse array of proteins and many levels of control. This review focuses on a family of structurally related E3 ligases termed the membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) ubiquitin ligases, which were originally discovered as structural homologs to the virals E3s, K3, and K5 from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). These proteins contain a catalytic RING-CH finger and are typically membrane-bound, with some having up to 14 putative transmembrane domains. Despite several lines of evidence showing that the MARCH proteins play a complex and essential role in several cellular processes, this family remains understudied. PMID:27419207

  10. Magnetic bead isolation of neutrophil plasma membranes and quantification of membrane-associated guanine nucleotide binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peter S; Absood, Afaf; Linderman, Jennifer J; Omann, Geneva M

    2004-02-15

    A protocol for isolation of neutrophil plasma membranes utilizing a plasma membrane marker antibody, anti-CD15, attached to superparamagnetic beads was developed. Cells were initially disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and then incubated with anti-CD15 antibody-conjugated superparamagnetic beads. The beads were then washed to remove unbound cellular debris and cytosol. Recovered plasma membranes were quantified by immunodetection of G(beta2) in Western blots. This membrane marker-based separation yielded highly pure plasma membranes. This protocol has advantages over standard density sedimentation protocols for isolating plasma membrane in that it is faster and easily accommodates cell numbers as low as 10(6). These methods were coupled with immunodetection methods and an adenosine 5(')-diphosphate-ribosylation assay to measure the amount of membrane-associated G(ialpha) proteins available for receptor coupling in neutrophils either stimulated with N-formyl peptides or treated to differing degrees with pertussis toxin. As expected, pertussis toxin treatment decreased the amount of membrane G protein available for signaling although total membrane G protein was not affected. In addition, activation of neutrophils with N-formyl peptides resulted in an approximately 50% decrease in G protein associated with the plasma membrane.

  11. New Method for Measuring the Anchoring Energy of Strongly-Bound Membrane-Associated Proteins [Method for measuring the anchoring energy of strongly-bound membrane-associated proteins].

    DOE PAGES

    Kent, Michael S.; La Bauve, Elisa; Vernon, Briana C.; ...

    2016-02-01

    Here, we describe a new method to measure the activation energy required to remove a strongly-bound membrane-associated protein from a lipid membrane (anchoring energy). It is based on measuring the rate of release of a liposome-bound protein during centrifugation on a sucrose gradient as a function of time and temperature. The method was used to determine anchoring energy for the soluble dengue virus envelope protein (sE) strongly bound to 80:20 POPC:POPG liposomes at pH 5.5. We also measured the binding energy of sE at the same pH for the initial, predominantly reversible, phase of binding to a 70:30 PC:PG lipidmore » bilayer. The anchoring energy (37 +/- 1.7 kcal/mol, 20% PG) was found to be much larger than the binding energy (7.8 +/- 0.3 kcal/mol for 30% PG, or est. 7.0 kcal/mol for 20% PG). This is consistent with data showing that free sE is a monomer at pH 5.5, but assembles into trimers after associating with membranes. But, trimerization alone is insufficient to account for the observed difference in energies, and we conclude that some energy dissipation occurs during the release process. This new method to determine anchoring energy should be useful to understand the complex interactions of integral monotopic proteins and strongly-bound peripheral membrane proteins with lipid membranes.« less

  12. Cloning and characterization of human erythroid membrane-associated protein, human ERMAP.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Foltz, L; Sha, Y; Madlansacay, M R; Cain, C; Lindemann, G; Vargas, J; Nagy, D; Harriman, B; Mahoney, W; Schueler, P A

    2001-08-01

    We describe here the cloning and characterization of the human gene ERMAP, identified by subtractive hybridization using early and late gestation human fetal liver. By in situ hybridization, we found human ERMAP to be expressed not only in erythoid cells in fetal liver and adult bone marrow, but also in reticulocytes and circulating erythroblasts in 8-12-week fetal cord blood. The human ERMAP protein is predicted to contain a transmembrane segment and one extracellular immunoglobulin fold (IgV). The cytoplasmic region contains a highly conserved B30.2 motif, multiple consensus sequences for kinases, and post-Golgi sorting signals. The protein was localized to the cell surface as shown by an antibody specific for a peptide predicted from the IgV fold. The amino acid sequence of human ERMAP is highly homologous with that of mouse ERMAP, but differs in the number of extracellular immunoglobulin folds. Human ERMAP represents a new unique member of the rapidly growing B30.2 domain proteins.

  13. Chemical Synthesis of the Highly Hydrophobic Antiviral Membrane-Associated Protein IFITM3 and Modified Variants.

    PubMed

    Harmand, Thibault J; Pattabiraman, Vijaya R; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2017-10-02

    Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is an antiviral transmembrane protein that is thought to serve as the primary factor for inhibiting the replication of a large number of viruses, including West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Ebola virus, and Zika virus. Production of this 14.5 kDa, 133-residue transmembrane protein, especially with essential posttranslational modifications, by recombinant expression is challenging. In this report, we document the chemical synthesis of IFTIM3 in multi-milligram quantities (>15 mg) and the preparation of phosphorylated and fluorescent variants. The synthesis was accomplished by using KAHA ligations, which operate under acidic aqueous/organic mixtures that excel at solubilizing even the exceptionally hydrophobic C-terminal region of IFITM3. The synthetic material is readily incorporated into model vesicles and forms the basis for using synthetic, homogenous IFITM3 and its derivatives for further studying its structure and biological mode of action. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Multiple roles for membrane-associated protein trafficking and signaling in gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Allison K; Baldwin, Katherine L; Masson, Patrick H

    2012-01-01

    Gravitropism is a process that allows plant organs to guide their growth relative to the gravity vector. It requires them to sense changes in their orientation and generate a biochemical signal that they transmit to the tissues that drive organ curvature. Trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments is important for all of these phases of the gravitropic response. The sedimentation of starch-filled organelles called amyloplasts plays a key role in sensing reorientation, and vacuolar integrity is required for amyloplast sedimentation in shoots. Other proteins associated with the vesicle trafficking pathway contribute to early gravity signal transduction independently of amyloplast sedimentation in both roots and hypocotyls. Phosphatidylinositol signaling, which starts at the plasma membrane and later affects the localization of auxin efflux facilitators, is a likely second messenger in the signal transduction phase of gravitropism. Finally, membrane-localized auxin influx and efflux facilitators contribute to a differential auxin gradient across the gravistimulated organs, which directs root curvature.

  15. Multiple roles for membrane-associated protein trafficking and signaling in gravitropism

    PubMed Central

    Strohm, Allison K.; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Masson, Patrick H.

    2012-01-01

    Gravitropism is a process that allows plant organs to guide their growth relative to the gravity vector. It requires them to sense changes in their orientation and generate a biochemical signal that they transmit to the tissues that drive organ curvature. Trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments is important for all of these phases of the gravitropic response. The sedimentation of starch-filled organelles called amyloplasts plays a key role in sensing reorientation, and vacuolar integrity is required for amyloplast sedimentation in shoots. Other proteins associated with the vesicle trafficking pathway contribute to early gravity signal transduction independently of amyloplast sedimentation in both roots and hypocotyls. Phosphatidylinositol signaling, which starts at the plasma membrane and later affects the localization of auxin efflux facilitators, is a likely second messenger in the signal transduction phase of gravitropism. Finally, membrane-localized auxin influx and efflux facilitators contribute to a differential auxin gradient across the gravistimulated organs, which directs root curvature. PMID:23248632

  16. Investigating polymorphisms in membrane-associated transporter protein SLC45A2, using sucrose transporters as a model.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Anke; Ward, John M

    2015-07-01

    Solute carrier family 45 member 2 encodes the melanosomal membrane protein, membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP), of unknown function, that is required for normal melanin synthesis. The present study analyzed the effects of two human MATP mutations, D93N, which causes oculocutaneous albinism 4 (OCA4), and L374F, which is correlated with light pigmentation in European populations. Corresponding mutations were produced in the related and well-characterized sucrose transporter from rice, OsSUT1, and transport activity was measured by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, in addition to 14C-sucrose uptake in yeast. The mutation corresponding to D93N resulted in a complete loss of transport activity. The mutation corresponding to L374F resulted in a 90% decrease in transport activity, although the substrate affinity was unaffected. The results indicated that the D93N mutation causes OCA4 as a result of loss of MATP transport activity, and that the F374 allele confers significantly lower transport activity than L374.

  17. Membrane Associated Progesterone Receptors: Promiscuous Proteins with Pleiotropic Functions – Focus on Interactions with Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Chang S.; Klein, Kathrin; Zanger, Ulrich M.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane-associated progesterone receptors (MAPR) are a group of four rather small, partially homologous proteins, which share a similar non-covalent heme-binding domain that is related to cytochrome b5, a well-known functional interaction partner of microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase systems. Apart from their structural similarities the four proteins progesterone membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, also referred to as IZA, sigma-2 receptor, Dap1), PGRMC2, neudesin (NENF) and neuferricin (CYB5D2) display surprisingly divergent and multifunctional physiological properties related to cholesterol/steroid biosynthesis, drug metabolism and response, iron homeostasis, heme trafficking, energy metabolism, autophagy, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, cell migration, neural functions, and tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The purpose of this mini-review is to briefly summarize the structural and functional properties of MAPRs with particular focus on their interactions with the CYP system. For PGRMC1, originally identified as a non-canonical progesterone-binding protein that mediates some immediate non-genomic actions of progesterone, available evidence indicates mainly activating interactions with steroidogenic CYPs including CYP11A1, CYP21A2, CYP17, CYP19, CYP51A1, and CYP61A1, while interactions with drug metabolizing CYPs including CYP2C2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 were either ineffective or slightly inhibitory. For the other MAPRs the evidence is so far less conclusive. We also point out that experimental limitations question some of the previous conclusions. Use of appropriate model systems should help to further clarify the true impact of these proteins on CYP-mediated metabolic pathways. PMID:28396637

  18. Regulation of Postsynaptic Structure and Function by an A-Kinase Anchoring Protein-Membrane Associated Guanylate Kinase Scaffolding Complex

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Holly R.; Gibson, Emily S.; Benke, Timothy A.; Dell'Acqua, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 79/150 is a scaffold protein found in dendritic spines that recruits the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein phosphatase 2B-calcineurin (CaN) to membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK)-linked AMPA receptors (AMPAR) to control receptor phosphorylation and synaptic plasticity. However, AKAP79/150 may also coordinate regulation of AMPAR activity with spine structure directly through MAGUK binding and membrane-cytoskeletal interactions of its N-terminal targeting domain. In cultured hippocampal neurons, we observed that rat AKAP150 expression was low early in development but then increased coincident with spine formation and maturation. Overexpression of human AKAP79 in immature or mature neurons increased the number of dendritic filopodia and spines and enlarged spine area. However, RNAi knockdown of AKAP150 decreased dendritic spine area only in mature neurons. Importantly, AKAP79 overexpression in immature neurons increased AMPAR postsynaptic localization and activity. Neither the AKAP79 PKA nor CaN anchoring domain was required for increasing dendritic protrusion numbers, spine area or AMPAR synaptic localization; however, an internal region identified as the MAGUK binding domain was found to be essential as shown by expression of a MAGUK binding mutant that formed mainly filopodia and decreased AMPAR synaptic localization and activity. Expression of the AKAP79 N-terminal targeting domain alone also increased filopodia numbers but not spine area. Overall, these results demonstrate a novel structural role for AKAP79/150 where the N-terminal targeting domain induces dendritic filopodia and binding to MAGUKs promotes spine enlargement and AMPAR recruitment. PMID:19535604

  19. Induction of a cytoplasmic activator of DNA synthesis in lymphocytes is mediated through a membrane-associated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Autieri, M V; Fresa, K L; Coffman, F D; Katz, M E; Cohen, S

    1990-01-01

    We have shown previously that cytoplasmic extracts from actively dividing lymphoid cells are capable of inducing DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei. One of the factors involved in this activity, ADR, appears to be a greater than 90 kDa heat-labile protease. Cytoplasmic extracts prepared from nonproliferating lymphocytes express little to no ADR activity. However, ADR activity can be generated in these extracts by brief exposure to a membrane-enriched fraction of spontaneously proliferating, leukemic human T lymphoblastoid (MOLT-4) cells. This suggests that ADR activity is present in the resting cytoplasm in an inactive or precursor form. This in vitro generation of ADR activity can be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the isoquinolinesulfonamide derivative, H-7 (1-(5-isoquinoline-sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride), an inhibitor of both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases and protein kinase C (PKC). However, more specific inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinases, including N-[( 2-methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride (H8) and N-(2-gua-nidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA-1004), had little to no effect on the in vitro generation of ADR activity. Furthermore, membranes from MOLT-4 cells depleted of PKC by long-term exposure (24 h) to phorbol esters and calcium ionophores were unable to induce ADR activity in resting peripheral blood lymphocytes extracts. The results of these studies suggest 1) ADR activity is present in resting cell cytoplasm in an inactive or precursor form; and 2) ADR activity can be induced in this resting cytoplasm through a mechanism involving a membrane-associated protein kinase, possibly PKC. The ability of alkaline phosphatase to deplete the activity of preformed ADR suggests the possibility that ADR itself is phosphoprotein. PMID:1725128

  20. Induction of a cytoplasmic activator of DNA synthesis in lymphocytes is mediated through a membrane-associated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Autieri, M V; Fresa, K L; Coffman, F D; Katz, M E; Cohen, S

    1990-12-01

    We have shown previously that cytoplasmic extracts from actively dividing lymphoid cells are capable of inducing DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei. One of the factors involved in this activity, ADR, appears to be a greater than 90 kDa heat-labile protease. Cytoplasmic extracts prepared from nonproliferating lymphocytes express little to no ADR activity. However, ADR activity can be generated in these extracts by brief exposure to a membrane-enriched fraction of spontaneously proliferating, leukemic human T lymphoblastoid (MOLT-4) cells. This suggests that ADR activity is present in the resting cytoplasm in an inactive or precursor form. This in vitro generation of ADR activity can be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the isoquinolinesulfonamide derivative, H-7 (1-(5-isoquinoline-sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride), an inhibitor of both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases and protein kinase C (PKC). However, more specific inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinases, including N-[( 2-methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride (H8) and N-(2-gua-nidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA-1004), had little to no effect on the in vitro generation of ADR activity. Furthermore, membranes from MOLT-4 cells depleted of PKC by long-term exposure (24 h) to phorbol esters and calcium ionophores were unable to induce ADR activity in resting peripheral blood lymphocytes extracts. The results of these studies suggest 1) ADR activity is present in resting cell cytoplasm in an inactive or precursor form; and 2) ADR activity can be induced in this resting cytoplasm through a mechanism involving a membrane-associated protein kinase, possibly PKC. The ability of alkaline phosphatase to deplete the activity of preformed ADR suggests the possibility that ADR itself is phosphoprotein.

  1. Molecular cloning of a membrane-associated human FK506- and rapamycin-binding protein, FKBP-13.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Y J; Albers, M W; Lane, W S; Bierer, B E; Schreiber, S L; Burakoff, S J

    1991-01-01

    The 12-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP-12) is a cytosolic receptor for the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin. Here we report the molecular cloning and subcellular localization of a 13-kDa FKBP (FKBP-13), which has a 21-amino acid signal peptide and appears to be membrane-associated. Although no internal hydrophobic region, and thus no transmembrane domain, is apparent within the 120 amino acids of mature FKBP-13, a potential endoplasmic reticulum retention sequence (Arg-Thr-Glu-Leu) is found at its C terminus. FKBP-13 has 51% nucleotide sequence identity and 43% amino acid sequence identity to FKBP-12; the N-terminal sequences are divergent, but the 92-amino acid C-terminal sequence of FKBP-13 has 46 identical and 20 related residues when compared with FKBP-12. The conserved residues that comprise the drug binding site and rotamase active site of FKBP-12 are completely conserved in FKBP-13. Therefore, the three-dimensional structures of FKBP-12 and the FKBP-12/FK506 complex are likely to be excellent models of the corresponding FKBP-13 structure. Images PMID:1713687

  2. A family of abundant plasma membrane-associated glycoproteins related to the arabinogalactan proteins is unique to flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We have identified a family of abundant peripheral plasma membrane glycoproteins that is unique to flowering plants. They are identified by a monoclonal antibody, MAC 207, that recognizes an epitope containing L-arabinose and D-glucuronic acid. Immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling studies locate the MAC 207 epitope to the outer surface of the plasma membrane both in protoplasts and in intact tissues. In some cells MAC 207 also binds to the vacuolar membrane, probably reflecting the movement of the plasma membrane glycoproteins in the endocytic pathway. The epitope recognized by MAC 207 is also present on a distinct soluble proteoglycan secreted into the growth medium by carrot (Daucus carota) suspension culture cells. Biochemical evidence identifies this neutral proteoglycan as a member of the large class of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), and suggests a structural relationship between it and the plasma membrane glycoproteins. AGPs have the property of binding to beta-glycans, and we therefore propose that one function of the AGP-related, plasma membrane-associated glycoproteins may be to act as cell surface attachment sites for cell wall matrix polysaccharides. PMID:2469683

  3. Structures formed by a cell membrane-associated arabinogalactan-protein on graphite or mica alone and with Yariv phenylglycosides

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li Hong; Weizbauer, Renate A.; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Xu, Feng; Genin, Guy M.; Pickard, Barbara G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Certain membrane-associated arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) with lysine-rich sub-domains participate in plant growth, development and resistance to stress. To complement fluorescence imaging of such molecules when tagged and introduced transgenically to the cell periphery and to extend the groundwork for assessing molecular structure, some behaviours of surface-spread AGPs were visualized at the nanometre scale in a simplified electrostatic environment. Methods Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labelled LeAGP1 was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves using antibody-coated magnetic beads, deposited on graphite or mica, and examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Key Results When deposited at low concentration on graphite, LeAGP can form independent clusters and rings a few nanometres in diameter, often defining deep pits; the aperture of the rings depends on plating parameters. On mica, intermediate and high concentrations, respectively, yielded lacy meshes and solid sheets that could dynamically evolve arcs, rings, ‘pores’ and ‘co-pores’, and pits. Glucosyl Yariv reagent combined with the AGP to make very large and distinctive rings. Conclusions Diverse cell-specific nano-patterns of native lysine-rich AGPs are expected at the wall–membrane interface and, while there will not be an identical patterning in different environmental settings, AFM imaging suggests protein tendencies for surficial organization and thus opens new avenues for experimentation. Nanopore formation with Yariv reagents suggests how the reagent might bind with AGP to admit Ca2+ to cells and hints at ways in which AGP might be structured at some cell surfaces. PMID:25164699

  4. Two genes encode the major membrane-associated protein of methanol-induced peroxisomes from Candida boidinii.

    PubMed

    Garrard, L J; Goodman, J M

    1989-08-15

    A massive proliferation of peroxisomes occurs in the yeast Candida boidinii when methanol is utilized as the sole carbon source; these peroxisomes contain the enzymes which catalyze the initial steps of methanol utilization. The most abundant peroxisomal membrane-associated protein has an apparent molecular mass of 20 kDa and is termed PMP20. We report the isolation of two genes that encode very similar forms of PMP20; this is the first report of genes that encode proteins associated with peroxisomal membranes. Southern analysis demonstrates that the two genes are on different loci, although there are several homologous regions of both 5'- and 3'-untranslated sequence. One of the areas of 5' homology is within the untranslated region of the mRNA. Within the coding region there are 35 base differences between the two genes that are reflected in only five amino acid differences. The mRNAs representing both genes of PMP20 are induced in cells grown in methanol-containing medium and are below detection in cells grown in glucose. S1 nuclease protection analysis indicates that there is a 2.5-fold difference in mRNA expression between the two genes when induced. The predicted sequences of both PMP20 genes show the absence of a cleaved amino-terminal leader sequence and the presence of only 1 cysteine residue. In agreement with previous biochemical data suggesting a peripheral association of this protein with the membrane (Goodman, J. M., Maher, J., Silver, P. A., Pacifico, A., and Sanders, D. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 3464-3468), there are no obvious membrane spanning regions predicted in the sequences. Both PMP20 gene products contain the carboxyl-terminal sequence AKL, similar to the putative SKL peroxisomal sorting sequence (Gould, S. J., Keller, G.-A., and Subramani, S. (1988) J. Cell Biol. 107, 897-905).

  5. Hydrophobic domains of mouse polyomavirus minor capsid proteins promote membrane association and virus exit from the ER.

    PubMed

    Huérfano, Sandra; Ryabchenko, Boris; Španielová, Hana; Forstová, Jitka

    2017-03-01

    The minor structural protein VP2 and its shorter variant, VP3, of mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) are essential for virus exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during viral trafficking to the nucleus. Here, we followed the role of putative hydrophobic domains (HD) of the minor proteins in membrane affinity and viral infectivity. We prepared variants of VP2, each mutated to decrease hydrophobicity of one of three predicted hydrophobic domains: VP2-mHD1, VP2-mHD2 or VP2-mHD3 mutated in HD1 (amino acids (aa) 60-101), HD2 (aa 125-165) or HD3 (aa 287-307), respectively. Transient production of the mutated proteins revealed that only VP2-mHD2 lost the affinity for intracellular membranes. Cytotoxicity connected with the ability of VP2/VP3 to perforate membranes decreased markedly for VP2-mHD2, but only slightly for VP2-mHD1. The mutant VP2-mHD3 exhibited properties similar to the wild-type protein. MPyV genomes, each carrying one of the mutations, were prepared for virus production. MPyV-mHD1 and MPyV-mHD2 viruses could be isolated, while the HD3 mutation in VP2/VP3 prevented virus assembly. We found that both MPyV-mHD1 and MPyV-mHD2 viruses arrived at the ER without delay and were processed by ER residential enzymes. However, the ability to associate with ER membranes was decreased in the case of MPyV-mHD1 and practically abolished in the case of MPyV-mHD2. Interestingly, while MPyV-mHD2 was not infectious, infection of MPyV-mHD1 virus was delayed. These findings reveal that HD2, common to both VP2 and VP3, is responsible for the membrane binding properties of the minor proteins, while HD1 of VP2 is likely required to stabilize VP2-membrane association and to enhance viral exit from the ER. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Methionine-rich repeat proteins: a family of membrane-associated proteins which contain unusual repeat regions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jamie L; Evans, Nicholas A; Ahmed, Tanweer; Wrigley, Jonathan D J; Khan, Shukria; Wright, Charles; Keen, Jeffrey N; Holzenburg, Andreas; Findlay, John B C

    2005-03-01

    We report the protein isolation, cloning and characterization of members of an unusual protein family, which comprise the most abundant proteins present in the squid eye. The proteins in this family have a range of molecular weights from 32 to 36 kDa. Electron microscopy and detergent solubilization demonstrate that these proteins are tightly associated with membrane structures where they may form tetramers. Despite this, these proteins have no stretches of hydrophobic residues that could form typical transmembrane domains. They share an unusual protein sequence rich in methionine, and contain multiple repeating motifs. We have therefore named these proteins Methionine-Rich Repeat Proteins (MRRPs). The use of structure prediction algorithms suggest very little recognized secondary structure elements. At the time of cloning no sequence or structural homologues have been found in any database. We have isolated three closely related cDNA clones from the MRRP family. Coupled in vitro transcription/translation of the MRRP clones shows that they encode proteins with molecular masses similar to components of native MRRPs. Immunoblot analysis of these proteins reveals that they are also present in squid brain, optic lobe, and heart, and also indicate that MRRP-like protein motifs may also exist in mammalian tissues. We propose that MRRPs define a family of important proteins that have an unusual mode of attachment or insertion into cell membranes and are found in evolutionarily diverse organisms.

  7. Elongation Factor Tu and Heat Shock Protein 70 Are Membrane-Associated Proteins from Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Capable of Inducing Strong Immune Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fei; He, Jinyan; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Xu, Jian; Li, Xia; Li, Peng; Wu, Wenxue

    2016-01-01

    Chronic non-progressive pneumonia, a disease that has become a worldwide epidemic has caused considerable loss to sheep industry. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is the causative agent of interstitial pneumonia in sheep, goat and bighorn. We here have identified by immunogold and immunoblotting that elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) are membrane-associated proteins on M. ovipneumonaiea. We have evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo by immunizing BALB/c mice with both purified recombinant proteins rEF-Tu and rHSP70. The sera of both rEF-Tu and rHSP70 treated BALB/c mice demonstrated increased levels of IgG, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12(p70), IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. In addition, ELISPOT assay showed significant increase in IFN-γ+ secreting lymphocytes in the rHSP70 group when compared to other groups. Collectively our study reveals that rHSP70 induces a significantly better cellular immune response in mice, and may act as a Th1 cytokine-like adjuvant in immune response induction. Finally, growth inhibition test (GIT) of M. ovipneumoniae strain Y98 showed that sera from rHSP70 or rEF-Tu-immunized mice inhibited in vitro growth of M. ovipneumoniae. Our data strongly suggest that EF-Tu and HSP70 of M. ovipneumoniae are membrane-associated proteins capable of inducing antibody production, and cytokine secretion. Therefore, these two proteins may be potential candidates for vaccine development against M. ovipneumoniae infection in sheep. PMID:27537186

  8. Elongation Factor Tu and Heat Shock Protein 70 Are Membrane-Associated Proteins from Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Capable of Inducing Strong Immune Response in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fei; He, Jinyan; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Xu, Jian; Li, Xia; Li, Peng; Wu, Wenxue

    2016-01-01

    Chronic non-progressive pneumonia, a disease that has become a worldwide epidemic has caused considerable loss to sheep industry. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is the causative agent of interstitial pneumonia in sheep, goat and bighorn. We here have identified by immunogold and immunoblotting that elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) are membrane-associated proteins on M. ovipneumonaiea. We have evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo by immunizing BALB/c mice with both purified recombinant proteins rEF-Tu and rHSP70. The sera of both rEF-Tu and rHSP70 treated BALB/c mice demonstrated increased levels of IgG, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12(p70), IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. In addition, ELISPOT assay showed significant increase in IFN-γ+ secreting lymphocytes in the rHSP70 group when compared to other groups. Collectively our study reveals that rHSP70 induces a significantly better cellular immune response in mice, and may act as a Th1 cytokine-like adjuvant in immune response induction. Finally, growth inhibition test (GIT) of M. ovipneumoniae strain Y98 showed that sera from rHSP70 or rEF-Tu-immunized mice inhibited in vitro growth of M. ovipneumoniae. Our data strongly suggest that EF-Tu and HSP70 of M. ovipneumoniae are membrane-associated proteins capable of inducing antibody production, and cytokine secretion. Therefore, these two proteins may be potential candidates for vaccine development against M. ovipneumoniae infection in sheep.

  9. A 64 kDa sucrose binding protein is membrane-associated and tonoplast-localized in developing mung bean seeds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junqi; Suen, Pui Kit; Xu, Zeng-Fu; Jiang, Liwen

    2009-01-01

    Sucrose binding proteins (SBPs) were predicted to be membrane-associated, but have been shown to localize in the lumen of protein storage vacuoles of various seeds. In this study, a new 64 kDa SBP has been identified from developing mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds (here termed VrSBP1) via MS/MS analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequencing analysis and specific antibodies were generated using purified VrSBP1 proteins. Western blot analysis with the new VrSBP1 antibodies showed that, similar to most seed storage proteins, VrSBP1 proteins accumulated during seed development and were subsequently mobilized once the mung bean seeds germinated. Immunogold electron microscope (EM) studies on ultra-thin sections of high-pressure freezing/frozen substituted developing mung bean cotyledons demonstrated that VrSBP1 was localized specifically to the tonoplast of the protein storage vacuole and to the limiting membrane of a novel putative prevacuolar compartment. Biochemical and subcellular fractionation studies further demonstrated that VrSBP1 proteins were membrane-associated in developing mung beans, consistent with their tonoplast localization. This study thus shows convincing evidence of tonoplast-localization of a plant SBP for its future functional characterization and provides a model of studying non-integral membrane proteins associated with the tonoplasts in plant cells. PMID:19129164

  10. A 64 kDa sucrose binding protein is membrane-associated and tonoplast-localized in developing mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junqi; Suen, Pui Kit; Xu, Zeng-Fu; Jiang, Liwen

    2009-01-01

    Sucrose binding proteins (SBPs) were predicted to be membrane-associated, but have been shown to localize in the lumen of protein storage vacuoles of various seeds. In this study, a new 64 kDa SBP has been identified from developing mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds (here termed VrSBP1) via MS/MS analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequencing analysis and specific antibodies were generated using purified VrSBP1 proteins. Western blot analysis with the new VrSBP1 antibodies showed that, similar to most seed storage proteins, VrSBP1 proteins accumulated during seed development and were subsequently mobilized once the mung bean seeds germinated. Immunogold electron microscope (EM) studies on ultra-thin sections of high-pressure freezing/frozen substituted developing mung bean cotyledons demonstrated that VrSBP1 was localized specifically to the tonoplast of the protein storage vacuole and to the limiting membrane of a novel putative prevacuolar compartment. Biochemical and subcellular fractionation studies further demonstrated that VrSBP1 proteins were membrane-associated in developing mung beans, consistent with their tonoplast localization. This study thus shows convincing evidence of tonoplast-localization of a plant SBP for its future functional characterization and provides a model of studying non-integral membrane proteins associated with the tonoplasts in plant cells.

  11. Localization of Membrane-Associated Proteins in Vesicular Stomatitis Virus by Use of Hydrophobic Membrane Probes and Cross-Linking Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Zakowski, Jack J.; Wagner, Robert R.

    1980-01-01

    The location of membrane-associated proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus was investigated by using two monofunctional and three bifunctional probes that differ in the degree to which they partition into membranes and in their specific group reactivity. Two hydrophobic aryl azide probes, [125I]5-iodonaphthyl-1-azide and [3H]pyrenesulfonylazide, readily partitioned into virion membrane and, when activated to nitrenes by UV irradiation, formed stable covalent adducts to membrane constituents. Both of these monofunctional probes labeled the glyco-protein G and matrix M proteins, but [125I]5-iodonaphthyl-1-azide also labeled the nucleocapsid N protein and an unidentified low-molecular-weight component. Protein labeling of intact virions was unaffected by the presence of cytochrome c or glutathione, but disruption of membrane by sodium dodecyl sulfate greatly enhanced the labeling of all viral proteins except G. Labeling of G protein was essentially restricted to the membrane-embedded, thermolysin-resistant tail fragment. Three bifunctional reagents, tartryl diazide, dimethylsuberimidate, and 4,4′-dithiobisphenylazide, were tested for their capacity to cross-link proteins to membrane phospholipids of virions grown in the presence of [3H]palmitate. Only G and M proteins of intact virions were labeled with 3H-phospholipid by these cross-linkers; the reactions were not affected by cytochrome c but were abolished by disruption of virus with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Dimethylsuberimidate, which reacts with free amino groups, cross-linked 3H-phospholipid to both G and M protein. In contrast, the hydrophilic tartryl diazide cross-linked phospholipid primarily to the M protein, whereas the hydrophobic 4,4′-dithiobisphenylazide cross-linked phospholipid primarily to the intrinsic G protein. These data support the hypothesis that the G protein traverses the virion membrane and that the M protein is membrane associated but does not penetrate very deeply, if at all. PMID:6255216

  12. A lysine-rich membrane-associated PHISTb protein involved in alteration of the cytoadhesive properties of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Proellocks, Nicholas I; Herrmann, Susann; Buckingham, Donna W; Hanssen, Eric; Hodges, Emma K; Elsworth, Brendan; Morahan, Belinda J; Coppel, Ross L; Cooke, Brian M

    2014-07-01

    The genomes of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) contain a family of genes encoding proteins with a Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric (PHIST) domain, most of which are predicted to be exported into the parasite-infected human red blood cell (iRBC). Here, using transgenic parasites and a combination of cellular, biochemical, and biophysical assays, we have characterized and determined the function of a novel member of the PHIST protein family in Plasmodium falciparum, termed lysine-rich membrane-associated PHISTb (LyMP). LyMP was shown to associate directly with the cytoskeleton of iRBCs where it plays a role in their abnormal ability to adhere to a protein expressed on vascular endothelial cells, resulting in sequestration. Deletion of LyMP dramatically reduced adhesion of iRBCs to CD36 by 55%, which was completely restored to wild-type levels on complementation. Intriguingly, in the absence of LyMP, formation of RBC membrane knobs and the level of surface exposure of the parasites' major cytoadhesive ligand, PfEMP1, were identical to those for the parental parasite line, demonstrating for the first time an additional mechanism that enhances cytoadherence of iRBCs beyond those already recognized. Our findings identify LyMP as a previously unknown RBC cytoskeletal-binding protein that is likely to be of major significance in the complex pathophysiology of falciparum malaria.-Proellocks, N. I., Herrmann, S., Buckingham, D. W., Hanssen, E., Hodges, E. K., Elsworth, B., Morahan, B. J., Coppel, R. L., Cooke, B. M. A lysine-rich membrane-associated PHISTb protein involved in alteration of the cytoadhesive properties of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells.

  13. Arp2/3 promotes junction formation and maintenance in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine by regulating membrane association of apical proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bernadskaya, Yelena Y.; Patel, Falshruti B.; Hsu, Hsiao-Ting; Soto, Martha C.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that Arp2/3, which promotes nucleation of branched actin, is needed for epithelial junction initiation but is less important as junctions mature. We focus here on how Arp2/3 contributes to the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium and find important roles for Arp2/3 in the maturation and maintenance of junctions in embryos and adults. Electron microscope studies show that embryos depleted of Arp2/3 form apical actin-rich microvilli and electron-dense apical junctions. However, whereas apical/basal polarity initiates, apical maturation is defective, including decreased apical F-actin enrichment, aberrant lumen morphology, and reduced accumulation of some apical junctional proteins, including DLG-1. Depletion of Arp2/3 in adult animals leads to similar intestinal defects. The DLG-1/AJM-1 apical junction proteins, and the ezrin–radixin–moesin homologue ERM-1, a protein that connects F-actin to membranes, are required along with Arp2/3 for apical F-actin enrichment in embryos, whereas cadherin junction proteins are not. Arp2/3 affects the subcellular distribution of DLG-1 and ERM-1. Loss of Arp2/3 shifts both ERM-1 and DLG-1 from pellet fractions to supernatant fractions, suggesting a role for Arp2/3 in the distribution of membrane-associated proteins. Thus, Arp2/3 is required as junctions mature to maintain apical proteins associated with the correct membranes. PMID:21697505

  14. A new enabling proteomics methodology to investigate membrane associated proteins from parasitic nematodes: case study using ivermectin resistant and ivermectin susceptible isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Hart, Elizabeth H; Brophy, Peter M; Prescott, Mark; Bartley, David J; Wolf, Basil T; Hamilton, Joanne V

    2015-01-30

    The mechanisms involved in anthelmintic resistance (AR) are complex but a greater understanding of AR management is essential for effective and sustainable control of parasitic helminth worms in livestock. Current tests to measure AR are time consuming and can be technically problematic, gold standard diagnostics are therefore urgently required to assist in combatting the threat from drug resistant parasites. For anthelmintics such as ivermectin (IVM), target proteins may be present in the cellular membrane. As proteins usually act in complexes and not in isolation, AR may develop and be measurable in the target associated proteins present in the parasite membrane. The model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used to develop a sub-proteomic assay to measure protein expression differences, between IVM resistant and IVM susceptible isolates in the presence and absence of drug challenge. Evaluation of detergents including CHAPS, ASB-14, C7BzO, Triton ×100 and TBP (tributyl phosphine) determined optimal conditions for the resolution of membrane proteins in Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis (2DE). These sub-proteomic methodologies were then translated and evaluated using IVM-susceptible and IVM-resistant Haemonchus contortus; a pathogenic blood feeding parasitic nematode which is of global importance in livestock health, welfare and productivity. We have demonstrated the successful resolution of membrane associated proteins from both C. elegans and H. contortus isolates, using a combination of CHAPS and the zwitterionic amphiphilic surfactant ASB-14 to further support the detection of markers for AR. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Basis for the Specificity and Activation of the Serpin Protein Z-dependent Proteinase Inhibitor (ZPI) as an Inhibitor of Membrane-associated Factor Xa

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xin; Dementiev, Alexey; Olson, Steven T.; Gettins, Peter G.W.

    2012-12-13

    The serpin ZPI is a protein Z (PZ)-dependent specific inhibitor of membrane-associated factor Xa (fXa) despite having an unfavorable P1 Tyr. PZ accelerates the inhibition reaction {approx}2000-fold in the presence of phospholipid and Ca{sup 2+}. To elucidate the role of PZ, we determined the x-ray structure of Gla-domainless PZ (PZ{sub {Delta}GD}) complexed with protein Z-dependent proteinase inhibitor (ZPI). The PZ pseudocatalytic domain bound ZPI at a novel site through ionic and polar interactions. Mutation of four ZPI contact residues eliminated PZ binding and membrane-dependent PZ acceleration of fXa inhibition. Modeling of the ternary Michaelis complex implicated ZPI residues Glu-313 and Glu-383 in fXa binding. Mutagenesis established that only Glu-313 is important, contributing {approx}5-10-fold to rate acceleration of fXa and fXIa inhibition. Limited conformational change in ZPI resulted from PZ binding, which contributed only {approx}2-fold to rate enhancement. Instead, template bridging from membrane association, together with previously demonstrated interaction of the fXa and ZPI Gla domains, resulted in an additional {approx}1000-fold rate enhancement. To understand why ZPI has P1 tyrosine, we examined a P1 Arg variant. This reacted at a diffusion-limited rate with fXa, even without PZ, and predominantly as substrate, reflecting both rapid acylation and deacylation. P1 tyrosine thus ensures that reaction with fXa or most other arginine-specific proteinases is insignificant unless PZ binds and localizes ZPI and fXa on the membrane, where the combined effects of Gla-Gla interaction, template bridging, and interaction of fXa with Glu-313 overcome the unfavorability of P1 Tyr and ensure a high rate of reaction as an inhibitor.

  16. Basis for the specificity and activation of the serpin protein Z-dependent proteinase inhibitor (ZPI) as an inhibitor of membrane-associated factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Dementiev, Alexey; Olson, Steven T; Gettins, Peter G W

    2010-06-25

    The serpin ZPI is a protein Z (PZ)-dependent specific inhibitor of membrane-associated factor Xa (fXa) despite having an unfavorable P1 Tyr. PZ accelerates the inhibition reaction approximately 2000-fold in the presence of phospholipid and Ca(2+). To elucidate the role of PZ, we determined the x-ray structure of Gla-domainless PZ (PZ(DeltaGD)) complexed with protein Z-dependent proteinase inhibitor (ZPI). The PZ pseudocatalytic domain bound ZPI at a novel site through ionic and polar interactions. Mutation of four ZPI contact residues eliminated PZ binding and membrane-dependent PZ acceleration of fXa inhibition. Modeling of the ternary Michaelis complex implicated ZPI residues Glu-313 and Glu-383 in fXa binding. Mutagenesis established that only Glu-313 is important, contributing approximately 5-10-fold to rate acceleration of fXa and fXIa inhibition. Limited conformational change in ZPI resulted from PZ binding, which contributed only approximately 2-fold to rate enhancement. Instead, template bridging from membrane association, together with previously demonstrated interaction of the fXa and ZPI Gla domains, resulted in an additional approximately 1000-fold rate enhancement. To understand why ZPI has P1 tyrosine, we examined a P1 Arg variant. This reacted at a diffusion-limited rate with fXa, even without PZ, and predominantly as substrate, reflecting both rapid acylation and deacylation. P1 tyrosine thus ensures that reaction with fXa or most other arginine-specific proteinases is insignificant unless PZ binds and localizes ZPI and fXa on the membrane, where the combined effects of Gla-Gla interaction, template bridging, and interaction of fXa with Glu-313 overcome the unfavorability of P1 Tyr and ensure a high rate of reaction as an inhibitor.

  17. Membrane-associated proteomics of chickpea identifies Sad1/UNC-84 protein (CaSUN1), a novel component of dehydration signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Dinesh Kumar; Mishra, Poonam; Subba, Pratigya; Rathi, Divya; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Dehydration affects almost all the physiological processes including those that result in the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which in turn elicits a highly conserved signaling, the unfolded protein response (UPR). We investigated the dehydration-responsive membrane-associated proteome of a legume, chickpea, by 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 184 protein spots were significantly altered over a dehydration treatment of 120 h. Among the differentially expressed proteins, a non-canonical SUN domain protein, designated CaSUN1 (Cicer arietinum Sad1/UNC-84), was identified. CaSUN1 localized to the nuclear membrane and ER, besides small vacuolar vesicles. The transcripts were downregulated by both abiotic and biotic stresses, but not by abscisic acid treatment. Overexpression of CaSUN1 conferred stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, functional complementation of the yeast mutant, slp1, could rescue its growth defects. We propose that the function of CaSUN1 in stress response might be regulated via UPR signaling. PMID:24577507

  18. Identification of a Novel Function of Adipocyte Plasma Membrane-Associated Protein (APMAP) in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by Proteomic Analysis of Omental Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhang; Gao, Jing; Yin, Jiajing; Gu, Liping; Liu, Xing; Chen, Su; Huang, Qianfang; Lu, Huifang; Yang, Yuemin; Zhou, Hu; Wang, Yufan; Peng, Yongde

    2016-02-05

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considered as an early stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we compared demographic and clinical data between six GDM subjects and six normal glucose tolerance (NGT; healthy controls) subjects and found that homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) increased in GDM. Many previous studies demonstrated that omental adipose tissue dysfunction could induce insulin resistance. Thus, to investigate the cause of insulin resistance in GDM, we used label-free proteomics to identify differentially expressed proteins in omental adipose tissues from GDM and NGT subjects (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003095). A total of 3528 proteins were identified, including 66 significantly changed proteins. Adipocyte plasma membrane-associated protein (APMAP, a.k.a. C20orf3), one of the differentially expressed proteins, was down-regulated in GDM omental adipose tissues. Furthermore, mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to simulate omental adipocytes. The inhibition of APMAP expression by RNAi impaired insulin signaling and activated NFκB signaling in these adipocytes. Our study revealed that the down-regulation of APMAP in omental adipose tissue may play an important role in insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of GDM.

  19. Mutational Analysis on Membrane Associated Transporter Protein (MATP) and Their Structural Consequences in Oculocutaeous Albinism Type 4 (OCA4)-A Molecular Dynamics Approach.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Balu; Purohit, Rituraj

    2016-11-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism type IV (OCA4) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder which is characterized by reduced biosynthesis of melanin pigmentation in skin, hair, and eyes and caused by the genetic mutations in the membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP) encoded by SLC45A2 gene. The MATP protein consists of 530 amino acids which contains 12 putative transmembrane domains and plays an important role in pigmentation and probably functions as a membrane transporter in melanosomes. We scrutinized the most OCA4 disease-associated mutation and their structural consequences on SLC45A2 gene. To understand the atomic arrangement in 3D space, the native and mutant structures were modeled. Further the structural behavior of native and mutant MATP protein was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) approach in explicit lipid and water background. We found Y317C as the most deleterious and disease-associated SNP on SLC45A2 gene. In MDS, mutations in MATP protein showed loss of stability and became more flexible, which alter its structural conformation and function. This phenomenon has indicated a significant role in inducing OCA4. Our study explored the understanding of molecular mechanism of MATP protein upon mutation at atomic level and further helps in the field of pharmacogenomics to develop a personalized medicine for OCA4 disorder. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2608-2619, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Membrane-associated proteomics of chickpea identifies Sad1/UNC-84 protein (CaSUN1), a novel component of dehydration signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Dinesh Kumar; Mishra, Poonam; Subba, Pratigya; Rathi, Divya; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2014-02-01

    Dehydration affects almost all the physiological processes including those that result in the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which in turn elicits a highly conserved signaling, the unfolded protein response (UPR). We investigated the dehydration-responsive membrane-associated proteome of a legume, chickpea, by 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 184 protein spots were significantly altered over a dehydration treatment of 120 h. Among the differentially expressed proteins, a non-canonical SUN domain protein, designated CaSUN1 (Cicer arietinum Sad1/UNC-84), was identified. CaSUN1 localized to the nuclear membrane and ER, besides small vacuolar vesicles. The transcripts were downregulated by both abiotic and biotic stresses, but not by abscisic acid treatment. Overexpression of CaSUN1 conferred stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, functional complementation of the yeast mutant, slp1, could rescue its growth defects. We propose that the function of CaSUN1 in stress response might be regulated via UPR signaling.

  1. In vivo and in vitro analysis of ptl1, a yeast ts mutant with a membrane-associated defect in protein translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Toyn, J; Hibbs, A R; Sanz, P; Crowe, J; Meyer, D I

    1988-01-01

    Mutants defective in the ability to translocate proteins across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum were selected in Trp- Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the basis of their ability to retain a fusion protein in the cytosol. The fusion comprised the prepro region of prepro-alpha-factor (MF alpha 1) N-terminal to phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase (TRP1). The first of the protein translocation mutations, called ptl1, results in temperature-sensitivity of growth and protein translocation. At the non-permissive temperature, precursors to several secretory proteins accumulate in the cytosol. Using this mutant, we demonstrate that the prepro-carboxypeptidase Y that had been accumulated in the cytosol at the non-permissive temperature could be post-translationally translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum when cells were returned to the permissive temperature. This result indicates that post-translational translocation of preproteins across endoplasmic reticulum membranes can occur in vivo. We have also determined that the temperature-sensitive component is membrane-associated in ptl1, and that the membranes derived from this strain show a reversible temperature-sensitive translocation phenotype in vitro. Images PMID:3072198

  2. Membrane-associated 41-kDa GTP-binding protein in collagen-induced platelet activation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.; Bourguignon, L.Y. )

    1990-08-01

    Initially we established that the binding of collagen to human blood platelets stimulates both the rapid loss of PIP2 and the generation of inositol-4,5-bisphosphate (IP2) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). These results indicate that the binding of collagen stimulates inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C during platelet activation. The fact that GTP or GTP-gamma-S augments, and pertussis toxin inhibits, collagen-induced IP3 formation suggests that a GTP-binding protein or (or proteins) may be directly involved in the regulation of phospholipase C-mediated phosphoinositide turnover in human platelets. We have used several complementary techniques to isolate and characterize a platelet 41-kDa polypeptide (or polypeptides) that has a number of structural and functional similarities to the regulatory alpha i subunit of the GTP-binding proteins isolated from bovine brain. This 41-kDa polypeptide (or polypeptides) is found to be closely associated with at least four membrane glycoproteins (e.g., gp180, gp110, gp95, and gp75) in a 330-kDa complex that can be dissociated by treatment with high salt plus urea. Most important, we have demonstrated that antilymphoma 41-kDa (alpha i subunit of GTP-binding proteins) antibody cross-reacts with the platelet 41-kDa protein (or proteins) and the alpha i subunit of bovine brain Gi alpha proteins, and blocks GTP/collagen-induced IP3 formation. These data provide strong evidence that the 41-kDa platelet GTP-binding protein (or proteins) is directly involved in collagen-induced signal transduction during platelet activation.

  3. Crystal structures of the trimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein: implications for membrane association and assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, C P; Worthylake, D; Bancroft, D P; Christensen, A M; Sundquist, W I

    1996-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein forms a structural shell associated with the inner viral membrane and performs other essential functions throughout the viral life cycle. The crystal structure of the HIV-1 matrix protein, determined at 2.3 angstrom resolution, reveals that individual matrix molecules are composed of five major helices capped by a three-stranded mixed beta-sheet. Unexpectedly, the protein assembles into a trimer in three different crystal lattices, burying 1880 angstrom2 of accessible surface area at the trimer interfaces. Trimerization appears to create a large, bipartite membrane binding surface in which exposed basic residues could cooperate with the N-terminal myristoyl groups to anchor the protein on the acidic inner membrane of the virus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8610175

  4. Effect of membrane-associated f1 bacteriophage coat protein upon the activity of Escherichia coli phosphatidylserine synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, B K; Webster, R E

    1978-01-01

    The effects of insertion of the major coat protein of f1 bacteriophage into Escherichia coli membranes were investigated under conditions allowing in vivo analysis of phosphatidylserine synthesis. An E. coli strain possessing a temperature-sensitive phosphatidylserine decarboxylase was utilized under conditions in which the decarboxylase activity was reduced but nonlethal. The presence of the coat protein in the host membranes inhibits the activity of the phosphatidylserine synthetase and perhaps affects the activity of the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. PMID:211116

  5. CD8+ T cells recognize an inclusion membrane-associated protein from the vacuolar pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Fling, Steven P.; Sutherland, R. Alec; Steele, Lisa N.; Hess, Bruce; D'Orazio, Sarah E. F.; Maisonneuve, Jean-François; Lampe, Mary F.; Probst, Peter; Starnbach, Michael N.

    2001-01-01

    During infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, CD8+ T cells are primed, even though the bacteria remain confined to a host cell vacuole throughout their developmental cycle. Because CD8+ T cells recognize antigens processed from cytosolic proteins, the Chlamydia antigens recognized by these CD8+ T cells very likely have access to the host cell cytoplasm during infection. The identity of these C. trachomatis proteins has remained elusive, even though their localization suggests they may play important roles in the biology of the organism. Here we use a retroviral expression system to identify Cap1, a 31-kDa protein from C. trachomatis recognized by protective CD8+ T cells. Cap1 contains no strong homology to any known protein. Immunofluorescence microscopy by using Cap1-specific antibody demonstrates that this protein is localized to the vacuolar membrane. Cap1 is virtually identical among the human C. trachomatis serovars, suggesting that a vaccine incorporating Cap1 might enable the vaccine to protect against all C. trachomatis serovars. The identification of proteins such as Cap1 that associate with the inclusion membrane will be required to fully understand the interaction of C. trachomatis with its host cell. PMID:11158611

  6. The Membrane-associated Protein, Supervillin, Accelerates F-actin-dependent Rapid Integrin Recycling and Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhiyou; Takizawa, Norio; Wilson, Korey A.; Smith, Tara C.; Delprato, Anna; Davidson, Michael W.; Lambright, David G.; Luna, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    In migrating cells, the cytoskeleton coordinates signal transduction and re-distributions of transmembrane proteins, including integrins and growth factor receptors. Supervillin is an F-actin- and myosin II-binding protein that tightly associates with signaling proteins in cholesterol-rich, “lipid raft” membrane microdomains. We show here that supervillin also can localize with markers for early and sorting endosomes (EE/SE) and with overexpressed components of the Arf6 recycling pathway in the cell periphery. Supervillin tagged with the photoswitchable fluorescent protein, tdEos, moves both into and away from dynamic structures resembling podosomes at the basal cell surface. Rapid integrin recycling from EE/SE is inhibited in supervillin-knockdown cells, but the rates of integrin endocytosis and recycling from the perinuclear recycling center (PNRC) are unchanged. A lack of synergy between supervillin knockdown and the actin filament barbed-end inhibitor, cytochalasin D, suggests that both treatments affect actin-dependent rapid recycling. Supervillin also enhances signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK) and increases the velocity of cell translocation. These results suggest that supervillin, F-actin, and associated proteins may coordinate a rapid, basolateral membrane recycling pathway that contributes to ERK signaling and actin-based cell motility. PMID:20331534

  7. The membrane-associated protein, supervillin, accelerates F-actin-dependent rapid integrin recycling and cell motility.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiyou; Takizawa, Norio; Wilson, Korey A; Smith, Tara C; Delprato, Anna; Davidson, Michael W; Lambright, David G; Luna, Elizabeth J

    2010-06-01

    In migrating cells, the cytoskeleton coordinates signal transduction and redistribution of transmembrane proteins, including integrins and growth factor receptors. Supervillin is an F-actin- and myosin II-binding protein that tightly associates with signaling proteins in cholesterol-rich, 'lipid raft' membrane microdomains. We show here that supervillin also can localize with markers for early and sorting endosomes (EE/SE) and with overexpressed components of the Arf6 recycling pathway in the cell periphery. Supervillin tagged with the photoswitchable fluorescent protein, tdEos, moves both into and away from dynamic structures resembling podosomes at the basal cell surface. Rapid integrin recycling from EE/SE is inhibited in supervillin-knockdown cells, but the rates of integrin endocytosis and recycling from the perinuclear recycling center (PNRC) are unchanged. A lack of synergy between supervillin knockdown and the actin filament barbed-end inhibitor, cytochalasin D, suggests that both treatments affect actin-dependent rapid recycling. Supervillin also enhances signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2 and increases the velocity of cell translocation. These results suggest that supervillin, F-actin and associated proteins coordinate a rapid, basolateral membrane recycling pathway that contributes to ERK signaling and actin-based cell motility.

  8. Annexin A5 is the Most Abundant Membrane-Associated Protein in Stereocilia but is Dispensable for Hair-Bundle Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Krey, Jocelyn F.; Drummond, Meghan; Foster, Sarah; Porsov, Edward; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Choi, Dongseok; Friderici, Karen; Jones, Sherri M.; Nuttall, Alfred L.; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    The phospholipid- and Ca2+-binding protein annexin A5 (ANXA5) is the most abundant membrane-associated protein of ~P23 mouse vestibular hair bundles, the inner ear’s sensory organelle. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we estimated that ANXA5 accounts for ~15,000 copies per stereocilium, or ~2% of the total protein there. Although seven other annexin genes are expressed in mouse utricles, mass spectrometry showed that none were present at levels near ANXA5 in bundles and none were upregulated in stereocilia of Anxa5−/− mice. Annexins have been proposed to mediate Ca2+-dependent repair of membrane lesions, which could be part of the repair mechanism in hair cells after noise damage. Nevertheless, mature Anxa5−/− mice not only have normal hearing and balance function, but following noise exposure, they are identical to wild-type mice in their temporary or permanent changes in hearing sensitivity. We suggest that despite the unusually high levels of ANXA5 in bundles, it does not play a role in the bundle’s key function, mechanotransduction, at least until after two months of age in the cochlea and six months of age in the vestibular system. These results reinforce the lack of correlation between abundance of a protein in a specific compartment or cellular structure and its functional significance. PMID:27251877

  9. A Fungal Sarcolemmal Membrane-Associated Protein (SLMAP) Homolog Plays a Fundamental Role in Development and Localizes to the Nuclear Envelope, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Nordzieke, Steffen; Zobel, Thomas; Fränzel, Benjamin; Wolters, Dirk A.

    2014-01-01

    Sarcolemmal membrane-associated protein (SLMAP) is a tail-anchored protein involved in fundamental cellular processes, such as myoblast fusion, cell cycle progression, and chromosomal inheritance. Further, SLMAP misexpression is associated with endothelial dysfunctions in diabetes and cancer. SLMAP is part of the conserved striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex required for specific signaling pathways in yeasts, filamentous fungi, insects, and mammals. In filamentous fungi, STRIPAK was initially discovered in Sordaria macrospora, a model system for fungal differentiation. Here, we functionally characterize the STRIPAK subunit PRO45, a homolog of human SLMAP. We show that PRO45 is required for sexual propagation and cell-to-cell fusion and that its forkhead-associated (FHA) domain is essential for these processes. Protein-protein interaction studies revealed that PRO45 binds to STRIPAK subunits PRO11 and SmMOB3, which are also required for sexual propagation. Superresolution structured-illumination microscopy (SIM) further established that PRO45 localizes to the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. SIM also showed that localization to the nuclear envelope requires STRIPAK subunits PRO11 and PRO22, whereas for mitochondria it does not. Taken together, our study provides important insights into fundamental roles of the fungal SLMAP homolog PRO45 and suggests STRIPAK-related and STRIPAK-unrelated functions. PMID:25527523

  10. Shedding of membrane-associated LDL receptor-related protein-1 from microglia amplifies and sustains neuro-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brifault, Coralie; Gilder, Andrew S; Laudati, Emilia; Banki, Michael; Gonias, Steven L

    2017-09-28

    In the CNS, microglia are activated in response to injury or infection and in neurodegenerative diseases. The endocytic and cell-signaling receptor, LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), is reported to suppress innate immunity in macrophages and oppose microglial activation. The goal of this study was to identify novel mechanisms by which LRP1 may regulate microglial activation. Using primary cultures of microglia isolated from mouse brains, we demonstrated that LRP1 gene-silencing increases expression of pro-inflammatory mediators; however, the observed response was modest. By contrast, the LRP1 ligand, receptor-associated protein (RAP), robustly activated microglia and its activity was attenuated in LRP1-deficient cells. An important element of the mechanism by which RAP activated microglia was its ability to cause LRP1 shedding from the plasma membrane. This process eliminated cellular LRP1, which is anti-inflammatory, and generated a soluble product, shed LRP1 (sLRP1), which is potently pro-inflammatory. Purified sLRP1 induced expression of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines and the mRNA encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase in both LRP1- expressing and -deficient microglia. LPS also stimulated LRP1 shedding, as did the heat shock protein and LRP1 ligand, calreticulin. Other LRP1 ligands, including α2-macroglobulin and tissue-type plasminogen activator, failed to cause LRP1 shedding. Treatment of microglia with a metalloproteinase inhibitor inhibited LRP1 shedding and significantly attenuated RAP-induced cytokine expression. RAP and sLRP1 both caused neuro-inflammation in vivo when administered by stereotaxic injection into mouse spinal cords. Collectively, these results suggest that LRP1 shedding from microglia may amplify and sustain neuro-inflammation in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. REDOR solid-state NMR as a probe of the membrane locations of membrane-associated peptides and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lihui; Liang, Shuang; Sackett, Kelly; Xie, Li; Ghosh, Ujjayini; Weliky, David P.

    2015-04-01

    Rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) solid-state NMR is applied to probe the membrane locations of specific residues of membrane proteins. Couplings are measured between protein 13CO nuclei and membrane lipid or cholesterol 2H and 31P nuclei. Specific 13CO labeling is used to enable unambiguous assignment and 2H labeling covers a small region of the lipid or cholesterol molecule. The 13CO-31P and 13CO-2H REDOR respectively probe proximity to the membrane headgroup region and proximity to specific insertion depths within the membrane hydrocarbon core. One strength of the REDOR approach is use of chemically-native proteins and membrane components. The conventional REDOR pulse sequence with 100 kHz 2H π pulses is robust with respect to the 2H quadrupolar anisotropy. The 2H T1's are comparable to the longer dephasing times (τ's) and this leads to exponential rather than sigmoidal REDOR buildups. The 13CO-2H buildups are well-fitted to A × (1 - e-γτ) where A and γ are fitting parameters that are correlated as the fraction of molecules (A) with effective 13CO-2H coupling d = 3γ/2. The REDOR approach is applied to probe the membrane locations of the "fusion peptide" regions of the HIV gp41 and influenza virus hemagglutinin proteins which both catalyze joining of the viral and host cell membranes during initial infection of the cell. The HIV fusion peptide forms an intermolecular antiparallel β sheet and the REDOR data support major deeply-inserted and minor shallowly-inserted molecular populations. A significant fraction of the influenza fusion peptide molecules form a tight hairpin with antiparallel N- and C-α helices and the REDOR data support a single peptide population with a deeply-inserted N-helix. The shared feature of deep insertion of the β and α fusion peptide structures may be relevant for fusion catalysis via the resultant local perturbation of the membrane bilayer. Future applications of the REDOR approach may include samples that contain cell

  12. Direct Membrane Association Drives Mitochondrial Fission by the Parkinson Disease-associated Protein α-Synuclein*♦

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Ken; Nemani, Venu M.; Azarbal, Farnaz; Skibinski, Gaia; Levy, Jon M.; Egami, Kiyoshi; Munishkina, Larissa; Zhang, Jue; Gardner, Brooke; Wakabayashi, Junko; Sesaki, Hiromi; Cheng, Yifan; Finkbeiner, Steven; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Masliah, Eliezer; Edwards, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    The protein α-synuclein has a central role in Parkinson disease, but the mechanism by which it contributes to neural degeneration remains unknown. We now show that the expression of α-synuclein in mammalian cells, including neurons in vitro and in vivo, causes the fragmentation of mitochondria. The effect is specific for synuclein, with more fragmentation by α- than β- or γ-isoforms, and it is not accompanied by changes in the morphology of other organelles or in mitochondrial membrane potential. However, mitochondrial fragmentation is eventually followed by a decline in respiration and neuronal death. The fragmentation does not require the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and involves a direct interaction of synuclein with mitochondrial membranes. In vitro, synuclein fragments artificial membranes containing the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin, and this effect is specific for the small oligomeric forms of synuclein. α-Synuclein thus exerts a primary and direct effect on the morphology of an organelle long implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. PMID:21489994

  13. Purification and Identification of a Plasma Membrane Associated Electron Transport Protein from Maize (Zea mays L.) Roots

    PubMed Central

    Luster, Douglas G.; Buckhout, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma membranes isolated from three-day-old maize (Zea mays L.) roots by aqueous two-phase partitioning were used as starting material for the purification of a novel electron transport enzyme. The detergent-solubilized enzyme was purified by dyeligand affinity chromatography on Cibacron blue 3G-A-agarose. Elution was achieved with a gradient of 0 to 30 micromolar NADH. The purified protein fraction exhibited a single 27 kilodalton silver nitrate-stained band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretograms. Staining intensity correlated with the enzyme activity profile when analyzed in affinity chromatography column fractions. The enzyme was capable of accepting electrons from NADPH or NADH to reduce either ferricyanide, juglone, duroquinone, or cytochrome c, but did not transfer electrons to ascorbate free-radical or nitrate. The high degree of purity of plasma membranes used as starting material as well as the demonstrated insensitivity to mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors confirmed the plasma membrane origin of this enzyme. The purified reductase was stimulated upon prolonged incubation with flavin mononucleotide suggesting that the enzyme may be a flavoprotein. Established effectors of plasma membrane electron transport systems had little effect on the purified enzyme, with the exception of the sulfhydryl inhibitor p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonate, which was a strong inhibitor of ferricyanide reducing activity. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667103

  14. Arabidopsis membrane-associated acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP1 is involved in stem cuticle formation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Shi; Kim, Juyoung; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Chen, Liang; Tanner, Julian A.; Suh, Mi Chung; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-anchored Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (AtACBP1) plays important roles in embryogenesis and abiotic stress responses, and interacts with long-chain (LC) acyl-CoA esters. Here, AtACBP1 function in stem cuticle formation was investigated. Transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP1pro::GUS construct revealed β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression on the stem (but not leaf) surface, suggesting a specific role in stem cuticle formation. Isothermal titration calorimetry results revealed that (His)6-tagged recombinant AtACBP1 interacts with LC acyl-CoA esters (18:1-, 18:2-, and 18:3-CoAs) and very-long-chain (VLC) acyl-CoA esters (24:0-, 25:0-, and 26:0-CoAs). VLC fatty acids have been previously demonstrated to act as precursors in wax biosynthesis. Gas chromatography (GC)–flame ionization detector (FID) and GC–mass spectrometry (MS) analyses revealed that an acbp1 mutant showed a reduction in stem and leaf cuticular wax and stem cutin monomer composition in comparison with the wild type (Col-0). Consequently, the acbp1 mutant showed fewer wax crystals on the stem surface in scanning electron microscopy and an irregular stem cuticle layer in transmission electron microscopy in comparison with the wild type. Also, the mutant stems consistently showed a decline in expression of cuticular wax and cutin biosynthetic genes in comparison with the wild type, and the mutant leaves were more susceptible to infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, these findings suggest that AtACBP1 participates in Arabidopsis stem cuticle formation by trafficking VLC acyl-CoAs. PMID:25053648

  15. Arabidopsis membrane-associated acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP1 is involved in stem cuticle formation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Shi; Kim, Juyoung; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Chen, Liang; Tanner, Julian A; Suh, Mi Chung; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-10-01

    The membrane-anchored Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (AtACBP1) plays important roles in embryogenesis and abiotic stress responses, and interacts with long-chain (LC) acyl-CoA esters. Here, AtACBP1 function in stem cuticle formation was investigated. Transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP1pro::GUS construct revealed β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression on the stem (but not leaf) surface, suggesting a specific role in stem cuticle formation. Isothermal titration calorimetry results revealed that (His)6-tagged recombinant AtACBP1 interacts with LC acyl-CoA esters (18:1-, 18:2-, and 18:3-CoAs) and very-long-chain (VLC) acyl-CoA esters (24:0-, 25:0-, and 26:0-CoAs). VLC fatty acids have been previously demonstrated to act as precursors in wax biosynthesis. Gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses revealed that an acbp1 mutant showed a reduction in stem and leaf cuticular wax and stem cutin monomer composition in comparison with the wild type (Col-0). Consequently, the acbp1 mutant showed fewer wax crystals on the stem surface in scanning electron microscopy and an irregular stem cuticle layer in transmission electron microscopy in comparison with the wild type. Also, the mutant stems consistently showed a decline in expression of cuticular wax and cutin biosynthetic genes in comparison with the wild type, and the mutant leaves were more susceptible to infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, these findings suggest that AtACBP1 participates in Arabidopsis stem cuticle formation by trafficking VLC acyl-CoAs.

  16. The effect of cholecystokinin on intracellular Ca2+, membrane-associated protein kinase-C activity, and progesterone production in chicken granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Morley, P; Wang, J; Vanderhyden, B C; Chakravarthy, B; Durkin, J; Whitefield, J F

    1993-11-01

    Nerve fibers immunoreactive for cholecystokinin (CCK) have been observed in the rat ovary, but the function of this gut peptide in the ovary is not known. These studies were designed to investigate the effects of the CCK C-terminal octapeptide (CCK-8) on the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i), protein kinase-C (PKC) activity, and progesterone secretion in granulosa cells obtained from the two largest preovulatory follicles (F1 and F2) of hens. [Ca2+]i was measured in cells loaded with the Ca(2+)-responsive fluorescent dye fura-2. The resting [Ca2+]i in these cells was 96 +/- 5 nM. There was a rapid (i.e. within 5-10 sec) 2- to 4-fold increase in [Ca2+]i in 70% of the cells examined after the addition of 10(-7) M CCK-8. The CCK-8-triggered [Ca2+]i transient was not affected by incubating the cells in Ca(2+)-free medium containing 2 mM EGTA or by pretreating the cells with a Ca2+ channel blocker, such as La3+ (1 mM) or D600 (100 microM). The CCK-8-triggered [Ca2+]i surge was abolished by pretreating the cells with the inhibitor of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, neomycin (1.5 mM), the CCK antagonists proglumide (1 mM) and benzotript (1 mM), or pertussis toxin (50 ng/ml for 12 h). Incubating granulosa cells with CCK-8 (2 x 10(-7) M) for 10 min stimulated a 1.60 +/- 0.04-fold increase in membrane-associated PKC activity over control levels. In 3-h incubations, CCK-8 (10(-6)-10(-8) M) did not affect basal or LH (20 or 100 ng/ml-stimulated progesterone production. These studies demonstrate that CCK-8 causes a transient increase in chicken granulosa cell [Ca2+]i through the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and activates membrane-associated PKC activity, but does not affect progesterone production. These results suggest the presence of G-protein-coupled phospholipase-C-activating CCK receptors on the surface of these cells.

  17. [Expression Level of Membrane-associated Proteins Numb in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma and Its Relationship with Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell Markers CD117, CD133, ALDH1.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hong; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Ya-Li; Bai, Li-Ping; Zheng, Ai

    2016-11-01

    To explore the expression level of membrane-associated protein Numb in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and its relationship with ovarian cancer stem cell markers CD117,CD133,acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1(ALDH1). A total of 136 patients who had ovarian tumors and 22 patients who had not ovarian tumors in Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics,West China Second University Hospital,Sichuan University were chosen as the study subjects.According to the histopathologic examination results,they were divided into epithelial ovarian carcinoma group (n=92),ovarian borderline tumor group (n=23),ovarian benign tumor group (n=21) and normal ovary group (n=22).Expression levels of Numb protein,CD117,CD133 and ALDH1 in ovarian tissue were detected by immunohistochemical SP method and these several kinds of protein expression differences and correlation statistical analysis were performend. 1 The positive expression rate of Numb protein in epithelial ovarian carcinoma group was higher than that in benign tumor or normal ovary group,also Numb protein positive expression rate in ovarian borderline tumor group was higher than that in normal ovary group,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).2 Numb protein positive expression rate in ovarian tissue in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma FIGO stage1-2 was lower than that in stage 3-4,also the same in no lymph nodes metastasis compared with lymph nodes invasion,and the differences of positive expression rate were statistically significant (P<0.05).While there were no significant differences among different age,histopathological types,pathological grades and residual tumor size (P>0.05).3 There was no correlation between Numb protein and CD117 and CD133 positive expression rate in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissue [correlation coefficient (r)=0.116,P=0.261; r=0.083,P=0.425].However,the positive expression rate of Numb protein and ALDH1 was positively correlated (r=0.296,P=0.261). The expression of Numb protein

  18. Cloning and Expression of an Immunogenic Membrane-Associated Protein of Helicobacter hepaticus for Use in an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Robert S.; Riley, Lela K.; Hook, Reuel R.; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L.; Franklin, Craig L.

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus is a bacterial pathogen that causes chronic active hepatitis and inflammatory bowel disease in mice. The purpose of this study was to develop a recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect H. hepaticus-infected mice. A genomic library of H. hepaticus was constructed and was screened with sera from H. hepaticus-infected mice. A 459-bp open reading frame that coded for an 18-kDa immunoreactive protein, MAP18, was identified. The gene had high identity with genes coding for outer membrane proteins of other bacteria, and the predicted amino acid sequence of MAP18 had a putative membrane-trafficking signal sequence and a putative signal peptidase II cleavage site. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein, GST-MAP18, and purified by affinity chromatography. The 44-kDa fusion protein was detected on Western blots probed with sera from H. hepaticus-infected mice but was not detected on blots probed with sera from mice infected with Helicobacter muridarum or Helicobacter bilis or with sera from mice free of Helicobacter infection. The GST-MAP18 fusion protein was used as an antigen in an ELISA to detect anti-H. hepaticus antibodies in sera from infected mice. This ELISA was compared to an H. hepaticus-specific ELISA that uses a detergent extract of H. hepaticus as the antigen. Sera from mice naturally and experimentally infected with H. hepaticus, H. bilis, or H. muridarum and sera from mice free of Helicobacter infection were evaluated. Both ELISAs performed with a high specificity (98%); however, the detergent extract-based ELISA performed with a higher sensitivity (89%) than the recombinant protein-based ELISA (sensitivity, 66%). These data indicate that H. hepaticus carries a gene that encodes an immunogenic 18-kDa membrane-associated protein; however, antibodies to this protein are not detected in all infected mice. PMID:10473529

  19. Deletion of the Vaccinia Virus I2 Protein Interrupts Virion Morphogenesis, Leading to Retention of the Scaffold Protein and Mislocalization of Membrane-Associated Entry Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seong-In; Weisberg, Andrea; Moss, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    The I2L open reading frame of vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes a conserved 72-amino-acid protein with a putative C-terminal transmembrane domain. Previous studies with a tetracycline-inducible mutant demonstrated that I2-deficient virions are defective in cell entry. The purpose of the present study was to determine the step of replication or entry that is affected by loss of the I2 protein. Fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that I2 colocalized with a major membrane protein of immature and mature virions. We generated a cell line that constitutively expressed I2 and allowed construction of the VACV I2L deletion mutant vΔI2. As anticipated, vΔI2 was unable to replicate in cells that did not express I2. Unexpectedly, morphogenesis was interrupted at a stage after immature virion formation, resulting in the accumulation of dense spherical particles instead of brick-shaped mature virions with well-defined core structures. The abnormal particles retained the D13 scaffold protein of immature virions, were severely deficient in the transmembrane proteins that comprise the entry fusion complex (EFC), and had increased amounts of unprocessed membrane and core proteins. Total lysates of cells infected with vΔI2 also had diminished EFC proteins due to instability attributed to their hydrophobicity and failure to be inserted into viral membranes. A similar instability of EFC proteins had previously been found with unrelated mutants blocked earlier in morphogenesis that also accumulated viral membranes retaining the D13 scaffold. We concluded that I2 is required for virion morphogenesis, release of the D13 scaffold, and the association of EFC proteins with viral membranes.IMPORTANCE Poxviruses comprise a large family that infect vertebrates and invertebrates, cause disease in both in humans and in wild and domesticated animals, and are being engineered as vectors for vaccines and cancer therapy. In addition, investigations of poxviruses have provided insights into many

  20. High-resolution Structures of Protein-Membrane Complexes by Neutron Reflection and MD Simulation: Membrane Association of the PTEN Tumor Suppressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lösche, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    The lipid matrix of biomembranes is an in-plane fluid, thermally and compositionally disordered leaflet of 5 nm thickness and notoriously difficult to characterize in structural terms. Yet, biomembranes are ubiquitous in the cell, and membrane-bound proteins are implicated in a variety of signaling pathways and intra-cellular transport. We developed methodology to study proteins associated with model membranes using neutron reflection measurements and showed recently that this approach can resolve the penetration depth and orientation of membrane proteins with ångstrom resolution if their crystal or NMR structure is known. Here we apply this technology to determine the membrane bindung and unravel functional details of the PTEN phosphatase, a key player in the PI3K apoptosis pathway. PTEN is an important regulatory protein and tumor suppressor that performs its phosphatase activity as an interfacial enzyme at the plasma membrane-cytoplasm boundary. Acting as an antagonist to phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) in cell signaling, it is deleted in many human cancers. Despite its importance in regulating the levels of the phosphoinositoltriphosphate PI(3,4,5)P3, there is little understanding of how PTEN binds to membranes, is activated and then acts as a phosphatase. We investigated the structure and function of PTEN by studying its membrane affinity and localization on in-plane fluid, thermally disordered synthetic membrane models. The membrane association of the protein depends strongly on membrane composition, where phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) act synergetically in attracting the enzyme to the membrane surface. Membrane affinities depend strongly on membrane fluidity, which suggests multiple binding sites on the protein for PI(4,5)P2. Neutron reflection measurements show that the PTEN phosphatase ``scoots'' along the membrane surface (penetration < 5 å) but binds the membrane tightly with its two major domains, the C2 and

  1. Pinellia pedatisecta Agglutinin Targets Drug Resistant K562/ADR Leukemia Cells through Binding with Sarcolemmal Membrane Associated Protein and Enhancing Macrophage Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kan; Yang, Xinyan; Wu, Liqin; Yu, Meilan; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Na; Wang, Shuanghui; Li, Gongchu

    2013-01-01

    Pinelliapedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) has previously been used in labeling fractions of myeloid leukemia cells in our laboratory. We report here that a bacterial expressed recombinant PPA domain b tagged with soluble coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (sCAR-PPAb) preferentially recognized drug resistant cancer cells K562/ADR and H460/5Fu, as compared to their parental cell lines. Pretreatment of K562/ADR cells with sCAR-PPAb significantly enhanced phagocytosis of K562/ADR by macrophages in vivo. Meanwhile, in a K562/ADR xenograft model, intratumoral injection of sCAR-PPAb induced macrophage infiltration and phagocytosis. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and Western blot identified the membrane target of PPA on K562/ADR as sarcolemmal membrane associated protein (SLMAP). An antibody against SLMAP significantly promoted the phagocytosis of K562/ADR by macrophages in vitro. These findings suggest that PPA not only could be developed into a novel agent that can detect drug resistant cancer cells and predict chemotherapy outcome, but also it has potential value in immunotherapy against drug resistant cancer cells through inducing the tumoricidal activity of macrophages. PMID:24019967

  2. Role of antigen-presenting cells in activation of human T cells by the streptococcal M protein superantigen: requirement for secreted and membrane-associated costimulatory factors.

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, G; Ohnishi, H; Tomai, M A; Geller, A M; Wang, B; Dockter, M E; Kotb, M

    1993-01-01

    The requirements for T-cell activation by the streptococcal superantigen (SAg), pepsin-extracted M protein from type 5 streptococci (pep M5), were studied by monitoring Ca2+ influx and cell proliferation. Cells from a pep M5-specific T-cell line showed no change in intracellular Ca2+ levels in response to pep M5 when added alone or with freshly isolated autologous antigen-presenting cells (APC). However, after being incubated with pep M5 overnight, the APC secreted soluble factors that together with pep M5 induced a marked increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels in pep M5-specific T cells or freshly isolated, purified T cells. Removal of the SAg from the overnight APC-derived supernatants resulted in loss of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing activity, which was restored within seconds of addition of SAg, suggesting that both the SAg and the soluble factors synergize to induce the Ca2+ influx. Induction of cell proliferation required additional signals inasmuch as the activated APC-derived supernatant failed to synergize with pep M5 to induce the proliferation of purified T cells and required the presence of phorbol myristate acetate for this activity. Metabolically inactive, fixed APC were impaired in their ability to present pep M5 to T cells. Presentation of pep M5 by fixed APC was, however, restored when the APC-derived soluble costimulatory factors were added to the culture. Our data suggest that pep M5-induced activation of T cells is dependent on APC-derived soluble factors and an APC membrane-associated costimulatory molecule(s). These interactions may be important in regulating the in vivo responses to M proteins, could contribute to the severity or progression of infections with Streptococcus pyogenes, and may influence the susceptibility of individuals to its associated nonsuppurative autoimmune sequelae. PMID:8423107

  3. Anchorage mediated by integrin alpha6beta4 to laminin 5 (epiligrin) regulates tyrosine phosphorylation of a membrane-associated 80-kD protein

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Detachment of basal keratinocytes from basement membrane signals a differentiation cascade. Two integrin receptors alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 mediate adhesion to laminin 5 (epiligrin), a major extracellular matrix protein in the basement membrane of epidermis. By establishing a low temperature adhesion system at 4 degrees C, we were able to examine the exclusive role of alpha6beta4 in adhesion of human foreskin keratinocyte (HFK) and the colon carcinoma cell LS123. We identified a novel 80-kD membrane-associated protein (p80) that is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to dissociation of alpha6beta4 from laminin 5. The specificity of p80 phosphorylation for laminin 5 and alpha6beta4 was illustrated by the lack of regulation of p80 phosphorylation on collagen, fibronectin, or poly-L-lysine surfaces. We showed that blocking of alpha3beta1 function using inhibitory mAbs, low temperature, or cytochalasin D diminished tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase but not p80 phosphorylation. Therefore, under our assay conditions, p80 phosphorylation is regulated by alpha6beta4, while motility via alpha3beta1 causes phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. Consistent with a linkage between p80 dephosphorylation and alpha6beta4 anchorage to laminin 5, we found that phosphatase inhibitor sodium vanadate, which blocked the p80 dephosphorylation, prevented the alpha6beta4-dependent cell anchorage to laminin 5 at 4degreesC. In contrast, adhesion at 37 degrees C via alpha3beta1 was unaffected. Furthermore, by in vitro kinase assay, we identified a kinase activity for p80 phosphorylation in suspended HFKs but not in attached cells. The kinase activity, alpha6beta4, and its associated adhesion structure stable anchoring contacts were all cofractionated in the Triton- insoluble cell fraction that lacks alpha3beta1. Thus, regulation of p80 phosphorylation, through the activities of p80 kinase and phosphatase, correlates with alpha6beta4-SAC anchorage to laminin 5 at 4

  4. The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) C terminus plays a key role in protein stability, but its farnesylation is not required for membrane association in primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Paul; Rubin, Philip; Thomson, Andrew R; Rocca, Dan; Henley, Jeremy M

    2014-12-26

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that is highly expressed in neurons. A possible role for UCH-L1 in neurodegeneration has been highlighted because of its presence in Lewy bodies associated with Parkinson disease and neurofibrillary tangles observed in Alzheimer disease. UCH-L1 exists in two forms in neurons, a soluble cytoplasmic form (UCH-L1(C)) and a membrane-associated form (UCH-L1(M)). Alzheimer brains show reduced levels of soluble UCH-L1(C) correlating with the formation of UCH-L1-immunoreactive tau tangles, whereas UCH-L1(M) has been implicated in α-synuclein dysfunction. Given these reports of divergent roles, we investigated the properties of UCH-L1 membrane association. Surprisingly, our results indicate that UCH-L1 does not partition to the membrane in the cultured cell lines we tested. Furthermore, in primary cultured neurons, a proportion of UCH-L1(M) does partition to the membrane, but, contrary to a previous report, this does not require farnesylation. Deletion of the four C-terminal residues caused the loss of protein solubility, abrogation of substrate binding, increased cell death, and an abnormal intracellular distribution, consistent with protein dysfunction and aggregation. These data indicate that UCH-L1 is differently processed in neurons compared with clonal cell lines and that farnesylation does not account for the membrane association in neurons.

  5. Gene sequence and predicted amino acid sequence of the motA protein, a membrane-associated protein required for flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, G E; Macnab, R M; Stader, J; Matsumura, P; Burks, C

    1984-01-01

    The motA and motB gene products of Escherichia coli are integral membrane proteins necessary for flagellar rotation. We determined the DNA sequence of the region containing the motA gene and its promoter. Within this sequence, there is an open reading frame of 885 nucleotides, which with high probability (98% confidence level) meets criteria for a coding sequence. The 295-residue amino acid translation product had a molecular weight of 31,974, in good agreement with the value determined experimentally by gel electrophoresis. The amino acid sequence, which was quite hydrophobic, was subjected to a theoretical analysis designed to predict membrane-spanning alpha-helical segments of integral membrane proteins; four such hydrophobic helices were predicted by this treatment. Additional amphipathic helices may also be present. A remarkable feature of the sequence is the existence of two segments of high uncompensated charge density, one positive and the other negative. Possible organization of the protein in the membrane is discussed. Asymmetry in the amino acid composition of translated DNA sequences was used to distinguish between two possible initiation codons. The use of this method as a criterion for authentication of coding regions is described briefly in an Appendix. PMID:6090403

  6. Conformational choreography of a molecular switch region in myelin basic protein--molecular dynamics shows induced folding and secondary structure type conversion upon threonyl phosphorylation in both aqueous and membrane-associated environments.

    PubMed

    Polverini, Eugenia; Coll, Eoin P; Tieleman, D Peter; Harauz, George

    2011-03-01

    The 18.5 kDa isoform of myelin basic protein is essential to maintaining the close apposition of myelin membranes in central nervous system myelin, but its intrinsic disorder (conformational dependence on environment), a variety of post-translational modifications, and a diversity of protein ligands (e.g., actin and tubulin) all indicate it to be multifunctional. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of a conserved central segment of 18.5 kDa myelin basic protein (residues Glu80-Gly103, murine sequence numbering) in aqueous and membrane-associated environments to ascertain the stability of constituent secondary structure elements (α-helix from Glu80-Val91 and extended poly-proline type II from Thr92-Gly103) and the effects of phosphorylation of residues Thr92 and Thr95, individually and together. In aqueous solution, all four forms of the peptide bent in the middle to form a hydrophobic cluster. The phosphorylated variants were stabilized further by electrostatic interactions and formation of β-structures, in agreement with previous spectroscopic data. In simulations performed with the peptide in association with a dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer, the amphipathic α-helical segment remained stable and membrane-associated, although the degree of penetration was less in the phosphorylated variants, and the tilt of the α-helix with respect to the plane of the membrane also changed significantly with the modifications. The extended segment adjacent to this α-helix represents a putative SH3-ligand and remained exposed to the cytoplasm (and thus accessible to binding partners). The results of these simulations demonstrate how this segment of the protein can act as a molecular switch: an amphipathic α-helical segment of the protein is membrane-associated and presents a subsequent proline-rich segment to the cytoplasm for interaction with other proteins. Phosphorylation of threonyl residues alters the degree of membrane penetration of the

  7. Mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 of the HIV-1 p6 gag protein to Phe causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch, enhances membrane association, and polyubiquitination of Gag.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Friedrich; Setz, Christian; Friedrich, Melanie; Rauch, Pia; Solbak, Sara Marie; Frøystein, Nils Age; Henklein, Petra; Votteler, Jörg; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2014-10-02

    The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein contains two late assembly (l-) domains that recruit proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway to mediate membrane fission between the nascent virion and the cell membrane. It was recently demonstrated that mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 to Phe (S40F) disturbs CA-SP1 processing, virus morphogenesis, and infectivity. It also causes the formation of filopodia-like structures, while virus release remains unaffected. Here, we show that the mutation S40F, but not the conservative mutation to Asp (S40D) or Asn (S40N), augments membrane association, K48-linked polyubiquitination, entry into the 26S proteasome, and, consequently, enhances MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag derived epitopes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure analyses revealed that the newly introduced Phe-40, together with Tyr-36, causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch at the C-terminal α-helix of p6, providing a molecular rationale for the enhanced membrane association of Gag observed in vitro and in HIV-1 expressing cells. The extended exposure of the S40F mutant to unidentified membrane-resident ubiquitin E3-ligases might trigger the polyubiquitination of Gag. The cumulative data support a previous model of a so far undefined property of p6, which, in addition to MA, acts as membrane targeting domain of Gag.

  8. Mutation of the Highly Conserved Ser-40 of the HIV-1 p6 Gag Protein to Phe Causes the Formation of a Hydrophobic Patch, Enhances Membrane Association, and Polyubiquitination of Gag

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Friedrich; Setz, Christian; Friedrich, Melanie; Rauch, Pia; Solbak, Sara Marie; Frøystein, Nils Åge; Henklein, Petra; Votteler, Jörg; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein contains two late assembly (l-) domains that recruit proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway to mediate membrane fission between the nascent virion and the cell membrane. It was recently demonstrated that mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 to Phe (S40F) disturbs CA-SP1 processing, virus morphogenesis, and infectivity. It also causes the formation of filopodia-like structures, while virus release remains unaffected. Here, we show that the mutation S40F, but not the conservative mutation to Asp (S40D) or Asn (S40N), augments membrane association, K48-linked polyubiquitination, entry into the 26S proteasome, and, consequently, enhances MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag derived epitopes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure analyses revealed that the newly introduced Phe-40, together with Tyr-36, causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch at the C-terminal α-helix of p6, providing a molecular rationale for the enhanced membrane association of Gag observed in vitro and in HIV-1 expressing cells. The extended exposure of the S40F mutant to unidentified membrane-resident ubiquitin E3-ligases might trigger the polyubiquitination of Gag. The cumulative data support a previous model of a so far undefined property of p6, which, in addition to MA, acts as membrane targeting domain of Gag. PMID:25279819

  9. Plasma membrane-associated platforms: dynamic scaffolds that organize membrane-associated events.

    PubMed

    Astro, Veronica; de Curtis, Ivan

    2015-03-10

    Specialized regions of the plasma membrane dedicated to diverse cellular processes, such as vesicle exocytosis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and cell migration, share a few cytosolic scaffold proteins that associate to form large plasma membrane-associated platforms (PMAPs). PMAPs organize signaling events and trafficking of membranes and molecules at specific membrane domains. On the basis of the intrinsic disorder of the proteins constituting the core of these PMAPs and of the dynamics of these structures at the periphery of motile cells, we propose a working model for the assembly and turnover of these platforms. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Open and closed conformations of two SpoIIAA-like proteins (YP_749275.1 and YP_001095227.1) provide insights into membrane association and ligand binding

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhinav; Lomize, Andrei; Jin, Kevin K.; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structures of the proteins encoded by the YP_749275.1 and YP_001095227.1 genes from Shewanella frigidimarina and S. loihica, respectively, have been determined at 1.8 and 2.25 Å resolution, respectively. These proteins are members of a novel family of bacterial proteins that adopt the α/β SpoIIAA-like fold found in STAS and CRAL-TRIO domains. Despite sharing 54% sequence identity, these two proteins adopt distinct conformations arising from different dispositions of their α2 and α3 helices. In the ‘open’ conformation (YP_001095227.1), these helices are 15 Å apart, leading to the creation of a deep nonpolar cavity. In the ‘closed’ structure (YP_749275.1), the helices partially unfold and rearrange, occluding the cavity and decreasing the solvent-exposed hydrophobic surface. These two complementary structures are reminiscent of the conformational switch in CRAL-TRIO carriers of hydrophobic compounds. It is suggested that both proteins may associate with the lipid bilayer in their ‘open’ monomeric state by inserting their amphiphilic helices, α2 and α3, into the lipid bilayer. These bacterial proteins may function as carriers of nonpolar substances or as interfacially activated enzymes. PMID:20944218

  11. Identification of a human cDNA sequence which encodes a novel membrane-associated protein containing a zinc metalloprotease motif.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ying-Chun; Tsuruga, Hiromichi; Hirai, Momoki; Yasuda, Kazuki; Yokoi, Norihide; Kitamura, Toshio; Kumagai, Hidetoshi

    2003-06-30

    We report the cloning and characterization of a human cDNA predicted to encode a novel hydrophobic protein containing four transmembrane domains and a zinc metalloprotease motif, HEXXH, between the third and fourth transmembrane domains, and have named the molecule metalloprotease-related protein-1 (MPRP-1). The MPRP-1 gene was localized to chromosome 1-p32.3 by radiation hybrid mapping, and Northern blot analysis revealed expression in many organs, with strong expression in the heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and liver. Immunohistochemical analyisis showed that MPRP-1 was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and not in the Golgi compartment. Fragments of DNA encoding a segment homologous to the HEXXH motif of MPRP-1 are widely found in bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals. These results suggest that the MPRP-1 may have highly conserved functions, such as in intracellular proteolytic processing in the ER.

  12. A membrane-associated movement protein of Pelargonium flower break virus shows RNA-binding activity and contains a biologically relevant leucine zipper-like motif.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; Hernández, Carmen

    2011-05-10

    Two small viral proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2) have been proposed to act in a concerted manner to aid intra- and intercellular trafficking of carmoviruses though the distribution of functions and mode of action of each protein partner are not yet clear. Here we have confirmed the requirement of the DGBps of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), p7 and p12, for pathogen movement. Studies focused on p12 have shown that it associates to cellular membranes, which is in accordance to its hydrophobic profile and to that reported for several homologs. However, peculiarities that distinguish p12 from other DGBps2 have been found. Firstly, it contains a leucine zipper-like motif which is essential for virus infectivity in plants. Secondly, it has an unusually long and basic N-terminal region that confers RNA binding activity. The results suggest that PFBV p12 may differ mechanistically from related proteins and possible roles of PFBV DGBps are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fras1, a basement membrane-associated protein mutated in Fraser syndrome, mediates both the initiation of the mammalian kidney and the integrity of renal glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Pitera, Jolanta E; Scambler, Peter J; Woolf, Adrian S

    2008-12-15

    FRAS1 is mutated in some individuals with Fraser syndrome (FS) and the encoded protein is expressed in embryonic epidermal cells, localizing in their basement membrane (BM). Syndactyly and cryptophthalmos in FS are sequelae of skin fragility but the bases for associated kidney malformations are unclear. We demonstrate that Fras1 is expressed in the branching ureteric bud (UB), and that renal agenesis occurs in homozygous Fras1 null mutant blebbed (bl) mice on a C57BL6J background. In vivo, the bl/bl bud fails to invade metanephric mesenchyme which undergoes involution, events replicated in organ culture. The expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and growth-differentiation factor 11 was defective in bl/bl renal primordia in vivo, whereas, in culture, the addition of either growth factor restored bud invasion into the mesenchyme. Mutant primordia also showed deficient expression of Hoxd11 and Six2 transcription factors, whereas the activity of bone morphogenetic protein 4, an anti-branching molecule, was upregulated. In wild types, Fras1 was also expressed by nascent nephrons. Foetal glomerular podocytes expressed Fras1 transcripts and Fras1 immunolocalized in a glomerular BM-like pattern. On a mixed background, bl mutants, and also compound mutants for bl and my, another bleb strain, sometimes survive into adulthood. These mice have two kidneys, which contain subsets of glomeruli with perturbed nephrin, podocin, integrin alpha3 and fibronectin expression. Thus, Fras1 protein coats branching UB epithelia and is strikingly upregulated in the nephron lineage after mesenchymal/epithelial transition. Fras1 deficiency causes defective interactions between the bud and mesenchyme, correlating with disturbed expression of key nephrogenic molecules. Furthermore, Fras1 may also be required for the formation of normal glomeruli.

  14. A device for the measurement of residual chemical shift anisotropy and residual dipolar coupling in soluble and membrane-associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yizhou

    2010-01-01

    Residual dipolar coupling (RDC) and residual chemical shift anisotropy (RCSA) report on orientational properties of a dipolar bond vector and a chemical shift anisotropy principal axis system, respectively. They can be highly complementary in the analysis of backbone structure and dynamics in proteins as RCSAs generally include a report on vectors out of a peptide plane while RDCs usually report on in-plane vectors. Both RDC and RCSA average to zero in isotropic solutions and require partial orientation in a magnetic field to become observable. While the alignment and measurement of RDC has become routine, that of RCSA is less common. This is partly due to difficulties in providing a suitable isotopic reference spectrum for the measurement of the small chemical shift offsets coming from RCSA. Here we introduce a device (modified NMR tube) specifically designed for accurate measurement of reference and aligned spectra for RCSA measurements, but with a capacity for RDC measurements as well. Applications to both soluble and membrane anchored proteins are illustrated. PMID:20506033

  15. A plasma membrane-associated protein of Arabidopsis thaliana AtPCaP1 binds copper ions and changes its higher order structure.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki-Takeuchi, Nahoko; Miyano, Masashi; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2008-10-01

    PCaP1, a hydrophilic cation-binding protein, is bound to the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis thaliana. We focused on the physicochemical properties of PCaP1 to understand its uniqueness in terms of structure and binding of metal ions. On fluorescence analysis, PCaP1 showed a signal of structural change in the presence of Cu(2+). The near-UV CD spectra showed a marked change of PCaP1 in CuCl(2) solution. The far-UV CD spectra showed the presence of alpha-helices and the intrinsically unstructured region. However, addition of Cu(2+) gave no change in the far-UV CD spectra. These results indicate that Cu(2+) induced a change in the tertiary structure without changing the secondary structure. The protein was sensitive to proteinase in the presence of Cu(2+), supporting that Cu(2+) is involved in the structural change. The PCaP1 solution was titrated with CuCl(2) and the change in the fluorescence spectrum was monitored to characterize Cu(2+)-binding properties. The obtained values of K(d) for Cu(2+) and the ligand-binding number were 10 microM and six ions per molecule, respectively. These findings indicate that PCaP1 has a high Cu(2+)-binding capacity with a relatively high affinity. PCaP1 lacks cysteine and histidine residues. A large number of glutamate residues may be involved in the Cu(2+) binding.

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein M and the Membrane-Associated Protein UL11 Are Required for Virus-Induced Cell Fusion and Efficient Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Joong; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Walker, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) facilitates virus entry into cells and cell-to-cell spread by mediating fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes and fusion of adjacent cellular membranes. Although virus strains isolated from herpetic lesions cause limited cell fusion in cell culture, clinical herpetic lesions typically contain large syncytia, underscoring the importance of cell-to-cell fusion in virus spread in infected tissues. Certain mutations in glycoprotein B (gB), gK, UL20, and other viral genes drastically enhance virus-induced cell fusion in vitro and in vivo. Recent work has suggested that gB is the sole fusogenic glycoprotein, regulated by interactions with the viral glycoproteins gD, gH/gL, and gK, membrane protein UL20, and cellular receptors. Recombinant viruses were constructed to abolish either gM or UL11 expression in the presence of strong syncytial mutations in either gB or gK. Virus-induced cell fusion caused by deletion of the carboxyl-terminal 28 amino acids of gB or the dominant syncytial mutation in gK (Ala to Val at amino acid 40) was drastically reduced in the absence of gM. Similarly, syncytial mutations in either gB or gK did not cause cell fusion in the absence of UL11. Neither the gM nor UL11 gene deletion substantially affected gB, gC, gD, gE, and gH glycoprotein synthesis and expression on infected cell surfaces. Two-way immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the membrane protein UL20, which is found as a protein complex with gK, interacted with gM while gM did not interact with other viral glycoproteins. Viruses produced in the absence of gM or UL11 entered into cells more slowly than their parental wild-type virus strain. Collectively, these results indicate that gM and UL11 are required for efficient membrane fusion events during virus entry and virus spread. PMID:23678175

  17. pH-Dependent Vesicle Fusion Induced by the Ectodomain of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Membrane Fusion Protein gp41: Two Kinetically Distinct Processes and Fully-Membrane-Associated gp41 with Predominant β Sheet Fusion Peptide Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Ratnayake, Punsisi U.; Sackett, Kelly; Nethercott, Matthew J.; Weliky, David P.

    2014-01-01

    The gp41 protein of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) catalyzes fusion between HIV and host cell membranes. The ~180-residue ectodomain of gp41 is outside the virion and is the most important gp41 region for membrane fusion. The ectodomain consists of an apolar fusion peptide (FP) region followed by N-heptad repeat (NHR), loop, and C-heptad repeat (CHR) regions. The FP is critical for fusion and is hypothesized to bind to the host cell membrane. Large ectodomain constructs either with or without the FP are highly aggregated at physiologic pH but soluble in the pH 3–4 range with hyperthermostable hairpin structure with antiparallel NHR and CHR helices. The present study focuses on the large gp41 ectodomain constructs “Hairpin” (HP) containing NHR+loop+CHR and “FP-Hairpin” (FP-HP) containing FP+NHR+loop+CHR. Both proteins induce rapid and extensive fusion of anionic vesicles at pH 4 where the protein is positively-charged but do not induce fusion at pH 7 where the protein is negatively charged. This observation, along with lack of fusion of neutral vesicles at either pH supports the significance of attractive protein/membrane electrostatics in fusion. The functional role of the hydrophobic FP is supported by increases in the rate and extent of fusion for FP-HP relative to HP. There are two kinetically distinct fusion processes at pH 4: (1) a faster ~100 ms−1 process with rate strongly positively correlated with vesicle charge; and (2) a slower ~5 ms−1 process with extent strongly inversely correlated with this charge. The faster charge-dependent process is likely related to the electrostatic energy released upon initial monomer protein binding to the vesicle. After dissipation of this energy, the subsequent slower process is likely due to the equilibrium membrane-associated structure of the protein. The slower process may be more physiologically relevant because HIV/host cell fusion occurs at physiologic pH with gp41 restricted to the narrow region

  18. Phorbol ester stimulates membrane association of protein kinase C and inhibits spontaneous Ca/sup 2 +/ dependent sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca/sup 2 +/ release in rat cardiac cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capogrossi, M.C.; Kaku, T.; Filburn, C.H.; Pelto, D.J.; Hansford, R.G.; Lakatta, E.G.

    1986-03-01

    Spontaneous oscillatory Ca/sup 2 +/ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) occurs in rat cardiac myocytes at hyperpolarized membrane potentials and is manifested as contractile waves (W). W frequency varies with SR functional status and cell Ca/sup 2 +/ loading. In myocyte suspensions (Hepes buffer, 37/sup 0/C (Ca/sup 2 +/) = 1.0mM) phorbol myristate acetate, PMA, (10/sup -7/ M) increased protein kinase C activity in membranes as a fraction of total (PKCAM) fivefold with a t 1/2 of < 30 sec (n = 3) and decreased W frequency in individual myocytes (n = 8). This effect varied directly and linearly with baseline W frequency, r = .94, p < .001). Dioctanoyl glycerol (10 ..mu.. M) had a similar effect on W. The PMA effect to decrease W frequency could be a direct one on SR or result from a reduction in cell Ca/sup 2 +/. The time course of PKCAM change is sufficiently rapid for it to mediate the effect on W. Thus, enhanced PKCAM may exert negative feedback control on Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization during ..cap alpha..-adrenergic stimulation.

  19. Malaria Parasite CLAG3, a Protein Linked to Nutrient Channels, Participates in High Molecular Weight Membrane-Associated Complexes in the Infected Erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Zainabadi, Kayvan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria infected erythrocytes show increased permeability to a number of solutes important for parasite growth as mediated by the Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel (PSAC). The P. falciparum clag3 genes have recently been identified as key determinants of PSAC, though exactly how they contribute to channel function and whether additional host/parasite proteins are required remain unknown. To begin to answer these questions, I have taken a biochemical approach. Here I have used an epitope-tagged CLAG3 parasite to perform co-immunoprecipitation experiments using membrane fractions of infected erythrocytes. Native PAGE and mass spectrometry studies reveal that CLAG3 participate in at least three different high molecular weight complexes: a ~720kDa complex consisting of CLAG3, RHOPH2 and RHOPH3; a ~620kDa complex consisting of CLAG3 and RHOPH2; and a ~480kDa complex composed solely of CLAG3. Importantly, these complexes can be found throughout the parasite lifecycle but are absent in untransfected controls. Extracellular biotin labeling and protease susceptibility studies localize the 480kDa complex to the erythrocyte membrane. This complex, likely composed of a homo-oligomer of 160kDa CLAG3, may represent a functional subunit, possibly the pore, of PSAC. PMID:27299521

  20. Structural Requirements for Recognition of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II by Membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) Protein E3 Ligases*

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Martin; Trowsdale, John; Kelly, Adrian P.

    2012-01-01

    MARCH E3 ligases play a key role in controlling MHC class II surface expression by regulated ubiquitination of a lysine residue in the β-chain. Little is known concerning how these enzymes target their specific substrates. Here we show that recognition of HLA-DR by MARCH proteins is complex. Several features associated with the transmembrane domain and bordering regions influence the overall efficiency of receptor internalization. A cluster of residues at the interface of the lipid bilayer and the cytosol plays the most important role in MARCH8 recognition of HLA-DRβ. Variation in this sequence also determines specificity of MARCH9 for HLA-DQ. Residues located in helical face four of HLA-DRβ together with a charged residue at the boundary with the stalk region also contribute significantly to recognition. Truncation analysis suggested that a dileucine-like motif in the DRβ cytoplasmic tail influences the efficiency of co-localization of HLA-DR with MARCH8. The DRβ-encoded acceptor lysine functioned optimally when placed in its natural location relative to the bilayer. In the DRα/DRβ dimer most other amino acids in the cytoplasmic tail could be substituted for alanine with minimal influence on function. Our data support a model whereby multiple features of HLA-DR are involved in substrate recognition by MARCH8. The single most important region is located at the interface between the transmembrane domain and the cytosol. Variation in sequence in this location between different class II isotypes controls efficiency of recognition by different MARCH E3 ligases. PMID:22761441

  1. Retraction: 'An ~400 kDa membrane-associated complex that contains one molecule of the resistance protein Cf-4' by Susana Rivas, Tatiana Mucyn, Harrold A. van den Burg, Jacques Vervoort and Jonathan D. G. Jones.

    PubMed

    2017-06-01

    The above article, published online on 26 March 2002 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), and in Volume 29, pp. 783-796 has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Christoph Benning, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The authors have requested that it be retracted because it contains a substantial number of inappropriate image manipulations. These manipulations consist of the reuse or duplication of images, both within the above article and with another manuscript published previously in The Plant Cell (Rivas et al., 2002b). Specific problems with the manuscripts include: The duplication of immunoblot bands in The Plant Journal Figure 4C and The Plant Cell Figure 3 row 3, The Plant Cell Figure 4A row 1, The Plant Cell Figure 4C. The Plant Journal Figure 4B Cf-9 c-myc band is duplicated in The Plant Journal Figure 4C Cf-9:TAP band under the 475 kDa marker. The first four lanes of Figure 4A row 3 in The Plant Journal are a duplication of lanes 23, 24, 25, and 26 in Figure 4A row 2 in The Plant Cell. The Plant Journal Figure 7B lanes 1&2 and lanes 4&5 are duplicates of each other and are duplicated from Figure 7B lanes 1 and 2 in The Plant Cell. The Plant Journal Figure 7C is a duplication from Figure 7C in The Plant Cell. Rivas, S., Mucyn, T., van den Burg, H.A., Vervoort, J. and Jones, J.D.G. (2002a) An ∼400 kDa membrane-associated complex that contains one molecule of the resistance protein Cf-4. Plant J. 29, 783-796. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-313X.2002.01254.x. Rivas, S., Romeis, T. and Jones, J.D.G. (2002b) The Cf-9 disease resistance protein is present in an ∼420-Kilodalton heteromultimeric membrane-associated complex at one molecule per complex. Plant Cell, 14, 689-702. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.010357. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. pH-dependent vesicle fusion induced by the ectodomain of the human immunodeficiency virus membrane fusion protein gp41: Two kinetically distinct processes and fully-membrane-associated gp41 with predominant β sheet fusion peptide conformation.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Punsisi U; Sackett, Kelly; Nethercott, Matthew J; Weliky, David P

    2015-01-01

    The gp41 protein of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) catalyzes fusion between HIV and host cell membranes. The ~180-residue ectodomain of gp41 is outside the virion and is the most important gp41 region for membrane fusion. The ectodomain consists of an apolar fusion peptide (FP) region hypothesized to bind to the host cell membrane followed by N-heptad repeat (NHR), loop, and C-heptad repeat (CHR) regions. The present study focuses on the large gp41 ectodomain constructs "Hairpin" (HP) containing NHR+loop+CHR and "FP-Hairpin" (FP-HP) containing FP+NHR+loop+CHR. Both proteins induce rapid and extensive fusion of anionic vesicles at pH4 where the protein is positively-charged but do not induce fusion at pH7 where the protein is negatively charged. This observation, along with lack of fusion of neutral vesicles at either pH supports the significance of attractive protein/membrane electrostatics in fusion. There are two kinetically distinct fusion processes at pH4: (1) a faster ~100 ms⁻¹ process with rate strongly positively correlated with vesicle charge; and (2) a slower ~5 ms⁻¹ process with extent strongly inversely correlated with this charge. The slower process may be more physiologically relevant because HIV/host cell fusion occurs at physiologic pH with gp41 restricted to the narrow region between the two membranes. Previous solid-state NMR (SSNMR) of membrane-associated FP-HP has supported protein oligomers with FP's in an intermolecular antiparallel sheet. There was an additional population of molecules with α helical FPs and the samples likely contained a mixture of membrane-bound and -unbound proteins. For the present study, samples were prepared with fully membrane-bound FP-HP and subsequent SSNMR showed dominant β FP conformation at both low and neutral pH. SSNMR also showed close contact of the FP with the lipid headgroups at both low and neutral pH whereas the NHR+CHR regions had contact at low pH and were more distant at neutral p

  3. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of human immunodeficiency virus gp41 protein that includes the fusion peptide: NMR detection of recombinant Fgp41 in inclusion bodies in whole bacterial cells and structural characterization of purified and membrane-associated Fgp41.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Erica P; Curtis-Fisk, Jaime; Young, Kaitlin M; Weliky, David P

    2011-11-22

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of a host cell begins with fusion of the HIV and host cell membranes and is mediated by the gp41 protein, a single-pass integral membrane protein of HIV. The 175 N-terminal residues make up the ectodomain that lies outside the virus. This work describes the production and characterization of an ectodomain construct containing the 154 N-terminal gp41 residues, including the fusion peptide (FP) that binds to target cell membranes. The Fgp41 sequence was derived from one of the African clade A strains of HIV-1 that have been less studied than European/North American clade B strains. Fgp41 expression at a level of ~100 mg/L of culture was evidenced by an approach that included amino acid type (13)CO and (15)N labeling of recombinant protein and solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy of lyophilized whole cells. The approach did not require any protein solubilization or purification and may be a general approach for detection of recombinant protein. The purified Fgp41 yield was ~5 mg/L of culture. SSNMR spectra of membrane-associated Fgp41 showed high helicity for the residues C-terminal of the FP. This was consistent with a "six-helix bundle" (SHB) structure that is the final gp41 state during membrane fusion. This observation and negligible Fgp41-induced vesicle fusion supported a function for SHB gp41 of membrane stabilization and fusion arrest. SSNMR spectra of residues in the membrane-associated FP provided evidence of a mixture of molecular populations with either helical or β-sheet FP conformation. These and earlier SSNMR data strongly support the existence of these populations in the SHB state of membrane-associated gp41. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Isolation of plasma membrane-associated membranes from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Suski, Jan M; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Wojtala, Aleksandra; Duszynski, Jerzy; Giorgi, Carlotta; Pinton, Paolo; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic interplay between intracellular organelles requires a particular functional apposition of membrane structures. The organelles involved come into close contact, but do not fuse, thereby giving rise to notable microdomains; these microdomains allow rapid communication between the organelles. Plasma membrane-associated membranes (PAMs), which are microdomains of the plasma membrane (PM) interacting with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, are dynamic structures that mediate transport of proteins, lipids, ions and metabolites. These structures have gained much interest lately owing to their roles in many crucial cellular processes. Here we provide an optimized protocol for the isolation of PAM, PM and ER fractions from rat liver that is based on a series of differential centrifugations, followed by the fractionation of crude PM on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. The procedure requires ∼8-10 h, and it can be easily modified and adapted to other tissues and cell types.

  5. Efficient Exploration of Membrane-Associated Phenomena at Atomic Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Vermaas, Josh V.; Baylon, Javier L.; Arcario, Mark J.; Muller, Melanie P.; Wu, Zhe; Pogorelov, Taras V.; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes constitute a critical component in all living cells. In addition to providing a conducive environment to a wide range of cellular processes, including transport and signaling, mounting evidence has established active participation of specific lipids in modulating membrane protein function through various mechanisms. Understanding lipid-protein interactions underlying these mechanisms at a sufficiently high resolution has proven extremely challenging, partly due to the semi-fluid nature of the membrane. In order to address this challenge computationally, multiple methods have been developed, including an alternative membrane representation termed HMMM (highly mobile membrane mimetic) in which lateral lipid diffusion has been significantly enhanced without compromising atomic details. The model allows for efficient sampling of lipid-protein interactions at atomic resolution, thereby significantly enhancing the effectiveness of molecular dynamics simulations in capturing membrane-associated phenomena. In this review, after providing an overview of HMMM model development, we will describe briefly successful application of the model to study a variety of membrane processes, including lipid-dependent binding and insertion of peripheral proteins, the mechanism of phospholipid insertion into lipid bilayers, and characterization of optimal tilt angle of transmembrane helices. We conclude with practical recommendations for proper usage of the model in simulation studies of membrane processes. PMID:25998378

  6. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Quon, Evan; Beh, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer. In yeast, cortical ER is stapled to the PM through membrane-tethering proteins, which establish a direct connection between the membranes. In this review, we consider passive and facilitated models for lipid transfer at PM–ER contact sites. Besides the tethering proteins, we examine the roles of an additional repertoire of lipid and protein regulators that prime and propagate PM–ER membrane association. We conclude that instead of being simple mediators of membrane association, regulatory components of membrane contact sites have complex and multilayered functions. PMID:26949334

  7. Multiple sequence elements facilitate Chp Rho GTPase subcellular location, membrane association, and transforming activity.

    PubMed

    Chenette, Emily J; Mitin, Natalia Y; Der, Channing J

    2006-07-01

    Cdc42 homologous protein (Chp) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases and shares significant sequence and functional similarity with Cdc42. However, unlike classical Rho GTPases, we recently found that Chp depends on palmitoylation, rather than prenylation, for association with cellular membranes. Because palmitoylation alone is typically not sufficient to promote membrane association, we evaluated the possibility that other carboxy-terminal residues facilitate Chp subcellular association with membranes. We found that Chp membrane association and transforming activity was dependent on the integrity of a stretch of basic amino acids in the carboxy terminus of Chp and that the basic amino acids were not simply part of a palmitoyl acyltransferase recognition motif. We also determined that the 11 carboxy-terminal residues alone were sufficient to promote Chp plasma and endomembrane association. Interestingly, stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated only endomembrane-associated Chp. Finally, we found that Chp membrane association was not disrupted by Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitory proteins, which are negative regulators of Cdc42 membrane association and biological activity. In summary, the unique carboxy-terminal sequence elements that promote Chp subcellular location and function expand the complexity of mechanisms by which the cellular functions of Rho GTPases are regulated.

  8. Multiple Sequence Elements Facilitate Chp Rho GTPase Subcellular Location, Membrane Association, and Transforming Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chenette, Emily J.; Mitin, Natalia Y.

    2006-01-01

    Cdc42 homologous protein (Chp) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases and shares significant sequence and functional similarity with Cdc42. However, unlike classical Rho GTPases, we recently found that Chp depends on palmitoylation, rather than prenylation, for association with cellular membranes. Because palmitoylation alone is typically not sufficient to promote membrane association, we evaluated the possibility that other carboxy-terminal residues facilitate Chp subcellular association with membranes. We found that Chp membrane association and transforming activity was dependent on the integrity of a stretch of basic amino acids in the carboxy terminus of Chp and that the basic amino acids were not simply part of a palmitoyl acyltransferase recognition motif. We also determined that the 11 carboxy-terminal residues alone were sufficient to promote Chp plasma and endomembrane association. Interestingly, stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α activated only endomembrane-associated Chp. Finally, we found that Chp membrane association was not disrupted by Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitory proteins, which are negative regulators of Cdc42 membrane association and biological activity. In summary, the unique carboxy-terminal sequence elements that promote Chp subcellular location and function expand the complexity of mechanisms by which the cellular functions of Rho GTPases are regulated. PMID:16641371

  9. Palmitoylation is required for membrane association of activated but not inactive invertebrate visual Gqalpha.

    PubMed

    Go, Lynle; Mitchell, Jane

    2003-08-01

    The invertebrate visual G protein, iGqalpha plays a central role in invertebrate phototransduction by relaying signals from rhodopsin to phospholipase C leading to membrane depolarization. Previous studies have shown reversible association of iGqalpha with rhabdomeric membranes regulated by light. To address the mechanism of membrane association we cloned iGqalpha from a Loligo pealei photoreceptor cDNA library and expressed it in HEK293T cells. Mutations were introduced to eliminate putative sites for palmitoylation at cysteines in positions 3 and 4. Membrane and soluble fractions were prepared from cells where iGqalpha was either activated or maintained in the GDP-bound form, followed by identification of iGqalpha through immunoblot analysis. The wild-type iGqalpha was entirely membrane-bound and shown to be post-translationally modified by palmitoylation. The mutant iGqalpha (C3,4A) was not palmitoylated yet it was found to be membrane-associated in the inactive state, however, approximately half of the protein became soluble when activated. These results suggest that palmitoylation is not required for membrane association of iGqalpha in the inactive state but is important in maintaining the stable membrane association of activated iGqalpha-GTP. The mechanism by which iGqalpha moves away from the membrane into the cytosol in response to prolonged light-stimulation in the native squid eye appears, therefore, to involve both activation and depalmitoylation processes.

  10. Bovine sperm raft membrane associated Glioma Pathogenesis-Related 1-like protein 1 (GliPr1L1) is modified during the epididymal transit and is potentially involved in sperm binding to the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Julieta; Frenette, Gilles; D'Amours, Olivier; Belleannée, Clémence; Lacroix-Pepin, Nicolas; Robert, Claude; Sullivan, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Glioma pathogenesis-related 1-like protein1 (GliPr1L1) was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of proteins associated to bovine sperm lipid raft membrane domains. This protein belongs to the CAP superfamily including cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 protein. PCR analysis revealed that GliPr1L1 is expressed in testis and, at a much lower level, all along the epididymis. Western blotting showed a similar distribution of GliPr1L1 in testicular and epididymal tissue extracts. In the epididymal lumen, GliPr1L1 was associated with the maturing spermatozoa and epididymosomes all along the excurrent duct but was undetectable in the soluble fraction of epididymal fluid. The protein was detectable as multiple isoforms with a higher MW form in the testis and proximal caput. Treatments with PNGase F revealed that N-glycosylation was responsible of multiple bands detected on Western blots. These results suggest that the N-glycosylation moiety of GliPr1L1 is processed during the transit in the caput. Western blots demonstrated that GliPr1L1 was associated with the sperm plasma membrane preparation. GliPr1L1 is glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchored to caput and cauda spermatozoa as demonstrated by the ability of phosphatidylinositol specific phospholipase C to release GliPr1L1 from intact sperm cells. Lipid raft membrane domains were separated from caput and cauda epididymal spermatozoa. GliPr1L1 was immunodetectable in the low buoyant density fractions where lipid rafts are distributed. GliPr1L1 was localized on sperm equatorial segment and neck. In vitro fertilization performed in presence of anti-GliPr1L1 showed that this protein is involved in sperm-zona pellucida interaction.

  11. Activation of NFAT-Dependent Gene Expression by Nef: Conservation among Divergent Nef Alleles, Dependence on SH3 Binding and Membrane Association, and Cooperation with Protein Kinase C-θ

    PubMed Central

    Manninen, Aki; Huotari, Päivi; Hiipakka, Marita; Renkema, G. Herma; Saksela, Kalle

    2001-01-01

    Here we show that the potential to regulate NFAT is a conserved property of different Nef alleles and that Nef residues involved in membrane targeting and SH3 binding are critical for this function. Cotransfection of an activated protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ) with Nef implicated PKC-θ as a possible physiological cofactor of Nef in promoting NFAT-dependent gene expression and T-cell activation. PMID:11222731

  12. Neuroepithelial Transforming Gene 1 (Net1) Binds to Caspase Activation and Recruitment Domain (CARD)- and Membrane-associated Guanylate Kinase-like Domain-containing (CARMA) Proteins and Regulates Nuclear Factor κB Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Vessichelli, Mariangela; Ferravante, Angela; Zotti, Tiziana; Reale, Carla; Scudiero, Ivan; Picariello, Gianluca; Vito, Pasquale; Stilo, Romania

    2012-01-01

    The molecular complexes containing CARMA proteins have been recently identified as a key components in the signal transduction pathways that regulate activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factor. Here, we used immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry to identify cellular binding partners of CARMA proteins. Our data indicate that the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor Net1 binds to CARMA1 and CARMA3 in resting and activated cells. Net1 expression induces NF-κB activation and cooperates with BCL10 and CARMA proteins in inducing NF-κB activity. Conversely, shRNA-mediated abrogation of Net1 results in impaired NF-κB activation following stimuli that require correct CARMA-BCL10-MALT1 complex formation and functioning. Microarray expression data are consistent with a positive role for Net1 on NF-κB activation. Thus, this study identifies Net1 as a CARMA-interacting molecule and brings important information on the molecular mechanisms that control NF-κB transcriptional activity. PMID:22343628

  13. Neuroepithelial transforming gene 1 (Net1) binds to caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD)- and membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like domain-containing (CARMA) proteins and regulates nuclear factor κB activation.

    PubMed

    Vessichelli, Mariangela; Ferravante, Angela; Zotti, Tiziana; Reale, Carla; Scudiero, Ivan; Picariello, Gianluca; Vito, Pasquale; Stilo, Romania

    2012-04-20

    The molecular complexes containing CARMA proteins have been recently identified as a key components in the signal transduction pathways that regulate activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factor. Here, we used immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry to identify cellular binding partners of CARMA proteins. Our data indicate that the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor Net1 binds to CARMA1 and CARMA3 in resting and activated cells. Net1 expression induces NF-κB activation and cooperates with BCL10 and CARMA proteins in inducing NF-κB activity. Conversely, shRNA-mediated abrogation of Net1 results in impaired NF-κB activation following stimuli that require correct CARMA-BCL10-MALT1 complex formation and functioning. Microarray expression data are consistent with a positive role for Net1 on NF-κB activation. Thus, this study identifies Net1 as a CARMA-interacting molecule and brings important information on the molecular mechanisms that control NF-κB transcriptional activity.

  14. Yeast two-hybrid systems confirm the membrane- association and oligomerization of BC1 but do not detect an interaction of the movement proteins BC1 and BV1 of Abutilon mosaic geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Frischmuth, S; Kleinow, T; Aberle, H-J; Wege, C; Hülser, D; Jeske, H

    2004-12-01

    Most of the plant begomoviruses use two proteins to transport their DNA from cell to cell, BV1 to shuttle it between nucleus and cytoplasm and BC1 to facilitate movement across plasmodesmata. In order to analyse their interaction for Abutilon mosaic geminivirus (AbMV) in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae), BC1 and BV1 genes were cloned into various plasmid vectors suitable for two-hybrid analysis. BC1 was fused to the binding domain (GBD) and BV1 to the activation domain (GAD) of the GAL4 transcription factor to check for interactions in the nucleus. Additionally, BC1 as well as BV1 were integrated into pMyr or pSos vectors to analyze protein binding at the plasma membrane using the CytoTraptrade mark system. Using freeze-fracture immuno-labelling (FreeFI), singly-expressed GBD:BC1 was localized at the plasma membrane although it was fused to a nuclear localization signal provided by the construct. GAD:BV1 was found in the nucleus of transformed cells as expected. Upon co-transformation of both constructs, cells grew poorly and exhibited symptoms of autolysis without any detectable level of GBD:BC1 or GAD:BV1, as revealed by FreeFI. In conclusion, both fusion proteins did not meet in the same compartment and appeared to be harmful to yeast if constitutively co-expressed. When expressed from pSos vector, BC1 induced the CytoTrap detection signal in the absence of pMyr indicating that BC1 protein alone is able to target the effector protein to the inner face of the plasma membrane. A mutated form of BC1 (DeltaBC1) lacking the previously identified membrane-binding domain was no longer able to auto-induce the CytoTrap signal cascade. Using DeltaBC1, an N-terminal, or a C-terminal third of BC1 revealed a homo-oligomerization of the C-terminal region of BC1 in two-hybrid analysis, but no interaction of BC1 with BV1.

  15. Golgi membrane-associated degradation pathway in yeast and mammals.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hirofumi; Arakawa, Satoko; Kanaseki, Toku; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Shimizu, Shigeomi

    2016-09-15

    Autophagy is a cellular process that degrades subcellular constituents, and is conserved from yeast to mammals. Although autophagy is believed to be essential for living cells, cells lacking Atg5 or Atg7 are healthy, suggesting that a non-canonical degradation pathway exists to compensate for the lack of autophagy. In this study, we show that the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which lacks Atg5, undergoes bulk protein degradation using Golgi-mediated structures to compensate for autophagy when treated with amphotericin B1, a polyene antifungal drug. We named this mechanism Golgi membrane-associated degradation (GOMED) pathway. This process is driven by the disruption of PI(4)P-dependent anterograde trafficking from the Golgi, and it also exists in Atg5-deficient mammalian cells. Biologically, when an Atg5-deficient β-cell line and Atg7-deficient β-cells were cultured in glucose-deprived medium, a disruption in the secretion of insulin granules from the Golgi occurred, and GOMED was induced to digest these (pro)insulin granules. In conclusion, GOMED is activated by the disruption of PI(4)P-dependent anterograde trafficking in autophagy-deficient yeast and mammalian cells. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. A Plasma Membrane Association Module in Yeast Amino Acid Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Bianchi, Frans; Ruiz, Stephanie J.; Meutiawati, Febrina; Poolman, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid permeases (AAPs) in the plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are responsible for the uptake of amino acids and involved in regulation of their cellular levels. Here, we report on a strong and complex module for PM association found in the C-terminal tail of AAPs. Using in silico analyses and mutational studies we found that the C-terminal sequences of Gap1, Bap2, Hip1, Tat1, Tat2, Mmp1, Sam3, Agp1, and Gnp1 are about 50 residues long, associate with the PM, and have features that discriminate them from the termini of organellar amino acid transporters. We show that this sequence (named PMasseq) contains an amphipathic α-helix and the FWC signature, which is palmitoylated by palmitoyltransferase Pfa4. Variations of PMasseq, found in different AAPs, lead to different mobilities and localization patterns, whereas the disruption of the sequence has an adverse effect on cell viability. We propose that PMasseq modulates the function and localization of AAPs along the PM. PMasseq is one of the most complex protein signals for plasma membrane association across species and can be used as a delivery vehicle for the PM. PMID:27226538

  17. A Plasma Membrane Association Module in Yeast Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Bianchi, Frans; Ruiz, Stephanie J; Meutiawati, Febrina; Poolman, Bert

    2016-07-29

    Amino acid permeases (AAPs) in the plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are responsible for the uptake of amino acids and involved in regulation of their cellular levels. Here, we report on a strong and complex module for PM association found in the C-terminal tail of AAPs. Using in silico analyses and mutational studies we found that the C-terminal sequences of Gap1, Bap2, Hip1, Tat1, Tat2, Mmp1, Sam3, Agp1, and Gnp1 are about 50 residues long, associate with the PM, and have features that discriminate them from the termini of organellar amino acid transporters. We show that this sequence (named PMasseq) contains an amphipathic α-helix and the FWC signature, which is palmitoylated by palmitoyltransferase Pfa4. Variations of PMasseq, found in different AAPs, lead to different mobilities and localization patterns, whereas the disruption of the sequence has an adverse effect on cell viability. We propose that PMasseq modulates the function and localization of AAPs along the PM. PMasseq is one of the most complex protein signals for plasma membrane association across species and can be used as a delivery vehicle for the PM. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Nucleus-localized 21.5-kDa myelin basic protein promotes oligodendrocyte proliferation and enhances neurite outgrowth in coculture, unlike the plasma membrane-associated 18.5-kDa isoform.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham S T; Samborska, Bożena; Hawley, Steven P; Klaiman, Jordan M; Gillis, Todd E; Jones, Nina; Boggs, Joan M; Harauz, George

    2013-03-01

    The classic myelin basic protein (MBP) family of central nervous system (CNS) myelin arises from transcription start site 3 of the Golli (gene of oligodendrocyte lineage) complex and comprises splice isoforms ranging in nominal molecular mass from 14 kDa to (full-length) 21.5 kDa. We have determined here a number of distinct functional differences between the major 18.5-kDa and minor 21.5-kDa isoforms of classic MBP with respect to oligodendrocyte (OLG) proliferation. We have found that, in contrast to 18.5-kDa MBP, 21.5-kDa MBP increases proliferation of early developmental immortalized N19-OLGs by elevating the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Akt1 kinases and of ribosomal protein S6. Coculture of N2a neuronal cells with N19-OLGs transfected with the 21.5-kDa isoform (or conditioned medium from), but not the 18.5-kDa isoform, caused the N2a cells to have increased neurite outgrowth and process branching complexity. These roles were dependent on subcellular localization of 21.5-kDa MBP to the nucleus and on the exon II-encoded segment, suggesting that the nuclear localization of early minor isoforms of MBP may play a crucial role in regulating and/or initiating myelin and neuronal development in the mammalian CNS.

  19. Nuclear translocation of the 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS (membrane associated rapid response to steroids) receptor protein and NF{kappa}B in differentiating NB4 leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenqing; Beilhartz, Greg; Roy, Yvette; Richard, Cynthia L.; Curtin, Maureen; Brown, Lauren; Cadieux, Danielle; Coppolino, Marc; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Nemere, Ilka; Meckling, Kelly A.

    2010-04-15

    1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D{sub 3}) primes NB4 promyelocytic leukemia cells to differentiate along the monocyte/macrophage lineage through a non-genomic mechanism. Here we show that NB4 cells express high levels of the recently identified membrane receptor for 1,25D{sub 3}, which is a distinct gene product from the classical nuclear vitamin D receptor. This 57 kDa protein, named 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS (Membrane Activated Rapid Response to Steroids)/ERp57/PIA3 appears to associate in a complex with the transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B). In unstimulated cells, 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS can be co-immunoprecipitated with antibodies directed at NF{kappa}B, and NF{kappa}B is co-precipitated when antibodies against 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS or ERp57 are used. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrate that both 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS and NF{kappa}B begin translocating to the nucleus within minutes of co-stimulation with 1,25D{sub 3} and phorbol ester. The predominant nuclear localization of both proteins precedes the expression of the monocyte/macrophage phenotype and suggests that this event may be critical to the differentiation pathway. This suggests a role for 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS in the nucleus as a regulator of gene expression. Here it may also regulate the activity of NF{kappa}B and other factors with which it may be interacting.

  20. Membrane-associated methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, J A; DiSpirito, A A

    1996-01-01

    An active preparation of the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath was isolated by ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography using dodecyl beta-D-maltoside as the detergent. The active preparation consisted of three major polypeptides with molecular masses of 47,000, 27,000, and 25,000 Da. Two of the three polypeptides (those with molecular masses of 47,000 and 27,000 Da) were identified as the polypeptides induced when cells expressing the soluble MMO are switched to culture medium in which the pMMO is expressed. The 27,000-Da polypeptide was identified as the acetylene-binding protein. The active enzyme complex contained 2.5 iron atoms and 14.5 copper atoms per 99,000 Da. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the enzyme showed evidence for a type 2 copper center (g perpendicular = 2.057, g parallel = 2.24, and magnitude of A parallel = 172 G), a weak high-spin iron signal (g = 6.0), and a broad low-field (g = 12.5) signal. Treatment of the pMMO with nitric oxide produced the ferrous-nitric oxide derivative observed in the membrane fraction of cells expressing the pMMO. When duroquinol was used as a reductant, the specific activity of the purified enzyme was 11.1 nmol of propylene oxidized.min-1.mg of protein-1, which accounted for approximately 30% of the cell-free propylene oxidation activity. The activity was stimulated by ferric and cupric metal ions in addition to the cytochrome b-specific inhibitors myxothiazol and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide. PMID:8576034

  1. Membrane associated phospholipase C from bovine brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Ryu, S.H.; Suh, P.; Choi, W.C.; Rhee, S.G.

    1987-05-01

    Cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain 2 immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II, whose MW are 150,000 and 145,000 respectively, under a denaturing condition. Monoclonal antibodies were derived against each form and specific radioimmunoassays were developed. Distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in cytosolic and particulate fractions was measured using the radioimmunoassay. More than 90% of PLC-II was found in the cytosolic fraction, while the anti-PLC-I antibody cross-reacting protein was distributed nearly equally between the soluble fraction and the 2 M KCl extract of particulate fraction. The PLC enzyme in the particulate fraction was purified to homogeneity, yielding 2 proteins of 140 KDa and 150 KDa when analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Neither of the 2 enzymes cross-reacted with anti-PLC-II antibodies, but both could be immunoblotted by all 4 different anti-PLC-I antibodies. This suggests that the 140 KDa PLC was derived from the 150 KDa form. The 150 Kda form from particulate fraction was indistinguishable from the cytosolic PLC-I when their mixture was analyzed on SDS-PAGE. In addition, the elution profile of tryptic peptides derived from the 150 KDa particulate form was identical to that of cytosolic PLC-I. This result indicates that PLC-I is reversibly associated to membranes.

  2. Membrane Associated Matrix Proteolysis and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Spinale, Francis G.; Janicki, Joseph S.; Zile, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex entity containing a large portfolio of structural proteins, signaling molecules, and proteases. Changes in the overall integrity and activational state of these ECM constituents can contribute to tissue structure and function, which is certainly true of the myocardium. Changes in the expression patterns and activational states of a family of ECM proteolytic enzymes, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have been identified in all forms of LV remodeling and can be a contributory factor for the progression to heart failure. However, new clinical and basic research has identified some surprising and unpredicted changes in MMP profiles in LV remodeling processes, such as with pressure or volume overload, as well as with myocardial infarction. From these studies, it has become recognized that proteolytic processing of signaling molecules by certain MMP types, particularly the transmembrane MMPs, may actually facilitate ECM accumulation as well as modulate fibroblast transdifferentiation – both critical events in adverse LV remodeling. Based upon the ever increasing substrates and diversity of biological actions of MMPs, it is likely that continued research regarding the relationship of LV remodeling to this family of proteases will yield new insights into the ECM remodeling process itself as well as new therapeutic targets. PMID:23287455

  3. Chicken egg shell membrane associated proteins and peptides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Egg shells are poultry industry byproducts with potential for use in various biological and agricultural applications. We have been interested in the membranes underlying the calcareous shell, as a feed supplement which showed potential to t improve immunity and performance of post hatch poultry. ...

  4. Targeting RAS Membrane Association: Back to the Future for Anti-RAS Drug Discovery?

    PubMed

    Cox, Adrienne D; Der, Channing J; Philips, Mark R

    2015-04-15

    RAS proteins require membrane association for their biologic activity, making this association a logical target for anti-RAS therapeutics. Lipid modification of RAS proteins by a farnesyl isoprenoid is an obligate step in that association, and is an enzymatic process. Accordingly, farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) were developed as potential anti-RAS drugs. The lack of efficacy of FTIs as anticancer drugs was widely seen as indicating that blocking RAS membrane association was a flawed approach to cancer treatment. However, a deeper understanding of RAS modification and trafficking has revealed that this was an erroneous conclusion. In the presence of FTIs, KRAS and NRAS, which are the RAS isoforms most frequently mutated in cancer, become substrates for alternative modification, can still associate with membranes, and can still function. Thus, FTIs failed not because blocking RAS membrane association is an ineffective approach, but because FTIs failed to accomplish that task. Recent findings regarding RAS isoform trafficking and the regulation of RAS subcellular localization have rekindled interest in efforts to target these processes. In particular, improved understanding of the palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle that regulates RAS interaction with the plasma membrane, endomembranes, and cytosol, and of the potential importance of RAS chaperones, have led to new approaches. Efforts to validate and target other enzymatically regulated posttranslational modifications are also ongoing. In this review, we revisit lessons learned, describe the current state of the art, and highlight challenging but promising directions to achieve the goal of disrupting RAS membrane association and subcellular localization for anti-RAS drug development. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1819-27. ©2015 AACR. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Targeting RAS-Driven Cancers."

  5. Targeting RAS Membrane Association: Back to the Future for Anti-RAS Drug Discovery?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Adrienne D.; Der, Channing J.; Philips, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    RAS proteins require membrane association for their biological activity, making this association a logical target for anti-RAS therapeutics. Lipid modification of RAS proteins by a farnesyl isoprenoid is an obligate step in that association, and is an enzymatic process. Accordingly, farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) were developed as potential anti-RAS drugs. The lack of efficacy of FTIs as anti-cancer drugs was widely seen as indicating that blocking RAS membrane association was a flawed approach to cancer treatment. However, a deeper understanding of RAS modification and trafficking has revealed that this was an erroneous conclusion. In the presence of FTIs, KRAS and NRAS, which are the RAS isoforms most frequently mutated in cancer, become substrates for alternative modification, can still associate with membranes, and can still function. Thus, FTIs failed not because blocking RAS membrane association is an ineffective approach, but because FTIs failed to accomplish that task. Recent findings regarding RAS isoform trafficking and the regulation of RAS subcellular localization have rekindled interest in efforts to target these processes. In particular, improved understanding of the palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle that regulates RAS interaction with the plasma membrane, endomembranes and cytosol, and of the potential importance of RAS chaperones, have led to new approaches. Efforts to validate and target other enzymatically regulated post-translational modifications are also ongoing. In this review, we revisit lessons learned, describe the current state of the art, and highlight challenging but promising directions to achieve the goal of disrupting RAS membrane association and subcellular localization for anti-RAS drug development. PMID:25878363

  6. Structure–function relationships of membrane-associated GT-B glycosyltransferases†

    PubMed Central

    Albesa-Jové, David; Giganti, David; Jackson, Mary; Alzari, Pedro M; Guerin, Marcelo E

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-associated GT-B glycosyltransferases (GTs) comprise a large family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sugar moiety from nucleotide-sugar donors to a wide range of membrane-associated acceptor substrates, mostly in the form of lipids and proteins. As a consequence, they generate a significant and diverse amount of glycoconjugates in biological membranes, which are particularly important in cell–cell, cell–matrix and host–pathogen recognition events. Membrane-associated GT-B enzymes display two “Rossmann-fold” domains separated by a deep cleft that includes the catalytic center. They associate permanently or temporarily to the phospholipid bilayer by a combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. They have the remarkable property to access both hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates that reside within chemically distinct environments catalyzing their enzymatic transformations in an efficient manner. Here, we discuss the considerable progress that has been made in recent years in understanding the molecular mechanism that governs substrate and membrane recognition, and the impact of the conformational transitions undergone by these GTs during the catalytic cycle. PMID:24253765

  7. Dual Roles for Membrane Association of Drosophila Axin in Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eungi; Ahmed, Yashi

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of the Wnt signal transduction pathway underlies numerous congenital disorders and cancers. Axin, a concentration-limiting scaffold protein, facilitates assembly of a “destruction complex” that prevents signaling in the unstimulated state and a plasma membrane-associated “signalosome” that activates signaling following Wnt stimulation. In the classical model, Axin is cytoplasmic under basal conditions, but relocates to the cell membrane after Wnt exposure; however, due to the very low levels of endogenous Axin, this model is based largely on examination of Axin at supraphysiological levels. Here, we analyze the subcellular distribution of endogenous Drosophila Axin in vivo and find that a pool of Axin localizes to cell membrane proximal puncta even in the absence of Wnt stimulation. Axin localization in these puncta is dependent on the destruction complex component Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc). In the unstimulated state, the membrane association of Axin increases its Tankyrase-dependent ADP-ribosylation and consequent proteasomal degradation to control its basal levels. Furthermore, Wnt stimulation does not result in a bulk redistribution of Axin from cytoplasmic to membrane pools, but causes an initial increase of Axin in both of these pools, with concomitant changes in two post-translational modifications, followed by Axin proteolysis hours later. Finally, the ADP-ribosylated Axin that increases rapidly following Wnt stimulation is membrane associated. We conclude that even in the unstimulated state, a pool of Axin forms membrane-proximal puncta that are dependent on Apc, and that membrane association regulates both Axin levels and Axin’s role in the rapid activation of signaling that follows Wnt exposure. PMID:27959917

  8. Membrane-association of mRNA decapping factors is independent of stress in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Huch, Susanne; Gommlich, Jessie; Muppavarapu, Mridula; Beckham, Carla; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the degradation of mRNA occurs on translating ribosomes or alternatively within RNA granules called P bodies, which are aggregates whose core constituents are mRNA decay proteins and RNA. In this study, we examined the mRNA decapping proteins, Dcp1, Dcp2, and Dhh1, using subcellular fractionation. We found that decapping factors co-sediment in the polysome fraction of a sucrose gradient and do not alter their behaviour with stress, inhibition of translation or inhibition of the P body formation. Importantly, their localisation to the polysome fraction is independent of the RNA, suggesting that these factors may be constitutively localised to the polysome. Conversely, polysomal and post-polysomal sedimentation of the decapping proteins was abolished with the addition of a detergent, which shifts the factors to the non-translating RNP fraction and is consistent with membrane association. Using a membrane flotation assay, we observed the mRNA decapping factors in the lower density fractions at the buoyant density of membrane-associated proteins. These observations provide further evidence that mRNA decapping factors interact with subcellular membranes, and we suggest a model in which the mRNA decapping factors interact with membranes to facilitate regulation of mRNA degradation. PMID:27146487

  9. Function of Membrane-Associated Proteoglycans in the Regulation of Satellite Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Muscle growth can be divided into embryonic and postnatal periods. During the embryonic period, mesenchymal stem cells proliferate and differentiate to form muscle fibers. Postnatal muscle growth (hypertrophy) is characterized by the enlargement of existing muscle fiber size. Satellite cells (also known as adult myoblasts) are responsible for hypertrophy. The activity of satellite cells can be regulated by their extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is composed of collagens, proteoglycans, non-collagenous glycoproteins, cytokines and growth factors. Proteoglycans contain a central core protein with covalently attached glycosaminoglycans (GAGs: chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulfate) and N- or O-linked glycosylation chains. Membrane-associated proteoglycans attach to the cell membrane either through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor or transmembrane domain. The GAGs can bind proteins including cytokines and growth factors. Both cytokines and growth factors play important roles in regulating satellite cell growth and development. Cytokines are generally associated with immune cells. However, cytokines can also affect muscle cell development. For instance, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leukemia inhibitory factor have been reported to affect the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells and myoblasts. Growth factors are potent stimulators or inhibitors of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. The proper function of some cytokines and growth factors requires an interaction with the cell membrane-associated proteoglycans to enhance the affinity to bind to their primary receptors to initiate downstream signal transduction. This chapter is focused on the interaction of membrane-associated proteoglycans with cytokines and growth factors, and their role in satellite cell growth and development.

  10. Plasma Membrane Association by N-Acylation Governs PKG Function in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kevin M; Long, Shaojun; Sibley, L David

    2017-05-02

    Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase G [PKG]) is essential for microneme secretion, motility, invasion, and egress in apicomplexan parasites, However, the separate roles of two isoforms of the kinase that are expressed by some apicomplexans remain uncertain. Despite having identical regulatory and catalytic domains, PKG(I) is plasma membrane associated whereas PKG(II) is cytosolic in Toxoplasma gondii To determine whether these isoforms are functionally distinct or redundant, we developed an auxin-inducible degron (AID) tagging system for conditional protein depletion in T. gondii By combining AID regulation with genome editing strategies, we determined that PKG(I) is necessary and fully sufficient for PKG-dependent cellular processes. Conversely, PKG(II) is functionally insufficient and dispensable in the presence of PKG(I) The difference in functionality mapped to the first 15 residues of PKG(I), containing a myristoylated Gly residue at position 2 that is critical for membrane association and PKG function. Collectively, we have identified a novel requirement for cGMP signaling at the plasma membrane and developed a new system for examining essential proteins in T. gondiiIMPORTANCEToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite and important clinical and veterinary pathogen that causes toxoplasmosis. Since apicomplexans can only propagate within host cells, efficient invasion is critically important for their life cycles. Previous studies using chemical genetics demonstrated that cyclic GMP signaling through protein kinase G (PKG)-controlled invasion by apicomplexan parasites. However, these studies did not resolve functional differences between two compartmentalized isoforms of the kinase. Here we developed a conditional protein regulation tool to interrogate PKG isoforms in T. gondii We found that the cytosolic PKG isoform was largely insufficient and dispensable. In contrast, the plasma membrane-associated isoform

  11. Plasma membrane-associated superstructure: Have we overlooked a new type of organelle in eukaryotic cells?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fernández, José Luis; de Lacoba, Mario García

    2015-09-07

    A variety of intriguing plasma membrane-associated regions, including focal adhesions, adherens junctions, tight junctions, immunological synapses, neuromuscular junctions and the primary cilia, among many others, have been described in eukaryotic cells. Emphasizing their importance, alteration in their molecular structures induces or correlates with different pathologies. These regions display surface proteins connected to intracellular molecules, including cytoskeletal component, which maintain their cytoarchitecture, and signalling proteins, which regulate their organization and functions. Based on the molecular similarities and other common features observed, we suggest that, despite differences in external appearances, all these regions are just the same superstructure that appears in different locations and cells. We hypothesize that this superstructure represents an overlooked new type of organelle that we call plasma membrane-associated superstructure (PMAS). Therefore, we suggest that eukaryotic cells include classical organelles (e.g. mitochondria, Golgi and others) and also PMAS. We speculate that this new type of organelle might be an innovation associated to the emergence of eukaryotes. Finally we discuss the implications of the hypothesis proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of LRAT on the retinoid isomerase activity and membrane association of Rpe65.

    PubMed

    Jin, Minghao; Yuan, Quan; Li, Songhua; Travis, Gabriel H

    2007-07-20

    Absorption of a photon by a vertebrate opsin pigment induces 11-cis to all-trans isomerization of its retinaldehyde chromophore. Restoration of light sensitivity to the bleached opsin requires chemical re-isomerization of the chromophore via an enzyme pathway called the visual cycle. The retinoid isomerase in this pathway is Rpe65, a membrane-associated protein in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with no predicted membrane-spanning segments. It has been suggested that Rpe65 is S-palmitoylated by lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT) on Cys(231), Cys(329), and Cys(330), and that this palmitoylation is required for isomerase activity and the association of Rpe65 with membranes. Here we show that the affinity of Rpe65 for membranes is similar in wild-type and lrat(-/-) mice. The isomerase activity of Rpe65 is also similar in both strains when all-trans-retinyl palmitate is used as substrate. With all-trans-retinol substrate, isomerase activity is present in wild-type but undetectable in RPE homogenates from lrat(-/-) mice. Substitution of Cys(231), Cys(329), and Cys(330) with Ser or Ala did not affect the affinity of Rpe65 for membranes. Further, these Cys residues are not palmitoylated in Rpe65 by mass spectrometric analysis. Global inhibition of protein palmitoylation by 2-bromopalmitate did not affect the solubility or isomerase activity of Rpe65. Finally, we show that soluble and membrane-associated Rpe65 possesses similar isomerase specific activities. These results indicate that LRAT is not required for isomerase activity beyond synthesis of retinyl-ester substrate, and that the association of Rpe65 with membranes is neither dependent upon LRAT nor the result of S-palmitoylation. The affinity of Rpe65 for membranes is probably an intrinsic feature of this protein.

  13. Differential membrane association properties and regulation of class I and class II Arfs.

    PubMed

    Duijsings, Daniël; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; van Dooren, Sander H J; van Dommelen, Michiel M T; Wetzels, Roy; de Mattia, Fabrizio; Wessels, Els; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2009-03-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) proteins are small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) that act as major regulators of intracellular vesicular trafficking and secretory organelle pathway integrity. Like all small monomeric GTPases, Arf proteins cycle between a GDP-bound and a GTP-bound state, and this cycling is catalysed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins. While the class I Arfs, especially Arf1, have been studied extensively, little is known as yet about the function and regulation of class II Arfs, Arf4 and Arf5. In this study, we show that Arf proteins show class-specific dynamic behaviour. Moreover, unlike class I Arfs, membrane association of class II Arfs is resistant to inhibition of large Arf GEFs by Brefeldin A. Through the construction of Arf chimeric proteins, evidence is provided that the N-terminal amphipathic helix and a class-specific residue in the conserved interswitch domain determine the membrane-binding properties of class I and class II Arf proteins. Our results show that fundamental differences exist in behaviour and regulation of these small GTPases.

  14. NMR studies of the interaction between inner membrane-associated and periplasmic cytochromes from Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Joana M; Brausemann, Anton; Einsle, Oliver; Salgueiro, Carlos A

    2017-06-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens is a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium with notable properties and significance in biotechnological applications. Biochemical studies suggest that the inner membrane-associated diheme cytochrome MacA and the periplasmic triheme cytochrome PpcA from G. sulfurreducens can exchange electrons. In this work, NMR chemical shift perturbation measurements were used to map the interface region and to measure the binding affinity between PpcA and MacA. The results show that MacA binds to PpcA in a cleft defined by hemes I and IV, favoring the contact between PpcA heme IV and the MacA high-potential heme. The dissociation constant values indicate the formation of a low-affinity complex between the proteins, which is consistent with the transient interaction observed in electron transfer complexes. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Positioning of large organelles by a membrane- associated cytoskeleton in Plasmodium sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Kudryashev, Mikhail; Lepper, Simone; Stanway, Rebecca; Bohn, Stefan; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Cyrklaff, Marek; Frischknecht, Friedrich

    2010-03-01

    Cellular organelles are usually linked to the cytoskeleton, which often provides a scaffold for organelle function. In malaria parasites, no link between the cytoskeleton and the major organelles is known. Here we show that during fast, stop-and-go motion of Plasmodium sporozoites, all organelles stay largely fixed in respect to the moving parasite. Cryogenic electron tomography reveals that the nucleus, mitochondrion, apicoplast and the microtubules of Plasmodium sporozoites are linked to the parasite pellicle via long tethering proteins. These tethers originate from the inner membrane complex and are arranged in a periodic fashion following a 32 nm repeat. The tethers pass through a subpellicular structure that encompasses the entire parasite, probably as a network of membrane-associated filaments. While the spatial organization of the large parasite organelles appears dependent on their linkage to the cortex, the specialized secretory vesicles are mostly not linked to microtubules or other cellular structures that could provide support for movement.

  16. Two membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatase homologs potentiate C. elegans AKT-1/PKB signaling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Patrick J; Xu, Jinling; Ruvkun, Gary

    2006-07-01

    Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) functions in conserved signaling cascades that regulate growth and metabolism. In humans, Akt/PKB is dysregulated in diabetes and cancer; in Caenorhabditis elegans, Akt/PKB functions in an insulin-like signaling pathway to regulate larval development. To identify molecules that modulate C. elegans Akt/PKB signaling, we performed a genetic screen for enhancers of the akt-1 mutant phenotype (eak). We report the analysis of three eak genes. eak-6 and eak-5/sdf-9 encode protein tyrosine phosphatase homologs; eak-4 encodes a novel protein with an N-myristoylation signal. All three genes are expressed primarily in the two endocrine XXX cells, and their predicted gene products localize to the plasma membrane. Genetic evidence indicates that these proteins function in parallel to AKT-1 to inhibit the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16. These results define two membrane-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase homologs that may potentiate C. elegans Akt/PKB signaling by cell autonomous and cell nonautonomous mechanisms. Similar molecules may modulate Akt/PKB signaling in human endocrine tissues.

  17. Two Membrane-Associated Tyrosine Phosphatase Homologs Potentiate C. elegans AKT-1/PKB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Patrick J; Xu, Jinling; Ruvkun, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) functions in conserved signaling cascades that regulate growth and metabolism. In humans, Akt/PKB is dysregulated in diabetes and cancer; in Caenorhabditis elegans, Akt/PKB functions in an insulin-like signaling pathway to regulate larval development. To identify molecules that modulate C. elegans Akt/PKB signaling, we performed a genetic screen for enhancers of the akt-1 mutant phenotype (eak). We report the analysis of three eak genes. eak-6 and eak-5/sdf-9 encode protein tyrosine phosphatase homologs; eak-4 encodes a novel protein with an N-myristoylation signal. All three genes are expressed primarily in the two endocrine XXX cells, and their predicted gene products localize to the plasma membrane. Genetic evidence indicates that these proteins function in parallel to AKT-1 to inhibit the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16. These results define two membrane-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase homologs that may potentiate C. elegans Akt/PKB signaling by cell autonomous and cell nonautonomous mechanisms. Similar molecules may modulate Akt/PKB signaling in human endocrine tissues. PMID:16839187

  18. Membrane-associated immunoglobulins of human lymphocytes in immunologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nicod, Isabelle; Girard, J. P.; Cruchaud, A.

    1973-01-01

    Membrane-associated immunoglobulins of peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied by indirect immunofluorescence for γ, α, μ, κ and λ chains in healthy subjects and patients with immunologic disease. In healthy subjects, heavy chains were found on 30·7% of lymphocytes (γ 15·3%, α 7·2% and μ 8·2%) and light chains on 32·8% of cells (κ 20·4% and λ 12·4%). Patients with humoral immune deficiencies had fewer immunoglobulin-bearing cells; sarcoidosis or thymectomy patients had normal or decreased immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes; cells with light chains were fewer than those with heavy chains on their lymphocytes. In some cases, normal levels of serum immunoglobulins were found in the absence of the corresponding immunoglobulin-bearing cells, and in others normal immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes were present in the absence of the corresponding serum immunoglobulins. These data suggest that (1) immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes in blood do not reflect the condition of immunoglobulin-synthesizing cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues, and (2) in certain immunologic disorders, either some B-lymphocytes do not synthesize immunoglobulins, or immunoglobulins are in such a situation that the whole molecule or part of the molecule is not visualized by current methods. PMID:4587505

  19. Regulation of PutA-Membrane Associations by FAD Reduction †

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weimin; Zhou, Yuzhen; Becker, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    Proline utilization A (PutA) from Escherichia coli is a multifunctional flavoprotein that is both a transcriptional repressor of the proline utilization (put) genes and a membrane-associated enzyme which catalyzes the 4e- oxidation of proline to glutamate. Previously, proline was shown to induce PutA-membrane binding and alter the intracellular location and function of PutA. To distinguish the roles of substrate binding and FAD reduction in the mechanism of how PutA changes from a DNA-binding protein to a membrane-bound enzyme, the kinetic parameters of PutA-membrane binding were measured under different conditions using model lipid bilayers and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The effects of proline, FAD reduction, and proline analogues on PutA-membrane associations were determined. Oxidized PutA shows no binding to E. coli polar lipid vesicles. In contrast, proline and sodium dithionite induce tight binding of PutA to the lipid bilayer with indistinguishable kinetic parameters and an estimated dissociation constant (KD) of < 0.01 nM (pH 7.4) for the reduced PutA-lipid complex. Proline analogues such as L-THFA and DL-P5C also stimulate PutA binding to E. coli polar lipid vesicles with KD values ranging from about 3.6 – 34 nM (pH 7.4) for the PutA-lipid complex. The greater PutA-membrane binding affinity (> 300-fold) generated by FAD reduction relative to the nonreducing ligands demonstrates that FAD reduction controls PutA-membrane associations. On the basis of SPR kinetic analysis with differently charged lipid bilayers, the driving force for PutA-membrane binding is primarily hydrophobic. In the SPR experiments membrane-bound PutA did not bind put control DNA confirming that the membrane-binding and DNA-binding activities of PutA are mutually exclusive. A model for the regulation of PutA is described in which the overall translocation of PutA from the cytoplasm to the membrane is driven by FAD reduction and the subsequent energy difference (∼ 24 k

  20. The structural comparison between membrane-associated human carbonic anhydrases provides insights into drug design of selective inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Alterio, Vincenzo; Pan, Peiwen; Parkkila, Seppo; Buonanno, Martina; Supuran, Claudiu T; Monti, Simona M; De Simone, Giuseppina

    2014-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrase isoform XIV (CA XIV) is the last member of the human (h) CA family discovered so far, being localized in brain, kidneys, colon, small intestine, urinary bladder, liver, and spinal cord. It has recently been described as a possible drug target for treatment of epilepsy, some retinopathies as well as some skin tumors. Human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) XIV is a membrane-associated protein consisting of an N-terminal extracellular domain, a putative transmembrane region, and a small cytoplasmic tail. In this article, we report the expression, purification, and the crystallographic structure of the entire extracellular domain of this enzyme. The analysis of the structure revealed the typical α-CA fold, in which a 10-stranded β-sheet forms the core of the molecule, while the comparison with all the other membrane associated isoforms (hCAs IV, IX, and XII) allowed to identify the diverse oligomeric arrangement and the sequence and structural differences observed in the region 127-136 as the main factors to consider in the design of selective inhibitors for each one of the membrane associated α-CAs.

  1. The membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein interacts with cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomains.

    PubMed

    Le Parc, Annabelle; Honvo Houéto, Edith; Pigat, Natascha; Chat, Sophie; Leonil, Joëlle; Chanat, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that α(s1)-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that α(s1)-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of α(s1)-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of α(s1)-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells.

  2. The Membrane-Associated Form of αs1-Casein Interacts with Cholesterol-Rich Detergent-Resistant Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Le Parc, Annabelle; Honvo Houéto, Edith; Pigat, Natascha; Chat, Sophie; Leonil, Joëlle; Chanat, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Caseins, the main milk proteins, interact with colloidal calcium phosphate to form the casein micelle. The mesostructure of this supramolecular assembly markedly influences its nutritional and technological functionalities. However, its detailed molecular organization and the cellular mechanisms involved in its biogenesis have been only partially established. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that αs1-casein takes center stage in casein micelle building and transport in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Here we have investigated the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein in rat mammary epithelial cells. Using metabolic labelling we show that αs1-casein becomes associated with membranes at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum, with no subsequent increase at the level of the Golgi apparatus. From morphological and biochemical data, it appears that caseins are in a tight relationship with membranes throughout the secretory pathway. On the other hand, we have observed that the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein co-purified with detergent-resistant membranes. It was poorly solubilised by Tween 20, partially insoluble in Lubrol WX, and substantially insoluble in Triton X-100. Finally, we found that cholesterol depletion results in the release of the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein. These experiments reveal that the insolubility of αs1-casein reflects its partial association with a cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant microdomain. We propose that the membrane-associated form of αs1-casein interacts with the lipid microdomain, or lipid raft, that forms within the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, for efficient forward transport and sorting in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:25549363

  3. Turnip mosaic virus moves systemically through both phloem and xylem as membrane-associated complexes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Juan; Cabanillas, Daniel Garcia; Zheng, Huanquan; Laliberté, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    Plant viruses move systemically in plants through the phloem. They move as virions or as ribonucleic protein complexes, although it is not clear what these complexes are made of. The approximately 10-kb RNA genome of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) encodes a membrane protein, known as 6K2, that induces endomembrane rearrangements for the formation of viral replication factories. These factories take the form of vesicles that contain viral RNA (vRNA) and viral replication proteins. In this study, we report the presence of 6K2-tagged vesicles containing vRNA and the vRNA-dependent RNA polymerase in phloem sieve elements and in xylem vessels. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed the presence in the xylem vessels of vRNA-containing vesicles that were associated with viral particles. Stem-girdling experiments, which leave xylem vessels intact but destroy the surrounding tissues, confirmed that TuMV could establish a systemic infection of the plant by going through xylem vessels. Phloem sieve elements and xylem vessels from Potato virus X-infected plants also contained lipid-associated nonencapsidated vRNA, indicating that the presence of membrane-associated ribonucleic protein complexes in the phloem and xylem may not be limited to TuMV. Collectively, these studies indicate that viral replication factories could end up in the phloem and the xylem.

  4. Turnip mosaic virus Moves Systemically through Both Phloem and Xylem as Membrane-Associated Complexes1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huanquan

    2015-01-01

    Plant viruses move systemically in plants through the phloem. They move as virions or as ribonucleic protein complexes, although it is not clear what these complexes are made of. The approximately 10-kb RNA genome of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) encodes a membrane protein, known as 6K2, that induces endomembrane rearrangements for the formation of viral replication factories. These factories take the form of vesicles that contain viral RNA (vRNA) and viral replication proteins. In this study, we report the presence of 6K2-tagged vesicles containing vRNA and the vRNA-dependent RNA polymerase in phloem sieve elements and in xylem vessels. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed the presence in the xylem vessels of vRNA-containing vesicles that were associated with viral particles. Stem-girdling experiments, which leave xylem vessels intact but destroy the surrounding tissues, confirmed that TuMV could establish a systemic infection of the plant by going through xylem vessels. Phloem sieve elements and xylem vessels from Potato virus X-infected plants also contained lipid-associated nonencapsidated vRNA, indicating that the presence of membrane-associated ribonucleic protein complexes in the phloem and xylem may not be limited to TuMV. Collectively, these studies indicate that viral replication factories could end up in the phloem and the xylem. PMID:25717035

  5. Molecular Characterization of Membrane-Associated Soluble Serine Palmitoyltransferases from Sphingobacterium multivorum and Bdellovibrio stolpii▿

    PubMed Central

    Ikushiro, Hiroko; Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Tojo, Hiromasa; Hayashi, Hideyuki

    2007-01-01

    Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) is a key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis and catalyzes the decarboxylative condensation of l-serine and palmitoyl coenzyme A (CoA) to form 3-ketodihydrosphingosine (KDS). Eukaryotic SPTs comprise tightly membrane-associated heterodimers belonging to the pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent α-oxamine synthase family. Sphingomonas paucimobilis, a sphingolipid-containing bacterium, contains an abundant water-soluble homodimeric SPT of the same family (H. Ikushiro et al., J. Biol. Chem. 276:18249-18256, 2001). This enzyme is suitable for the detailed mechanistic studies of SPT, although single crystals appropriate for high-resolution crystallography have not yet been obtained. We have now isolated three novel SPT genes from Sphingobacterium multivorum, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, and Bdellovibrio stolpii, respectively. Each gene product exhibits an ∼30% sequence identity to both eukaryotic subunits, and the putative catalytic amino acid residues are conserved. All bacterial SPTs were successfully overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified as water-soluble active homodimers. The spectroscopic properties of the purified SPTs are characteristic of PLP-dependent enzymes. The KDS formation by the bacterial SPTs was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The Sphingobacterium SPTs obeyed normal steady-state ordered Bi-Bi kinetics, while the Bdellovibrio SPT underwent a remarkable substrate inhibition at palmitoyl CoA concentrations higher than 100 μM, as does the eukaryotic enzyme. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that unlike the cytosolic Sphingomonas SPT, S. multivorum and Bdellovibrio SPTs were bound to the inner membrane of cells as peripheral membrane proteins, indicating that these enzymes can be a prokaryotic model mimicking the membrane-associated eukaryotic SPT. PMID:17557831

  6. Fast NMR Data Acquisition From Bicelles Containing a Membrane-Associated Peptide at Natural-Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2011-01-01

    In spite of recent technological advances in NMR spectroscopy, its low sensitivity continues to be a major limitation particularly for the structural studies of membrane proteins. The need for a large quantity of a membrane protein and acquisition of NMR data for a long duration are not desirable. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the development of methods to speed up the NMR data acquisition from model membrane samples. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring two-dimensional spectra of an antimicrobial peptide (MSI-78; also known as pexiganan) embedded in isotropic bicelles using natural-abundance 15N nuclei. A copper-chelated lipid embedded in bicelles is used to speed-up the spin-lattice relaxation of protons without affecting the spectral resolution and thus enabling fast data acquisition. Our results suggest that even a 2D SOFAST-HMQC spectrum can be obtained four times faster using a very small amount (~3 mM) of a copper-chelated lipid. These results demonstrate that this approach will be useful in the structural studies of membrane-associated peptides and proteins without the need for isotopic enrichment for solution NMR studies. PMID:21939237

  7. Assembly of Bazooka polarity landmarks through a multifaceted membrane-association mechanism.

    PubMed

    McKinley, R F Andrew; Yu, Cao Guo; Harris, Tony J C

    2012-03-01

    Epithelial cell polarity is essential for animal development. The scaffold protein Bazooka (Baz/PAR-3) forms apical polarity landmarks to organize epithelial cells. However, it is unclear how Baz is recruited to the plasma membrane and how this is coupled with downstream effects. Baz contains an oligomerization domain, three PDZ domains, and binding regions for the protein kinase aPKC and phosphoinositide lipids. With a structure-function approach, we dissected the roles of these domains in the localization and function of Baz in the Drosophila embryonic ectoderm. We found that a multifaceted membrane association mechanism localizes Baz to the apical circumference. Although none of the Baz protein domains are essential for cortical localization, we determined that each contributes to cortical anchorage in a specific manner. We propose that the redundancies involved might provide plasticity and robustness to Baz polarity landmarks. We also identified specific downstream effects, including the promotion of epithelial structure, a positive-feedback loop that recruits aPKC, PAR-6 and Crumbs, and a negative-feedback loop that regulates Baz.

  8. Membrane-associated forms of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase activity in rat pituitary. Tissue specificity.

    PubMed

    May, V; Cullen, E I; Braas, K M; Eipper, B A

    1988-06-05

    Membrane-associated peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) activity was investigated in rat anterior and neurointermediate pituitary tissues and in pituitary AtT-20/D-16v and GH3 cell lines. A substantial fraction of total pituitary PAM activity was found to be membrane-associated. Triton X-100, N-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and Zwittergent were effective in solubilizing PAM activity from crude pituitary membranes. The distribution of enzyme activity between soluble and membrane-associated forms was tissue-specific. In the anterior pituitary lobe and pituitary cell lines, 40-60% of total PAM activity was membrane-associated while only 10% of the alpha-amidating activity in the neurointermediate lobe was membrane-associated. Soluble and membrane-associated forms of PAM shared nearly identical characteristics with respect to copper and ascorbate requirements, pH optima, and Km values. Upon subcellular fractionation of anterior and neurointermediate pituitary lobe homogenates on Percoll gradients, 12-18% of total PAM activity was found in the rough endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi fractions and 42-60% was localized to secretory granule fractions. For both tissues, membrane-associated PAM activity was enriched in the rough endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pool, whereas most of the secretory granule-associated enzyme activity was soluble.

  9. Glutamic Acid Residues in HIV-1 p6 Regulate Virus Budding and Membrane Association of Gag.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Melanie; Setz, Christian; Hahn, Friedrich; Matthaei, Alina; Fraedrich, Kirsten; Rauch, Pia; Henklein, Petra; Traxdorf, Maximilian; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2016-04-25

    The HIV-1 Gag p6 protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of its two late (L-) domains, which recruit Tsg101 and ALIX, components of the ESCRT system. Even though p6 consists of only 52 amino acids, it is encoded by one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and undergoes various posttranslational modifications including sumoylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation. In addition, it mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into budding virions. Despite its small size, p6 exhibits an unusually high charge density. In this study, we show that mutation of the conserved glutamic acids within p6 increases the membrane association of Pr55 Gag followed by enhanced polyubiquitination and MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag-derived epitopes, possibly due to prolonged exposure to membrane bound E3 ligases. The replication capacity of the total glutamic acid mutant E0A was almost completely impaired, which was accompanied by defective virus release that could not be rescued by ALIX overexpression. Altogether, our data indicate that the glutamic acids within p6 contribute to the late steps of viral replication and may contribute to the interaction of Gag with the plasma membrane.

  10. Structure and Mechanism of GumK, a Membrane-Associated Glucuronosyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Barreras, M.; Salinas, S; Abdian, P; Kampel, M; Lelpi, L

    2008-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris GumK (?-1,2-glucuronosyltransferase) is a 44-kDa membrane-associated protein that is involved in the biosynthesis of xanthan, an exopolysaccharide crucial for this bacterium's phytopathogenicity. Xanthan also has many important industrial applications. The GumK enzyme is the founding member of the glycosyltransferase family 70 of carbohydrate-active enzymes, which is composed of bacterial glycosyltransferases involved in exopolysaccharide synthesis. No x-ray structures have been reported for this family. To better understand the mechanism of action of the bacterial glycosyltransferases in this family, the x-ray crystal structure of apo-GumK was solved at 1.9A resolution. The enzyme has two well defined Rossmann domains with a catalytic cleft between them, which is a typical feature of the glycosyltransferase B superfamily. Additionally, the crystal structure of GumK complexed with UDP was solved at 2.28A resolution. We identified a number of catalytically important residues, including Asp157, which serves as the general base in the transfer reaction. Residues Met231, Met273, Glu272, Tyr292, Met306, Lys307, and Gln310 interact with UDP, and mutation of these residues affected protein activity both in vitro and in vivo. The biological and structural data reported here shed light on the molecular basis for donor and acceptor selectivity in this glycosyltransferase family. These results also provide a rationale to obtain new polysaccharides by varying residues in the conserved ?/?/? structural motif of GumK.

  11. Structure and 3D arrangement of endoplasmic reticulum membrane-associated ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Stefan; Brandt, Florian; Hrabe, Thomas; Lang, Sven; Eibauer, Matthias; Zimmermann, Richard; Förster, Friedrich

    2012-09-05

    In eukaryotic cells, cotranslational protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane requires an elaborate macromolecular machinery. While structural details of ribosomes bound to purified and solubilized constituents of the translocon have been elucidated in recent years, little structural knowledge of ribosomes bound to the complete ER protein translocation machinery in a native membrane environment exists. Here, we used cryoelectron tomography to provide a three-dimensional reconstruction of 80S ribosomes attached to functional canine pancreatic ER microsomes in situ. In the resulting subtomogram average at 31 Å resolution, we observe direct contact of ribosomal expansion segment ES27L and the membrane and distinguish several membrane-embedded and lumenal complexes, including Sec61, the TRAP complex and another large complex protruding 90 Å into the lumen. Membrane-associated ribosomes adopt a preferred three-dimensional arrangement that is likely specific for ER-associated polyribosomes and may explain the high translation efficiency of ER-associated ribosomes compared to their cytosolic counterparts.

  12. Glutamic Acid Residues in HIV-1 p6 Regulate Virus Budding and Membrane Association of Gag

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Melanie; Setz, Christian; Hahn, Friedrich; Matthaei, Alina; Fraedrich, Kirsten; Rauch, Pia; Henklein, Petra; Traxdorf, Maximilian; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1 Gag p6 protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of its two late (l-) domains, which recruit Tsg101 and ALIX, components of the ESCRT system. Even though p6 consists of only 52 amino acids, it is encoded by one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and undergoes various posttranslational modifications including sumoylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation. In addition, it mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into budding virions. Despite its small size, p6 exhibits an unusually high charge density. In this study, we show that mutation of the conserved glutamic acids within p6 increases the membrane association of Pr55 Gag followed by enhanced polyubiquitination and MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag-derived epitopes, possibly due to prolonged exposure to membrane bound E3 ligases. The replication capacity of the total glutamic acid mutant E0A was almost completely impaired, which was accompanied by defective virus release that could not be rescued by ALIX overexpression. Altogether, our data indicate that the glutamic acids within p6 contribute to the late steps of viral replication and may contribute to the interaction of Gag with the plasma membrane. PMID:27120610

  13. Role of PSD95 in membrane association and catalytic activity of nNOSalpha in nitrergic varicosities in mice gut.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Arun; He, Xue-Dao; Goyal, Raj K

    2009-10-01

    We have recently shown that membrane association of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-alpha (nNOSalpha) is critical in the regulation of synthesis of NO during nitrergic neurotransmission. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the synapse-associated proteins (SAPs) in membrane association of nNOSalpha. Varicosities (swellings on terminal axons) were isolated from mice gastrointestinal tract and examined for nNOSalpha, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), and membrane interactions by coimmunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE. Our results show that PSD95 protein was present in the membrane fraction of the nerve varicosity, whereas both PSD95 and SAP97 were present in the cytosol. nNOSalpha was associated with PSD95 but not SAP97. nNOSalpha-PSD95 complex was bound to the membrane via palmitoylation of PSD95. Depalmitoylation of PSD95 with 2-bromopalmitate dislocates nNOSalpha and PSD95 from the varicosity membrane and abolishes NO production. These studies show that palmitoylation of PSD95 anchors nNOSalpha to the varicosity membrane and that it is obligatory for NO production by the enzyme. Palmitoylation of PSD95 may provide a novel target for regulation of nitrergic neurotransmission.

  14. RNA interference targeting tNOX attenuates cell migration via a mechanism that involves membrane association of Rac

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.-C.; Yang, J.-J.; Shao, K.-N.; Chueh, P.J.

    2008-01-25

    tNOX, a tumor-associated NADH oxidase, is a growth-related protein present in transformed cells. In this study, we employed RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated down-regulation of tNOX protein expression to explore the role of tNOX in regulating cell growth in human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells. In this first reported use of RNAi to decrease tNOX expression, we found that HeLa cell growth was significantly inhibited by shRNA-knockdown of tNOX. Furthermore, cell migration and membrane association of Rac were decreased concomitantly with the reduction in tNOX protein expression. These results indicate that shRNA targeting of tNOX inhibits the growth of cervical cancer cells, and reduces cell migration via a decrease in the membrane association of Rac. We propose that tNOX is a potential upstream mediator of Rho activation that plays a role in regulating cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.

  15. A study of the membrane association and regulatory effect of the phospholemman cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Eleri; Whittaker, Christopher A P; Barsukov, Igor L; Esmann, Mikael; Middleton, David A

    2011-04-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) is a single-span transmembrane protein belonging to the FXYD family of proteins. PLM (or FXYD1) regulates the Na,K-ATPase (NKA) ion pump by altering its affinity for K(+) and Na(+) and by reducing its hydrolytic activity. Structural studies of PLM in anionic detergent micelles have suggested that the cytoplasmic domain, which alone can regulate NKA, forms a partial helix which is stabilized by interactions with the charged membrane surface. This work examines the membrane affinity and regulatory function of a 35-amino acid peptide (PLM(38-72)) representing the PLM cytoplasmic domain. Isothermal titration calorimetry and solid-state NMR measurements confirm that PLM(38-72) associates strongly with highly anionic phospholipid membranes, but the association is weakened substantially when the negative surface charge is reduced to a more physiologically relevant environment. Membrane interactions are also weakened when the peptide is phosphorylated at S68, one of the substrate sites for protein kinases. PLM(38-72) also lowers the maximal velocity of ATP hydrolysis (V(max)) by NKA, and phosphorylation of the peptide at S68 gives rise to a partial recovery of V(max). These results suggest that the PLM cytoplasmic domain populates NKA-associated and membrane-associated states in dynamic equilibrium and that phosphorylation may alter the position of the equilibrium. Interestingly, peptides representing the cytoplasmic domains of two other FXYD proteins, Mat-8 (FXYD3) and CHIF (FXYD4), have little or no interaction with highly anionic phospholipid membranes and have no effect on NKA function. This suggests that the functional and physical properties of PLM are not conserved across the entire FXYD family.

  16. Pressure Modulation of the Enzymatic Activity of Phospholipase A2, A Putative Membrane-Associated Pressure Sensor.

    PubMed

    Suladze, Saba; Cinar, Suleyman; Sperlich, Benjamin; Winter, Roland

    2015-10-07

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) catalyze the hydrolysis reaction of sn-2 fatty acids of membrane phospholipids and are also involved in receptor signaling and transcriptional pathways. Here, we used pressure modulation of the PLA2 activity and of the membrane's physical-chemical properties to reveal new mechanistic information about the membrane association and subsequent enzymatic reaction of PLA2. Although the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on aqueous soluble and integral membrane proteins has been investigated to some extent, its effect on enzymatic reactions operating at the water/lipid interface has not been explored, yet. This study focuses on the effect of HHP on the structure, membrane binding and enzymatic activity of membrane-associated bee venom PLA2, covering a pressure range up to 2 kbar. To this end, high-pressure Fourier-transform infrared and high-pressure stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopies were applied. The results show that PLA2 binding to model biomembranes is not significantly affected by pressure and occurs in at least two kinetically distinct steps. Followed by fast initial membrane association, structural reorganization of α-helical segments of PLA2 takes place at the lipid water interface. FRET-based activity measurements reveal that pressure has a marked inhibitory effect on the lipid hydrolysis rate, which decreases by 75% upon compression up to 2 kbar. Lipid hydrolysis under extreme environmental conditions, such as those encountered in the deep sea where pressures up to the kbar-level are encountered, is hence markedly affected by HHP, rendering PLA2, next to being a primary osmosensor, a good candidate for a sensitive pressure sensor in vivo.

  17. The expression of select genes necessary for membrane-associated estrogen receptor signaling differ by sex in adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Meitzen, John; Britson, Kyla A; Tuomela, Krista; Mermelstein, Paul G

    2017-09-28

    17β-estradiol can rapidly modulate neuron function via membrane estrogen receptors (ERs) in a sex-specific manner. For example, female rat hippocampal neurons express palmitoylated versions of ERα and ERβ that associate with the plasma membrane. These membrane-associated ERs are organized by caveolin proteins into functional signaling microdomains with metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). ER/mGluR signaling mediates several sex-specific estradiol actions on hippocampal neuron function. An important unanswered question regards the mechanism by which sex-specific membrane-associated ER signaling is generated, especially since it has been previously demonstrated that mGluR action is not sex-specific. One possibility is that the genes necessary for the ER membrane complex are differentially expressed between males and females, including genes that encode ERα and β, caveolin 1 and 3, and/or the palmitoylacyltransferases DHHC-7 and -21. Thus we used qPCR to test the hypothesis that these genes show sex differences in expression in neonatal and adult rat hippocampus. As an additional control we tested the expression of the 20 other DHHC palmitoylacyltransferases with no known connections to ER. In neonatal hippocampus, no sex differences were detected in gene expression. In adult hippocampus, the genes that encode caveolin 1 and DHHC-7 showed decreased expression in females compared to males. Thus, select genes differ by sex at specific developmental stages, arguing for a more nuanced model than simple widespread perinatal emergence of sex differences in all genes enabling sex-specific estradiol action. These findings enable the generation of new hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which sex differences in membrane-associated ER signaling are programmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of ATG8 membrane association by ATG4 in the parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Kong-Hap, Marie A; Mouammine, Annabelle; Daher, Wassim; Berry, Laurence; Lebrun, Maryse; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Besteiro, Sébastien

    2013-09-01

    In the process of autophagy, the Atg8 protein is conjugated, through a ubiquitin-like system, to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to associate with the membrane of forming autophagosomes. There, it plays a crucial role in the genesis of these organelles and in autophagy in general. In most eukaryotes, the cysteine peptidase Atg4 processes the C terminus of cytosolic Atg8 to regulate its association with autophagosomal membranes and also delipidates Atg8 to release this protein from membranes. The parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii contains a functional, yet apparently reduced, autophagic machinery. T. gondii Atg8 homolog, in addition to a cytosolic and occasionally autophagosomal localization, also localizes to the apicoplast, a nonphotosynthetic plastid bounded by four membranes. Our attempts to interfere with TgATG8 function showed that it appears to be essential for parasite multiplication inside its host cell. This protein also displays a peculiar C terminus that does not seem to necessitate processing prior to membrane association and yet an unusually large Toxoplasma homolog of ATG4 is predicted in the parasite genome. A TgATG4 conditional expression mutant that we have generated is severely affected in growth, and displays significant alterations at the organellar level, noticeably with a fragmentation of the mitochondrial network and a loss of the apicoplast. TgATG4-depleted parasites appear to be defective in the recycling of membrane-bound TgATG8. Overall, our data highlight a role for the TgATG8 conjugation pathway in maintaining the homeostasis of the parasite's organelles and suggest that Toxoplasma has evolved a specialized autophagic machinery with original regulation.

  19. Anillin Phosphorylation Controls Timely Membrane Association and Successful Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjung; Johnson, James M.; Brahma, Sarang; Burkard, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    During cytokinesis, a contractile ring generates the constricting force to divide a cell into two daughters. This ring is composed of filamentous actin and the motor protein myosin, along with additional structural and regulatory proteins, including anillin. Anillin is a required scaffold protein that links the actomyosin ring to membrane and its organizer, RhoA. However, the molecular basis for timely action of anillin at cytokinesis remains obscure. Here, we find that phosphorylation regulates efficient recruitment of human anillin to the equatorial membrane. Anillin is highly phosphorylated in mitosis, and is a substrate for mitotic kinases. We surveyed function of 46 residues on anillin previously found to be phosphorylated in human cells to identify those required for cytokinesis. Among these sites, we identified S635 as a key site mediating cytokinesis. Preventing S635 phosphorylation adjacent to the AH domain disrupts anillin concentration at the equatorial cortex at anaphase, whereas a phosphomimetic mutant, S635D, partially restores this localization. Time-lapse videomicroscopy reveals impaired recruitment of S635A anillin to equatorial membrane and a transient unstable furrow followed by ultimate failure in cytokinesis. A phosphospecific antibody confirms phosphorylation at S635 in late cytokinesis, although it does not detect phosphorylation in early cytokinesis, possibly due to adjacent Y634 phosphorylation. Together, these findings reveal that anillin recruitment to the equatorial cortex at anaphase onset is enhanced by phosphorylation and promotes successful cytokinesis. PMID:28081137

  20. DNA-membrane association is necessary for initiation of chromosomal and plasmid replication in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Winston, S; Sueoka, N

    1980-05-01

    We examined the effect of the inhibition of initiation of DNA replication on the membrane association of the chromosomal origin of replication of Bacillus subtilis and the Staphylococcus aureus-Bacillus pumilus chimeric plasmid pSL103, using temperature-sensitive mutants of B. subtilis that have specifically affected initiation. Inhibition of initiation of the chromosome and pSL103 in the initiation mutant dna-1 results in a decrease in the membrane association of both a marker near the chromosomal origin, purA16, and the plasmid pSL103. The membrane association of both purA16 and pSL103 can be recovered by allowing initiation to resume at the permissive temperature. In another initiation mutant, dnaB19, only the initiation and membrane association of the host chromosome are affected at the nonpermissive temperature, whereas both initiation and membrane association are not affected in the plasmid pSL103. In experiments in vitro, DNA containing the purA16 marker and pSL103 DNA molecules are both selectively released during incubation of purified DNA-membrane complexes prepared from dna-1 cells at the nonpermissive temperature. On the other hand, only purA16 DNA is released in vitro from the DNA-membrane complex prepared from dnaB19 cells. This consistent coupling between initiation and membrane association indicates that DNA-membrane association is critical for the initiation of the B. subtilis chromosome and the plasmid pSL103.

  1. Conformational Plasticity of the Essential Membrane-associated Mannosyltransferase PimA from Mycobacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Giganti, David; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Urresti, Saioa; Albesa-Jové, David; Rodrigo-Unzueta, Ane; Comino, Natalia; Kachala, Michael; López-Fernández, Sonia; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Fernández, Julio M.; Guerin, Marcelo E.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosyltransferase A (PimA) is an essential glycosyltransferase (GT) that initiates the biosynthetic pathway of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides, lipomannan, and lipoarabinomannan, which are key glycolipids/lipoglycans of the mycobacterial cell envelope. PimA belongs to a large family of peripheral membrane-associated GTs for which the understanding of the molecular mechanism and conformational changes that govern substrate/membrane recognition and catalysis remains a major challenge. Here we used single molecule force spectroscopy techniques to study the mechanical and conformational properties of PimA. In our studies, we engineered a polyprotein containing PimA flanked by four copies of the well characterized I27 protein, which provides an unambiguous mechanical fingerprint. We found that PimA exhibits weak mechanical stability albeit displaying β-sheet topology expected to unfold at much higher forces. Notably, PimA unfolds following heterogeneous multiple step mechanical unfolding pathways at low force akin to molten globule states. Interestingly, the ab initio low resolution envelopes obtained from small angle x-ray scattering of the unliganded PimA and the PimA·GDP complexed forms clearly demonstrate that not only the “open” and “closed” conformations of the GT-B enzyme are largely present in solution, but in addition, PimA experiences remarkable flexibility that undoubtedly corresponds to the N-terminal “Rossmann fold” domain, which has been proved to participate in protein-membrane interactions. Based on these results and on our previous experimental data, we propose a model wherein the conformational transitions are important for the mannosyltransferase to interact with the donor and acceptor substrates/membrane. PMID:23963451

  2. Oligomerization, membrane association, and in vivo phosphorylation of sugarcane UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Soares, Jose Sergio M; Gentile, Agustina; Scorsato, Valeria; Lima, Aline da C; Kiyota, Eduardo; Dos Santos, Marcelo Leite; Piattoni, Claudia V; Huber, Steven C; Aparicio, Ricardo; Menossi, Marcelo

    2014-11-28

    Sugarcane is a monocot plant that accumulates sucrose to levels of up to 50% of dry weight in the stalk. The mechanisms that are involved in sucrose accumulation in sugarcane are not well understood, and little is known with regard to factors that control the extent of sucrose storage in the stalks. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase; EC 2.7.7.9) is an enzyme that produces UDP-glucose, a key precursor for sucrose metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis. The objective of this work was to gain insights into the ScUGPase-1 expression pattern and regulatory mechanisms that control protein activity. ScUGPase-1 expression was negatively correlated with the sucrose content in the internodes during development, and only slight differences in the expression patterns were observed between two cultivars that differ in sucrose content. The intracellular localization of ScUGPase-1 indicated partial membrane association of this soluble protein in both the leaves and internodes. Using a phospho-specific antibody, we observed that ScUGPase-1 was phosphorylated in vivo at the Ser-419 site in the soluble and membrane fractions from the leaves but not from the internodes. The purified recombinant enzyme was kinetically characterized in the direction of UDP-glucose formation, and the enzyme activity was affected by redox modification. Preincubation with H2O2 strongly inhibited this activity, which could be reversed by DTT. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis indicated that the dimer interface is located at the C terminus and provided the first structural model of the dimer of sugarcane UGPase in solution.

  3. Oligomerization, Membrane Association, and in Vivo Phosphorylation of Sugarcane UDP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase*

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jose Sergio M.; Gentile, Agustina; Scorsato, Valeria; Lima, Aline da C.; Kiyota, Eduardo; dos Santos, Marcelo Leite; Piattoni, Claudia V.; Huber, Steven C.; Aparicio, Ricardo; Menossi, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is a monocot plant that accumulates sucrose to levels of up to 50% of dry weight in the stalk. The mechanisms that are involved in sucrose accumulation in sugarcane are not well understood, and little is known with regard to factors that control the extent of sucrose storage in the stalks. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase; EC 2.7.7.9) is an enzyme that produces UDP-glucose, a key precursor for sucrose metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis. The objective of this work was to gain insights into the ScUGPase-1 expression pattern and regulatory mechanisms that control protein activity. ScUGPase-1 expression was negatively correlated with the sucrose content in the internodes during development, and only slight differences in the expression patterns were observed between two cultivars that differ in sucrose content. The intracellular localization of ScUGPase-1 indicated partial membrane association of this soluble protein in both the leaves and internodes. Using a phospho-specific antibody, we observed that ScUGPase-1 was phosphorylated in vivo at the Ser-419 site in the soluble and membrane fractions from the leaves but not from the internodes. The purified recombinant enzyme was kinetically characterized in the direction of UDP-glucose formation, and the enzyme activity was affected by redox modification. Preincubation with H2O2 strongly inhibited this activity, which could be reversed by DTT. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis indicated that the dimer interface is located at the C terminus and provided the first structural model of the dimer of sugarcane UGPase in solution. PMID:25320091

  4. In vitro distribution and characterization of membrane-associated PLD and PI-PLC in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Novotná, Zuzana; Martinec, Jan; Profotová, Bronislava; Zdárová, Stĕpánka; Kader, Jean-Claude; Valentová, Olga

    2003-02-01

    Two types of phospholipid degrading enzyme, phospholipase D (PLD; EC 3.1.4.4) and phosphatidyl- inositol-specific phospholipase C (PIP(2)-PLC; PI-PLC 3.1.4.11) were studied during the development of seeds and plants of Brassica napus. PLD exhibits two types of activity; polyphosphoinositide-requiring (PIP(2)-dependent PLD) and polyphosphoinositide-independent requiring millimolar concentrations of calcium (PLDalpha). Significantly different patterns of activity profiles were found for soluble and membrane-associated forms of all three enzymes within both processes. Membrane-associated PIP(2)-dependent PLD activity shows the opposite trend when compared to PLDalpha, while the highest PI-PLC activity appears in the same stages of development of seeds and plants as for PLDalpha. In subcellular fractions of hypocotyls of young plants, phospholipases were localized predominantly on plasma membranes. The biochemical characteristics (Ca(2+), pH) of all three enzymes associated with plasma membrane vesicles, isolated by partitioning in an aqueous dextran- polyethylene glycol two-phase system, are also described. Direct interaction of PLDalpha with G-proteins under in vitro conditions was not confirmed.

  5. Complete genomic organization of the human erythroid p55 gene (MPP1), a membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologue

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.C.; Metzenberg, A.B.; Sahr, K.E.

    1996-01-15

    Human p55 is an abundantly palmitoylated phosphoprotein of the erythroid membrane. It is the prototype of a newly discovered family of membrane-associated proteins termed MAGUKs (membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologues). The MAGUKs interact with the cytoskeleton and regulate cell proliferation, signaling pathways, and intercellular junctions. Here, we report the complete intron-exon map of the human erythroid p55 gene (HGMW-approved symbol MPP1). The structure of the p55 gene was determined from cosmid clones isolated from a cosmid library specific for the human X chromosome. There is a single copy of the p55 gene, composed of 12 exons and spanning approximately 28 kb in the q28 region of the human X chromosome. The exon sizes range from 69 (exon 5) to 203 bp (intron 2) to {approximately}14 kb (intron 1). The intron-exon boundaries conform to the donor/acceptor consensus sequence, GT-AG, for splice junctions. Several of the exon boundaries correspond to the boundaries of functional domains in the p55 protein. These domains include a SH3 motif and a region that binds to cytoskeletal protein 4.1. In addition, a comparison of the genomic and the primary structures of p55 reveals a highly conserved phosphotyrosine domain located between the protein 4.1 binding domain and the guanylate kinase domain. Finally, promoter activity measurements of the region immediately upstream of the p55 gene, which contains several cis-elements commonly found in housekeeping genes, suggest that a CpG island may be associated with the p55 gene expression in vivo. 42 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Membrane-associated signaling in human B-lymphoma lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tauzin, Sebastien; Ding, Heidrun; Burdevet, Dimitri; Borisch, Bettina; Hoessli, Daniel C.

    2011-01-15

    In B-non-Hodgkin lymphomas, Lyn and Cbp/PAG constitute the core of an oncogenic signalosome that captures the Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, the Spleen tyrosine kinase and the Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 to generate pro-survival and proliferative signals. Lymphoma lines corresponding to follicular, mantle-cell and Burkitt-derived lymphomas display type-specific signalosome organizations that differentially activate PI3K, Syk and STAT3. In the follicular lymphoma line, PI3K, Syk and STAT3 were optimally activated upon association with the Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome, while in the Burkitt lymphoma-derived line, the association with Cbp/PAG and activation of PI3K were interfered with by the latent membrane proteins encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus. In the Jeko-1 mantle-cell line, a weak association of Syk with the Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome resulted in poor activation of Syk, but in those cells, as in the follicular and Burkitt-derived lines, efficient apoptosis induction by the Syk inhibitor R406 indicated that Syk is nonetheless an important prosurvival element and therefore a valuable therapeutic target. In all configurations described herein is the Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome independent of external signals and provides efficient means of activation for its associated lipid and protein kinases. In follicular and Burkitt-derived lines, Syk appears to be activated following binding to Cbp/PAG and no longer requires B-cell receptor-associated activation motifs for activation. Assessment of the different modalities of Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome organization could help in selecting the appropriate combination of kinase inhibitors to eliminate a particular type of lymphoma cells.

  7. Molecular dissection of the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin, discloses regions important for membrane association and ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, M; Kozyraki, R; Jacobsen, C; Nexø, E; Verroust, P J; Moestrup, S K

    1999-07-16

    Cubilin, the receptor for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12, is a novel type of high molecular weight receptor consisting of a 27 CUB (complement components C1r/C1s, Uegf, and bone morphogenic protein-1) domain cluster preceded by 8 epidermal growth factor repeats and a short N-terminal sequence. In addition to binding the vitamin B12-carrier complex, cubilin also binds receptor-associated protein. To delineate the structures for membrane association and ligand binding we established a panel of stable transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing overlapping segments of rat cubilin. Analysis of conditioned media and cell extracts of transfected cells revealed that the N-terminal cubilin region conveys membrane association. Helical plotting of this region demonstrated a conserved amphipathic helix pattern (Lys74-Glu109) as a candidate site for hydrophobic interactions. Ligand affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis of the secreted cubilin fragments showed ligand binding in the CUB domain region. Further dissection of binding-active fragments localized the binding site for intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 to CUB domains 5-8 and a receptor-associated protein-binding site to CUB domains 13-14. In conclusion, the N-terminal cubilin region seems crucial for membrane association, whereas the CUB domain cluster harbors distinct sites for ligand binding.

  8. Cell Wall and Membrane-Associated Exo-β-d-Glucanases from Developing Maize Seedlings1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Bum; Olek, Anna T.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2000-01-01

    A β-d-glucan exohydrolase was purified from the cell walls of developing maize (Zea mays L.) shoots. The cell wall enzyme preferentially hydrolyzes the non-reducing terminal glucosyl residue from (1→3)-β-d-glucans, but also hydrolyzes (1→2)-, (1→6)-, and (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl units in decreasing order of activity. Polyclonal antisera raised against the purified exo-β-d-glucanase (ExGase) were used to select partial-length cDNA clones, and the complete sequence of 622 amino acid residues was deduced from the nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and a full-length genomic clone. Northern gel-blot analysis revealed what appeared to be a single transcript, but three distinct polypeptides were detected in immunogel-blot analyses of the ExGases extracted from growing coleoptiles. Two polypeptides appear in the cell wall, where one polypeptide is constitutive, and the second appears at the time of the maximum rate of elongation and reaches peak activity after elongation has ceased. The appearance of the second polypeptide coincides with the disappearance of the mixed-linkage (1→3),(1→4)-β-d-glucan, whose accumulation is associated with cell elongation in grasses. The third polypeptide of the ExGase is an extrinsic protein associated with the exterior surface of the plasma membrane. Although the activity of the membrane-associated ExGase is highest against (1→3)-β-d-glucans, the activity against (1→4)-β-d-glucan linkages is severely attenuated and, therefore, the enzyme is unlikely to be involved with turnover of the (1→3),(1→4)-β-d-glucan. We propose three potential functions for this novel ExGase at the membrane-wall interface. PMID:10859178

  9. Contribution of intertwined loop to membrane association revealed by Zika virus full-length NS1 structure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoying; Song, Hao; Qi, Jianxun; Liu, Yuqian; Wang, Haiyuan; Su, Chao; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F

    2016-10-17

    The association of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections with microcephaly and neurological diseases has highlighted an emerging public health concern. Here, we report the crystal structure of the full-length ZIKV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), a major host-interaction molecule that functions in flaviviral replication, pathogenesis, and immune evasion. Of note, a long intertwined loop is observed in the wing domain of ZIKV NS1, and forms a hydrophobic "spike", which can contribute to cellular membrane association. For different flaviviruses, the amino acid sequences of the "spike" are variable but their common characteristic is either hydrophobic or positively charged, which is a beneficial feature for membrane binding. Comparative studies with West Nile and Dengue virus NS1 structures reveal conserved features, but diversified electrostatic characteristics on both inner and outer faces. Our results suggest different mechanisms of flavivirus pathogenesis and should be considered during the development of diagnostic tools.

  10. A C-terminal membrane association domain of phototropin 2 is necessary for chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sam-Geun; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Wada, Masamitsu; Nagatani, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2), plant-specific blue light receptor kinases, mediate a range of physiological responses in Arabidopsis, including phototropism, chloroplast photorelocation movement, stomatal opening and leaf flattening. Phototropins consist of two photoreceptive domains at their N-terminus, LOV1 (light, oxygen or voltage 1) and LOV2, and a serine/threonine kinase domain at their C-terminus. Here, we determined the molecular moiety for the membrane association of phototropins using the yeast CytoTrap and Arabidopsis protoplast systems. We then examined the physiological significance of the membrane association of phototropins. This detailed study with serial deletions narrowed down the association domain to a relatively small part of the C-terminal domain of phototropin. The functional analysis of phot2 deletion mutants in the phot2-deficient Adiantum and Arabidopsis mutants revealed that the ability to mediate the chloroplast avoidance response correlated well with phot2's membrane association, especially with the Golgi apparatus. Taken together, our data suggest that a small part of the C-terminal domain of phototropins is necessary not only for membrane association but also for the physiological activities that elicit phototropin-specific responses.

  11. Hyaluronic acid as capacitation inductor: metabolic changes and membrane-associated adenylate cyclase regulation.

    PubMed

    Fernández, S; Córdoba, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of hyaluronic acid on bovine cryopreserved spermatozoa compared with heparin as regards the variation of capacitation induction, cellular oxidative metabolism and intracellular signal induced by membrane-associated adenylate cyclase to propose hyaluronic acid as a capacitation inductor. Heparin or hyaluronic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine were used to induce sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction, respectively. 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine was used as a membrane-associated adenylate cyclase inhibitor. The highest percentages of capacitated spermatozoa and live spermatozoa with acrosome integrity were obtained by incubating sperm for 60 min using 1000 μg/ml hyaluronic acid. In these conditions, capacitation induced by hyaluronic acid was lower compared with heparin; nonetheless both glycosaminoglycans promote intracellular changes that allow true acrosome reaction in vitro induced by lysophosphatidylcholine in bovine spermatozoa. Oxygen consumption in heparin-capacitated spermatozoa was significantly higher than in hyaluronic acid-treated spermatozoa. With all treatments, mitochondrial coupling was observed when a specific uncoupler of the respiratory chain was added. The inhibition of membrane-associated adenylate cyclase significantly blocked capacitation induction produced by hyaluronic acid, maintaining a basal sperm oxygen uptake in contrast to heparin effect in which both sperm parameters were inhibited, suggesting that the membrane-associated adenylate cyclase activation is involved in the intracellular signal mechanisms induced by both capacitation inductors, but only regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in heparin-capacitated spermatozoa.

  12. Physiological implications of seasonal variation in membrane-associated calcium in red spruce mesophyll cells

    Treesearch

    D.H. DeHayes; P.G. Schaberg; G.J. Hawley; C.H. Borer; J.R. Cumming; J.R. Strimbeck

    1997-01-01

    We examined the pattern of seasonal variation in total foliar calcium (Ca) pools and plasma membrane-associated Ca (mCa) in mesophyll cells of current-year and 1-year-old needles of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and the relationship between mCa and total foliar Ca on an individual plant and seasonal basis. Foliar samples were collected from...

  13. Relative quantification of membrane-associated calcium in red spruce mesophyll cells

    Treesearch

    Catherine H. Borer; Paul Schaberg; Jonathan R. Cumming

    1997-01-01

    We describe a method for localizing and comparing relative amounts of plasma membrane-associated calcium ions (mCa) in complex tissues and verify the procedure for mesophyll cells of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) needles. This technique incorporates epifluorescence microscopy using the fluorescent probe chlorotetracycline (CTC) with computer image...

  14. Membrane Association via an Amino-terminal Amphipathic Helix Is Required for the Cellular Organization and Function of RNase II*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng; Taghbalout, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    The subcellular localization of the exoribonuclease RNase II is not known despite the advanced biochemical characterization of the enzyme. Here we report that RNase II is organized into cellular structures that appear to coil around the Escherichia coli cell periphery and that RNase II is associated with the cytoplasmic membrane by its amino-terminal amphipathic helix. The helix also acts as an autonomous transplantable membrane binding domain capable of directing normally cytoplasmic proteins to the membrane. Assembly of the organized cellular structures of RNase II required the RNase II amphipathic membrane binding domain. Co-immunoprecipitation of the protein from cell extracts indicated that RNase II interacts with itself. The RNase II self-interaction and the ability of the protein to assemble into organized cellular structures required the membrane binding domain. The ability of RNase II to maintain cell viability in the absence of the exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase was markedly diminished when the RNase II cellular structures were lost due to changes in the amphipathicity of the amino-terminal helix, suggesting that membrane association and assembly of RNase II into organized cellular structures play an important role in the normal function of the protein within the bacterial cell. PMID:23344958

  15. Membrane association via an amino-terminal amphipathic helix is required for the cellular organization and function of RNase II.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng; Taghbalout, Aziz

    2013-03-08

    The subcellular localization of the exoribonuclease RNase II is not known despite the advanced biochemical characterization of the enzyme. Here we report that RNase II is organized into cellular structures that appear to coil around the Escherichia coli cell periphery and that RNase II is associated with the cytoplasmic membrane by its amino-terminal amphipathic helix. The helix also acts as an autonomous transplantable membrane binding domain capable of directing normally cytoplasmic proteins to the membrane. Assembly of the organized cellular structures of RNase II required the RNase II amphipathic membrane binding domain. Co-immunoprecipitation of the protein from cell extracts indicated that RNase II interacts with itself. The RNase II self-interaction and the ability of the protein to assemble into organized cellular structures required the membrane binding domain. The ability of RNase II to maintain cell viability in the absence of the exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase was markedly diminished when the RNase II cellular structures were lost due to changes in the amphipathicity of the amino-terminal helix, suggesting that membrane association and assembly of RNase II into organized cellular structures play an important role in the normal function of the protein within the bacterial cell.

  16. Effects of a human plasma membrane-associated sialidase siRNA on prostate cancer invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaojie; Zhang, Ling; Shao, Yueting; Liang, Zuowen; Shao, Chen; Wang, Bo; Guo, Baofeng; Li, Na; Zhao, Xuejian; Li, Yang; Xu, Deqi

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neu3 is as one of the sialidases and regulates cell surface functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Neu3-specific siRNA inhibited prostrate cancer cell invasion and migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Neu3-specific siRNA inhibited prostate cancer metastasis in mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting Neu3 may have utility for gene-based therapy of human cancer metastasis. -- Abstract: Human plasma membrane-associated sialidase (Neu3) is one of several sialidases that hydrolyze sialic acids in the terminal position of the carbohydrate groups of glycolipids and glycoproteins. Neu3 is mainly localized in plasma membranes and plays crucial roles in the regulation of cell surface functions. In this study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of Neu3 on cell invasion and migration in vivo and in vitro. Initially, we found that the levels of Neu3 expression were higher in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines than in normal prostate tissues based on RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. We then applied a Neu3 siRNA approach to block Neu3 signaling using PC-3M cells as model cells. Transwell invasion assays and wound assays showed significantly decreased invasion and migration potential in the Neu3 siRNA-transfected cells. RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses revealed that Neu3 knockdown decreased the expressions of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. In vivo, mice injected with PC-3M cell tumors were evaluated by SPECT/CT to determine the presence of bone metastases. Mice treated with attenuated Salmonella carrying the Neu3 siRNA developed fewer bone metastases than mice treated with attenuated Salmonella carrying a control Scramble siRNA, attenuated Salmonella alone or PBS. The results for bone metastasis detection by pathology were consistent with the data obtained by SPECT/CT. Tumor blocks were evaluated by histochemical, RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. The results revealed

  17. Expression, purification and crystallization of a membrane-associated, catalytically active type I signal peptidase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ting, Yi Tian; Batot, Gaëlle; Baker, Edward N; Young, Paul G

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat as they rapidly develop resistance to existing antibiotics. Bacterial type I signal peptidases are membrane-associated, cell-surface serine proteases with a unique catalytic mechanism that differs from that of eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum signal peptidases. They are thus potential antimicrobial targets. S. aureus has a catalytically active type I signal peptidase, SpsB, that is essential for cell viability. To elucidate its structure, the spsB gene from S. aureus Newman strain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. After exploring many different protein-modification constructs, SpsB was expressed as a fusion protein with maltose-binding protein and crystallized by hanging-drop vapour diffusion. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1) and diffracted to 2.05 Å resolution. The crystal structure of SpsB is anticipated to provide structural insight into Gram-positive signal peptidases and to aid in the development of antibacterial agents that target type I signal peptidases.

  18. Regulation of Smoothened Phosphorylation and High-Level Hedgehog Signaling Activity by a Plasma Membrane Associated Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Chao; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yongbin; Jiang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling controls embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-family protein Smoothened (Smo). Upon stimulation, Smo accumulates on the cell surface in Drosophila or primary cilia in vertebrates, which is thought to be essential for its activation and function, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Hh stimulates the binding of Smo to a plasma membrane-associated kinase Gilgamesh (Gish)/CK1γ and that Gish fine-tunes Hh pathway activity by phosphorylating a Ser/Thr cluster (CL-II) in the juxtamembrane region of Smo carboxyl-terminal intracellular tail (C-tail). We find that CL-II phosphorylation is promoted by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of Smo C-tail and depends on cell surface localization of both Gish and Smo. Consistent with CL-II being critical for high-threshold Hh target gene expression, its phosphorylation appears to require higher levels of Hh or longer exposure to the same level of Hh than PKA-site phosphorylation on Smo. Furthermore, we find that vertebrate CK1γ is localized at the primary cilium to promote Smo phosphorylation and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway activation. Our study reveals a conserved mechanism whereby Hh induces a change in Smo subcellular localization to promote its association with and activation by a plasma membrane localized kinase, and provides new insight into how Hh morphogen progressively activates Smo. PMID:27280464

  19. Regulation of Smoothened Phosphorylation and High-Level Hedgehog Signaling Activity by a Plasma Membrane Associated Kinase.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangxi; Li, Shuang; Han, Yuhong; Tong, Chao; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yongbin; Jiang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling controls embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-family protein Smoothened (Smo). Upon stimulation, Smo accumulates on the cell surface in Drosophila or primary cilia in vertebrates, which is thought to be essential for its activation and function, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Hh stimulates the binding of Smo to a plasma membrane-associated kinase Gilgamesh (Gish)/CK1γ and that Gish fine-tunes Hh pathway activity by phosphorylating a Ser/Thr cluster (CL-II) in the juxtamembrane region of Smo carboxyl-terminal intracellular tail (C-tail). We find that CL-II phosphorylation is promoted by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of Smo C-tail and depends on cell surface localization of both Gish and Smo. Consistent with CL-II being critical for high-threshold Hh target gene expression, its phosphorylation appears to require higher levels of Hh or longer exposure to the same level of Hh than PKA-site phosphorylation on Smo. Furthermore, we find that vertebrate CK1γ is localized at the primary cilium to promote Smo phosphorylation and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway activation. Our study reveals a conserved mechanism whereby Hh induces a change in Smo subcellular localization to promote its association with and activation by a plasma membrane localized kinase, and provides new insight into how Hh morphogen progressively activates Smo.

  20. Mouse AMACO, a kidney and skin basement membrane associated molecule that mediates RGD-dependent cell attachment.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Jan M; Keene, Douglas R; Olsen, Bjorn R; Sorokin, Lydia M; Paulsson, Mats; Wagener, Raimund

    2009-10-01

    The VWA domain-containing extracellular matrix protein AMACO has not been extensively characterized and its function remains unknown. It has been proposed as a potential cancer marker and carries a rare O-glucosylation and O-fucosylation on its first EGF-like domain. AMACO is a basement membrane associated protein, however its exact localization has not been determined. Here we show by immunogold electron microscopy of mouse kidney and skin that AMACO does not occur within the basement membrane but rather subjacent to the basement membrane at its stromal surface. In skin, AMACO often colocalizes with triple-helical domains of collagen VII containing anchoring fibrils as they emerge from the basal lamina. However, the immunogold patterns for AMACO and the C-terminal end of collagen VII show discrete differences, indicating that AMACO and collagen VII do not colocalize at anchoring plaques. In contrast, the localization pattern of AMACO partially overlaps with that for collagen XVIII. In addition, mouse AMACO was shown to support beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion of a keratinocyte-like cell line, HaCaT, and a fibroblast cell line, Wi26, in an RGD-dependent manner, most likely using an RGD-motif near the C-terminus of AMACO. However, the loss of cell adhesion to the C-terminal part of the human AMACO, due to the unique absence of an RGD sequence in the human protein, suggests that cell adhesion is not AMACO's major function.

  1. Biochemical and Cellular Analysis Reveals Ligand Binding Specificities, a Molecular Basis for Ligand Recognition, and Membrane Association-dependent Activities of Cripto-1 and Cryptic.

    PubMed

    Aykul, Senem; Parenti, Anthony; Chu, Kit Yee; Reske, Jake; Floer, Monique; Ralston, Amy; Martinez-Hackert, Erik

    2017-03-10

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathways are key determinants of cell fate in animals. Their basic mechanism of action is simple. However, to produce cell-specific responses, TGF-β pathways are heavily regulated by secondary factors, such as membrane-associated EGF-CFC family proteins. Cellular activities of EGF-CFC proteins have been described, but their molecular functions, including how the mammalian homologs Cripto-1 and Cryptic recognize and regulate TGF-β family ligands, are less clear. Here we use purified human Cripto-1 and mouse Cryptic produced in mammalian cells to show that these two EGF-CFC homologs have distinct, highly specific ligand binding activities. Cripto-1 interacts with BMP-4 in addition to its known partner Nodal, whereas Cryptic interacts only with Activin B. These interactions depend on the integrity of the protein, as truncated or deglycosylated Cripto-1 lacked BMP-4 binding activity. Significantly, Cripto-1 and Cryptic blocked binding of their cognate ligands to type I and type II TGF-β receptors, indicating that Cripto-1 and Cryptic contact ligands at their receptor interaction surfaces and, thus, that they could inhibit their ligands. Indeed, soluble Cripto-1 and Cryptic inhibited ligand signaling in various cell-based assays, including SMAD-mediated luciferase reporter gene expression, and differentiation of a multipotent stem cell line. But in agreement with previous work, the membrane bound form of Cripto-1 potentiated signaling, revealing a critical role of membrane association for its established cellular activity. Thus, our studies provide new insights into the mechanism of ligand recognition by this enigmatic family of membrane-anchored TGF-β family signaling regulators and link membrane association with their signal potentiating activities.

  2. Measuring membrane association and protein diffusion within membranes with supercritical angle fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanqing; Benda, Aleš; Nicovich, Philip R; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) detection combines the axial discrimination and exquisite signal-to-noise ratio of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) with the lateral discrimination and convenience of confocal excitation. This combination makes SAF ideal for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) on membranes and other structures in close proximity to the coverslip. Here we report a straightforward modification of a commercial microscope to implement SAF FCS and demonstrate in both model supported lipid bilayers and cellular systems that this approach shows an increase in signal from membrane-bound fluorophores relative to fluorophores in solution, benchmarked against line-scanning FCS. SAF FCS allowed us to demonstrate that activation of the T cell receptor resulted in the recruitment of the kinase Lck to the plasma membrane as well as a reduction in Lck mobility within the membrane.

  3. α-Synuclein Membrane Association Is Regulated by the Rab3a Recycling Machinery and Presynaptic Activity*♦

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Robert H. C.; Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Samuel, Filsy; Visanji, Naomi P.; Zhang, Gang; Marsilio, Diana; Langman, Tammy; Fraser, Paul E.; Tandon, Anurag

    2013-01-01

    α-Synuclein is an abundant presynaptic protein and a primary component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson disease. Although its pathogenic role remains unclear, in healthy nerve terminals α-synuclein undergoes a cycle of membrane binding and dissociation. An α-synuclein binding assay was used to screen for vesicle proteins involved in α-synuclein membrane interactions and showed that antibodies directed to the Ras-related GTPase Rab3a and its chaperone RabGDI abrogated α-synuclein membrane binding. Biochemical analyses, including density gradient sedimentation and co-immunoprecipitation, suggested that α-synuclein interacts with membrane-associated GTP-bound Rab3a but not to cytosolic GDP-Rab3a. Accumulation of membrane-bound α-synuclein was induced by the expression of a GTPase-deficient Rab3a mutant, by a dominant-negative GDP dissociation inhibitor mutant unable to recycle Rab3a off membranes, and by Hsp90 inhibitors, radicicol and geldanamycin, which are known to inhibit Rab3a dissociation from membranes. Thus, all treatments that inhibited Rab3a recycling also increased α-synuclein sequestration on intracellular membranes. Our results suggest that membrane-bound GTP-Rab3a stabilizes α-synuclein on synaptic vesicles and that the GDP dissociation inhibitor·Hsp90 complex that controls Rab3a membrane dissociation also regulates α-synuclein dissociation during synaptic activity. PMID:23344955

  4. Membrane-associated precursor to poliovirus VPg identified by immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against a synthetic heptapeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Semelr, B.L.; Anderson, C.W.; Hanecak, R.; Dorner, L.F.; Wimmer, E.

    1982-02-01

    A synthetic heptapeptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence of the poliovirus genome protein (VPg) has been linked to bovine serum albumin and used to raise antibodies in rabbits. These antibodies precipitate not only VPg but also at least two more virus-specific polypeptides. The smaller polypeptide, denoted P3-9 (12,000 daltons), has been mapped by Edman degradation and by fragmentation with cyanogen bromide and determined to be the N-terminal cleavage product of polypeptide P3-1b, a precursor to the RNA polymerase. P3-9 contains the sequence of the basic protein VPg (22 amino acids) at its C terminus. As predicted by the known RNA sequence of poliovirus, P3-9 also contains a hydrophobic region of 22 amino acids preceding VPg, an observation suggesting that P3-9 may be membrane-associated. This was confirmed by fractionation of infected cells in the presence or absence of detergent. We speculate that P3-9 may be the donor of VPg to RNA chains in the membrane-bound RNA replication complex.

  5. Membrane-associated glucocorticoid activity is necessary for modulation of long-term memory via chromatin modification

    PubMed Central

    Roozendaal, Benno; Hernandez, Angelina; Cabrera, Sara M.; Hagewoud, Roelina; Malvaez, Melissa; Stefanko, Daniel P.; Haettig, Jakob; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of emotionally arousing training experiences. This memory enhancement requires activation of the cAMP-dependent kinase pathway and the subsequent phosphorylation of cAMP response-element binding (CREB) protein. Here, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids enhance the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent aspects of object recognition memory via chromatin modification. More specifically, systemic corticosterone increases histone acetylation, a form of chromatin modification, in both the hippocampus and insular cortex following training on an object recognition task. This led us to examine whether increasing histone acetylation via histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition enhances memory in a similar manner as corticosterone. We found a double dissociation between posttraining HDAC inhibitor infusion into the insular cortex and hippocampus on the enhancement of object recognition and object location memory, respectively. In determining the molecular pathway upstream of glucocorticoids’ effects on chromatin modification, we found that activation of membrane-associated glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and the subsequent interaction between phospho-CREB and CREB-binding protein (CBP) appear to be necessary for glucocorticoids to enhance memory consolidation via chromatin modification. In contrast, mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) do not appear to be involved. The findings also indicate that glucocorticoid activity has differential influences on hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent components of memory for objects. PMID:20371824

  6. Ion channel clustering by membrane-associated guanylate kinases. Differential regulation by N-terminal lipid and metal binding motifs.

    PubMed

    El-Husseini, A E; Topinka, J R; Lehrer-Graiwer, J E; Firestein, B L; Craven, S E; Aoki, C; Bredt, D S

    2000-08-04

    The postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 and related membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) proteins assemble signal transduction complexes at sites of cell-cell contact including synapses. Whereas PSD-95 and PSD-93 occur only at postsynaptic sites in hippocampal neurons, SAP-102 also occurs in axons. In heterologous cells, PSD-95 and PSD-93 mediate cell surface ion channel clustering, but SAP-102 and SAP-97 do not. This selective ion channel clustering activity by MAGUKs is explained by differential palmitoylation, as PSD-93 and PSD-95 are palmitoylated though SAP-97, and SAP-102 are not. Rather than being palmitoylated, we find that N-terminal cysteines from SAP-102 tightly bind to zinc. And, appending the N terminus of SAP-102 to PSD-95 results in localization of the chimera to both axons and dendrites. These data suggest that lipid modifications and heavy metal associations with the N termini of MAGUKs mediate differential functions and subcellular localizations of these synaptic scaffolds.

  7. siRNA-based Analysis of the Abrogation of the Protective Function of Membrane-associated Catalase of Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Georg

    2017-02-01

    Tumor cells, in contrast to non-malignant cells, show sustained expression of membrane-associated NADPH oxidase-1 and therefore generate extracellular superoxide anions and their dismutation product H2O2 In order to prevent intercellular reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)-dependent apoptosis-inducing signaling, tumor cells need to express membrane-associated catalase that interferes with HOCl and nitric oxide/peroxynitrite signaling. Catalase is attached to tumor cells through the activity of transglutaminase-2 and is prevented from superoxide anion-dependent inhibition through coexpression of membrane-associated superoxide dismutase. Therefore, specific inhibition of membrane-associated catalase should reactivate intercellular ROS/RNS-dependent apoptosis-inducing signaling. These processes are analyzed here through small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of essential signaling compounds. This allows to establish a rather comprehensive picture of intercellular ROS/RNS signaling that may be instrumental for future therapeutic approaches.

  8. Microtubule-membrane interactions in cilia. II. Photochemical cross-linking of bridge structures and the identification of a membrane-associated dynein-like ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Dentler, W.L.; Pratt, M.M.; Stephens, R.E.

    1980-02-01

    Photochemical cross-linking of both tetrahymena and aequipecten ciliary membrane proteins with the lipophilic reagent 4,4'-dithiobisphenylazide links together a high molecular weight dynein-like ATPase, membrane tubulin, and at least two other proteins. Electron microscopy of detergent-extracted cilia reveals that the cross-linked complex remains attached to the outer-doublet microtubules by a microtubule-membrane bridge. Cleavage of the reagent's disulfide bond releases the bridge-membrane complex and the dynein-like membrane-associated ATPase. Photochemical cross-linking of ciliary membrane proteins in vivo results initially in the modification of ciliary beat and, eventually, in the cessation of ciliary movement. These results suggest that a dynein-like ATPase comprises the bridge which links the ciliary membrane to the outer-doublet microtubules and that this bridge is involved in the modulation of normal ciliary movement.

  9. Expression of multiple membrane-associated phospholipase A1 beta transcript variants and lysophosphatidic acid receptors in Ewing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Schmiedel, Benjamin Joachim; Hutter, Christoph; Hesse, Manuela; Staege, Martin Sebastian

    2011-10-01

    The prognosis for patients with advanced stages of Ewing family tumors (EFT) is very poor. EFT express high levels of phosphatidic acid specific membrane-associated phospholipase A1 beta (lipase I, LIPI). LIPI is a cancer/testis antigen and the high tumor specificity suggests that LIPI might be an attractive target for new diagnostic and/or therapeutic developments. By using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we observed simultaneous presence of multiple LIPI transcript variants in EFT. We cloned and sequenced these transcript variants from EFT cell lines. Sequence analysis indicated that all transcript variants were derived by alternative splicing. Homology modeling of corresponding protein structures suggested that different transcript variants differ in their regulatory lid domains. In addition, expression of receptors for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was analyzed in a panel of EFT cell lines by RT-PCR. We observed that EFT cell lines expressed high levels of LPA receptors. Different LIPI transcript variants present in EFT might be involved in the pathogenesis of EFT by signaling via these LPA receptors.

  10. Conditional trimerization and lytic activity of HIV-1 gp41 variants containing the membrane-associated segments.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhou; Tao, Yisong; Liu, Nina; Brenowitz, Michael D; Girvin, Mark E; Lai, Jonathan R

    2015-03-03

    Fusion of host and viral membranes is a critical step during infection by membrane-bound viruses. The HIV-1 glycoproteins gp120 (surface subunit) and gp41 (fusion subunit) represent the prototypic system for studying this process; in the prevailing model, the gp41 ectodomain forms a trimeric six-helix bundle that constitutes a critical intermediate and provides the energetic driving force for overcoming barriers associated with membrane fusion. However, most structural studies of gp41 variants have been performed either on ectodomain constructs lacking one or more of the membrane-associated segments (the fusion peptide, FP, the membrane-proximal external region, MPER, and the transmembrane domain, TM) or on variants consisting of these isolated segments alone without the ectodomain. Several recent reports have suggested that the HIV-1 ectodomain, as well as larger construct containing the membrane-bound segments, dissociates from a trimer to a monomer in detergent micelles. Here we compare the properties of a series of gp41 variants to delineate the roles of the ectodomain, FP, and MPER and TM, all in membrane-mimicking environments. We find that these proteins are prone to formation of a monomer in detergent micelles. In one case, we observed exclusive monomer formation at pH 4 but conditional trimerization at pH 7 even at low micromolar (∼5 μM) protein concentrations. Liposome release assays demonstrate that these gp41-related proteins have the capacity to induce content leakage but that this activity is also strongly modulated by pH with much higher activity at pH 4. Circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance, and binding assays with antibodies specific to the MPER provide insight into the structural and functional roles of the FP, MPER, and TM and their effect on structure within the larger context of the fusion subunit.

  11. Isolated rat cortical progenitor cells are maintained in division in vitro by membrane-associated factors.

    PubMed

    Temple, S; Davis, A A

    1994-04-01

    Ventricular zone cells in the developing CNS undergo extensive cell division in vivo and under certain conditions in vitro. The culture conditions that promote cell division have been studied to determine the role that contact with cell membrane associated factors play in the proliferation of these cells. Progenitor cells have been taken from the ventricular zone of developing rat cerebral cortex and placed into microwells. Small clusters of these cells can generate large numbers of neurons and non-neuronal progeny. In contrast, single progenitor cells largely cease division, approximately 90% acquiring neuron-like characteristics by 1 day in vitro. DiI-labeled, single cells from embryonic day 14 cortex plated onto clusters of unmarked progenitor cells have a significantly higher probability (approximately 3-fold) of maintaining a progenitor cell phenotype than if plated onto the plastic substratum around 100 microns away from the clusters. Contact with purified astrocytes also promotes the progenitor cell phenotype, whereas contact with meningeal fibroblasts or balb3T3 cells promotes their differentiation. Membrane homogenates from cortical astrocytes stimulate significantly more incorporation of BrdU by E14 cortical progenitor cells than membrane homogenates from meningeal fibroblasts. These data indicate that the proliferation of rat cortical progenitor cells can be maintained by cell-type specific, membrane-associated factors.

  12. Membrane-Associated Molecules Regulate the Formation of Layer-Specific Cortical Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, Valerie; Bolz, Jurgen

    1997-06-01

    The columnar organization of the mammalian neocortex is based on radially oriented axon collaterals which precisely link cells from distinct cortical layers. During development, these interlaminar connections are specific from their initial outgrowth: collaterals form only in the target layers and there are no transient axonal collaterals in the nontarget layers. To examine whether positional cues within individual cortical layers regulate the laminar specificity of collateral formation, explants of cells destined for different cortical layers were cultured on membranes prepared from target and nontarget layers. Axonal growth and branching were examined on homogeneous membrane substrates and on alternating stripes of membranes from different layers. Results show that axons branch preferentially on membrane substrates from those layers that they would target in vivo. In addition, when cortical axons were given a choice to grow on membranes from either their target or their nontarget layer, they exhibited a clear preference for the target layers. This indicates that membrane-associated cues confined to individual layers regulate the formation of collaterals of cortical axons and restrict their growth to their target layers. Heat inactivation of membranes from target layers resulted in reduced axonal branching. The same manipulation of membranes from nontarget layers increased axonal branching for one population of cortical neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that membrane-associated molecules confined to individual layers induce and prevent the formation of axon collaterals in distinct populations of cortical neurons. Thus, the expression of layer-specific cues provides important constraints for the remodeling of local circuits during cortical development.

  13. The spatial organization of Descemet's membrane-associated type IV collagen in the avian cornea

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The organization of type IV collagen in the unconventional basement membrane of the corneal endothelium (Descemet's membrane) was investigated in developing chicken embryos using anti-collagen mAbs. Both immunofluorescence histochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy were performed. In mature embryos (greater than 15 d of development), the type IV collagen of Descemet's membrane was present as an array of discrete aggregates of amorphous material at the interface between Descemet's membrane and the posterior corneal stroma. Immunoreactivity for type IV collagen was also observed in the posterior corneal stroma as irregular plaques of material with a morphology similar to that of the Descemet's membrane-associated aggregates. This arrangement of Descemet's membrane-associated type IV collagen developed from a subendothelial mat of type IV collagen-containing material. This mat, in which type IV collagen-specific immunoreactivity was always discontinuous, first appeared at the time a confluent endothelium was established, well before the onset of Descemet's membrane formation. Immunoelectron microscopy of mature corneas revealed that the characteristic nodal matrix of Descemet's membrane itself was unreactive for type IV collagen, but was penetrated at intervals by projections of type IV collagen-containing material. These projections frequently appeared to contact cell processes from the underlying corneal endothelium. This spatial arrangement of type IV collagen suggests that it serves to suture the corneal endothelium/Descemet's membrane to the dense interfacial matrix of the posterior stroma. PMID:2182654

  14. The membrane-associated conformation of HIV-1 Nef investigated with hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry at a Langmuir monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Pirrone, Gregory F.; Emert-Sedlak, Lori A.; Wales, Thomas E.; Smithgall, Thomas E.; Kent, Michael S.; Engen, John R.

    2015-01-01

    In the companion paper to this work, we have described development of a new type of hydrogen exchange (HX) mass spectrometry (MS) measurement that integrates Langmuir monolayers. With Langmuir monolayers, the lipid packing density can be reproducibly controlled and changed as desired. Analysis of HX in proteins that may undergo conformational changes as a function of lipid packing, for example conformational rearrangements after insertion into a lipid layer, are then possible. We previously used neutron reflection to characterize just such a conformational change in the myristoylated HIV-1 Nef protein (myrNef): at high lipid packing density, myrNef could not insert into the lipids and maintained a compact conformation adjacent to the monolayer whereas at lower lipid packing density, myrNef was able to insert N-terminal arm residues causing displacement of the core domain away from the monolayer. In order to locate where conformation may have been altered by lipid association, we applied the HX MS Langmuir monolayer method to myrNef associated with monolayers of packing densities identical to those used for the prior neutron reflection measurements. The results show that the N-terminal region and the C-terminal unstructured loop undergo conformational changes when associated with a low lipid density lipid monolayer. The results are not consistent with the hypothesis of myrNef dimerization upon membrane association in the absence of other myrNef binding partners. The HX MS Langmuir monolayer method provides new and meaningful information for myrNef that helps explain necessary conformational changes required for function at the membrane. PMID:26133569

  15. Novel secreted isoform of adhesion molecule ICAM-4: Potential regulator of membrane-associated ICAM-4 interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gloria; Spring, Frances A.; Parons, Stephen F.; Mankelow, Tosti J.; Peters, Luanne L.; Koury, Mark J.; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David J.; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2003-02-18

    ICAM-4, a newly characterized adhesion molecule, is expressed early in human erythropoiesis and functions as a ligand for binding a4b1 and aV integrin-expressing cells. Within the bone marrow, erythroblasts surround central macrophages forming erythroblastic islands. Evidence suggests that these islands are highly specialized subcompartments where cell adhesion events, in concert with cytokines, play critical roles in regulating erythropoiesis and apoptosis. Since erythroblasts express a4b1 and ICAM-4 and macrophages exhibit aV, ICAM-4 is an attractive candidate for mediating cellular interactions within erythroblastic islands. To determine whether ICAM-4 binding properties are conserved across species, we first cloned and sequenced the murine homologue. The translated amino acid sequence showed 68 percent overall identity with human ICAM-4. Using recombinant murine ICAM-4 extracellular domains, we discovered that hematopoietic a4b1-expressing HEL cells and non-hematopoietic aV-expressing FLY cells adhered to mouse ICAM-4. Cell adhesion studies showed that FLY and HEL cells bound to mouse and human proteins with similar avidity. These data strongly suggest conservation of integrin-binding properties across species. Importantly, we characterized a novel second splice cDNA that would be predicted to encode an ICAM-4 isoform, lacking the membrane-spanning domain. Erythroblasts express both isoforms of ICAM-4. COS-7 cells transfected with GFP constructs of prototypic or novel ICAM-4 cDNA showed different cellular localization patterns. Moreover, analysis of tissue culture medium revealed that the novel ICAM-4 cDNA encodes a secreted protein. We postulate that secretion of this newly described isoform, ICAM-4S, may modulate binding of membrane-associated ICAM-4 and could thus play a critical regulatory role in erythroblast molecular attachments.

  16. Membrane-associated polypeptides induced in Chlamydomonas by limiting CO sub 2 concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, M.H.; Jeffrey, M. )

    1989-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and other unicellular green algae have a high apparent affinity for CO{sub 2}, little O{sub 2} inhibition of photosynthesis, and reduced photorespiration. These characteristics result from operation of a CO{sub 2}-concentrating system. The CO{sub 2}-concentrating system involves active inorganic carbon transport and is under environmental control. Cells grown at limiting CO{sub 2} concentrations have inorganic carbon transport activity, but cells grown at 5% CO{sub 2} do not. Four membrane-associated polypeptides (M{sub r}, 19, 21, 35, and 36 kilodaltons) have been identified which either appear or increase in abundance during adaptation to limiting CO{sub 2} concentrations. The appearance of two of the polypeptides occurs over roughly the same time course as the appearance of the CO{sub 2}-concentrating system activity in response to CO{sub 2} limitation.

  17. Membrane-associated c-type cytochromes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium limicola forma thiosulfatophilum: purification and characterization of cytochrome c553.

    PubMed

    Albouy, D; Sturgis, J N; Feiler, U; Nitschke, W; Robert, B

    1997-02-18

    Tetraheme cytochromes involved in photosynthetic electron transport have previously been described associated with the reaction centers of purple photosynthetic bacteria; however, similar heme proteins have not until now been characterized in the phylogenetically distinct green sulfur bacteria. In this paper we describe the first isolation and characterization of a multitheme, membrane-associated cytochrome from a green sulfur bacterium, Chlorobium limicola forma thiosulfatophilum. We show that this cytochrome contains a single polypeptide of 32 kDa apparent molecular mass on SDS-PAGE and has a characteristic broad alpha-band absorption at 553 nm. By both low-temperature absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we demonstrate that there are at least four distinct heme groups.

  18. Nephritogenic Lupus Antibodies Recognize Glomerular Basement Membrane-Associated Chromatin Fragments Released from Apoptotic Intraglomerular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalaaji, Manar; Mortensen, Elin; Jørgensen, Leif; Olsen, Randi; Rekvig, Ole Petter

    2006-01-01

    Antibodies to dsDNA represent a classification criterion for systemic lupus erythematosus. Subpopulations of these antibodies are involved in lupus nephritis. No known marker separates nephritogenic from non-nephritogenic anti-dsDNA antibodies. It is not clear whether specificity for glomerular target antigens or intrinsic antibody-affinity for dsDNA or nucleosomes is a critical parameter. Furthermore, it is still controversial whether glomerular target antigen(s) is constituted by nucleosomes or by non-nucleosomal glomerular structures. Previously, we have demonstrated that antibodies eluted from murine nephritic kidneys recognize nucleosomes, but not other glomerular antigens. In this study, we determined the structures that bind nephritogenic autoantibodies in vivo by transmission electron microscopy, immune electron microscopy, and colocalization immune electron microscopy using experimental antibodies to dsDNA, to histones and transcription factors, or to laminin. The data obtained are consistent and point at glomerular basement membrane-associated nucleosomes as target structures for the nephritogenic autoantibodies. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling or caspase-3 assays demonstrate that lupus nephritis is linked to intraglomerular cell apoptosis. The data suggest that nucleosomes are released by apoptosis and associate with glomerulus basement membranes, which may then be targeted by pathogenic anti-nucleosome antibodies. Thus, apoptotic nucleosomes may represent both inducer and target structures for nephritogenic autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:16723695

  19. Structural basis for the membrane association of ankyrinG via palmitoylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Kondo, Hiroko X.; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kobayashi, Megumi; Takeshita, Kohei; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Okamura, Yasushi; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-04-01

    By clustering various ion channels and transporters, ankyrin-G (AnkG) configures the membrane-excitation platforms in neurons and cardiomyocytes. AnkG itself localizes to specific areas on the plasma membrane via s-palmitoylation of Cys. However, the structural mechanism by which AnkG anchors to the membrane is not understood. In this study, we solved the crystal structures of the reduced and oxidized forms of the AnkG s-palmitoylation domain and used multiple long-term coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to analyze their membrane association. Here we report that the membrane anchoring of AnkG was facilitated by s-palmitoylation, defining a stable binding interface on the lipid membrane, and that AnkG without s-palmitoylation also preferred to stay near the membrane but did not have a unique binding interface. This suggests that AnkG in the juxtamembrane region is primed to accept lipid modification at Cys, and once that happens AnkG constitutes a rigid structural base upon which a membrane-excitation platform can be assembled.

  20. Human intrinsic factor secretion: immunocytochemical demonstration of membrane-associated vesicular transport in parietal cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The human gastric parietal cell synthesizes and secretes intrinsic factor (IF) and acid. In contrast to the cellular mechanisms of acid secretion, little is known about the mechanisms of IF secretion. To elucidate these mechanisms we obtained gastric secretions and sequential fundic biopsies from three subjects before and after pentagastrin stimulation (6 microgram/Kg s.c.). IF was localized in the biopsies using an ultrastructural immunoperoxidase technique using a well-characterized, monospecific antibody to human IF. IF output was quantified using a specific radioimmunoassay in concurrently obtained gastric secretions. Before stimulation, IF was associated with tubulovesicles scattered throughout the cytoplasm and with some in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The tubulovesicles associated with IF migrated to the periphery of the secretory canaliculi within 8 min of stimulation. IF was present on secretory microvilli between 8 and 30 min when IF output in gastric juice was at its maximum. The cessation of IF secretion coincided with the depletion of IF associated with tubulovesicles. IF appeared in the perinuclear space and RER as the IF associated with tubulovesicles was secreted. These observations indicate that IF secretion depends upon membrane-associated vesicular transport and provides support for a membrane translocation-fusion hypothesis to explain the morphologic changes that occur in the parietal cell during secretion. PMID:7287818

  1. Nephritogenic lupus antibodies recognize glomerular basement membrane-associated chromatin fragments released from apoptotic intraglomerular cells.

    PubMed

    Kalaaji, Manar; Mortensen, Elin; Jørgensen, Leif; Olsen, Randi; Rekvig, Ole Petter

    2006-06-01

    Antibodies to dsDNA represent a classification criterion for systemic lupus erythematosus. Subpopulations of these antibodies are involved in lupus nephritis. No known marker separates nephritogenic from non-nephritogenic anti-dsDNA antibodies. It is not clear whether specificity for glomerular target antigens or intrinsic antibody-affinity for dsDNA or nucleosomes is a critical parameter. Furthermore, it is still controversial whether glomerular target antigen(s) is constituted by nucleosomes or by non-nucleosomal glomerular structures. Previously, we have demonstrated that antibodies eluted from murine nephritic kidneys recognize nucleosomes, but not other glomerular antigens. In this study, we determined the structures that bind nephritogenic autoantibodies in vivo by transmission electron microscopy, immune electron microscopy, and colocalization immune electron microscopy using experimental antibodies to dsDNA, to histones and transcription factors, or to laminin. The data obtained are consistent and point at glomerular basement membrane-associated nucleosomes as target structures for the nephritogenic autoantibodies. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling or caspase-3 assays demonstrate that lupus nephritis is linked to intraglomerular cell apoptosis. The data suggest that nucleosomes are released by apoptosis and associate with glomerulus basement membranes, which may then be targeted by pathogenic anti-nucleosome antibodies. Thus, apoptotic nucleosomes may represent both inducer and target structures for nephritogenic autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  2. Structural basis for the membrane association of ankyrinG via palmitoylation

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Kondo, Hiroko X.; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kobayashi, Megumi; Takeshita, Kohei; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Okamura, Yasushi; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    By clustering various ion channels and transporters, ankyrin-G (AnkG) configures the membrane-excitation platforms in neurons and cardiomyocytes. AnkG itself localizes to specific areas on the plasma membrane via s-palmitoylation of Cys. However, the structural mechanism by which AnkG anchors to the membrane is not understood. In this study, we solved the crystal structures of the reduced and oxidized forms of the AnkG s-palmitoylation domain and used multiple long-term coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to analyze their membrane association. Here we report that the membrane anchoring of AnkG was facilitated by s-palmitoylation, defining a stable binding interface on the lipid membrane, and that AnkG without s-palmitoylation also preferred to stay near the membrane but did not have a unique binding interface. This suggests that AnkG in the juxtamembrane region is primed to accept lipid modification at Cys, and once that happens AnkG constitutes a rigid structural base upon which a membrane-excitation platform can be assembled. PMID:27046665

  3. The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase of spinach leaves responds to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James; Penel, Claude; Greppin, Hubert; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase (NOX) of spinach leaf disks is characterized by oscillations in activity with a regular period length of ca. 24 min. Within a single population of plants exposed to light at the same time, NOX activities of all plants function synchronously. Exposure of plants transferred from darkness to blue light (495 nm, 2 min, 50 micromoles m-2 s-1) resulted in a complex response pattern but with a new maximum in the rate of NOX activity 36 (24+12) min after illumination and then with maxima in the rate of NOX activity every 24 min thereafter. Transient maxima in NOX activity were observed as well after 9.3 + /- 1.4 and 20.7 +/- 2.1 min. The blue light response differed from the response to red (650 nm, 10 min, 50 micromoles m-2 s-1) or white light where activity maxima were initiated 12 min after the light exposure followed by maxima every 24 min thereafter. Green or yellow light was ineffective. The light response was independent of the time in the 24-min NOX cycle when the light was given. The net effects of blue and red light were ultimately the same with a new maximum in the rate of NOX activity at 12+24=36 min (and every 24 min thereafter), but the mechanisms appear to be distinct.

  4. The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase of spinach leaves responds to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James; Penel, Claude; Greppin, Hubert; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase (NOX) of spinach leaf disks is characterized by oscillations in activity with a regular period length of ca. 24 min. Within a single population of plants exposed to light at the same time, NOX activities of all plants function synchronously. Exposure of plants transferred from darkness to blue light (495 nm, 2 min, 50 micromoles m-2 s-1) resulted in a complex response pattern but with a new maximum in the rate of NOX activity 36 (24+12) min after illumination and then with maxima in the rate of NOX activity every 24 min thereafter. Transient maxima in NOX activity were observed as well after 9.3 + /- 1.4 and 20.7 +/- 2.1 min. The blue light response differed from the response to red (650 nm, 10 min, 50 micromoles m-2 s-1) or white light where activity maxima were initiated 12 min after the light exposure followed by maxima every 24 min thereafter. Green or yellow light was ineffective. The light response was independent of the time in the 24-min NOX cycle when the light was given. The net effects of blue and red light were ultimately the same with a new maximum in the rate of NOX activity at 12+24=36 min (and every 24 min thereafter), but the mechanisms appear to be distinct.

  5. Redox stress in geobacilli from geothermal springs: Phenomenon and membrane-associated response mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghazaryan, Astghik; Blbulyan, Syuzanna; Poladyan, Anna; Trchounian, Armen

    2015-10-01

    Geobacillus toebii ArzA-8, from Armenian geothermal springs, grew well in nutrient broth. During its growth, changes in pH in opposite directions were observed depending on glucose supplementation. Accordingly, the decrease in the redox potential was determined using titanium-silicate (Eh) and platinum (Eh') electrodes: Eh decreased to -150 ± 3 mV and Eh' to -350 ± 2 mV without glucose; the decrease in these potentials was smaller with glucose. Redox stress due to an oxidizer, K3[Fe(CN)6], or a reducer, dl-dithiothreitol (DTT), inhibited bacterial growth. However, a stimulatory effect of K3[Fe(CN)6] or DTT was observed with or without glucose, respectively. With glucose, the H(+) efflux was sensitive to N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of FoF1FOF1-ATPase and other H(+) translocation mechanisms, but the addition of an oxidizer or reducer suppressed the H(+) efflux. The ATPase activity of membrane vesicles was ~1.3-fold higher in cells grown with glucose compared with cells grown without glucose. DCCD and DTT suppressed ATPase activity in cells grown without glucose, whereas DTT stimulated FOF1-ATPase activity in cells grown with glucose. Thus, G. toebii senses redox stress; this thermophile likely presents specific membrane-associated response mechanisms involving FOF1-ATPase to overcome redox stress and survive; these mechanisms are important for adaptation to extreme environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Membrane-Associated Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Channel Is the Central Heat Shock Receptor Controlling the Cellular Heat Shock Response in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Zohar; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Saidi, Younousse; Weiss, Yoram George

    2013-01-01

    The heat shock response (HSR) is a highly conserved molecular response to various types of stresses, including heat shock, during which heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are produced to prevent and repair damages in labile proteins and membranes. In cells, protein unfolding in the cytoplasm is thought to directly enable the activation of the heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), however, recent work supports the activation of the HSR via an increase in the fluidity of specific membrane domains, leading to activation of heat-shock genes. Our findings support the existence of a plasma membrane-dependent mechanism of HSF-1 activation in animal cells, which is initiated by a membrane-associated transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor (TRPV). We found in various non-cancerous and cancerous mammalian epithelial cells that the TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX), upregulated the accumulation of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp27 and Hsp70 and Hsp90 respectively, while the TRPV1 antagonists, capsazepine and AMG-9810, attenuated the accumulation of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp27 and Hsp70, Hsp90, respectively. Capsaicin was also shown to activate HSF-1. These findings suggest that heat-sensing and signaling in mammalian cells is dependent on TRPV channels in the plasma membrane. Thus, TRPV channels may be important drug targets to inhibit or restore the cellular stress response in diseases with defective cellular proteins, such as cancer, inflammation and aging. PMID:23468922

  7. Membrane-associated collagens with interrupted triple-helices (MACITs): evolution from a bilaterian common ancestor and functional conservation in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hongmin; Huhtala, Pirkko; Lee, Hang-Mao; Adams, Josephine C; Pihlajaniemi, Taina

    2015-12-14

    Collagens provide structural support and guidance cues within the extracellular matrix of metazoans. Mammalian collagens XIII, XXIII and XXV form a unique subgroup of type II transmembrane proteins, each comprising a short N-terminal cytosolic domain, a transmembrane domain and a largely collagenous ectodomain. We name these collagens as MACITs (Membrane-Associated Collagens with Interrupted Triple-helices), and here investigate their evolution and conserved properties. To date, these collagens have been studied only in mammals. Knowledge of the representation of MACITs in other extant metazoans is lacking. This question is of interest for understanding structural/functional relationships in the MACIT family and also for insight into the evolution of MACITs in relation to the secreted, fibrillar collagens that are present throughout the metazoa. MACITs are restricted to bilaterians and are represented in the Ecdysozoa, Hemichordata, Urochordata and Vertebrata (Gnathostomata). They were not identified in available early-diverging metazoans, Lophotrochozoa, Echinodermata, Cephalochordata or Vertebrata (Cyclostomata). Whereas invertebrates encode a single MACIT, collagens XIII/XXIII/XXV of jawed vertebrates are paralogues that originated from the two rounds of en-bloc genome duplication occurring early in vertebrate evolution. MACITs have conserved domain architecture in which a juxta-membrane furin-cleavage site and the C-terminal 34 residues are especially highly conserved, whereas the cytoplasmic domains are weakly conserved. To study protein expression and function in a metazoan with a single MACIT gene, we focused on Caenorhabditis elegans and its col-99 gene. A col-99 cDNA was cloned and expressed as protein in mammalian CHO cells, two antibodies against COL-99 protein were generated, and a col-99-bearing fosmid gene construct col-99::egfp::flag was used to generate transgenic C. elegans lines. The encoded COL-99 polypeptide is 85 kDa in size and forms a

  8. Branchial membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase activity maintains CO2 excretion in severely anemic dogfish.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, K M; Perry, S F

    2004-06-01

    Plasma CO(2) reactions in Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) have access to plasma and gill membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA). Acute severe experimental anemia and selective CA inhibitors were used to investigate the role of extracellular CA in CO(2) excretion. Anemia was induced by blood withdrawal coupled to volume replacement with saline. Lowering hematocrit from 14.2 +/- 0.4% (mean +/- SE; N = 31) to 5.2 +/- 0.1% (N = 31) had no significant impact on arterial or venous CO(2) tensions (Pa(CO(2)) and Pv(CO(2)), respectively) over the subsequent 2 h. PCO(2) was maintained despite the reduction in red cell number and a significant 32% increase in cardiac output (V(b)), both of which have been found to cause Pa(CO(2)) increases in teleost fish. By contrast, treatment of anemic dogfish with the CA inhibitors benzolamide (1.3 mg/kg) or F3500 (50 mg/kg), to selectively inhibit extracellular CA, elicited rapid and significant increases in Pa(CO(2)) of 0.68 +/- 0.17 Torr (N = 6) and 0.53 +/- 0.11 Torr (N = 7), respectively, by 30 min after treatment. These findings provide a functional context in which extracellular CA in dogfish contributes substantially to CO(2) excretion. Additionally, the apparent lack of effect of V(b) changes on PCO(2) suggests that, in contrast to teleost fish, CO(2) excretion in dogfish does not behave as a diffusion-limited system.

  9. Purification and properties of the membrane-associated coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase from Methanobacterium formicicum.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, S F; Ferry, J G

    1989-01-01

    The membrane-associated coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase of Methanobacterium formicicum was purified 87-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme contained alpha, beta, and gamma subunits (molecular weights of 43,000, 36,700, and 28,800, respectively) and formed aggregates (molecular weight, 1,020,000) of a coenzyme F420-active alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 1 trimer (molecular weight, 109,000). The hydrogenase contained 1 mol of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), 1 mol of nickel, 12 to 14 mol of iron, and 11 mol of acid-labile sulfide per mol of the 109,000-molecular-weight species, but no selenium. The isoelectric point was 5.6. The amino acid sequence I-N3-P-N2-R-N1-EGH-N6-V (where N is any amino acid) was conserved in the N-termini of the alpha subunits of the F420-hydrogenases from M. formicicum and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and of the largest subunits of nickel-containing hydrogenases from Desulfovibrio baculatus, Desulfovibrio gigas, and Rhodobacter capsulatus. The purified F420-hydrogenase required reductive reactivation before assay. FAD dissociated from the enzyme during reactivation unless potassium salts were present, yielding deflavoenzyme that was unable to reduce coenzyme F420. Maximal coenzyme F420-reducing activity was obtained at 55 degrees C and pH 7.0 to 7.5, and with 0.2 to 0.8 M KCl in the reaction mixture. The enzyme catalyzed H2 production at a rate threefold lower than that for H2 uptake and reduced coenzyme F420, methyl viologen, flavins, and 7,8-didemethyl-8-hydroxy-5-deazariboflavin. Specific antiserum inhibited the coenzyme F420-dependent but not the methyl viologen-dependent activity of the purified enzyme. Images PMID:2738024

  10. Molecular Basis of Membrane Association by the Phosphatidylinositol Mannosyltransferase PimA Enzyme from Mycobacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo-Unzueta, Ane; Martínez, Mariano A.; Comino, Natalia; Alzari, Pedro M.; Chenal, Alexandre; Guerin, Marcelo E.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosyltransferase A (PimA) is an essential glycosyltransferase that initiates the biosynthetic pathway of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannoside, lipomannan, and lipoarabinomannan, which are key glycolipids/lipoglycans of the mycobacterial cell envelope. PimA belongs to a large family of membrane-associated glycosyltransferases for which the understanding of the molecular mechanism and conformational changes that govern substrate/membrane recognition and catalysis remains a major challenge. Here, we determined that PimA preferentially binds to negatively charged phosphatidyl-myo-inositol substrate and non-substrate membrane model systems (small unilamellar vesicle) through its N-terminal domain, inducing an important structural reorganization of anionic phospholipids. By using a combination of single-point mutagenesis, circular dichroism, and a variety of fluorescence spectroscopy techniques, we determined that this interaction is mainly mediated by an amphipathic α-helix (α2), which undergoes a substantial conformational change and localizes in the vicinity of the negatively charged lipid headgroups and the very first carbon atoms of the acyl chains, at the PimA-phospholipid interface. Interestingly, a flexible region within the N-terminal domain, which undergoes β-strand-to-α-helix and α-helix-to-β-strand transitions during catalysis, interacts with anionic phospholipids; however, the effect is markedly less pronounced to that observed for the amphipathic α2, likely reflecting structural plasticity/variability. Altogether, we propose a model in which conformational transitions observed in PimA might reflect a molten globule state that confers to PimA, a higher affinity toward the dynamic and highly fluctuating lipid bilayer. PMID:27189944

  11. Membrane-associated HB-EGF modulates HGF-induced cellular responses in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amar B; Tsukada, Toshiaki; Zent, Roy; Harris, Raymond C

    2004-03-15

    In MDCK cells, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) induces epithelial cell dissociation, scattering, migration, growth and formation of branched tubular structures. By contrast, these cells neither scatter nor form tubular structures in response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of growth factors. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family of growth factors and is synthesized as a membrane-associated precursor molecule (proHB-EGF). ProHB-EGF is proteolytically cleaved to release a soluble ligand (sHB-EGF) that activates the EGF receptor. Although recent studies suggest possible physiological functions, the role of proHB-EGF remains largely undefined. Using MDCK cells stably expressing proHB-EGF, a noncleavable deletion mutant of proHB-EGF or soluble HB-EGF, we show that epithelial cell functions differ depending on the form of HB-EGF being expressed. Expression of noncleavable membrane-anchored HB-EGF promoted cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions and decreased cell migration, HGF/SF-induced cell scattering and formation of tubular structures. By contrast, expression of soluble HB-EGF induced increased cell migration, decreased cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions and promoted the development of long unbranched tubular structures in response to HGF/SF. These findings suggest that HB-EGF can not only modulate HGF/SF-induced cellular responses in MDCK cells but also that membrane-bound HB-EGF and soluble HB-EGF give rise to distinctly different effects on cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions.

  12. Membrane association and release of wild-type and pathological tau from organotypic brain slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Cara L; Wade, Matthew A; Kurbatskaya, Ksenia; Mastrandreas, Pavlina; Hughes, Martina M; Phillips, Emma C; Pooler, Amy M; Perkinton, Michael S; Hanger, Diane P; Noble, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    The spatiotemporal transmission of pathological tau in the brain is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Release of both soluble and abnormal tau species from healthy neurons is increased upon stimulation of neuronal activity. It is not yet understood whether the mechanisms controlling soluble tau release from healthy neurons is the same as those involved in the spread of pathological tau species. To begin to understand these events, we have studied tau distribution and release using organotypic brain slice cultures. The slices were cultured from postnatal wild-type and 3xTg-AD mice for up to 1 month. Tau distribution in subcellular compartments was examined by western blotting, and tau release into culture medium was determined using a sensitive sandwich ELISA. We show here that 3xTg-AD cultures have an accelerated development of pathological tau abnormalities including the redistribution of tau to synaptic and membrane compartments. The 3xTg-AD slice cultures show elevated basal tau release relative to total tau when compared with wild-type cultures. However, tau release from 3xTg-AD slices cannot be further stimulated when neuronal activity is increased with potassium chloride. Moreover, we report that there is an increased pool of dephosphorylated membrane-associated tau in conditions where tau release is increased. These data suggest that there may be differential patterns of tau release when using integrated slice culture models of wild-type and transgenic mouse brain, although it will be important to determine the effect of tau overexpression for these findings. These results further increase our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying tau release and propagation in neurodegenerative tauopathies. PMID:28300838

  13. Estrogens antagonize RUNX2-mediated osteoblast-driven osteoclastogenesis through regulating RANKL membrane association.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anthony; Xiong, Jian; Koromila, Theodora; Ji, Jie S; Chang, Stephanie; Song, Yae S; Miller, Jonathan L; Han, Chun-Ya; Kostenuik, Paul; Krum, Susan A; Chimge, Nyam-Osor; Gabet, Yankel; Frenkel, Baruch

    2015-06-01

    In addition to its thoroughly investigated role in bone formation, the osteoblast master transcription factor RUNX2 also promotes osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Here we demonstrate that 17β-estradiol (E2), strongly inhibits RUNX2-mediated osteoblast-driven osteoclastogenesis in co-cultures. Towards deciphering the underlying mechanism, we induced premature expression of RUNX2 in primary murine pre-osteoblasts, which resulted in robust differentiation of co-cultured splenocytes into mature osteoclasts. This was attributable to RUNX2-mediated increase in RANKL secretion, determined by ELISA, as well as to RUNX2-mediated increase in RANKL association with the osteoblast membrane, demonstrated using confocal fluorescence microscopy. The increased association with the osteoblast membrane was recapitulated by transiently expressed GFP-RANKL. E2 abolished the RUNX2-mediated increase in membrane-associated RANKL and GFP-RANKL, as well as the concomitant osteoclastogenesis. RUNX2-mediated RANKL cellular redistribution was attributable in part to a decrease in Opg expression, but E2 did not influence Opg expression either in the presence or absence of RUNX2. Diminution of RUNX2-mediated osteoclastogenesis by E2 occurred regardless of whether the pre-osteoclasts were derived from wild type or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-knockout mice, suggesting that activated ERα inhibited osteoblast-driven osteoclastogenesis by acting in osteoblasts, possibly targeting RUNX2. Indeed, microarray analysis demonstrated global attenuation of the RUNX2 response by E2, including abrogation of Pstpip2 expression, which likely plays a critical role in membrane trafficking. Finally, the selective ER modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene mimicked E2 in abrogating the stimulatory effect of osteoblastic RUNX2 on osteoclast differentiation in the co-culture assay. Thus, E2 antagonizes RUNX2-mediated RANKL trafficking and subsequent osteoclastogenesis. Targeting RUNX2 and

  14. Functional significance of membrane associated proteolysis in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin against Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    García-Robles, Inmaculada; Ochoa-Campuzano, Camila; Sánchez, Jorge; Contreras, Estefanía; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are widely used as biocontrol agents in bioinsecticides and transgenic plants. In the three domain-Cry toxins, domain II has been identified as an important determinant of their highly specific activity against insects. In this work, we assessed the role in membrane associated proteolysis and toxicity in Colorado potato beetle (CPB) of a previously reported ADAM recognition motif present in Cry3Aa toxin domain II. We used site-directed mutagenesis to modify the Bacillus thuringiensis cry3A gene in amino acid residues 344, 346, 347, 351 and 353 of the ADAM recognition motif in Cry3Aa toxin. Cry3Aa toxin mutants displayed decreased toxicity when compared to the wild type toxin and impaired ability to compete CPB brush border membrane associated cleavage of an ADAM fluorogenic substrate. Although the proteolytic profile of Cry3Aa toxin mutants generated by brush border membrane associated proteases was similar to that of Cry3Aa toxin, the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline was less efficient on the proteolysis of mutants than on that of the wild type toxin. The relevance of the Cry3Aa-ADAM interaction through the predicted recognition sequence was further confirmed by analyzing the effect of membrane integrity disturbance on Cry3Aa toxin membrane associated proteolysis and CPB larvae toxicity. Data support that Cry3Aa proteolysis, as a result of the interaction with ADAM through the Cry3Aa recognition motif, is essential for Cry3Aa toxic action in CPB. Detailed knowledge of Cry3Aa interaction with CPB midgut membrane should facilitate the development of more effective Bt based products against this devastating pest and other Coleoptera. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN IN VITRO MODEL OF THE EFFECTS OF METHYLPHENIDATE ON MEMBRANE-ASSOCIATED SYNAPTIC VESICLES

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Trent J.; Farnsworth, Sarah J.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo methylphenidate (MPD) administration decreases vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) immunoreactivity in membrane-associated vesicles isolated from the striata of treated rats while concurrently kinetically upregulating VMAT-2-mediated vesicular dopamine (DA) sequestration. The functional consequences of these MPD-induced effects include an increase in both vesicular DA content and exocytotic DA release. This report describes experiments designed to develop and validate an in vitro MPD model to further elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the effects of MPD on the VMAT-2 in membrane-associated vesicles. Method development experiments revealed that in vitro MPD incubation of striatal homogenates, but not striatal synaptosomes, increased DA transport velocities and decreased VMAT-2 immunoreactivity in membrane-associated vesicles. An incubation time of 30 min with a MPD concentration of 10 mM was optimal. Method validation experiments indicated that in vitro MPD incubation kinetically upregulated VMAT-2 in membrane-associated vesicles, increased vesicular DA content, and increased exocytotic DA release. These results reveal that the in vitro MPD incubation model successfully reproduced the salient features of in vivo MPD administration. This in vitro MPD incubation model may provide novel insights into the receptor-mediated mechanism(s) of action of in vivo MPD in the striatum as well as the physiological regulation of vesicular DA sequestration and synaptic transmission. Accordingly, this in vitro model may help to advance the treatment of disorders involving abnormal DA disposition including Parkinson’s disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance abuse. PMID:18992277

  16. A modified lipid composition in Fabry disease leads to an intracellular block of the detergent-resistant membrane-associated dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Katia; Jia, Jia; Rizk, Sandra; Brogden, Graham; Keiser, Markus; Das, Anibh; Naim, Hassan Y

    2010-08-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder that leads to abnormal accumulation of glycosphingolipids due to a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A (AGAL). The consequences of these alterations on the targeting of membrane proteins are poorly understood. Glycosphingolipids are enriched in Triton-X-100- resistant lipid rafts [detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs)] and play an important role in the transport of several membrane-associated proteins. Here, we show that In fibroblasts of patients suffering from Fabry disease, the colocalization of AGAL with the lysosomal marker LAMP2 is decreased compared with wild-type fibroblasts concomitant with a reduced transport of AGAL to lysosomes. Furthermore, overall composition of membrane lipids in the patients' fibroblasts as well as in DRMs reveals a substantial increase in the concentration of glycolipids and a slight reduction of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The altered glycolipid composition in Fabry fibroblasts is associated with an intracellular accumulation and impaired trafficking of the Triton-X-100 DRM-associated membrane glycoprotein dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) in transfected Fabry cells, whereas no effect could be observed on the targeting of aminopeptidase N (ApN) that is not associated with this type of DRM. We propose that changes in the lipid composition of cell membranes in Fabry disease disturb the ordered Triton X-100 DRMs and have implications on the trafficking and sorting of DRM-associated proteins and the overall protein-lipid interaction at the cell membrane. Possible consequences could be altered signalling at the cell surface triggered by DRM-associated proteins, with implications on gene regulation and subsequent protein expression.

  17. Blast-derived microvesicles in sera from patients with acute myeloid leukemia suppress natural killer cell function via membrane-associated transforming growth factor-beta1.

    PubMed

    Szczepanski, Miroslaw J; Szajnik, Marta; Welsh, Ann; Whiteside, Theresa L; Boyiadzis, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Natural killer cell cytotoxicity is decreased in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in comparison to that in normal controls. Tumor-derived microvesicles present in patients' sera exert detrimental effects on immune cells and may influence tumor progression. We investigated the microvesicle protein level, molecular profile and suppression of natural killer cell activity in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. The patients' sera contained higher levels of microvesicles compared to the levels in controls (P<0.001). Isolated microvesicles had a distinct molecular profile: in addition to conventional microvesicle markers, they contained membrane-associated transforming growth factor-β1, MICA/MICB and myeloid blasts markers, CD34, CD33 and CD117. These microvesicles decreased natural killer cell cytotoxicity (P<0.002) and down-regulated expression of NKG2D in normal natural killer cells (P<0.001). Sera from patients with acute myeloid leukemia contained elevated levels of transforming growth factor-β, and urea-mediated dissociation of microvesicles further increased the levels of this protein. Neutralizing anti-transforming growth factor-β1 antibodies inhibited microvesicle-mediated suppression of natural killer cell activity and NKG2D down-regulation. Interleukin-15 protected natural killer cells from adverse effects of tumor-derived microvesicles. We provide evidence for the existence in acute myeloid leukemia of a novel mechanism of natural killer cell suppression mediated by tumor-derived microvesicles and for the ability of interleukin-15 to counteract this suppression.

  18. The Equine Herpesvirus 1 US2 Homolog Encodes a Nonessential Membrane-Associated Virion Component

    PubMed Central

    Meindl, Alexandra; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to analyze the equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) gene 68 product which is encoded by the EHV-1 US2 homolog. An antiserum directed against the amino-terminal 206 amino acids of the EHV-1 US2 protein specifically detected a protein with an Mr of 34,000 in cells infected with EHV-1 strain RacL11. EHV-1 strain Ab4 encodes a 44,000-Mr Us2 protein, whereas vaccine strain RacH, a high-passage derivative of RacL11, encodes a 31,000-Mr Us2 polypeptide. Irrespective of its size, the US2 protein was incorporated into virions. The EHV-1 US2 protein localized to membrane and nuclear fractions of RacL11-infected cells and to the envelope fraction of purified virions. To monitor intracellular trafficking of the protein, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to the carboxy terminus of the EHV-1 US2 protein or to a truncated US2 protein lacking a stretch of 16 hydrophobic amino acids at the extreme amino terminus. Both fusion proteins were detected at the plasma membrane and accumulated in the vicinity of nuclei of transfected cells. However, trafficking of either GFP fusion protein through the secretory pathway could not be demonstrated, and the EHV-1 US2 protein lacked detectable N- and O-linked carbohydrates. Consistent with the presence of the US2 protein in the viral envelope and plasma membrane of infected cells, a US2-negative RacL11 mutant (L11ΔUS2) exhibited delayed penetration kinetics and produced smaller plaques compared with either wild-type RacL11 or a US2-repaired virus. After infection of BALB/c mice with L11ΔUS2, reduced pathogenicity compared with the parental RacL11 virus and the repaired virus was observed. It is concluded that the EHV-1 US2 protein modulates virus entry and cell-to-cell spread and appears to support sustained EHV-1 replication in vivo. PMID:10074198

  19. The equine herpesvirus 1 Us2 homolog encodes a nonessential membrane-associated virion component.

    PubMed

    Meindl, A; Osterrieder, N

    1999-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to analyze the equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) gene 68 product which is encoded by the EHV-1 Us2 homolog. An antiserum directed against the amino-terminal 206 amino acids of the EHV-1 Us2 protein specifically detected a protein with an Mr of 34,000 in cells infected with EHV-1 strain RacL11. EHV-1 strain Ab4 encodes a 44,000-Mr Us2 protein, whereas vaccine strain RacH, a high-passage derivative of RacL11, encodes a 31,000-Mr Us2 polypeptide. Irrespective of its size, the Us2 protein was incorporated into virions. The EHV-1 Us2 protein localized to membrane and nuclear fractions of RacL11-infected cells and to the envelope fraction of purified virions. To monitor intracellular trafficking of the protein, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to the carboxy terminus of the EHV-1 Us2 protein or to a truncated Us2 protein lacking a stretch of 16 hydrophobic amino acids at the extreme amino terminus. Both fusion proteins were detected at the plasma membrane and accumulated in the vicinity of nuclei of transfected cells. However, trafficking of either GFP fusion protein through the secretory pathway could not be demonstrated, and the EHV-1 Us2 protein lacked detectable N- and O-linked carbohydrates. Consistent with the presence of the Us2 protein in the viral envelope and plasma membrane of infected cells, a Us2-negative RacL11 mutant (L11DeltaUs2) exhibited delayed penetration kinetics and produced smaller plaques compared with either wild-type RacL11 or a Us2-repaired virus. After infection of BALB/c mice with L11DeltaUs2, reduced pathogenicity compared with the parental RacL11 virus and the repaired virus was observed. It is concluded that the EHV-1 Us2 protein modulates virus entry and cell-to-cell spread and appears to support sustained EHV-1 replication in vivo.

  20. Novel Membrane-Associated Targets for Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    annotation, HCCRI is a putative proto-oncogene, fucosyltransferase 8 is thought to contribute to malignancy, "G protein-coupled receptor 126" contains a...Membrane 221675_s_at NM_020244 LOC56994 cholinephosphotransferase 1 protein 1.356 Membrane fucosyltransferase 8 (alpha protein (by 203988_s_at NM_004480...FUT8 (1,6) fucosyltransferase ) similarity). 1.206 MAD2 (mitotic arrest deficient, 203362 s at NM 002358 MAD2L1 yeast, homolog)-like 1 Nucleus 1.112 Table

  1. Molecular characterization of a conserved 20-kilodalton membrane-associated lipoprotein antigen of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Kostrzynska, M; O'Toole, P W; Taylor, D E; Trust, T J

    1994-01-01

    Antisera raised in rabbits to whole cells of Helicobacter pylori recognized as a major antigen a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 20,000. The antigen was purified by differential solubilization with N-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, urea, and sodium dodecyl sulfate followed by molecular sieving. The mass of the protein, Lpp20, was 18,283 Da as determined by mass spectrometry. The lpp20 gene encoding this protein was cloned in Escherichia coli by using the vector lambda EMBL3, and plasmid subclones expressed the full-length protein from the native H. pylori promoter. lpp20 was mapped to the same 358-kb NruI fragment as flaB. DNA sequence analysis showed that the gene was 525 bp long and encoded a 175-amino-acid protein with a molecular weight of 19,094 containing a 21-residue typical lipoprotein signal peptide and consensus prolipoprotein processing site. The mass of the deduced 154-residue mature protein was 16,865 Da. Growth of E. coli cells expressing the cloned H. pylori lpp20 gene in the presence of [3H]palmitic acid resulted in radiolabelled Lpp20 while treatment of the E. coli cells with globomycin caused accumulation of unprocessed Lpp20, consistent with Lpp20 being a lipoprotein. Lpp20 cofractionated with the cytoplasmic membrane fraction, although a proportion of the protein was also found in the outer membrane. A mutant generated by mutant-allele exchange displayed normal viability, showing that Lpp20 belonged to the nonessential class of lipoproteins. Images PMID:7928954

  2. ACBD5 and VAPB mediate membrane associations between peroxisomes and the ER

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Joseph L.; Hacker, Christian; Schrader, Tina A.; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Findeisen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisomes (POs) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cooperate in cellular lipid metabolism and form tight structural associations, which were first observed in ultrastructural studies decades ago. PO–ER associations have been suggested to impact on a diverse number of physiological processes, including lipid metabolism, phospholipid exchange, metabolite transport, signaling, and PO biogenesis. Despite their fundamental importance to cell metabolism, the mechanisms by which regions of the ER become tethered to POs are unknown, in particular in mammalian cells. Here, we identify the PO membrane protein acyl-coenzyme A–binding domain protein 5 (ACBD5) as a binding partner for the resident ER protein vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB). We show that ACBD5–VAPB interaction regulates PO–ER associations. Moreover, we demonstrate that loss of PO–ER association perturbs PO membrane expansion and increases PO movement. Our findings reveal the first molecular mechanism for establishing PO–ER associations in mammalian cells and report a new function for ACBD5 in PO–ER tethering. PMID:28108524

  3. ACBD5 and VAPB mediate membrane associations between peroxisomes and the ER.

    PubMed

    Costello, Joseph L; Castro, Inês G; Hacker, Christian; Schrader, Tina A; Metz, Jeremy; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Azadi, Afsoon S; Godinho, Luis F; Costina, Victor; Findeisen, Peter; Manner, Andreas; Islinger, Markus; Schrader, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Peroxisomes (POs) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cooperate in cellular lipid metabolism and form tight structural associations, which were first observed in ultrastructural studies decades ago. PO-ER associations have been suggested to impact on a diverse number of physiological processes, including lipid metabolism, phospholipid exchange, metabolite transport, signaling, and PO biogenesis. Despite their fundamental importance to cell metabolism, the mechanisms by which regions of the ER become tethered to POs are unknown, in particular in mammalian cells. Here, we identify the PO membrane protein acyl-coenzyme A-binding domain protein 5 (ACBD5) as a binding partner for the resident ER protein vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB). We show that ACBD5-VAPB interaction regulates PO-ER associations. Moreover, we demonstrate that loss of PO-ER association perturbs PO membrane expansion and increases PO movement. Our findings reveal the first molecular mechanism for establishing PO-ER associations in mammalian cells and report a new function for ACBD5 in PO-ER tethering. © 2017 Costello et al.

  4. Atox1 Contains Positive Residues That Mediate Membrane Association and Aid Subsequent Copper Loading

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Adrian G.; Unger, Vinzenz M.

    2013-01-01

    Copper chaperones bind intracellular copper and ensure proper trafficking to downstream targets via protein-protein interactions. In contrast to the mechanisms of copper binding and transfer to downstream targets, the mechanisms of initial copper loading of the chaperones are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that antioxidant protein 1 (Atox1 in human cells), the principal cellular copper chaperone responsible for delivery of copper to the secretory pathway, possesses the ability to interact with negatively charged lipid headgroups via distinct surface lysine residues. Moreover, loss of these residues lowers the efficiency of copper loading of Atox1 in vivo, suggesting that the membrane may play a scaffolding role in copper distribution to Atox1. These findings complement the recent discovery that the membrane also facilitates copper loading of the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase 1 and provide further support for the emerging paradigm that the membrane bilayer plays a central role in cellular copper acquisition and distribution. PMID:24036897

  5. Phosphorylation of lipin 1 and charge on the phosphatidic acid head group control its phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity and membrane association.

    PubMed

    Eaton, James M; Mullins, Garrett R; Brindley, David N; Harris, Thurl E

    2013-04-05

    The lipin gene family encodes a class of Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatidic acid phosphatases involved in the de novo synthesis of phospholipids and triglycerides. Unlike other enzymes in the Kennedy pathway, lipins are not integral membrane proteins, and they need to translocate from the cytosol to intracellular membranes to participate in glycerolipid synthesis. The movement of lipin 1 within the cell is closely associated with its phosphorylation status. Although cellular analyses have demonstrated that highly phosphorylated lipin 1 is enriched in the cytosol and dephosphorylated lipin 1 is found on membranes, the effects of phosphorylation on lipin 1 activity and binding to membranes has not been recapitulated in vitro. Herein we describe a new biochemical assay for lipin 1 using mixtures of phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylethanolamine that reflects its physiological activity and membrane interaction. This depends on our observation that lipin 1 binding to PA in membranes is highly responsive to the electrostatic charge of PA. The studies presented here demonstrate that phosphorylation regulates the ability of the polybasic domain of lipin 1 to recognize di-anionic PA and identify mTOR as a crucial upstream signaling component regulating lipin 1 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate how phosphorylation of lipin 1 together with pH and membrane phospholipid composition play important roles in the membrane association of lipin 1 and thus the regulation of its enzymatic activity.

  6. Phytoene Desaturase from Oryza sativa: Oligomeric Assembly, Membrane Association and Preliminary 3D-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koschmieder, Julian; Brausemann, Anton; Drepper, Friedel; Rodriguez-Franco, Marta; Ghisla, Sandro; Warscheid, Bettina; Einsle, Oliver; Beyer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant phytoene desaturase (PDS-His6) from rice was purified to near-homogeneity and shown to be enzymatically active in a biphasic, liposome-based assay system. The protein contains FAD as the sole protein-bound redox-cofactor. Benzoquinones, not replaceable by molecular oxygen, serve as a final electron acceptor defining PDS as a 15-cis-phytoene (donor):plastoquinone oxidoreductase. The herbicidal PDS-inhibitor norflurazon is capable of arresting the reaction by stabilizing the intermediary FADred, while an excess of the quinone acceptor relieves this blockage, indicating competition. The enzyme requires its homo-oligomeric association for activity. The sum of data collected through gel permeation chromatography, non-denaturing polyacrylamide electrophoresis, chemical cross-linking, mass spectrometry and electron microscopy techniques indicate that the high-order oligomers formed in solution are the basis for an active preparation. Of these, a tetramer consisting of dimers represents the active unit. This is corroborated by our preliminary X-ray structural analysis that also revealed similarities of the protein fold with the sequence-inhomologous bacterial phytoene desaturase CRTI and other oxidoreductases of the GR2-family of flavoproteins. This points to an evolutionary relatedness of CRTI and PDS yielding different carotene desaturation sequences based on homologous protein folds. PMID:26147209

  7. Studies on the membrane-associated proteolytic activities of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane fraction contains three proteolytic activities which can be resolved from whole membrane detergent extracts by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The first two eluting activities have been previously reported as protease V and protease IV. These two enzymes were further purified by gel permeation HPLC. Protease V has a M. W. of 31,000 in SDS-PAGE gels. Protease IV has a M. W. of 62,000 and exists in two distinct isoforms of pl approx. = 6.7 and 6.9. The third enzyme eluting from the DEAE-cellulose column was further purified by affinity chromatography on Benzamidine-Sepharose 6B. This enzyme, referred to herein as protease VI, is a 43 kdal protein which has not been previously characterized. Protease VI was sensitive to inhibition by the serine protease inhibitors phenylmethylsulfony fluoride (PMSF), diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and p-amino-benzamidine (PAB). Additionally, this enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH approx. = 8.0. Incubation of whole membrane preparations with (/sup 3/H) DFP resulted in 11 specific proteins acquiring the radioactive label, included in this group of proteins were proteases IV, V, and VI. Several of the DFP-reactive proteins were also shown to bind (/sup 125/I) ampicillin.

  8. Overview of the membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) E3 ligase family.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Johannes; Bakke, Oddmund; Morth, J Preben

    2017-09-25

    E3 ligases are critical checkpoints for protein ubiquitination, a signal that often results in protein sorting and degradation but has also been linked to regulation of transcription and DNA repair. In line with their key role in cellular trafficking and cell-cycle control, malfunction of E3 ligases is often linked to human disease. Thus, they have emerged as prime drug targets. However, the molecular basis of action of membrane-bound E3 ligases is still unknown. Here, we review the current knowledge on the membrane-embedded MARCH E3 ligases (MARCH-1-6,7,8,11) with a focus on how the transmembrane regions can contribute via GxxxG-motifs to the selection and recognition of other membrane proteins as substrates for ubiquitination. Further understanding of the molecular parameters that govern target protein recognition of MARCH E3 ligases will contribute to development of strategies for therapeutic regulation of MARCH-induced ubiquitination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of two membrane-associated beta-glucosidases from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles.

    PubMed Central

    Feldwisch, J; Vente, A; Zettl, R; Bako, L; Campos, N; Palme, K

    1994-01-01

    We isolated membrane vesicles from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles and identified in these vesicles a 58 kDa (pm58) and a 60 kDa (pm60) protein by photoaffinity labelling with 5-azido-[7-3H]indole-3-acetic acid ([3H]N3IAA). Photoaffinity labelling was effectively competed for by auxins as well as by flavonoids. The labelled proteins were solubilized by Triton X-114 from the vesicles and partially purified. Microsequence analysis revealed that pm60 is a beta-glucosidase. This was confirmed by biochemical and immunological analysis. We show that pm60 has a beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.21) activity. It uses p-nitro-phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) as a substrate, with a pH optimum of 5.0. The Km for PNPG is 0.652 mM and the Vmax. 6.24 mumol.min-1.mg-1. The beta-glucosidase activity of pm60 was competitively inhibited by IAA and 1-naphthylacetic acid as well as by gluconolactam and glucose. N-terminal amino-acid-sequence analysis of pm58 revealed similarity to pm60, suggesting that both proteins are encoded by different members of a gene family. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8068000

  10. Butyrophilin, an apical plasma membrane-associated glycoprotein characteristic of lactating mammary glands of diverse species.

    PubMed

    Heid, H W; Winter, S; Bruder, G; Keenan, T W; Jarasch, E D

    1983-02-01

    Lipid globule membranes were isolated from human and bovine milk and from the milk of sheep, goat, pig, rat and guinea pig, and their polypeptide compositions were analyzed. The major polypeptides with molecular weights similar to that of bovine butyrophilin were separated by gel electrophoresis, isolated and characterized with respect to isoelectric point, molecular weight, immunological cross-reactivity and peptide composition after proteolytic cleavage. We show that in all species examined these proteins are similar to bovine butyrophilin in (i) their relative insolubility in buffers of low and high ionic strength and in non-denaturing detergents, (ii) the occurrence of several isoelectric variants, and (iii) patterns of peptides obtained by protease digestion. It is concluded that closely related proteins are major constituents of the cytoplasmic coat structures associated with milk lipid globule membranes of many species, and we propose the name butyrophilins for this group of proteins. Bovine and human butyrophilins are glycosylated with relatively large amounts of glucosamine, mannose, glucose and galactose but little fucose, sialic acids or galactosamine. Most if not all of the sugar residues are associated with an acetone-soluble peptide fragment of Mr 12000-16000 focusing at about pH 4.0. We suggest that this fragment contains a membrane-spanning peptide sequence and is involved in the attachment of the cytoplasmic coat to the membrane of the milk lipid globule.

  11. Medically Relevant Acinetobacter Species Require a Type II Secretion System and Specific Membrane-Associated Chaperones for the Export of Multiple Substrates and Full Virulence.

    PubMed

    Harding, Christian M; Kinsella, Rachel L; Palmer, Lauren D; Skaar, Eric P; Feldman, Mario F

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, A. nosocomialis, and A. pittii have recently emerged as opportunistic human pathogens capable of causing severe human disease; however, the molecular mechanisms employed by Acinetobacter to cause disease remain poorly understood. Many pathogenic members of the genus Acinetobacter contain genes predicted to encode proteins required for the biogenesis of a type II secretion system (T2SS), which have been shown to mediate virulence in many Gram-negative organisms. Here we demonstrate that Acinetobacter nosocomialis strain M2 produces a functional T2SS, which is required for full virulence in both the Galleria mellonella and murine pulmonary infection models. Importantly, this is the first bona fide secretion system shown to be required for virulence in Acinetobacter. Using bioinformatics, proteomics, and mutational analyses, we show that Acinetobacter employs its T2SS to export multiple substrates, including the lipases LipA and LipH as well as the protease CpaA. Furthermore, the Acinetobacter T2SS, which is found scattered amongst five distinct loci, does not contain a dedicated pseudopilin peptidase, but instead relies on the type IV prepilin peptidase, reinforcing the common ancestry of these two systems. Lastly, two of the three secreted proteins characterized in this study require specific chaperones for secretion. These chaperones contain an N-terminal transmembrane domain, are encoded adjacently to their cognate effector, and their disruption abolishes type II secretion of their cognate effector. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative chaperones located adjacent to multiple previously known type II effectors from several Gram-negative bacteria, which suggests that T2SS chaperones constitute a separate class of membrane-associated chaperones mediating type II secretion.

  12. Medically Relevant Acinetobacter Species Require a Type II Secretion System and Specific Membrane-Associated Chaperones for the Export of Multiple Substrates and Full Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Christian M.; Kinsella, Rachel L.; Palmer, Lauren D.; Skaar, Eric P.; Feldman, Mario F.

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, A. nosocomialis, and A. pittii have recently emerged as opportunistic human pathogens capable of causing severe human disease; however, the molecular mechanisms employed by Acinetobacter to cause disease remain poorly understood. Many pathogenic members of the genus Acinetobacter contain genes predicted to encode proteins required for the biogenesis of a type II secretion system (T2SS), which have been shown to mediate virulence in many Gram-negative organisms. Here we demonstrate that Acinetobacter nosocomialis strain M2 produces a functional T2SS, which is required for full virulence in both the Galleria mellonella and murine pulmonary infection models. Importantly, this is the first bona fide secretion system shown to be required for virulence in Acinetobacter. Using bioinformatics, proteomics, and mutational analyses, we show that Acinetobacter employs its T2SS to export multiple substrates, including the lipases LipA and LipH as well as the protease CpaA. Furthermore, the Acinetobacter T2SS, which is found scattered amongst five distinct loci, does not contain a dedicated pseudopilin peptidase, but instead relies on the type IV prepilin peptidase, reinforcing the common ancestry of these two systems. Lastly, two of the three secreted proteins characterized in this study require specific chaperones for secretion. These chaperones contain an N-terminal transmembrane domain, are encoded adjacently to their cognate effector, and their disruption abolishes type II secretion of their cognate effector. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative chaperones located adjacent to multiple previously known type II effectors from several Gram-negative bacteria, which suggests that T2SS chaperones constitute a separate class of membrane-associated chaperones mediating type II secretion. PMID:26764912

  13. Blast-derived microvesicles in sera from patients with acute myeloid leukemia suppress natural killer cell function via membrane-associated transforming growth factor-β1

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanski, Miroslaw J.; Szajnik, Marta; Welsh, Ann; Whiteside, Theresa L.; Boyiadzis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural killer cell cytotoxicity is decreased in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in comparison to that in normal controls. Tumor-derived microvesicles present in patients’ sera exert detrimental effects on immune cells and may influence tumor progression. Design and Methods We investigated the microvesicle protein level, molecular profile and suppression of natural killer cell activity in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. Results The patients’ sera contained higher levels of microvesicles compared to the levels in controls (P<0.001). Isolated microvesicles had a distinct molecular profile: in addition to conventional microvesicle markers, they contained membrane-associated transforming growth factor-β1, MICA/MICB and myeloid blasts markers, CD34, CD33 and CD117. These microvesicles decreased natural killer cell cytotoxicity (P<0.002) and down-regulated expression of NKG2D in normal natural killer cells (P<0.001). Sera from patients with acute myeloid leukemia contained elevated levels of transforming growth factor-β, and urea-mediated dissociation of microvesicles further increased the levels of this protein. Neutralizing anti-transforming growth factor-β1 antibodies inhibited microvesicle-mediated suppression of natural killer cell activity and NKG2D down-regulation. Interleukin-15 protected natural killer cells from adverse effects of tumor-derived microvesicles. Conclusions We provide evidence for the existence in acute myeloid leukemia of a novel mechanism of natural killer cell suppression mediated by tumor-derived microvesicles and for the ability of interleukin-15 to counteract this suppression. PMID:21606166

  14. Identification of a plasma membrane-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ARF6 in chromaffin cells. Possible role in the regulated exocytotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Caumont, A S; Vitale, N; Gensse, M; Galas, M C; Casanova, J E; Bader, M F

    2000-05-26

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) constitute a family of structurally related proteins that forms a subset of the Ras superfamily of regulatory GTP-binding proteins. Like other GTPases, activation of ARFs is facilitated by specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In chromaffin cells, ARF6 is associated with the membrane of secretory granules. Stimulation of intact cells or direct elevation of cytosolic calcium in permeabilized cells triggers the rapid translocation of ARF6 to the plasma membrane and the concomitant activation of phospholipase D (PLD) in the plasma membrane. Both calcium-evoked PLD activation and catecholamine secretion in permeabilized cells are strongly inhibited by a synthetic peptide corresponding to the N-terminal domain of ARF6, suggesting that the ARF6-dependent PLD activation near the exocytotic sites represents a key event in the exocytotic reaction in chromaffin cells. In the present study, we demonstrate the occurrence of a brefeldin A-insensitive ARF6-GEF activity in the plasma membrane and in the cytosol of chromaffin cells. Furthermore, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoreplica analysis indicate that ARNO, a member of the brefeldin A-insensitive ARF-GEF family, is expressed and predominantly localized in the cytosol and in the plasma membrane of chromaffin cells. Using permeabilized chromaffin cells, we found that the introduction of anti-ARNO antibodies into the cytosol inhibits, in a dose-dependent manner, both PLD activation and catecholamine secretion in calcium-stimulated cells. Furthermore, co-expression in PC12 cells of a catalytically inactive ARNO mutant with human growth hormone as a marker of secretory granules in transfected cells resulted in a 50% inhibition of growth hormone secretion evoked by depolarization with high K(+). The possibility that the plasma membrane-associated ARNO participates in the exocytotic pathway by activating ARF6 and downstream PLD is discussed.

  15. αS1-casein, which is essential for efficient ER-to-Golgi casein transport, is also present in a tightly membrane-associated form

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Caseins, the main milk proteins, aggregate in the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells into large supramolecular structures, casein micelles. The role of individual caseins in this process and the mesostructure of the casein micelle are poorly known. Results In this study, we investigate primary steps of casein micelle formation in rough endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles prepared from rat or goat mammary tissues. The majority of both αS1- and β-casein which are cysteine-containing casein was dimeric in the endoplasmic reticulum. Saponin permeabilisation of microsomal membranes in physico-chemical conditions believed to conserve casein interactions demonstrated that rat immature β-casein is weakly aggregated in the endoplasmic reticulum. In striking contrast, a large proportion of immature αS1-casein was recovered in permeabilised microsomes when incubated in conservative conditions. Furthermore, a substantial amount of αS1-casein remained associated with microsomal or post-ER membranes after saponin permeabilisation in non-conservative conditions or carbonate extraction at pH11, all in the presence of DTT. Finally, we show that protein dimerisation via disulfide bond is involved in the interaction of αS1-casein with membranes. Conclusions These experiments reveal for the first time the existence of a membrane-associated form of αS1-casein in the endoplasmic reticulum and in more distal compartments of the secretory pathway of mammary epithelial cells. Our data suggest that αS1-casein, which is required for efficient export of the other caseins from the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a key role in early steps of casein micelle biogenesis and casein transport in the secretory pathway. PMID:20704729

  16. AMACO is a component of the basement membrane-associated Fraser complex.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Rebecca J; Gebauer, Jan M; Zhang, Jin-Li; Kobbe, Birgit; Keene, Douglas R; Karlsen, Kristina Røkenes; Richetti, Stefânia; Wohl, Alexander P; Sengle, Gerhard; Neiss, Wolfram F; Paulsson, Mats; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Wagener, Raimund

    2014-05-01

    Fraser syndrome (FS) is a phenotypically variable, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmus, cutaneous syndactyly, and other malformations resulting from mutations in FRAS1, FREM2, and GRIP1. Transient embryonic epidermal blistering causes the characteristic defects of the disorder. Fras1, Frem1, and Frem2 form the extracellular Fraser complex, which is believed to stabilize the basement membrane. However, several cases of FS could not be attributed to mutations in FRAS1, FREM2, or GRIP1, and FS displays high clinical variability, suggesting that there is an additional genetic, possibly modifying contribution to this disorder. An extracellular matrix protein containing VWA-like domains related to those in matrilins and collagens (AMACO), encoded by the VWA2 gene, has a very similar tissue distribution to the Fraser complex proteins in both mouse and zebrafish. Here, we show that AMACO deposition is lost in Fras1-deficient zebrafish and mice and that Fras1 and AMACO interact directly via their chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and P2 domains. Knockdown of vwa2, which alone causes no phenotype, enhances the phenotype of hypomorphic Fras1 mutant zebrafish. Together, our data suggest that AMACO represents a member of the Fraser complex.

  17. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Yijun; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Song, Cheng; Yoo, Dongwan; Li, Gang

    2012-03-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), indicating that the C-terminal domain of GP4 functions as a GPI anchor. Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. The residues T158 ({omega} - 2, where {omega} is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 ({omega} - 1), and M162 ({omega} + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. The complete removal of the peptide-anchor domain in GP4 resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity. The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. Remarkably, GP4 was found to co-localize with CD163 in the lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus.

  18. Co-translational membrane association of the Escherichia coli SRP receptor.

    PubMed

    Bercovich-Kinori, Adi; Bibi, Eitan

    2015-04-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) receptor is a major player in the pathway of membrane protein biogenesis in all organisms. The receptor functions as a membrane-bound entity but very little is known about its targeting to the membrane. Here, we demonstrate in vivo that the Escherichia coli SRP receptor targets the membrane co-translationally. This requires emergence from the ribosome of the four-helix-long N-domain of the receptor, of which only helices 2-4 are required for co-translational membrane attachment. The results also suggest that the targeting might be regulated co-translationally. Taken together, our in vivo studies shed light on the biogenesis of the SRP receptor and its hypothetical role in targeting ribosomes to the E. coli membrane.

  19. MucR, a novel membrane-associated regulator of alginate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hay, Iain D; Remminghorst, Uwe; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2009-02-01

    Alginate biosynthesis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be regulated by the intracellular second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric-GMP (c-di-GMP), and binding of c-di-GMP to the membrane protein Alg44 was required for alginate production. In this study, PA1727, a c-di-GMP-synthesizing enzyme was functionally analyzed and identified to be involved in regulation of alginate production. Deletion of the PA1727 gene in the mucoid alginate-overproducing P. aeruginosa strain PDO300 resulted in a nonmucoid phenotype and an about 38-fold decrease in alginate production; thus, this gene is designated mucR. The mucoid alginate-overproducing phenotype was restored by introducing the mucR gene into the isogenic DeltamucR mutant. Moreover, transfer of the MucR-encoding plasmid into strain PDO300 led to an about sevenfold increase in alginate production, wrinkly colony morphology, increased pellicle formation, auto-aggregation, and the formation of highly structured biofilms as well as the inhibition of swarming motility. Outer membrane protein profile analysis showed that overproduction of MucR mediates a strong reduction in the copy number of FliC (flagellin), required for flagellum-mediated motility. Translational reporter enzyme fusions with LacZ and PhoA suggested that MucR is located in the cytoplasmic membrane with a cytosolic C terminus. Deletion of the proposed C-terminal GGDEF domain abolished MucR function. MucR was purified and identified using tryptic peptide fingerprinting and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Overall, experimental evidence was provided suggesting that MucR specifically regulates alginate biosynthesis by activation of alginate production through generation of a localized c-di-GMP pool in the vicinity of Alg44.

  20. Membrane association of the CD3ε signaling domain is required for optimal T cell development and function1

    PubMed Central

    Bettini, Matthew L.; Guy, Clifford; Dash, Pradyot; Vignali, Kate M.; Hamm, David E.; Dobbins, Jessica; Gagnon, Etienne; Thomas, Paul G.; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR):CD3 complex transduces signals that are critical for optimal T cell development and adaptive immunity. In resting T cells, the CD3ε cytoplasmic tail associates with the plasma membrane via a proximal basic-rich stretch (BRS). Here we show that mice lacking a functional CD3ε-BRS exhibited substantial reductions in thymic cellularity and limited CD4−CD8− double negative-3 (DN3) to DN4 thymocyte transition, due to enhanced DN4 TCR signaling resulting in increased cell death and TCR downregulation in all subsequent populations. Furthermore, positive, but not negative, T cell selection was affected in mice lacking a functional CD3ε-BRS, which led to limited peripheral T cell function and substantially reduced responsiveness to influenza infection. Collectively, these results indicate membrane association of the CD3ε signaling domain is required for optimal thymocyte development and peripheral T cell function. PMID:24899501

  1. Detergent-Resistant Membrane Association of NS2 and E2 during Hepatitis C Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Saravanabalaji; Saravanabalaji, Dhanaranjani

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previously, we demonstrated that the efficiency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2-p7 processing regulates p7-dependent NS2 localization to putative virus assembly sites near lipid droplets (LD). In this study, we have employed subcellular fractionations and membrane flotation assays to demonstrate that NS2 associates with detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) in a p7-dependent manner. However, p7 likely plays an indirect role in this process, since only the background level of p7 was detectable in the DRM fractions. Our data also suggest that the p7-NS2 precursor is not involved in NS2 recruitment to the DRM, despite its apparent targeting to this location. Deletion of NS2 specifically inhibited E2 localization to the DRM, indicating that NS2 regulates this process. Treatment of cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) significantly reduced the DRM association of Core, NS2, and E2 and reduced infectious HCV production. Since disruption of the DRM localization of NS2 and E2, either due to p7 and NS2 defects, respectively, or by MβCD treatment, inhibited infectious HCV production, these proteins' associations with the DRM likely play an important role during HCV assembly. Interestingly, we detected the HCV replication-dependent accumulation of ApoE in the DRM fractions. Taking into consideration the facts that ApoE was shown to be a major determinant for infectious HCV particle production at the postenvelopment step and that the HCV Core protein strongly associates with the DRM, recruitment of E2 and ApoE to the DRM may allow the efficient coordination of Core particle envelopment and postenvelopment events at the DRM to generate infectious HCV production. IMPORTANCE The biochemical nature of HCV assembly sites is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the correlation between NS2 and E2 localization to the detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) and HCV particle assembly. We determined that although NS2's DRM localization is dependent on p7, p7 was not

  2. Molecular details of α-synuclein membrane association revealed by neutrons and photons.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhiping; Hess, Sara K; Heinrich, Frank; Lee, Jennifer C

    2015-04-09

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) is an abundant neuronal protein associated with Parkinson's disease that is disordered in solution, but it exists in equilibrium between a bent-helix and an elongated-helix on negatively charged membranes. Here, neutron reflectometry (NR) and fluorescence spectroscopy were employed to uncover molecular details of the interaction between α-syn and two anionic lipids, phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylserine (PS). Both NR and site-specific Trp measurements indicate that penetration depth of α-syn is similar for either PA- or PS-containing membranes (∼9-11 Å from bilayer center) even though there is a preference for α-syn binding to PA. However, closer examination of the individual Trp quenching profiles by brominated lipids reveals differences into local membrane interactions especially at position 39 where conformational heterogeneity was observed. The data also indicate that while W94 penetrates the bilayer as deeply as W4, W94 resides in a more polar surrounding. Taken together, we suggest the N- and C-terminal regions near positions 4 and 94 are anchored to the membrane, while the putative linker spanning residue 39 samples multiple conformations, which are sensitive to the chemical nature of the membrane surface. This flexibility may enable α-syn to bind diverse biomembranes in vivo.

  3. Effects of pressure on membrane-associated receptors and effector element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Thomas F.

    1991-05-01

    To investigate the effects of moderate hydrostatic pressures on signal transduction we have used the A (1) adenosine receptor inhibitory G protein (Gi) - adenylyl cyclase system in two species of sorpaenid fish which have served as a model for the study of pressure adaptation. These species, Sebastolobus alascanus and S. Altivelis, have similar body temperatures, but dwell at different depths, and thus experience different hydrostatic pressures. The experiments were designed to identify and define at the molecular level the effects of pressure on the components of the signal transduction system in isolation and on the entire functional complex. We have completed work characterizing the effects of pressure on the coupling efficiency of the A (1) adenosine receptor in brain membrane preparations. For the teleost brain membrane preparations, incubation at 5 C and 476 atm does not result in loss of adenylyl cyclase activity or coupling to the A (1) adenosine receptor on subsequent assays at atmospheric pressure. In contrast, rat brain membrane preparations lost 59 pct. of their activity under these conditions.

  4. Molecular Details of α-Synuclein Membrane Association Revealed by Neutrons and Photons

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhiping; Hess, Sara K.; Heinrich, Frank; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) is an abundant neuronal protein associated with Parkinson’s disease that is disordered in solution, but exists in equilibrium between a bent- and an elongated-helix on negatively charged membranes. Here, neutron reflectometry (NR) and fluorescence spectroscopy were employed to uncover molecular details of the interaction between α-syn and two anionic lipids, phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylserine (PS). Both NR and site-specific Trp measurements indicate that penetration depth of α-syn is similar for either PA- or PS-containing membranes (~9–11 Å from bilayer center) even though there is a preference for α-syn binding to PA. However, closer examination of the individual Trp quenching profiles by brominated lipids reveal differences into local membrane interactions especially at position 39 where conformational heterogeneity was observed. The data also indicate that while W94 penetrates the bilayer as deeply as W4, W94 resides in a more polar surrounding. Taken together, we suggest the N- and C-terminal regions near positions 4 and 94 are anchored to the membrane, while the putative linker spanning residue 39 samples multiple conformations, which are sensitive to the chemical nature of the membrane surface. This flexibility may enable α-syn to bind diverse biomembranes in vivo. PMID:25790164

  5. Archaeal membrane-associated proteases: insights on Haloferax volcanii and other haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Giménez, María I.; Cerletti, Micaela; De Castro, Rosana E.

    2015-01-01

    The function of membrane proteases range from general house-keeping to regulation of cellular processes. Although the biological role of these enzymes in archaea is poorly understood, some of them are implicated in the biogenesis of the archaeal cell envelope and surface structures. The membrane-bound ATP-dependent Lon protease is essential for cell viability and affects membrane carotenoid content in Haloferax volcanii. At least two different proteases are needed in this archaeon to accomplish the posttranslational modifications of the S-layer glycoprotein. The rhomboid protease RhoII is involved in the N-glycosylation of the S-layer protein with a sulfoquinovose-containing oligosaccharide while archaeosortase ArtA mediates the proteolytic processing coupled-lipid modification of this glycoprotein facilitating its attachment to the archaeal cell surface. Interestingly, two different signal peptidase I homologs exist in H. volcanii, Sec11a and Sec11b, which likely play distinct physiological roles. Type IV prepilin peptidase PibD processes flagellin/pilin precursors, being essential for the biogenesis and function of the archaellum and other cell surface structures in H. volcanii. PMID:25774151

  6. Archaeal membrane-associated proteases: insights on Haloferax volcanii and other haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Giménez, María I; Cerletti, Micaela; De Castro, Rosana E

    2015-01-01

    The function of membrane proteases range from general house-keeping to regulation of cellular processes. Although the biological role of these enzymes in archaea is poorly understood, some of them are implicated in the biogenesis of the archaeal cell envelope and surface structures. The membrane-bound ATP-dependent Lon protease is essential for cell viability and affects membrane carotenoid content in Haloferax volcanii. At least two different proteases are needed in this archaeon to accomplish the posttranslational modifications of the S-layer glycoprotein. The rhomboid protease RhoII is involved in the N-glycosylation of the S-layer protein with a sulfoquinovose-containing oligosaccharide while archaeosortase ArtA mediates the proteolytic processing coupled-lipid modification of this glycoprotein facilitating its attachment to the archaeal cell surface. Interestingly, two different signal peptidase I homologs exist in H. volcanii, Sec11a and Sec11b, which likely play distinct physiological roles. Type IV prepilin peptidase PibD processes flagellin/pilin precursors, being essential for the biogenesis and function of the archaellum and other cell surface structures in H. volcanii.

  7. Up-regulation of plasma membrane-associated redox activities in neuronal cells lacking functional mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Hoon; Hunt, Nicole D; Emerson, Scott S; Hernandez, Joe O; Mattson, Mark P; de Cabo, Rafael

    2007-03-01

    Mitochondria-deficient cells (rho(o) cells) survive through enhanced glycolytic metabolism in the presence of pyruvate and uridine. The plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) contains several NAD(P)H-related enzymes and plays a key role in maintaining the levels of NAD(+)/NADH and reduced coenzyme Q. In this study, rho(o) cells were used to investigate how the PMRS is regulated under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction. rho(o) cells exhibited a lower oxygen consumption rate and higher levels of lactate than parental cells, and were more sensitive to glycolysis inhibitors (2-deoxyglucose and iodoacetamide) than control cells. However, they were more resistant to H(2)O(2), consistent with increased catalase activity and decreased oxidative damage (protein carbonyls and nitrotyrosine). PM-associated redox enzyme activities were enhanced in rho(o) cells compared to those in control cells. Our data suggest that all PMRS enzymes and biomarkers tested are closely related to the ability of the PMs to maintain redox homeostasis. These results illustrate that an up-regulated PM redox activity can protect cells from oxidative stress as a result of an improved antioxidant capacity, and suggest a mechanism by which neurons adapt to conditions of impaired mitochondrial function.

  8. Synthesis by Schwann cells of basal lamina and membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Primary cultures that contain only Schwann cells and sensory nerve cells synthesize basal lamina. The assembly of this basal lamina appears to be essential for normal Schwann cell development. In this study, we demonstrate that Schwann cells synthesize two major heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycans. Both proteoglycans band in dissociative CsCl gradients at densities less than 1.4 g/ml, and therefore, presumably, have relatively low carbohydrate-to-protein ratios. The larger of these proteoglycans elutes from Sepharose CL-4B in 4 M guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) at a Kav of 0.21 and contains heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains of Mr 21,000 in a ratio of approximately 3:1. This proteoglycan is extracted from cultures by 4 M GuHCl but not Triton X-100 and accumulates only when Schwann cells are actively synthesizing basal lamina. The smaller proteoglycan elutes from Sepharose CL-4B at a Kav of 0.44 and contains heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains of Mr 18,000 in a ratio of approximately 4:1. This proteoglycan is extracted by 4 M GuHCl or by Triton X-100. The accumulation of this proteoglycan is independent of basal lamina production. PMID:3160714

  9. Membrane association, electrostatic sequestration, and cytotoxicity of Gly-Leu-rich peptide orthologs with differing functions.

    PubMed

    Vanhoye, Damien; Bruston, Francine; El Amri, Shaharazade; Ladram, Ali; Amiche, Mohamed; Nicolas, Pierre

    2004-07-06

    The skins of closely related frog species produce Gly-Leu-rich peptide orthologs that have very similar sequences, hydrophobicities, and amphipathicities but differ markedly in their net charge and membrane-damaging properties. Cationic Gly-Leu-rich peptides are hemolytic and very potent against microorganisms. Peptides with no net charge have only hemolytic activity. We have used ancestral protein reconstruction and peptide analogue design to examine the roles of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in the biological activity and mode of action of functionally divergent Gly-Leu-rich peptides. The structure and interaction of the peptides with anionic and zwitterionic model membranes were investigated by circular dichroism with 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine or 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol vesicles and surface plasmon resonance with immobilized bilayers. The results, combined with antimicrobial assays, the kinetics of bacterial killing, and membrane permeabilization assays, reveal that Gly, Val, Thr, and Ile can all be accommodated in an amphipathic alpha helix when the helix is in a membrane environment. Binding to anionic and zwitterionic membranes fitted to a 2-stage interaction model (adsorption to the membrane followed by membrane insertion). The first step is governed by hydrophobic interactions between the nonpolar surface of the peptide helix and the membranes. The strong binding of Gly-Leu-rich cationic peptides to anionic membranes is due to the second binding step and involves short-range Coulombic interactions that prolong the residence time of the membrane-inserted peptide. The data demonstrate that evolution has positively selected charge-altering nucleotide substitutions to generate an orthologous cationic variant of neutral hemolytic peptides that bind to and permeate bacterial cell membranes.

  10. Medial prefrontal cortical estradiol rapidly alters memory system bias in female rats: ultrastructural analysis reveals membrane-associated estrogen receptors as potential mediators.

    PubMed

    Almey, Anne; Cannell, Elizabeth; Bertram, Kyla; Filardo, Edward; Milner, Teresa A; Brake, Wayne G

    2014-11-01

    High plasma levels of estradiol (E2) are associated with use of a place memory system over a response memory system. We examined whether infusing estradiol into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or anterior cingulate cortex (AC) could affect memory system bias in female rats. We also examined the ultrastructural distribution of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ERβ, and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) in the mPFC of female rats as a mechanism for the behavioral effects of E2 in the mPFC. Each rat was infused bilaterally with either E2 (0.13 μg) or vehicle into the mPFC or AC. The majority of E2 mPFC rats used place memory. In contrast, the majority of mPFC vehicle rats and AC E2 or vehicle rats used response memory. These data show that mPFC E2 rapidly biases females to use place memory. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that ERα, ERβ, and GPER1 are localized in the mPFC, almost exclusively at extranuclear sites. This is the first time that GPER1 has been localized to the mPFC of rats and the first time that ERα and ERβ have been described at extranuclear sites in the rat mPFC. The majority of receptors were observed on axons and axon terminals, suggesting that estrogens alter presynaptic transmission in the mPFC. This provides a mechanism via which ERs could rapidly alter transmission in the mPFC to alter PFC-dependent behaviors, such as memory system bias. The discrete nature of immunolabeling for these membrane-associated ERs may explain the discrepancy in previous light microscopy studies.

  11. Medial Prefrontal Cortical Estradiol Rapidly Alters Memory System Bias in Female Rats: Ultrastructural Analysis Reveals Membrane-Associated Estrogen Receptors as Potential Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Cannell, Elizabeth; Bertram, Kyla; Filardo, Edward; Milner, Teresa A.

    2014-01-01

    High plasma levels of estradiol (E2) are associated with use of a place memory system over a response memory system. We examined whether infusing estradiol into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or anterior cingulate cortex (AC) could affect memory system bias in female rats. We also examined the ultrastructural distribution of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ERβ, and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) in the mPFC of female rats as a mechanism for the behavioral effects of E2 in the mPFC. Each rat was infused bilaterally with either E2 (0.13 μg) or vehicle into the mPFC or AC. The majority of E2 mPFC rats used place memory. In contrast, the majority of mPFC vehicle rats and AC E2 or vehicle rats used response memory. These data show that mPFC E2 rapidly biases females to use place memory. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that ERα, ERβ, and GPER1 are localized in the mPFC, almost exclusively at extranuclear sites. This is the first time that GPER1 has been localized to the mPFC of rats and the first time that ERα and ERβ have been described at extranuclear sites in the rat mPFC. The majority of receptors were observed on axons and axon terminals, suggesting that estrogens alter presynaptic transmission in the mPFC. This provides a mechanism via which ERs could rapidly alter transmission in the mPFC to alter PFC-dependent behaviors, such as memory system bias. The discrete nature of immunolabeling for these membrane-associated ERs may explain the discrepancy in previous light microscopy studies. PMID:25211590

  12. Auto-oxidation and a membrane-associated 'Fenton reagent': a possible explanation for development of membrane lesions in sickle erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hebbel, R P

    1985-02-01

    Sickle erythrocytes spontaneously generate approximately twice-normal amounts of activated oxygen species (superoxide, peroxide and the highly reactive hydroxyl radical). In addition, they contain excessive amounts of membrane-bound haemichromes, which presumably accumulate because of some degree of sickle haemoglobin instability, perhaps involving interactions between haemoglobin and the lipid bilayer. Since most erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms are located in the cytoplasm, it is hypothesized that a physiologically significant hydroxyl radical generator would be located within or directly adjacent to the membrane. Indeed, sickle erythrocyte membranes appear to contain a biological 'Fenton reagent', the iron of which is able to cycle between ferrous and ferric states and thereby facilitate superoxide/peroxide-driven hydroxyl radical generation. Data suggest that at least some haemichromes could fulfil this function, although many other potential hydroxyl radical generators exist in sickle erythrocytes. A particularly interesting - but unproven - possibility is membrane-associated haem (without globin). It is further hypothesized that the various membrane abnormalities of sickle erythrocytes might be caused by excessive auto-oxidation. Although proof of this hypothesis does not yet exist, a number of observations are consistent with it. Certainly, evidence indicates that some oxidative modification of sickle erythrocyte membrane proteins and lipids has taken place. Few data exist regarding the state of the erythrocyte membrane in the unstable haemoglobinopathies, but evidence of oxidative perturbation of the HbKöln erythrocyte membrane has been reported. Of great interest is that the membranes of thalassaemic and sickle erythrocytes appear to be remarkably similar in terms of possible oxidative phenomena, suggesting that the membranes of these two cell types may be subjected to similar oxidative stresses.

  13. Structural and topological studies on the lipid-mediated assembly of a membrane-associated lipomannan in Micrococcus luteus.

    PubMed

    Pakkiri, Leroy S; Wolucka, Beata A; Lubert, Eric J; Waechter, Charles J

    2004-01-01

    The biosynthesis of three mannolipids and the presence of a membrane-associated lipomannan in Micrococcus luteus (formerly Micrococcus lysodeikticus) were documented over 30 years ago. Structural and topological studies have been conducted to learn more about the possible role of the mannolipids in the assembly of the lipomannan. The major mannolipid has been purified and characterized as alpha-D-mannosyl-(1 --> 3)-alpha-D-mannosyl-(1 --> 3)-diacylglycerol (Man2-DAG) by negative-ion electrospray-ionization multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn). Analysis of the fragmentation patterns indicates that the sn-1 position is predominantly acylated with a 12-methyltetradecanoyl group and the sn-2 position is acylated with a myristoyl group. The lipomannan is shown to be located on the exterior face of the cytoplasmic membrane, and not exposed on the surface of intact cells, by staining of intact protoplasts with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-linked concanavalin A (Con A). When cell homogenates of M. luteus are incubated with GDP-[3H]mannose (GDP-Man), [3H]mannosyl units are incorporated into Man1-2-DAG, mannosylphosphorylundecaprenol (Man-P-Undec) and the membrane-associated lipomannan. The addition of amphomycin, an inhibitor of Man-P-Undec synthesis, had no effect on the synthesis of Man1-2-DAG, but blocked the incorporation of [3H]mannose into Man-P-Undec and consequently the lipomannan. These results strongly indicate that GDP-Man is the direct mannosyl donor for the synthesis of Man1-2-DAG, and that the majority of the 50 mannosyl units in the lipomannan are derived from Man-P-Undec. Protease-sensitivity studies with intact and lysed protoplasts indicate that the active sites of the mannosyltransferases catalyzing the formation of Man1-2-DAG and Man-P-Undec are exposed on the inner face, and the Man-P-Undec-mediated reactions occur on the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. Based on all of these results, a topological model is proposed for the lipid

  14. Zinc induces disorder-to-order transitions in free and membrane-associated Thellungiella salsuginea dehydrins TsDHN-1 and TsDHN-2: a solution CD and solid-state ATR-FTIR study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Luna N; Bamm, Vladimir V; Voyer, Janine A M; Smith, Graham S T; Chen, Lin; Yaish, Mahmoud W; Moffatt, Barbara A; Dutcher, John R; Harauz, George

    2011-05-01

    Dehydrins are intrinsically unstructured proteins that are expressed in plants experiencing extreme environmental conditions such as drought or low temperature. Although their role is not completely understood, it has been suggested that they stabilize proteins and membrane structures during environmental stress and also sequester metals such as zinc. Here, we investigate two dehydrins (denoted as TsDHN-1 and TsDHN-2) from Thellungiella salsuginea. This plant is a crucifer that thrives in the Canadian sub-Arctic (Yukon Territory) where it grows on saline-rich soils and experiences periods of both extreme cold and drought. We show using circular dichroism and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy that ordered secondary structure is induced and stabilized in these proteins, both in free and vesicle-bound form, by association with zinc. In membrane-associated form, both proteins have an increased proportion of β-strand conformation induced by the cation, in addition to the amphipathic α-helices formed by their constituent K-segments. These results support the hypothesis that dehydrins stabilize plant plasma and organellar membranes in conditions of stress, and further that zinc may be an important co-factor in stabilization. Whereas dehydrins in the cytosol of a plant cell undergoing dehydration or temperature stress form bulk hydrogels and remain primarily disordered, dehydrins with specific membrane- or protein-associations will have induced ordered secondary structures.

  15. Membrane association facilitates degradation and cleavage of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Seiji; Asada, Akiko; Miyauchi, Shinya; Fuchigami, Takahiro; Saito, Taro; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi

    2010-07-06

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is activated by binding to its activators, p35 and p39. The level of Cdk5 activity is determined by the amount of p35 and p39, which is regulated not only by transcription but also via proteasomal degradation. Alternatively, calpain-induced cleavage of p35 to p25 can induce aberrant Cdk5 activation. As the regulation of p35 and p39 proteolysis is not well understood, we have studied here the mechanisms governing their degradation and cleavage. We find that p35 and p39 undergo proteasomal degradation in neurons, with p39 showing a slower degradation rate than p35. Degradation of the activators is dependent on their respective N-terminal p10 region, as indicated by experiments in which cognate p10 regions were swapped between p35 and p39. The effect of the p10 region on degradation and cleavage could be assigned to its membrane binding properties, mediated predominantly by myristoylation. Together, these results indicate that both proteasomal degradation and calpain cleavage of p35 and p39 are stimulated by membrane association, which is in turn mediated via myristoylation of their p10 regions. However, p35 and p39 show differences in degradation and cleavage rates, which may in fact underlie the distinct physiological and pathological functions of these two Cdk5 activators.

  16. Structural basis for selective recognition of acyl chains by the membrane-associated acyltransferase PatA

    PubMed Central

    Albesa-Jové, David; Svetlíková, Zuzana; Tersa, Montse; Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Carreras-González, Ana; Bonnet, Pascal; Arrasate, Pedro; Eguskiza, Ander; Angala, Shiva K.; Cifuente, Javier O.; Korduláková, Jana; Jackson, Mary; Mikušová, Katarína; Guerin, Marcelo E.

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phospholipids and glycolipids are critical pathways for virtually all cell membranes. PatA is an essential membrane associated acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs). The enzyme transfers a palmitoyl moiety from palmitoyl–CoA to the 6-position of the mannose ring linked to 2-position of inositol in PIM1/PIM2. We report here the crystal structures of PatA from Mycobacterium smegmatis in the presence of its naturally occurring acyl donor palmitate and a nonhydrolyzable palmitoyl–CoA analog. The structures reveal an α/β architecture, with the acyl chain deeply buried into a hydrophobic pocket that runs perpendicular to a long groove where the active site is located. Enzyme catalysis is mediated by an unprecedented charge relay system, which markedly diverges from the canonical HX4D motif. Our studies establish the mechanistic basis of substrate/membrane recognition and catalysis for an important family of acyltransferases, providing exciting possibilities for inhibitor design. PMID:26965057

  17. The Antitumor Effect of Single-domain Antibodies Directed Towards Membrane-associated Catalase and Superoxide Dismutase.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Georg; Motz, Manfred

    2016-11-01

    Neutralizing single-domain antibodies directed towards catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD) caused efficient reactivation of intercellular reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)-dependent apoptosis-inducing signaling specifically in human tumor cells. Single-domain antibodies targeted tumor cell-specific membrane-associated SOD and catalase, but not the corresponding intracellular enzymes. They were shown to be about 200-fold more effective than corresponding classical recombinant antigen-binding fragments and more than four log steps more efficient than monoclonal antibodies. Combined addition of single-domain antibodies against catalase and SOD caused a remarkable synergistic effect. Proof-of-concept experiments in immunocompromised mice using human tumor xenografts and single-domain antibodies directed towards SOD showed an inhibition of tumor growth. Neutralizing single-domain antibodies directed to catalase and SOD also caused a very strong synergistic effect with the established chemotherapeutic agent taxol, indicating an overlap of signaling pathways. This effect might also be useful in order to avoid unwanted side-effects and to drastically lower the costs for taxol-based therapy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Human melanoma cells express FGFR/Src/Rho signaling that entails an adhesion-independent caveolin-1 membrane association.

    PubMed

    Fecchi, Katia; Travaglione, Sara; Spadaro, Francesca; Quattrini, Adriano; Parolini, Isabella; Piccaro, Giovanni; Raggi, Carla; Fabbri, Alessia; Felicetti, Federica; Carè, Alessandra; Fiorentini, Carla; Sargiacomo, Massimo

    2012-03-15

    Caveolae have been indicated as a center of cytoskeleton regulation for Src kinase/Rho GTPase signaling. In addition, Src recruitment on intact cortical actin cytoskeleton appears to be required for bFGF/FGFR signal activation. Recently, we established a relationship between caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression and cell migration in human malignant melanoma, constitutively activated by a bFGF autoregulatory loop. This work intends to investigate whether caveolae's asset, through bFGF/FGFR/c-Src/Rho signaling, could be related to melanoma cell anchorage. Accordingly, we revealed the existence of a FGFR/Src kinase pathway in Cav-1 enriched detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of Me665/1 metastatic melanoma cells, as confirmed by FGFR silencing. Moreover, we determined the expression and phosphorylation levels of Cav-1/Src/Erk signal pathway as a function of FGFR activation and cell density. A sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation was employed to monitor Cav-1 membrane association and buoyancy in Me665/1 cells treated for actin fragmentation or for altered phosphorylation signals. As a result, melanoma cells show remarkable resistance to Cav-1 disassembly, together with persisting cell signal activity, being Src and Cav-1 crucial modulators of Rho GTPases. In conclusion, our study primarily highlights, in a metastatic melanoma cell line expressing caveolin, the circumstances whereby caveola structural and functional endurance enables the FGFR/Src/Rho GTPases pathway to keep on cell progression.

  19. Switching of the positive feedback for RAS activation by a concerted function of SOS membrane association domains.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Hibino, Kayo; Yanagida, Toshio; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Son of sevenless (SOS) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that regulates cell behavior by activating the small GTPase RAS. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that an interaction between SOS and the GTP-bound active form of RAS generates a positive feedback loop that propagates RAS activation. However, it remains unclear how the multiple domains of SOS contribute to the regulation of the feedback loop in living cells. Here, we observed single molecules of SOS in living cells to analyze the kinetics and dynamics of SOS behavior. The results indicate that the histone fold and Grb2-binding domains of SOS concertedly produce an intermediate state of SOS on the cell surface. The fraction of the intermediated state was reduced in positive feedback mutants, suggesting that the feedback loop functions during the intermediate state. Translocation of RAF, recognizing the active form of RAS, to the cell surface was almost abolished in the positive feedback mutants. Thus, the concerted functions of multiple membrane-associating domains of SOS governed the positive feedback loop, which is crucial for cell fate decision regulated by RAS.

  20. Alterations in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 membranes associated to metabolism modifications during application of low-intensity electric current.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Alvarez, Nancy; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano; González, Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    The effects of electric current on membranes associated with metabolism modifications in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 were studied. A 450-mL electrochemical cell with titanium ruthenium-oxide coated electrodes and packed with 15g of perlite, as inert support, was inoculated with A. brasiliensis spores and incubated in a solid inert-substrate culture (12 d; 30°C). Then, 4.5days after starting the culture, a current of 0.42mAcm(-2) was applied for 24h. The application of low-intensity electric current increased the molecular oxygen consumption rate in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in high concentrations of reactive oxygen species, promoting high lipoperoxidation levels, according to measured malondialdehyde, and consequent alterations in membrane permeability explained the high n-hexadecane (HXD) degradation rates observed here (4.7-fold higher than cultures without current). Finally, cell differentiation and spore production were strongly stimulated. The study contributes to the understanding of the effect of current on the cell membrane and its association with HXD metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Integrating Solid-State NMR and Computational Modeling to Investigate the Structure and Dynamics of Membrane-Associated Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Els-Heindl, Sylvia; Chollet, Constance; Scheidt, Holger A.; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Meiler, Jens; Huster, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin activates the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a, also known as the ghrelin receptor. This 28-residue peptide is acylated at Ser3 and is the only peptide hormone in the human body that is lipid-modified by an octanoyl group. Little is known about the structure and dynamics of membrane-associated ghrelin. We carried out solid-state NMR studies of ghrelin in lipid vesicles, followed by computational modeling of the peptide using Rosetta. Isotropic chemical shift data of isotopically labeled ghrelin provide information about the peptide’s secondary structure. Spin diffusion experiments indicate that ghrelin binds to membranes via its lipidated Ser3. Further, Phe4, as well as electrostatics involving the peptide’s positively charged residues and lipid polar headgroups, contribute to the binding energy. Other than the lipid anchor, ghrelin is highly flexible and mobile at the membrane surface. This observation is supported by our predicted model ensemble, which is in good agreement with experimentally determined chemical shifts. In the final ensemble of models, residues 8–17 form an α-helix, while residues 21–23 and 26–27 often adopt a polyproline II helical conformation. These helices appear to assist the peptide in forming an amphipathic conformation so that it can bind to the membrane. PMID:25803439

  2. Biochemical characterization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a paramyxovirus that has three membrane-associate proteins: glycoprotein (G), fusion (F), and small hydrophobic (SH) proteins. Among them, the SH protein is a small type II integral membrane protein that is incorporated into virions and is only present in certain para...

  3. Helicobacter pylori Salvages Purines from Extracellular Host Cell DNA Utilizing the Outer Membrane-Associated Nuclease NucT

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, George W.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen that establishes life-long infections in humans, and its presence in the gastric epithelium is strongly associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Having evolved in this specific gastric niche for hundreds of thousands of years, this microbe has become dependent on its human host. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that H. pylori has lost several genes involved in the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides, and without this pathway present, H. pylori must salvage purines from its environment in order to grow. While the presence and abundance of free purines in various mammalian tissues has been loosely quantified, the concentration of purines present within the gastric mucosa remains unknown. There is evidence, however, that a significant amount of extracellular DNA is present in the human gastric mucosal layer as a result of epithelial cell turnover, and this DNA has the potential to serve as an adequate purine source for gastric purine auxotrophs. In this study, we characterize the ability of H. pylori to grow utilizing only DNA as a purine source. We show that this ability is independent of the ComB DNA uptake system, and that H. pylori utilization of DNA as a purine source is largely influenced by the presence of an outer membrane-associated nuclease (NucT). A ΔnucT mutant exhibits significantly reduced extracellular nuclease activity and is deficient in growth when DNA is provided as the sole purine source in laboratory growth media. These growth defects are also evident when this nuclease mutant is grown in the presence of AGS cells or in purine-free tissue culture medium that has been conditioned by AGS cells in the absence of fetal bovine serum. Taken together, these results indicate that the salvage of purines from exogenous host cell DNA plays an important role in allowing H. pylori to meet its purine requirements for growth. PMID:23893109

  4. Membrane-Associated Glucose-Methanol-Choline Oxidoreductase Family Enzymes PhcC and PhcD Are Essential for Enantioselective Catabolism of Dehydrodiconiferyl Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenji; Hirose, Yusaku; Kamimura, Naofumi; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Hara, Hirofumi; Araki, Takuma; Kasai, Daisuke; Kajita, Shinya; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6 is able to degrade various lignin-derived biaryls, including a phenylcoumaran-type compound, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DCA). In SYK-6 cells, the alcohol group of the B-ring side chain of DCA is initially oxidized to the carboxyl group to generate 3-(2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl) acrylic acid (DCA-C). Next, the alcohol group of the A-ring side chain of DCA-C is oxidized to the carboxyl group, and then the resulting metabolite is catabolized through vanillin and 5-formylferulate. In this study, the genes involved in the conversion of DCA-C were identified and characterized. The DCA-C oxidation activities in SYK-6 were enhanced in the presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide and an artificial electron acceptor and were induced ca. 1.6-fold when the cells were grown with DCA. Based on these observations, SLG_09480 (phcC) and SLG_09500 (phcD), encoding glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family proteins, were presumed to encode DCA-C oxidases. Analyses of phcC and phcD mutants indicated that PhcC and PhcD are essential for the conversion of (+)-DCA-C and (−)-DCA-C, respectively. When phcC and phcD were expressed in SYK-6 and Escherichia coli, the gene products were mainly observed in their membrane fractions. The membrane fractions of E. coli that expressed phcC and phcD catalyzed the specific conversion of DCA-C into the corresponding carboxyl derivatives. In the oxidation of DCA-C, PhcC and PhcD effectively utilized ubiquinone derivatives as electron acceptors. Furthermore, the transcription of a putative cytochrome c gene was significantly induced in SYK-6 grown with DCA. The DCA-C oxidation catalyzed by membrane-associated PhcC and PhcD appears to be coupled to the respiratory chain. PMID:26362985

  5. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of PotA, a membrane-associated ATPase of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Kanai, Ken; Murata, Michio; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2014-06-01

    A membrane-associated ATPase, PotA, is a component of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in prokaryotes that plays an important role in normal cell growth by regulating the cellular polyamine concentration. No three-dimensional structures of membrane-associated ATPases in polyamine-uptake systems have been determined to date. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PotA from Thermotoga maritima are reported. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.7 Å resolution from both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals. Preliminary crystallographic analysis revealed that the crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P3₁12 (or P3₂12), with unit-cell parameters a=b=88.9, c=221.2 Å, α=90, β=90, γ=120°, indicating that a dimer was present in the asymmetric unit.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of PotA, a membrane-associated ATPase of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in Thermotoga maritima

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Kanai, Ken; Murata, Michio; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2014-01-01

    A membrane-associated ATPase, PotA, is a component of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in prokaryotes that plays an important role in normal cell growth by regulating the cellular polyamine concentration. No three-dimensional structures of membrane-associated ATPases in polyamine-uptake systems have been determined to date. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PotA from Thermotoga maritima are reported. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.7 Å resolution from both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals. Preliminary crystallographic analysis revealed that the crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P3112 (or P3212), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.9, c = 221.2 Å, α = 90, β = 90, γ = 120°, indicating that a dimer was present in the asymmetric unit. PMID:24915082

  7. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of GumK, a membrane-associated glucuronosyltransferase from Xanthomonas campestris required for xanthan polysaccharide synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Barreras, Máximo; Bianchet, Mario A.; Ielpi, Luis

    2006-09-01

    Crystallization of a membrane-associated glucuronosyltransferase. GumK is a membrane-associated inverting glucuronosyltransferase that is part of the biosynthetic route of xanthan, an industrially important exopolysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris. The enzyme catalyzes the fourth glycosylation step in the pentasaccharide-P-P-polyisoprenyl assembly, an oligosaccharide diphosphate lipid intermediate in xanthan biosynthesis. GumK has marginal homology to other glycosyltransferases (GTs). It belongs to the CAZy family GT 70, for which no structure is currently available, and indirect biochemical evidence suggests that it also belongs to the GT-B structural superfamily. Crystals of recombinant GumK from X. campestris have been grown that diffract to 1.9 Å resolution. Knowledge of the crystal structure of GumK will help in understanding xanthan biosynthesis and its regulation and will also allow a subsequent rational approach to enzyme design and engineering. The multiwavelength anomalous diffraction approach will be used to solve the phase problem.

  8. Dimannosyldiacylglycerol serves as a lipid anchor precursor in the assembly of the membrane-associated lipomannan in Micrococcus luteus.

    PubMed

    Pakkiri, Leroy S; Waechter, Charles J

    2005-03-01

    Based on recent analytical and enzymological studies, a topological model for the role of alpha-D-mannosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-D-mannosyl-(1-->3)-diacylglycerol (Man(2)-DAG) as a lipid anchor precursor and mannosylphosphorylundecaprenol (Man-P-Und) as a mannosyl donor in the assembly of a membrane-associated lipomannan (LM) in Micrococcus luteus has been proposed. In this study, a [(3)H]mannose-suicide selection procedure has been used to identify temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants defective in LM assembly. Two micrococcal mutants with abnormal levels of Man(2)-DAG and LM at the nonpermissive temperature (37 degrees C), mms1 and mms2, have been isolated and characterized. In vivo and in vitro biochemical assays indicate that mms1 cells have a defect in the mannosyltransferase catalyzing the conversion of Man-DAG to Man(2)-DAG, and mms2 has a temperature-sensitive defect in the synthesis of Man-P-Und. Because mms1 cells are depleted of endogenous Man(2)-DAG, membranes from this mutant efficiently converted purified, exogenous [(3)H]Man(2)-DAG to [(3)H]LM by a Man-P-Und-dependent process. An obligatory role for Man-P-Und as a mannosyl donor in the elongation process was also demonstrated by showing that the conversion of exogenous [(3)H]Man(2)-DAG to [(3)H]LM by membranes from mms1 cells in the presence of GDP-Man was inhibited by amphomycin. In addition, consistent with Man(2)-DAG serving as a lipid anchor precursor for LM assembly, endogenous, prelabeled [(3)H]Man(2)-DAG was converted to [(3)H]LM when membranes from mms2 cells were incubated with purified, exogenous Man-P-Und. These studies provide the first direct proof for the role of Man(2)-DAG as the lipid anchor precursor for LM, and suggest that Man(2)-DAG may be essential for the normal growth of M. luteus cells.

  9. pH-dependent association of carbonic anhydrase (CA) with gastric light microsomal membranes isolated from bovine abomasum. Partial characterization of membrane-associated activity.

    PubMed

    López Mañanes, A A; Daleo, G R; Vega, F V

    1993-05-01

    1. The effect of pH on the association of carbonic anhydrase (CA) with bovine gastric light microsomal membranes (LMMs) was investigated (a) by washing LMMs containing CA activity with solutions of different pHs; (b) by studying the adsorption at various pHs of soluble bovine erythrocyte CA to washed gastric LMMs. In both cases, the association of CA with gastric LMMs was dependent on pH, being lower at neutral or alkaline pH. 2. The amount of soluble CA associated with gastric LMMs at pHs 8.0 and 9.0 was reduced when 140 mM K+/10 mM Na+ was added to the incubation medium. 3. Two sources of CA activity in bovine gastric LMMs were assumed: a loosely- and a firmly-membrane-associated activity. Both CA activities were dose-dependently inhibited by acetazolamide (I50: 3.6 x 10(-9) and 8.4 x 10(-9) M, respectively) and by chloride, acetate, iodide, bromide and nitrate at 100 mM. Firmly-membrane-associated activity appeared to be less sensitive to inhibition by acetazolamide, chloride and iodide. 4. Both activities exhibited different behavior and stability following treatment with alkaline Triton X-100. 5. The possible importance of a membrane-associated CA activity in gastric LMMs related to gastric acid secretion is discussed.

  10. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    DOEpatents

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  11. Revealing mechanisms of selective, concentration-dependent potentials of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal to induce apoptosis in cancer cells through inactivation of membrane-associated catalase.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Georg; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-04-01

    Tumor cells generate extracellular superoxide anions and are protected against superoxide anion-mediated intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling by the expression of membrane-associated catalase. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a versatile second messenger generated during lipid peroxidation, has been shown to induce apoptosis selectively in malignant cells. The findings described in this paper reveal the strong, concentration-dependent potential of 4-HNE to specifically inactivate extracellular catalase of tumor cells both indirectly and directly and to consequently trigger apoptosis in malignant cells through superoxide anion-mediated intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. Namely, 4-HNE caused apoptosis selectively in NOX1-expressing tumor cells through inactivation of their membrane-associated catalase, thus reactivating subsequent intercellular signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite and HOCl pathways, followed by the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Concentrations of 4-HNE of 1.2 µM and higher directly inactivated membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells, whereas at lower concentrations, 4-HNE triggered a complex amplificatory pathway based on initial singlet oxygen formation through H2O2 and peroxynitrite interaction. Singlet-oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8 increased superoxide anion generation by NOX1 and amplification of singlet oxygen generation, which allowed singlet-oxygen-dependent inactivation of catalase. 4-HNE and singlet oxygen cooperate in complex autoamplificatory loops during this process. The finding of these novel anticancer pathways may be useful for understanding the role of 4-HNE in the control of malignant cells and for the optimization of ROS-dependent therapeutic approaches including antioxidant treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  13. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  14. Protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells in the body. They are macromolecules that comprise 1 or more chains of amino acids that vary in their sequence and length and are folded into specific 3-dimensional structures. The sizes and conformations of proteins, therefor...

  15. The Plant Membrane-Associated REMORIN1.3 Accumulates in Discrete Perihaustorial Domains and Enhances Susceptibility to Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Tolga O; Richardson, Annis; Dagdas, Yasin F; Mongrand, Sébastien; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2014-07-01

    Filamentous pathogens such as the oomycete Phytophthora infestans infect plants by developing specialized structures termed haustoria inside the host cells. Haustoria are thought to enable the secretion of effector proteins into the plant cells. Haustorium biogenesis, therefore, is critical for pathogen accommodation in the host tissue. Haustoria are enveloped by a specialized host-derived membrane, the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM), which is distinct from the plant plasma membrane. The mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of the EHM are unknown. Remarkably, several plasma membrane-localized proteins are excluded from the EHM, but the remorin REM1.3 accumulates around P. infestans haustoria. Here, we used overexpression, colocalization with reporter proteins, and superresolution microscopy in cells infected by P. infestans to reveal discrete EHM domains labeled by REM1.3 and the P. infestans effector AVRblb2. Moreover, SYNAPTOTAGMIN1, another previously identified perihaustorial protein, localized to subdomains that are mainly not labeled by REM1.3 and AVRblb2. Functional characterization of REM1.3 revealed that it is a susceptibility factor that promotes infection by P. infestans. This activity, and REM1.3 recruitment to the EHM, require the REM1.3 membrane-binding domain. Our results implicate REM1.3 membrane microdomains in plant susceptibility to an oomycete pathogen.

  16. MKS and NPHP modules cooperate to establish basal body/transition zone membrane associations and ciliary gate function during ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Corey L.; Kida, Katarzyna; Inglis, Peter N.; Mohan, Swetha; Semenec, Lucie; Bialas, Nathan J.; Stupay, Rachel M.; Chen, Nansheng

    2011-01-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS), nephronophthisis (NPHP), and related ciliopathies present with overlapping phenotypes and display considerable allelism between at least twelve different genes of largely unexplained function. We demonstrate that the conserved C. elegans B9 domain (MKS-1, MKSR-1, and MKSR-2), MKS-3/TMEM67, MKS-5/RPGRIP1L, MKS-6/CC2D2A, NPHP-1, and NPHP-4 proteins exhibit essential, collective functions at the transition zone (TZ), an underappreciated region at the base of all cilia characterized by Y-shaped assemblages that link axoneme microtubules to surrounding membrane. These TZ proteins functionally interact as members of two distinct modules, which together contribute to an early ciliogenic event. Specifically, MKS/MKSR/NPHP proteins establish basal body/TZ membrane attachments before or coinciding with intraflagellar transport–dependent axoneme extension and subsequently restrict accumulation of nonciliary components within the ciliary compartment. Together, our findings uncover a unified role for eight TZ-localized proteins in basal body anchoring and establishing a ciliary gate during ciliogenesis, and suggest that disrupting ciliary gate function contributes to phenotypic features of the MKS/NPHP disease spectrum. PMID:21422230

  17. MKS and NPHP modules cooperate to establish basal body/transition zone membrane associations and ciliary gate function during ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Corey L; Li, Chunmei; Kida, Katarzyna; Inglis, Peter N; Mohan, Swetha; Semenec, Lucie; Bialas, Nathan J; Stupay, Rachel M; Chen, Nansheng; Blacque, Oliver E; Yoder, Bradley K; Leroux, Michel R

    2011-03-21

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS), nephronophthisis (NPHP), and related ciliopathies present with overlapping phenotypes and display considerable allelism between at least twelve different genes of largely unexplained function. We demonstrate that the conserved C. elegans B9 domain (MKS-1, MKSR-1, and MKSR-2), MKS-3/TMEM67, MKS-5/RPGRIP1L, MKS-6/CC2D2A, NPHP-1, and NPHP-4 proteins exhibit essential, collective functions at the transition zone (TZ), an underappreciated region at the base of all cilia characterized by Y-shaped assemblages that link axoneme microtubules to surrounding membrane. These TZ proteins functionally interact as members of two distinct modules, which together contribute to an early ciliogenic event. Specifically, MKS/MKSR/NPHP proteins establish basal body/TZ membrane attachments before or coinciding with intraflagellar transport-dependent axoneme extension and subsequently restrict accumulation of nonciliary components within the ciliary compartment. Together, our findings uncover a unified role for eight TZ-localized proteins in basal body anchoring and establishing a ciliary gate during ciliogenesis, and suggest that disrupting ciliary gate function contributes to phenotypic features of the MKS/NPHP disease spectrum.

  18. Elipsa is an early determinant of ciliogenesis that links the IFT particle to membrane-associated small GTPase Rab8.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yoshihiro; Zhao, Chengtian; Saras, Arunesh; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Kim, Woong; Furukawa, Takahisa; Sengupta, Piali; Veraksa, Alexey; Malicki, Jarema

    2008-04-01

    The formation and function of cilia involves the movement of intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles underneath the ciliary membrane, along axonemal microtubules. Although this process has been studied extensively, its molecular basis remains incompletely understood. For example, it is unknown how the IFT particle interacts with transmembrane proteins. To study the IFT particle further, we examined elipsa, a locus characterized by mutations that cause particularly early ciliogenesis defects in zebrafish. We show here that elipsa encodes a coiled-coil polypeptide that localizes to cilia. Elipsa protein binds to Ift20, a component of IFT particles, and Elipsa homologue in Caenorhabditis elegans, DYF-11, translocates in sensory cilia, similarly to the IFT particle. This indicates that Elipsa is an IFT particle polypeptide. In the context of zebrafish embryogenesis, Elipsa interacts genetically with Rabaptin5, a well-studied regulator of endocytosis, which in turn interacts with Rab8, a small GTPase, known to localize to cilia. We show that Rabaptin5 binds to both Elipsa and Rab8, suggesting that these proteins provide a bridging mechanism between the IFT particle and protein complexes that assemble at the ciliary membrane.

  19. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search for: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Email People Departments Calendar Careers Give my.harvard ... Nutrition Source Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health > The Nutrition Source > What Should I Eat? > Protein ...

  20. Two conformational states of the membrane-associated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba {delta}-endotoxin complex revealed by electron crystallography: Implications for toxin-pore formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ounjai, Puey; Unger, Vinzenz M.; Sigworth, Fred J.; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2007-10-05

    The insecticidal nature of Cry {delta}-endotoxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis is generally believed to be caused by their ability to form lytic pores in the midgut cell membrane of susceptible insect larvae. Here we have analyzed membrane-associated structures of the 65-kDa dipteran-active Cry4Ba toxin by electron crystallography. The membrane-associated toxin complex was crystallized in the presence of DMPC via detergent dialysis. Depending upon the charge of the adsorbed surface, 2D crystals of the oligomeric toxin complex have been captured in two distinct conformations. The projection maps of those crystals have been generated at 17 A resolution. Both complexes appeared to be trimeric; as in one crystal form, its projection structure revealed a symmetrical pinwheel-like shape with virtually no depression in the middle of the complex. The other form revealed a propeller-like conformation displaying an obvious hole in the center region, presumably representing the toxin-induced pore. These crystallographic data thus demonstrate for the first time that the 65-kDa activated Cry4Ba toxin in association with lipid membranes could exist in at least two different trimeric conformations, conceivably implying the closed and open states of the pore.

  1. The 1.9 A crystal structure of Escherichia coli MurG, a membrane-associated glycosyltransferase involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ha, S.; Walker, D.; Shi, Y.; Walker, S.

    2000-01-01

    The 1.9 A X-ray structure of a membrane-associated glycosyltransferase involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis is reported. This enzyme, MurG, contains two alpha/beta open sheet domains separated by a deep cleft. Structural analysis suggests that the C-terminal domain contains the UDP-GlcNAc binding site while the N-terminal domain contains the acceptor binding site and likely membrane association site. Combined with sequence data from other MurG homologs, this structure provides insight into the residues that are important in substrate binding and catalysis. We have also noted that a conserved region found in many UDP-sugar transferases maps to a beta/alpha/beta/alpha supersecondary structural motif in the donor binding region of MurG, an observation that may be helpful in glycosyltransferase structure prediction. The identification of a conserved structural motif involved in donor binding in different UDP-sugar transferases also suggests that it may be possible to identify--and perhaps alter--the residues that help determine donor specificity. PMID:10892798

  2. Stably transfected human cells overexpressing rat brain endopeptidase 3.4.24.16: biochemical characterization of the activity and expression of soluble and membrane-associated counterparts.

    PubMed

    Vincent, B; Dauch, P; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1997-02-01

    We recently cloned endopeptidase-24.16 (neurolysin; EC 3.4.24.16), a neurotensin-degrading peptidase likely involved in the physiological termination of the neurotensinergic signal in the central nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract. We stably transfected human kidney cells with the pcDNA3-lambda 7aB1 construction bearing the whole open reading frame encoding the rat brain peptidase. Transfectants displayed endopeptidase-24.16 immunoreactivity and exhibited QFS- and neurotensin-hydrolyzing activities, the biochemical and specificity properties of which fully matched those observed with the purified murine enzyme. Cryoprotection experiments and substrate degradation by intact plated cells indicated that transfectants exhibited a membrane-associated form of endopeptidase-24.16, the catalytic site of which clearly faced the extracellular domain. Transfected cells were unable to secrete the enzyme. Overall, our experiments indicate that we have obtained stably transfectant cells that overexpress an enzymatic activity displaying biochemical properties identical to those of purified endopeptidase-24.16. The membrane-associated counterpart and lack of secretion of the enzyme were clearly reminiscent of what was observed with pure cultured neurons, but not with astrocytes. Therefore, the transfected cell model described here could prove useful for establishing, by a mutagenesis approach, the structural elements responsible for the "neuronal" phenotype exhibited by the enzyme in transfected cells.

  3. The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase (ECTO-NOX) of mouse skin responds to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2003-01-01

    NADH oxidases of the external plasma membrane surface (ECTO-NOX proteins) are characterized by oscillations in activity with a regular period length of 24 min. Explants of mouse skin exhibit the oscillatory activity as estimated from the decrease in A(340) suggesting that individual ECTO-NOX molecules must somehow be induced to function synchronously. Transfer of explants of mouse skin from darkness to blue light (495 nm, 2 min, 50 micromol m(-1) s(-1)) resulted in initiation of a new activity maximum (entrainment) with a midpoint 36 min after light exposure followed by maxima every 24 min thereafter. Addition of melatonin resulted in a new maximum 24 min after melatonin addition. The findings suggest that the ECTO-NOX proteins play a central role in the entrainment of the biological clock both by light and by melatonin.

  4. The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase (ECTO-NOX) of mouse skin responds to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2003-01-01

    NADH oxidases of the external plasma membrane surface (ECTO-NOX proteins) are characterized by oscillations in activity with a regular period length of 24 min. Explants of mouse skin exhibit the oscillatory activity as estimated from the decrease in A(340) suggesting that individual ECTO-NOX molecules must somehow be induced to function synchronously. Transfer of explants of mouse skin from darkness to blue light (495 nm, 2 min, 50 micromol m(-1) s(-1)) resulted in initiation of a new activity maximum (entrainment) with a midpoint 36 min after light exposure followed by maxima every 24 min thereafter. Addition of melatonin resulted in a new maximum 24 min after melatonin addition. The findings suggest that the ECTO-NOX proteins play a central role in the entrainment of the biological clock both by light and by melatonin.

  5. Discovery of Novel Disease-specific and Membrane-associated Candidate Markers in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis*

    PubMed Central

    Dagley, Laura F.; Croft, Nathan P.; Isserlin, Ruth; Olsen, Jonathan B.; Fong, Vincent; Emili, Andrew; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disorder characterized by the infiltration of auto-reactive immune cells from the periphery into the central nervous system resulting in axonal injury and neuronal cell death. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis represents the best characterized animal model as common clinical, histological, and immunological features are recapitulated. A label-free mass spectrometric proteomics approach was used to detect differences in protein abundance within specific fractions of disease-affected tissues including the soluble lysate derived from the spinal cord and membrane protein-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Tissues were harvested from actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice and sham-induced (“vehicle” control) counterparts at the disease peak followed by subsequent analysis by nanoflow liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Relative protein quantitation was performed using both intensity- and fragmentation-based approaches. After statistical evaluation of the data, over 500 and 250 differentially abundant proteins were identified in the spinal cord and peripheral blood mononuclear cell data sets, respectively. More than half of these observations have not previously been linked to the disease. The biological significance of all candidate disease markers has been elucidated through rigorous literature searches, pathway analysis, and validation studies. Results from comprehensive targeted mass spectrometry analyses have confirmed the differential abundance of ∼200 candidate markers (≥twofold dysregulated expression) at a 70% success rate. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to examine the cell-surface proteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These data provide a unique mechanistic insight into the dynamics of peripheral immune cell infiltration into CNS-privileged sites at a molecular level and has identified

  6. Plant γ-Tubulin Interacts with αβ-Tubulin Dimers and Forms Membrane-Associated Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dryková, Denisa; Cenklová, Vĕra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Volc, Jindr̆ich; Dráber, Pavel; Binarová, Pavla

    2003-01-01

    γ-Tubulin is assumed to participate in microtubule nucleation in acentrosomal plant cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we show that γ-tubulin is present in protein complexes of various sizes and different subcellular locations in Arabidopsis and fava bean. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed an association of γ-tubulin with αβ-tubulin dimers. γ-Tubulin cosedimented with microtubules polymerized in vitro and localized along their whole length. Large γ-tubulin complexes resistant to salt treatment were found to be associated with a high-speed microsomal fraction. Blue native electrophoresis of detergent-solubilized microsomes showed that the molecular mass of the complexes was >1 MD. Large γ-tubulin complexes were active in microtubule nucleation, but nucleation activity was not observed for the smaller complexes. Punctate γ-tubulin staining was associated with microtubule arrays, accumulated with short kinetochore microtubules interacting in polar regions with membranes, and localized in the vicinity of nuclei and in the area of cell plate formation. Our results indicate that the association of γ-tubulin complexes with dynamic membranes might ensure the flexibility of noncentrosomal microtubule nucleation. Moreover, the presence of other molecular forms of γ-tubulin suggests additional roles for this protein species in microtubule organization. PMID:12566585

  7. Improved Solubilization of Surface Proteins from Listeria monocytogenes for Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solubilization of bacterial surface (cell wall and membrane-associated) proteins for 2-DE is challenging, particularly in the case of Gram-positive bacteria. This is primarily due to strong protein association with the cell wall peptidoglycan and protein hydrophobicity. We solubilized surface protei...

  8. Plasma membrane associated phospholipase C from human platelets: Synergistic stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis by thrombin and guanosine 5 prime -O-(3-thiotriphosphate)

    SciTech Connect

    Baldassare, J.J.; Henderson, P.A.; Fisher, G.J. )

    1989-01-10

    The effects of thrombin and GTP{gamma}S on the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides by membrane-associated phospholipase C (PLC) from human platelets were examined with endogenous ({sup 3}H)inositol-labeled membranes or with lipid vesicles containing either ({sup 3}H)phosphatidylinositol or ({sup 3}H)phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. GTP{gamma}S (1 {mu}M) or thrombin (1 unit/mL) did not stimulate release of inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), inositol bisphosphate (IP{sub 2}), or inositol phosphate (IP) from ({sup 3}H)inositol-labeled membranes. IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, but not IP, from ({sup 3}H)inositol-labeled membranes were, however, stimulated 3-fold by GTP{gamma}S (1 {mu}M) plus thrombin (1 unit/mL). A higher concentration of GTP{gamma}S (100 {mu}M) alone also stimulated IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, but not IP, release. In the presence of 1 mM calcium, release of IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3} was increased 6-fold over basal levels; however, formation of IP was not observed. At submicromolar calcium concentration, hydrolysis of exogenous phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}) by platelet membrane associated PLC was also markedly enhanced by GTP{gamma}S (100 {mu}M) or GTP{gamma}S (1 {mu}M) plus thrombin (1 unit/mL). Under identical conditions, exogenous phosphatidylinositol (PI) was not hydrolyzed. The same substrate specificity was observed when the membrane-associated PLC was activated with 1 mM calcium. Thrombin-induced hydrolysis of PIP{sub 2} was inhibited by treatment of the membranes with pertussis toxin or pretreatment of intact platelets with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA) prior to preparation of membranes. Pertussis toxin did not inhibit GTP{gamma}S (100 {mu}M) or calcium (1 mM) dependent PIP{sub 2} breakdown, while TPA inhibited GTP{gamma}S-dependent but not calcium-dependent phospholipase C activity.

  9. Crystallization and Preliminary Crystallographic Characterization of GumK, A Membrane-Associated Gluocuronosyltransferase from Xanthomonas campestris Required for Xanthan Polysaccharide Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Barreras,M.; Bianchet, M.; Ielpi, L.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    GumK is a membrane-associated inverting glucuronosyltransferase that is part of the biosynthetic route of xanthan, an industrially important exopolysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris. The enzyme catalyzes the fourth glycosylation step in the pentasaccharide-P-P-polyisoprenyl assembly, an oligosaccharide diphosphate lipid intermediate in xanthan biosynthesis. GumK has marginal homology to other glycosyltransferases (GTs). It belongs to the CAZy family GT 70, for which no structure is currently available, and indirect biochemical evidence suggests that it also belongs to the GT-B structural superfamily. Crystals of recombinant GumK from X. campestris have been grown that diffract to 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. Knowledge of the crystal structure of GumK will help in understanding xanthan biosynthesis and its regulation and will also allow a subsequent rational approach to enzyme design and engineering. The multiwavelength anomalous diffraction approach will be used to solve the phase problem.

  10. Accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Park, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins play a fundamentally important role in regulating signal transduction pathways in the kidney. Accessory proteins are being identified as direct binding partners for heterotrimeric G-protein α or βγ subunits to promote more diverse mechanisms by which G-protein signaling is controlled. In some instances, accessory proteins can modulate the signaling magnitude, localization, and duration following the activation of cell membrane-associated receptors. Alternatively, accessory proteins complexed with their G-protein α or βγ subunits can promote non-canonical models of signaling activity within the cell. In this review, we will highlight the expression profile, localization and functional importance of these newly identified accessory proteins to control the function of select G-protein subunits under normal and various disease conditions observed in the kidney. PMID:26300785

  11. The chloroplast membrane associated ceQORH putative quinone oxidoreductase reduces long-chain, stress-related oxidized lipids.

    PubMed

    Curien, Gilles; Giustini, Cécile; Montillet, Jean-Luc; Mas-Y-Mas, Sarah; Cobessi, David; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Matringe, Michel; Grechkin, Alexander; Rolland, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Under oxidative stress conditions the lipid constituents of cells can undergo oxidation whose frequent consequence is the production of highly reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyls. These molecules are toxic because they can add to biomolecules (such as proteins and nucleic acids) and several enzyme activities cooperate to eliminate these reactive electrophile species. CeQORH (chloroplast envelope Quinone Oxidoreductase Homolog, At4g13010) is associated with the inner membrane of the chloroplast envelope and imported into the organelle by an alternative import pathway. In the present study, we show that the recombinant ceQORH exhibits the activity of a NADPH-dependent α,β-unsaturated oxoene reductase reducing the double bond of medium-chain (C⩾9) to long-chain (18 carbon atoms) reactive electrophile species deriving from poly-unsaturated fatty acid peroxides. The best substrates of ceQORH are 13-lipoxygenase-derived γ-ketols. γ-Ketols are spontaneously produced in the chloroplast from the unstable allene oxide formed in the biochemical pathway leading to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a precursor of the defense hormone jasmonate. In chloroplasts, ceQORH could detoxify 13-lipoxygenase-derived γ-ketols at their production sites in the membranes. This finding opens new routes toward the understanding of γ-ketols role and detoxification.

  12. Membrane-associated Ras dimers are isoform-specific: K-Ras dimers differ from H-Ras dimers.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyunbum; Muratcioglu, Serena; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-06-15

    Are the dimer structures of active Ras isoforms similar? This question is significant since Ras can activate its effectors as a monomer; however, as a dimer, it promotes Raf's activation and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cell signalling. In the present study, we model possible catalytic domain dimer interfaces of membrane-anchored GTP-bound K-Ras4B and H-Ras, and compare their conformations. The active helical dimers formed by the allosteric lobe are isoform-specific: K-Ras4B-GTP favours the α3 and α4 interface; H-Ras-GTP favours α4 and α5. Both isoforms also populate a stable β-sheet dimer interface formed by the effector lobe; a less stable β-sandwich interface is sustained by salt bridges of the β-sheet side chains. Raf's high-affinity β-sheet interaction is promoted by the active helical interface. Collectively, Ras isoforms' dimer conformations are not uniform; instead, the isoform-specific dimers reflect the favoured interactions of the HVRs (hypervariable regions) with cell membrane microdomains, biasing the effector-binding site orientations, thus isoform binding selectivity.

  13. Outer membrane-associated serine protease involved in adhesion of Shewanella oneidensis to Fe(III) oxides.

    PubMed

    Burns, Justin L; Ginn, Brian R; Bates, David J; Dublin, Steven N; Taylor, Jeanette V; Apkarian, Robert P; Amaro-Garcia, Samary; Neal, Andrew L; Dichristina, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The facultative anaerobe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 respires a variety of anaerobic electron acceptors, including insoluble Fe(III) oxides. S. oneidensis employs a number of novel strategies for respiration of insoluble Fe(III) oxides, including localization of respiratory proteins to the cell outer membrane (OM). The molecular mechanism by which S. oneidensis adheres to and respires Fe(III) oxides, however, remains poorly understood. In the present study, whole cell fractionation and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS techniques were combined to identify a serine protease (SO3800) associated with the S. oneidensis OM. SO3800 contained predicted structural motifs similar to cell surface-associated serine proteases that function as bacterial adhesins in other gram-negative bacteria. The gene encoding SO3800 was deleted from the S. oneidensis genome, and the resulting mutant strain (DeltaSO3800) was tested for its ability to adhere to and respire Fe(III) oxides. DeltaSO3800 was severely impaired in its ability to adhere to Fe(III) oxides, yet retained wild-type Fe(III) respiratory capability. Laser Doppler velocimetry and cryoetch high-resolution SEM experiments indicated that DeltaSO3800 displayed a lower cell surface charge and higher amount of surface-associated exopolysaccharides. Results of this study indicate that S. oneidensis may respire insoluble Fe(III) oxides at a distance, negating the requirement for attachment prior to electron transfer.

  14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme of the human small intestine. Subunit and quaternary structure, biosynthesis and membrane association.

    PubMed Central

    Naim, H Y

    1992-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was isolated from detergent-derived extracts of human intestinal brush-border membranes (BBMs) by immunoprecipitation using a monoclonal antibody. Analysis of the immunoprecipitates by SDS/PAGE revealed a polypeptide of apparent M(r) 184,000 under reducing and non-reducing conditions, indicating that ACE does not contain intermolecular disulphide bridges. The quaternary structure of ACE was examined using cross-linking experiments with dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate] (DSP) and density gradient centrifugation on sucrose gradients. Both approaches demonstrated that ACE is assembled in the membrane as a monomer. By contrast, the control glycoprotein aminopeptidase N (ApN) exists as a dimer. Biosynthetic labelling experiments in intestinal tissue explants demonstrated that the 184,000-M(r) protein is generated from a single-polypeptide, mannose-rich precursor of ACE (M(r) 175,000) by modification of the carbohydrate side-chains in the Golgi apparatus. The mode of association of the mature form of the enzyme with BBMs was investigated by hydrophobic labelling of right-side-out brush-border vesicles with the photoactivatable carbene-generating reagent 125I-labelled 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m[formylamino]phenyl)diazirine (125I-labelled TID), followed by treatment with trypsin at dilutions that do not cause substantial degradation of ACE. These studies demonstrated that ACE is associated with the membrane via a hydrophobic segment. Furthermore, treatment of 35S-labelled inside-out membrane vesicles with trypsin revealed that ACE possesses a cytoplasmic tail, and therefore has a transmembraneous orientation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1326943

  15. Solo/Trio8, a Membrane-Associated Short Isoform of Trio, Modulates Endosome Dynamics and Neurite Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying-Jie; Nishikawa, Kaori; Yuda, Hideki; Wang, Yu-Lai; Osaka, Hitoshi; Fukazawa, Nobuna; Naito, Akira; Kudo, Yoshihisa; Wada, Keiji; Aoki, Shunsuke

    2006-01-01

    With DNA microarrays, we identified a gene, termed Solo, that is downregulated in the cerebellum of Purkinje cell degeneration mutant mice. Solo is a mouse homologue of rat Trio8—one of multiple Trio isoforms recently identified in rat brain. Solo/Trio8 contains N-terminal sec14-like and spectrin-like repeat domains followed by a single guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GEF1) domain, but it lacks the C-terminal GEF2, immunoglobulin-like, and kinase domains that are typical of Trio. Solo/Trio8 is predominantly expressed in Purkinje neurons of the mouse brain, and expression begins following birth and increases during Purkinje neuron maturation. We identified a novel C-terminal membrane-anchoring domain in Solo/Trio8 that is required for enhanced green fluorescent protein-Solo/Trio8 localization to early endosomes (positive for both early-endosome antigen 1 [EEA1] and Rab5) in COS-7 cells and primary cultured neurons. Solo/Trio8 overexpression in COS-7 cells augmented the EEA1-positive early-endosome pool, and this effect was abolished via mutation and inactivation of the GEF domain or deletion of the C-terminal membrane-anchoring domain. Moreover, primary cultured neurons transfected with Solo/Trio8 showed increased neurite elongation that was dependent on these domains. These results suggest that Solo/Trio8 acts as an early-endosome-specific upstream activator of Rho family GTPases for neurite elongation of developing Purkinje neurons. PMID:16943433

  16. Solo/Trio8, a membrane-associated short isoform of Trio, modulates endosome dynamics and neurite elongation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Jie; Nishikawa, Kaori; Yuda, Hideki; Wang, Yu-Lai; Osaka, Hitoshi; Fukazawa, Nobuna; Naito, Akira; Kudo, Yoshihisa; Wada, Keiji; Aoki, Shunsuke

    2006-09-01

    With DNA microarrays, we identified a gene, termed Solo, that is downregulated in the cerebellum of Purkinje cell degeneration mutant mice. Solo is a mouse homologue of rat Trio8-one of multiple Trio isoforms recently identified in rat brain. Solo/Trio8 contains N-terminal sec14-like and spectrin-like repeat domains followed by a single guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GEF1) domain, but it lacks the C-terminal GEF2, immunoglobulin-like, and kinase domains that are typical of Trio. Solo/Trio8 is predominantly expressed in Purkinje neurons of the mouse brain, and expression begins following birth and increases during Purkinje neuron maturation. We identified a novel C-terminal membrane-anchoring domain in Solo/Trio8 that is required for enhanced green fluorescent protein-Solo/Trio8 localization to early endosomes (positive for both early-endosome antigen 1 [EEA1] and Rab5) in COS-7 cells and primary cultured neurons. Solo/Trio8 overexpression in COS-7 cells augmented the EEA1-positive early-endosome pool, and this effect was abolished via mutation and inactivation of the GEF domain or deletion of the C-terminal membrane-anchoring domain. Moreover, primary cultured neurons transfected with Solo/Trio8 showed increased neurite elongation that was dependent on these domains. These results suggest that Solo/Trio8 acts as an early-endosome-specific upstream activator of Rho family GTPases for neurite elongation of developing Purkinje neurons.

  17. Membrane-associated aquaporin-1 facilitates osmotically driven water flux across the basolateral membrane of the thick ascending limb

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Pablo D.

    2012-01-01

    The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL) reabsorbs ∼30% of filtered NaCl but is impermeable to water. The observation that little water traverses the TAL indicates an absence of water channels at the apical membrane. Yet TAL cells swell when peritubular osmolality decreases indicating that water channels must be present in the basolateral side. Consequently, we hypothesized that the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) facilitates water flux across the basolateral membrane of TALs. Western blotting revealed AQP1 expression in microdissected rat and mouse TALs. Double immunofluorescence showed that 95 ± 2% of tubules positive for the TAL-specific marker Tamm-Horsfall protein were also positive for AQP1 (n = 6). RT-PCR was used to demonstrate presence of AQP1 mRNA and the TAL-specific marker NKCC2 in microdissected TALs. Cell surface biotinylation assays showed that 23 ± 3% of the total pool of AQP1 was present at the TAL basolateral membrane (n = 7). To assess the functional importance of AQP1 in the basolateral membrane, we measured the rate of cell swelling initiated by decreasing peritubular osmolality as an indicator of water flux in microdissected TALs. Water flux was decreased by ∼50% in Aqp1 knockout mice compared with wild-types (4.0 ± 0.8 vs. 8.9 ± 1.7 fluorescent U/s, P < 0.02; n = 7). Furthermore, arginine vasopressin increased TAL AQP1 expression by 135 ± 17% (glycosylated) and 41 ± 11% (nonglycosylated; P < 0.01; n =5). We conclude that 1) the TAL expresses AQP1, 2) ∼23% of the total pool of AQP1 is localized to the basolateral membrane, 3) AQP1 mediates a significant portion of basolateral water flux, and 4) AQP1 is upregulated in TALs of rats infused with dDAVP. AQP1 could play an important role in regulation of TAL cell volume during changes in interstitial osmolality, such as during a high-salt diet or water deprivation. PMID:22674028

  18. LysoPC acyltransferase/PC transacylase activities in plant plasma membrane and plasma membrane-associated endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Karin E; Kjellberg, J Magnus; Tjellström, Henrik; Sandelius, Anna Stina

    2007-11-28

    The phospholipids of the plant plasma membrane are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The majority of these lipids reach the plasma membrane independently of the secretory vesicular pathway. Phospholipid delivery to the mitochondria and chloroplasts of plant cells also bypasses the secretory pathway and here it has been proposed that lysophospholipids are transported at contact sites between specific regions of the ER and the respective organelle, followed by lysophospholipid acylation in the target organelle. To test the hypothesis that a corresponding mechanism operates to transport phospholipids to the plasma membrane outside the secretory pathway, we investigated whether lysolipid acylation occurs also in the plant plasma membrane and whether this membrane, like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, is in close contact with the ER. The plant plasma membrane readily incorporated the acyl chain of acyl-CoA into phospholipids. Oleic acid was preferred over palmitic acid as substrate and acyl incorporation occurred predominantly into phosphatidylcholine (PC). Phospholipase A2 stimulated the reaction, as did exogenous lysoPC when administered in above critical micellar concentrations. AgNO3 was inhibitory. The lysophospholipid acylation reaction was higher in a membrane fraction that could be washed off the isolated plasma membranes after repeated freezing and thawing cycles in a medium with lowered pH. This fraction exhibited several ER-like characteristics. When plasma membranes isolated from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing green fluorescent protein in the ER lumen were observed by confocal microscopy, membranes of ER origin were associated with the isolated plasma membranes. We conclude that a lysoPC acylation activity is associated with plant plasma membranes and cannot exclude a PC transacylase activity. It is highly plausible that the enzyme(s) resides in a fraction of the ER, closely associated with the plasma membrane, or in both. We suggest that

  19. LysoPC acyltransferase/PC transacylase activities in plant plasma membrane and plasma membrane-associated endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Karin E; Kjellberg, J Magnus; Tjellström, Henrik; Sandelius, Anna Stina

    2007-01-01

    Background The phospholipids of the plant plasma membrane are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The majority of these lipids reach the plasma membrane independently of the secretory vesicular pathway. Phospholipid delivery to the mitochondria and chloroplasts of plant cells also bypasses the secretory pathway and here it has been proposed that lysophospholipids are transported at contact sites between specific regions of the ER and the respective organelle, followed by lysophospholipid acylation in the target organelle. To test the hypothesis that a corresponding mechanism operates to transport phospholipids to the plasma membrane outside the secretory pathway, we investigated whether lysolipid acylation occurs also in the plant plasma membrane and whether this membrane, like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, is in close contact with the ER. Results The plant plasma membrane readily incorporated the acyl chain of acyl-CoA into phospholipids. Oleic acid was preferred over palmitic acid as substrate and acyl incorporation occurred predominantly into phosphatidylcholine (PC). Phospholipase A2 stimulated the reaction, as did exogenous lysoPC when administered in above critical micellar concentrations. AgNO3 was inhibitory. The lysophospholipid acylation reaction was higher in a membrane fraction that could be washed off the isolated plasma membranes after repeated freezing and thawing cycles in a medium with lowered pH. This fraction exhibited several ER-like characteristics. When plasma membranes isolated from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing green fluorescent protein in the ER lumen were observed by confocal microscopy, membranes of ER origin were associated with the isolated plasma membranes. Conclusion We conclude that a lysoPC acylation activity is associated with plant plasma membranes and cannot exclude a PC transacylase activity. It is highly plausible that the enzyme(s) resides in a fraction of the ER, closely associated with the plasma membrane

  20. Biochemical Analysis of Recombinant AlkJ from Pseudomonas putida Reveals a Membrane-Associated, Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide-Dependent Dehydrogenase Suitable for the Biosynthetic Production of Aliphatic Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Kirmair, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    The noncanonical alcohol dehydrogenase AlkJ is encoded on the alkane-metabolizing alk operon of the mesophilic bacterium Pseudomonas putida GPo1. To gain insight into the enzymology of AlkJ, we have produced the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified it to homogeneity using His6 tag affinity and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Despite synthesis in the cytoplasm, AlkJ was associated with the bacterial cell membrane, and solubilization with n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside was necessary to liberate the enzyme. SEC and spectrophotometric analysis revealed a dimeric quaternary structure with stoichiometrically bound reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2). The holoenzyme showed thermal denaturation at moderate temperatures around 35°C, according to both activity assay and temperature-dependent circular dichroism spectroscopy. The tightly bound coenzyme was released only upon denaturation with SDS or treatment with urea-KBr and, after air oxidation, exhibited the characteristic absorption spectrum of FAD. The enzymatic activity of purified AlkJ for 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-octanol as well as the n-alkanol derivative ω-hydroxy lauric acid methyl ester (HLAMe) was quantified in the presence of the artificial electron acceptors phenazine methosulfate (PMS) and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP), indicating broad substrate specificity with the lowest activity on the shortest alcohol, 1-butanol. Furthermore, AlkJ was able to accept as cosubstrates/oxidants the ubiquinone derivatives Q0 and Q1, also in conjunction with cytochrome c, which suggests coupling to the bacterial respiratory chain of this membrane-associated enzyme in its physiological environment. Using gas chromatographic analysis, we demonstrated specific biocatalytic conversion by AlkJ of the substrate HLAMe to the industrially relevant aldehyde, thus enabling the biotechnological production of 12-amino lauric acid methyl ester via subsequent enzymatic transamination. PMID:24509930

  1. Ubiquitination by the membrane-associated RING-CH-8 (MARCH-8) ligase controls steady-state cell surface expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor 1.

    PubMed

    van de Kooij, Bert; Verbrugge, Inge; de Vries, Evert; Gijsen, Merel; Montserrat, Veronica; Maas, Chiel; Neefjes, Jacques; Borst, Jannie

    2013-03-01

    The eleven members of the membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) ubiquitin ligase family are relatively unexplored. Upon exogenous (over)expression, a number of these ligases can affect the trafficking of membrane molecules. However, only for MARCH-1 endogenous functions have been demonstrated. For the other endogenous MARCH proteins, no functions or substrates are known. We report here that TRAIL-R1 is a physiological substrate of the endogenous MARCH-8 ligase. Human TRAIL-R1 and R2 play a role in immunosurveillance and are targets for cancer therapy, because they selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells. We demonstrate that TRAIL-R1 is down-regulated from the cell surface, with great preference over TRAIL-R2, by exogenous expression of MARCH ligases that are implicated in endosomal trafficking, such as MARCH-1 and -8. MARCH-8 attenuated TRAIL-R1 cell surface expression and apoptosis signaling by virtue of its ligase activity. This suggested that ubiquitination of TRAIL-R1 was instrumental in its down-regulation by MARCH-8. Indeed, in cells with endogenous MARCH expression, TRAIL-R1 was ubiquitinated at steady-state, with the conserved membrane-proximal lysine 273 as one of the potential acceptor sites. This residue was also essential for the interaction of TRAIL-R1 with MARCH-1 and MARCH-8 and its down-regulation by these ligases. Gene silencing identified MARCH-8 as the endogenous ligase that ubiquitinates TRAIL-R1 and attenuates its cell surface expression. These findings reveal that endogenous MARCH-8 regulates the steady-state cell surface expression of TRAIL-R1.

  2. Ubiquitination by the Membrane-associated RING-CH-8 (MARCH-8) Ligase Controls Steady-state Cell Surface Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Receptor 1*

    PubMed Central

    van de Kooij, Bert; Verbrugge, Inge; de Vries, Evert; Gijsen, Merel; Montserrat, Veronica; Maas, Chiel; Neefjes, Jacques; Borst, Jannie

    2013-01-01

    The eleven members of the membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) ubiquitin ligase family are relatively unexplored. Upon exogenous (over)expression, a number of these ligases can affect the trafficking of membrane molecules. However, only for MARCH-1 endogenous functions have been demonstrated. For the other endogenous MARCH proteins, no functions or substrates are known. We report here that TRAIL-R1 is a physiological substrate of the endogenous MARCH-8 ligase. Human TRAIL-R1 and R2 play a role in immunosurveillance and are targets for cancer therapy, because they selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells. We demonstrate that TRAIL-R1 is down-regulated from the cell surface, with great preference over TRAIL-R2, by exogenous expression of MARCH ligases that are implicated in endosomal trafficking, such as MARCH-1 and -8. MARCH-8 attenuated TRAIL-R1 cell surface expression and apoptosis signaling by virtue of its ligase activity. This suggested that ubiquitination of TRAIL-R1 was instrumental in its down-regulation by MARCH-8. Indeed, in cells with endogenous MARCH expression, TRAIL-R1 was ubiquitinated at steady-state, with the conserved membrane-proximal lysine 273 as one of the potential acceptor sites. This residue was also essential for the interaction of TRAIL-R1 with MARCH-1 and MARCH-8 and its down-regulation by these ligases. Gene silencing identified MARCH-8 as the endogenous ligase that ubiquitinates TRAIL-R1 and attenuates its cell surface expression. These findings reveal that endogenous MARCH-8 regulates the steady-state cell surface expression of TRAIL-R1. PMID:23300075

  3. Chromosomal mapping of the gene (INPP5A) encoding the 43-kDa membrane-associated inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase to 10q26.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, C.A.; Speed, C.J.; Nicholl, J.; Sutherland, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses the localization of a membrane-associated inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase gene to human chromosome 10q26.3 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This 43-kDa 5-phosphatase does not map to the same location as any other 5-phosphatase enzymes. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Microbial Products Alter the Expression of Membrane-Associated Mucin and Antimicrobial Peptides in a Three-Dimensional Human Endocervical Epithelial Cell Model1

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Andrea L.; Quayle, Alison J.; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate tissue-specific mucosal defense can be limited by the lack of appropriate human in vitro models. The endocervix lies between the microbe-rich vaginal cavity and the relatively sterile endometrium and is a major portal of entry for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in women. The endocervix is lined with a simple epithelium, and these cells produce mucus, which plays a key role in immune defense and reproduction. Here we describe the development of a human three-dimensional endocervical epithelial cell model generated by rotating wall vessel bioreactor technology. The model is composed of cellular aggregates that recapitulate major structural and barrier properties essential for the function and protection of the endocervix, including junctional complexes, microvilli, innate immune receptors, antimicrobial peptides, and mucins, the major structural component of mucus. Using this model, we also report, for the first time, that the membrane-associated mucin genes MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16 are differentially regulated in these aggregates by different bacterial and viral products. Differential induction of antimicrobial peptides was also observed with these products. Together these data define unique and flexible innate endocervical immune signatures that follow exposure to microbial products and that likely play a critical role in the outcome of pathogen challenge at this site. PMID:23053434

  5. Inhibition of nitrate transport by anti-nitrate reductase IgG fragments and the identification of plasma membrane associated nitrate reductase in roots of barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, M. R.; Tischner, R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Membrane associated nitrate reductase (NR) was detected in plasma membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) roots. The PM associated NR was not removed by washing vesicles with 500 millimolar NaCl and 1 millimolar EDTA and represented up to 4% of the total root NR activity. PM associated NR was stimulated up to 20-fold by Triton X-100 whereas soluble NR was only increased 1.7-fold. The latency was a function of the solubilization of NR from the membrane. NR, solubilized from the PM fraction by Triton X-100 was inactivated by antiserum to Chlorella sorokiniana NR. Anti-NR immunoglobulin G fragments purified from the anti-NR serum inhibited NO3- uptake by more than 90% but had no effect on NO2- uptake. The inhibitory effect was only partially reversible; uptake recovered to 50% of the control after thorough rinsing of roots. Preimmune serum immunoglobulin G fragments inhibited NO3- uptake 36% but the effect was completely reversible by rinsing. Intact NR antiserum had no effect on NO3- uptake. The results present the possibility that NO3- uptake and NO3- reduction in the PM of barley roots may be related.

  6. Purification and characterization of a membrane-associated phospholipase A2 from rat spleen. Its comparison with a cytosolic phospholipase A2 S-1.

    PubMed

    Ono, T; Tojo, H; Kuramitsu, S; Kagamiyama, H; Okamoto, M

    1988-04-25

    A membrane-associated phospholipase A2 was purified from rat spleen. The phospholipase A2 was solubilized from the 108,000 x g pellet fraction with 0.3% lithium dodecyl sulfate and then purified to homogeneity by successive DEAE-Cellulofine AM, octyl-Sepharose, Cellulofine GCL 300-m, S-Sepharose, and Bio-Gel P-30 chromatographies in the presence of 0.5% 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonate. The apparent Mr of the enzyme, estimated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was about 13,600. The purified enzyme had a pH optimum in the range of pH 8.0-9.5 and required the presence of Ca2+ (4 mM) for its maximal activity. The enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed the 2-acyl ester bonds of phosphatidylglycerol in the presence and absence of sodium cholate or sodium deoxycholate. Unlike the phospholipase A2 of rat spleen supernatant, no immunocross-reactivity was observed between the purified enzyme and anti-rat pancreatic phospholipase A2 antibody. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was determined and found to be homologous to that of viperid and crotalid venom phospholipases A2. The results in this and the preceding report (Tojo, H., Ono, T., Kuramitsu, S., Kagamiyama, H., and Okamoto, M. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 5724-5731) demonstrate that rat spleen contains two genetically distinct phospholipase A2 isoenzymes.

  7. Inhibition of nitrate transport by anti-nitrate reductase IgG fragments and the identification of plasma membrane associated nitrate reductase in roots of barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, M. R.; Tischner, R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Membrane associated nitrate reductase (NR) was detected in plasma membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) roots. The PM associated NR was not removed by washing vesicles with 500 millimolar NaCl and 1 millimolar EDTA and represented up to 4% of the total root NR activity. PM associated NR was stimulated up to 20-fold by Triton X-100 whereas soluble NR was only increased 1.7-fold. The latency was a function of the solubilization of NR from the membrane. NR, solubilized from the PM fraction by Triton X-100 was inactivated by antiserum to Chlorella sorokiniana NR. Anti-NR immunoglobulin G fragments purified from the anti-NR serum inhibited NO3- uptake by more than 90% but had no effect on NO2- uptake. The inhibitory effect was only partially reversible; uptake recovered to 50% of the control after thorough rinsing of roots. Preimmune serum immunoglobulin G fragments inhibited NO3- uptake 36% but the effect was completely reversible by rinsing. Intact NR antiserum had no effect on NO3- uptake. The results present the possibility that NO3- uptake and NO3- reduction in the PM of barley roots may be related.

  8. Involvement of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS (membrane associated, rapid response steroid-binding), a novel vitamin D receptor, in growth inhibition of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, Cynthia L.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Rohe, Ben; Nemere, Ilka; Meckling, Kelly A.

    2010-03-10

    In addition to classical roles in calcium homeostasis and bone development, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} [1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}] inhibits the growth of several cancer types, including breast cancer. Although cellular effects of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} traditionally have been attributed to activation of a nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), a novel receptor for 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} called 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS (membrane-associated, rapid response steroid-binding) protein was identified recently. The purpose of this study was to determine if the level of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS expression modulates 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} activity in breast cancer cells. Relative levels of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS protein in MCF-7, MDA MB 231, and MCF-10A cells were estimated by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. To determine if 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor was involved in the growth inhibitory effects of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} in MCF-7 cells, a ribozyme construct designed to knock down 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS mRNA was stably transfected into MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 clones in which 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor expression was reduced showed increased sensitivity to 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} ( IC{sub 50} 56 {+-} 24 nM) compared to controls (319 {+-} 181 nM; P < 0.05). Reduction in 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor lengthened the doubling time in transfectants treated with 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. Knockdown of 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor also increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to the vitamin D analogs KH1060 and MC903, but not to unrelated agents (all-trans retinoic acid, paclitaxel, serum/glucose starvation, or the isoflavone, pomiferin). These results suggest that 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS receptor expression interferes with the growth inhibitory activity of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} in breast cancer cells, possibly through the nuclear VDR. Further research should examine the potential for pharmacological or natural agents that modify 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS expression or activity as anticancer agents.

  9. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens virB7 gene product, a proposed component of the T-complex transport apparatus, is a membrane-associated lipoprotein exposed at the periplasmic surface.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, D; Dang, T A; Spudich, G M; Zhou, X R; Berger, B R; Christie, P J

    1996-01-01

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens virB7 gene product contains a typical signal sequence ending with a consensus signal peptidase II cleavage site characteristic of bacterial lipoproteins. VirB7 was shown to be processed as a lipoprotein by (i) in vivo labeling of native VirB7 and a VirB7::PhoA fusion with [3H]palmitic acid and (ii) inhibition of VirB7 processing by globomycin, a known inhibitor of signal peptidase II. A VirB7 derivative sustaining a Ser substitution for the invariant Cys-15 residue within the signal peptidase II cleavage site could not be visualized immunologically and failed to complement a delta virB7 mutation, establishing the importance of this putative lipid attachment site for VirB7 maturation and function. VirB7 partitioned predominantly with outer membrane fractions from wild-type A348 cells as well as a delta virB operon derivative transformed with a virB7 expression plasmid. Expression of virB7 fused to phoA, the alkaline phosphatase gene of Escherichia coli, gave rise to high alkaline phosphatase activities in E. coli and A. tumefaciens cells, providing genetic evidence for the export of VirB7 in these hosts. VirB7 was shown to be intrinsically resistant to proteinase K; by contrast, a VirB7::PhoA derivative was degraded by proteinase K treatment of A. tumefaciens spheroplasts and remained intact upon treatment of whole cells. Together, the results of these studies favor a model in which VirB7 is topologically configured as a monotopic protein with its amino terminus anchored predominantly to the outer membrane and with its hydrophilic carboxyl domain located in the periplasmic space. Parallel studies of VirB5, VirB8, VirB9, and VirB10 established that each of these membrane-associated proteins also contains a large periplasmic domain whereas VirB11 resides predominantly or exclusively within the interior of the cell. PMID:8655494

  10. A membrane-associated adenylate cyclase modulates lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities required for bull sperm capacitation induced by hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Silvina; Córdoba, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    Hyaluronic acid, as well as heparin, is a glycosaminoglycan present in the female genital tract of cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative metabolism and intracellular signals mediated by a membrane-associated adenylate cyclase (mAC), in sperm capacitation with hyaluronic acid and heparin, in cryopreserved bull sperm. The mAC inhibitor, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, was used in the present study. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities and lactate concentration were determined spectrophotometrically in the incubation medium. Capacitation and acrosome reaction were evaluated by chlortetracycline technique, while plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were determined by trypan blue stain/differential interference contrast microscopy. Heparin capacitated samples had a significant decrease in LDH and CK activities, while in hyaluronic acid capacitated samples LDH and CK activities both increased compared to control samples, in heparin and hyaluronic acid capacitation conditions, respectively. A significant increase in lactate concentration in the incubation medium occurred in hyaluronic acid-treated sperm samples compared to heparin treatment, indicating this energetic metabolite is produced during capacitation. The LDH and CK enzyme activities and lactate concentrations in the incubation medium were decreased with 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine treatment in hyaluronic acid samples. The mAC inhibitor significantly inhibited heparin-induced capacitation of sperm cells, but did not completely inhibit hyaluronic acid capacitation. Therefore, hyaluronic acid and heparin are physiological glycosaminoglycans capable of inducing in vitro capacitation in cryopreserved bull sperm, stimulating different enzymatic pathways and intracellular signals modulated by a mAC. Hyaluronic acid induces sperm capacitation involving LDH and CK activities, thereby reducing oxidative metabolism, and this process is mediated by mAC.

  11. Effect of bafilomycin and NAADP on membrane-associated ATPases and respiration of isolated mitochondria of the murine Nemeth-Kellner lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hreniukh, V; Bychkova, S; Kulachkovsky, O; Babsky, A

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the study was to estimate the effect of a selective V-type H(+) -ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) on energetic processes in NK/Ly cell by directly measuring the respiration of isolated mitochondria and ATPase activities. NAADP (7 μM) increased the activity of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in the postmitochondrial fraction of NK/Ly cells, but lower concentration of NAADP decreased it (0.1 and 1 μM). The increase the activity of plasma membrane Ca(2)(+) ATPase (PMCA) under NAADP application (1 and 7 μM) was observed. However, NAADP (1 μM) decreased activities of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2)(+) -ATPase (SERCA) and basal Mg(2)(+) -ATPase. Bafilomycin A1 (1 μM) increased the activity of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase and potentiated the effect of NAADP (1 μM) on this pump. At the same time, bafilomycin A1 (1 μM) completely prevented all effects of NAADP (1 μM) on activities of PMCA, SERCA, and basal Mg(2)(+) -ATPase, confirming that these effects are dependent on acidic stores. Bafilomycin A1 or NAADP decreased respiratory and oxidative phosphorylation rates in NK/Ly mitochondria when α-ketoglutarate was used as substrate in contrast to succinate. Thus, α-ketoglutarate oxidation is more sensitive to bafilomycin A1 and NAADP influences compared with succinate oxidation. However, bafilomycin A1 + NAADP and any of these compounds separately lead to full uncoupling of mitochondria after ADP addition irrespectively to substrate used. Bafilomycin A1 affects isolated tumor mitochondria more effectively in combination with NAADP. Bafilomycin and NAADP alter some membrane-associated ATPases and inhibit respiration in mitochondria of the Nemeth-Kellner lymphoma.

  12. Enhanced expression of membrane-associated sialidase Neu3 decreases GD3 and increases GM3 on the surface of Jurkat cells during etoposide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Yutaro; Sato, Hirotaka; Higai, Koji; Matsumoto, Kojiro

    2007-09-01

    We previously reported that, in Jurkat human T cells, the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide enhances sialidase activity and reduces cell surface sialic acid levels at an early stage of apoptosis and that the decreases in sialic acid are suppressed by the sialidase inhibitor 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid [Azuma Y., et al., Glycoconj. J., 17, 301-306 (2000)]. In the current studies, we treated Jurkat cells with etoposide and examined the changes in the cell surface levels of gangliosides GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, and GD3 at physiological pH using anti-ganglioside antibodies. We also examined the sialidase activity on the cell surface using 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetylneuraminic acid and measured the mRNA expression of the plasma membrane-associated sialidase Neu3 and the lysozomal Neu1 using real-time PCR. We found an increase in GM3 and a decrease in GD3 during the early stage (4 h) of etoposide-induced apoptosis that preceded the increase in cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (4 to 6 h). The caspase 3 inhibitor acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde significantly suppressed changes in GM3 and GD3 and blocked the enhanced cell surface sialidase activity. Furthermore, etoposide caused a gradual up-regulation of Neu3 mRNA expression but not Neu1 mRNA expression. Enhanced Neu3 mRNA expression was suppressed in the presence of caspase 3 inhibitor. These results indicate that Neu3 is up-regulated in Jurkat cells undergoing etoposide-induced apoptosis through intracellular signaling events downstream of caspase 3 activation and that enhanced Neu3 activity is closely related to the changes of cell surface ganglioside composition.

  13. Investigation of finite-pulse radiofrequency-driven recoupling methods for measurement of intercarbonyl distances in polycrystalline and membrane-associated HIV fusion peptide samples.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoxiong; Qiang, Wei; Weliky, David P

    2007-12-01

    Two finite-pulse radiofrequency-driven recoupling (RFDR) methods were compared and applied to the measurement of 3-6 Å (13)CO-(13)CO distances in polycrystalline and membrane-associated HIV fusion peptide (HFP) samples. The RFDR methods were based on π pulses and were relatively straightforward to implement and insensitive to pulse imperfections. The two tested methods were: (i) constant-time double-quantum buildup with finite pulses (fpCTDQBU) for which the pulse sequence maintained a constant transverse relaxation period while allowing a variable period of dipolar dephasing; and (ii) constant-time finite-pulse rf-driven recoupling (fpRFDR-CT) for which the duration of transverse relaxation increased with increasing dephasing period. The fpRFDR-CT method yielded higher signal-to-noise and an accurate determination of a ~5 Å intercarbonyl distance was made in a crystalline peptide which had T(2) ≈ 55 ms. In some contrast, the HFP samples had T(2) ≈ 15 ms and the fpRFDR-CT data were dominated by transverse relaxation. Examination of the fpCTDQBU sequence showed: (i) the most rapid signal buildup was obtained with application of one (13) C π pulse per rotor period rather than one (13)C π pulse per multiple rotor periods and (ii) the data were insensitive to ~15 ppm transmitter offset and to ~5° variation of π pulse nutation angle. For HFP samples which were (13)CO labeled at a single residue, analyses of the fpCTDQBU data were interpreted with a model of mixed parallel and antiparallel β-strand arrangements in the N-terminal region of HFP and loss of parallel β-sheet structure in the C-terminal region of HFP. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Examining the Role of Actin-Plasma Membrane Association in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection and Type III Secretion Translocation in Migratory T24 Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Dacie R.; Martin, Karen H.; Moore, Elizabeth R.; Lee, Wendy M.; Carroll, James A.; Rocha, Claudia L.

    2012-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa targets wounded epithelial barriers, but the cellular alteration that increases susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection remains unclear. This study examined how cell migration contributes to the establishment of P. aeruginosa infections using (i) highly migratory T24 epithelial cells as a cell culture model, (ii) mutations in the type III secretion (T3S) effector ExoS to manipulate P. aeruginosa infection, and (iii) high-resolution immunofluorescent microscopy to monitor ExoS translocation. ExoS includes both GTPase-activating (GAP) and ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activities, and P. aeruginosa cells expressing wild-type ExoS preferentially bound to the leading edge of T24 cells, where ExoS altered leading-edge architecture and actin anchoring in conjunction with interrupting T3S translocation. Inactivation of ExoS GAP activity allowed P. aeruginosa to be internalized and secrete ExoS within T24 cells, but as with wild-type ExoS, translocation was limited in association with disruption of actin anchoring. Inactivation of ExoS ADPRT activity resulted in significantly enhanced T3S translocation by P. aeruginosa cells that remained extracellular and in conjunction with maintenance of actin-plasma membrane association. Infection with P. aeruginosa expressing ExoS lacking both GAP and ADPRT activities resulted in the highest level of T3S translocation, and this occurred in conjunction with the entry and alignment of P. aeruginosa and ExoS along actin filaments. Collectively, in using ExoS mutants to modulate and visualize T3S translocation, we were able to (i) confirm effector secretion by internalized P. aeruginosa, (ii) differentiate the mechanisms underlying the effects of ExoS GAP and ADPRT activities on P. aeruginosa internalization and T3S translocation, (iii) confirm that ExoS ADPRT activity targeted a cellular substrate that interrupted T3S translocation, (iv) visualize the ability of P. aeruginosa and Exo

  15. Protein diffusion in plant cell plasma membranes: the cell-wall corral

    PubMed Central

    Martinière, Alexandre; Runions, John

    2013-01-01

    Studying protein diffusion informs us about how proteins interact with their environment. Work on protein diffusion over the last several decades has illustrated the complex nature of biological lipid bilayers. The plasma membrane contains an array of membrane-spanning proteins or proteins with peripheral membrane associations. Maintenance of plasma membrane microstructure can be via physical features that provide intrinsic ordering such as lipid microdomains, or from membrane-associated structures such as the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence indicates, that in the case of plant cells, the cell wall seems to be a major player in maintaining plasma membrane microstructure. This interconnection / interaction between cell-wall and plasma membrane proteins most likely plays an important role in signal transduction, cell growth, and cell physiological responses to the environment. PMID:24381579

  16. Fe(III) and Fe(II) ions different effects on Enterococcus hirae cell growth and membrane-associated ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vardanyan, Zaruhi; Trchounian, Armen

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 3+} stimulates but Fe{sup 2+} suppresses Enterococcus hirae wild-type and atpD mutant growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe ions change oxidation-reduction potential drop during cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} have opposite effects on a membrane-associated ATPase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These effects are either in the presence of F{sub 0}F{sub 1} inhibitor or non-functional F{sub 0}F{sub 1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe ions decrease protons and coupled potassium ions fluxes across the membrane. -- Abstract: Enterococcus hirae is able to grow under anaerobic conditions during glucose fermentation (pH 8.0) which is accompanied by acidification of the medium and drop in its oxidation-reduction potential (E{sub h}) from positive values to negative ones (down to {approx}-200 mV). In this study, iron (III) ions (Fe{sup 3+}) have been shown to affect bacterial growth in a concentration-dependent manner (within the range of 0.05-2 mM) by decreasing lag phase duration and increasing specific growth rate. While iron(II) ions (Fe{sup 2+}) had opposite effects which were reflected by suppressing bacterial growth. These ions also affected the changes in E{sub h} values during bacterial growth. It was revealed that ATPase activity with and without N,N Prime -dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of the F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATPase, increased in the presence of even low Fe{sup 3+} concentration (0.05 mM) but decreased in the presence of Fe{sup 2+}. It was established that Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} both significantly inhibited the proton-potassium exchange of bacteria, but stronger effects were in the case of Fe{sup 2+} with DCCD. Such results were observed with both wild-type ATCC9790 and atpD mutant (with defective F{sub 0}F{sub 1}) MS116 strains but they were different with Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}. It is suggested that the effects of Fe{sup 3+} might be due to

  17. Mass spectrometry of membrane proteins: a focus on aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Schey, Kevin L; Grey, Angus C; Nicklay, Joshua J

    2013-06-04

    Membrane proteins are abundant, critically important biomolecules that conduct essential functions in all cells and are the targets of a significant number of therapeutic drugs. However, the analysis of their expression, modification, protein-protein interactions, and structure by mass spectrometry has lagged behind similar studies of soluble proteins. Here we review the limitations to analysis of integral membrane and membrane-associated proteins and highlight advances in sample preparation and mass spectrometry methods that have led to the successful analysis of this protein class. Advances in the analysis of membrane protein posttranslational modification, protein-protein interaction, protein structure, and tissue distributions by imaging mass spectrometry are discussed. Furthermore, we focus our discussion on the application of mass spectrometry for the analysis of aquaporins as a prototypical integral membrane protein and how advances in analytical methods have revealed new biological insights into the structure and function of this family of proteins.

  18. Mass Spectrometry of Membrane Proteins: A Focus on Aquaporins

    PubMed Central

    Schey, Kevin L.; Grey, Angus C.; Nicklay, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are abundant, critically important biomolecules that conduct essential functions in all cells and are the targets of a significant number of therapeutic drugs. However, the analysis of their expression, modification, protein–protein interactions, and structure by mass spectrometry has lagged behind similar studies of soluble proteins. Here we review the limitations to analysis of integral membrane and membrane-associated proteins and highlight advances in sample preparation and mass spectrometry methods that have led to the successful analysis of this protein class. Advances in the analysis of membrane protein posttranslational modification, protein–protein interaction, protein structure, and tissue distributions by imaging mass spectrometry are discussed. Furthermore, we focus our discussion on the application of mass spectrometry for the analysis of aquaporins as a prototypical integral membrane protein and how advances in analytical methods have revealed new biological insights into the structure and function of this family of proteins. PMID:23394619

  19. The Plant Membrane-Associated REMORIN1.3 Accumulates in Discrete Perihaustorial Domains and Enhances Susceptibility to Phytophthora infestans1[W

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Richardson, Annis; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Mongrand, Sébastien; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous pathogens such as the oomycete Phytophthora infestans infect plants by developing specialized structures termed haustoria inside the host cells. Haustoria are thought to enable the secretion of effector proteins into the plant cells. Haustorium biogenesis, therefore, is critical for pathogen accommodation in the host tissue. Haustoria are enveloped by a specialized host-derived membrane, the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM), which is distinct from the plant plasma membrane. The mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of the EHM are unknown. Remarkably, several plasma membrane-localized proteins are excluded from the EHM, but the remorin REM1.3 accumulates around P. infestans haustoria. Here, we used overexpression, colocalization with reporter proteins, and superresolution microscopy in cells infected by P. infestans to reveal discrete EHM domains labeled by REM1.3 and the P. infestans effector AVRblb2. Moreover, SYNAPTOTAGMIN1, another previously identified perihaustorial protein, localized to subdomains that are mainly not labeled by REM1.3 and AVRblb2. Functional characterization of REM1.3 revealed that it is a susceptibility factor that promotes infection by P. infestans. This activity, and REM1.3 recruitment to the EHM, require the REM1.3 membrane-binding domain. Our results implicate REM1.3 membrane microdomains in plant susceptibility to an oomycete pathogen. PMID:24808104

  20. Isolation of cDNA clones for a 50 kDa glycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane associated with Rh (rhesus) blood-group antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Ridgwell, K; Spurr, N K; Laguda, B; MacGeoch, C; Avent, N D; Tanner, M J

    1992-10-01

    The Rh blood-group antigens are associated with human erythrocyte membrane proteins of approx. 30 kDa (the Rh30 polypeptides). Heterogeneously glycosylated membrane proteins of 50 and 45 kDa (the Rh50 glycoproteins) are coprecipitated with the Rh30 polypeptides on immunoprecipitation with anti-Rh-specific mono- and poly-clonal antibodies. We have isolated cDNA clones representing a member of the Rh50 glycoprotein family (the Rh50A glycoprotein). We used PCR with degenerate primers based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Rh50 glycoproteins and human genomic DNA as a template and cloned and sequenced three types of PCR product of the expected size. Two of these products, Rh50A and Rh50B, gave the same translated amino acid sequence which corresponded to the expected Rh50 glycoprotein sequence but had only 75% DNA sequence similarity. The third product (Rh50C) contained a single base deletion, and the translated amino acid sequence contained an in-frame stop codon. We have isolated cDNA clones containing the full coding sequence of the Rh50A glycoprotein. This sequence predicts that it is a 409-amino acid N-glycosylated membrane protein with up to 12 transmembrane domains. The Rh50A glycoprotein shows clear similarity to the Rh30A protein in both amino acid sequence and predicted topology. Our results are consistent with the Rh30 and Rh50 groups of proteins being different subunits of an oligomeric complex which is likely to have a transport or channel function in the erythrocyte membrane. We mapped the Rh50A gene to human chromosome 6p21-qter, showing that genetic differences in the Rh30 rather than the Rh50 genes specify the major polymorphic forms of the Rh antigens.

  1. Multiple Posttranslational Modifications of Leptospira biflexa Proteins as Revealed by Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, James A.; Olano, L. Rennee; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Rosa, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    The saprophyte Leptospira biflexa is an excellent model for studying the physiology of the medically important Leptospira genus, the pathogenic members of which are more recalcitrant to genetic manipulation and have significantly slower in vitro growth. However, relatively little is known regarding the proteome of L. biflexa, limiting its utility as a model for some studies. Therefore, we have generated a proteomic map of both soluble and membrane-associated proteins of L. biflexa during exponential growth and in stationary phase. Using these data, we identified abundantly produced proteins in each cellular fraction and quantified the transcript levels from a subset of these genes using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). These proteins should prove useful as cellular markers and as controls for gene expression studies. We also observed a significant number of L. biflexa membrane-associated proteins with multiple isoforms, each having unique isoelectric focusing points. L. biflexa cell lysates were examined for several posttranslational modifications suggested by the protein patterns. Methylation and acetylation of lysine residues were predominately observed in the proteins of the membrane-associated fraction, while phosphorylation was detected mainly among soluble proteins. These three posttranslational modification systems appear to be conserved between the free-living species L. biflexa and the pathogenic species Leptospira interrogans, suggesting an important physiological advantage despite the varied life cycles of the different species. PMID:26655756

  2. IglE Is an Outer Membrane-Associated Lipoprotein Essential for Intracellular Survival and Murine Virulence of Type A Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Gregory T.; Child, Robert; Ingle, Christine; Celli, Jean

    2013-01-01

    IglE is a small, hypothetical protein encoded by the duplicated Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI). Inactivation of both copies of iglE rendered Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Schu S4 avirulent and incapable of intracellular replication, owing to an inability to escape the phagosome. This defect was fully reversed following single-copy expression of iglE in trans from attTn7 under the control of the Francisella rpsL promoter, thereby establishing that the loss of iglE, and not polar effects on downstream vgrG gene expression, was responsible for the defect. IglE is exported to the Francisella outer membrane as an ∼13.9-kDa lipoprotein, determined on the basis of a combination of selective Triton X-114 solubilization, radiolabeling with [3H]palmitic acid, and sucrose density gradient membrane partitioning studies. Lastly, a genetic screen using the iglE-null live vaccine strain resulted in the identification of key regions in the carboxyl terminus of IglE that are required for intracellular replication of Francisella tularensis in J774A.1 macrophages. Thus, IglE is essential for Francisella tularensis virulence. Our data support a model that likely includes protein-protein interactions at or near the bacterial cell surface that are unknown at present. PMID:23959721

  3. The role of lipid-protein interactions in amyloid-type protein fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Galyna P; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2006-06-01

    Structural transition of polypeptide chains into the beta-sheet state followed by amyloid fibril formation is the key characteristic of a number of the so-called conformational diseases. The multistep process of protein fibrillization can be modulated by a variety of factors, in particular by lipid-protein interactions. A wealth of experimental evidence provides support to the notion that amyloid fibril assembly and the toxicity of pre-fibrillar aggregates are closely related and are both intimately membrane associated phenomena. The present review summarizes the principal factors responsible for the enhancement of fibril formation in a membrane environment, viz. (i) structural transformation of polypeptide chain into a partially folded conformation, (ii) increase of the local concentration of a protein upon its membrane binding, (iii) aggregation-favoring orientation of the bound protein, and (iv) variation in the depth of bilayer penetration affecting the nucleation propensity of the membrane associated protein. The molecular mechanisms of membrane-mediated protein fibrillization are discussed. Importantly, the toxicity of lipid-induced pre-fibrillar aggregates is likely to have presented a very strong negative selection pressure in the evolution of amino acid sequences.

  4. Bioinformatics and functional analyses of coronavirus nonstructural proteins involved in the formation of replicative organelles.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Benjamin W

    2016-11-01

    Replication of eukaryotic positive-stranded RNA viruses is usually linked to the presence of membrane-associated replicative organelles. The purpose of this review is to discuss the function of proteins responsible for formation of the coronavirus replicative organelle. This will be done by identifying domains that are conserved across the order Nidovirales, and by summarizing what is known about function and structure at the level of protein domains.

  5. Protein purification using PDZ affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Walkup, Ward G; Kennedy, Mary B

    2015-04-01

    PDZ domains function in nature as protein-binding domains within scaffold and membrane-associated proteins. They comprise approximately 90 residues and undergo specific, high-affinity interactions with complementary C-terminal peptide sequences, other PDZ domains, and/or phospholipids. We have previously shown that the specific, strong interactions of PDZ domains with their ligands make them well suited for use in affinity chromatography. This unit provides protocols for the PDZ affinity chromatography procedure that are applicable for the purification of proteins that contain PDZ domains or PDZ domain-binding ligands, either naturally or introduced by genetic engineering. We detail the preparation of affinity resins composed of PDZ domains or PDZ domain peptide ligands coupled to solid supports. These resins can be used to purify proteins containing endogenous or genetically introduced PDZ domains or ligands, eluting the proteins with free PDZ domain peptide ligands.

  6. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of a membrane-associated Prevotella ruminicola B(1)4 beta-glucosidase with cellodextrinase and cyanoglycosidase activities.

    PubMed Central

    Wulff-Strobel, C R; Wilson, D B

    1995-01-01

    Prevotella ruminicola B(1)4 is a gram-negative, anaerobic gastrointestinal bacterium. A 2.4-kbp chromosomal fragment from P. ruminicola encoding an 87-kDa aryl-glucosidase (CdxA) with cellodextrinase activity was cloned into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha and sequenced. CdxA activity was found predominantly in the membrane fraction of both P. ruminicola and E. coli, but P. ruminicola localized the protein extracellularly while E. coli did not. The hydrolase had the highest activity on cellodextrins (3.43 to 4.13 mumol of glucose released min-1 mg of protein-1) and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside (3.54 mumol min-1 mg of protein-1). Significant activity (70% of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside activity) was also detected on arbutin and prunasin. Less activity was obtained with cellobiose, amygdalin, or gentiobiose. CdxA attacks cellodextrins from the nonreducing end, releasing glucose units, and appears to be an exo-1,4-beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.74) which also is able to attack beta-1,6 linkages. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with other glycosyl-hydrolases suggests that this enzyme belongs to family 3 (B. Henrissat, Biochem. J. 280:309-316, 1991). On the basis of this sequence alignment, the catalytic residues are believed to be Asp-275 and Glu-265. This is the first report of a cloned ruminal bacterial enzyme which can cleave cyanogenic plant compounds and which may therefore contribute to cyanide toxicity in ruminants. PMID:7592339

  7. Expression of DNAJB12 or DNAJB14 Causes Coordinate Invasion of the Nucleus by Membranes Associated with a Novel Nuclear Pore Structure

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Edward C.; Motamedi, Nasim; Lipovsky, Alex; Fernández-Busnadiego, Rubén; DiMaio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    DNAJB12 and DNAJB14 are transmembrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that serve as co-chaperones for Hsc70/Hsp70 heat shock proteins. We demonstrate that over-expression of DNAJB12 or DNAJB14 causes the formation of elaborate membranous structures within cell nuclei, which we designate DJANGOS for DNAJ-associated nuclear globular structures. DJANGOS contain DNAJB12, DNAJB14, Hsc70 and markers of the ER lumen and ER and nuclear membranes. Strikingly, they are evenly distributed underneath the nuclear envelope and are of uniform size in any one nucleus. DJANGOS are composed primarily of single-walled membrane tubes and sheets that connect to the nuclear envelope via a unique configuration of membranes, in which the nuclear pore complex appears anchored exclusively to the outer nuclear membrane, allowing both the inner and outer nuclear membranes to flow past the circumference of the nuclear pore complex into the nucleus. DJANGOS break down rapidly during cell division and reform synchronously in the daughter cell nuclei, demonstrating that they are dynamic structures that undergo coordinate formation and dissolution. Genetic studies showed that the chaperone activity of DNAJ/Hsc70 is required for the formation of DJANGOS. Further analysis of these structures will provide insight into nuclear pore formation and function, activities of molecular chaperones, and mechanisms that maintain membrane identity. PMID:24732912

  8. Tritium labelling of a cholesterol amphiphile designed for cell membrane anchoring of proteins.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Balázs; Orbán, Erika; Kele, Zoltán; Tömböly, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane association of proteins can be achieved by the addition of lipid moieties to the polypeptide chain, and such lipid-modified proteins have important biological functions. A class of cell surface proteins contains a complex glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) glycolipid at the C-terminus, and they are accumulated in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains, that is, lipid rafts. Semisynthetic lipoproteins prepared from recombinant proteins and designed lipids are valuable probes and model systems of the membrane-associated proteins. Because GPI-anchored proteins can be reinserted into the cell membrane with the retention of the biological function, they are appropriate candidates for preparing models via reduction of the structural complexity. A synthetic headgroup was added to the 3β-hydroxyl group of cholesterol, an essential lipid component of rafts, and the resulting cholesterol derivative was used as a simplified GPI mimetic. In order to quantitate the membrane integrated GPI mimetic after the exogenous addition to live cells, a tritium labelled cholesterol anchor was prepared. The radioactive label was introduced into the headgroup, and the radiolabelled GPI mimetic anchor was obtained with a specific activity of 1.37 TBq/mmol. The headgroup labelled cholesterol derivative was applied to demonstrate the sensitive detection of the cell membrane association of the anchor under in vivo conditions.

  9. Membrane-Associated Effects of Glucocorticoid on BACE1 Upregulation and Aβ Generation: Involvement of Lipid Raft-Mediated CREB Activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gee Euhn; Lee, Sei-Jung; Lee, Hyun Jik; Ko, So Hee; Chae, Chang Woo; Han, Ho Jae

    2017-08-30

    Glucocorticoid has been widely accepted to induce Alzheimer's disease, but the nongenomic effect of glucocorticoid on amyloid β (Aβ) generation has yet to be studied. Here, we investigated the effect of the nongenomic pathway induced by glucocorticoid on amyloid precursor protein processing enzymes as well as Aβ production using male ICR mice and human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells. Mice groups exposed to restraint stress or intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ showed impaired cognition, decreased intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR) level, but elevated level of membrane GR (mGR). In this respect, we identified the mGR-dependent pathway evoked by glucocorticoid using impermeable cortisol conjugated to BSA (cortisol-BSA) on SK-N-MC cells. Cortisol-BSA augmented the expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), the level of C-terminal fragment β of amyloid precursor protein (C99) and Aβ production, which were maintained even after blocking intracellular GR. We also found that cortisol-BSA enhanced the interaction between mGR and Gαs, which colocalized in the lipid raft. The subsequently activated CREB by cortisol-BSA bound to the CRE site of the BACE1 promoter increasing its expression, which was downregulated by inhibiting CBP. Consistently, blocking CBP attenuated cognitive impairment and Aβ production induced by corticosterone treatment or intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ more efficiently than inhibiting intracellular GR in mice. In conclusion, glucocorticoid couples mGR with Gαs and triggers cAMP-PKA-CREB axis dependent on the lipid raft to stimulate BACE1 upregulation and Aβ generation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been growing sharply and stress is considered as the major environment factor of AD. Glucocorticoid is the primarily responsive factor to stress and is widely known to induce AD. However, most AD patients usually have impaired genomic pathway of glucocorticoid

  10. SusG: A Unique Cell-Membrane-Associated [alpha]-Amylase from a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Targets Complex Starch Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2010-09-21

    SusG is an {alpha}-amylase and part of a large protein complex on the outer surface of the bacterial cell and plays a major role in carbohydrate acquisition by the animal gut microbiota. Presented here, the atomic structure of SusG has an unusual extended, bilobed structure composed of amylase at one end and an unprecedented internal carbohydrate-binding motif at the other. Structural studies further demonstrate that the carbohydrate-binding motif binds maltooligosaccharide distal to, and on the opposite side of, the amylase catalytic site. SusG has an additional starch-binding site on the amylase domain immediately adjacent to the active cleft. Mutagenesis analysis demonstrates that these two additional starch-binding sites appear to play a role in catabolism of insoluble starch. However, elimination of these sites has only a limited effect, suggesting that they may have a more important role in product exchange with other Sus components.

  11. SusG: a unique cell-membrane-associated alpha-amylase from a prominent human gut symbiont targets complex starch molecules.

    PubMed

    Koropatkin, Nicole M; Smith, Thomas J

    2010-02-10

    SusG is an alpha-amylase and part of a large protein complex on the outer surface of the bacterial cell and plays a major role in carbohydrate acquisition by the animal gut microbiota. Presented here, the atomic structure of SusG has an unusual extended, bilobed structure composed of amylase at one end and an unprecedented internal carbohydrate-binding motif at the other. Structural studies further demonstrate that the carbohydrate-binding motif binds maltooligosaccharide distal to, and on the opposite side of, the amylase catalytic site. SusG has an additional starch-binding site on the amylase domain immediately adjacent to the active cleft. Mutagenesis analysis demonstrates that these two additional starch-binding sites appear to play a role in catabolism of insoluble starch. However, elimination of these sites has only a limited effect, suggesting that they may have a more important role in product exchange with other Sus components.

  12. The Presence of Sterols Favors Sticholysin I-Membrane Association and Pore Formation Regardless of Their Ability to Form Laterally Segregated Domains.

    PubMed

    Pedrera, Lohans; Gomide, Andreza B; Sánchez, Rafael E; Ros, Uris; Wilke, Natalia; Pazos, Fabiola; Lanio, María E; Itri, Rosangela; Fanani, María Laura; Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-09-15

    Sticholysin I (St I) is a pore-forming toxin (PFT) produced by the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus belonging to the actinoporin protein family, a unique class of eukaryotic PFT. As for actinoporins, it has been proposed that the presence of cholesterol (Chol) and the coexistence of lipid phases increase binding to the target membrane and pore-forming ability. However, little is known about the role of membrane structure and dynamics (phase state, fluidity, and the presence of lipid domains) on the activity of actinoporins or which regions of the membrane are the most favorable for protein insertion, oligomerization, and eventually pore formation. To gain insight into the role of membrane properties on the functional activity of St I, we studied its binding to monolayers and vesicles of phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM), and sterols inducing (ergosterol -Erg and cholesterol -Chol) or not (cholestenone - Cln) membrane phase segregation in liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains. This study revealed that St I binds and permeabilizes with higher efficiency sterol-containing membranes independently of their ability to form domains. We discuss the results in terms of the relevance of different membrane properties for the actinoporins mechanism of action, namely, molecular heterogeneity, specially potentiated in membranes with sterols inducers of phase separation (Chol or Erg) or Cln, a sterol noninducer of phase separation but with a high propensity to induce nonlamellar phase. The role of the Ld phase is pointed out as the most suitable platform for pore formation. In this regard, such regions in Chol-containing membranes seem to be the most favored due to its increased fluidity; this property promotes toxin insertion, diffusion, and oligomerization leading to pore formation.

  13. Sex-specific response of rat costochondral cartilage growth plate chondrocytes to 17β-estradiol involves differential regulation of plasma membrane associated estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Elbaradie, Khairat B Y; Wang, Yun; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2013-05-01

    Both male and female rat growth plate chondrocytes express estrogen receptors (ERs); however 17β-estradiol (E2) induces membrane responses leading to activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase C (PLC), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, protein kinase C (PKC), and ultimately mitogen protein kinase (MAPK) only in female cells. This study investigated if these sex-specific responses are due to differences in the actual ERs or in downstream signaling. Western blots and flow cytometry of costochondral cartilage resting zone chondrocytes (RCs) showed 2-3 times more ERα in plasma membranes (PMs) from female cells than male cells. Tunicamycin blocked E2-dependent ER-translocation to the PM, indicating palmitoylation was required. Co-immunoprecipitation showed E2 induced complex formation between ER isoforms only in female RCs. To examine if the lack of response in PKC and PGE2 in males is due to differences in signaling, we examined involvement of ERs and the role of PLC and PLA2. Selective ERα (propylpyrazole triol, PPT) and ERβ (diarylproprionitrile, DPN) agonists activated PKC in female RCs only. The PLC inhibitor, U73122 blocked E2's effect on PKC and the cytosolic PLA2 inhibitor, AACOCF3 inhibited the effect on PGE2 in female RCs, confirming involvement of PLC and PLA2 in the mechanism. The PLC activator, m-3M3FβS activated PKC and PLAA peptide increased PGE2 levels in male and female RCs, showing that the signaling pathways are present. These data indicate that differences in membrane ER amount, localization, translocation and interaction are responsible for the sexual dimorphic response to E2.

  14. Mechanism of action of the breast cancer-promoter hormone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP), involves plasma membrane-associated receptors and MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, John P; Pawlak, Kevin J; Kwok, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that breast tissues and breast cell lines can convert progesterone to 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione (5aP), and that 5αP stimulates breast cell proliferation and detachment in vitro, and tumor formation in vivo, regardless of presence or absence of receptors for progesterone (PR) or estrogen (ER). Recently it was demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that pro-cancer actions attributed to administered progesterone are due to the in situ produced 5αP. Because of the significant role of 5αP in breast cancers, it is important to understand its molecular mechanisms of action. The aims of the current studies were to identify 5αP binding sites and to determine if the mechanisms of action of 5αP involve the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2) pathway. Binding studies, using tritium-labeled 5αP ([(3)H]5αP), carried out on membrane, cytosol and nuclear fractions from human breast cells (MCF-7, PR/ER-positive; MDA-MB-231, PR/ER-negative) and on highly enriched membrane fractions, identified the plasma membrane as the site of ligand specific 5αP receptors. Localization of 5αP receptors to the cell membrane was confirmed visually with fluorescently labeled conjugate (5αP-BSA-FITC). Treatment of cells with either 5αP or membrane-impermeable 5αP-BSA resulted in significant increases in cell proliferation and detachment. 5αP and 5αP-BSA equally activated the MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway as evidenced by phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Inhibitors (PD98059, mevastatin and genistein) of specific sites along the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway, blocked the phosphorylation and concomitantly inhibited 5αP-induced stimulation of cell proliferation and detachment. The study has identified high affinity, stereo-specific binding sites for 5αP that have the characteristics of a functional membrane 5αP receptor, and has shown that the cancer-promoter actions of 5αP are mediated from the liganded receptor

  15. Definition of novel cell envelope associated proteins in Triton X-114 extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    PubMed

    Målen, Hiwa; Pathak, Sharad; Søfteland, Tina; de Souza, Gustavo A; Wiker, Harald G

    2010-04-29

    Membrane- and membrane-associated proteins are important for the pathogenicity of bacteria. We have analysed the content of these proteins in virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using Triton X-114 detergent-phase separation for extraction of lipophilic proteins, followed by their identification with high resolution mass spectrometry. In total, 1417 different proteins were identified. In silico analysis of the identified proteins revealed that 248 proteins had at least one predicted trans-membrane region. Also, 64 of the identified proteins were predicted lipoproteins, and 54 proteins were predicted as outer membrane proteins. Three-hundred-and-ninety-five of the observed proteins, including 91 integral membrane proteins were described for the first time. Comparison of abundance levels of the identified proteins was performed using the exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) which takes into account the number of the observable peptides to the number of experimentally observed peptide ions for a given protein. The outcome showed that among the membrane-and membrane-associated proteins several proteins are present with high relative abundance. Further, a close examination of the lipoprotein LpqG (Rv3623) which is only detected in the membrane fractions of M. tuberculosis but not in M. bovis, revealed that the homologous gene in M. bovis lack the signal peptide and lipobox motif, suggesting impaired export to the membrane. Altogether, we have identified a substantial proportion of membrane- and membrane-associated proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, compared the relative abundance of the identified proteins and also revealed subtle differences between the different members of the M. tuberculosis complex.

  16. Calreticulin: one protein, one gene, many functions.

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, M; Corbett, E F; Mesaeli, N; Nakamura, K; Opas, M

    1999-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a critical role in the synthesis and chaperoning of membrane-associated and secreted proteins. The membrane is also an important site of Ca(2+) storage and release. Calreticulin is a unique ER luminal resident protein. The protein affects many cellular functions, both in the ER lumen and outside of the ER environment. In the ER lumen, calreticulin performs two major functions: chaperoning and regulation of Ca(2+) homoeostasis. Calreticulin is a highly versatile lectin-like chaperone, and it participates during the synthesis of a variety of molecules, including ion channels, surface receptors, integrins and transporters. The protein also affects intracellular Ca(2+) homoeostasis by modulation of ER Ca(2+) storage and transport. Studies on the cell biology of calreticulin revealed that the ER membrane is a very dynamic intracellular compartment affecting many aspects of cell physiology. PMID:10567207

  17. Mutation of the Membrane-Associated M1 Protease APM1 Results in Distinct Embryonic and Seedling Developmental Defects in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Wendy Ann; Hosein, Fazeeda N.; Bandyopadhyay, Anindita; Makam, Srinivas N.; Otegui, Marisa S.; Lee, Gil-Je; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Cheng, Yan; Titapiwatanakun, Boosaree; Yakubov, Bahktiyor; Bangari, Bharat; Murphy, Angus S.

    2009-01-01

    Aminopeptidase M1 (APM1), a single copy gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, encodes a metallopeptidase originally identified via its affinity for, and hydrolysis of, the auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Mutations in this gene result in haploinsufficiency. Loss-of-function mutants show irregular, uncoordinated cell divisions throughout embryogenesis, affecting the shape and number of cotyledons and the hypophysis, and is seedling lethal at 5 d after germination due to root growth arrest. Quiescent center and cell cycle markers show no signals in apm1-1 knockdown mutants, and the ground tissue specifiers SHORTROOT and SCARECROW are misexpressed or mislocalized. apm1 mutants have multiple, fused cotyledons and hypocotyls with enlarged epidermal cells with cell adhesion defects. apm1 alleles show defects in gravitropism and auxin transport. Gravistimulation decreases APM1 expression in auxin-accumulating root epidermal cells, and auxin treatment increases expression in the stele. On sucrose gradients, APM1 occurs in unique light membrane fractions. APM1 localizes at the margins of Golgi cisternae, plasma membrane, select multivesicular bodies, tonoplast, dense intravacuolar bodies, and maturing metaxylem cells. APM1 associates with brefeldin A–sensitive endomembrane structures and the plasma membrane in cortical and epidermal cells. The auxin-related phenotypes and mislocalization of auxin efflux proteins in apm1 are consistent with biochemical interactions between APM1 and NPA. PMID:19531600

  18. Structure-function analysis of apical membrane-associated molecules of the tegument of schistosome parasites of humans: prospects for identification of novel targets for parasite control.

    PubMed

    Leow, Chiuan Yee; Willis, Charlene; Hofmann, Andreas; Jones, Malcolm K

    2015-04-01

    Neglected tropical diseases are a group of some 17 diseases that afflict poor and predominantly rural people in developing nations. One significant disease that contributes to substantial morbidity in endemic areas is schistosomiasis, caused by infection with one of five species of blood fluke belonging to the trematode genus Schistosoma. Although there is one drug available for treatment of affected individuals in clinics, or for mass administration in endemic regions, there is a need for new therapies. A prominent target organ of schistosomes, either for drug or vaccine development, is the peculiar epithelial syncytium that forms the body wall (tegument) of this parasite. This dynamic layer is maintained and organized by concerted activity of a range of proteins, among which are the abundant tegumentary annexins. In this review, we will outline advances in structure-function analyses of these annexins, as a means to understanding tegument cell biology in host-parasite interaction and their potential exploitation as targets for anti-schistosomiasis therapies.

  19. Intracellular trafficking of guanylate-binding proteins is regulated by heterodimerization in a hierarchical manner.

    PubMed

    Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Bauer, Michael; Berton, Valeria; Fischer, Nicole; Syguda, Adrian; Reipschläger, Simone; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Herrmann, Christian; Stürzl, Michael

    2010-12-07

    Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) belong to the dynamin family of large GTPases and represent the major IFN-γ-induced proteins. Here we systematically investigated the mechanisms regulating the subcellular localization of GBPs. Three GBPs (GBP-1, GBP-2 and GBP-5) carry a C-terminal CaaX-prenylation signal, which is typical for small GTPases of the Ras family, and increases the membrane affinity of proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that GBP-1, GBP-2 and GBP-5 are prenylated in vivo and that prenylation is required for the membrane association of GBP-1, GBP-2 and GBP-5. Using co-immunoprecipitation, yeast-two-hybrid analysis and fluorescence complementation assays, we showed for the first time that GBPs are able to homodimerize in vivo and that the membrane association of GBPs is regulated by dimerization similarly to dynamin. Interestingly, GBPs could also heterodimerize. This resulted in hierarchical positioning effects on the intracellular localization of the proteins. Specifically, GBP-1 recruited GBP-5 and GBP-2 into its own cellular compartment and GBP-5 repositioned GBP-2. In addition, GBP-1, GBP-2 and GBP-5 were able to redirect non-prenylated GBPs to their compartment in a prenylation-dependent manner. Overall, these findings prove in vivo the ability of GBPs to dimerize, indicate that heterodimerization regulates sub-cellular localization of GBPs and underscore putative membrane-associated functions of this family of proteins.

  20. Monoclonal antibody epitope mapping of Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry proteins.

    PubMed

    Sam-Yellowe, T Y; Ndengele, M M

    1993-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry proteins of the 140/130/110-kDa high molecular weight complex (HMWC) are secreted into the erythrocyte membrane during merozoite invasion. Epitopes of membrane-associated HMWC proteins can be detected using rhoptry-specific antibodies by immunofluorescence assays. Phospholipase treatment of ring-infected intact human erythrocytes, membrane ghosts, and inside-out vesicles results in the release of the HMWC as demonstrated by immunoblotting. We characterized the membrane-associating properties of the 110-kDa protein in more detail. PLA2 from three different sources; bee venom, Naja naja venom, and porcine pancreas, were examined and all were equally effective in releasing the 110-kDa protein. Furthermore, PLA2 activity was inhibited by o-phenanthroline, quinacrine, maleic anhydride, and partially by p-bromophenacyl bromide, indicating that the activity of PLA2 is specific. Using sequential protease and phospholipase digestion experiments to map the immunoreactive and functional epitopes of the 110-kDa protein, a 35-kDa protease-resistant protein associated with mouse and human erythrocyte membranes was identified. Limited proteolysis of the 110-kDa protein and analysis by immunoblotting demonstrated several immunoreactive cleavage products, including a highly protease-resistant peptide fragment of approximately 35-kDa which corresponds to the membrane-associated protein. Epitope mapping of the 130-kDa rhoptry protein resulted in a different pattern of cleavage products. Stage-specific metabolic labeling of P. falciparum with [3H] palmitate and [3H] myristate was performed to determine the lipophilic properties of the HMWC. Results showed the incorporation of label into proteins of approximate molecular weight 200 and 45-kDa, predominantly in the late schizont stage. Interestingly, proteins of 140 and 110/100-kDa, corresponding to [35S] methionine-labeled proteins were labeled with [3H]palmitate in ring-infected erythrocyte membranes

  1. Intracellular membrane association of the N-terminal domain of classical swine fever virus NS4B determines viral genome replication and virulence.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomokazu; Ruggli, Nicolas; Nagashima, Naofumi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Igarashi, Manabu; Mine, Junki; Hofmann, Martin A; Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly contagious disease in pigs that can range from a severe haemorrhagic fever to a nearly unapparent disease, depending on the virulence of the virus strain. Little is known about the viral molecular determinants of CSFV virulence. The nonstructural protein NS4B is essential for viral replication. However, the roles of CSFV NS4B in viral genome replication and pathogenesis have not yet been elucidated. NS4B of the GPE-  vaccine strain and of the highly virulent Eystrup strain differ by a total of seven amino acid residues, two of which are located in the predicted trans-membrane domains of NS4B and were described previously to relate to virulence, and five residues clustering in the N-terminal part. In the present study, we examined the potential role of these five amino acids in modulating genome replication and determining pathogenicity in pigs. A chimeric low virulent GPE- -derived virus carrying the complete Eystrup NS4B showed enhanced pathogenicity in pigs. The in vitro replication efficiency of the NS4B chimeric GPE-  replicon was significantly higher than that of the replicon carrying only the two Eystrup-specific amino acids in NS4B. In silico and in vitro data suggest that the N-terminal part of NS4B forms an amphipathic α-helix structure. The N-terminal NS4B with these five amino acid residues is associated with the intracellular membranes. Taken together, this is the first gain-of-function study showing that the N-terminal domain of NS4B can determine CSFV genome replication in cell culture and viral pathogenicity in pigs.

  2. Cytoskeletal proteins in gastric H/sup +/ secretion: cAMP dependent phosphorylation, immunolocalization, and protein blotting

    SciTech Connect

    Cuppoletti, J.; Sachs, G.; Malinowska, D.H.

    1986-05-01

    The rabbit gastric parietal cell is an excellent model for the study of regulation of secretion and the role of cytoskeleton in secretion. Changes in morphology (appearance of expanded secretory canaliculi lined with microvilli) accompany H/sup +/ secretion stimulated by histamine (cAMP mediated). Parietal cells contain immunoreactive tubulin and are highly enriched in F-actin at secretory canaliculi, detected with fluorescently labelled phallacidin. They have previously shown increased protein phosphorylation in histamine-stimulated purified parietal cells concommitant with increases in H/sup +/ secretion. They report here possible functions of the phosphoproteins. Four of these proteins of apparent size on SDS PAGE of 24, 30, 48 and 130 Kd were membrane associated. /sup 125/I-actin binding to three proteins (24, 30 and 48 Kd) was shown using overlays. A 130 Kd protein reacted with anti-vinculin monoclonal antibody on immunoblots, and was immunolocalized at secretory canaliculi. As a working hypothesis, parietal cells possess membrane-associated proteins which change their state of phosphorylation upon stimulation of H/sup +/. These proteins may be cytoskeletal elements involved in regulation of H/sup +/ secretion. The 130 Kd vinculin-like protein may serve a microfilament-membrane linking role.

  3. Proteomic analysis of integral plasma membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingxin; Zhang, Wei; Kho, Yoonjung; Zhao, Yingming

    2004-04-01

    Efficient methods for profiling proteins integral to the plasma membrane are highly desirable for the identification of overexpressed proteins in disease cells. Such methods will aid in both understanding basic biological processes and discovering protein targets for the design of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Avoiding contamination by subcellular organelles and cytosolic proteins is crucial to the successful proteomic analysis of integral plasma membrane proteins. Here we report a biotin-directed affinity purification (BDAP) method for the preparation of integral plasma membrane proteins, which involves (1) biotinylation of cell surface membrane proteins in viable cells, (2) affinity enrichment using streptavidin beads, and (3) depletion of plasma membrane-associated cytosolic proteins by harsh washes with high-salt and high-pH buffers. The integral plasma membrane proteins are then extracted and subjected to SDS-PAGE separation and HPLC/MS/MS for protein identification. We used the BDAP method to prepare integral plasma membrane proteins from a human lung cancer cell line. Western blotting analysis showed that the preparation was almost completely devoid of actin, a major cytosolic protein. Nano-HPLC/MS/MS analysis of only 30 microg of protein extracted from the affinity-enriched integral plasma membrane preparation led to the identification of 898 unique proteins, of which 781 were annotated with regard to their plasma membrane localization. Among the annotated proteins, at least 526 (67.3%) were integral plasma membrane proteins. Notable among them were 62 prenylated proteins and 45 Ras family proteins. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive proteomic analysis of integral plasma membrane proteins in mammalian cells to date. Given the importance of integral membrane proteins for drug design, the described approach will expedite the characterization of plasma membrane subproteomes and the discovery of plasma membrane protein drug targets.

  4. Global Membrane Protein Interactome Analysis using In vivo Crosslinking and Mass Spectrometry-based Protein Correlation Profiling*

    PubMed Central

    Larance, Mark; Kirkwood, Kathryn J.; Tinti, Michele; Brenes Murillo, Alejandro; Ferguson, Michael A. J.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2016-01-01

    We present a methodology using in vivo crosslinking combined with HPLC-MS for the global analysis of endogenous protein complexes by protein correlation profiling. Formaldehyde crosslinked protein complexes were extracted with high yield using denaturing buffers that maintained complex solubility during chromatographic separation. We show this efficiently detects both integral membrane and membrane-associated protein complexes,in addition to soluble complexes, allowing identification and analysis of complexes not accessible in native extracts. We compare the protein complexes detected by HPLC-MS protein correlation profiling in both native and formaldehyde crosslinked U2OS cell extracts. These proteome-wide data sets of both in vivo crosslinked and native protein complexes from U2OS cells are freely available via a searchable online database (www.peptracker.com/epd). Raw data are also available via ProteomeXchange (identifier PXD003754). PMID:27114452

  5. Role of PY Motif Containing Protein, WBP-2 in ER, PR Signaling and Breast Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    WWP1 D1 D2 D3 D4 ++ ++ ++ ++ WW-domain contain- ing protein 1 Nedd-4-like ubiquitin protein ligase NEDD4 D1 ++ Neuronal precursor...Ubiquitin protein 10 D2 D3 D4 ++ ++ ++ cell-expressed devel- opmentally down- regulated 4 ligase Caveolin-3 + Membrane pro- tein PABPN1 + Poly...Membrane associ- ated guanylaste ki- nase-1 ITCH D1 D2 D3 D4 + + + + Atropin-1 interacting protein 4 E3 ubiquitin li- gase TAZ

  6. SymB and SymC, two membrane associated proteins, are required for Epichloë festucae hyphal cell-cell fusion and maintenance of a mutualistic interaction with Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    Green, Kimberly A; Becker, Yvonne; Tanaka, Aiko; Takemoto, Daigo; Fitzsimons, Helen L; Seiler, Stephan; Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe; Scott, Barry

    2017-02-01

    Cell-cell fusion in fungi is required for colony formation, nutrient transfer and signal transduction. Disruption of genes required for hyphal fusion in Epichloë festucae, a mutualistic symbiont of Lolium grasses, severely disrupts the host interaction phenotype. They examined whether symB and symC, the E. festucae homologs of Podospora anserina self-signaling genes IDC2 and IDC3, are required for E. festucae hyphal fusion and host symbiosis. Deletion mutants of these genes were defective in hyphal cell fusion, formed intra-hyphal hyphae, and had enhanced conidiation. SymB-GFP and SymC-mRFP1 localize to plasma membrane, septa and points of hyphal cell fusion. Plants infected with ΔsymB and ΔsymC strains were severely stunted. Hyphae of the mutants colonized vascular bundles, were more abundant than wild type in the intercellular spaces and formed intra-hyphal hyphae. Although these phenotypes are identical to those previously observed for cell wall integrity MAP kinase mutants no difference was observed in the basal level of MpkA phosphorylation or its cellular localization in the mutant backgrounds. Both genes contain binding sites for the transcription factor ProA. Collectively these results show that SymB and SymC are key components of a conserved signaling network for E. festucae to maintain a mutualistic symbiotic interaction within L. perenne. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. RSBP-1 Is a Membrane-targeting Subunit Required by the Gαq-specific But Not the Gαo-specific R7 Regulator of G protein Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Morwenna Y.

    2010-01-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins inhibit G protein signaling by activating Gα GTPase activity, but the mechanisms that regulate RGS activity are not well understood. The mammalian R7 binding protein (R7BP) can interact with all members of the R7 family of RGS proteins, and palmitoylation of R7BP can target R7 RGS proteins to the plasma membrane in cultured cells. However, whether endogenous R7 RGS proteins in neurons require R7BP or membrane localization for function remains unclear. We have identified and knocked out the only apparent R7BP homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans, RSBP-1. Genetic studies show that loss of RSBP-1 phenocopies loss of the R7 RGS protein EAT-16, but does not disrupt function of the related R7 RGS protein EGL-10. Biochemical analyses find that EAT-16 coimmunoprecipitates with RSBP-1 and is predominantly plasma membrane-associated, whereas EGL-10 does not coimmunoprecipitate with RSBP-1 and is not predominantly membrane-associated. Mutating the conserved membrane-targeting sequence in RSBP-1 disrupts both the membrane association and function of EAT-16, demonstrating that membrane targeting by RSBP-1 is essential for EAT-16 activity. Our analysis of endogenous R7 RGS proteins in C. elegans neurons reveals key differences in the functional requirements for membrane targeting between members of this protein family. PMID:19923320

  8. The role of S-acylation in protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Daniotti, Jose L; Pedro, Maria P; Valdez Taubas, Javier

    2017-08-24

    Protein S-acylation, also known as palmitoylation, consists of the addition of a lipid molecule to one or more cysteine residues through a thioester bond. This modification, which is widespread in eukaryotes, is thought to affect over 12% of the human proteome. S-acylation allows the reversible association of peripheral proteins with membranes or, in the case of integral membrane proteins, modulates their behavior within the plane of the membrane. This review focuses on the consequences of protein S-acylation on intracellular trafficking and membrane association. We summarize relevant information that illustrates how lipid modification of proteins plays an important role in dictating precise intracellular movements within cells by regulating membrane-cytosol exchange through membrane microdomain segregation, or by modifying the flux of the proteins by means of vesicular or diffusional transport systems. Finally, we highlight some of the key open questions and major challenges in the field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanolipoprotein particles and related methods and systems for protein capture, solubilization, and/or purification

    DOEpatents

    Chromy, Brett A.; Henderson, Paul; Hoeprich, Jr, Paul D.

    2016-10-04

    Provided herein are methods and systems for assembling, solubilizing and/or purifying a membrane associated protein in a nanolipoprotein particle, which comprise a temperature transition cycle performed in presence of a detergent, wherein during the temperature transition cycle the nanolipoprotein components are brought to a temperature above and below the gel to liquid crystalling transition temperature of the membrane forming lipid of the nanolipoprotein particle.

  10. Nanolipoprotein particles and related methods and systems for protein capture, solubilization, and/or purification

    DOEpatents

    Chromy, Brett A; Henderson, Paul; Hoeprich, Jr., Paul D

    2014-12-09

    Provided herein are methods and systems for assembling, solubilizing and/or purifying a membrane associated protein in a nanolipoprotein particle, which comprise a temperature transition cycle performed in presence of a detergent, wherein during the temperature transition cycle the nanolipoprotein components are brought to a temperature above and below the gel to liquid crystalling transition temperature of the membrane forming lipid of the nanolipoprotein particle.

  11. The Tobacco mosaic virus Movement Protein Associates with but Does Not Integrate into Biological Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, Ana; Martínez-Gil, Luis; Tamborero, Silvia; Pallás, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant positive-strand RNA viruses require association with plant cell endomembranes for viral translation and replication, as well as for intra- and intercellular movement of the viral progeny. The membrane association and RNA binding of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) are vital for orchestrating the macromolecular network required for virus movement. A previously proposed topological model suggests that TMV MP is an integral membrane protein with two putative α-helical transmembrane (TM) segments. Here we tested this model using an experimental system that measured the efficiency with which natural polypeptide segments were inserted into the ER membrane under conditions approximating the in vivo situation, as well as in planta. Our results demonstrated that the two hydrophobic regions (HRs) of TMV MP do not span biological membranes. We further found that mutations to alter the hydrophobicity of the first HR modified membrane association and precluded virus movement. We propose a topological model in which the TMV MP HRs intimately associate with the cellular membranes, allowing maximum exposure of the hydrophilic domains of the MP to the cytoplasmic cellular components. IMPORTANCE To facilitate plant viral infection and spread, viruses encode one or more movement proteins (MPs) that interact with ER membranes. The present work investigated the membrane association of the 30K MP of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and the results challenge the previous topological model, which predicted that the TMV MP behaves as an integral membrane protein. The current data provide greatly needed clarification of the topological model and provide substantial evidence that TMV MP is membrane associated only at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane and that neither of its domains is integrated into the membrane or translocated into the lumen. Understanding the topology of MPs in the ER is vital for understanding the role of the ER in plant virus transport

  12. Bilateral persistent pupillary membranes associated with cataract

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Syed Shoeb; Binson, Caroline; Lung, Chong Ka; Ghani, Shuaibah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Summary Exuberant persistent pupillary membranes (PPM) are rare in adult eyes. We report the case of a 53-year-old man diagnosed with bilateral, profuse, persistent pupillary membranes and unilateral cataract. PMID:23362401

  13. Lipid remodelling and an altered membrane proteome may drive the effects of EPA and DHA treatment on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and protein accretion.

    PubMed

    Jeromson, Stewart; Mackenzie, Ivor; Doherty, Mary K; Whitfield, Phillip D; Bell, Gordon; Dick, James; Shaw, Andy; Rao, Francesco; Ashcroft, Stephen; Philp, Andrew; Galloway, Stuart; Gallagher, Iain; Hamilton, D Lee

    2017-06-27

    In striated muscle, EPA and DHA have differential effects on the metabolism of glucose and differential effects on the metabolism of protein. We have shown that, despite similar incorporation, treatment of C2C12 myotubes (CM) with EPA but not DHA improves glucose uptake and protein accretion. We hypothesized that these differential effects of EPA and DHA may be due to divergent shifts in lipidomic profiles leading to altered proteomic profiles. We therefore carried out an assessment on the impact of treating CM with EPA and DHA on lipidomic and proteomic profiles. FAME analysis revealed that both EPA and DHA led to similar but substantial changes in fatty acid profiles. Global lipidomic analysis showed that EPA and DHA induced large alterations in the cellular lipid profiles and in particular, the phospholipid classes. Subsequent targeted analysis confirmed that the most differentially regulated species were phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines containing long chain fatty acids with 5 (EPA treatment) or 6 (DHA treatment) double bonds. As these are typically membrane associated lipid species we hypothesized that these treatments differentially altered the membrane-associated proteome. SILAC based proteomics of the membrane fraction revealed significant divergence in the effects of EPA and DHA on the membrane associated proteome. We conclude that the EPA specific increase in polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction is associated with an altered membrane associated proteome and these may be critical events in the metabolic remodelling induced by EPA treatment. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  14. Effects of insulin on the translocation of protein kinase C-theta and other protein kinase C isoforms in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, K; Avignon, A; Standaert, M L; Cooper, D R; Spencer, B; Farese, R V

    1995-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-theta is a newly recognized major PKC isoform in skeletal muscle. In this study we found that insulin provoked rapid biphasic increases in membrane-associated immunoreactive PKC-theta, as well as PKC-alpha, PKC-beta and PKC-epsilon, in rat soleus muscles incubated in vitro. Effects of insulin on PKC isoforms in the soleus were comparable in magnitude with those of phorbol esters. Increases in membrane-associated PKC-theta, PKC-alpha, PKC-beta and PKC-epsilon were also observed in rat gastrocnemius muscles after insulin treatment in vivo. Our findings suggest that PKC-theta, like other diacylglycerol-sensitive PKC isoforms (alpha, beta and epsilon), may play a role in insulin action in skeletal muscles. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7755563

  15. Proteomic characterization of human milk fat globule membrane proteins during a 12 month lactation period.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-08-05

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) contains proteins which have been implicated in a variety of health benefits. Milk fat globule membrane proteins were isolated from human milk during a 12 month lactation period and subjected to in-solution digestion and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Data were pooled, and our results showed that 191 proteins were identified. Relative quantification of the identified MFGM proteins during the course of lactation was performed by label free spectral counting and differentiation expression analysis, which showed some proteins decreasing during the course of lactation whereas some increased or remained at a relatively constant level. The human MFGM proteins are distributed between intracellular, extracellular, and membrane-associated proteins, and they are mainly involved in cell communication and signal transduction, immune function, metabolism and energy production. This study provides more insights into the dynamic composition of human MFGM proteins, which in turn will enhance our understanding of the physiological significance of MFGM proteins.

  16. Identification of a thioredoxin-related protein associated with plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.; Dean, M. )

    1991-02-28

    A low molecular weight membrane associated sulphydryl protein was detected on a wide range of nucleated cells when ({sup 14}C)-iodoacetamide was used as a probe. This protein was extracted from THP-1 monocytes, purified to homogeneity and its isoelectric point, Mr and N-terminal amino acid sequence determined. These were shown to be almost identical to the corresponding values for both human thioredoxin and a Tac interleukin-2 receptor activator, indicating that the protein may be a member of this family and function as an essential growth factor.

  17. ZO-2, a tight junction scaffold protein involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza; Bautista, Pablo; Lechuga, Susana; Quiros, Miguel

    2012-06-01

    ZO-2 is a membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologue (MAGUK) tight protein associated with the cytoplasmic surface of tight junctions. Here, we describe how ZO-2 is a multidomain molecule that binds to a variety of cell signaling proteins, to the actin cytoskeleton, and to gap, tight, and adherens junction proteins. In sparse cultures, ZO-2 is present at the nucleus and associates with molecules active in gene transcription and pre-mRNA processing. ZO-2 inhibits the Wnt signaling pathway, reduces cell proliferation, and promotes apoptosis; its absence, mutation, or overexpression is present in various human diseases, including deafness and cancer. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Protein aggregation induced during glass bead lysis of yeast

    PubMed Central

    Papanayotou, Irene; Sun, Beimeng; Roth, Amy F.; Davis, Nicholas G.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast cell lysates produced by mechanical glass bead disruption are widely used in a variety of applications, including for the analysis of native function, e.g. protein–protein interaction, enzyme assays and membrane fractionations. Below, we report a striking case of protein denaturation and aggregation that is induced by this lysis protocol. Most of this analysis focuses on the type 1 casein kinase Yck2, which normally tethers to the plasma membrane through C-terminal palmitoylation. Surprisingly, when cells are subjected to glass bead disruption, non-palmitoylated, cytosolic forms of the kinase denature and aggregate, while membrane-associated forms, whether attached through their native palmitoyl tethers or through a variety of artificial membrane-tethering sequences, are wholly protected from denaturation and aggregation. A wider look at the yeast proteome finds that, while the majority of proteins resist glass bead-induced aggregation, a significant subset does, in fact, succumb to such denaturation. Thus, yeast researchers should be aware of this potential artifact when embarking on biochemical analyses that employ glass bead lysates to look at native protein function. Finally, we demonstrate an experimental utility for glass bead-induced aggregation, using its fine discrimination of membrane-associated from non-associated Yck2 forms to discern fractional palmitoylation states of Yck2 mutants that are partially defective for palmitoylation. PMID:20641011

  19. The membrane-associated monooxygenase in the butane-oxidizing Gram-positive bacterium Nocardioides sp. strain CF8 is a novel member of the AMO/PMO family.

    PubMed

    Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A; Hamamura, Natsuko; Liu, Chih-Wen; Kimbrel, Jeffrey A; Chang, Jeff H; Arp, Daniel J

    2011-06-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Nocardioides sp. strain CF8 uses a membrane-associated monooxygenase (pBMO) to grow on butane. The nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding this novel monooxygenase were revealed through analysis of a de novo assembled draft genome sequence determined by high-throughput sequencing of the whole genome. The pBMO genes were in a similar arrangement to the genes for ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) from the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and for particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from the methane-oxidizing bacteria. The pBMO genes likely constitute an operon in the order bmoC, bmoA and bmoB. The nucleotide sequence was less than 50% similar to the genes for AMO and pMMO. The operon for pBMO was confirmed to be a single copy in the genome by Southern and computational analyses. In an incubation on butane the increase of transcriptional activity of the pBmoA gene was congruent with the increase of pBMO activity and suggested correspondence between gene expression and the utilization of butane. Phylogenetic comparison revealed distant but significant similarity of all three pBMO subunits to homologous members of the AMO/pMMO family and indicated that the pBMO represents a deeply branching third lineage of this group of particulate monooxygenases. No other bmoCAB-like genes were found to cluster with pBMO lineage in phylogenetic analysis by database searches including genomic and metagenomic sequence databases. pBMO is the first example of the AMO/pMMO-like monooxygenase from Gram-positive bacteria showing similarities to proteobacterial pMMO and AMO sequences. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Impact of membrane-associated hydrogenases on the F₀F₁-ATPase in Escherichia coli during glycerol and mixed carbon fermentation: ATPase activity and its inhibition by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in the mutants lacking hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Blbulyan, Syuzanna; Trchounian, Armen

    2015-08-01

    Escherichia coli is able to ferment glycerol and to produce molecular hydrogen (H2) by four membrane-associated hydrogenases (Hyd) changing activity in response to different conditions. In this study, overall ATPase activity of glycerol alone and mixed carbon sources (glucose and glycerol) fermented E. coli wild type and different Hyd mutants and its inhibition by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) were first investigated. ATPase activity was higher in glycerol fermented wild type cells at pH 7.5 compared to pH 6.5 and pH 5.5; DCCD inhibited markedly ATPase activity at pH 7.5. The ATPase activity at pH 7.5, compared with wild type, was lower in selC and less in hypF single mutants, suppressed in hyaB hybC selC triple mutant. Moreover, total ATPase activity of mixed carbon fermented wild type cells was maximal at pH 7.5 and lowered at pH 5.5. The ATPase activities of hypF and hyaB hybC selC mutants were higher at pH 5.5, compared with wild type; DCCD inhibited markedly ATPase activity of hypF mutant. These results demonstrate that in E. coli during glycerol fermentation the membrane proton-translocating FOF1-ATPase has major input in overall ATPase activity and alkaline pH is more optimal for the FOF1-ATPase operation. Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 are required for the FOF1-ATPase activity upon anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. The impact of Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 on the FOF1-ATPase is more obvious during mixed carbon fermentation at slightly acidic pH.

  1. APP Protein Family Signaling at the Synapse: Insights from Intracellular APP-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Guénette, Suzanne; Strecker, Paul; Kins, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying amyloid precursor protein family (APP/APP-like proteins, APLP) function in the nervous system can be achieved by studying the APP/APLP interactome. In this review article, we focused on intracellular APP interacting proteins that bind the YENPTY internalization motif located in the last 15 amino acids of the C-terminal region. These proteins, which include X11/Munc-18-interacting proteins (Mints) and FE65/FE65Ls, represent APP cytosolic binding partners exhibiting different neuronal functions. A comparison of FE65 and APP family member mutant mice revealed a shared function for APP/FE65 protein family members in neurogenesis and neuronal positioning. Accumulating evidence also supports a role for membrane-associated APP/APLP proteins in synapse formation and function. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that APP/APLP C-terminal interacting proteins transmit APP/APLP-dependent signals at the synapse. Herein, we compare our current knowledge of the synaptic phenotypes of APP/APLP mutant mice with those of mice lacking different APP/APLP interaction partners and discuss the possible downstream effects of APP-dependent FE65/FE65L or X11/Mint signaling on synaptic vesicle release, synaptic morphology and function. Given that the role of X11/Mint proteins at the synapse is well-established, we propose a model highlighting the role of FE65 protein family members for transduction of APP/APLP physiological function at the synapse.

  2. Detecting Protein-Protein Interactions in Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Using a Cytoplasmic Yeast Two Hybrid System

    PubMed Central

    Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Megan; DeStephanis, Darla; Hastie, Eric; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Protein-protein interactions play an important role in many virus-encoded functions and in virus-host interactions. While a “classical” yeast two-hybrid system (Y2H) is one of the most common techniques to detect such interactions, it has a number of limitations, including a requirement for the proteins of interest to be relocated to the nucleus. Modified Y2H, such as the Sos recruitment system (SRS), which detect interactions occurring in the cytoplasm rather than the nucleus, allow proteins from viruses replicating in the cytoplasm to be tested in a more natural context. In this study, a SRS was used to detect interactions involving proteins from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototypic non-segmented negative strand RNA (NNS) virus. All five full-length VSV proteins, as well as several truncated proteins, were screened against each other. Using the SRS, most interactions demonstrated previously involving VSV phosphoprotein, nucleocapsid (N) and large polymerase proteins were confirmed independently, while difficulties were encountered using the membrane associated matrix and glycoproteins. A human cDNA library was also screened against VSV N protein and one cellular protein, SFRS18, was identified which interacted with N in this context. The system presented can be redesigned easily for studies in other less tractable NNS viruses. PMID:21320532

  3. Rescuing Those Left Behind: Recovering and Characterizing Underdigested Membrane and Hydrophobic Proteins To Enhance Proteome Measurement Depth.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Richard J; Wurch, Louie L; Podar, Mircea; Hettich, Robert L

    2015-08-04

    The marine archaeon Nanoarchaeum equitans is dependent on direct physical contact with its host, the hyperthermophile Ignicoccus hospitalis. As this interaction is thought to be membrane-associated, involving a myriad of membrane-anchored proteins, proteomic efforts to better characterize this difficult to analyze interface are paramount to uncovering the mechanism of their association. By extending multienzyme digestion strategies that use sample filtration to recover underdigested proteins for reprocessing/consecutive proteolytic digestion, we applied chymotrypsin to redigest the proteinaceous material left over after initial proteolysis with trypsin of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extracted I. hospitalis-N. equitans proteins. Using this method, we show that proteins with increased hydrophobic character, including membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane helices, are enriched and recovered in the underdigested fraction. Chymotryptic reprocessing provided significant sequence coverage gains in both soluble and hydrophobic proteins alike, with the latter benefiting more so in terms of membrane protein representation. These gains were despite a large proportion of high-quality peptide spectra remaining unassigned in the underdigested fraction suggesting high levels of protein modification on these often surface-exposed proteins. Importantly, these gains were achieved without applying extensive fractionation strategies usually required for thorough characterization of membrane-associated proteins and were facilitated by the generation of a distinct, complementary set of peptides that aid in both the identification and quantitation of this important, under-represented class of proteins.

  4. Subcellular targeting of nine calcium-dependent protein kinase isoforms from Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dammann, Christian; Ichida, Audrey; Hong, Bimei; Romanowsky, Shawn M.; Hrabak, Estelle M.; Harmon, Alice C.; Pickard, Barbara G.; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are specific to plants and some protists. Their activation by calcium makes them important switches for the transduction of intracellular calcium signals. Here, we identify the subcellular targeting potentials for nine CDPK isoforms from Arabidopsis, as determined by expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions in transgenic plants. Subcellular locations were determined by fluorescence microscopy in cells near the root tip. Isoforms AtCPK3-GFP and AtCPK4-GFP showed a nuclear and cytosolic distribution similar to that of free GFP. Membrane fractionation experiments confirmed that these isoforms were primarily soluble. A membrane association was observed for AtCPKs 1, 7, 8, 9, 16, 21, and 28, based on imaging and membrane fractionation experiments. This correlates with the presence of potential N-terminal acylation sites, consistent with acylation as an important factor in membrane association. All but one of the membrane-associated isoforms targeted exclusively to the plasma membrane. The exception was AtCPK1-GFP, which targeted to peroxisomes, as determined by covisualization with a peroxisome marker. Peroxisome targeting of AtCPK1-GFP was disrupted by a deletion of two potential N-terminal acylation sites. The observation of a peroxisome-located CDPK suggests a mechanism for calcium regulation of peroxisomal functions involved in oxidative stress and lipid metabolism.

  5. Human Mitochondrial DNA-Protein Complexes Attach to a Cholesterol-Rich Membrane Structure

    PubMed Central

    Gerhold, Joachim M.; Cansiz-Arda, Şirin; Lõhmus, Madis; Engberg, Oskar; Reyes, Aurelio; van Rennes, Helga; Sanz, Alberto; Holt, Ian J.; Cooper, Helen M.; Spelbrink, Johannes N.

    2015-01-01

    The helicase Twinkle is indispensable for mtDNA replication in nucleoids. Previously, we showed that Twinkle is tightly membrane-associated even in the absence of mtDNA, which suggests that Twinkle is part of a membrane-attached replication platform. Here we show that this platform is a cholesterol-rich membrane structure. We fractionated mitochondrial membrane preparations on flotation gradients and show that membrane-associated nucleoids accumulate at the top of the gradient. This fraction was shown to be highly enriched in cholesterol, a lipid that is otherwise low abundant in mitochondria. In contrast, more common mitochondrial lipids, and abundant inner-membrane associated proteins concentrated in the bottom-half of these gradients. Gene silencing of ATAD3, a protein with proposed functions related to nucleoid and mitochondrial cholesterol homeostasis, modified the distribution of cholesterol and nucleoids in the gradient in an identical fashion. Both cholesterol and ATAD3 were previously shown to be enriched in ER-mitochondrial junctions, and we detect nucleoid components in biochemical isolates of these structures. Our data suggest an uncommon membrane composition that accommodates platforms for replicating mtDNA, and reconcile apparently disparate functions of ATAD3. We suggest that mtDNA replication platforms are organized in connection with ER-mitochondrial junctions, facilitated by a specialized membrane architecture involving mitochondrial cholesterol. PMID:26478270

  6. Subcellular targeting of nine calcium-dependent protein kinase isoforms from Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dammann, Christian; Ichida, Audrey; Hong, Bimei; Romanowsky, Shawn M.; Hrabak, Estelle M.; Harmon, Alice C.; Pickard, Barbara G.; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are specific to plants and some protists. Their activation by calcium makes them important switches for the transduction of intracellular calcium signals. Here, we identify the subcellular targeting potentials for nine CDPK isoforms from Arabidopsis, as determined by expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions in transgenic plants. Subcellular locations were determined by fluorescence microscopy in cells near the root tip. Isoforms AtCPK3-GFP and AtCPK4-GFP showed a nuclear and cytosolic distribution similar to that of free GFP. Membrane fractionation experiments confirmed that these isoforms were primarily soluble. A membrane association was observed for AtCPKs 1, 7, 8, 9, 16, 21, and 28, based on imaging and membrane fractionation experiments. This correlates with the presence of potential N-terminal acylation sites, consistent with acylation as an important factor in membrane association. All but one of the membrane-associated isoforms targeted exclusively to the plasma membrane. The exception was AtCPK1-GFP, which targeted to peroxisomes, as determined by covisualization with a peroxisome marker. Peroxisome targeting of AtCPK1-GFP was disrupted by a deletion of two potential N-terminal acylation sites. The observation of a peroxisome-located CDPK suggests a mechanism for calcium regulation of peroxisomal functions involved in oxidative stress and lipid metabolism.

  7. Differential Regulation of Clathrin and Its Adaptor Proteins during Membrane Recruitment for Endocytosis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Hu, Tianwei; Yan, Xu; Meng, Tingting; Wang, Yutong; Wang, Qingmei; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Gu, Ying; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Gadeyne, Astrid; Lin, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    In plants, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is dependent on the function of clathrin and its accessory heterooligomeric adaptor protein complexes, ADAPTOR PROTEIN2 (AP-2) and the TPLATE complex (TPC), and is negatively regulated by the hormones auxin and salicylic acid (SA). The details for how clathrin and its adaptor complexes are recruited to the plasma membrane (PM) to regulate CME, however, are poorly understood. We found that SA and the pharmacological CME inhibitor tyrphostin A23 reduce the membrane association of clathrin and AP-2, but not that of the TPC, whereas auxin solely affected clathrin membrane association, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic and pharmacological experiments revealed that loss of AP2μ or AP2σ partially affected the membrane association of other AP-2 subunits and that the AP-2 subunit AP2σ, but not AP2μ, was required for SA- and tyrphostin A23-dependent inhibition of CME. Furthermore, we show that although AP-2 and the TPC are both required for the PM recruitment of clathrin in wild-type cells, the TPC is necessary for clathrin PM association in AP-2-deficient cells. These results indicate that developmental signals may differentially modulate the membrane recruitment of clathrin and its core accessory complexes to regulate the process of CME in plant cells. PMID:26945051

  8. Ethanol and diolein stimulate PKC (protein kinase C) translocation in astroglial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Skwish, S. ); Shain, W. New York State Department of Health, Albany )

    1990-01-01

    Ethanol exposure stimulates taurine release from astroglial cells. To determine if ethanol mediates this release using protein kinase C (PKC), PKC activity was measured using LRM55 astroglial cells. When ethanol or diolein was applied to cells for 30 seconds, PKC activity was observed to decrease in the cytosol and increase in the membrane fraction of the cell while the whole cell activity remained unchanged. The membrane-associated activity increased by almost 100%. When ethanol and diolein were applied simultaneously, membrane-associated activity increased to become 3-5 times greater than when either PKC activator was applied alone. These changes in PKC activity parallel changes in taurine release observed when cells are exposed to ethanol and the PKC activator diolein. Ethanol-stimulated release may be associated with the translocation of PKC activity from the cytosol to the membrane.

  9. An Experimentally Based Computer Search Identifies Unstructured Membrane-binding Sites in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brzeska, Hanna; Guag, Jake; Remmert, Kirsten; Chacko, Susan; Korn, Edward D.

    2010-01-01

    Programs exist for searching protein sequences for potential membrane-penetrating segments (hydrophobic regions) and for lipid-binding sites with highly defined tertiary structures, such as PH, FERM, C2, ENTH, and other domains. However, a rapidly growing number of membrane-associated proteins (including cytoskeletal proteins, kinases, GTP-binding proteins, and their effectors) bind lipids through less structured regions. Here, we describe the development and testing of a simple computer search program that identifies unstructured potential membrane-binding sites. Initially, we found that both basic and hydrophobic amino acids, irrespective of sequence, contribute to the binding to acidic phospholipid vesicles of synthetic peptides that correspond to the putative membrane-binding domains of Acanthamoeba class I myosins. Based on these results, we modified a hydrophobicity scale giving Arg- and Lys-positive, rather than negative, values. Using this basic and hydrophobic scale with a standard search algorithm, we successfully identified previously determined unstructured membrane-binding sites in all 16 proteins tested. Importantly, basic and hydrophobic searches identified previously unknown potential membrane-binding sites in class I myosins, PAKs and CARMIL (capping protein, Arp2/3, myosin I linker; a membrane-associated cytoskeletal scaffold protein), and synthetic peptides and protein domains containing these newly identified sites bound to acidic phospholipids in vitro. PMID:20018884

  10. The conundrum of a unique protein encoded by citrus tristeza virus that is dispensable for infection of most hosts yet shows characteristics of a viral movement protein.

    PubMed

    Bak, Aurélie; Folimonova, Svetlana Y

    2015-11-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), one of the most economically important viruses, produces a unique protein, p33, which is encoded only in the genomes of isolates of CTV. Recently, we demonstrated that membrane association of the p33 protein confers virus ability to extend its host range. In this work we show that p33 shares characteristics of viral movement proteins. Upon expression in a host cell, the protein localizes to plasmodesmata and displays the ability to form extracellular tubules. Furthermore, p33 appears to traffic via the cellular secretory pathway and the actin network to plasmodesmata locations and is likely being recycled through the endocytic pathway. Finally, our study reveals that p33 colocalizes with a putative movement protein of CTV, the p6 protein. These results suggest a potential role of p33 as a noncanonical viral movement protein, which mediates virus translocation in the specific hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Giardia lamblia DHHC Proteins and the Role of Protein S-palmitoylation in the Encystation Process

    PubMed Central

    Merino, María C.; Zamponi, Nahuel; Vranych, Cecilia V.; Touz, María C.; Rópolo, Andrea S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein S-palmitoylation, a hydrophobic post-translational modification, is performed by protein acyltransferases that have a common DHHC Cys-rich domain (DHHC proteins), and provides a regulatory switch for protein membrane association. In this work, we analyzed the presence of DHHC proteins in the protozoa parasite Giardia lamblia and the function of the reversible S-palmitoylation of proteins during parasite differentiation into cyst. Two specific events were observed: encysting cells displayed a larger amount of palmitoylated proteins, and parasites treated with palmitoylation inhibitors produced a reduced number of mature cysts. With bioinformatics tools, we found nine DHHC proteins, potential protein acyltransferases, in the Giardia proteome. These proteins displayed a conserved structure when compared to different organisms and are distributed in different monophyletic clades. Although all Giardia DHHC proteins were found to be present in trophozoites and encysting cells, these proteins showed a different intracellular localization in trophozoites and seemed to be differently involved in the encystation process when they were overexpressed. dhhc transgenic parasites showed a different pattern of cyst wall protein expression and yielded different amounts of mature cysts when they were induced to encyst. Our findings disclosed some important issues regarding the role of DHHC proteins and palmitoylation during Giardia encystation. PMID:25058047

  12. Identification of Giardia lamblia DHHC proteins and the role of protein S-palmitoylation in the encystation process.

    PubMed

    Merino, María C; Zamponi, Nahuel; Vranych, Cecilia V; Touz, María C; Rópolo, Andrea S

    2014-07-01

    Protein S-palmitoylation, a hydrophobic post-translational modification, is performed by protein acyltransferases that have a common DHHC Cys-rich domain (DHHC proteins), and provides a regulatory switch for protein membrane association. In this work, we analyzed the presence of DHHC proteins in the protozoa parasite Giardia lamblia and the function of the reversible S-palmitoylation of proteins during parasite differentiation into cyst. Two specific events were observed: encysting cells displayed a larger amount of palmitoylated proteins, and parasites treated with palmitoylation inhibitors produced a reduced number of mature cysts. With bioinformatics tools, we found nine DHHC proteins, potential protein acyltransferases, in the Giardia proteome. These proteins displayed a conserved structure when compared to different organisms and are distributed in different monophyletic clades. Although all Giardia DHHC proteins were found to be present in trophozoites and encysting cells, these proteins showed a different intracellular localization in trophozoites and seemed to be differently involved in the encystation process when they were overexpressed. dhhc transgenic parasites showed a different pattern of cyst wall protein expression and yielded different amounts of mature cysts when they were induced to encyst. Our findings disclosed some important issues regarding the role of DHHC proteins and palmitoylation during Giardia encystation.

  13. Mechanistic effects of protein palmitoylation and the cellular consequences thereof.

    PubMed

    Blaskovic, Sanja; Adibekian, Alexander; Blanc, Mathieu; van der Goot, Gisou F

    2014-05-01

    S-palmitoylation involves the attachment of a 16-carbon long fatty acid chain to the cysteine residues of proteins. The process is enzymatic and dynamic with DHHC enzymes mediating palmitoylation and acyl-protein thioesterases reverting the reaction. Proteins that undergo this modification span almost all cellular functions. While the increase in hydrophobicity generated by palmitoylation has the obvious consequence of triggering membrane association, the effects on transmembrane proteins are less intuitive and span a vast range. We review here the current knowledge on palmitoylating and depalmitoylating enzymes, the methods that allow the study of this lipid modification and which drugs can affect it, and finally we focus on four cellular processes for which recent studies reveal an involvement of palmitoylation: endocytosis, reproduction and cell growth, fat and sugar homeostasis and signal transduction at the synapse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Statistical prediction of protein structural, localization and functional properties by the analysis of its fragment mass distributions after proteolytic cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Bogachev, Mikhail I.; Kayumov, Airat R.; Markelov, Oleg A.; Bunde, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Structural, localization and functional properties of unknown proteins are often being predicted from their primary polypeptide chains using sequence alignment with already characterized proteins and consequent molecular modeling. Here we suggest an approach to predict various structural and structure-associated properties of proteins directly from the mass distributions of their proteolytic cleavage fragments. For amino-acid-specific cleavages, the distributions of fragment masses are determined by the distributions of inter-amino-acid intervals in the protein, that in turn apparently reflect its structural and structure-related features. Large-scale computer simulations revealed that for transmembrane proteins, either α-helical or β -barrel secondary structure could be predicted with about 90% accuracy after thermolysin cleavage. Moreover, 3/4 intrinsically disordered proteins could be correctly distinguished from proteins with fixed three-dimensional structure belonging to all four SCOP structural classes by combining 3–4 different cleavages. Additionally, in some cases the protein cellular localization (cytosolic or membrane-associated) and its host organism (Firmicute or Proteobacteria) could be predicted with around 80% accuracy. In contrast to cytosolic proteins, for membrane-associated proteins exhibiting specific structural conformations, their monotopic or transmembrane localization and functional group (ATP-binding, transporters, sensors and so on) could be also predicted with high accuracy and particular robustness against missing cleavages. PMID:26924271

  15. Rescuing Those Left Behind: Recovering and Characterizing Underdigested Membrane and Hydrophobic Proteins To Enhance Proteome Measurement Depth

    SciTech Connect

    Giannone, Richard J.; Wurch, Louie L.; Podar, Mircea; Hettich, Robert L.

    2015-06-25

    The marine archaeon Nanoarchaeum equitans is dependent on direct physical contact with its host, the hyperthermophile Ignicoccus hospitalis. It is thought that this interaction is membrane-associated, involving a myriad of membrane-anchored proteins; proteomic efforts to better characterize this difficult to analyze interface are paramount to uncovering the mechanism of their association. By extending multienzyme digestion strategies that use sample filtration to recover underdigested proteins for reprocessing/consecutive proteolytic digestion, we applied chymotrypsin to redigest the proteinaceous material left over after initial proteolysis with trypsin of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extracted I. hospitalis-N. equitansproteins. We show that proteins with increased hydrophobic character, including membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane helices, are enriched and recovered in the underdigested fraction. Chymotryptic reprocessing provided significant sequence coverage gains in both soluble and hydrophobic proteins alike, with the latter benefiting more so in terms of membrane protein representation. Moreover, these gains were despite a large proportion of high-quality peptide spectra remaining unassigned in the underdigested fraction suggesting high levels of protein modification on these often surface-exposed proteins. Importantly, these gains were achieved without applying extensive fractionation strategies usually required for thorough characterization of membrane-associated proteins and were facilitated by the generation of a distinct, complementary set of peptides that aid in both the identification and quantitation of this important, under-represented class of proteins.

  16. Rescuing Those Left Behind: Recovering and Characterizing Underdigested Membrane and Hydrophobic Proteins To Enhance Proteome Measurement Depth

    DOE PAGES

    Giannone, Richard J.; Wurch, Louie L.; Podar, Mircea; ...

    2015-06-25

    The marine archaeon Nanoarchaeum equitans is dependent on direct physical contact with its host, the hyperthermophile Ignicoccus hospitalis. It is thought that this interaction is membrane-associated, involving a myriad of membrane-anchored proteins; proteomic efforts to better characterize this difficult to analyze interface are paramount to uncovering the mechanism of their association. By extending multienzyme digestion strategies that use sample filtration to recover underdigested proteins for reprocessing/consecutive proteolytic digestion, we applied chymotrypsin to redigest the proteinaceous material left over after initial proteolysis with trypsin of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extracted I. hospitalis-N. equitansproteins. We show that proteins with increased hydrophobic character, includingmore » membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane helices, are enriched and recovered in the underdigested fraction. Chymotryptic reprocessing provided significant sequence coverage gains in both soluble and hydrophobic proteins alike, with the latter benefiting more so in terms of membrane protein representation. Moreover, these gains were despite a large proportion of high-quality peptide spectra remaining unassigned in the underdigested fraction suggesting high levels of protein modification on these often surface-exposed proteins. Importantly, these gains were achieved without applying extensive fractionation strategies usually required for thorough characterization of membrane-associated proteins and were facilitated by the generation of a distinct, complementary set of peptides that aid in both the identification and quantitation of this important, under-represented class of proteins.« less

  17. Statistical prediction of protein structural, localization and functional properties by the analysis of its fragment mass distributions after proteolytic cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, Mikhail I.; Kayumov, Airat R.; Markelov, Oleg A.; Bunde, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Structural, localization and functional properties of unknown proteins are often being predicted from their primary polypeptide chains using sequence alignment with already characterized proteins and consequent molecular modeling. Here we suggest an approach to predict various structural and structure-associated properties of proteins directly from the mass distributions of their proteolytic cleavage fragments. For amino-acid-specific cleavages, the distributions of fragment masses are determined by the distributions of inter-amino-acid intervals in the protein, that in turn apparently reflect its structural and structure-related features. Large-scale computer simulations revealed that for transmembrane proteins, either α-helical or β -barrel secondary structure could be predicted with about 90% accuracy after thermolysin cleavage. Moreover, 3/4 intrinsically disordered proteins could be correctly distinguished from proteins with fixed three-dimensional structure belonging to all four SCOP structural classes by combining 3-4 different cleavages. Additionally, in some cases the protein cellular localization (cytosolic or membrane-associated) and its host organism (Firmicute or Proteobacteria) could be predicted with around 80% accuracy. In contrast to cytosolic proteins, for membrane-associated proteins exhibiting specific structural conformations, their monotopic or transmembrane localization and functional group (ATP-binding, transporters, sensors and so on) could be also predicted with high accuracy and particular robustness against missing cleavages.

  18. Cleavage of Signal Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα) Enhances Inflammatory Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Londino, James D.; Gulick, Dexter; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.; Mallampalli, Rama K.

    2015-01-01

    Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is a membrane glycoprotein immunoreceptor abundant in cells of monocyte lineage. SIRPα ligation by a broadly expressed transmembrane protein, CD47, results in phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, resulting in the inhibition of NF-κB signaling in macrophages. Here we observed that proteolysis of SIRPα during inflammation is regulated by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10), resulting in the generation of a membrane-associated cleavage fragment in both THP-1 monocytes and human lung epithelia. We mapped a charge-dependent putative cleavage site near the membrane-proximal domain necessary for ADAM10-mediated cleavage. In addition, a secondary proteolytic cleavage within the membrane-associated SIRPα fragment by γ-secretase was identified. Ectopic expression of a SIRPα mutant plasmid encoding a proteolytically resistant form in HeLa cells inhibited activation of the NF-κB pathway and suppressed STAT1 phosphorylation in response to TNFα to a greater extent than expression of wild-type SIRPα. Conversely, overexpression of plasmids encoding the proteolytically cleaved SIRPα fragments in cells resulted in enhanced STAT-1 and NF-κB pathway activation. Thus, the data suggest that combinatorial actions of ADAM10 and γ-secretase on SIRPα cleavage promote inflammatory signaling. PMID:26534964

  19. Glycosylation patterns of membrane proteins of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.

    PubMed

    Schetz, J A; Anderson, P A

    1995-02-01

    Integral and membrane-associated proteins extracted from neuron-enriched perirhopalial tissue of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata were probed with a panel of lectins that recognize sugar epitopes of varying complexity. Of the 13 lectins tested, only concanavalin A, jacalin lectin and tomato lectin stained distinct bands on Western blots, indicating the presence of repeating alpha-1,6-mannoses, terminal Gal-alpha-1,6-GalNAc and repeating beta-1,4-linked GlcNAc, respectively. In whole-mounted perirhopalial tissue, jacalin lectin stained several cell types, including neurons, muscle, cilia and mucus strands. Tomato lectin stained secretory cells intensely, and neurons in a punctate fashion. Concanavalin A stained cytoplasmic epitopes in both ecto- and endodermal cells, and ectodermal secretory cells and the mucus strands emanating from them. With the exception of tomato lectin's sugar epitope, the other sugar epitopes identified in this study are "non-complex". This study suggests that while glycosylation of integral and membrane-associated proteins occurs in Cyanea, the sugars post-translationally linked to these proteins tend to be simple.

  20. Cleavage of Signal Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα) Enhances Inflammatory Signaling.

    PubMed

    Londino, James D; Gulick, Dexter; Isenberg, Jeffrey S; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2015-12-25

    Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is a membrane glycoprotein immunoreceptor abundant in cells of monocyte lineage. SIRPα ligation by a broadly expressed transmembrane protein, CD47, results in phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, resulting in the inhibition of NF-κB signaling in macrophages. Here we observed that proteolysis of SIRPα during inflammation is regulated by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10), resulting in the generation of a membrane-associated cleavage fragment in both THP-1 monocytes and human lung epithelia. We mapped a charge-dependent putative cleavage site near the membrane-proximal domain necessary for ADAM10-mediated cleavage. In addition, a secondary proteolytic cleavage within the membrane-associated SIRPα fragment by γ-secretase was identified. Ectopic expression of a SIRPα mutant plasmid encoding a proteolytically resistant form in HeLa cells inhibited activation of the NF-κB pathway and suppressed STAT1 phosphorylation in response to TNFα to a greater extent than expression of wild-type SIRPα. Conversely, overexpression of plasmids encoding the proteolytically cleaved SIRPα fragments in cells resulted in enhanced STAT-1 and NF-κB pathway activation. Thus, the data suggest that combinatorial actions of ADAM10 and γ-secretase on SIRPα cleavage promote inflammatory signaling.

  1. Multiple cellular proteins modulate the dynamics of K-ras association with the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Bhagatji, Pinkesh; Leventis, Rania; Rich, Rebecca; Lin, Chen-ju; Silvius, John R

    2010-11-17

    Although specific proteins have been identified that regulate the membrane association and facilitate intracellular transport of prenylated Rho- and Rab-family proteins, it is not known whether cellular proteins fulfill similar roles for other prenylated species, such as Ras-family proteins. We used a previously described method to evaluate how several cellular proteins, previously identified as potential binding partners (but not effectors) of K-ras4B, influence the dynamics of K-ras association with the plasma membrane. Overexpression of either PDEδ or PRA1 enhances, whereas knockdown of either protein reduces, the rate of dissociation of K-ras from the plasma membrane. Inhibition of calmodulin likewise reduces the rate of K-ras dissociation from the plasma membrane, in this case in a manner specific for the activated form of K-ras. By contrast, galectin-3 specifically reduces the rate of plasma membrane dissociation of activated K-ras, an effect that is blocked by the K-ras antagonist farnesylthiosalicylic acid (salirasib). Multiple cellular proteins thus control the dynamics of membrane association and intercompartmental movement of K-ras to an important degree even under basal cellular conditions. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protein S-ACYL Transferase10 is critical for development and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang-Zi; Li, Sha; Feng, Qiang-Nan; Zhang, Yu-Ling; Zhao, Xinying; Zeng, Yong-lun; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Liwen; Zhang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    Protein S-acylation, commonly known as palmitoylation, is a reversible posttranslational modification that catalyzes the addition of a saturated lipid group, often palmitate, to the sulfhydryl group of a Cys. Palmitoylation regulates enzyme activity, protein stability, subcellular localization, and intracellular sorting. Many plant proteins are palmitoylated. However, little is known about protein S-acyl transferases (PATs), which catalyze palmitoylation. Here, we report that the tonoplast-localized PAT10 is critical for development and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. PAT10 loss of function resulted in pleiotropic growth defects, including smaller leaves, dwarfism, and sterility. In addition, pat10 mutants are hypersensitive to salt stresses. We further show that PAT10 regulates the tonoplast localization of several calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs), including CBL2, CBL3, and CBL6, whose membrane association also depends on palmitoylation. Introducing a C192S mutation within the highly conserved catalytic motif of PAT10 failed to complement pat10 mutants, indicating that PAT10 functions through protein palmitoylation. We propose that PAT10-mediated palmitoylation is critical for vacuolar function by regulating membrane association or the activities of tonoplast proteins.

  3. A functional heat shock protein 90 chaperone is essential for efficient flock house virus RNA polymerase synthesis in Drosophila cells.

    PubMed

    Castorena, Kathryn M; Weeks, Spencer A; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Cadwallader, Amy M; Miller, David J

    2007-08-01

    The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is involved in multiple cellular processes including protein maturation, complex assembly and disassembly, and intracellular transport. We have recently shown that a disruption of Hsp90 activity in cultured Drosophila melanogaster cells suppresses Flock House virus (FHV) replication and the accumulation of protein A, the FHV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In the present study, we investigated whether the defect in FHV RNA polymerase accumulation induced by Hsp90 suppression was secondary to an effect on protein A synthesis, degradation, or intracellular membrane association. Treatment with the Hsp90-specific inhibitor geldanamycin selectively reduced FHV RNA polymerase synthesis by 80% in Drosophila S2 cells stably transfected with an inducible protein A expression plasmid. The suppressive effect of geldanamycin on protein A synthesis was not attenuated by proteasome inhibition, nor was it sensitive to changes in either the mRNA untranslated regions or protein A intracellular membrane localization. Furthermore, geldanamycin did not promote premature protein A degradation, nor did it alter the extremely rapid kinetics of protein A membrane association. These results identify a novel role for Hsp90 in facilitating viral RNA polymerase synthesis in Drosophila cells and suggest that FHV subverts normal cellular pathways to assemble functional replication complexes.

  4. SynechoNET: integrated protein-protein interaction database of a model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo-Yeon; Kang, Sungsoo; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Oh, Jeehyun; Cho, Seongwoong; Bhak, Jong; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2008-01-01

    Background Cyanobacteria are model organisms for studying photosynthesis, carbon and nitrogen assimilation, evolution of plant plastids, and adaptability to environmental stresses. Despite many studies on cyanobacteria, there is no web-based database of their regulatory and signaling protein-protein interaction networks to date. Description We report a database and website SynechoNET that provides predicted protein-protein interactions. SynechoNET shows cyanobacterial domain-domain interactions as well as their protein-level interactions using the model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. It predicts the protein-protein interactions using public interaction databases that contain mutually complementary and redundant data. Furthermore, SynechoNET provides information on transmembrane topology, signal peptide, and domain structure in order to support the analysis of regulatory membrane proteins. Such biological information can be queried and visualized in user-friendly web interfaces that include the interactive network viewer and search pages by keyword and functional category. Conclusion SynechoNET is an integrated protein-protein interaction database designed to analyze regulatory membrane proteins in cyanobacteria. It provides a platform for biologists to extend the genomic data of cyanobacteria by predicting interaction partners, membrane association, and membrane topology of Synechocystis proteins. SynechoNET is freely available at or directly at . PMID:18315852

  5. Natural Products at Work: Structural Insights into Inhibition of the Bacterial Membrane Protein MraY.

    PubMed

    Koppermann, Stefan; Ducho, Christian

    2016-09-19

    Natural(ly) fit: The X-ray crystal structure of the bacterial membrane protein MraY in complex with its natural product inhibitor muraymycin D2 is discussed. MraY catalyzes one of the membrane-associated steps in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and, therefore, represents a promising target for novel antibiotics. Structural insights derived from the protein-inhibitor complex might now pave the way for the development of new antimicrobial drugs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Heterologous and cell free protein expression systems.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Naser; Hrmova, Maria; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2009-01-01

    In recognition of the fact that a relatively small percentage of 'named' genes in databases have any experimental proof for their annotation, attention is shifting towards the more accurate assignment of functions to individual genes in a genome. The central objective will be to reduce our reliance on nucleotide or amino acid sequence similarities as a means to define the functions of genes and to annotate genome sequences. There are many unsolved technical difficulties associated with the purification of specific proteins from extracts of biological material, especially where the protein is present in low abundance, has multiple isoforms or is found in multiple post-translationally modified forms. The relative ease with which cDNAs can be cloned has led to the development of methods through which cDNAs from essentially any source can be expressed in a limited range of suitable host organisms, so that sufficient levels of the encoded proteins can be generated for functional analysis. Recently, these heterologous expression systems have been supplemented by more robust prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell-free protein synthesis systems. In this chapter, common host systems for heterologous expression are reviewed and the current status of cell-free expression systems will be presented. New approaches to overcoming the special problems encountered during the expression of membrane-associated proteins will also be addressed. Methodological considerations, including the characteristics of codon usage in the expressed DNA, peptide tags that facilitate subsequent purification of the expressed proteins and the role of post-translational modifications, are examined.

  7. Outer Hair Cell Lateral Wall Structure Constrains the Mobility of Plasma Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tetsuji; Hakizimana, Pierre; Wu, Siva; Hassan, Ahmed; Jacob, Stefan; Temirov, Jamshid; Fang, Jie; Mellado-Lagarde, Marcia; Gursky, Richard; Horner, Linda; Leibiger, Barbara; Leijon, Sara; Centonze, Victoria E.; Berggren, Per-Olof; Frase, Sharon; Auer, Manfred; Brownell, William E.; Fridberger, Anders; Zuo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Nature’s fastest motors are the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). These sensory cells use a membrane protein, Slc26a5 (prestin), to generate mechanical force at high frequencies, which is essential for explaining the exquisite hearing sensitivity of mammalian ears. Previous studies suggest that Slc26a5 continuously diffuses within the membrane, but how can a freely moving motor protein effectively convey forces critical for hearing? To provide direct evidence in OHCs for freely moving Slc26a5 molecules, we created a knockin mouse where Slc26a5 is fused with YFP. These mice and four other strains expressing fluorescently labeled membrane proteins were used to examine their lateral diffusion in the OHC lateral wall. All five proteins showed minimal diffusion, but did move after pharmacological disruption of membrane-associated structures with a cholesterol-depleting agent and salicylate. Thus, our results demonstrate that OHC lateral wall structure constrains the mobility of plasma membrane proteins and that the integrity of such membrane-associated structures are critical for Slc26a5’s active and structural roles. The structural constraint of membrane proteins may exemplify convergent evolution of cellular motors across species. Our findings also suggest a possible mechanism for disorders of cholesterol metabolism with hearing loss such as Niemann-Pick Type C diseases. PMID:26352669

  8. Role of PDZ Proteins in Regulating Trafficking, Signaling, and Function of GPCRs: Means, Motif, and Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Guillermo; von Zastrow, Mark; Friedman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    PDZ proteins, named for the common structural domain shared by the postsynaptic density protein (PSD95), Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor (DlgA), and zonula occludens-1 protein (ZO-1), constitute a family of 200–300 recognized members. These cytoplasmic adapter proteins are capable of assembling a variety of membrane-associated proteins and signaling molecules in short-lived functional units. Here, we review PDZ proteins that participate in the regulation of signaling, trafficking, and function of G protein-coupled receptors. Salient structural features of PDZ proteins that allow them to recognize targeted GPCRs are considered. Scaffolding proteins harboring PDZ domains may contain single or multiple PDZ modules and may also include other protein–protein interaction modules. PDZ proteins may impact receptor signaling by diverse mechanisms that include retaining the receptor at the cell membrane, thereby increasing the duration of ligand binding, as well as importantly influencing GPCR internalization, trafficking, recycling, and intracellular sorting. PDZ proteins are also capable of modifying the assembled complex of accessory proteins such as β-arrestins that themselves regulate GPCR signaling. Additionally, PDZ proteins may modulate GPCR signaling by altering the G protein to which the receptor binds, or affect other regulatory proteins that impact GTPase activity, protein kinase A, phospholipase C, or modify downstream signaling events. Small molecules targeting the PDZ protein-GPCR interaction are being developed and may become important and selective drug candidates. PMID:21907913

  9. Cellular functions of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and FYVE domain proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, D J; Simonsen, A; Stenmark, H

    2001-01-01

    PtdIns3P is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase product that has been strongly implicated in regulating membrane trafficking in both mammalian and yeast cells. PtdIns3P has been shown to be specifically located on membranes associated with the endocytic pathway. Proteins that contain FYVE zinc-finger domains are recruited to PtdIns3P-containing membranes. Structural information is now available concerning the interaction between FYVE domains and PtdIns3P. A number of proteins have been identified which contain a FYVE domain, and in this review we discuss the functions of PtdIns3P and its FYVE-domain-containing effector proteins in membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal regulation and receptor signalling. PMID:11284710

  10. Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jinhua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yuyan; Gao, Shuang; Yao, Qianqian; Qu, Di; Ye, Rong

    2012-06-05

    A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

  11. Monitoring Protein Fouling on Polymeric Membranes Using Ultrasonic Frequency-Domain Reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Kujundzic, Elmira; Greenberg, Alan R.; Fong, Robin; Hernandez, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Novel signal-processing protocols were used to extend the in situ sensitivity of ultrasonic frequency-domain reflectometry (UFDR) for real-time monitoring of microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling during protein purification. Different commercial membrane materials, with a nominal pore size of 0.2 μm, were challenged using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and amylase as model proteins. Fouling induced by these proteins was observed in flat-sheet membrane filtration cells operating in a laminar cross-flow regime. The detection of membrane-associated proteins using UFDR was determined by applying rigorous statistical methodology to reflection spectra of ultrasonic signals obtained during membrane fouling. Data suggest that the total power reflected from membrane surfaces changes in response to protein fouling at concentrations as low as 14 μg/cm2, and results indicate that ultrasonic spectra can be leveraged to detect and monitor protein fouling on commercial MF membranes. PMID:24957732

  12. J 16: An apex protein associated with juvenility of Sequoiadendron giganteum.

    PubMed

    Bon, M C

    1988-12-01

    Shoot apex proteins from 11 seedlings, two juvenile clones and three mature grafted clones of Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchh. were examined throughout the year by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A membrane-associated protein known as J 16, with an approximate molecular weight of 16 kD, was always detected in juvenile tissue, but was absent in tissue of the mature clones. The J 16 protein was also present in extracts of a mature clone that had been morphologically rejuvenated by micrografting. Protein extracts from the rejuvenated clone, were separated by electrophoresis and assayed for J 16 using an immunoblotting procedure with anti-J 16 serum. This test revealed two bands, J 16 and another protein with a lower molecular weight. The small molecular weight protein was not detected in juvenile clones.

  13. Leucine periodicity of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) A' protein is implicated in snRNP assembly via protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, L D; Harper, D S; Keene, J D

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant A' protein could be reconstituted into U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) upon addition to HeLa cell extracts as determined by coimmunoprecipitation and particle density; however, direct binding to U2 RNA could not be demonstrated except in the presence of the U2 snRNP B" protein. Mutational analysis indicated that a central core region of A' was required for particle reconstitution. This region consists of five tandem repeats of approximately 24 amino acids each that exhibit a periodicity of leucine and asparagine residues that is distinct from the leucine zipper. Similar leucine-rich (Leu-Leu motif) repeats are characteristic of a diverse array of soluble and membrane-associated proteins from yeasts to humans but have not been reported previously to reside in nuclear proteins. Several of these proteins, including Toll, chaoptin, RNase/angiogenin inhibitors, lutropin-choriogonadotropin receptor, carboxypeptidase N, adenylyl cyclase, CD14, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev, may be involved in protein-protein interactions. Our findings suggest that in cell extracts the Leu-Leu motif of A' is required for reconstitution with U2 snRNPs and perhaps with other components involved in splicing through protein-protein interactions. Images PMID:1825347

  14. A family of small coiled-coil-forming proteins functioning at the late endosome in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kranz, A; Kinner, A; Kölling, R

    2001-03-01

    The multispanning membrane protein Ste6, a member of the ABC-transporter family, is transported to the yeast vacuole for degradation. To identify functions involved in the intracellular trafficking of polytopic membrane proteins, we looked for functions that block Ste6 transport to the vacuole upon overproduction. In our screen, we identified several known vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes (SNF7/VPS32, VPS4, and VPS35) and a previously uncharacterized open reading frame, which we named MOS10 (more of Ste6). Sequence analysis showed that Mos10 is a member of a small family of coiled-coil-forming proteins, which includes Snf7 and Vps20. Deletion mutants of all three genes stabilize Ste6 and show a "class E vps phenotype." Maturation of the vacuolar hydrolase carboxypeptidase Y was affected in the mutants and the endocytic tracer FM4-64 and Ste6 accumulated in a dot or ring-like structure next to the vacuole. Differential centrifugation experiments demonstrated that about half of the hydrophilic proteins Mos10 and Vps20 was membrane associated. The intracellular distribution was further analyzed for Mos10. On sucrose gradients, membrane-associated Mos10 cofractionated with the endosomal t-SNARE Pep12, pointing to an endosomal localization of Mos10. The growth phenotypes of the mutants suggest that the "Snf7-family" members are involved in a cargo-specific event.

  15. Ribozyme knockdown functionally links a 1,25(OH)2D3 membrane binding protein (1,25D3-MARRS) and phosphate uptake in intestinal cells

    PubMed Central

    Nemere, I.; Farach-Carson, M. C.; Rohe, B.; Sterling, T. M.; Norman, A. W.; Boyan, B. D.; Safford, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    We used a ribozyme loss-of-function approach to demonstrate that the protein product of a cDNA encoding a multifunctional membrane-associated protein binds the seco-steroid 1,25(OH)2D3 and transduces its stimulatory effects on phosphate uptake. These results are paralleled by studies in which the ability of the hormone to stimulate phosphate uptake in isolated chick intestinal epithelial cells is abolished by preincubation with Ab099 directed against the amino terminus of the protein. We now report the complete sequence of the cloned chicken cDNA for the 1,25D3-MARRS (membrane-associated, rapid-response steroid-binding) protein and reveal it to be identical to the multifunctional protein ERp57. Functional studies showed that active ribozyme, but not a scrambled control, decreased specific membrane-associated 1,25(OH)2D3 binding, but did not affect binding to the nuclear receptor for 1,25(OH)2D3. Seco-steroid-dependent stimulation of protein kinase C activity was diminished as 1,25D3-MARRS protein levels were reduced in the presence of the ribozyme, as judged by Western blot analyses. Phosphate uptake in isolated cells is an index of intestinal phosphate transport that occurs during growth and maturation. Whereas cells and perfused duodena robustly responded to 1,25(OH)2D3 in preparations from young birds, older animals no longer responded with stimulated phosphate uptake or transport. The age-related decline was accompanied by a decrease in 1,25D3-MARRS mRNA that was apparent up to 1 year of age. Together, these studies functionally link phosphate transport in the chick duodenum with the 1,25D3-MARRS protein and point to a previously uncharacterized role for this multifunctional protein class. PMID:15123837

  16. Technical advance: identification of plant actin-binding proteins by F-actin affinity chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Kovar, D. R.; Staiger, C. J.; Clark, G. B.; Roux, S. J.; Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. In plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. To identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the development of new biochemical procedures will be critical. Affinity columns using actin monomers (globular actin, G-actin) or actin filaments (filamentous actin, F-actin) have been used to identify actin-binding proteins from a wide variety of organisms. Monomeric actin from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyl tissue was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and shown to be native and competent for polymerization to actin filaments. G-actin, F-actin and bovine serum albumin affinity columns were prepared and used to separate samples enriched in either soluble or membrane-associated actin-binding proteins. Extracts of soluble actin-binding proteins yield distinct patterns when eluted from the G-actin and F-actin columns, respectively, leading to the identification of a putative F-actin-binding protein of approximately 40 kDa. When plasma membrane-associated proteins were applied to these columns, two abundant polypeptides eluted selectively from the F-actin column and cross-reacted with antiserum against pea annexins. Additionally, a protein that binds auxin transport inhibitors, the naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein, which has been previously suggested to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, was eluted in a single peak from the F-actin column. These experiments provide a new approach that may help to identify novel actin-binding proteins from plants.

  17. Technical advance: identification of plant actin-binding proteins by F-actin affinity chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Kovar, D. R.; Staiger, C. J.; Clark, G. B.; Roux, S. J.; Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. In plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. To identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the development of new biochemical procedures will be critical. Affinity columns using actin monomers (globular actin, G-actin) or actin filaments (filamentous actin, F-actin) have been used to identify actin-binding proteins from a wide variety of organisms. Monomeric actin from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyl tissue was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and shown to be native and competent for polymerization to actin filaments. G-actin, F-actin and bovine serum albumin affinity columns were prepared and used to separate samples enriched in either soluble or membrane-associated actin-binding proteins. Extracts of soluble actin-binding proteins yield distinct patterns when eluted from the G-actin and F-actin columns, respectively, leading to the identification of a putative F-actin-binding protein of approximately 40 kDa. When plasma membrane-associated proteins were applied to these columns, two abundant polypeptides eluted selectively from the F-actin column and cross-reacted with antiserum against pea annexins. Additionally, a protein that binds auxin transport inhibitors, the naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein, which has been previously suggested to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, was eluted in a single peak from the F-actin column. These experiments provide a new approach that may help to identify novel actin-binding proteins from plants.

  18. Identification of the major proteins of an immune modulating fraction from adult Fasciola hepatica released by Nonidet P40.

    PubMed

    Morphew, Russell M; Hamilton, Clare M; Wright, Hazel A; Dowling, David J; O'Neill, Sandra M; Brophy, Peter M

    2013-01-31

    Fasciola hepatica NP-40 released protein extract (FhNPE) exhibits potent Th1 immunosuppressive properties in vitro and in vivo. However, the protein composition of this active fraction, responsible for Th1 immune modulatory activity, has yet to be resolved. Therefore, FhNPE, a Nonidet P-40 extract, was subjected to a proteomic analysis in order to identify individual protein components. This was performed using an in house F. hepatica EST database following 2D electrophoresis combined with de novo sequencing based mass spectrometry. The identified proteins, a mixture of excretory/secretory and membrane-associated proteins, are associated with stress response and chaperoning, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal components. The immune modulatory properties of these identified protein(s) are discussed and HSP70 from F. hepatica is highlighted as a potential host immune modulator for future study.

  19. Changes in erythroid membrane proteins during erythropoietin-mediated terminal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koury, M J; Bondurant, M C; Rana, S S

    1987-12-01

    Membrane and membrane skeleton proteins were examined in erythroid progenitor cells during terminal differentiation. The employed model system of erythroid differentiation was that in which proerythroblasts from mice infected with the anemia-inducing strain of Friend virus differentiate in vitro in response to erythropoietin (EP). With this system, developmentally homogeneous populations of cells can be examined morphologically and biochemically as they progress from proerythroblasts through enucleated reticulocytes. alpha and beta spectrins, the major proteins of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton, are synthesized in the erythroblasts both before and after EP exposure. At all times large portions of the newly synthesized spectrins exist in and are turned over in the cytoplasm. The remaining newly synthesized spectrin is found in a cellular fraction containing total membranes. Pulse-chase experiments show that little of the cytoplasmic spectrins become membrane associated, but that the proportion of newly synthesized spectrin which is membrane associated increases as maturation proceeds. A membrane fraction enriched in plasma membranes has significant differences in the stoichiometry of spectrin accumulation as compared to total cellular membranes. Synthesis of band 3 protein, the anion transporter, is induced only after EP addition to the erythroblasts. All of the newly synthesized band 3 is membrane associated. A two-dimensional gel survey was conducted of newly synthesized proteins in the plasma membrane enriched fraction of the erythroblasts as differentiation proceeded. A majority of the newly synthesized proteins remain in the same proportion to each other during maturation; however, a few newly synthesized proteins greatly increase following EP induction while others decrease markedly. Of the radiolabeled proteins observed in two dimensional gels, only the spectrins, band 3 and actin become major proteins of the mature erythrocyte membrane. Examination of

  20. Malate synthase a membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.D.; Turley, R.B.; Hermerath, C.A.; Carrapico, F.; Trelease, R.N.

    1987-04-01

    Malate synthase (MS) is generally regarded as a peripheral membrane protein, and believed by some to be ontogenetically associated with ER. However, immuno- and cyto-chemical in situ localizations show MS throughout the matrix of cotton (and cucumber) glyoxysomes, not specifically near their boundary membranes, nor in ER. Only a maximum of 50% MS can be solubilized from cotton glyoxysomes with 1% Triton X-100, 2mM Zwittergen 14, or 10mM DOC +/- salts. Cotton MS does not incorporate /sup 3/H-glucosamine in vivo, nor does it react with Con A on columns or blots. Cotton MS banded with ER in sucrose gradients (20-40%) in Tricine after 3h, but not after 22h in Tricine or Hepes, or after 3h in Hepes or K-phosphate. Collectively the authors data are inconsistent with physiologically meaningful MS-membrane associations in ER or glyoxysomes. It appears that experimentally-induced aggregates of MS migrate in ER gradients and occur in isolated glyoxysomes. These data indicate that ER is not involved in synthesis or modification of cottonseed MS prior to its import into the glyoxysomal matrix.

  1. Solubilization of a membrane protein by combinatorial supercharging.

    PubMed

    Hajduczki, Agnes; Majumdar, Sudipta; Fricke, Marie; Brown, Isola A M; Weiss, Gregory A

    2011-04-15

    Hydrophobic and aggregation-prone, membrane proteins often prove too insoluble for conventional in vitro biochemical studies. To engineer soluble variants of human caveolin-1, a phage-displayed library of caveolin variants targeted the hydrophobic intramembrane domain with substitutions to charged residues. Anti-selections for insolubility removed hydrophobic variants, and positive selections for binding to the known caveolin ligand HIV gp41 isolated functional, folded variants. Assays with several caveolin binding partners demonstrated the successful folding and functionality by a solubilized, full-length caveolin variant selected from the library. This caveolin variant allowed assay of the direct interaction between caveolin and cavin. Clustered along one face of a putative helix, the solubilizing mutations suggest a structural model for the intramembrane domain of caveolin. The approach provides a potentially general method for solubilization and engineering of membrane-associated proteins by phage display.

  2. Identification of leukemia cell surface proteins in clams

    SciTech Connect

    Reinisch, C.L.; Smolowitz, R.; Miosky, D. Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA )

    1988-09-01

    Soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria, develop leukemias which, in the advanced stages of disease, kill the host. The authors laboratory has developed an extensive panel of murine monoclonal antibodies to leukemia cells of Mya, and has used these powerful reagents to diagnose the disease with extreme accuracy. They have now ascertained that one membrane-associated protein of approximately 200kD is immunodominant. The function of this protein, regulation of its production and potential site of synthesis are being evaluated. Monoclonal antibodies have also permitted the exploration of the mechanism of leukemogensis. They have evaluated the specific staining pattern of one monoclonal antibody, and have concluded that at least one ontogenic source of leukemic cells may be connective tissue cells lining the sinusoids. Whether or not exposure to severely polluted sites such as New Bedford Harbor stimulates the export of immature hemocytes which then become transformed is at least one possibility amenable to testing using the monoclonal reagents.

  3. Effects of Membrane Charge and Order on Membrane Binding of the Retroviral Structural Protein Gag

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Dick, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The retroviral structural protein Gag binds to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM), and many cellular proteins do so as well. We used Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag together with membrane sensors to study the principles governing peripheral protein membrane binding, including electrostatics, specific recognition of phospholipid headgroups, sensitivity to phospholipid acyl chain compositions, preference for membrane order, and protein multimerization. We used an in vitro liposome-pelleting assay to test protein membrane binding properties of Gag, the well-characterized MARCKS peptide, a series of fluorescent electrostatic sensor proteins (mNG-KRn), and the specific phosphatidylserine (PS) binding protein Evectin2. RSV Gag and mNG-KRn bound well to membranes with saturated and unsaturated acyl chains, whereas the MARCKS peptide and Evectin2 preferentially bound to membranes with unsaturated acyl chains. To further discriminate whether the primary driving force for Gag membrane binding is electrostatic interactions or preference for membrane order, we measured protein binding to giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) containing the same PS concentration in both disordered (Ld) and ordered (Lo) phases. RSV Gag and mNG-KRn membrane association followed membrane charge, independent of membrane order. Consistent with pelleting data, the MARCKS peptide showed preference for the Ld domain. Surprisingly, the PS sensor Evectin2 bound to the PS-rich Ld domain with 10-fold greater affinity than to the PS-rich Lo domain. In summary, we found that RSV Gag shows no preference for membrane order, while proteins with reported membrane-penetrating domains show preference for disordered membranes. IMPORTANCE Retroviral particles assemble on the PM and bud from infected cells. Our understanding of how Gag interacts with the PM and how different membrane properties contribute to overall Gag assembly is incomplete. This study examined how membrane charge and membrane order

  4. Photoinitiated destruction of composite porphyrin-protein polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Gregory P; Jimbo, Masaya; Swift, Joe; Therien, Michael J; Hammer, Daniel A; Dmochowski, Ivan J

    2009-03-25

    Bilayer vesicles assembled from amphiphilic diblock copolymers (polymersomes) adopt asymmetric structures when loaded with moderate concentrations (>or=1.5 mg/mL) of horse spleen ferritin (HSF) or its iron-free variant (HSAF). Incorporation of both ferritin and a zinc porphyrin dimer (PZn(2)) generates photoresponsive vesicles: irradiation with focused light of near-UV to near-IR wavelengths induces polymersome deformation and destruction on the minute time scale. To investigate this phenomenon, polymersomes were loaded with dye-labeled ferritin and PZn(2). Confocal microscopy identified BODIPY-FL-labeled ferritin at the membrane, whereas Cy3-labeled ferritin was found both at the membrane and throughout the aqueous core. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments confirmed that Cy3- and BODIPY-FL-labeled ferritin and PZn(2) exhibited slow diffusion at the membrane, consistent with membrane association. Furthermore, micropipette aspiration experiments revealed increased elastic moduli and altered bending rigidity in vesicles incorporating HSAF. Finally, a small molecule (biocytin) was encapsulated within the ferritin-PZn(2) vesicles and released upon exposure to light. These data indicate synergy between ferritin, whose membrane association lowers the barrier to deformation, and PZn(2), which embeds in the membrane, harvests light energy and produces local heating that may lead to membrane budding. This appears to be a general protein-polymer membrane phenomenon, as replacement of ferritin with bovine serum albumin or equine skeletal myoglobin resulted in vesicles with similar asymmetric morphology and photosensitivity.

  5. Membranes, peptides, and disease: unraveling the mechanisms of viral proteins with solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Matthew T; Yu, Tsyr-Yan

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between peptides and lipid bilayers drives crucial biological processes. For example, a critical step in the replication cycle of enveloped viruses is the fusion of the viral membrane and host cell endosomal membrane, and these fusion events are controlled by viral fusion peptides. Thus such membrane-interacting peptides are of considerable interest as potential pharmacological targets. Deeper insight is needed into the mechanisms by which fusion peptides and other viral peptides modulate their surrounding membrane environment, and also how the particular membrane environment modulates the structure and activity of these peptides. An important step toward understanding these processes is to characterize the structure of viral peptides in environments that are as biologically relevant as possible. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) is uniquely well suited to provide atomic level information on the structure and dynamics of both membrane-associated peptides as well as the lipid bilayer itself; further ssNMR can delineate the contribution of specific membrane components, such as cholesterol, or changing cellular conditions, such as a decrease in pH on membrane-associating peptides. This paper highlights recent advances in the study of three types of membrane associated viral peptides by ssNMR to illustrate the more general power of ssNMR in addressing important biological questions involving membrane proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The importance of lipid modified proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A

    2015-01-01

    Membranes have long been known to act as more than physical barriers within and between plant cells. Trafficking of membrane proteins, signalling from and across membranes, organisation of membranes and transport through membranes are all essential processes for plant cellular function. These processes rely on a myriad array of proteins regulated in a variety of manners and are frequently required to be directly associated with membranes. For integral membrane proteins, the mode of membrane association is readily apparent, but many peripherally associated membrane proteins are outwardly soluble proteins. In these cases the proteins are frequently modified by the addition of lipids allowing direct interaction with the hydrophobic core of membranes. These modifications include N-myristoylation, S-acylation (palmitoylation), prenylation and GPI anchors but until recently little was truly known about their function in plants. New data suggest that these modifications are able to act as more than just membrane anchors, and dynamic S-acylation in particular is emerging as a means of regulating protein function in a similar manner to phosphorylation. This review discusses how these modifications occur, their impact on protein function, how they are regulated, recent advances in the field and technical approaches for studying these modifications.

  7. Proteomic and genetic analyses demonstrate that Plasmodium berghei blood stages export a large and diverse repertoire of proteins.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Erica M; Braks, Joanna A; Fonager, Jannik; Klop, Onny; Aime, Elena; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Otto, Thomas D; Berriman, Matt; Hiss, Jan A; Thomas, Alan W; Mann, Matthias; Janse, Chris J; Kocken, Clemens H M; Franke-Fayard, Blandine

    2013-02-01

    Malaria parasites actively remodel the infected red blood cell (irbc) by exporting proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. The human parasite Plasmodium falciparum exports particularly large numbers of proteins, including proteins that establish a vesicular network allowing the trafficking of proteins onto the surface of irbcs that are responsible for tissue sequestration. Like P. falciparum, the rodent parasite P. berghei ANKA sequesters via irbc interactions with the host receptor CD36. We have applied proteomic, genomic, and reverse-genetic approaches to identify P. berghei proteins potentially involved in the transport of proteins to the irbc surface. A comparative proteomics analysis of P. berghei non-sequestering and sequestering parasites was used to determine changes in the irbc membrane associated with sequestration. Subsequent tagging experiments identified 13 proteins (Plasmodium export element (PEXEL)-positive as well as PEXEL-negative) that are exported into the irbc cytoplasm and have distinct localization patterns: a dispersed and/or patchy distribution, a punctate vesicle-like pattern in the cytoplasm, or a distinct location at the irbc membrane. Members of the PEXEL-negative BIR and PEXEL-positive Pb-fam-3 show a dispersed localization in the irbc cytoplasm, but not at the irbc surface. Two of the identified exported proteins are transported to the irbc membrane and were named erythrocyte membrane associated proteins. EMAP1 is a member of the PEXEL-negative Pb-fam-1 family, and EMAP2 is a PEXEL-positive protein encoded by a single copy gene; neither protein plays a direct role in sequestration. Our observations clearly indicate that P. berghei traffics a diverse range of proteins to different cellular locations via mechanisms that are analogous to those employed by P. falciparum. This information can be exploited to generate transgenic humanized rodent P. berghei parasites expressing chimeric P. berghei/P. falciparum proteins on the surface of

  8. Heat Shock Protein translocation induced by membrane fluidization increases tumor-cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Nina C; Ireland, H Elyse; Smith, Carly M; Hoyle, Christine F; Williams, John H H

    2010-10-28

    Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains a challenge due to the frequency of drug resistance amongst patients. Improving the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents while reducing the expression of anti-apoptotic Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) within the cancer cells may facilitate in overcoming this drug resistance. We demonstrate for the first time that sub-lethal doses of chemotherapeutic agents can be combined with membrane fluidizing treatments to produce a significant increase in drug efficacy and apoptosis in vitro. We show that fluidizers result in a transient decrease in intracellular HSPs, resulting in increased tumor-cell sensitivity and a membrane-associated induction of HSP gene expression.

  9. An experimentally based computer search identifies unstructured membrane-binding sites in proteins: application to class I myosins, PAKS, and CARMIL.

    PubMed

    Brzeska, Hanna; Guag, Jake; Remmert, Kirsten; Chacko, Susan; Korn, Edward D

    2010-02-19

    Programs exist for searching protein sequences for potential membrane-penetrating segments (hydrophobic regions) and for lipid-binding sites with highly defined tertiary structures, such as PH, FERM, C2, ENTH, and other domains. However, a rapidly growing number of membrane-associated proteins (including cytoskeletal proteins, kinases, GTP-binding proteins, and their effectors) bind lipids through less structured regions. Here, we describe the development and testing of a simple computer search program that identifies unstructured potential membrane-binding sites. Initially, we found that both basic and hydrophobic amino acids, irrespective of sequence, contribute to the binding to acidic phospholipid vesicles of synthetic peptides that correspond to the putative membrane-binding domains of Acanthamoeba class I myosins. Based on these results, we modified a hydrophobicity scale giving Arg- and Lys-positive, rather than negative, values. Using this basic and hydrophobic scale with a standard search algorithm, we successfully identified previously determined unstructured membrane-binding sites in all 16 proteins tested. Importantly, basic and hydrophobic searches identified previously unknown potential membrane-binding sites in class I myosins, PAKs and CARMIL (capping protein, Arp2/3, myosin I linker; a membrane-associated cytoskeletal scaffold protein), and synthetic peptides and protein domains containing these newly identified sites bound to acidic phospholipids in vitro.

  10. Production of the refolded oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA) encoded by the citrus pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Citri.

    PubMed

    Balan, A; Ferreira, R C C; Ferreira, L C S

    2008-02-01

    The oligopeptide-binding protein, OppA, binds and ushers oligopeptide substrates to the membrane-associated oligopeptide permease (Opp), a multi-component ABC-type transporter involved in the uptake of oligopeptides expressed by several bacterial species. In the present study, we report the cloning, purification, refolding and conformational analysis of a recombinant OppA protein derived from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (X. citri), the etiological agent of citrus canker. The oppA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain under optimized inducing conditions and the recombinant protein remained largely insoluble. Solubilization was achieved following refolding of the denatured protein. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that the recombinant OppA protein preserved conformational features of orthologs expressed by other bacterial species. The refolded recombinant OppA represents a useful tool for structural and functional analyses of the X. citri protein.

  11. Sendai virus assembly: M protein binds to viral glycoproteins in transit through the secretory pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, C M; McQueen, N L; Nayak, D P

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the relative ability of Sendai virus M (matrix) protein to associate with membranes containing viral glycoproteins at three distinct stages of the exocytic pathway prior to cell surface appearance. By the use of selective low-temperature incubations or the ionophore monensin, the transport of newly synthesized viral glycoproteins was restricted to either the pre-Golgi intermediate compartment (by incubation at 15 degrees C), the medial Golgi (in the presence of monensin), or the trans-Golgi network (by incubation at 20 degrees C). All three of these treatments resulted in a marked accumulation of the M protein on perinuclear Golgi-like membranes which in each case directly reflected the distribution of the viral F protein. Subsequent redistribution of the F protein to the plasma membrane by removal of the low-temperature (20 degrees C) block resulted in a concomitant redistribution of the M protein, thus implying association of the two components during intracellular transit. The extent of M protein-glycoprotein association was further examined by cell fractionation studies performed under each of the three restrictive conditions. Following equilibrium sedimentation of membranes derived from monensin-treated cells, approximately 40% of the recovered M protein was found to cofractionate with membranes containing the viral glycoproteins. Also, by flotation analyses, a comparable subpopulation of M protein was found to be membrane associated whether viral glycoproteins were restricted to the trans-Golgi network, the medial Golgi, or the pre-Golgi intermediate compartment. Additionally, transient expression of M protein alone from cloned cDNA showed that neither membrane association nor Golgi localization occurs in the absence of Sendai virus glycoproteins. Images PMID:8380460

  12. GIPC, a PDZ domain containing protein, interacts specifically with the C terminus of RGS-GAIP

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, Luc; Lou, Xiaojing; Zhao, Grace; Zheng, Bin; Farquhar, Marilyn Gist

    1998-01-01

    We have identified a mammalian protein called GIPC (for GAIP interacting protein, C terminus), which has a central PDZ domain and a C-terminal acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. The PDZ domain of GIPC specifically interacts with RGS-GAIP, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Gαi subunits recently localized on clathrin-coated vesicles. Analysis of deletion mutants indicated that the PDZ domain of GIPC specifically interacts with the C terminus of GAIP (11 amino acids) in the yeast two-hybrid system and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-GIPC pull-down assays, but GIPC does not interact with other members of the RGS (regulators of G protein signaling) family tested. This finding is in keeping with the fact that the C terminus of GAIP is unique and possesses a modified C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (SEA). By immunoblotting of membrane fractions prepared from HeLa cells, we found that there are two pools of GIPC–a soluble or cytosolic pool (70%) and a membrane-associated pool (30%). By immunofluorescence, endogenous and GFP-tagged GIPC show both a diffuse and punctate cytoplasmic distribution in HeLa cells reflecting, respectively, the existence of soluble and membrane-associated pools. By immunoelectron microscopy the membrane pool of GIPC is associated with clusters of vesicles located near the plasma membrane. These data provide direct evidence that the C terminus of a RGS protein is involved in interactions specific for a given RGS protein and implicates GAIP in regulation of additional functions besides its GAP activity. The location of GIPC together with its binding to GAIP suggest that GAIP and GIPC may be components of a G protein-coupled signaling complex involved in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. The presence of an ACP domain suggests a putative function for GIPC in the acylation of vesicle-bound proteins. PMID:9770488

  13. GIPC, a PDZ domain containing protein, interacts specifically with the C terminus of RGS-GAIP.

    PubMed

    De Vries, L; Lou, X; Zhao, G; Zheng, B; Farquhar, M G

    1998-10-13

    We have identified a mammalian protein called GIPC (for GAIP interacting protein, C terminus), which has a central PDZ domain and a C-terminal acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. The PDZ domain of GIPC specifically interacts with RGS-GAIP, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Galphai subunits recently localized on clathrin-coated vesicles. Analysis of deletion mutants indicated that the PDZ domain of GIPC specifically interacts with the C terminus of GAIP (11 amino acids) in the yeast two-hybrid system and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-GIPC pull-down assays, but GIPC does not interact with other members of the RGS (regulators of G protein signaling) family tested. This finding is in keeping with the fact that the C terminus of GAIP is unique and possesses a modified C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (SEA). By immunoblotting of membrane fractions prepared from HeLa cells, we found that there are two pools of GIPC-a soluble or cytosolic pool (70%) and a membrane-associated pool (30%). By immunofluorescence, endogenous and GFP-tagged GIPC show both a diffuse and punctate cytoplasmic distribution in HeLa cells reflecting, respectively, the existence of soluble and membrane-associated pools. By immunoelectron microscopy the membrane pool of GIPC is associated with clusters of vesicles located near the plasma membrane. These data provide direct evidence that the C terminus of a RGS protein is involved in interactions specific for a given RGS protein and implicates GAIP in regulation of additional functions besides its GAP activity. The location of GIPC together with its binding to GAIP suggest that GAIP and GIPC may be components of a G protein-coupled signaling complex involved in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. The presence of an ACP domain suggests a putative function for GIPC in the acylation of vesicle-bound proteins.

  14. Ozone-Induced Alterations in the Accumulation of Newly Synthesized Proteins in Leaves of Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Pino, M. E.; Mudd, J. B.; Bailey-Serres, J.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the response of leaves of 3-week-old maize (Zea mays L.) to short-term (5 h) fumigation with O3-enriched air (0, 0.12, 0.24, or 0.36 [mu]L/L). Older leaves and leaf tissue developed more severe visible damage at higher external O3 concentrations. To investigate the immediate effect of O3 exposure on the accumulation of newly synthesized leaf proteins, leaves were labeled with [35S]methionine after 2 h and fumigated for an additional 3 h. O3-induced alterations of leaf proteins were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. There was a significant decrease in [35S]methionine incorporation into protein at the highest O3 concentration. Developmental differences in accumulation of de novo-synthesized leaf proteins were observed when the leaf tip, middle, and basal sections were labeled under 0 [mu]L/L O3, and additional changes were apparent upon exposure to increasing O3 concentrations. Changes in leaf protein synthesis were observed in the absence of visible leaf injury. Subcellular fractionation revealed O3-induced alterations in soluble and membrane-associated proteins. A number of thylakoid membrane-associated proteins showed specific increases in response to O3 fumigation. In contrast, the synthesis of a 32-kD polypeptide associated with thylakoid membranes was reduced in response to O3 fumigation in parallel with reduced incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein. Immunoprecipitation identified this polypeptide as the D1 protein of photosystem II. A reduction in the accumulation of newly synthesized D1 could have consequences for the efficiency of photosynthesis and other cellular processes. PMID:12228510

  15. Processing and intracellular localization of rice stripe virus Pc2 protein in insect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shuling; Zhang, Gaozhan; Dai, Xuejuan; Hou, Yanling; Li, Min; Liang, Jiansheng; Liang, Changyong

    2012-08-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) belongs to the genus Tenuivirus and its genome consists of four single-stranded RNAs encoding seven proteins. Here, we have analyzed the processing and membrane association of Pc2 encoded by vcRNA2 in insect cells. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was fused to the Pc2 and used for the detection of Pc2 fusion proteins. The results showed that Pc2 was cleaved to produce two proteins named Pc2-N and Pc2-C. When expressed alone, either Pc2-N or Pc2-C could transport to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes independently. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that Pc2 contained three ER-targeting domains. The results led us to propose a model for the topology of the Pc2 in which an internal signal peptide immediately followed a cleavage site, and two transmembrane regions are contained.

  16. Capillary high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of proteins from affinity-purified plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingxin; Zhang, Wei; White, Michael A; Zhao, Yingming

    2003-08-01

    Proteomics analysis of plasma membranes is a potentially powerful strategy for the discovery of proteins involved in membrane remodeling under diverse cellular environments and identification of disease-specific membrane markers. A key factor for successful analysis is the preparation of plasma membrane fractions with low contamination from subcellular organelles. Here we report the characterization of plasma membrane prepared by an affinity-purification method, which involves biotinylation of cell-surface proteins and subsequent affinity enrichment with strepavidin beads. Western blotting analysis showed this method was able to achieve a 1600-fold relative enrichment of plasma membrane versus mitochondria and a 400-fold relative enrichment versus endoplasmic reticulum, two major contaminants in plasma membrane fractions prepared by conventional ultracentrifugation methods. Capillary-HPLC/MS analysis of 30 microg of affinity-purified plasma membrane proteins led to the identification of 918 unique proteins, which include 16.4% integral plasma membrane proteins and 45.5% cytosol proteins (including 8.6% membrane-associated proteins). Notable among the identified membrane proteins include 30 members of ras superfamily, receptors (e.g., EGF receptor, integrins), and signaling molecules. The low number of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria proteins (approximately 3.3% of the total) suggests the plasma membrane preparation has minimum contamination from these organelles. Given the importance of integral membrane proteins for drug design and membrane-associated proteins in the regulation cellular behaviors, the described approach will help expedite the characterization of plasma membrane subproteomes, identify signaling molecules, and discover therapeutic membrane-protein targets in diseases.

  17. Inhibition of protein ubiquitination by paraquat and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium impairs ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Anandhan, Annadurai; Bradley, Erin; Bohovych, Iryna; Yarabe, Bo; de Jong, Annemieke; Ovaa, Huib; Zhou, You; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Franco, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic inclusions of protein aggregates in dopaminergic cells (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Ubiquitin (Ub), alpha [α]-synuclein, p62/sequestosome 1 and oxidized proteins are major components of Lewy bodies. However, the mechanisms involved in the impairment of misfolded/oxidized protein degradation pathways in PD are still unclear. PD is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental pesticide exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of the pesticide paraquat (PQ) and the mitochondrial toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) on Ub-dependent protein degradation pathways. No increase in the accumulation of Ub-bound proteins or aggregates was observed in dopaminergic cells (SK-N-SH) treated with PQ or MPP+, or in mice chronically exposed to PQ. PQ decreased Ub protein content, but not its mRNA transcription. Protein synthesis inhibition with cycloheximide depleted Ub levels and potentiated PQ–induced cell death. Inhibition of proteasomal activity by PQ was found to be a late event in cell death progression, and had no effect on either the toxicity of MPP+ or PQ, or the accumulation of oxidized sulfenylated, sulfonylated (DJ-1/PARK7 and peroxiredoxins) and carbonylated proteins induced by PQ. PQ- and MPP+-induced Ub protein depletion prompted the dimerization/inactivation of the Ub-binding protein p62 that regulates the clearance of ubiquitinated proteins by autophagic. We confirmed that PQ and MPP+ impaired autophagy flux, and that the blockage of autophagy by the overexpression of a dominant-negative form of the autophagy protein 5 (dnAtg5) stimulated their toxicity, but there was no additional effect upon inhibition of the proteasome. PQ induced an increase in the accumulation of α-synuclein in dopaminergic cells and membrane associated foci in yeast cells. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of protein ubiquitination by PQ and MPP+ is involved in the dysfunction of Ub-dependent protein

  18. Inhibition of Protein Ubiquitination by Paraquat and 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Impairs Ubiquitin-Dependent Protein Degradation Pathways.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Anandhan, Annadurai; Bradley, Erin; Bohovych, Iryna; Yarabe, Bo; de Jong, Annemieke; Ovaa, Huib; Zhou, You; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Franco, Rodrigo

    2016-10-01

    Intracytoplasmic inclusions of protein aggregates in dopaminergic cells (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (