Science.gov

Sample records for 137cs activity concentrations

  1. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration in marine sediments at Amvrakikos Gulf, western of Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Patiris, D L; Fillis-Tsirakis, E; Kapsimalis, V; Pilakouta, M; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of (137)Cs migration in sediment column taking into account the sedimentation rate in the Amvrakikos Gulf, at the western part of Greece. Marine core sediments were collected and the measurements were performed using the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method. The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration, as part of anthropogenic marine radioactivity, provided averaged sedimentation rate by identifying the depths of activity concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident and the nuclear tests signals. Furthermore, (137)Cs measurements were reproduced using the proposed one-dimensional diffusion-advection model which provides mainly as an output, the sedimentation rate and the average diffusivity of (137)Cs in the sediment column. The proposed model estimates the temporal variation of (137)Cs activity concentration from 1987 (one year after the Chernobyl accident) till today (2014).

  2. Temporal variations of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations and the 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio in marine brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria longissima, collected in coastal areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takami; Fujimoto, Ken; Kasai, Hiromi; Yamada, Haruya; Nishiuchi, Kou

    2010-05-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclides, 90Sr and 137Cs, were measured in two marine algal species, wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) and edible kelp (Laminaria longissima), collected in four coastal areas of Japan during 1998-2008. Although 90Sr and 137Cs could be detected at all sampling sites, the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were at low levels and those in some samples were below the detection limit. These low concentrations and the small variation of both concentrations and the 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio indicate that the source of 90Sr and 137Cs detected in this study originated from the global fallout deposition following atmospheric nuclear-bomb tests in the past. There were no significant differences in both concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in wakame seaweed among three sampling sites. Although wakame seaweed is extensively distributed in southern and central Japan, it does not occur in northern areas and so edible kelp was monitored. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in edible kelp were significantly different from those in wakame seaweed in some sampling sites. These differences could be due to the difference in the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the surrounding seawater or the difference in species. The combined data with data from the previous report and the preexisting database showed that wakame seaweed incorporated 137Cs through a different pathway from that of 90Sr. The combined data also suggested that wakame seaweed responded differently to the source of 137Cs.

  3. 137Cs activity concentration in mosses in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Belvedere, A.; D'Agostino, M.; Marguccio, S.

    2017-05-01

    Many studies carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 showed that mosses are suitable bioindicators of the radioactive fall-out, given their long life expectancy. 137Cs activity concentration was measured through HPGe gamma spectrometry in different mosses (Hypnum Cupressiforme, Hypnum Andoi, Homalothecium Sericeum, Philonotis Fontana), collected, in 2008 and 2015, from four sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Experimental specific activities allowed us to determine the effective and the biological half-time of 137Cs for the investigated plants. The effective half-time was found in the range from (4.2 ± 1.1) to (7.4 ± 1.8) years; the biological half-time varied from (4.9 ± 1.3) to (9.9 ± 2.4) years. Data reported in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk of the studied area and can be further used for a radiological mapping.

  4. Evaluation of the activity concentrations of (137) Cs and (40)K in some Chanterelle mushrooms from Poland and China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zalewska, Tamara; Apanel, Anna; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Kluza, Karolina

    2016-10-01

    The activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K in mushrooms of the genus Cantharellus (Cantharellus cibarius, Cantharellus tubaeformis, and Cantharellus minor) collected across Poland from 1997 to 2013 and in Yunnan province of China in 2013 were determined using gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector, respectively. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in C. cibarius from the places in Poland varied from 64 ± 3 to 1600 ± 47 Bq kg(-1) db in 1997-2004 and 4.2 ± 1.2 to 1400 ± 15 Bq kg(-1) db in 2006-2013. In the Chinese Cantharellus mushrooms, the activity level of (137)Cs was very low, i.e., at a range <1.2 to 1.2 ± 0.6 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. The natural radionuclide (40)K was at similar activity level in C. cibarius collected across Poland and in China, and fluctuations in levels of (40)K over the years and locations in Poland were small. In C. cibarius from diverse sites in Poland, content of (137)Cs highly fluctuated in 1998-2013 but no clear downward trend was visible (Fig. 1). Published activity levels of (137)Cs in fruitbodies of Cantharellus such Cantharellus californicus, Cantharellus cascadensis, C. cibarius, Cantharellus cinnabarius, Cantharellus formosus, Cantharellus iuteocomus, Cantharellus lutescens, Cantharellus minor, Cantharellus pallens [current name C. cibarius], Cantharellus subalbidus, Cantharellus subpruinosus, and C. tubaeformis collected worldwide were compared. In the Polish cuisine, mushrooms of the genus Cantharellus are blanched before frying or pickling, and this kind of treatment, and additionally also pickling, both very efficiently remove alkali elements (and radioactivity from (134/137)Cs) from flesh of the species.

  5. Effects of bark washing and epiphytic moss on (137)Cs activity concentration in bark and stemflow in Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Sato, Mamoru; Takase, Tsugiko; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko

    2017-07-25

    The effects of bark washing, and of epiphytic moss growing on the bark surfaces, on the (137)Cs activity concentrations in bark and stemflow samples were evaluated at two Japanese persimmon orchards located in Fukushima City and Date City, both approximately 60-65 km northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The means of (137)Cs in stemflow captured by 1 g of sphagnum placed on the main trunks of washed and unwashed trees, and on sites with moss and with no moss growing on bark of the non-washed trees in Date City, were 0.37 Bq, 1.08Bq, 0.77 Bq and 0.52 Bq respectively. The (137)Cs was significantly lower in the washed bark and in the absence of moss at p = 0.00031 and p = 0.0443 by t-test respectively. The (137)Cs in directly-collected stemflow on the main trunks was significantly higher for the unwashed tree at 6.0 Bq L(-1) compared with the washed tree at 1.1 Bq L(-1) (p = 0.017 by Tukey's test). The extraction rate of dissolved (137)Cs with deionized water was 7.3% even after stirring for 40 h. These results indicate that the moss acts as reservoir of (137)Cs, and that bark-washing decontamination can reduce the additional (137)Cs supply from moss in subsequent years following the radioactive fallout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fallout volume and litter type affect (137)Cs concentration difference in litter between forest and stream environments.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N

    2016-11-01

    It is important to understand the changes in the (137)Cs concentration in litter through leaching when considering that (137)Cs is transferred from basal food resources to animals in forested streams. We found that the difference of (137)Cs activity concentration in litter between forest and stream was associated with both litter type and (137)Cs fallout volume around Fukushima, Japan. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in the litter of evergreen conifers tended to be greater than those in the litter of broad-leaved deciduous trees because of the absence of deciduous leaves during the fallout period in March 2011. Moreover, (137)Cs activity concentrations in forest litter were greater with respect to the (137)Cs fallout volume. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in stream litter were much lower than those in forest litter when those in forest litter were higher. The (137)Cs leaching patterns indicated that the differences in (137)Cs activity concentration between forest and stream litter could change with changes in both fallout volume and litter type. Because litter is an important basal food resource in the food webs of both forests and streams, the (137)Cs concentration gradient reflects to possible (137)Cs transfer from lower to higher trophic animals. Our findings will improve our understanding of the spatial heterogeneity and variability of (137)Cs concentrations in animals resident to the contaminated landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction of the (137)Cs activity concentration in the atmospheric surface layer of the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Garger, E K; Kuzmenko, Yu I; Sickinger, S; Tschiersch, J

    2012-08-01

    The time series of the 10-day average (137)Cs volumetric activity concentration in the lower atmosphere measured from 1987 to 1991 in the town of Pripyat, close to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, was used to construct a model to predict the airborne activity concentration inside the 30-km exclusion zone. For that purpose, individual components of the observed time series were separated by regression analysis and the Group Method of Data Handling. The measured data in Pripyat were divided in two periods. The long-term prediction by the model established using the measured data of the first period, has been validated with the data in the second period with good agreement. The behaviour of the model parameters depending on the length of the periods was also analysed, and the first period of 4.5 y was shown as sufficient for estimating the parameters. Further increase in the length will not significantly enhance the model parameters and the predictive power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachubik, J.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008-2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  9. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  10. The (137)Cs activity concentration of suspended and dissolved fractions in irrigation waters collected from the 80 km zone around TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Nihira, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Takeda, Satoru

    2017-08-11

    Fifty-four samples of irrigation water were collected in 2014 from agricultural ponds, rivers, and dams within the 80 km zone around TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). The samples were filtered with a 0.45 μm pore-size membrane filter to produce suspended and dissolved fractions. The (137)Cs activity concentration of the suspended fraction varied from 1.5 to 300 Bq g(-1) dry weight and was significantly higher than that in the soil around each sampling site. The range of (137)Cs activity concentrations in the dissolved fraction varied over three orders of magnitude at 0.0075-6.7 Bq l(-1), which was a larger range than that of the suspended fraction; the higher values for samples were from within the 20 km zone. In the dissolved fraction 87 ± 9% of the (137)Cs (n = 37) was in a monovalent cationic form (Cs(+)) and therefore potentially mobile. The distribution coefficient (Kd) ranged from 4100 to 2,100,000; the geometric mean value (110,000) was higher than that reported by the IAEA (2010). The geometric mean Kd of samples collected from the 20 km zone was 61,000 (n = 27), which was significantly lower than that collected from 20 to 80 km zone (200,000, n = 27). The Kd-value was negative correlated with the concentration of stable (133)Cs and the electric conductivity in the dissolved fraction. This shows relatively higher mobility of radiocaesium in irrigation waters may occur when there are higher contents of cations present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. (137)Cs concentrations in Atlantic and western Antarctic surface waters: results of the 7th Ukrainian Antarctic Expedition, 2002.

    PubMed

    Gulin, S B; Stokozov, N A

    2005-01-01

    The latitudinal distribution of (137)Cs in the Atlantic--western Antarctic surface waters was studied during the 7th Ukrainian Antarctic Expedition in January--May 2002. The (137)Cs concentrations have also been measured in the upper ice of the coastal glacier Woozle Hill located near the Ukrainian Antarctic station "Akademik Vernadsky" (western Antarctica, 65 degrees 15' S-64 degrees 16' W). Comparison of these data with results of previous same-route expeditions SWEDARP (Swedish Antarctic Research Expedition, 1988/1989) and the French R/V "Jeanne d'Arc" (1992/1993), has shown practically parallel changes of (137)Cs surface concentrations between 40 degrees N and 20 degrees S, pointing to decrease of (137)Cs radioactivity at these latitudes with an apparent half-life of 10--15 years (12.5+/-2.1 years on average). This suggests that decrease of (137)Cs surface concentration within this latitude band is controlled, besides the radioactive decay of (137)Cs (half-life=30 years), by vertical mixing of the upper water masses. South of 20 degrees S, the (137)Cs concentrations in surface water have decreased more rapidly because of the influence of the less contaminated Antarctic waters. At 50--60 degrees S and near the Antarctic coast, the (137)Cs activity in 2002 was similar to those measured during the SWEDARP and "Jeanne d'Arc" expeditions, suggesting an additional input of (137)Cs to these waters from the melted ice from the adjacent glaciers.

  12. (137)Cs and plutonium isotopes accumulation/retention in bottom sediments and soil in Lithuania: A case study of the activity concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides and their provenance before the start of operation of the Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant (NPP).

    PubMed

    Marčiulionienė, D; Lukšienė, B; Montvydienė, D; Jefanova, O; Mažeika, J; Taraškevičius, R; Stakėnienė, R; Petrošius, R; Maceika, E; Tarasiuk, N; Žukauskaitė, Z; Kazakevičiūtė, L; Volkova, M

    2017-09-13

    Knowledge of the background activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides before the start of operations of the new nuclear facilities in Belarus is of great value worldwide. Inland water bodies in Lithuania (specifically the Neris River, the Nemunas River and the Curonian Lagoon) are near the site of the Belarusian NPP under construction and, for this reason, sediments and flooded soils from these sensitive areas were analysed for radiocesium and plutonium isotopes (macrophytes were analysed only for (137)Cs) in 2011-2012. The (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu activity concentrations in bottom sediments from the Nemunas River, sampled in 1995-1996 and re-calculated to the year 2016, were compared with those of 2011-2012. The obtained activity of (137)Cs in bottom sediments of the Nemunas River and Curonian Lagoon varied from 1 Bq/kg to 47.0 Bq/kg. The activity of (137)Cs in the tested soils ranged from 5.3 B g/kg to 32.9 Bq/kg. The (239+240)Pu activity in bottom sediments of the studied sampling sites varied between 0.016 and 0.34 Bq/kg and in flooded soils from 0.064 to 0.55 Bq/kg. The (238)Pu activity values were very low or lower than the detection limit. The activity of (137)Cs in macrophytes varied from values lower than the detection limit to 6 Bq/kg. A strong positive linear correlation for bottom sediments was calculated between: (239+240)Pu and total organic carbon (TOC), r = 0.86, p-value 0.01; (239+240)Pu and silt, r = 0.80, p-value 0.029; (137)Cs and silt, r = 0.78, p-value 0.04; and (137)Cs and TOC, r = 0.85, p-value 0.015. The similar peculiarities of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu accumulation in bottom sediments and flooded soil allow us to assume that (137)Cs can be used as a tracer for (239+240)Pu in the initial stage of searching for radionuclide accumulation zones. A remaining impact of the Chernobyl fallout in average comprised: in the Lower Nemunas River and Curonian Lagoon sediments - 51%, in the Middle Nemunas River -90% and in the

  13. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclides in Turkish medicinal herbs, their ingestion doses and cancer risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmaksız, Aydın; Ağuş, Yusuf

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-two medicinal herb samples, each representing a distinct species, were collected from Turkish markets and measured by the gamma spectrometric method. The activity concentration of 226Ra in medicinal herbs was found in the range of minimum detectable activity (MDA) and 15.1 ± 2.2 Bqkg-1. The activity concentration of 232Th ranged from MDA values to 3.5 ± 0.8 Bqkg-1. The activity concentration of 40K varied between 50.0 ± 16.8 and 1311.5 ± 57.3 Bqkg-1. All 137Cs activity concentrations of medicinal herbs were found to have lower than MDA values. The bone surface dose, lower large intestine and colon doses were found to be 182.9, 18.8 and 18.7 µSvy-1, respectively. The highest committed effective dose originated from the annual ingestion of 1 kg medicinal herb was calculated notably low as 9.0 µSv. The cancer risk of ingestion of medicinal herbs was found to be small enough to be neglected. The selected Turkish medicinal herbs are considered safe for human consumption.

  14. Activity concentration measurements of 137Cs, 90Sr and 40K in a wild food matrix reference material (Wild Berries) CCRI(II)-S8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wätjen, U.; Altzitzogloa, T.; Ceccatelli, A.; Dikmen, H.; Ferreux, L.; Frechou, C.; García, L.; Gündogdu, G.; Kis-Benedek, G.; La Rosa, J.; Luca, A.; Moreno, Y.; Oropesa, P.; Pierre, S.; Schmiedel, M.; Spasova, Y.; Szücs, L.; Vasile, M.; Wershofen, H.; Yücel, Ü.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the CCRI approved a supplementary comparison to be organized by the IRMM as pilot laboratory for the activity concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr and 40K in a matrix material of dried bilberries. The organization of this comparison and the material and measurement methods used are described. The supplementary comparison reference values (SCRV) for each of the three radionuclides are given together with the degrees of equivalence of each participating laboratory with the SCRV for the specific radionuclide. The results of this supplementary comparison allow the participating NMIs/designated institutes to declare calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) for the given radionuclides in a similar type of food matrix, an important aspect given the relatively few supplementary comparisons for activity in matrix materials organized so far. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. 7Be, 210Pb and 137Cs concentrations in cloud water.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, L; Masson, O; Laj, P; Paulat, P; Pichon, J-M; Chausse, P; Gurriaran, R; Sellegri, K

    2014-02-01

    Cloud water was sampled during 8 months, in 2008 and 2009, at the puy de Dome high-altitude atmospheric research station (France). The concentrations of (7)Be and (210)Pb, both naturally occurring radionuclides, and (137)Cs of anthropogenic origin, were determined. Those values are useful for a better knowledge of the aftermath cloud deposition and more generally for wet deposition assessment of radionuclides. This is of primary interest in case of a nuclear accident, especially considering (137)Cs deposition, both for high-altitude locations that are regularly embedded by clouds and also for lowlands where fog can occur. The (7)Be and (210)Pb average activity concentrations in cloud water found were 1.9±0.11 mBq m(-3) air and 140±10 μBq m(-3) air, respectively. For (137)Cs, the average concentration was 0.14±0.02 μBq m(-3) air. This very low-level is representative of the long term post-accidental background level. Indeed, for the studied period, the last accidental (137)Cs release was that of Chernobyl accident, in April 1986. To our knowledge this is the first data about (137)Cs reference level determination in cloud water. The comparison between cloud water and rain water concentrations showed a ratio cloud/rain ranging between 3.4 and 8.1, in agreement with previous studies performed on inorganic compounds. Scavenging efficiencies of aerosols by cloud droplets were also calculated with the additional aerosol concentrations routinely measured at the station and were quite low (0.13-0.40) compared to what has previously been observed for inorganic soluble ions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Concentrations of 137Cs in lynx (Lynx lynx) in relation to prey choice.

    PubMed

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Gaare, Eldar; Kvam, Tor; Hove, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of (137)Cs were determined in 747 lynxes killed in Norway during the period 1986-2001. Highly variable (137)Cs concentrations and aggregated transfer coefficient values were observed, probably caused by variable (137)Cs concentrations in prey and the lynx's extensive home ranges and roaming distances. Adult lynxes had higher (137)Cs concentrations than sub-adults, and lynxes killed in regions with extensive reindeer grazing areas were more contaminated than others. A model with (137)Cs deposition density, the year lynxes were killed, age, and extent of reindeer grazing area accounted for 50% of the variability in observed (137)Cs concentrations. The analyses were equivocal regarding the influence of stomach content on (137)Cs concentrations in lynx muscle, i.e., on the lynx's specialization in prey species. Gender was not significant. Information on caesium retention in lynx and better estimates of deposition densities in lynxes' home ranges are important for further elucidation of factors influencing (137)Cs contamination in lynxes.

  17. Behavior of 137Cs concentrations in the North Pacific in an ocean general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2003-08-01

    We have carried out a first simulation of the spatial distributions and the temporal variations of 137Cs concentrations in the North Pacific in off line calculations by using archived output of an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) developed by the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Artificial radionuclides including 137Cs are introduced into ocean surface due to global fallout originating from the large-scale atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in 1961-1962. The distribution of radioactive deposition used as forcing for this simulation is estimated from global precipitation data and observed values of annual deposition of radionuclides at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) in Japan. 137Cs originating from global fallout have been transported into the ocean interior by advection and diffusion, and the 137Cs concentrations reduced by radioactive decay. We assess the skill of the model calculations by comparing simulated values of 137Cs in seawater with the observed values included in the database compiled by MRI because 137Cs is one of the most useful tracers regarding water motion in the ocean. The vertical and horizontal distributions of the calculated 137Cs concentrations were in good agreement with those of the observed 137Cs concentrations, except in the deep layer.

  18. Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2014-05-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of

  19. Effects of radiocesium inventory on (137)Cs concentrations in river waters of Fukushima, Japan, under base-flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Shinya; Ueda, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the behavior of nuclear accident-derived (137)Cs in river water under base-flow conditions, concentrations of dissolved and particulate (137)Cs were measured at 16 sampling points in seven rivers of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, in 2012 and 2013. The concentration of dissolved (137)Cs was significantly correlated with the mean (137)Cs inventory in the catchment area above each sampling point in both sampling years. These results suggest that the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs under base-flow conditions is primarily determined by the (137)Cs inventory of the catchment area above the sampling point. However, the concentration of particulate (137)Cs did not show a clear relationship with either the mean (137)Cs inventory or the dissolved (137)Cs concentration, thus indicating that particulate and dissolved forms do not effectively interact in rivers. To evaluate the contribution of the (137)Cs inventory within catchment areas, we analyzed relations between the (137)Cs concentration and the mean (137)Cs inventory over the area within certain flow path lengths that were traced along the river and slope above the sampling point. Coefficients of determination for dissolved (137)Cs concentrations were highest for the longest flow path, i.e., the whole catchment area, and lower for shorter flow paths. Coefficients of determination for particulate (137)Cs concentrations were only moderately high for the shortest flow path in 2012, whereas the values were quite low for all flow paths in 2013. These results suggest that dissolved (137)Cs can originate from a larger area of the catchment even under base-flow conditions; however, particulate (137)Cs did not show such behavior. The results also show that under base-flow conditions, dissolved and particulate (137)Cs behave independently during their transport from river catchments to the ocean.

  20. Activity levels of 137Cs and 40K in the skin and the cutaneous organs of a cow.

    PubMed

    Pichl, Elke; Rabitsch, Herbert

    2003-08-01

    We have performed an extensive study to determine the activity distributions of radiocesium (137Cs) and of the radioisotope 40K of potassium in the whole body of a cow. ICRP assumes that cesium and potassium are distributed homogeneously throughout the whole body of an organism. The current investigation measured concentrations of 137Cs and 40K in components of the skin, horns, and hooves of a cow. Activity levels of 137Cs were caused by the long-term ingestion following the Chernobyl fallout, whereas the naturally occurring potassium (40K) is an essential part of cow's normal diet. The cow was born at the time of the fallout following the Chernobyl accident and had ingested heavily contaminated forage during its entire lifetime. Activities of 137Cs and 40K were determined simultaneously by gamma spectrometry. All activities are related to the day of slaughter and include also corrections for self attenuation of photons caused by the different densities of the samples. Radionuclide concentrations in samples were corrected for moisture losses incurred during freezing and sample preparation. Surface contamination on the skin was estimated by rinsing it in heated water followed by removal of the epidermis and hair. In comparison with the activities of the components of the skin we observed a considerable amount of external contamination on the surface of the skin. But with respect to whole body countings of the animal this amount of external contamination appears to be negligible. It was found that activity ratios of 137Cs to 40K are greater than 1 in all measured components. The average activity concentrations of 137Cs and 40K in the common integument are 23.3 Bq kg(-1) and 13.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The highest activity concentrations of 137Cs and 40K were measured in clean hair and hypodermis. Despite being its largest organ, the cow's skin contains probably less than 1% of the animal's whole body 137Cs activity.

  1. Activities and geochronology of (137)Cs in lake sediments resulting from sediment resuspension.

    PubMed

    Matisoff, Gerald

    2017-02-01

    In lakes with a large surface area to watershed ratio (137)Cs delivery is primarily by direct atmospheric fallout to the lake surface, where its activity in the sediments has been used to estimate the exposure to organisms and sediment mass deposition rates. Comparison of (137)Cs in the historical atmospheric fallout record with (137)Cs activity profiles in sediment cores reveals that although the general features of a maxima in the fallout deposition can be matched to activity peaks in the core, the general shape of the (137)Cs profile is not an exact replica of the fallout history. Instead, the sediment reflects post-depositional processes such as resuspension, bioturbation, partitioning of (137)Cs between the sediment solids and the pore fluids, and molecular diffusion of (137)Cs through the pore fluids. Presented here is a model that couples these processes to a system time averaging (STA) model that accounts for the time history of (137)Cs fallout and the particle residence time in the water column or in the 'active' surface sediment subject to resuspension. Sediment profiles are examined by comparing reasonable ranges of each of the coefficients of each of these major processes and by applying the model to cores collected from two large, shallow lakes, Lake Erie (USA/Canada) and Lake Winnipeg (Canada). The results indicate that the STA model with molecular diffusion and sediment resuspension best describes the data from these large, shallow lakes.

  2. Measurement of natural and 137Cs radioactivity concentrations at Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea), Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öksüz, I.; Güray, R. T.; Özkan, N.; Yalçin, C.; Ergül, H. A.; Aksan, S.

    2016-03-01

    In order to determine the radioactivity level at Izmit Bay Marmara Sea, marine sediment samples were collected from five different locations. The radioactivity concentrations of naturally occurring 238U, 232Th and 40K isotopes and also that of an artificial isotope 137Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Preliminary results show that the radioactivity concentrations of 238U and 232Th isotopes are lower than the average worldwide values while the radioactivity concentrations of the 40K are higher than the average worldwide value. A small amount of 137Cs contamination, which might be caused by the Chernobyl accident, was also detected.

  3. Modelling temporal trends of 137Cs and 99Tc concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus from the eastern Irish coastline.

    PubMed

    Cournane, S; Vintró, L León; Mitchell, P I; McMahon, C A; Smith, K; Long, S

    2011-11-01

    Time series of 137Cs and 99Tc activity concentrations in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and seawater, gathered at three locations on the eastern Irish coastline during the period 1988-2008, have been modelled using a novel approach incorporating a variable uptake rate in the seaweed. Seasonal variations in the time series, identified using spectral analysis, were incorporated into the model which was used to determine transfer kinetic parameters and to predict 137Cs and 99Tc concentrations in seaweed, as influenced by levels in ambient seawater. An optimisation method combining evolutionary and grid search minimisation techniques was adopted to determine the best values for the model parameters, from which concentration factors (CF) and biological half-lives (tb1/2) for 137Cs and 99Tc in F. vesiculosus were calculated. CF values of 170-179 and 1.1×105 l kg(-1) (dry weight) were obtained for 137Cs and 99Tc, respectively, while the corresponding tb1/2 values were 39-47 and 32 days, respectively.

  4. 235U, 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in marine sediments along the northern coast of Oman Sea using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2012-09-01

    The natural radioactivity levels in sediment samples of the northern coast of Oman Sea, covering the coastal strip from Hormoz canyon to Goatr seaport, as the first time has been determined. The results of measurements will serve as background reference level for Oman Sea coastlines. Sediments from 36 coastal and near shore locations were collected for analysis. Analysis on the collected samples were carried out to determine (235)U, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs using two high purity germanium detectors with 38.5% and 55% relative efficiencies. The concentration of (235)U, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in sediment samples ranged between 1.01 and 2.87 Bq/kg, 11.83 and 22.68 Bq/kg, 10.7 and 25.02 Bq/kg, 222.89 and 535.07 Bq/kg and 0.14 and 2.8 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity was well below the defined limit of 370 Bq/kg. The external hazard indices were found to be less than 1, indicating a low dose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of biologically-active substances on {sup 137}Cs and heavy metals uptake by Barley plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglov, Stanislav; Filipas, Alexander

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: When solving the problem of contaminated agricultural lands rehabilitation, most of attention is concentrated on the effective means which allow the obtaining of ecologically safe production. The minimization of radionuclides and heavy metals (HM) content in farm products on the basis of their migration characteristics in agro-landscapes and with the regard for different factors influencing contaminants behavior in the soil-plant system is of great significance. Our investigation has shown that the effect of biologically active substances (BAS) using for seeds treatment on {sup 137}Cs transfer to barley grown on Cd contaminated soil was dependent on their properties and dosage, characteristics of soil contamination and biological peculiarities of plants, including stage of plants development. Seeds treatment by plant growth regulator Zircon resulted in a significant increase in {sup 137}Cs activity in harvest (40- 50%), increase in K concentration and significant reduction in Ca concentration. Increased Cd content in soil reduced {sup 137}Cs transfer to barley plants by 30-60% (p<0,05) and Zircon application further reduced its concentration. Ambiol and El also reduced {sup 137}Cs uptake by roots and Cd and Pb phyto-toxicity. The experimental data do not make it possible to link the BAS effect on inhibition of {sup 137}Cs absorption by plants directly with their influence on HM phyto-toxicity. The dependence of Concentration Ratio of {sup 137}Cs on the Ambiol and El dose was not proportional and the most significant decrease in the radionuclide uptake by plants was reported with the use of dose showing the most pronounced stimulating effect on the barley growth and development. The pre-sowing seed treatment with Ambiol increased Pb absorption by 35-50% and, on the contrary, decreased Cd uptake by plants by 30-40%. (authors)

  6. Analysis of 50-y record of surface (137)Cs concentrations in the global ocean using the HAM-global database.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated spatial and temporal variations in (137)Cs concentrations in the surface waters of the global ocean for the period from 1957 to 2005 using the "HAM database - a global version". Based on the 0.5-y average value of (137)Cs concentrations in the surface water in each sea area, we classified the temporal variations into four types. (1) In the North Pacific Ocean where there was high fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, the rates of decrease in the (137)Cs concentrations changed over the five decades: the rate of decrease from the 1950s to the 1970s was much faster than that after the 1970s, and the (137)Cs concentrations were almost constant after the 1990s. Latitudinal differences in (137)Cs concentrations in the North Pacific Ocean became small with time. (2) In the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans, the (137)Cs concentrations varied within a constant range in the 1970s and 1980s, suggesting the advection of (137)Cs from areas of high global fallout in the mid-latitudes of the North Pacific Ocean. (3) In the eastern South Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (south of 40 degrees S), the concentrations decreased exponentially over the five decades. (4) In the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans, including marginal seas, (137)Cs concentrations were strongly controlled by discharge from nuclear reprocessing plants after the late 1970s. The apparent half-residence times of (137)Cs in the surface waters of the global ocean from 1970 to 2005 ranged from 4.5 to 36.8 years. The apparent half-residence times were longer in the equatorial region and shorter in the higher latitudes. There was no notable difference between the latitudinal distributions of the apparent half-residence times in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. These results suggest that (137)Cs in the North Pacific Ocean is transported to the equatorial, South Pacific, and Indian Oceans by the oceanic circulation.

  7. Measurement of natural and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity concentrations at Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea), Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Öksüz, İ. Güray, R. T. Özkan, N. Yalçin, C.; Ergül, H. A. Aksan, S.

    2016-03-25

    In order to determine the radioactivity level at Izmit Bay Marmara Sea, marine sediment samples were collected from five different locations. The radioactivity concentrations of naturally occurring {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K isotopes and also that of an artificial isotope {sup 137}Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Preliminary results show that the radioactivity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th isotopes are lower than the average worldwide values while the radioactivity concentrations of the {sup 40}K are higher than the average worldwide value. A small amount of {sup 137}Cs contamination, which might be caused by the Chernobyl accident, was also detected.

  8. (137)Cs concentration in zooplankton and its relation to taxonomic composition in the western North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kaeriyama, Hideki; Watabe, Teruhisa; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    To study the role of zooplankton in the transport of (137)Cs in the ocean, zooplankton samples were collected in October 2005 and June 2006 in the western North Pacific Ocean. The peak zooplankton biomass was observed in the surface layer, and gelatinous plankton was more abundant in October 2005 than in June 2006 reflecting exchange of water masses. The concentrations of (137)Cs in zooplankton varied from 11 to 24 mBq kg wet(-1) and were higher in October 2005 than in June 2006. The elevated abundance of gelatinous zooplankton probably led to higher concentration of (137)Cs in zooplankton in October 2005. Annual export fluxes of (137)Cs by ontogenetic vertical migrant copepods were estimated to be 0.8 and 0.6 mBq m(-2) year(-1) at 200 and 1000 m depths, respectively; this suggested that transport of (137)Cs by zooplankton may be no trivial pathway.

  9. Seasonal 7Be and 137Cs activities in surface air before and after the Chernobyl event.

    PubMed

    Kulan, A

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations of cosmogenic (7)Be (T(1/2)=53.4 days) and anthropogenic (137)Cs (T(1/2)=30 years) activities in surface air (aerosols) have been extracted from a long data record (1972-2000) at high latitude (56 degrees N-68 degrees N, Sweden). Normalization to weekly average values was used to control long-term trends so that cyclical trends could be investigated. Enhanced (7)Be activity was observed in spring and summer seasons and likely relates to the seasonal thinning of the tropopause. Variations in the (137)Cs activity record seem to reflect how the isotope was injected in the atmosphere (stratospheric from bomb tests and tropospheric from the Chernobyl accident) and subsequent transport mechanisms. Accordingly, until 1986, the surface air (137)Cs activity was strongly related to nuclear weapons test fallout and exhibits temporal fluctuations resembling the (7)Be. Conversely, since 1986 the Chernobyl-produced (137)Cs dominates the long-term record that shows annual cycles that are strongly controlled by atmospheric boundary layer conditions. Additionally, short-term data within the post-Chernobyl period suggest subtle intrusion of air masses rich in (137)Cs that may occur throughout the year, and differences resulting from spatial occurrence at these latitudes. This is an important observation that may have to do with year-to-year variation and calls for caution when interpreting short-term data records.

  10. [Dependences of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration ratios in fish on the potassium and calcium concentrations in the freshwater reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Khomutinin, Iu V; Kashparov, V A; Kuz'menko, A V

    2011-01-01

    Activities of 137Cs and 90Sr, concentrations of the potassium and calcium ions in water and accumulation of the radionuclides in the organisms of various freshwater fish have been measured in the stagnant and semistagnant water reservoirs of Ukraine contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. On the basis of the numerous experimental data for different regions the statistical parameters were derived describing the dependencies of the 137Cs and 90Sr concentration ratios in the muscle tissue of various fish species on the potassium and calcium concentrations in water, respectively.

  11. CHANGES IN 137 CS CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL AND VEGETATION ON THE FLOODPLAIN OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER OVER A 30 YEAR PERIOD

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.; Jannik, T.; Fledderman, P.

    2007-12-12

    {sup 137}Cs released during 1954-1974 from nuclear production reactors on the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy nuclear materials production site in South Carolina, contaminated a portion of the Savannah River floodplain known as Creek Plantation. {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations have been measured in Creek Plantation since 1974 making it possible to calculate effective half-lives for {sup 137}Cs in soil and vegetation and assess the spatial distribution of contaminants on the floodplain. Activity concentrations in soil and vegetation were higher near the center of the floodplain than near the edges as a result of frequent inundation coupled with the presence of low areas that trapped contaminated sediments. {sup 137}Cs activity was highest near the soil surface, but depth related differences diminished with time as a likely result of downward diffusion or leaching. Activity concentrations in vegetation were significantly related to concentrations in soil. The plant to soil concentration ratio (dry weight) averaged 0.49 and exhibited a slight but significant tendency to decrease with time. The effective half-lives for {sup 137}Cs in shallow (0-7.6 cm) soil and in vegetation were 14.9 (95% CI = 12.5-17.3) years and 11.6 (95% CI = 9.1-14.1) years, respectively, and rates of {sup 137}Cs removal from shallow soil and vegetation did not differ significantly among sampling locations. Potential health risks on the Creek Plantation floodplain have declined more rapidly than expected on the basis of radioactive decay alone because of the relatively short effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs.

  12. Concentrations of (137)Cs in summer pasture plants that reindeer feed on in the reindeer management area of Finland.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Annukka; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Rissanen, Kristiina; Ylipieti, Jarkko

    2011-07-01

    Samples of summer pasture plants that reindeer feed on were collected in order to study (137)Cs concentrations in different plant species and in species nested in certain site types, and to study the regional distribution of (137)Cs in the Finnish reindeer management area. Plant species were categorized by the site types of mineral soil forest (xeric heath forest and mesic heath forest) and peatland. A third category called 'other plant species' included plants with various site types, poorly determined species and species with poor statistics. The (137)Cs concentrations in different site types differed significantly. The mean (137)Cs concentrations of the whole reindeer management area in the xeric heath forest plant species was 44 ± 27 Bq/kg dw, in the mesic heath forest plant species 75 ± 59 Bq/kg dw and in the peatland plant species 219 ± 150 Bq/kg dw. The peatland species uptake (137)Cs more efficiently than plant species of mineral soil forests. A particularly efficient collector of (137)Cs was Trichophorum sp. It is suggested that Trichophorum sp. could be used as an indicator species for reindeer summer fodder plants. The highest concentrations of (137)Cs were found in Southern Lapland and the lowest in Northern Lapland. Today, the concentrations of (137)Cs in summer pasture plants that reindeer feed on in Finland are at such a level that there is no need to avoid any plant species. In the case of future nuclear fallout, reindeer grazing in peatlands would increase concentrations of (137)Cs in reindeer meat. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal changes in dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in groundwater and stream water in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Nishino, Masataka; Konuma, Ryohei; Abe, Yutaka; Hada, Manami; Pun, Ishwar; Sakaguchi, Aya; Kondo, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Miyata, Yoshiki; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in groundwater and stream water in the headwater catchments in Yamakiya district, located ∼35 km north west of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), was monitored from June 2011 to July 2013, after the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Groundwater and stream water were sampled at intervals of approximately 2 months at each site. Intensive sampling was also conducted during rainstorm events. Compared with previous data from the Chernobyl NPP accident, the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in stream water was low. In the Iboishi-yama catchment, a trend was observed for the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in stream water to decline, which could be divided into two phases by October 2011 (a fast flush of activity as a result of rapid washoff and a slow decline as a result of soil fixation and redistribution processes). The highest (137)Cs concentration recorded at Iboishi-yama was 1.2 Bq/L on August 6, 2011, which then declined to 0.021-0.049 Bq/L during 2013 (in stream water under normal water-flow conditions). During the rainfall events, the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in stream water increased temporarily. The concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in groundwater at a depth of 30 m at Iboishi-yama displayed a decreasing trend from 2011 to 2013, with a range from 0.039 Bq/L to 0.0025 Bq/L. The effective half-lives of stream water in the initial fast flush and secondary phases were 0.10-0.21 and 0.69-1.5 y, respectively in the three catchments. The effective half-life of groundwater was 0.46-0.58 y at Koutaishi-yama and 0.50-3.3 y at Iboishi-yama. The trend for the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs to decline in groundwater and stream water was similar throughout 2012-2013, and the concentrations recorded in deeper groundwater were closer to those in stream water. The declining trend of dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in stream water was similar to that of the loss of canopy (137)Cs by throughfall, as

  14. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L

    2004-04-14

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 2070 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4% of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  15. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W; Stone, E; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C

    2005-04-08

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 1970 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4 % of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  16. Long-term reduction in (137)Cs concentration in food crops on coral atolls resulting from potassium treatment.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L

    2006-01-01

    Bikini Island was contaminated on March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S. nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ((137)Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing (137)Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces (137)Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that (137)Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 2070 kg ha(-1) lead to a (137)Cs concentration in drinking-coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4% of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of (137)Cs remains low 8-10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  17. Long-term decline of 137Cs concentration in honey in the second decade after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Panatto, Donatella; Gasparini, Roberto; Lai, Piero; Rovatti, Paola; Gallelli, Giovanni

    2007-08-15

    In the years 2001-2004 the (137)Cs activity was investigated in a total of 336 samples of different varieties of honey harvested in the Liguria Region of Northern Italy. Our purpose was to define (a) residual radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident and (137)Cs long-term decline, (b) correlation between (137)Cs activity and different honey varieties, and (c) correlation between (137)Cs activity and the prevailing geomorphological configuration in the collection areas. The mean (137)Cs specific activity was 4.33+/-5.04 S.D. Bq/kg. Chestnut honey showed higher levels of radioactive contamination, which were ascribed to the extensive, superficial and deep, root apparatus of the tree. Honey samples from acidic argillite soils, which withhold radionuclides after deposition and slowly release them to plants, also showed higher (137)Cs activity. Long-term decline was calculated at 456 days, a value lower than those published from different food sources in the years following the accident. The rate of long-term decline decreases with time.

  18. Numerical simulation of 137Cs and (239,240)Pu concentrations by an ocean general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2003-01-01

    We simulated the spatial distributions and the temporal variations of 137Cs and (239,240)Pu concentrations in the ocean by using the ocean general circulation model which was developed by National Center of Atmospheric Research. These nuclides are introduced into seawaters from global fallout due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The distribution of radioactive deposition on the world ocean is estimated from global precipitation data and observed values of annual deposition of radionuclides at the Meteorological Research Institute in Japan and several observed points in New Zealand. Radionuclides from global fallout have been transported by advection, diffusion and scavenging, and this concentration reduces by radioactive decay in the ocean. We verified the results of the model calculations by comparing simulated values of 137Cs and (239,240)Pu in seawater with the observed values included in the Historical Artificial Radionuclides in the HAM database, which has been constructed by the Meteorological Research Institute. The vertical distributions of the calculated 137Cs concentrations were in good agreement and are in good agreement with the observed profiles in the 1960s up to 250 m, in the 1970s up to 500 m, in the 1980s up to 750 m and in the 1990s up to 750 m. However, the calculated 137Cs concentrations were underestimated compared with the observed 137Cs at the deeper layer. This may suggest other transport processes of 137Cs to deep waters. The horizontal distributions of 137Cs concentrations in surface water could be simulated. A numerical tracer release experiment was performed to explain the horizontal distribution pattern. A maximum (239,240)Pu concentration layer occurs at an intermediate depth for both observed and calculated values, which is formed by particle scavenging. The horizontal distributions of the calculated (239,240)Pu concentrations in surface water could be simulated by considering the scavenging effect.

  19. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  20. (137)Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F; Bogen, Kenneth T; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict (137)Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate (137)Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of (137)Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in (137)Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD)=1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD=1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  1. Modelling (137)Cs concentrations in moose (1986-2012) from areas highly contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Robert N; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve; Sonesten, Lars; Wikenros, Camilla; Rosén, Klas

    2016-08-01

    Data from long term annual monitoring of (137)Cs concentrations in harvested moose (Alces alces) were empirically modelled by applying multivariate data analysis that is able to from relatively raw datasets show how the many various impact variables are related (Principal component analysis, PCA). In the later stage regression modelling (Partial least squares, PLS) was applied to analyse which environmental and physiological factors were significant (i.e. of predictive value) based on the measured (X) activity concentrations in moose meat. The data sets originate from two different forest dominated areas in Sweden. One area is located inland (Heby municipality) and the other borders to the Baltic Sea (Gävle municipality). In inland with 20% farmland, GIS-software was used to calculate the proportion of different habitat types and (137)Cs deposition around individual killing spots. This model reveals that the proportions of farmland and forest around the killing spot were significant parameters, second to deposition and years since fallout. Significance was also obtained for the proportions of mire and water bodies, the amount of rain in summer and the age of the moose. In the other model based on data from the coastal area with only about 4% farmland, the coordinates of the moose killing spots were not recorded in the data sets. In the resulting model the temperature in July was the most important parameter, second to years since fallout. Significance was also found for the following parameters: temperature and rainfall in several summer months, the approximate north- and eastward location of the killing spot and to which age category (adult/calf) the harvested moose belonged.

  2. Temporal trends in (137)Cs concentrations in the bark, sapwood, heartwood, and whole wood of four tree species in Japanese forests from 2011 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Takano, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Youki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Abe, Hisashi; Kagawa, Akira; Sugiyama, Masaki; Kubojima, Yoshitaka; Zhang, Chunhua; Yamamoto, Koichi

    2017-09-28

    To understand the changes in radiocesium ((137)Cs) concentrations in stem woods after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, we investigated (137)Cs concentrations in the bark, sapwood, heartwood, and whole wood of four major tree species at multiple sites with different levels of radiocesium deposition from the FDNPP accident since 2011 (since 2012 at some sites): Japanese cedar at four sites, hinoki cypress and Japanese konara oak at two sites, and Japanese red pine at one site. Our previous report on (137)Cs concentrations in bark and whole wood samples collected from 2011 to 2015 suggested that temporal variations were different among sites even within the same species. In the present study, we provided data on bark and whole wood samples in 2016 and separately measured (137)Cs concentrations in sapwood and heartwood samples from 2011 to 2016; we further discussed temporal trends in (137)Cs concentrations in each part of tree stems, particularly those in (137)Cs distributions between sapwood and heartwood, in relation to their species and site dependencies. Temporal trends in bark and whole wood samples collected from 2011 to 2016 were consistent with those reported in samples collected from 2011 to 2015. Temporal variations in (137)Cs concentrations in barks showed either a decreasing trend or no clear trend, implying that (137)Cs deposition in barks is inhomogeneous and that decontamination is relatively slow in some cases. Temporal trends in (137)Cs concentrations in sapwood, heartwood, and whole wood were different among species and also among sites within the same species. Relatively common trends within the same species, which were increasing, were observed in cedar heartwood, and in oak sapwood and whole wood. On the other hand, the ratio of (137)Cs concentration in heartwood to that in sapwood (fresh weight basis) was commonly increased to more than 2 in cedar, although distinct temporal trends were not found in the other species

  3. Vertical distribution and temporal dynamics of dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Hada, Manami; Pun, Ishwar

    2017-11-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) migration from headwater forested areas to downstream rivers has been investigated in many studies since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, which was triggered by a catastrophic earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The accident resulted in the release of a huge amount of radioactivity and its subsequent deposition in the environment. A large part of the radiocesium released has been shown to remain in the forest. The dissolved (137)Cs concentration and its temporal dynamics in river water, stream water, and groundwater have been reported, but reports of dissolved (137)Cs concentration in soil water remain sparse. In this study, soil water was sampled, and the dissolved (137)Cs concentrations were measured at five locations with different land-use types (mature/young cedar forest, broadleaf forest, meadow land, and pasture land) in Yamakiya District, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from July 2011 to October 2012. Soil water samples were collected by suction lysimeters installed at three different depths at each site. Dissolved (137)Cs concentrations were analyzed using a germanium gamma ray detector. The dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water were high, with a maximum value of 2.5 Bq/L in July 2011, and declined to less than 0.32 Bq/L by 2012. The declining trend of dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water was fitted to a two-component exponential model. The rate of decline in dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water (k1) showed a good correlation with the radiocesium interception potential (RIP) of topsoil (0-5 cm) at the same site. Accounting for the difference of (137)Cs deposition density, we found that normalized dissolved (137)Cs concentrations of soil water in forest (mature/young cedar forest and broadleaf forest) were higher than those in grassland (meadow land and pasture land). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioactive artificial (137)Cs and natural (40)K activity in 21 edible mushrooms of the genus Boletus species from SW China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Zalewska, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    This study, for the first time, presents the results of activity concentration determinations for (137)Cs and (40)K in a high number (21 species, 87 composite samples, and 807 fruiting bodies) of mushrooms of the genus Boletus from across Yunnan in 2011-2014 and Sichuan (Boletus tomentipes) using high-resolution high-purity germanium detector. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs demonstrated some variability and range from <4.4 to 83 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in caps and from <3.8 to 37 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in stipes, and of (40)K, respectively, from 420 ± 41 to 1300 ± 110 and from 520 ± 61 to 1300 ± 140 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. No significant variations were observed regarding (137)Cs and (40)K activity concentrations among the same Boletus species from different sampling sites. No activity concentrations from (134)Cs were detected in any mushrooms. Internal dose rates estimated were from intake of 1 kg of mushrooms per annum for (137)Cs range for species and regions from around <0.0031 to 0.047 ± 0.003 μSv, while those for (40)K were from around 0.22 ± 0.04 to 1.2 ± 0.1 μSv. The overall intake of (137)Cs was low since low contamination was found in Boletus species.

  5. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in edible mushrooms collected in Japan and radiation dose due to their consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi

    1997-03-01

    To estimate radiocesium intake due to eating mushrooms, about 100 samples belonging to 11 species were analyzed to establish to establish representative values for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in common edible mushrooms available in food markets. Concentration ranges were <0.047-39 Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt) for {sup 137}Cs and 30-210 Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt) for {sup 40}K. The median concentrations were 1.3 Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt) for {sup 137}Cs and 97 Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt) for {sup 40}K. The {sup 137}Cs concentration is cultivated mushrooms were markedly lower than those in wild mushrooms. The annual intake of {sup 137}Cs per person through mushrooms was calculated (using analytical results and food consumption data in Japan) to be 6.0 Bq for {sup 137}Cs, which is about 32% of the total dietary intake of this nuclide. The effective dose equivalent of {sup 137}Cs through mushroom was estimated to be 7.7 X 10{sup -8} Sv (range estimated from the standard deviation: 3.0 x 10{sup -8}-1.0 x 10{sup -7}). 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Fukushima 137Cs at the base of planktonic food webs off Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Z.; Fisher, N. S.; Gobler, C. J.; Buesseler, K. O.; George, J. A.; Breier, C. F.; Nishikawa, J.

    2015-12-01

    The potential bioaccumulation of 137Cs in marine food webs off Japan became a concern following the release of radioactive contaminants from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant into the coastal ocean. Previous studies suggest that 137Cs activities increase with trophic level in pelagic food webs, however, the bioaccumulation of 137Cs from seawater to primary producers, to zooplankton has not been evaluated in the field. Since phytoplankton are frequently the largest component of suspended particulate matter (SPM) we used SPM concentrations and particle-associated 137Cs to understand bioaccumulation of 137Cs in through trophic pathways in the field. We determined particle-associated 137Cs for samples collected at 20 m depth from six stations off Japan three months after the initial release from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At 20 m SPM ranged from 0.65 to 1.60 mg L-1 and rapidly declined with depth. The ratios of particulate organic carbon to chlorophyll a suggested that phytoplankton comprised much of the SPM in these samples. 137Cs activities on particles accounted for on average 0.04% of the total 137Cs in seawater samples, and measured concentration factors of 137Cs on small suspended particles were comparatively low (∼102). However, when 137Cs in crustacean zooplankton was derived based only on modeling dietary 137Cs uptake, we found predicted and measured 137Cs concentrations in good agreement. We therefore postulate the possibility that the dietary route of 137Cs bioaccumulation (i.e., phytoplankton ingestion) could be largely responsible for the measured levels in the copepod-dominated (%) zooplankton assemblages in Japanese coastal waters. Finally, our data did not support the notion that zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton results in a biomagnification of 137Cs.

  7. Validating proposed migration equation and parameters' values as a tool to reproduce and predict (137)Cs vertical migration activity in Spanish soils.

    PubMed

    Olondo, C; Legarda, F; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R

    2017-01-05

    This paper shows the procedure performed to validate the migration equation and the migration parameters' values presented in a previous paper (Legarda et al., 2011) regarding the migration of (137)Cs in Spanish mainland soils. In this paper, this model validation has been carried out checking experimentally obtained activity concentration values against those predicted by the model. This experimental data come from the measured vertical activity profiles of 8 new sampling points which are located in northern Spain. Before testing predicted values of the model, the uncertainty of those values has been assessed with the appropriate uncertainty analysis. Once establishing the uncertainty of the model, both activity concentration values, experimental versus model predicted ones, have been compared. Model validation has been performed analyzing its accuracy, studying it as a whole and also at different depth intervals. As a result, this model has been validated as a tool to predict (137)Cs behaviour in a Mediterranean environment.

  8. Plutonium, (137)Cs and uranium isotopes in Mongolian surface soils.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Kikawada, Y; Igarashi, Y; Fujiwara, H; Jugder, D; Matsumoto, Y; Oi, T; Nomura, M

    2017-01-01

    Plutonium ((238)Pu and (239,240)Pu), (137)Cs and plutonium activity ratios ((238)Pu/(239,240)Pu) as did uranium isotope ratio ((235)U/(238)U) were measured in surface soil samples collected in southeast Mongolia. The (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs concentrations in Mongolian surface soils (<53 μm of particle size) ranged from 0.42 ± 0.03 to 3.53 ± 0.09 mBq g(-1) and from 11.6 ± 0.7 to 102 ± 1 mBq g(-1), respectively. The (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu activity ratios in the surface soils (0.013-0.06) coincided with that of global fallout. The (235)U/(238)U atom ratios in the surface soil show the natural one. There was a good correlation between the (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs concentrations in the surface soils. We introduce the migration depth to have better understanding of migration behaviors of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil. We found a difference of the migration behavior between (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs from (137)Cs/(239,240)Pu - (137)Cs plots for the Mongolian and Tsukuba surface soils; plutonium in surface soil is migrated easier than (137)Cs.

  9. Temporal variation of post-accident atmospheric (137)Cs in an evacuated area of Fukushima Prefecture: Size-dependent behaviors of (137)Cs-bearing particles.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Shinya; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Ueda, Shinji; Tokonami, Shinji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2016-12-01

    The concentrations of (137)Cs in the air, which were divided into coarse (>1.1 μm ϕ) and fine (<1.1 μm ϕ) fractions of particulate matter (PM), were measured from October 2012 to December 2014 in an area evacuated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Total atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation, with high concentrations during summer and autumn related to the dominant easterly wind blowing from the highly radioactivity contaminated area. This seasonal peak was dominated by (137)Cs in the coarse PM fraction. The (137)Cs specific activity (massic (137)Cs concentration) in the coarse PM was also found to increase significantly in summer, whereas that in the fine PM showed no variability during the year. These results show that coarse and fine (137)Cs-bearing PM have different origins and behaviors in the resuspension process. The seasonal variation in atmospheric (137)Cs concentration was well correlated with the mean (137)Cs surface contamination (deposition density) around the observation site weighted by the frequency of wind direction, indicating that the atmospheric (137)Cs concentration in the observation site was explained by the distribution of the (137)Cs surface contamination and the frequency of different wind directions. We introduced a resuspension factor corrected for wind direction, consisting of the ratio of the atmospheric (137)Cs concentration to the weighted mean (137)Cs surface contamination, which evaluated the intensity of resuspension better than the conventional resuspension factor. This ratio ranged from 5.7 × 10(-11) to 8.6 × 10(-10) m(-1) and gradually decreased during the study period.

  10. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    SciTech Connect

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G.

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Persistent chlordane concentrations in long island sound sediment: Implications from chlordane, 210Pb, and 137Cs profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, L.; Li, X.; Crusius, J.; Jans, U.; Melcer, M.E.; Zhang, P.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of chlordane, a banned termiticide and pesticide, were examined in recently collected surficial sediment (10 sites) and sediment cores (4 sites) in Long Island Sound (LIS).The highest chlordane concentrations were observed in western LIS, near highly urbanized areas. Chlordane concentrations did not decrease significantly in the past decade when compared to the data collected in 1996, consistent with the observation of near-constant chlordane levels in blue mussel tissues collected during the same time period. Chlordane concentrations in many of the sites exceeded levels above which harmful effects on sediment-dwelling organisms are expected to frequently occur. Chlordane concentrations in two of the four sediment cores showed a peak below the sediment surface, suggesting reduced chlordane inputs in recent years. The lack of a chlordane concentration maximum below the sediment surface in the other two cores, coupled with the lack of a well-defined 137Cs peak, indicated significant sediment mixing. Simulations of 137Cs and 210Pb profiles in sediment cores with a simple sediment-mixing model were used to constrain both the deposition rate and the bioturbation rate of the sediment. Simulations of the chlordane profiles indicated continued chlordane input to LIS long after chlordane was phased out in the U.S. Continued chlordane input and significant sediment mixing may have contributed to the persistent chlordane concentrations in surficial sediment, which poses long-term threats to benthic organisms in LIS.

  12. Persistent chlordane concentrations in Long Island Sound sediment: implications from chlordane, 210Pb, and 137Cs profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijia; Li, Xiqing; Crusius, John; Jans, Urs; Melcer, Michael E; Zhang, Pengfei

    2007-11-15

    Concentrations of chlordane, a banned termiticide and pesticide, were examined in recently collected surficial sediment (10 sites) and sediment cores (4 sites) in Long Island Sound (LIS). The highest chlordane concentrations were observed in western LIS, near highly urbanized areas. Chlordane concentrations did not decrease significantly in the past decade when compared to the data collected in 1996, consistent with the observation of near-constant chlordane levels in blue mussel tissues collected during the same time period. Chlordane concentrations in many of the sites exceeded levels above which harmful effects on sediment-dwelling organisms are expected to frequently occur. Chlordane concentrations in two of the four sediment cores showed a peak below the sediment surface, suggesting reduced chlordane inputs in recent years. The lack of a chlordane concentration maximum below the sediment surface in the other two cores, coupled with the lack of a well-defined 137Cs peak, indicated significant sediment mixing. Simulations of 137Cs and 210Pb profiles in sediment cores with a simple sediment-mixing model were used to constrain both the deposition rate and the bioturbation rate of the sediment. Simulations of the chlordane profiles indicated continued chlordane input to LIS long after chlordane was phased out in the U.S. Continued chlordane input and significant sediment mixing may have contributed to the persistent chlordane concentrations in surficial sediment, which poses long-term threats to benthic organisms in LIS.

  13. Time Dependence of the (137)Cs Concentration in Particles Discharged from Rice Paddies to Freshwater Bodies after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Wakahara, Taeko

    2016-04-19

    The concentration of particulate (137)Cs in paddy fields, which can be a major source of (137)Cs entering the water system, was studied following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. To parametrize the concentration and to estimate the time dependence, paddy fields covering various levels of (137)Cs deposition were investigated over the period 2011-2013 (n = 121). The particulate (137)Cs concentration (kBq kg-SS(-1)) showed a significant correlation with the initial surface deposition density (kBq m(-2)). This suggests that the entrainment coefficient (m(2) kg-SS(-1)), defined as the ratio between the particulate (137)Cs concentration and the initial surface deposition density, is an important parameter when modeling (137)Cs wash-off from paddy fields. The entrainment coefficient decreased with time following a double exponential function. The decrease rate constant of the entrainment coefficient was clearly higher than that reported for other land uses and for river water. The difference in the decrease rates of the entrainment coefficient suggests that paddy fields play a major role in radiocesium migration through the water system. An understanding of the decrease rate of the entrainment coefficient of paddy fields is therefore crucial to understand the migration of radiocesium in the water system.

  14. Measurement of 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K activities of Wheat and Corn Products in Ilam Province – Iran and Resultant Annual Ingestion Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    CHANGIZI, Vahid; SHAFIEI, Elham; ZAREH, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Background: Natural background radiation is the main source of human exposure to radioactive material. Soils naturally have radioactive mineral contents. The aim of this study is to determine natural (238 U, 232 Th, 40 K) and artificial (137 Cs) radioactivity levels in wheat and corn fields of Eilam province. Methods: HPGe detector was used to measure the concentration activity of 238 U and 232 Th series, 40 K and 137 Cs in wheat and corn samples taken from different regions of Eilam province, in Iran. Results: In wheat and corn samples, the average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs were found to be 1, 67, 0.5, 91.73, 0.01 and 0.81, 0.85, 101.52, 0.07 Bq/kg (dry weight), respectively. H ex and H in in the present work are lower than 1. The average value of H ex was found to be 0.02 and 0.025 and average value of H in to be found 0.025 and 0.027 in wheat fields samples and corn samples in Eilam provinces, respectively. The obtained values of AGDE are 30.49 mSv/yr for wheat filed samples and 37.89 mSv/yr for corn samples; the AEDE rate values are 5.28 mSv/yr in wheat filed samples and this average value was found to be 6.13 mSv/yr in corn samples in Eilam. Transfer factors (TFs) of long lived radionuclide such as 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K from soils to corn and wheat plants have been studied by radiotracer experiments. Conclusion: The natural radioactivity levels in Eilam province are not at the range of high risk of morbidity and are under international standards. PMID:26056646

  15. Determination of 137Cs activity in soil from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Matthews, M.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Al Sadig, Ibrahim; Daar, Eman

    2016-10-01

    With interest in establishing baseline concentrations of 137Cs in soil from the Qatarian peninsula, we focus on determination of the activity concentrations in 129 soil samples collected across the State of Qatar prior to the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. As such, the data provides the basis of a reference map for the detection of releases of this fission product. The activity concentrations were measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector enclosed in a copper-lined passive lead shield that was situated in a low-background environment. The activity concentrations ranged from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg, with a median value of 1 Bq/kg, the greatest activity concentration being observed in a sample obtained from northern Qatar. Although it cannot be confirmed, it is expected that this contamination is mainly due to releases from the Chernobyl accident of 26 April 1986, there being a lack of data from Qatar before the accident. The values are typically within but are sometimes lower than the range indicated by data from other countries in the region. The lower values than those of others is suggested to be due to variation in soil characteristics as well as metrological factors at the time of deposition.

  16. Proficiency testing with uncertainty evaluation for measuring activities per unit mass of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in brown rice in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, R; Unno, Y; Miura, T; Yunoki, A; Hachinohe, M; Hamamatsu, S; Itadzu, H; Mizui, M

    2017-08-01

    In Japan, we conducted proficiency testing of activity measurement by using high-purity germanium detectors for (134)Cs and (137)Cs in brown rice grains. Among 176 reported results, 86 % (for (134)Cs) and 93 % (for (137)Cs) of the results satisfied |En| ≦ 1. However, 58 reports for (134)Cs and 51 reports for (137)Cs had some failures in their evaluations of uncertainties. The proficiency testing was effective to improve the ability of uncertainty evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. (137)Cs distributions in soil and trees in forest ecosystems after the radioactive fallout - Comparison study between southern Finland and Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Ohashi, Mizue; Endo, Izuki; Hari, Pertti; Bäck, Jaana; Kulmala, Markku; Ohte, Nobuhito

    2016-09-01

    The nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima released large amounts of (137)Cs radionuclides into the atmosphere which spread over large forest areas. We compared the (137)Cs concentration distribution in different parts of two coniferous forest ecosystems (needle litter, stems and at different depths in the soil) over short and long term periods in Finland and Japan. We also estimated the change in (137)Cs activity concentrations in needle and soil between 1995 and 2013 in Southern Finland based on the back-calculated (137)Cs activity concentrations. We hypothesized that if the (137)Cs activity concentrations measured in 1995 and 2013 showed a similar decline in concentration, the (137)Cs activity concentration in the ecosystem was already stable in 1995. But if not, the (137)Cs activity concentrations were still changing in 2013. Our results showed that the vertical distribution of the (137)Cs fallout in the soil was similar in Hyytiälä and Fukushima. The highest (137)Cs concentrations were observed in the uppermost surface layers of the soil, and they decreased exponentially deeper in the soil. We also observed that (137)Cs activity concentrations estimated from the samples in 1995 and 2013 in Finland showed different behavior in the surface soil layers compared to the deep soil layer. These results suggested that the (137)Cs nuclei were still mobile in the surface soil layers 27 years after the accident. Our results further indicated that, in the aboveground parts of the trees, the (137)Cs concentrations were much closer to steady-state when compared to those of the surface soil layers based on the estimated declining rates of (137)Cs concentration activity in needles which were similar in 1995 and 2013. Despite its mobility and active role in the metabolism of trees, the (137)Cs remains in the structure of the trees for decades, and there is not much exchange of (137)Cs between the heartwood and surface layers of the stem.

  18. 137Cs and 134Cs activity in the North Pacific Ocean water from 1945 to 2020 by eddy-resolving ROMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuo; Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    We conducted the simulation of 137Cs activity in the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) water from 1945 to 2020, before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) accident. Using the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) with high resolution (1/12°-1/4° in horizontal, 45 levels in vertical), of which domain was the NPO, we preliminarily estimated a factor multiplying the total 134Cs fluxes, which have been estimated for the atmospheric deposition and the direct discharge from the accident. The direct comparison of the observed and calculated 134Cs showed that the total 134Cs flux was 1.6 times greater than the previous estimates. We re-calculated the 134Cs activityies in the NPO water using the flux multiplied by 1.6 and confirmed the improvement of the simulation by the multiplied flux, which suggested that 134Cs and 137Cs inventories in the NPO increase by about 16PBq, respectively, due to the accident. For the hindcast and forecast of the 137Cs activityies in the NPO water, we calculated the 137Cs activityy in the NPO water from 1945 to 2020 by using the global fallout flux due to atmospheric nuclear weapons' tests and the Chernobyl accident and the estimated fluxes of the 1F NPP accident. For the calculation, five ensemble calculations of 137Cs activity were conducted by moving the start period of the input flux for one year. The 137Cs activity in the surface water showed that the plume due to the 1F NPP accident with relatively higher activity than 5 Bq m-3, which was lower than that in 1985, was transported to the western area of 135°W in 2015. The peak year of the 137Cs activity can be estimated from the hindcast and forecast. The 137Cs activity in the surface water north of 30°N shows that the 137Cs peak in 2011 occurs up to 180°, but the peak from 2012 to 2017 is distributed from near 180° to 90°W. The total inventory of 137Cs in the NPO increased up to 77 PBq in 2011 and gradually decreased to 61PBq in 2018 by transport outside of the domain

  19. Lateral variation of 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in surface seawater in and around the Japan Sea after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Kofuji, H; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, M; Hamajima, Y; Yoshida, K; Fujimoto, K; Takada, T; Isoda, Y

    2012-07-01

    A total of 82 surface seawater samples was collected in the Japan Sea and the southwestern Okhotsk Sea before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Analysis of (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations using low-background γ-spectrometry revealed that the (137)Cs concentration of the samples collected in June 2011 was 1.5-2.8mBq/L, which is approximately 1-2 times higher than the pre-accident (137)Cs level, while the (134)Cs concentration was less than detectable to 1mBq/L. In addition to (134)Cs being clearly detected (∼1mBq/L), (137)Cs concentration in water samples from the northeastern Japan Sea (2-2.8mBq/L) was also higher than that from the coast in the southwestern Japan Sea (∼1.5mBq/L). These higher concentrations in the northeastern Japan Sea could be ascribed to the atmospheric transport of nuclides from the FDNPP as aerosols and subsequent transport and dilution after delivery to the sea surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation conditions on (137) Cs concentrations in cultivated mushrooms produced after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium ((134) Cs and (137) Cs) in mushrooms has been a matter of public concern after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To minimize the internal dose by ingestion of cultivated mushrooms, the Japanese government set a guideline level with respect to the radiocesium concentration in bed-logs and mushroom beds; however, the effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation methods on radiocesium concentrations in cultivated mushrooms were not clear. The effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation on the radiocesium concentrations in mushroom were examined using published food monitoring data. (137) Cs concentration data in Lentinula edodes from the Aizu area in Fukushima Prefecture and seven prefectures outside Fukushima were used for the analysis. No statistically significant (137) Cs concentration differences were found between these two cultivation methods. Using detected (137) Cs data in shiitake, the geometric means from each prefecture were less than one-quarter of the standard limit (100 Bq kg(-1) ) for total radiocesium under both cultivation conditions. It was suspected that re-suspended radiocesium might have been taken up by mushrooms or that radiocesium might have been absorbed into the mushrooms from the soil in the outdoor cultures. However, neither effect was significant for cultivated mushrooms in the areas examined. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Latitudinal variation and residence time of (137)Cs in Indian coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Sartandel, S J; Jha, S K; Tripathi, R M

    2015-11-15

    Anthropogenic (137)Cs activity concentration, in surface sea water along the western and eastern coast of India has been estimated using the in-situ pre-concentration approach. Activity levels of (137)Cs ranges from 0.09-1.30Bqm(-3) with an overall mean of 0.69±0.29Bqm(-3). Latitudinal variation and higher depletion in activity concentration of (137)Cs at few locations were observed. Temporal change of (137)Cs in sea water along Indian coast unveils a lower effective half-life of 13.8±0.7y in comparison to Asia Pacific regional sea water. The results prevailed that the spatial distribution confers no fresh input of (137)Cs in Indian coastal region.

  2. 90Sr, 137Cs and (239,240)Pu concentration surface water time series in the Pacific and Indian Oceans--WOMARS results.

    PubMed

    Povinec, Pavel P; Aarkrog, Asker; Buesseler, Ken O; Delfanti, Roberta; Hirose, Katsumi; Hong, Gi Hoon; Ito, Toshimichi; Livingston, Hugh D; Nies, Hartmut; Noshkin, Victor E; Shima, Shigeki; Togawa, Orihiko

    2005-01-01

    Under an IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project "Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies (WOMARS)" 90Sr, 137Cs and (239,240)Pu concentration surface water time series in the Pacific and Indian Oceans have been investigated. The Pacific and Indian Oceans were divided into 17 latitudinal boxes according to ocean circulation, global fallout patterns and the location of nuclear weapons test sites. The present levels and time trends in radionuclide concentrations in surface water for each box were studied and the corresponding effective half-lives were estimated. For the year 2000, the estimated average 90Sr, 137Cs and (239,240)Pu concentrations in surface waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans varied from 0.1 to 1.5 mBq/L, 0.1 to 2.8 mBq/L, and 0.1 to 5.2 microBq/L, respectively. The mean effective half-lives for 90Sr and 137Cs in surface water were 12+/-1 years for the North, 20+/-1 years for the South and 21+/-2 years for the Equatorial Pacific. For (239,240)Pu the corresponding mean effective half-lives were 7+/-1 years for the North, 12+/-4 years for the South and 10+/-2 years for the Equatorial Pacific. For the Indian Ocean the mean effective half-lives of 137Cs and (239,240)Pu were 21+/-2 years and 9+/-1 years, respectively. There is evidence that fallout removal rates before 1970 were faster than those observed during recent decades. The estimated surface water concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs and (239,240)Pu in latitudinal belts of the Pacific and Indian Oceans for the year 2000 may be used as the average levels so that any new contribution from nuclear facilities, nuclear weapons test sites, radioactive waste dumping sites and from possible nuclear accidents can be identified.

  3. (137)Cs vertical distribution at the deep basins of the North and Central Aegean Sea, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Zervakis, V; Kaberi, H; Delfanti, R; Georgopoulos, D; Lampropoulou, M; Kalfas, C A

    2014-06-01

    Large volume seawater samples were collected for the determination of (137)Cs concentration along with depth in the deep basins of North and Central Aegean Sea. The vertical (137)Cs distribution showed maximum concentration at the bottom of the basins, while the minimum values corresponded to the intermediate layer, where Levantine water exists. The surface (137)Cs activity is found to lie between the two limits and is originated from the Black Sea waters. The typical oceanographic advection-diffusion balance model is modified to a diffusion-settling-decay balance model to better understand the vertical distribution and variation of the (137)Cs concentration in the deep basins. In addition, the diffusivity of each basin, as well as the settling speed of particulate (137)Cs is also estimated. The results are compared with theoretical approach as well as with previous data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 137Cs in the Ground Level Air and Deposition in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiulionis, R.; Rozkov, A.

    2007-04-01

    Results of 137Cs activity concentration measurements in the ground level air and deposition at the station of the Institute of Physics situated 3.5 km from the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Ignalina NPP), Lithuania, in 2002-2006 are analyzed. 137Cs atmospheric depositional fluxes are estimated, and particle deposition rates are calculated. Results on solubility in water of atmospheric aerosols - carriers of 137Cs - are discussed. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model of the global dispersion and deposition is used to explain increases in 137Cs activity concentration in the ground-level air and deposition in the Ignalina NPP region. Modelling results show that the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Sarcophagus can be a source of 137Cs to the environment of the Ignalina NPP.

  5. 137Cs in soil and fallout around Zagreb (Croatia) at the time of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Šoštarić, Marko; Petrinec, Branko; Babić, Dinko

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the noticeable increase of 137Cs activity concentrations in soil and fallout in the area surrounding Zagreb (Croatia) that occurred at the time of the 2011 Fukushima accident. This topic is important for public health as 137Cs is highly toxic due to its long half-life of radioactive decay and chemical similarity to potassium. 137Cs concentrations in fallout were much greater than in soil, but remained present longer in the latter. While being detectable in our measurements, 137Cs did not spread through the food chain in amounts exceeding the maximum allowed level of radioactive food contamination. However, more thorough and consistent measurements need to be done in order to establish the precise activity trends of 137Cs in Zagreb soil and fallout.

  6. The concentration and pH dependent diffusion of 137Cs in compacted bentonite by using capillary method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangke; Tan, Xiaoli; Chen, Changlun; Chen, Lei

    2005-10-01

    The 'in-diffusion' method was used to study the diffusion behavior of radionuclide 137Cs in compacted bentonite using a capillary. The results (distribution coefficient, Kd, apparent and effective diffusion coefficients, Da and De) derived from the capillary method are in good agreement with the literature data, and fit the Fick's second law very well. The experiments were carried out at 3.3 × 10-3 and 3.3 × 10-5mol/l cesium, pH 3-12, ionic strength 0.1 M NaClO4, and at room temperature. The results suggest that the diffusion of cesium in compacted bentonite is dependent on solution concentrations and pH values. In agreement with the literatures, the Kd values derived from the capillary experiments are in most cases lower than those derived from batch experiments: the Kd values are about one-half to one-third the values of those from batch experiments. The interlaminary space plays a very important role to the sorption, diffusion and transport of Cs+ in compacted bentonite. The effective diffusion coefficient is higher than that of other nuclides in compacted bentonite, and the diffusion of cesium in compacted bentonite may be dominated by the surface diffusion.

  7. Distribution of 137Cs in surface soil of Fraser's Hill, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi Abu; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) in an anthropogenic radionuclide originated from the fission of fissile materials. Nuclear weapons testing during the 1960s and the Chernobyl disaster introduced substantial amount of 137Cs into the atmosphere that are then eventually deposited back to earth's surface. Caesium-137 can be used as tracer to study soil movements since it adsorbs to soil particles. This paper aims to describe the distribution of 137Cs in surface soil of Fraser's Hill, Pahang, determine the levels of 137Cs here compared to other areas, and to check correlation of 137Cs levels to physical data. A series of sampling were carried out between February 2014 and August 2015. Soil samples were taken from 31 locations using soil scraper. The samples were then taken to the laboratory to be dried, homogenized, grinded and sieved. The activity concentration of 137Cs in the samples was determined using gamma spectroscopy. The activity concentration was found to be between 0.26 Bq/kg and 5.14 Bq/kg. Although this paper only studies surface soil, 137Cs is expected to be present within the soil body. Further study of 137Cs in the soil body can be used to predictive model for soil erosion.

  8. Behaviour of (137)Cs in forest humus detected across the territory of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Škrkal, Jan; Pilátová, Helena; Rulík, Petr; Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie

    2017-03-22

    The activity concentration of (137)Cs in samples of coniferous forest humus collected across the territory of the Czech Republic in 1995 and 2005 was analysed, and it was found significantly correlated with the surface deposition caused by the Chernobyl accident. The effective (12.8 y) and environmental (22.3 y) half-lives of radiocaesium in humus were calculated and compared with those in spruce bark. The impact of important forest stand factors, that is, precipitation, content of organic matter, age of trees and pH, on the behaviour of (137)Cs in humus was studied. It was observed that humus samples with a higher proportion of organic matter, higher pH(H2O) and pH(CaCl2) contained higher amounts of (137)Cs. Conversely, with the age of trees, the activity concentration of (137)Cs in humus is decreasing. Higher precipitation and humus acidity decrease the reduction rate of the (137)Cs in humus. These stand factors increase bioavailability of (137)Cs in humus. The transfer and retention of available (137)Cs in biomass of organisms living in humus for a long time can satisfactorily explain the longer residence time of (137)Cs in humus affected by the studied factors.

  9. Comparative study of (137)Cs distribution in broilers and pheasants and possibilities for protection.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Branislava M; Vitorović, Gordana; Vićentijević, Mihajlo; Vitorović, Duško; Pantelić, Gordana; Lazarević-Macanović, Mirjana

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate distribution of (137)Cs in leg and breast meat of broilers and pheasants following single alimentary contamination and administration of two protectors (AFCF and clinoptilolite). The birds were administered a single dose of (137)CsCl, with an activity of 750 Bq. Protectors were given via gastric tube or mixed in the forage pellets. AFCF given via gastric tube decreased the (137)Cs concentration by a factor of 7.8 in broilers leg meat and 7.4 in broilers breast meat. When AFCF was mixed in pellets, the (137)Cs concentration was 19.5 times lower in broilers leg meat and 22.1 times lower in broilers breast meat, than in the control group. In pheasants, AFCF administered via gastric tube decreased the (137)Cs concentration by a factor of 12.4 in leg meat and by a factor of 13.7 in breast meat, respectively. In group 4, where pheasants were administered AFCF mixed in pellets, the (137)Cs concentration was 3.7 times lower in leg and breast meat, than in the control group. For comparison, clinoptilolite administered via gastric tube decreased the (137)Cs concentration 1.8 times in broilers leg meat and 2.0 times in breast meat, compared to the control group. In pheasants, (137)Cs concentration was 2.9 times lower in leg meat and 2.6 times lower in breast meat. Clinoptilolite mixed in the feed had relatively low efficiency of protection in broilers ((137)Cs concentration was 1.4 times lower in leg meat and 1.6 lower in breast meat). A similar trend was observed in pheasants ((137)Cs concentration was 1.6 lower in leg and breast meat).

  10. Variation in airborne (134)Cs, (137)Cs, particulate (131)I and (7)Be maximum activities at high-altitude European locations after the arrival of Fukushima-labeled air masses.

    PubMed

    Masson, Olivier; Bieringer, Jacqueline; Brattich, Erika; Dalheimer, Axel; Estier, Sybille; Penev, Ilia; Ringer, Wolfgang; Schlosser, Clemens; Steinkopff, Thomas; Steinmann, Philipp; Tositti, Laura; Van Beek, Pieter; Vismes-Ott, Anne de

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima-labeled air mass arrival, and later the cesium-134 ((134)Cs), cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and particulate iodine-131 (hereafter noted (131)Ip) maximum levels were registered in Europe at different dates depending on the location. Most of those data were obtained at low-altitude sampling areas. Here, we compare the airborne levels registered at different high-altitude European locations (from 850 m to about 3500 m). The integrated (137)Cs activity concentration was not uniform with regard to the altitude even after a long travel time/distance from Japan. Moreover, the relation of integrated (137)Cs vs. altitude showed a linear decrease up to an altitude of about 3000 m. A similar trend was noticed for (131)Ip (particulate fraction) while it increased above 3000 m. Comparison with (7)Be activity concentration showed that, as far as the high altitude location is concerned, the (137)Cs and (134)Cs maximum concentrations corresponded to the (7)Be maximum, suggesting downdraft movements from high tropospheric or stratospheric layers to be responsible for (137,134)Cs increase and peak values. This was also confirmed by high potential vorticity and low relative humidity registered during the peak values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, E A; Pryakhin, E A; Popova, I Ya; Osipov, D I; Tikhova, Yu; Andreyev, S S; Shaposhnikova, I A; Egoreichenkov, E A; Styazhkina, E V; Deryabina, L V; Tryapitsina, G A; Melnikov, V; Rudolfsen, G; Teien, H-C; Sneve, M K; Akleyev, A V

    2016-07-01

    Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were not in full agreement with the default values used in the ERICA Tool and the RESRAD BIOTA codes. The unique radiation situation in the Techa River, which was contaminated by long-lived radionuclides ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) in the middle of the last century allows improved knowledge about these parameters for river systems. Therefore, the study was focused on the evaluation of radioecological parameters (distribution coefficients and concentration ratios for (90)Sr and (137)Cs) for the Techa River and the Miass River, which is assumed as a comparison waterbody. To achieve the aim the current contamination of biotic and abiotic components of the river ecosystems was studied; distribution coefficients for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were calculated; concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs for three fish species (roach, perch and pike), gastropods and filamentous algae were evaluated. Study results were then compared with default values available for use in the well-known computer codes ERICA Tool and RESRAD BIOTA (when site-specific data are not available). We show that the concentration ratios of (137)Cs in whole fish bodies depend on the predominant type of nutrition (carnivores and phytophagous). The results presented here are useful in the context of improving of tools for assessing concentrations of radionuclides in biota, which could rely on a wider range of ecosystem information compared with the process limited the current versions of ERICA and RESRAD codes. Further, the concentration ratios of (90)Sr are species-specific and strongly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration in

  12. Hindcast and Forecast of 137Cs Activities in the North Pacific Ocean Waters from 1945 to 2020 by Eddy-resolving ROMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubono, T.; Misumi, K.; Tsumune, D.; Aoyama, M.; Hirose, K.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a hindcast and forecast of 137Cs activities in the North Pacific waters from 1945 to 2020, before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. We used the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) with high resolution (1/12º-1/4º in horizontal, 45 levels in vertical), of which domain was the North Pacific Ocean. The model was driven by the exactly repeating "Normal Year" forcing Coordinated Ocean Reference Experiment (CORE) forcing dataset (Large and Yeager, 2008) using bulk formulae and the model-predicted sea surface temperature and the 50 years averaged SODA data as boundary conditions. The reconstructed global fallout due to atmospheric nuclear weapons' tests and Chernobyl accident was employed for atmospheric flux of 137Cs from 1945 to 2011. After the accident, the atmospheric deposition and direct release of 137Cs from F1NPP were also employed for input condition. Five ensemble calculations of 137Cs activities in seawater were conducted under different initial conditions, but had identical forcing. The net input of 16 PBq of 137Cs from F1NPP, which was employed in this study, corresponded to 26% of the total amount (61 PBq) of 137Cs that was estimated in the North Pacific before the F1NPP accident in 2011. Before the accident in 2011, the 137Cs on surface ranged from 0.75 to 1.7 Bq m-3. The direct comparison between simulated and observed 134Cs activities in the surface layer represented that the root-mean-square error and correlation coefficient were 5.6 Bq m-3 and 0.86, respectively, suggesting the model result were consistent with the observations. The main body of high 137Cs activity water from F1NPP was transported to south of the Subarctic Front around 42°N via the Oyashio Coastal Current, the Oyashio intrusion, and the Kuroshio bifurcation and then to the western North Pacific. This model simulation suggested that the 137Cs activities in surface waters at P26 (P04) would increase to 4.1 Bq m-3 (4.3 Bq m-3 ) in 2015

  13. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-07

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  14. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future. PMID:27052481

  15. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  16. The exchangeable fraction of selectively sorbed 137Cs in soils and natural sorbents as a function of the K+ and NH{4/+} concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepina, I. A.; Popov, V. E.

    2011-06-01

    The exchangeable portion of the selectively sorbed 137Cs extractable by a 1 M ammonium acetate solution (α Ex ) for soils, illite, bentonite, and tripolite was found to increase with the increasing concentration of the competitive cation M+ (K+ or NH{4/+}) and can be approximated by a logarithmic relationship. For clinoptilolite, the values of α Ex did not depend on the concentration of M+. The expression 1 - α Ex ( C M= n )/α Ex ( C M = 16) as a function of the M+ concentration (where α Ex ( C M= n ) is the α Ex value at the competitive cation concentration equal to 16 mmol/dm3) was proposed to compare the dependence of α Ex on the concentration of K+ or NH{4/+}in different sorbents. For soils and illite, these dependences almost coincided, which indicated that the selective sorption of 137Cs in soils is determined by the presence of illite-group minerals.

  17. The distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs in plants in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in eastern central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J; Rydin, H; Rosén, K

    2010-02-01

    We record the distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs within individual Sphagnum plants (down to 20cm depth) as well as (137)Cs in vascular plants growing on a peatland in eastern central Sweden. In Calluna vulgaris(137)Cs was mainly located within the green parts, whereas Andromeda polifolia, Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium oxycoccos showed higher (137)Cs activity in roots. Carex rostrata and Menyanthes trifoliata showed variable distribution of (137)Cs within the plants. The patterns of (137)Cs activity concentration distribution as well as K, Rb and Cs concentrations within individual Sphagnum plants were rather similar and were usually highest in the capitula and/or in the subapical segments and lowest in the lower dead segments, which suggests continuous relocation of those elements to the actively growing apical part. The (137)Cs and K showed relatively weak correlations, especially in capitula and living green segments (0-10cm) of the plant (r=0.50). The strongest correlations were revealed between (137)Cs and Rb (r=0.89), and between (137)Cs and stable Cs (r=0.84). This suggests similarities between (137)Cs and Rb in uptake and relocation within the Sphagnum, but that (137)Cs differs from K.

  18. 239 + 240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, and algae collected around the Japanese coast in the early 1990s.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Aono, T; Hirano, S

    1999-10-01

    Marine organisms, i.e. fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, and algae, were collected in the early 1990s along the Sea of Japan coast and the Japanese Pacific coast and analyzed for their 239 + 240Pu and 137Cs concentrations. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in muscle of fish were below 0.4 mBq/kg wet wt. and the lowest among the analyzed marine organisms. Most 137Cs concentrations in muscle of fish ranged from 100 to 300 mBq/kg wet wt. Higher concentrations of 239 + 240Pu, ranging from 1.6 to 5.7 mBq/kg wet wt., were observed in viscera of cephalopods than in their muscle. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in whole soft tissues of bivalves varied approximately one order of magnitude from 0.8 to 6.1 mBq/kg wet wt., while 137Cs concentrations had little variation, being approximately 60 mBq/kg wet wt. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in algae had a wide variation, ranging from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt., and were higher than those of the other marine organisms. No statistically significant difference in mean concentrations of 239 + 240Pu was detected among the whole soft tissues of bivalves, viscera of cephalopods and crustaceans, and whole bodies of cephalopods and crustaceans within the 95% confidence limit. The mean concentrations of 137Cs became higher in the order, cephalopods and crustaceans and bivalves, algae, viscera of fish, muscles of fish. The mean concentrations of 239 + 240Pu were comparable for algae collected along the Japan Sea coast and the Pacific coast. Furthermore, the difference in mean concentrations of 137Cs in algae between the Japan Sea coast and the Pacific coast was not statistically significant within the 95% confidence limit. These results can be considered to indicate no definite influence from radioactive dumping into the Japan Sea by the former USSR and Russia with respect to radioactive pollution of marine organisms collected along the Japanese coast.

  19. Spatial distributions of 137Cs in surface soil in Jing-Jin-Ji Region, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Qing; Zhan, Jinyan; Hu, Hongxia

    2012-11-01

    Artificial Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) has been widely deposited over global soils. In this study, we measured (137)Cs activity concentrations in the soil samples taken from Jing-Jin-Ji Region, North China, during 2007-2008. The surface soil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from 452 sites in this region. The activity concentration of (137)Cs in the samples was measured using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCOM-100). The main findings are as following. (1) The activity concentration of (137)Cs in surface soils in the region of study fluctuates within 0.3±0.1 to 12.9±0.4 Bq/kg with mean value of 3.7 Bq/kg. Compared to other regions located at roughly the same latitude, the (137)Cs activity is relatively low. The results indicate that there are no new inputs of the radionuclides into the area at that time and the data obtained could serve as baseline levels of (137)Cs in Jing-Jin-Ji Region. (2) Considering land use types, surface soil in woodland mostly shows high (137)Cs activities with rare natural erosion and anthropogenic activities, and the surface soil with relatively low (137)Cs activities appears in the areas of intensive anthropogenic activities, especially in the cities, river banks, reservoirs and the strongly eroded areas. The findings suggest that the varying distribution of (137)Cs activities in surface soil corresponds with land use types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J

    2009-07-01

    The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity in peat soil profiles and (137)Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of (137)Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23,000 Bq m(-2). In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of (137)Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site (137)Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr(-1) at the open bog site and the migration centre of (137)Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr(-1) and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest (137)Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq(-1) DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. (137)Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m(2)kg(-1) DM at the low pine site.

  1. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF 90SR AND 137CS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM OF THE 'RED FOREST' AREA IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Caldwell, E.

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone: the 'Red Forest' site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m{sup 2} were characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants) and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values were close to a logarithmically normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or 'hot spots,' including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometrical mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometrical means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  2. Frequency distributions of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in an ecosystem of the "Red Forest" area in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Makliuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Chizhevsky, Igor; Caldwell, Eric F; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, the "Red Forest" site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m(2) was characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants), and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values was close to a logarithmically-normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or "hot spots," including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometric mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometric means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  3. Evidence of 131I and (134,137)Cs activities in Bordeaux, France due to the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Perrot, F; Hubert, Ph; Marquet, Ch; Pravikoff, M S; Bourquin, P; Chiron, H; Guernion, P-Y; Nachab, A

    2012-12-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, low-background gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with HPGe detectors at the PRISNA platform located at the CENBG laboratory in Bordeaux, France. Different kinds of samples were collected and measured between March 26 and May 14, 2011. The first fission product observed was (131)I with maximum activity values of 2.4 mBq/m(3) in atmospheric dusts in air, 3.5 Bq/L in rain water, 15 Bq/kg in grass and 0.9 Bq/L in cow milk. The (134,137)Cs isotopes were also detected in air and in grass at a maximum level of 0.2 mBq/m(3) and 0.7 Bq/kg respectively, around one order of magnitude less than (131)I activity, but they were below detection limits in the other samples. All these activity values were consistent with others measured in France by IRSN and were well below those reported in May 1986 after the Chernobyl accident.

  4. Persistence of 137Cs in the litter layers of forest soil horizons of Mount IDA/Kazdagi, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, Özlem; Karakurt, Hidayet; Çakır, Rukiye; Çoban, Fatih; Büyükok, Emir; Akal, Cüneyt

    2015-01-01

    In 2010-2012, an extensive study was performed in forest sites of Mount IDA (Kazdagi)/Edremit 26 years after the Chernobyl accident. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in the forest soil layers (OL, OF + OH and A horizons) separately. Based on 341 surface soil samples and 118 soil profiles, activity concentrations of (137)Cs in OL horizons varied between 0.25 ± 0.14 and 70 ± 1 Bq kg(-1), while the ranges of (137)Cs activity concentrations in OF + OH and A horizons were 13 ± 1-555 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) and 2 ± 1-253 ± 2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Cesium-137 deposition in the study area was estimated to be in the range of 1-39 kBq m(-2) and a linear relationship between the deposition of (137)Cs and the altitude was observed. The distributions of (137)Cs activities in OL, OF + OH and A horizons throughout the region were mapped in detail. The highest (137)Cs activities were found in OF + OH horizons, with markedly lower (137)Cs activity in mineral horizons of soil profiles. It is observed that (137)Cs content of humus layer increases with the thickness of the humus layer for coniferous forest sites. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were higher than the recommended screening limits (150 Bq kg(-1)) at some of the investigated areas. The current activity concentration of top soil layers indicates that over many years since the initial deposition, (137)Cs activity is keeping still high in the organic horizons.

  5. Uptake and distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in salix viminalis plants.

    PubMed

    von Firck, Y; Rosén, K; Sennerby-Forsse, L

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural areas in middle and northern parts of Sweden were contaminated with radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Alternative crops in these areas are biomass plantations with fast-growing Salix clones for energy purposes. The uptake and internal distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in Salix viminalis were studied. Plants were grown in microplots under field conditions. The soils in the experimental site had been contaminated in 1961 with 35.7 and 13.4 MBq m(-2) of 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. The experiment was carried out during three years. The plots were fertilised with 60 kg N ha(-1) and three treatments of K, consisting of 0, 80 and 240 kg K ha(-1) during the first two years. The activity concentration of 137Cs in the different plant parts varied between 140 and 20,000 Bq kg(-1) and was ranked in the following order: lowest in stems < cuttings < leaves < roots. The fine roots (0-1 mm) had the highest 137Cs activity concentration. One-year-old stems had higher 137Cs activity concentrations than two-year-old stems. The activity concentration of 137Cs in the plants was significantly affected by K-supply and was higher in the 0 kg K treatment than in the 80 or 240kg K treatment. Leaves contained more 90Sr than stems and cuttings.

  6. Accumulation and translocation peculiarities of (137)Cs and (40)K in the soil--plant system.

    PubMed

    Marčiulionienė, Danutė; Lukšienė, Benedikta; Jefanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Long-term investigations (1996-2008) were conducted into the (137)Cs and (40)K in the soil of forests, swamps and meadows in different regions of Lithuania, as well as in the plants growing in these media. The (137)Cs and (40)K activity concentrations, the (137)Cs/(40)K activity concentration ratio and accumulation, and translocation in the system, i.e. from the soil to plant roots to above-ground plant part of these radionuclides, were evaluated after gamma-spectrometric measurements using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Based on the obtained data, it can be asserted that in the tested plant species, the (137)Cs and (40)K accumulation, the transfer from soil to roots and translocation within the plants depend on the plant species and environmental ecological conditions. The (137)Cs/(40)K activity concentration ratios in the same plant species in different regions of Lithuania are different and this ratio depends on the biotope (forest, swamp or meadow) in which the plant grows and on the location of the growing region. Based on the determined trends of statistically reliable inverse dependence between the activity concentrations in both soil and plants, it can be stated that the exchange of (137)Cs and (40)K in plants and soil is different. Different accumulations and translocations of investigated radionuclides in the same plant species indicate diverse biological metabolism of (137)Cs and its chemical analogue (40)K in plants. A competitive relationship exists between (137)Cs and (40)K in plants as well as in the soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plutonium and 137Cs in surface water of the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Aoyama, M; Fukasawa, M; Kim, C S; Komura, K; Povinec, P P; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2007-08-01

    The present plutonium and 137Cs concentrations in South Pacific Ocean surface waters were determined. The water samples were collected in the South Pacific mid-latitude region (32.5 degrees S) during the BEAGLE expedition conducted in 2003-04 by JAMSTEC. 239,240Pu concentrations in surface seawater of the South Pacific were in the range of 0.5 to 4.1 mBq m(-3), whereas 137Cs concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.7 Bq m(-3). The observed 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in the South Pacific were almost of the same level as those in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The surface 239,240Pu in the South Pacific subtropical gyre showed larger spatial variations than 137Cs, as it may be affected by physical and biogeochemical processes. The 239,240Pu/137Cs activity ratios, which reflect biogeochemical processes in seawater, were generally smaller than that observed in global fallout, except for the most eastern station. The 239,240Pu/137Cs ratios in the South Pacific tend to be higher than that in the North Pacific. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters such as salinity and nutrients were examined. The 137Cs concentrations in the western South Pacific (the Tasman Sea) and the eastern South Pacific were negatively correlated with the phosphate concentration, whereas there is no correlation between the 137Cs and nutrients concentrations in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. The mutual relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of transport processes of anthropogenic radionuclides and their fate in the South Pacific.

  8. Behavior of (137)Cs in ponds in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Konoplev, Alexei; Wada, Toshihiro; Takase, Tsugiko; Byrnes, Ian; Carradine, Matthew; Nanba, Kenji

    2017-08-08

    (137)Cs activity concentration in the water of four ponds, Suzuuchi (SU), Funasawa (FS), Inkyozaka (IZ), and Kashiramori (KM), that are within 10 km of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant were observed from April 2015 to August 2016. (137)Cs inventories in soils surrounding SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 6.4, 2.9, 2.1, and 0.9 MBq m(-2), respectively. (137)Cs inventories in the bottom sediments of SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 13, 8.9, 1.6, and 1.1 MBq m(-2), respectively. Higher (137)Cs inventories in bottom sediment than those of soil in SU and FS suggest that (137)Cs was delivered to and accumulated in these ponds. Mean total (137)Cs activity concentrations in SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 41, 13, 9.5, and 1.4 Bq L(-1), respectively. Particulate (137)Cs concentration accounted for 71-90% of total (137)Cs in the water samples, on average. The mean distribution coefficient, Kd, in SU, FS, IZ, and KM was 1.3 × 10(5), 2.1 × 10(5), 1.7 × 10(5), and 6.2 × 10(5) L kg(-1), respectively. These Kd values were higher than the Kd values observed in the Chernobyl area by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Although no significant decreasing trends were found, dissolved (137)Cs activity concentration tended to be low during winter in all four ponds. Dissolved (137)Cs activity concentrations were proportional to K(+) and DOC concentrations in all the ponds. The results from principal component analysis performed for (137)Cs activity concentration and water chemistry data sets suggested that there were different mechanisms behind variability of dissolved (137)Cs activity concentrations for each pond. Continuous monitoring is required to reveal temporal trends in (137)Cs activity concentrations of these waters and controlling factors of such in closed water systems in Fukushima. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atmospheric deposition of cosmogenic 7Be and 137Cs from fallout of the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, C; Ioannidou, A; Stoulos, S; Manolopoulou, M

    1995-08-18

    Atmospheric (tropospheric) depositional fluxes of the naturally occurring 7Be of cosmogenic origin and 137Cs from fallout of the Chernobyl accident were measured over a 7-year period (January 1987-December 1993) at Thessaloniki, Greece (40 degrees 38' N, 22 degrees 58' E). The annual total deposition fluxes of 7Be varied between 854 Bq/m2 (1987) and 1242 Bq/m2 (1992), showing a minimum in the years 1988-89. The annual total deposition fluxes of 137Cs varied between 183 Bq/m2 (1987) and 16.4 Bq/m2 (1992), showing a significant decrease as expected for natural removal and radioactive decay and no new releases from nuclear facilities or weapons testing. The annual average total deposition velocity for 7Be was from 0.3 cm/s (1988) up to 0.8 cm/s (1991), while for 137Cs the corresponding values were much higher, hence 137Cs was associated with larger atmospheric particles. High 7Be concentrations in air were related to the very little solar activity (1987-88 and 1993-94), while low 7Be concentrations in air related to the high solar activity (1989-91). Maximum 137Cs concentrations in air were registered during the spring 1991 and 1992, reflecting some stratospheric inputs. An unusual highly elevated value of 137Cs concentration in air, reaching 0.25 mBq/m3, was observed during the summer 1990.

  10. Long-term retention of (137)Cs in three forest soil types with different soil properties.

    PubMed

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie; Pilátová, Helena; Rulík, Petr

    2016-07-01

    Current (137)Cs activity concentrations were studied at three localities in individual soil horizons of Stagnosol, Arenic Podzol and Haplic Cambisol soil units in soil blocks with dimensions of 20 × 20 × 40 cm situated below pine canopies (n = 3) and spruce canopies (n = 3), and below small canopy gaps, at least 15 × 15 m in area (n = 3 + 3), which have probably endured since 1986. The main zone of (137)Cs accumulation in all the localities was found to be in the organic horizons (H and F). No significant transport and accumulation of (137)Cs into illuvial soil horizons (Bm, Bs or Bhs, Bv and Bv/IIC) was found. The estimated current total (137)Cs activity concentrations in the soil blocks 40 cm in depth were only slightly higher below the coniferous canopy than they were below nearby canopy gaps. The inventory of (137)Cs in the soils was found to be in accordance with the estimated (137)Cs inputs from the Chernobyl fallout and from global fallout. The low amounts of (137)Cs found accumulated in the aboveground biomass (mosses, grasses, needles) did not substantially bias the studied radiocaesium balance in the soils. The vertical migration rate of (137)Cs in soils (cm/year) had a tendency to be higher below canopies than below canopy gaps and below pine canopies than below spruce canopies. We expected the current (137)Cs activity concentrations in the individual soil horizons to be related to the studied soil parameters: pH (H2O), pH (CaCl2), content of organic matter and mineral portion and portion of humic and fulvic acid contents (Q4/6). However, this was not confirmed. Similarly, we observed a weak tendency toward higher (137)Cs activity in soils below the canopy than in soils below canopy gaps. The available gaps used in our study may have been too small, and they may have been affected by an accumulation of litter and humus containing (137)Cs from the surrounding plots situated below neighbouring canopies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  11. 134Cs and 137Cs activities in coastal seawater along Northern Sanriku and Tsugaru Strait, northeastern Japan, after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Kofuji, H; Hamajima, Y; Nagao, S; Yoshida, K; Yamamoto, M

    2012-09-01

    A total of 37 seawater samples were collected at 10 sites along the coastline of the Northern Sanriku and Tsugaru Strait, 250-450 km north of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in April-December 2009 and May-June 2011, and analyzed for (134)Cs and (137)Cs activities using low-background γ-spectrometry. The (134)Cs and (137)Cs activities measured in these samples in May 2011 were found to be 2-3 mBq/L and 2.5-4 mBq/L, respectively. By June, these values had decreased by 25-45%/month and 5-30%/month, respectively. These results can be plausibly explained by surface infusion of these isotopes into the sea by atmospheric transport from Fukushima and their subsequent reduction by water migration to off-shore and deeper regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vertical and lateral distribution of fallout (137)Cs and soil properties along representative toposequences of central Rif, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mesrar, Haytam; Sadiki, Abdelhamid; Faleh, Ali; Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and quantify the relationships between current (137)Cs inventories and the soil properties and the physiographic characteristics. A total of 36 cores were taken in seven transects with different slopes, lithology and land use. The analysis focused on the (137)Cs mass activity as well as inventories and its relationship with soil properties as grain size and organic matter. The mass activity of (137)Cs and the inventories varied between 3.6 and 63.7 Bq kg(-1) and between 521.7 and 3304.4 Bq m(-2), respectively. At uncultivated soils, high concentrations of (137)Cs are located in the top 10 cm and decreased exponentially in depth. Cultivated soils record disturbed and heterogeneous (137)Cs profiles with values of mass activity and inventories up to 38.7 Bq kg(-1) and 2510.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. The (137)Cs inventories were significantly higher in uncultivated soils (mean: 2086.9 Bq m(-2)) compared to cultivated soils (mean: 1397.1 Bq m(-2)). The (137)Cs mass activity showed a significant positive correlation with organic matter, silt and clay, but it was negatively correlated with sand and pH respectively. High levels of (137)Cs were found at altitudes between 500 m and 640 m a.s.l, and at slopes from 8° to 11°, as well as in dense scrub land and Fersialitic soils. A principal component analysis showed that more than 86.7% of the variance in (137)Cs mass activity was explained by the organic matter content and the land use. The results of this study provide insights into the effects of soil properties and physiographic factors on the behaviour of (137)Cs in soils of Mediterranean environments of North Africa and strengthen the reliability of this radioisotope as an erosion tracer.

  13. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  14. 137Cs activities and 135Cs/137Cs isotopic ratios from soils at Idaho National Laboratory: a case study for contaminant source attribution in the vicinity of nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Snyder, Darin C; Clark, Sue B; Kelley, Morgan; Delmore, James E

    2015-03-03

    Radiometric and mass spectrometric analyses of Cs contamination in the environment can reveal the location of Cs emission sources, release mechanisms, modes of transport, prediction of future contamination migration, and attribution of contamination to specific generator(s) and/or process(es). The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) represents a complicated case study for demonstrating the current capabilities and limitations to environmental Cs analyses. (137)Cs distribution patterns, (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios, known Cs chemistry at this site, and historical records enable narrowing the list of possible emission sources and release events to a single source and event, with the SDA identified as the emission source and flood transport of material from within Pit 9 and Trench 48 as the primary release event. These data combined allow refining the possible number of waste generators from dozens to a single generator, with INL on-site research and reactor programs identified as the most likely waste generator. A discussion on the ultimate limitations to the information that (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratios alone can provide is presented and includes (1) uncertainties in the exact date of the fission event and (2) possibility of mixing between different Cs source terms (including nuclear weapons fallout and a source of interest).

  15. Retrospective determination of 137Cs specific activity distribution in spruce bark and bark aggregated transfer factor in forests on the scale of the Czech Republic ten years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Suchara, I; Rulík, P; Hůlka, J; Pilátová, H

    2011-04-15

    The (137)Cs specific activities (mean 32Bq kg(-1)) were determined in spruce bark samples that had been collected at 192 sampling plots throughout the Czech Republic in 1995, and were related to the sampling year. The (137)Cs specific activities in spruce bark correlated significantly with the (137)Cs depositions in areas affected by different precipitation sums operating at the time of the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. The ratio of the (137)Cs specific activities in bark and of the (137)Cs deposition levels yielded bark aggregated transfer factor T(ag) about 10.5×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1). Taking into account the residual specific activities of (137)Cs in bark 20Bq kg(-1) and the available pre-Chernobyl data on the (137)Cs deposition loads on the soil surface in the Czech Republic, the real aggregated transfer factor after and before the Chernobyl fallout proved to be T*(ag)=3.3×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1) and T**(ag)=4.0×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1), respectively. The aggregated transfer factors T*(ag) for (137)Cs and spruce bark did not differ significantly in areas unequally affected by the (137)Cs fallout in the Czech Republic in 1986, and the figures for these aggregated transfer factors were very similar to the mean bark T(ag) values published from the extensively affected areas near Chernobyl. The magnitude of the (137)Cs aggregated transfer factors for spruce bark for the pre-Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl period in the Czech Republic was also very similar. The variability in spruce bark acidity caused by the operation of local anthropogenic air pollution sources did not significantly influence the accumulation and retention of (137)Cs in spruce bark. Increasing elevation of the bark sampling plots had a significant effect on raising the remaining (137)Cs specific activities in bark in areas affected by precipitation at the time when the plumes crossed, because the sums of this precipitation increased with elevation (covariable).

  16. Investigation of (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, (137)Cs, and heavy metal concentrations in Anzali international wetland using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Kamali, Mahdi; Fallahi Kapourchali, Maryam; Bagheri, Hashem; Khoram Bagheri, Mahdi; Abedini, Ali; Pakzad, Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in sediment and soil samples of the Anzali international wetland were carried out by two HPGe-gamma ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The concentrations of (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs in sediment samples ranged between 1.05 ± 0.51-5.81 ± 0.61, 18.06 ± 0.63-33.36 ± .0.34, 17.57 ± 0.38-45.84 ± 6.23, 371.88 ± 6.36-652.28 ± 11.60, and 0.43 ± 0.06-63.35 ± 0.94 Bq/kg, while in the soil samples they vary between 2.36-5.97, 22.71-38.37, 29.27-42.89, 472.66-533, and 1.05-9.60 Bq/kg for (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs, respectively. Present results are compared with the available literature data and also with the world average values. The radium equivalent activity was well below the defined limit of 370 Bq/kg. The external hazard indices were found to be less than 1, indicating a low dose. Heavy metal concentrations were found to decrease in order as Fe > Mn > Sr > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Co > Cd. These measurements will serve as background reference levels for the Anzali wetland.

  17. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Brady, Patrick V.; Anderson, Howard L.

    2001-02-01

    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.3×10 6 years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO 3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (˜0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers.

  18. Is 137Cs Dating Becoming Obsolete in North America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, J. Z.; Fuller, C.; Salas, A.

    2016-12-01

    Dating of wetland sediments and peat is routinely carried out using 137Cs and 210Pb analysis. Unlike 210Pb, 137Cs is an anthropogenic radionuclide with a history of fallout from nuclear weapons testing. 137Cs is used as a single time marker; its peak is coincident with the height of atmospheric nuclear testing in 1963/4. During its use in the 1970s-90s, 137Cs peaks were usually highly distinct in wetland sediments (e.g., see 137Cs peaks from Louisiana marshes in Feijtel et al., 1988). This enabled its use as a check for dates assigned to a profile by 210Pb and other methods. However, recently, the efficacy of 137Cs dating in North America has deteriorated. In this presentation, we will provide specific examples of 137Cs as well as 210Pb dating in wetland sediments/peats we collected between 2005 and 2015 in Maine, California, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington. Two main reasons exist for this decline. First, 137Cs activities in our recent cores are 30-40 % of the original activities in 1963/4 due to decay of the original 137Cs in situ (half-life = 30.17 years) and no major new sources. This manifests in lower signal to noise ratio, with some peaks barely recognizable above the noise. Second, 137Cs peaks are much less distinct due to 137Cs migration through time independent of substrate (or sediment) particles. Migration of peaks has resulted in estimated accretion rates being systematically lower or higher than those derived from 210Pb dating. These issues with 137Cs dating have important implications because 137Cs is used with 210Pb dating or even alone to determine rates of recent wetland carbon accumulation. Such rates are required to enter wetland restoration projects into carbon markets and to document IPCC mandated reductions in carbon pollution. Our analysis shows that, although dating by 137Cs alone has always been highly tenuous, now it is especially contraindicated and should be disallowed for the purposes of carbon accounting.

  19. The fate of 137Cs in coniferous forests following the application of wood-ash.

    PubMed

    Högbom, L; Nohrstedt, H O

    2001-12-03

    In the future, it may become common practice in Swedish forestry to recycle wood-ash, a waste product of the combustion of bio-fuel. As a consequence of the Chernobyl radioactive fallout in 1986, large areas of central Sweden were contaminated. Application of recycled wood-ash, originating from contaminated areas, to a previously uncontaminated forest, risks an increase in the concentration of radioactive 137Cs. We measured 137Cs radioactivity in different parts of coniferous forests in seven field experiments. Measurements of radioactivity were made 5-8 years after an application of wood-ash equivalent to 3000 kg ha(-1). The sites, in a north-south transect across Sweden, have a background radioactivity ranging from 0 to 40 kBq m(-2), the higher levels are mainly a result of the Chernobyl fall-out. Depending on its origin, the radioactivity of the applied wood-ash ranged from 0.0 to 4.8 kBq kg(-1), corresponding to 0.0-1.44 kBq m(-2). In autumn 1999, samples were taken from the soil, field vegetation, needles and twigs and the levels of 137Cs determined. In addition, soil samples were analysed for extractable K. The highest 137Cs concentration was found in the soil. At six of the seven sites there were no statistically significant effects of wood-ash application on 137Cs activity. This was despite the fact that the wood-ash had, in one case, added the same amount of radioactivity as the background. However, at one site with intermediate 137Cs deposition (10-20 kBq m(-2)), there was a statistically significant decrease in 137Cs radioactivity in the soil, needles and twigs from the plots treated with wood-ash. The decrease in radioactivity was partly due to the fact that one of the main constituents of wood-ash is K, which is antagonistic to 137Cs. Based on our results, it appears that application of wood-ash containing 137Cs does not necessarily increase the 137Cs radioactivity in plants and soil. However, some of the observed effects could be a result of the low

  20. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using (137)Cs activities and radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Laceby, J Patrick; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24km(2), Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n=36) and subsurface channel bank (n=17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n=41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. (137)Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of the pond. This original sediment

  1. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2007-09-01

    The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by gamma spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m(-3) over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400+/-30 Bq m(-2) to 560+/-30 Bq m(-2) during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850+/-70 Bq m(-2) in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270+/-90 Bq m(-2) in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9+/-0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1+/-0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137Cs deposition density in 10 degrees latitude by 10 degrees longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from

  2. Aerosol residence times and changes in radioiodine-131I and radiocaesium-137 Cs activity over Central Poland after the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Bem, Henryk

    2012-05-01

    The first detectable activities of radioiodine (131)I, and radiocaesium (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the air over Central Poland were measured in dust samples collected by the ASS-500 station in the period of 21(st) to 24(th) of March, 2011. However, the highest activity of both fission products, (131)I and (137)Cs: 8.3 mBq m(-3) and 0.75 mBq m(-3), respectively, were obtained in the samples collected on 30(th) March, i.e.∼18 days after the beginning of the fission products' discharge from the damaged units of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The simultaneously determined corrected aerosol residence time for the same samples by (210)Pb/(210)Bi and (210)Pb/(210)Po methods was equal to 10 days. Additionally, on the basis of the activity ratio of two other natural cosmogenic radionuclides, (7)Be and (22)Na in these aerosol samples, it was possible to estimate the aerosol residence time at ∼150 days for the solid particles coming from the stratospheric fallout. These data, as well as the differences in the activity size distribution of (7)Be and (131)I in the air particulate matter, show, in contrast to the Chernobyl discharge, a negligible input of stratospheric transport of Fukushima-released fission products.

  3. Long-term variation (1986-1998) of post-Chernobyl 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu and (239,240)Pu concentrations in air, depositions to ground, resuspension factors and resuspension rates in south Germany.

    PubMed

    Rosner, G; Winkler, R

    2001-06-12

    Annual mean concentrations in air and annual total (wet plus dry) depositions to ground of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu and (239,240)Pu decreased at Neuherberg, south Germany, in the period from July 1986 (i.e. after the end of the initial deposition phase from Chernobyl) to 1998 as follows: 90Sr from 0.77 to 0.05 microBq m(-3), and from 0.82 (1988) to 0.28 Bq m(-2) year(-1); 137Cs from 133 to 2.8 microBq m(-3), and from 116 to 3.8 Bq m(-2) year(-1); 238Pu from 0.95 to 0.063 nBq m(-3), and from 1.0 to 0.23 mBq m(-2) year(-1); (239,240)Pu from 8.1 to 0.53 nBq m(-3), and from 6.4 to 2.1 mBq m(-2) year(-1). The values for the non-caesium radionuclides are compared to the few available data from other stations. After an initial phase which is characterised for a given radionuclide by the varying ratio of the Chernobyl-derived inventory to the earlier, weapons fallout-derived inventory, the time courses of concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu and (239,240)Pu in air become more or less parallel (from about 1990), despite the considerable differences in the physico-chemical properties of these elements. By contrast, the time series of radionuclide deposition rates show until about 1994 less similarity among each other and with the respective concentration series in air. From 1994, concentrations in air and depositions to ground become nearly constant, or decrease very slowly. At the end of the observation period, resuspension factors between 1.4 x 10(-10) m(-1) and 1.0 x 10(-11) m(-1) are observed for the various nuclides. The time courses of specific activities (Bq g(-1)) as well as the time courses of radionuclide ratios show characteristic differences between air and deposition. The data will be useful in predicting the post-accident behaviour of radionuclides a long time after a large-scale contamination event.

  4. Distribution of oceanic 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant simulated numerically by a regional ocean model.

    PubMed

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    Radioactive materials were released to the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant as a result of the reactor accident after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011. The measured (137)Cs concentration in a seawater sample near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant site reached 68 kBq L(-1) (6.8 × 10(4)Bq L(-1)) on 6 April. The two major likely pathways from the accident site to the ocean existed: direct release of high radioactive liquid wastes to the ocean and the deposition of airborne radioactivity to the ocean surface. By analysis of the (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio, we determined that direct release from the site contributed more to the measured (137)Cs concentration than atmospheric deposition did. We then used a regional ocean model to simulate the (137)Cs concentrations resulting from the direct release to the ocean off Fukushima and found that from March 26 to the end of May the total amount of (137)Cs directly released was 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq ((3.5 ± 0.7) × 10(15)Bq). The simulated temporal change in (137)Cs concentrations near the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant site agreed well with observations. Our simulation results showed that (1) the released (137)Cs advected southward along the coast during the simulation period; (2) the eastward-flowing Kuroshio and its extension transported (137)C during May 2011; and (3) (137)Cs concentrations decreased to less than 10 BqL(-1) by the end of May 2011 in the whole simulation domain as a result of oceanic advection and diffusion. We compared the total amount and concentration of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors to the ocean with the (137)Cs released to the ocean by global fallout. Even though the measured (137)Cs concentration from the Fukushima accident was the highest recorded, the total released amount of (137)Cs was not very large. Therefore, the effect of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors on concentration in the whole North

  5. Radioactive contamination of the Adriatic Sea by 90Sr and 137Cs.

    PubMed

    Franić, Z; Bauman, A

    1993-02-01

    Results of systematic long-term measurements of 90Sr and 137Cs in surface seawater, performed at four locations along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, are summarized. Observed trends in annual mean activity concentrations are discussed. 90Sr and 137Cs fallout activities affect seawater activity, the coefficient of correlation between 90Sr fallout activity and 90Sr seawater activity being 0.72. No significant variations of 90Sr mean residence time in the sea-mixed layer on different locations were found. From 1978-1985, the 137Cs:90Sr activity ratio in seawater was 1.52 +/- 0.40. In May 1986, as the consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, this radio increased to 92.4 +/- 58.2.

  6. Influence of soil types and osmotic pressure on growth and (137)Cs accumulation in blackgram (Vigna mungo L.).

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of soil types and osmotic levels on growth and (137)Cs accumulation in two blackgram varieties differing in salinity tolerance grown in Fukushima contaminated soils. The contamination levels of the sandy clay loam and clay soil were 1084 and 2046 Bq kg(-1) DW, respectively. The (137)Cs activity was higher in both plants grown on the sandy clay loam than on the clay soil regardless of soil (137)Cs activity concentration. No significant differences were observed in all measured growth parameters between the two varieties under optimal water conditions for both types of soil. However, the growth, leaf water contents and (137)Cs activity concentrations in both plants were lower in both soil types when there was water stress induced by addition of polyethylene glycol. Water stress-induced reduction in total leaf area and total biomass, in addition to leaf relative water content, were higher in salt sensitive 'Mut Pe Khaing To' than in salt tolerant 'U-Taung-2' plants for both soil types. Varietal difference in decreased (137)Cs uptake under water stress was statically significant in the sandy clay loam soil, however, it was not in the clay soil. The transfer of (137)Cs from soil to plants (i.e., root, stem and leaf) was higher for the sandy clay loam for both plants when compared with those of the clay soil. The decreased activity of (137)Cs in the above ground samples (leaf and stem) in both plants in response to osmotic stress suggested that plant available (137)Cs decreased when soil water is limited by osmotic stress.

  7. Correlations between potassium, rubidium and cesium ((133)Cs and (137)Cs) in sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in a Swedish boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Rosén, K; Johanson, K J; Dahlberg, A

    2011-04-01

    An analysis of sporocarps of ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus variegatus assessed whether cesium ((133)Cs and (137)Cs) uptake was correlated with potassium (K) or rubidium (Rb) uptake. The question was whether intraspecific correlations of Rb, K and (133)Cs mass concentrations with (137)Cs activity concentrations in sporocarps were higher within, rather than among, different fungal species, and if genotypic origin of sporocarps within a population affected uptake and correlation. Sporocarps (n = 51) from a Swedish forest population affected by the fallout after the Chernobyl accident were studied. The concentrations were 31.9 ± 6.79 g kg(-1) for K (mean ± SD, dwt), 0.40 ± 0.09 g kg(-1) for Rb, 8.7 ± 4.36 mg kg(-1) for (133)Cs and 63.7 ± 24.2 kBq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. The mass concentrations of (133)Cs correlated with (137)Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.61). There was correlation between both (133)Cs concentrations (r = 0.75) and (137)Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.44) and Rb, but the (137)Cs/(133)Cs isotopic ratio negatively correlated with Rb concentration. Concentrations of K and Rb were weakly correlated (r = 0.51). The (133)Cs mass concentrations, (137)Cs activity concentrations and (137)Cs/(133)Cs isotopic ratios did not correlate with K concentrations. No differences between, within or, among genotypes in S. variegatus were found. This suggested the relationships between K, Rb, (133)Cs and (137)Cs in sporocarps of S. variegatus is similar to other fungal species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fish pollution with anthropogenic 137Cs in the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Tamara; Suplińska, Maria

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on changes in (137)Cs activity concentrations in three fish species from the southern Baltic Sea: cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichtys flesus), in the period 2000-2010. During the study period a marked decline in cesium activity concentration in fish muscle tissue was observed, which reflected changes in radionuclide activity concentration in seawater. No statistically significant temporal trends were determined in changes of concentration factors (CF(fish/seawater)) calculated for the examined fish species. The analysis of (137)Cs activity as a function of ichthyological parameters revealed the lack of a relationship between radionuclide activity concentrations in herring muscle tissue and the fish age in an narrow age range (2-4 years). However, a reverse proportionality of total fish mass, as well as body length, against (137)Cs activity concentrations in muscles was well documented. The latter observation can be the direct result of the dilution effect related to the increase of fish body weight. (137)Cs activity concentration in muscle tissue of the five fish species forms a declining sequence: Gadus morhua, Platichthys flesus, Clupea harengus, Perca fluviatilis and Neogobius melanostomus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    PubMed

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reactive barriers for {sup 137}Cs retention

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    {sup 137}Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of {sup 137}Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of {sup 137}Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if {sup 137}Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with {sup 135}Cs (half life 2.3x10{sup 6} years) in addition to {sup 137}Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO{sub 3} and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt ({approximately} 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers.

  11. Effect of selective sorptive agents on leachability of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.

    1998-06-01

    Decades ago it was established that illite effectively improves {sup 137}Cs leach resistance. Subsequently, illite has become a standard ingredient used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in grouts developed to stabilize {sup 137}Cs. Adding illite improves {sup 137}Cs leach resistance by three orders of magnitude, and increasing the illite concentration can add another order of magnitude improvement. Adding crystalline silicotitanate, a selective sorptive agent developed more recently for {sup 137}Cs, not only improves {sup 137}Cs leach resistance by an order-of-magnitude over that obtained using illite but also improves {sup 85}Sr leach resistance by two orders of magnitude.

  12. Life-long accumulation of 137Cs and 40K in the vertebral column of a cow.

    PubMed

    Pichl, Elke; Rabitsch, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the accumulation of (137)Cs and (40)K in all the tissues and organs of an adult slaughtered Austrian "mountain pasture cow". In this paper we present measured (137)Cs- and (40)K-activity concentrations in different tissues of the vertebral bodies, in their other bony components and in all the vertebrae forming the vertebral column. Data are also given for activity concentrations of adherent tissues, and for activities of both the components and the whole vertebral column. The dairy cow was born in a highly contaminated region of Styria, Austria, at the time of the radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. Both radionuclides were incorporated during life-long ingestion and their accumulation in all the vertebrae up to the day of slaughtering was determined by high-purity germanium detectors. Our results show considerable variations of (137)Cs- and (40)K-activity concentrations in the components of a certain vertebra, within vertebrae of a particular region, and between vertebrae of different regions of the vertebral column. Particularly, the courses of (137)Cs- and (40)K-activity concentrations in trabecular bone, cortical bone and intervertebral discs of thoracic vertebral bodies are subdivided by a strong drop into two sections. Mean values of (137)Cs-concentration in vertebral bodies of these subsections vary by a factor 4. Compared with corresponding quantities for the skeleton, total mass, as well as total (137)Cs- and (40)K-activities of the whole vertebral column came to 14%, and approximately 38% for each (137)Cs and (40)K, respectively.

  13. Temporal variations in (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in seawater along the Shimokita Peninsula and the northern Sanriku coast in northeastern Japan, one year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kofuji, Hisaki; Inoue, Mutsuo

    2013-10-01

    Ninety-six seawater samples were collected between May 2011 and March 2012 at 6 sites along the Shimokita Peninsula and the northern Sanriku coast, 250-450 km north of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Cesium-134 and (137)Cs concentrations were determined by low-background γ-spectrometry. During May-June 2011, (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in surface waters decreased from 1.0-2.8 to 0.7-1.5 mBq/L and from 2.1-3.9 to 1.9-3.0 mBq/L, respectively. These decreases were due to diffusion and advection in the ocean after atmospheric input of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides. However, in July-August 2011, the concentrations of both radionuclides in the water samples collected on the Pacific side of the Shimokita Peninsula and the northern Sanriku coast exhibited 30-50-fold increases (∼40 mBq/L for (134)Cs and ∼50 mBq/L for (137)Cs) over concentrations observed at these sampling sites in June 2011 in contrast to the gradual decreases in the concentrations on the Tsugaru Strait side of the Shimokita Peninsula. These results suggest that radiocesium-contaminated waters offshore in the Pacific Ocean were transported to coastal regions along the Pacific side of the Shimokita Peninsula and the northern Sanriku coast by ocean currents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. (137)Cs, (40)K and (210)Po in marine mammals from the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Tomasz; Góral, Marta; Szefer, Piotr; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Bojanowski, Ryszard

    2015-12-15

    This study provides information on baseline concentrations of the radionuclides Cesium-137, Potassium-40 and Polonium-210 in sea mammals from the Baltic Sea. The radionuclides were analyzed in the liver, kidney and muscle of harbor porpoises, striped dolphins, and gray and ringed seals from the Polish coast by γ- and α-spectrometry. Median (137)Cs activities were 14.8, 13.2 and 23.2 Bq kg(-1) w.w. in the liver, kidney and muscles, respectively. Activities of (40)K and (210)Po in the respective tissues were found to be 79.1, 79.8 and 111 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K and 58.1, 59.2 and 32.9 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po. The measured (137)Cs concentrations were extraordinarily high in comparison to those reported in sea mammals from other locations. However, dose assessments did not imply health effects from (137)Cs exposure in Baltic Sea mammals. Correlations between (137)Cs tissue activities and reported sea water concentrations highlight the potential use of marine mammals for biomonitoring purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific walrus and bearded seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Terry; Seagars, Dana; Jokela, Terry; Layton, David

    2008-06-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ((210)Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea during May 1996. The mean (137)Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg(-1) (n=5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg(-1) (n=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, (137)Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, (210)Po activity concentrations are more variable and appear to be higher level compared with mammal data from other regions. The mean (210)Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (n=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg(-1), respectively. This compares with (210)Po concentration values (n=2, wet weight) of 27, 207 and 68 Bq kg(-1) measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated concentration factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for (210)Po that those of (137)Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of (137)Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessment of risks of Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  16. 40K/137Cs discrimination ratios to the aboveground organs of tropical plants.

    PubMed

    Sanches, N; Anjos, R M; Mosquera, B

    2008-07-01

    In the present work, the accumulation of caesium and potassium in aboveground plant parts was studied in order to improve the understanding on the behaviour of monovalent cations in several compartments of tropical plants. We present the results for activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K, measured by gamma spectrometry, from five tropical plant species: guava (Psidium guajava), mango (Mangifera indica), papaya (Carica papaya), banana (Musa paradisíaca), and manioc (Manihot esculenta). Caesium and potassium have shown a high level of mobility within the plants, exhibiting the highest values of concentration in the growing parts (fruits, leaves, twigs, and barks) of the woody fruit and large herbaceous shrub (such as manioc) species. In contrast, the banana and papaya plants exhibited the lowest levels of (137)Cs and (40)K in their growing parts. However, a significant correlation between activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K was observed in these tropical plants. The (40)K/(137)Cs discrimination ratios were approximately equal to unity in different compartments of each individual plant, suggesting the possibility of using caesium to predict the behaviour of potassium in several tropical species.

  17. Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs distributions and their relationship with sedimentological processes in Patras Harbour, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaefthymiou, H; Papatheodorou, G; Moustakli, A; Christodoulou, D; Geraga, M

    2007-01-01

    Surficial and subsurficial sediment samples derived from gravity cores, selected from the harbour of Patras, Greece, were analyzed for grain size, water content, bulk density, specific gravity, organic carbon content and specific activities of natural radionuclides and (137)Cs. The specific activities of (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were measured radiometrically. The radionuclides (238)U and (232)Th were also analyzed using the INAA. The differences found between the specific activities of the natural radionuclides measured by the two methods are of no statistical significance. The sediment cores selection was based on a detailed bathymetric and marine seismic survey. Through the study of the detailed bathymetric map and the seismic profiles it was shown that ship traffic is highly influential to the harbour bathymetry. The granulometric and geotechnical properties of the sediments and therefore the specific activities of the natural radionuclides and (137)Cs seem to be controlled by the ship traffic. Relationship between radionuclide activity concentrations and granulometric/geotechnical parameters was defined after the treatment of all the analyses using R-mode factor analysis. The natural radionuclide activities are related to the fine fraction and bulk density of the sediments, while (137)Cs is mainly influenced by the organic carbon content. In addition, (238)U and (226)Ra seem to be in close relation with the heavy minerals fraction in coarse-grained sediments with high specific gravity.

  18. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific Walrus and Bearded Seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Seagars, D J; Jokela, T; Layton, D

    2005-02-02

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea. The mean {sup 137}Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg{sup -1} (N= 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg{sup -1} (N=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, {sup 137}Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, {sup 210}Po activity concentrations appear to be higher than those reported elsewhere but a larger variation. The mean {sup 210}Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (N=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. This compares with {sup 210}Po concentration values (N=2, wet weight) of 27, 207, and 68 Bq kg{sup -1} measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated bioaccumulation factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for {sup 210}Po that those of {sup 137}Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of {sup 137}Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessing health risks to Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  19. A first attempt to derive soil erosion rates from 137Cs airborne gamma measurements in two Alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bucher, Benno; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers is currently one of the most promising and effective approach for evaluating soil erosion magnitudes in mountainous grasslands. Conventional assessment or measurement methods are laborious and constrained by the topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. The 137Cs (half-life = 30.2 years) is the most frequently used FRN to study soil redistribution. However the application of 137Cs in alpine grasslands is compromised by the high heterogeneity of the fallout due to the origin of 137Cs fallout in the Alps, which is linked to single rain events occurring just after the Chernobyl accident when most of the Alpine soils were still covered by snow. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the 137Cs distribution in two study areas in the Central Swiss Alps: the Ursern valley (Canton Uri), and the Piora valley (Canton Ticino). In June 2015, a helicopter equipped with a NaI gamma detector flew over the two study sites and screened the 137Cs activity of the top soil. The use of airborne gamma measurements is particularly efficient in case of higher 137Cs concentration in the soil. Due to their high altitude and high precipitation rates, the Swiss Alps are expected to be more contaminated by 137Cs fallout than other parts of Switzerland. The airborne gamma measurements have been related to several key parameters which characterize the areas, such as soil properties, slopes, expositions and land uses. The ground truthing of the airborne measurements (i.e. the 137Cs laboratory measurements of the soil samples collected at the same points) returned a good fit. The obtained results offer an overview of the 137Cs concentration in the study areas, which allowed us to identify suitable reference sites, and to analyse the relationship between the 137Cs distribution and the above cited parameters. The authors also derived a preliminary qualitative and a quantitative assessment of soil redistribution

  20. Spatial distribution of 137Cs in surface soil under different land uses in Chao Phraya watershed: Potential used as sediment source tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srisuksawad, K.; porntepkasemsan, B.; Noipow, N.; Omanee, A.; Wiriyakitnateekul, W.; Chouybudha, R.; Srimawong, P.

    2015-05-01

    Sediment fingerprinting techniques involves the discrimination of sediment sources based on differences in source material properties and quantification of the relative contributions from these sources to sediment delivered downstream to the river catchments. Results of the previous study indicated that fallout radionuclides (FRNs); 137Cs and excess 210Pb (210Pbex) are the most suitable radionuclides to be used as sediments sources tracers. This study investigated the spatial distribution of 137Cs in soil under different land uses in Chao Phraya watershed; the most significant watershed in Thailand. Emphasis was placed on discriminating among potential sediment sources including the cultivated (upland crops), pasture field, uncultivated (swamp, forest, and grass field), and channel erosion (stream and river bank). One hundred and twenty four soil samples were collected from all sources and determining for 137Cs. The 137Cs mass activities in pasture areas varied from the limit of detection (LLD) to 1.22±0.05 with the average of 0.64±0.14 Bq kg-1. In cultivated areas the 137Cs mass activities varied from LLD to 1.41±0.04 with the average of 0.38±0.04 Bq kg-1. The 137Cs mass activities were higher in uncultivated areas varied from 0.12±0.03 to 1.73±0.05 with the average of 0.76±0.15 Bq kg-1. The 137Cs mass activities in channel bank varied from LLD to 1.16±0.04 with the average of 0.39±0.05 Bq kg-1.GIS and geospatial interpolations revealed pattern in the spatial concentrations of 137Cs and indicated important differences in its distributions showing the differences behaviour of 137Cs in different land uses.

  1. 137Cs in fungal sporocarps in relation to vegetation in a bog, pine swamp and forest along a transect.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Rosén, K; Dahlberg, A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the relative importance of vegetation and fungi for radiocesium uptake and biological retention in adjacent bog, pine swamp, and forest. The measurements for (137)Cs activity concentration in sporocarps (i.e. fruitbodies of fungi) and vegetation along a bog to forest transect were combined with complementary published data to calculate estimates. Aboveground vegetation comprised 17.7% of the total fallout-derived radiocesium in the system in bog, 16.5% in pine swamp, and 40.6% in forest. In fungal sporocarps grown along a gradient, (137)Cs activity comprised <0.001% of the total radiocesium for peat bog, <0.02% for pine swamp, and 0.11% for forest. Total (137)Cs activity in sporocarps increased along the gradient due to increased production of sporocarps in the presence of trees from 0.006 (bog), 0.097 (pine swamp) and 0.67 (forest) g dwt m(-2). Based on calculation of the total vegetation biomass and through relationships between fungal biomass in sporocarps and as mycelia in soil, the total (137)Cs activity located in fungi was estimated as 0.1% in bog, 2% in pine swamp, and 11% in forest. An analysis of the time-dependency of (137)Cs in the sporocarps in forest between 1990 and 2011 suggested an ecological half-life for (137)Cs between 8 and 13 years. Although fungi comprised a relatively small fraction of the total radiocesium in the systems, its activity decreased slowly with time, and ecological residence time for (137)Cs in sporocarps of fungi was long, suggesting they will continue to contribute to the accumulation and cycling of this radionuclide in forest.

  2. 137Cs inventory in semi-isolated basins of the western South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Wang, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The main introduction routes of 137Cs into the Pacific Ocean are worldwide global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and close-in fallout from U. S. tests conducted on the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. The objectives of this study are to measure the 137Cs activities in water columns of the western South Pacific Ocean and to discuss the processes controlling the 137Cs inventory. The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean. The 137Cs activities in surface waters ranged from 1.7 Bq m- 3 in the Tasman Sea Basin to 2.3 Bq m-3 in the East Caroline Basin. The latitudinal 137Cs distributions in surface waters showed the opposite trend to the expected deposition density from global fallout. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850 Bq m-2 in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270 Bq m-2 in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9 - 4.5 times higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude. The possible sources of excess 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean might be attributable to both the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from the northern stratosphere to the southern one and its subsequent deposition, and water- bearing transport of 137Cs from the North Pacific Ocean to the South Pacific.

  3. A case study of soil erosion and sedimentation magnitudes in Morocco using 137-Cs & 210-Pbex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabit, L.,; Benmansour, M.,; Nouira, A.,

    2010-05-01

    Despite the severity of land degradation in Morocco, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion rates. Most of the previous research used conventional measurements. Since the mid 1990's only a few studies reported the use of the 137-Cs approach and, excess lead-210 (210-Pbex) as soil tracer in Morocco. The site under investigation is a one hectare agricultural field dominated by cereals under conventional tillage (plough depth ~ 16 cm) and semiarid climate located in Marchouch 68 km south east from Rabat (Morocco). In this field, 50 soil core samples were collected along 5 parallel transects. The initial 137-Cs and 210-Pb fallout were assessed through 12 core samples collected in an undisturbed pasture located 3 km from the field studied. After γ-spectrometry analysis, the areal activities of 137-Cs and 210-Pbex were converted into soil redistribution rates using the convertion model Mass Balance Model II (MBM II). Soil redistribution rates obtained from both isotopes were analyzed using geostatistic approach and a classical interpolation concept (Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW)). Maps of soil redistribution were established and a sediment budget for the whole field was calculated. For the reference site, the vertical distribution associated with both radionuclides was similar and concentrated in the top 10 cm with a clear exponential decrease with depth. The reference inventories values were estimated at 3305 Bq m-2 (n = 12; CV of 30%) and 1445 Bq m-2 (n = 12; CV of 18%) for 210-Pbex and 137-Cs, respectively. For the cultivated site, experimental variograms of soil redistribution rate calculated from the data provided by the 137-Cs and 210-Pbex results were fitted. Following the optimization of variographic parameters and the cross-validation analysis, the geostatistical study of the data set reported a very weak autocorrelation. So, a simple spatialisation of the data set using IDW2 was used to spatialise the soil redistribution

  4. Assessment of (226)Ra, (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K activities from the northern coastline of Oman Sea (water and sediments).

    PubMed

    Darabi-Golestan, F; Hezarkhani, A; Zare, M R

    2017-02-27

    Water and sediment samples were collected from northern coast of Oman Sea covering from Goatr to Hormoz canyon seaport. Water and sediment quality assessment for naturally or anthropogenic radionuclides at Oman Sea as a main strategic golf for trade and transit, is an important issue. Correspondence analysis (CA) by R-mode analysis represents that sigma(T)-temperature-conductivity-O2 parameters are well-correlated with (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. Accordingly Q-mode analysis revealed an indicator samples of ST13W for different radionuclides, ST03W for O2, and simultaneously ST34W-ST21W-ST08W-ST04W for sigma(T) parameters. The CA results overlapped with factor and cluster analysis results that explained 85.8% of total variance of water samples. Descriptive analysis of sediments indicates more significant variation than water samples. The (232)Th and (226)Ra generally showing that ST13D to ST25D sediments that restricted to Pi Bashk coastline are concentrated from (137)Cs and (40)K. By comparison with reference-values from Iran and other parts of the world, they are acceptable with respect to environmental and radioisotope hazards.

  5. Genotypic difference in (137)Cs accumulation and transfer from the contaminated field in Fukushima to azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Salem, Djedidi; Yamaya, Hiroko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Tomooka, Norihiko; Kaga, Akito; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    The screening of mini-core collection of azuki bean accessions (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) for comparative uptake of (137)Cs in their edible portions was done in field trials on land contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Ninety seven azuki bean accessions including their wild relatives from a Japanese gene bank, were grown in a field in the Fukushima prefecture, which is located approximately 51 km north of FDNPP. The contamination level of the soil was 3665 ± 480 Bq kg(-1) dry weight ((137)Cs, average ± SD). The soil type comprised clay loam, where the sand: silt: clay proportion was 42:21:37. There was a significant varietal difference in the biomass production, radiocaesium accumulation and transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium from the soil to edible portion. Under identical agricultural practice, the extent of (137)Cs accumulation by seeds differed between the accessions by as much as 10-fold. Inter-varietal variation was expressed at the ratio of the maximum to minimum observed (137)Cs transfer factor for seeds ranged from 0.092 to 0.009. The total biomass, time to flowering and maturity, and seed yield had negative relationship to (137)Cs activity concentration in seeds. The results suggest that certain variety/varieties of azuki bean which accumulated less (137)Cs in edible portion with preferable agronomic traits are suitable to reduce the (137)Cs accumulation in food chain on contaminated land.

  6. Radioactive caesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in mushrooms of the genus Boletus from the Reggio Emilia in Italy and Pomerania in Poland.

    PubMed

    Cocchi, Luigi; Kluza, Karolina; Zalewska, Tamara; Apanel, Anna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were determined in mushrooms of the Boletus species B. aereus, B. reticulatus, B. appendiculatus, B. calopus, B. edulis, B. erythropus, B. fechtneri, B. pinophilus, B. pseudoregius, B. rhodopurpureus, B. rhodoxanthus collected in the Reggio Emilia, Italy, in 1993 and 1994 and in B. edulis collected in Pomerania in northern Poland in the period from 1995-2015. Boletus edulis from the Reggio Emilia showed presence of (137)Cs at 330 ± 220 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1993 and at 370 ± 180 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1994. In B. edulis sampled in the Reggio Emilia in 1993 and 1994, the pre-Chernobyl (137)Cs from global fallout amounted to 39-46 % of the total activity concentrations of isotope (137)Cs. B. edulis from Pomerania contained (137)Cs in caps at 270 ± 15 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1995, and in whole fruiting bodies it was found to be 470 ± 9 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 2015. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs determined in fruiting bodies of B. edulis from Pomerania fluctuated but persisted over the period from 1995 to 2015, while the maximum activity concentrations were well below the tolerance limit of 600 Bq kg(-1) fresh product.

  7. Long-term effects of single potassium fertilization on 137Cs levels in plants and fungi in a boreal forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M; Nikolova, I; Johanson, K

    2011-02-01

    We examined the long-term effects of a single application of potassium (K) fertilizer (100 kg K ha(-1)) in 1992 on (137)Cs uptake in a forest ecosystem in central Sweden. (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined in three low-growing perennial shrubs, heather (Calluna vulgaris), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), and in four wild fungal species (Cortinarius semisanguineus, Lactarius rufus, Rozites caperata and Suillus variegatus). Uptake of (137)Cs by plants and fungi growing on K-fertilized plots 17 years after application of the K fertilizer was significantly lower than in corresponding species growing in a non-fertilized control area. The (137)Cs activity concentration was 21-58% lower in fungal sporocarps and 40-61% lower in plants in the K-fertilized area compared with the control. Over the study period, this decrease in (137)Cs activity concentration was more consistent in plants than in fungi, although the effect was statistically significant and strongly pronounced in all species. The effect of K fertilization in reducing (137)Cs activity concentration in fungi and plants decreased over time but was still significant in 2009, 17 years after fertilization. This suggests that application of K fertilizer to forests is an appropriate and effective long-term measure to decrease radiocaesium accumulation in plants and fungi.

  8. REMOVAL OF 137Cs FROM DISSOLVED HANFORD TANK SALTCAKE BY TREATMENT WITH IONSIV IE-911

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the preparation of a 137Cs-depleted form of dissolved Hanford tank saltcake. A composite feed solution was treated with IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911, which effectively reduced the concentration of 137Cs. This allowed for subsequent testing of waste immobilization without significant radiological hazard. Limited characterization of the initial feed solution and a more extensive characterization of the 137Cs-depleted material also are provided.

  9. Uptake and elimination of 137Cs by climbing perch (Anabus testudineus).

    PubMed

    Malek, M A

    1999-12-01

    This work describes the uptake and retention/biological elimination of 137Cs by climbing perch (Anabus testudineus) under laboratory conditions. The accumulated 137Cs concentration in the whole body of the fish was measured at certain intervals up to 38 d. A significant accumulation of 137Cs was found, but a steady state accumulation of 137Cs was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factors and the distribution of the radionuclide in edible parts of the fish were determined. The effective half-life of 137Cs in the fish species was found to be approximately 147 d (average) for elderly and adult fishes and approximately 300 d for younger fishes. Accumulation of 137Cs in the edible parts of the fish was found to be approximately 77% of whole body accumulation.

  10. {sup 137}Cs concentration among children in areas contaminated with radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident: Mogilev and Gomel oblasts, Belarus

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Fujimura, Kingo; Shibata, Yoshisada; Okajima, Shunzo; Yamashita, Shunichi; Namba, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Naokata; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1994-09-01

    The level of radiation exposure in children in Belarus caused by the Chernobyl accident was investigated on the basis of whole body {sup 137}Cs count. The subjects were 10,062 children (4,762 boys and 5,300 girls) in Mogilev and Gomel, Belarus, who received Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project health examinations from May 1991 to December 1992 and who were 5-16 y old at the time of examination. The median whole body {sup 137}Cs count per body weight varied from 21-48 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} and from 28-126 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in Mogilev oblast and Gomel oblast, respectively. (The {open_quotes}oblast{close_quotes} is the largest administrative district constituting the country. Belarus consists of 6 oblasts). Corresponding annual effective dose equivalents were all less than the public dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup {minus}1}, but the observed levels in the children were considerably higher than the average level of 2.3 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} reported in the past for the former Soviet Union. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Post-Chernobyl 137Cs in the atmosphere of Thessaloniki: a consequence of the financial crisis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Stoulos, S; Ioannidou, A; Vagena, E; Koseoglou, P; Manolopoulou, M

    2014-02-01

    The background radiation level of (137)Cs at the urban atmosphere of Thessaloniki has been increased during the recent decade only due to the Fukushima accident fallout. Since then, no other signal of (137)Cs was observed until the winter period of 2013, when slightly elevated (137)Cs concentrations were measured. The (137)Cs signals observed were up to 12 μBq m(-3), mainly during holidays and weekends followed by lower or even non-detectable activities in the next working days. Those episodes are attributed to the increase of biomass products combustion for residential heating as this year the tax of oil for heating was drastically raised as a consequence of the financial crisis. A preliminary survey of various wood products as well as of bottom ashes from different domestic burning devices is presented. (137)Cs concentrations up to 11 Bq kg(-1) were measured in wood products and up to 500 Bq kg(-1) in ash samples.

  12. Protective activity of C-geranylflavonoid analogs from Paulownia tomentosa against DNA damage in 137Cs irradiated AHH-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-In; Jeong, Min Ho; Jo, Wol Soon

    2014-09-01

    Radiotherapy is an important form of treatment for a wide range of cancers, but it can damage DNA and cause adverse effects. We investigated if the diplacone analogs of P. tomentosa were radio-protective in a human lymphoblastoid cell line (AHH-1). Four geranylated flavonoids, diplacone, 3'-O-methyl-5'-hydroxydiplacone, 3'-O-methyl-5'-O-methyldiplacone and 3'-O-methyldiplacol, were tested for their antioxidant and radio-protective effects. Diplacone analogs effectively scavenged free radicals and inhibited radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in vitro. They significantly decreased levels of reactive oxygen species and cellular DNA damage in 2 Gy-irradiated AHH-1 cells. Glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity in irradiated AHH-1 cells increased significantly after treatment with these analogs. The enhanced biological anti-oxidant activity and radioprotective activity of diplacone analogs maintained the survival of irradiated AHH-1 cells in a clonogenic assay. These data suggest that diplacone analogs may protect healthy tissue surrounding tumor cells during radiotherapy to ensure better control of radiotherapy and allow higher doses of radiotherapy to be employed.

  13. Status of (137)Cs contamination in marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model two years simulation following the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct (137)Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, (137)Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed (137)Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow (137)Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported (137)Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of (137)Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of (137)Cs, i

  14. Root endophytic bacteria of a (137)Cs and Mn accumulator plant, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, increase (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the soil.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Keiko; Nagata, Satoshi; Haruma, Toshikatsu; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozaki, Tamotsu; Watanabe, Naoko; Nanba, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    We found that root endophytes of (137)Cs accumulator plant produce siderophores, resulting in the desorption of (137)Cs from the contaminated soil collected at Fukushima, Japan. We selected an endemic Japanese deciduous tree, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav), that accumulates high concentrations of (137)Cs and Mn. Root endophytic bacteria were isolated from E. sciadophylloides and microbial siderophore production was evaluated via chrome azurol S (CAS) Fe and CAS Al assays. Of the 463 strains that we isolated, 107 (23.1%) produced the siderophores. Using eight strains that showed high siderophore production in our assays, we examined desorption of (137)Cs, Mn, Fe and Al by the bacterial culture filtrates from (137)Cs-contaminated soil after decomposing the soil organic matter using hydrogen peroxide. We found (137)Cs and Mn desorption concomitant with Al and Fe desorption, as well as a decrease of pH. We also detected succinic acid, a well-known siderophore, in the bacterial culture filtrates of our two root endophytic bacteria. Our results strongly suggest that the root endophytic bacteria of E. sciadophylloides produce the siderophores that enhance (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the rhizosphere, making the resulting (137)Cs and Mn ions easier for E. sciadophylloides to absorb from the rhizosphere.

  15. Up-regulation of 8-oxo-dGTPase activity of MTH1 protein in the brain, testes and kidneys of mice exposed to (137)Cs gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Bialkowski, Karol; Szpila, Anna; Kasprzak, Kazimierz S

    2009-08-01

    Abstract Mammalian MTH1 protein is an antimutagenic (2'-deoxy)ribonucleoside 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase that prevents the incorporation of oxidatively modified nucleotides into nucleic acids. It decomposes most specifically the miscoding products of oxidative damage to purine nucleic acid precursors (e.g. 8-oxo-dGTP, 2-oxo-dATP, 2-oxo-ATP, 8-oxo-GTP) that may cause point mutations or transcription errors when incorporated into DNA and RNA, respectively. The increased expression of MTH1 mRNA and MTH1 protein was previously proposed as a molecular marker of oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased 8-oxo-dGTPase activity of MTH1 protein in mouse organs could serve as a dose-dependent marker of exposure to ionizing radiation, which is known to induce oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis, we measured 8-oxo-dGTPase activity in six organs of male BL6 mice after exposure to 0, 10, 25 and 50 cGy and 1 Gy of (137)Cs gamma radiation given as a single whole-body dose (1 Gy/min). The mice were killed 4, 8 and 24 h after irradiation. A statistically significant induction of 8-oxo-dGTPase was found in brains, testes and kidneys but not in lungs, hearts or livers. Brains, which demonstrated the highest (4.3-fold) increase of 8-oxo-dGTPase activity, were shown to express approximately 50% higher levels of MTH1 protein. However, due to the lack of a simple positive correlation between the dose and the observed 8-oxo-dGTPase activity in brain, testes and kidneys, we conclude that measurements of 8-oxo-dGTPase activity in these organs may serve as a rough indicator rather than a quantifiable marker of radiation-induced oxidative stress.

  16. Integration of Earth Observation Satellite Data and Real Time 137Cs Measurements in the Greek Marine Environment to GIS for Advances in Radiological Remote Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrokefalou, Georgia; Florou, Heleny; Sykioti, Olga; Parcharidis, Issaak

    2016-08-01

    In the present study an innovative tool is explored in terms of the radiological remote control. The levels of radionuclides in the marine environment, especially the soluble ones, are associated with other physical parameters. For this purpose, sea parameters such as sea surface temperature and ocean colour issued from satellite and field measurements have been utilized, in order to investigate potential relations with 137Cs activity concentrations. Such potential relations are expected to lead to an innovative tool based on remote sensing data and in situ 137Cs measurements for the remote radioactivity detection of the Greek marine ecosystem both for routine control and emergency recordings. Here, the first findings on the spatial correlations of 137Cs measurements with MODIS L3 ocean data in the Aegean Sea are presented, whereas temporal correlations of 137Cs measurements with MODIS L2 ocean and POSEIDON buoy data in Souda Bay area (Crete island) are also shown.

  17. Epiphytic fruticose lichens as biomonitors for retrospective evaluation of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio in Fukushima fallout.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Gromov, A; Ivanov, S; Kaduka, M

    2014-12-01

    In 2011-2013, sampling of epiphytic fruticose lichens of the genera Usnea, Bryoria and Alectoria was carried out on Sakhalin and Kuril Islands (the Sakhalin region, Russia) to investigate contamination of these organisms with the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Activities of the radionuclides were determined in all 56 samples of lichens taken for the analysis. After correction for radioactive decay (on 15 March 2011), the activity concentrations ranged from 2.1 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (134)Cs and from 2.3 Bq kg(-1) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. Cesium-134 and (137)Cs activities for the whole set of lichens (n = 56) were strongly positively correlated; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated as 0.991 (P < 0.01). The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in Usnea lichens from the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands declined with a factor of three in the period from 2011 to 2013. The average biological half-time for both cesium radionuclides in lichens of the genus Usnea is estimated as 1.3 y. The mean of 0.99 ± 0.10 and median of 0.99 were calculated for the decay corrected (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratios in the lichens (n = 56). The radionuclides ratio in the lichens did not depend on location of sampling site, species and the time that had passed after the Fukushima accident. The regression analysis has shown the background pre-Fukushima level of (137)Cs of 0.4 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), whereas the ratio between the Fukushima-borne (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the lichens was estimated as 1.04. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratio in lichens from the Sakhalin region is consistent with the ratios reported by others for the heavy contaminated areas on Honshu Island in Japan following the Fukushima accident. The activity concentrations of natural (7)Be in lichens from the Sakhalin region varied between 100 Bq kg(-1) and 600 Bq kg(-1); the activity concentrations did not exhibit temporal variations during a 2y

  18. Migration of the FDNPP-derived (134)Cs and (137)Cs along with (226)Ra and (228)Ra concentrations across the northwestern North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Shirotani, Y; Nagao, S; Kofuji, H; Volkov, Y N; Nishioka, J

    2016-10-01

    We examined lateral distributions of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (226)Ra, and (228)Ra in the surface seawaters around the Kuril Islands and the Kamchatka Peninsula in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean during June 2014. The sampling area included three water current areas, the Oyashio Current, the current from the Okhotsk Sea, and the coastal current along the east Kamchatka Peninsula. (226)Ra and (228)Ra distributions differed along the three currents. Low levels of (134)Cs were detected in the surface waters of the Oyashio Current (0.09-0.35 mBq/L), but it was <∼0.1 mBq/L at the surface along the other two currents. This indicates that the distribution of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP)-derived radiocesium in surface waters off the Kamchatka and along the Kuril Islands is predominantly governed by the Oyashio current system.

  19. 137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G. )

    1992-11-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure.

  20. Long-term behavior of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in the environment: Case studies in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Corcho-Alvarado, J A; Balsiger, B; Sahli, H; Astner, M; Byrde, F; Röllin, S; Holzer, R; Mosimann, N; Wüthrich, S; Jakob, A; Burger, M

    2016-08-01

    We present long-term records of the (137)Cs and (90)Sr activity concentrations in soil, grass and milk from two lowland and two alpine pastures of Switzerland. The data is used for better understanding the long-term behavior of these radionuclides in the environment. Transfer factors between compartments are used as qualitative indicators of the magnitude of transfer and as a way to compare different elements (e.g. Cs and Sr) in similar conditions. The long-term behavior was quantified by means of the effective half-life which integrates all processes that cause a decrease of activity in a given medium such as leaching, fixation, erosion and radioactive decay. Our study shows that (90)Sr is more likely transferred from alpine soil to grass than (137)Cs. This is explained by a stronger fixation of Cs in the soils. We observed higher transfers of (90)Sr to grass in soils with lower Ca concentrations, and vice versa. In contrast, the transfer of (137)Cs to grass was not affected by the variations of the K content in the soil. We provide evidence that shows that (137)Cs, after intake by dairy cattle, is more likely transferred to milk than (90)Sr. However, as the (90)Sr and Ca transfers to milk are influenced by parameters/processes that were not taken into account in our study, our result cannot be entirely validated. The effective half-lives of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in soil, grass and milk corresponded with previous estimates in alpine soils. We have found that processes other than radioactive decay are responsible for a major decrease of the (90)Sr activity in soil. For (137)Cs, on the other hand, radioactive decay is among the most relevant process. Our data shows to be of interest in studying the trends of behavior of radionuclides in alpine regions.

  1. Radiocaesium (137Cs) in marine mammals from Svalbard, the Barents Sea and the North Greenland Sea.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Magnus; Gwynn, Justin P; Dowdall, Mark; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian

    2006-06-15

    Specific activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide, 137Cs, were determined in marine mammals from Svalbard and the Barents and North Greenland Seas. Muscle samples were collected from 12 polar bears, 15 ringed seals, 10 hooded seals, 7 bearded seals, 14 harp seals, one walrus, one white whale and one blue whale in the period 2000-2003. The mean concentrations (+/-SD) of 137Cs were: 0.72+/-0.62 Bq/kg wet weight (w.w.) for polar bears; 0.49+/-0.07 Bq/kg w.w. for ringed seals; 0.25+/-0.10 Bq/kg w.w. for hooded seals; 0.22+/-0.11 Bq/kg w.w. for bearded seals; 0.36+/-0.13 Bq/kg w.w. for harp seals; 0.67 Bq/kg w.w. for the white whale sample; 0.24 Bq/kg w.w. for the blue whale; and below detection limit for the walrus. Significant differences in 137Cs specific activities between some of the species were found. Ringed seals had higher specific activities than the other seal species in the study. Bearded seals and hooded seals had similar values, which were both significantly lower than the harp seal values. The results in the present study are consistent with previous reported results, indicating low specific activities of 137Cs in Arctic marine mammals in the Barents Sea and Greenland Sea region during the last 20 years. The species specific differences found may be explained by varying diet or movement and distribution patterns between species. No age related patterns were found in specific activities for the two species (polar bears and hooded seals) for which sufficient data was available. Concentration factors (CF) of 137Cs from seawater were determined for polar bears, ringed, bearded, harp and hooded seals. Mean CF values ranged from 79+/-32 (SD) for bearded seals sampled in 2002 to 244+/-36 (SD) for ringed seals sampled in 2003 these CF values are higher than those reported for fish and benthic organisms in the literature, suggesting bioaccumulation of 137Cs in the marine ecosystem.

  2. Factors controlling the spatiotemporal variation of (137)Cs in seabed sediment off the Fukushima coast: implications from numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Kazuhiro; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Aoyama, Michio; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hirose, Katsumi

    2014-10-01

    We used numerical simulations to investigate major controls on spatiotemporal variations of (137)Cs activities in seabed sediments off the Fukushima coast during the first year after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The numerical model we used includes (137)Cs transfer between bottom water and sediment by adsorption and desorption, and radioactive decay. The model successfully reproduced major features of the observed spatiotemporal variations of (137)Cs activities in sediments. The spatial pattern of (137)Cs in sediments, which mainly reflected the history of (137)Cs activities in bottom water overlying the sediments and the sediment particle size distribution, became established during the first several months after the accident. The simulated temporal persistence of the (137)Cs activity in the sediments was due to adsorption of (137)Cs onto the sediment mineral fraction having a long desorption timescale of (137)Cs. The simulated total (137)Cs inventory in sediments integrated over the offshore area, where most of the monitoring stations were located, was on the order of 10(13) Bq; this value is consistent with a previous estimate based on observed data. Taking into account (137)Cs activities in sediments in both the coastal area and in the vicinity of the power plant, the simulated total inventory of (137)Cs in sediments off the Fukushima coast increased to a value on the order of 10(14) Bq.

  3. Accumulation and transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the plants of the forest ecosystem near the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Lukšienė, B; Marčiulionienė, D; Gudelienė, I; Schönhofer, F

    2013-02-01

    The radioecological state of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the Ignalina Power Plant prior to decommissioning was analysed with specific emphasis on (137)Cs and (90)Sr activity concentrations in plant species growing in two reference sampling sites (Tilze and Grikiniskes). In the period of 1996-2008 the mean contamination of plants with (137)Cs was from 45 to 119 Bq/kg and with (90)Sr - from 3 to 42 Bq/kg. Measured (137)Cs TF values for soil-root transfer mainly ranged between 1.0-1.4, except for Calamagrostis arundinacea which had a TF value of 0.1. On average, the (137)Cs TF value from root to shoot was 1.7 fold higher than for soil to root transfer. (90)Sr TF values (soil-root) were in the range of 1.2-1.8 but for Calluna vulgaris it was 0.2. The mean root to shoot TF value for (90)Sr was 7.7 fold higher. These results indicate the higher (90)Sr bioavailability than that of (137)Cs in the forested area. The Grikiniskes reference site is located nearby the Ignalina NPP, specifically the heated water outlet channel, which results in altered microclimatic conditions. These specific microclimatic conditions result in relationships between (137)Cs TF (soil-root) values and pH, moisture and organic matter content in the soil at Grikiniskes which appear to be different to those at the Tilze reference sampling site.

  4. Migration of 137Cs in tributaries, lake water and sediment of Lago Maggiore (Italy, Switzerland) - analysis and comparison with Lago di Lugano and other lakes.

    PubMed

    Putyrskaya, Victoria; Klemt, Eckehard; Röllin, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the behaviour of 137Cs in Lago Maggiore and other pre-alpine lakes as a consequence of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing fallout and the fallout from the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. It presents data on the 137Cs distribution in tributaries, lake water, bottom sediments and reveals the role of (137)Cs as a marker of the sedimentation processes. The run-off of 137Cs from the watershed to the lake is described with a simple compartment model. Measurements of the activity concentration of (137)Cs in sediments are compared with the output of a model (diffusion-convection type) which describes the input of 137Cs into and its vertical distribution within the sediment. Varying sedimentation rates (0.05-0.90g(cm2y)(-1)) in Lago Maggiore are compared with data of other authors. Sedimentation rates and total distribution coefficients (of about 10(5) Lkg(-1)) in Lago Maggiore are discussed and compared with those of Lago di Lugano, Lake Constance, and Lake Vorsee.

  5. Distribution and possible dietary intake of radioactive 137Cs, 40K and 226Ra with the pantropical mushroom Macrocybe gigantea in SW China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Zalewska, Tamara; Apanel, Anna; Wang, Yuanzhong; Wiejak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is scarcity of data on contamination with radiocesium 134/137Cs of edible mushrooms from the Southwestern Asia. This study aimed to get insight into activity concentration of artificial nuclides 134/137Cs and natural 40K and 226Ra in mushrooms from Yunnan province, which is major producer in China. The specimens of pantropical mushroom Macrocybe gigantea were collected from the wild and from a farm across Yunnan land in 2012-2013 and analyzed using gamma spectrometry with hyperpure germanium coaxial detector (HPGe). M. gigantea showed low activity concentrations of 137Cs (median value for dehydrated caps was 4.5 Bq kg(-1) and 5.4 Bq kg(-1) for stipes) while 134Cs was not detected. Natural radionuclide 40K showed 2-3 orders of magnitude greater activity concentration compared to artificial 137Cs in M. gigantea. The activity concentrations of 226Ra from uranium and radium decay series for most of the consignments of M. gigantea examined were below the method's limit of detection. The nominal effective dose equivalent for the Yunnan people from the dietary intake of 137Cs was assessed to be below 0.01 μSv per annum on the average, and that from 40K to be below 0.1 μSv per annum. Data available for the first time on activity concentrations of 137Cs in wild-grown saprobic mushroom from this region of Asia suggest low pollution with radiocesium from fallout there. Hence, the likely health risks from intake of 137Cs from cooked M. gigantea are in practice of mushrooms absent for human consumers there. Because of abundance of mushrooms in Yunnan and high significance of the region as producer and exporter a wider study using many species is necessary to fill a gap on possible radioactive contamination and risk to mushroom consumers.

  6. Plutonium as a chronomarker in Australian and New Zealand sediments: a comparison with (137)Cs.

    PubMed

    Hancock, G J; Leslie, C; Everett, S E; Tims, S G; Brunskill, G J; Haese, R

    2011-10-01

    The construction of high resolution chronologies of sediment profiles corresponding to the last 50-100 years usually entails the measurement of fallout radionuclides (210)Pb and (137)Cs. The anthropogenic radionuclide, (137)Cs, originating from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing can provide an important "first appearance" horizon of known age (1954-1955), providing much-needed validation for the sometimes uncertain interpretations associated with (210)Pb geochronology. However, while (137)Cs usually provides a strong signal in sediment in the northern hemisphere, total fallout of (137)Cs in the southern hemisphere was only 25% that of the north and the low activities of (137)Cs seen in Australian and New Zealand sediments can make its horizon of first appearance somewhat arguable. Low (137)Cs fallout also limited the size of the 1963-1964 fallout peak, a peak that is usually seen in northern hemisphere sediment profiles but is often difficult to discern south of the equator. This paper shows examples of the use of nuclear weapons fallout Pu as a chronomarker in sediment cores from Australia (3 sites) and New Zealand (1 site). The Pu profiles of five cores are examined and compared with the corresponding (137)Cs profiles and (210)Pb geochronologies. We find that Pu has significant advantages over (137)Cs, including greater measurement sensitivity using alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometric techniques compared to (137)Cs measurements by gamma spectrometry. Moreover, Pu provides additional chronomarkers associated with changes in the Pu isotopic composition of fallout during the 1950s and 1960s. In particular, the (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratio shows distinct shifts in the early 1950s and the mid to late 1960s, providing important known-age horizons in southern hemisphere sediments. For estuarine and near-shore sediments Pu sometimes has another significant advantage over (137)Cs due to its enrichment in bottom sediment relative to (137)Cs resulting from the

  7. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    PubMed

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-03

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area.

  8. The presence of natural radioactivity and 137Cs in the South China Sea bordering peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Y M; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Takleef, Ghazwa Hatem; Bradley, D A

    2013-10-01

    The presence of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs has been investigated in fresh media obtained from South China Sea locations off the coast of peninsular Malaysia. The media include seafood, sea water and sediment. The samples were collected some weeks prior to the devastating 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and associated tsunami, the occurrence of which precipitated the Fukushima incident. All samples showed the presence of naturally occurring (226)Ra, (228)Ra and primordial (40)K, all at typically prevailing levels. The concentrations of natural radioactivity in molluscs were found to be greater than that of other marine life studied herein, the total activity ranging from 337 to 393 Bq kg(-1) dry weight. The total activity in sea water ranged from 15 to 88 Bq l(-1). Sediment samples obtained at deep sea locations more than 20 km offshore further revealed the presence of (137)Cs. The activity of (137)Cs varied from ND to 0.5 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, the activity increasing with offshore distance and depth. The activity concentrations presented herein should be considered useful in assessing the impact of any future radiological contamination to the marine environment.

  9. The extremely high 137Cs inventory in the Sulu Sea: a possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Zheng, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Large-volume seawater samples were collected in the Sulu and South China Seas and their (137)Cs activities were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using a low background type high-purity Ge detector. Vertical distributions of (137)Cs activity showed an exponential decrease in the South China Sea, whereas a subsurface maximum at 200m depth and monotonic decrease below 300m were observed in the Sulu Sea. A significant difference in intermediate water (137)Cs activities in the 500-2000m depth was observed between the Sulu and South China Seas, i.e., the (137)Cs activities in the Sulu Sea were remarkably higher than those in the South China Sea. The difference in the (137)Cs inventory below 500m was approximately 1200Bqm(-2) between the Sulu and South China Seas. The (137)Cs total inventory of 3200Bqm(-2) in the Sulu Sea was 5.7 times higher than that expected from global fallout. A possible mechanism controlling this extremely high (137)Cs total inventory may be inflows of the (137)Cs rich water masses through the Luzon Strait, lateral transport across the Mindoro Strait into the Sulu Sea, and then subduction into the deep layer in the basin.

  10. Seasonal changes of (137)Cs in benthic plants from the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Tamara

    (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined in samples of macrophytes Polysiphonia fucoides (red algae) and Zostera marina (vascular plant) collected during the entire vegetation season in the Gulf of Gdańsk in the southern Baltic Sea. The measurements showed considerable seasonality of (137)Cs activity in both species; an increase of cesium concentrations was observed from spring to autumn with maximal levels 49.1 ± 1.4 Bq kgd.w.(-1) (P. fucoides) and 14.5 ± 1.0 Bq kgd.w.(-1) (Z. marina) in late autumn. (137)Cs concentrations observed in a given season are the result of a number of processes, the intensity of which can differ depending on external environmental conditions. The effects of these processes can differ and their directions can frequently be opposite to one another. The examined macrophytobenthic plant species could serve as bioindicators of radionuclide pollution for monitoring purposes on condition that the samples of plants are taken within a strictly defined period of the year to give comparable results and to supply realistic information about pollution levels.

  11. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in lichens in an alpine region.

    PubMed

    Machart, Peter; Hofmann, Werner; Türk, Roman; Steger, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    About 17 years after the Chernobyl accident, lichen samples were collected in an alpine region in Austria (Bad Gastein), which was heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations in selected lichens (Cetraria islandica, Cetraria cucullata, and Cladonia arbuscula) ranged from 100 to 1100 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, depending on lichen species and sampling site. Ecological half-lives for 137Cs in different lichen samples, obtained by comparison with earlier measurements of the same lichen species at the same site, ranged from 2 to 6 years, with average values between 3 and 4 years. Comparison with earlier studies indicated that ecological half-lives hardly changed during the last 10 years, suggesting that ecological clearance mechanisms (e.g. washout or soil transfer) did not vary substantially at the selected sampling area.

  12. 137Cs as a tracer of recent sedimentary processes in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, R.A.; Steele, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    To determine recent sediment movement, we measured the levels of 137Cs (an artificial radionuclide produced during nuclear weapons testing) of 118 southern Lake Michigan samples and 27 in Green Bay. These samples, taken from 286 grab samples of the upper 3 cm of sediment, were collected in 1975 as part of a systematic study of Lake Michigan sediment. 137Cs levels correlated well with concentrations of organic carbon, lead, and other anthropogenic trace metals in the sediment. 137Cs had a higher correlation with silt-sized than with clay-sized sediment (0.55 and 0.46, respectively). Atmospherically derived 137Cs and trace metals are being redistributed by sedimentary processes in Lake Michigan after being incorporated in suspended sediment. We determined a distribution pattern of 137Cs that represents areas of southern Lake Michigan where sediment deposition is occurring. ?? 1986 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  13. Thirty years after Chernobyl: Long-term determination of (137)Cs effective half-life in the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum.

    PubMed

    Savino, F; Pugliese, M; Quarto, M; Adamo, P; Loffredo, F; De Cicco, F; Roca, V

    2017-04-05

    It has been widely shown that nuclear fallout includes substances, which accumulate in organisms such as crustaceans, fish, mushrooms and lichens, helping to evaluate the activity concentration of contaminants accumulated on a long time. In this context, radiocaesium deposited in soil following the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 is known to have remained persistently available for plant uptake in many areas of Europe. Studies on the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum show the plant's high capacity to retain radionuclides from the substrate and the air. After the Chernobyl accident, starting from September 1986, at the Radioactivity Laboratory (LaRa) of the University of Naples Federico II, four monitoring campaigns to evaluate the activity concentration of four isotopes of the two elements caesium and ruthenium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (103)Ru and (106)Ru) were carried out until 1999. This study allowed the effective half-life of (134)Cs and (137)Cs to be estimated. Twenty-eight years after the accident, in December 2014, a further sampling was carried out; only (137)Cs was revealed beyond the detection limits, measuring activity concentrations ranging from 20 to 40 Bq/kg, while the other radionuclides were no longer observed due to their shorter half-life. The last sampling allowed more precise determination of the effective half-life of (137)Cs (6.2 ± 0.1 year), due to the larger dataset on a large time period.

  14. A biokinetic model for {sup 137}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    An improved biokinetic model for {sup 137}Cs in humans was developed based on an analysis of data obtained from individuals internally contaminated during an accident in Goiania, Brazil, and other data. Seventeen children (ten girls and seven boys 1-10 y old), ten adolescents (four females and six males), and thirty adults, (fifteen females and fifteen males) contaminated in the accident in Goiania contributed to this study. {sup 137}Cs retention was determined through periodic measurements in a whole-body counter. In addition to the data on {sup 137}Cs retention from these individuals, data from a study on the metabolism of {sup 137}Cs in immature, adult, and aged Beagle dogs and data from the literature were used in the formulation of the {sup 137}Cs biokinetic model presented. Mathematically, the retention of cesium is described by three exponential terms, and the retention model is based on a step function of body weight. When the ICRP Publication 56 model for cesium was compared to the model suggested in this paper, it was determined that the ICRP model predicts lower effective doses in 5-y-old children and higher effective doses in infants, adolescents, and adults.

  15. Spatial pattern of 137Cs in soils in a mixed deciduous forest in Fukushima, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, M.; Yamada, T.; Takahara, T.; Okuda, T.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of 137Cs contamination was studied in a forest floor of Fukushima region, c.a. 40 km NW of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) focusing on downwards flow from forest canopy via stemflow and throughfall which play major role in determining spatial contamination of 137Cs after the FNDP accident. Setting a study plot (400 m2) in a secondary mixed deciduous forest, dominated by Quercus crispula and Abies firma in canopy layer in August and November 2014, we sampled the souk from surface to 5 cm in depth of soils and measured 137Cs in every 2 m grids and at tree stem bases. The total estimated activity of 137Cs in soil within the study plot was approximately 210 kBq/m2, but showed large spatial heterogeneity showing 30 times of difference between the lowest and highest activities. The activity decreased with increasing distances from tree stem bases. High activity around tree stem bases was presumably due to the stemflow containing 137Cs seeped into soil only around tree stem bases that raised radioactivity in soil locally in the areas. Relatively low activity away from trees (outside canopies) may be due to small effects of stemflow and throughfall. Activity of 137Cs around bases of deciduous broadleaf trees increased with increasing the tree size. Because larger trees have higher potentials to capture larger amount of 137Cs on the tree surface, cumulative activity of 137Cs included in stemflow may increase with increasing the tree size. However evergreen coniferous tree species (Abies firma) did not show such a pattern relating to the tree size. The difference is assumed to be affected by phenological characteristics as the accident happened in winter and deciduous broadleaf trees did not have leaves and 137Cs deposited on tree bodies, while evergreen coniferous tree had leaves and 137Cs was intercepted by the canopies.

  16. Atmospheric deposition and riverine load of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea) in the period 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    In the period 2005-2011 total atmospheric fallout and the riverine input to the Gulf of Gdańsk was 1168.8 GBq of (90)Sr and 424.1 GBq (137)Cs. The major source of both radionuclides to the Gulf of Gdańsk is the Vistula river; its contribution reached 99.7% in the case of (90)Sr and 95.8% regarding (137)Cs. The atmospheric load of (137)Cs, 18.1 GBq, was nearly 4 times bigger than in the case of (90)Sr (3.75 GBq). In the period 2005-2010, the average annual atmospheric load were at the levels 2-3 GBq for (137)Cs and 0.4-0.6 GBq for (90)Sr, while in 2011, due to the Fukuchima Dai-ichi power plant break down, an increase of annual atmospheric loads was noted to 5.3 GBq of (137)Cs and to 0.87 GBq of (90)Sr. The additional loads did not have an increasing effect on the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in seawater of the Gulf of Gdańsk, where mean activity concentrations in seawater were equal to 31.1 Bq m(-3) and 7.6 Bq m(-3) in the case of (137)Cs and (90)Sr respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term behaviour of 137Cs in spruce bark in coniferous forests in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rulík, Petr; Pilátová, Helena; Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Activity concentrations of (137)Cs were detected in more than 400 outer spruce bark samples collected at sites variably affected by Chernobyl fallout across the Czech Republic in 1995 and 2010. The temporal changes in the (137)Cs activities were found. The mean effective half-life (TEF) for (137)Cs in spruce bark was 9.6 years, and the mean environmental half-life (TE) was 14 years. The effective half-lives were significantly higher in areas with higher long-term annual precipitation sums. Coefficient a in linear regression y = ax + b of half-lives on precipitation sums was 0.015 y mm(-1) for TEF and 0.036 y mm(-1) for TE. The aggregated transfer factor of (137)Cs from soil to bark was determined and the pre-Chernobyl bark contamination related to year 2010 was estimated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term transport and dispersion of 137Cs released into ocean off Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chang; Qiao, Fangli; Wang, Guansuo; Xia, Changshui; Jung, KyungTae

    2014-05-01

    In the following days after the Fukushima nuclear accident which happened in 11th March 2011, significant amounts of radioactive materials (131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) had been leaking into the terrestrial and marine environments. The radionuclides model was used to study the distribution of the 137Cs in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean released from the Fukushima accident. The simulation on the distribution of 137Cs agrees well with the the observed profiles in the 9th November 2011, which proved the validaty of the model. In the first year of our model run, the 137Cs is carried eastward by the Kuroshio and its extension, spreading southward and northword meanwhile. Four or five years after the accident, the 137Cs reaches the US coast with the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean; its concentration is no higher than 3 Bq/m3. Ten years after the accident, all the North Pacific Ocean is labeled with the 137Cs from the Fukushima. The concentration is less than 1 Bq/m3 at that time. Thirty years after the accident, the concentration of 137Cs in both the Pacific and the Indian Ocean is below 0.1 Bq/m3. Since the spreading path of 137Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident is just the migration route of the Pacific tuna, a kind of fish inhabit the western and eastern North Pacific, it may cause radioactive contamination to the fish. In the offshore seas of China, the 137Cs from Fukushima nuclear accident is very low (<0.2 Bq/m3) .

  19. 137Cs dynamics in the forest of Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident in March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, I.; Ohte, N.; Iseda, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Hirose, A.; Tanoi, K.

    2013-12-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the earthquake and Tsunami in March 11th 2011, caused large amount of radioactive Cesium (137Cs) emission into the environment. In the region of Fukushima Prefecture, forest dominates more than 70 % of the land area. River water from the forest area is used for food production and also for drinking water. Thus, it is important to understand the dynamics of 137Cs deposited in the forest to predict how the radioactive Cs diffuse and discharge from the forest catchments. We measured 137Cs concentration of the tree body, litter fall, throughfall, and stemflow, in order to clarify how 137Cs deposited on the above ground biomass of the forest are transported to the forest floor. We set forest site at the upstream part of Kami-Oguni River catchment, northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. Three plots (2 deciduous stands and 1 Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation stand) were set in the forest site. Quercus serrata and C. japonica, which are representative tree species, were chosen at each plot and concentration of 137Cs on the bark, sapwood and heartwood were measured every 2 m from the ground to tree top. From each plot, 137Cs concentration of leaf litter was measured among species. Water samples of throughfall and stemflow were filtered and 137Cs concentration in suspended matter was measured. 137Cs was deposited on the bark of Q. serrata at high concentration (9-18 kBq/kg) but there were no clear relationship between tree height and concentration. 137Cs concentration of the sapwood (41 Bq/kg) was relatively higher than that of the heartwood (5 Bq/kg). It was suggested that 137Cs may be absorbed from bark and/or root. The concentration of 137Cs deposited in leaf litter varied from non-detected level to above 30 kBq/kg. The concentration was higher at evergreen tree than deciduous tree. It is considered that the litter of evergreen tree was derived from leaves on the tree canopy at the time of the

  20. Modeling of leachable 137Cs in throughfall and stemflow for Japanese forest canopies after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Nicolas; Onda, Yuichi; Kawamori, Ayumi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2014-09-15

    The Fukushima accident dispersed significant amounts of radioactive cesium (Cs) in the landscape. Our research investigated, from June 2011 to November 2013, the mobility of leachable Cs in forests canopies. In particular, (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentrations were measured in rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in broad-leaf and cedar forests in an area located 40 km from the power plant. Leachable (137)Cs loss was modeled by a double exponential (DE) model. This model could not reproduce the variation in activity concentration observed. In order to refine the DE model, the main physical measurable parameters (rainfall intensity, wind velocity, and snowfall occurrence) were assessed, and rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling observed variation. A corrective factor was then developed to incorporate rainfall intensity in an improved DE model. With the original DE model, we estimated total (137)Cs loss by leaching from canopies to be 72 ± 4%, 67 ± 4%, and 48 ± 2% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. In contrast, with the improved DE model, the total (137)Cs loss by leaching was estimated to be 34 ± 2%, 34 ± 2%, and 16 ± 1% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. The improved DE model corresponds better to observed data in literature. Understanding (137)Cs and (134)Cs forest dynamics is important for forecasting future contamination of forest soils around the FDNPP. It also provides a basis for understanding forest transfers in future potential nuclear disasters.

  1. A (137)Cs erosion model with moving boundary.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chuan; Ji, Hongbing

    2015-12-01

    A novel quantitative model of the relationship between diffused concentration changes and erosion rates using assessment of soil losses was developed. It derived from the analysis of surface soil (137)Cs flux variation under persistent erosion effect and based on the principle of geochemistry kinetics moving boundary. The new moving boundary model improves the basic simplified transport model (Zhang et al., 2008), and mainly applies to uniform rainfall areas which show a long-time soil erosion. The simulation results for this kind of erosion show under a long-time soil erosion, the influence of (137)Cs concentration will decrease exponentially with increasing depth. Using the new model fit to the measured (137)Cs depth distribution data in Zunyi site, Guizhou Province, China which has typical uniform rainfall provided a good fit with R(2) = 0.92. To compare the soil erosion rates calculated by the simple transport model and the new model, we take the Kaixian reference profile as example. The soil losses estimated by the previous simplified transport model are greater than those estimated by the new moving boundary model, which is consistent with our expectations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pu, 137Cs and excess 210Pb in Russian Arctic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, M.; Asbill, Shaunna; Santschi, Peter; Brooks, James; Champ, Michael; Adkinson, Dan; Colmer, Matthew R.; Makeyev, Vyacheslav

    1996-05-01

    The activity ratios of Pu and radiocesium isotopes have been used to delineate the major sources (such as global and close-in (debris) fallout, nuclear fuel reprocessing and fabrication plant effluents) in the environment. We have measured 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 137Cs, and excess 210Pb concentrations in 107 surficial sediments as well as in 5 sediment cores collected in the summer months of 1993 and 1994 from the Ob and Yenisey Rivers (Russia) and the Kara sea. A comparison of the sediment core inventories of 239,240Pu and 137Cs, along with the 238Pu/ 239,240Pu activity ratios, with those expected from global fallout allows us to estimate the relative amounts, if any, of reactor-derived 238Pu and 239,240Pu from the dumped reactor sites in the study area. In surficial sediment samples collected in 1993 and 1994, the 239,240Pu concentrations varied between 4.2 and 856 mBq kg -1, with a mean of 239 mBq kg -1. In samples with a measurable 238Pu, the 238Pu/ 239,240Pu activity ratios varied between 0.010 and 0.069, with an average value of 0.035 ± 0.014. This range can be compared to the average 238Pu/ 239,240Pu activity ratio of 0.030 for the year 1993 from nuclear weapons testing and SNAP fallout obtained from soil studies, indicating very little (≤ 5%) additional sources of 238Pu to the sediments in the study area. The inventories of Pu in the 5 sediment cores from the study area varied between 2.67 ± 0.67 and 24.5 ± 2.2 Bq m -2 with a mean value of 8.83 Bq m -2. The 137Cs concentrations in the upper 3 cm of the sediments varied between below detection limit to 71.4 Bq kg -1, with a mean of 14.9 Bq kg -1. The 137Cs inventories in the 5 sediment cores varied between 156.7 ± 28.3 and 1600 ± 153.3 Bq m -2, with a mean value of 583.3 Bq m -2. The mean ratio of inventories of Pu to that of 137Cs, 0.015, is comparable to the values in other places in the Arctic region. There is a significant correlation between total organic carbon and concentrations of 137Cs, 239,240Pu

  3. Transfer factors of natural radionuclides and (137)Cs from soil to plants used in traditional medicine in central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djelic, Gorica; Krstic, Dragana; Stajic, Jelena M; Milenkovic, Biljana; Topuzovic, Marina; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Vucic, Dusica; Zeremski, Tijana; Stankovic, Milan; Kostic, Dragana

    2016-07-01

    Transfer factors of natural radionuclides and (137)Cs from soil to plants used in traditional medicine were determined. The transfer factors (TF) were calculated as Bq kg(-1) of dry plant per Bq kg(-1) of dry soil. Mass activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in soil and plant samples were measured with high purity germanium detector (HPGe). The concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined, as well as the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the content of exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na). Wide ranges of values were obtained for all the metals, especially for Cr and Ni. The Absalom model was used for determination of the amount of (137)Cs transferred from soil to plant based on soil characteristics such as pH, exchangeable potassium, humus and clay contents. The estimated transfer factors were in the range from 0.011 to 0.307 with an arithmetic mean of 0.071, median of 0.050, geometric mean of 0.053 and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.08. This value agreed well with that calculated from the measurements of 0.069, geometric mean 0.040 and GSD 3.19. Correlations between radionuclides, metals, physicochemical properties and transfer factors were determined by Spearman correlation coefficient. There was a strong positive correlation between (137)Cs transfer factor and the ratio of transfer factor for K and (137)Cs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed in order to identify some pattern of data. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Behavior of 131I and 137Cs in environments released from the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.; Kubota, T.; Igarashi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The devastating tsunami that caused by the great earthquake (M = 9.0) off the coast of northeastern Honshu on 11 March 2011 destroyed large coastal areas of Tohoku and north Kanto, Japan. Radionuclides, including 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs, were released into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Daiichi plants. Concentration of levels of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, released from the Fukushima Daiichi plant were investigated in the soil and precipitation. The concentrations of 131I and 137Cs in the soil from the surface to 1 cm depth in Ibaraki Prefecture were 9360-13,400 Bq/kg and 720-3250 Bq/kg, respectively. The concentration of 137Cs at this soil observation site originating from the Fukushima plant was 8.4 to 21 times that found locally after the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion. Most of the 134Cs and 137Cs from rainwater were trapped by the surface soil and sand to a depth of 1 cm, whereas only about 30% of the 131I was collected by the surface soil, suggesting that 131I would move deeper than 137Cs and 134Cs. The 131I in the rainwater was in the anion exchangeable form, and all of it could be collected by anion exchangeable mechanisms, whereas 30% of the 131I that had passed through the soil could not be trapped by the anion exchange resin, suggesting that the chemical form of this 30% was in a changeable, organic-bound form. The 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs that were absorbed on soil were difficult to be dissolved into water. As the half-life of 131I is short and 137Cs is strongly adsorbed on the surface soil and sand, these radionuclides would be unlikely to reach the groundwater before completely decaying; contamination of groundwater with 131I and 137Cs supplied from rainwater to the surface soil is therefore exceedingly unlikely. As the 137Cs is likely to migrate only 0.6 cm in 10 years, people living in the Fukushima and Kanto areas will be exposed to radiation from 137Cs in the surface soil and sand. For protection, surface soils and sands

  5. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental {sup 137}Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage {sup 137}Cs concentrations. The study`s objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation {sup 137}Cs concentrations are statistically the same.

  6. Modeling (137)Cs bioaccumulation in the salmon-resident killer whale food web of the Northeastern Pacific following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan José; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2016-02-15

    To track the long term bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in marine organisms off the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada, we developed a time dependent bioaccumulation model for (137)Cs in a marine mammalian food web that included fish-eating resident killer whales. The model outcomes show that (137)Cs can be expected to gradually bioaccumulate in the food web over time as demonstrated by the increase of the apparent trophic magnification factor of (137)Cs, ranging from 0.76 after 1 month of exposure to 2.0 following 30 years of exposure. (137)Cs bioaccumulation is driven by relatively rapid dietary uptake rates, moderate depuration rates in lower trophic level organisms and slow elimination rates in high trophic level organisms. Model estimates of the (137)Cs activity in species of the food web, based on current measurements and forecasts of (137)Cs activities in oceanic waters and sediments off the Canadian Pacific Northwest, indicate that the long term (137)Cs activities in fish species including Pacific herring, wild Pacific salmon, sablefish and halibut will remain well below the current (137)Cs-Canada Action Level for consumption (1000 Bq/kg) following a nuclear emergency. Killer whales and Pacific salmon are expected to exhibit the largest long term (137)Cs activities and may be good sentinels for monitoring (137)Cs in the region. Assessment of the long term consequences of (137)Cs releases from the Fukushima aftermath should consider the extent of ecological magnification in addition to ocean dilution.

  7. Ageing impact on the transfer factor of (137)Cs and (90)Sr to lettuce and winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Abdul Ghani, Basem

    2016-11-01

    The study focuses on long-term (extending from 1 to 10 years) lysimeter experiments of the transfer factor of (137)Cs and (90)Sr to lettuce and winter wheat crops. Transfer factors (Fvs) were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Fvs of (137)Cs to lettuce decreased significantly with ageing; geometric means for the 1(st), 2(nd) and 10(th) year contaminated soil were 0.114, 0.030 and 0.013, respectively. However, a significant decline of Fvs for (137)Cs was only seen between the 1(st) and 2(nd) year for both wheat compartments (straw and grains) which disappeared thereafter. The dynamic of (137)Cs Fvs may be explained according to the distribution coefficient experiment (Kd) which had a value of 3600 L kg(-1) showing a high affinity of the clay minerals for caesium. Desorption data revealed that Cs fixation enhanced with ageing. The mechanism involved may be an initial sorption of caesium species to the surface soil particles followed by progressive irreversible fixation to the interlayer of the porous clay minerals. Fvs of (90)Sr were high and showed trivial variation for both crops for the time course studied. Sorption of Sr(2+) species to the clay mineral may be the governing process, which was supported by high desorption percentage (ranged 77%) with low Kd, i.e. 10 L kg(-1). In general, higher Fvs of (137)Cs and (90)Sr for lettuce was observed in comparison to winter wheat. The diversity of plant species and root systems would play essential roles for such behaviours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Desorption of 137Cs from Brachythecium mildeanum moss using acid solutions with pH 4.60-6.50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čučulović, Ana; Veselinović, Dragan

    2015-12-01

    The desorption of 137Cs from the moss Brachythecium mildeanum (Schimp.) was performed using the following solutions: H2SO4 ( I), HNO3 ( II), H2SO4 + HNO3 ( III) with pH values of 4.60, 5.15, and 5.75, respectively, as well as distilled water (D) with pH 6.50. After five successive desorptions, each lasting 24 h, 20.5-37.6% 137Cs was desorbed from the moss using these solutions, while 30.7% of the starting content was desorbed using distilled water. The first desorption removed the highest percent of the original content of 137Cs in the moss (11.3-18.4%). This was determined by measuring 137Cs activity. If the current results are compared with those obtained earlier it may be concluded that 137Cs desorption from mosses is not species-dependent. The obtained results indicate the necessity of investigating the influence of acid rain, or rather, of H+ ions, on desorption of other ions from biological systems, i.e., the role of H+ ions in spreading other polluting compounds and thus producing secondary environmental pollution. From the results of this study it follows that acid rain will lead, through H+ ion action, to a similar increasing pollution of fallout waters with other ionic compounds which may not be present in the water before the contact with the plants and thus enable the pollution spreading. In the investigated system, the replacement of H+ ions from acid rains by more dangerous radioactive ions occured, increasing the concentration of the radioactive ions in the water, which demonstrates that the same process takes place in fallout water.

  9. 228Ra/226Ra ratio and 7Be concentration in the Sea of Japan as indicators for water transport: comparison with migration pattern of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP-derived 134Cs and 137Cs.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Furusawa, Y; Fujimoto, K; Minakawa, M; Kofuji, H; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, M; Hamajima, Y; Yoshida, K; Nakano, Y; Hayakawa, K; Oikawa, S; Misonoo, J; Isoda, Y

    2013-12-01

    To assess the migration patterns of radiocesium emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we analyzed (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios and (7)Be concentrations and compared them with (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in seawater samples collected within the Sea of Japan before and after the FDNPP accident (i.e., during the period 2007-2012) using low-background γ-spectrometry. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios in surface waters exhibited lateral and seasonal variations, reflecting the flow patterns of surface water. This indicates the transport patterns of the FDNPP-derived radiocesium by surface water. Cosmogenic (7)Be (half-life: 53.3 d) exhibited markedly high concentrations (5-10 mBq/L) at depths shallower than 50 m, with concentrations decreasing steeply (0.2-2 mBq/L) at depths of 50-250 m. The distribution of (7)Be concentrations suggests that the downward delivery of the FDNPP-derived radiocesium to below 50 m depth was negligible for a few months prior to its removal from the Sea of Japan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of 137Cs in the Andes Mountains near Santiago, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, R.; Morales, J. R.; Silva, L. Da; Donoso, S.; Godoy, S.; Mera, E.

    2012-02-01

    The presence of 137Cs was detected in soil samples from thi rteen sites along parallel 33°,3S at altitudes in the range from 900 to 1800 masl along the Maipo River canyon, near Santiago, the Chilean capital city. Gamma spectros copic analyses performed to the samples allowed identification of radionuclides emitted in the decay processes of the natural precursors 238U, 239Th together with primordial 40K. Concentrations of 137Cs relative to 40K showed significant variations.

  11. Ecological half-lives of 137Cs in fishes from the Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Littrell, J W; Peters, E L

    1999-10-01

    Ecological half-lives (Te's) were estimated for 137Cs in largemouth bass, sunfishes, and bullheads from two reservoirs and three streams on the Savannah River Site, a nuclear weapons material production facility in South Carolina. Ecological half-life is the time required for a given contaminant concentration to decrease by 50% as a result of physical, chemical, and/or biological processes that remove it from an ecosystem or render it biologically unavailable. Te's were estimated from whole-fish 137Cs concentrations in samples collected during 1972-1996, following radionuclide releases that occurred primarily during the 1960's and early 1970's. Te's ranged from 3.2 to 16.7 y, and all were shorter than expected from the half-life for radioactive decay (Tp = 30.2 y) alone. Fish taxa from the same locations differed in mean 137Cs concentrations (highest in largemouth bass and lowest in sunfishes) but, in most cases, exhibited similar 137Cs Te's. Rates of 137Cs removal in fishes were strongly correlated with rates of 137Cs removal in water. The shortest Te's occurred in the upper portions of the streams. Te's in lower portions of the streams were longer, as were Te's in one of the reservoirs. Te's in the second reservoir, which had a much shorter water residence time, were nearly comparable to those in the upper portions of the streams until 1991. At that time, 137Cs concentrations in fishes began to increase following drainage and refilling of the reservoir, which apparently resuspended 137Cs buried in the sediments.

  12. Seasonal variation of soil-to-plant transfer of K and fallout sup 134,137 Cs in peatland vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W. )

    1989-10-01

    For three plants from a peat bog (Trichophorum caespitosum, Molinia coerulea, Calluna vulgaris) the concentration of 137Cs, the ratio 137Cs:134Cs, and stable K was determined in intervals of about 14 d from June to November 1987. The results show that for two grasses, Trichophorum caespitosum and Molinia coerulea (which have only perennial roots but sprout every year while the old leaves wither), the concentration of 137Cs decreased considerably during the growing season (1800-240, respectively, 4000-320 Bq kg-1 dry weight). A remarkably similar behavior was observed for the seasonal variability of K and radiocesium in the two grass species, which resulted in a nearly constant ratio of 137Cs:K during the year. In contrast, for the evergreen plant Calluna vulgaris (heather) which was contaminated surficially by the Chernobyl fallout, the concentrations of K and 137Cs were rather constant during 1987 (leaves about 10,000; stems about 5000 Bq kg-1 dry weight), even though radiocesium was taken up by the leaves and transported within the plant. For the two grasses, the plant:soil concentration ratios (CR) were obtained separately for total 137Cs, 137Cs from the global fallout, and Chernobyl-derived 137Cs. The CR of 137Cs from the global fallout decreased for Trichophorum caespitosum from 1.9 in the spring to 0.08 in the autumn, and for Chernobyl-derived 137Cs from 1.4 to 0.2. For Molinia coerulea, a similar behavior was observed. Possible reasons for the seasonal variability of the CR values and the different behavior of 137Cs from the global fallout and from the Chernobyl debris are discussed.

  13. The limitations of using 137Cs for estimating soil redistribution in semi-arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Adrian

    1999-08-01

    The 137Cs technique for estimating net (ca. 30 years) soil flux has been used successfully in many environments. Its widespread use is probably because the 137Cs technique overcomes many of the problems of monitoring soil erosion and deposition (flux) over the medium-term (5 to 50 years) and at the hillslope scale. In this respect, the technique probably offers the greatest potential for measuring net soil flux in semi-arid environments where soil flux monitoring difficulties are compounded by considerable spatial and temporal variability of the controlling factors. However, there remain uncertainties in the underlying assumptions of the technique and difficulties in satisfying these assumptions, especially in semi-arid areas. Several key assumptions of the 137Cs technique for measuring net soil flux in semi-arid areas were investigated using data from southwest Niger. Samples were obtained along a toposequence typical of the region and at nested grid nodes stratified using geomorphological information for geostatistical estimation at unsampled locations providing complete coverage of the study area. The pervasive occurrence of dust made it difficult to identify an undisturbed site. A first approximation of the reference 137Cs inventory (2066±125 Bq m -2) was provided by modelling the 137Cs profile at an unvegetated site. Despite little evidence in the literature on problems of identifying a reference inventory, especially those suffering from wind erosion, it is likely that similar problems occur in other semi-arid areas. Problems with the preferential transport of 137Cs were identified by expressing the 137Cs concentration as a proportion of the weight in each grain-size fraction. However, it was partially accounted for in the calibration relationship by reducing (by a factor of 10) the 137Cs concentration of soil samples from the plateau. It is likely that workers in other semi-arid regions have similar problems of preferential transport of 137Cs and the method

  14. Vertical distributions of radionuclides ((239+240)Pu, (240)Pu/(239)Pu, and (137)Cs) in sediment cores of Lake Bosten in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Haiqing; Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Wu, Fengchang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-01

    Artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs, (239+240)Pu, (241)Pu, (241)Am) deposited in lacustrine sediments have been used for dating as well as radionuclide source identification. In the present work, we investigated the vertical distributions of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities, (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios, and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios in sediment cores collected from Lake Bosten, which is the lake closest to the Lop Nor Chinese Nuclear Weapon Test site in northwestern China. Uniformly high concentrations of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs were found in the upper layers deposited since 1964 in the sediment cores, and these were controlled by the resuspension of soil containing radionuclides from the nearby land surface. As the Chinese nuclear tests varied remarkably in yield, the mixing of the tropospheric deposition from these tests and the stratospheric deposition of global fallout has led to a (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio that is similar to that of global fallout and to a (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio that is slightly higher than that of global fallout. However, a low (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio of 0.080 and high (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio of 0.087, significantly different from the global fallout values, were observed in one sediment core (07BS10-2), indicating the inhomogenous tropospheric deposition from the Chinese nuclear tests in Lake Bosten during 1967-1973. These results are important to understand the influence of the CNTs on the radionuclide contamination in Lake Bosten.

  15. High spatial resolution observations of 137Cs in northern Britain and Ireland from airborne geophysical survey.

    PubMed

    Scheib, Cathy; Beamish, David

    2010-09-01

    This study reports the (137)Cs data derived from three regional and national scale High Resolution Airborne Resource and Environmental Surveys (HiRES) in northern Britain and Ireland. The detailed spatial resolution, combined with the large areas these surveys collectively cover, gives insight into large-scale deposition patterns and possible subsequent re-distribution of (137)Cs on a level that was previously not possible. The largest survey area considered covers the whole of Northern Ireland. All three data sets display some clustering of higher (137)Cs activities on high ground together with regional scale NNW-SSE and NW-SE banding features. We interpret these as representing a series of rainfall interceptions of the repeated passage of the Chernobyl plume. Our observations, obtained at 200 m flight line intervals, appear to provide significant detail in relation to existing knowledge of large scale along-wind deposition of (137)Cs.

  16. The use of tree bark as long term biomonitor of (137)Cs deposition.

    PubMed

    Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Incze, Reka; Kovacs, Tibor; Žunić, Zora S

    2016-03-01

    Airborne (137)Cs originated from the nuclear tests in the atmosphere and from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster was retained by the trees biomass and nowadays it can still be found in various concentrations in tree barks from Romania and other European countries. This study brings the first results of (137)Cs presence in tree bark from Romania on different considerations: (i) data dispersion in spruce and oak bark from NW, SW and central Romania, and the spatial variability of (137)Cs within oak and spruce bark from a natural protected forest area from Balvanyos area (Covasna County), known to be highly affected by the Chernobyl nuclear release; (ii) comparison of (137)Cs content in different tree bark species (oak, spruce, poplar and cherry); (iii) differences in (137)Cs concentrations with the bark depth layers and around the tree trunk; and (iv) comparison of mean (137)Cs values in spruce/oak bark from Romania with data from other European countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative analysis of (239)Pu, (137)Cs, (210)Pb and (40)K spatial distributions in the top soil layer at the Baltic coast.

    PubMed

    Luksiene, B; Druteikiene, R; Gvozdaite, R; Gudelis, A

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the spatial distribution of radionuclides of artificial ((239,240)Pu, (137)Cs) and natural ((210)Pb, (40)K) origins in the upper (0-5 cm) soil layers on the Baltic coastline of Lithuania ( approximately 5 km(2) area). The samples were analysed by gamma ray spectrometry and combined radiochemical procedures. The highest (210)Pb, (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined in the forest samples, whereas (40)K activity was rather homogeneous across the study area. Relatively high (239,240)Pu and (40)K activity concentrations were determined along the surf zone. The (210)Pb and (137)Cs activity concentrations showed a gradual increase from the surf zone to the forest. The average activity concentrations of (239,240)Pu, (137)Cs, (210)Pb and (40)K in the beach and forest samples, respectively, were as follows: 0.32+/-0.08 and 0.74+/-0.14; 50+/-4 and 1190+/-50; 4.7+/-2.0 and 48+/-6; 186+/-15 and 216+/-17 Bq/kg.

  18. Measurement of fallout radionuclides, (239)(,240)Pu and (137)Cs, in soil and creek sediment: Sydney Basin, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, B S; Child, D P; Fierro, D; Harrison, J J; Heijnis, H; Hotchkis, M A C; Johansen, M P; Marx, S; Payne, T E; Zawadzki, A

    2016-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples from the Sydney basin were measured to ascertain fallout radionuclide activity concentrations and atom ratios. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) was measured using gamma spectroscopy, and plutonium isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) were quantified using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Fallout radionuclide activity concentrations were variable ranging from 0.6 to 26.1 Bq/kg for (137)Cs and 0.02-0.52 Bq/kg for (239+240)Pu. Radionuclides in creek sediment samples were an order of magnitude lower than in soils. (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu activity concentration in soils were well correlated (r(2) = 0.80) although some deviation was observed in samples collected at higher elevations. Soil ratios of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu (decay corrected to 1/1/2014) ranged from 11.5 to 52.1 (average = 37.0 ± 12.4) and showed more variability than previous studies. (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.117 to 0.165 with an average of 0.146 (±0.013) and an error weighted mean of 0.138 (±0.001). These ratios are lower than a previously reported ratio for Sydney, and lower than the global average. However, these ratios are similar to those reported for other sites within Australia that are located away from former weapons testing sites and indicate that atom ratio measurements from other parts of the world are unlikely to be applicable to the Australian context.

  19. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi.

  20. 137Cs and 90Sr behavioural regularities in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Styro, D; Bumeliene, Z; Lukinskiene, M; Morkuniene, R

    2001-01-01

    Variations in 137Cs concentrations were investigated over the period 1986-1997 in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea, following the Chernobyl power plant accident. The rate of "self-cleaning" was demonstrated to be very slow, the average concentration of 137Cs in 1996 being almost the same as that measured directly after the accident, in 1986. Measurements of both 137Cs and 90Sr concentrations generally revealed homogeneous distributions in this region of the Baltic Sea, though patchy distributions did develop under some hydrometeorological conditions. Specifically, the 137Cs concentration distribution became heterogeneous with values varying in the range 60-92 Bq/m3 under south-southwesterly wind conditions whilst the 90Sr concentration distribution developed similar characteristics with values ranging from 15 to 64 Bq/m3 under east-southeasterly wind conditions. In addition, in coastal waters, over extensive periods of north-northwesterly winds in 1995, 137Cs concentrations increased to values 1.5-2 times the overall average concentration, which was registered in 1986 and 1996. These data therefore reveal a continuing significant pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea resulting from the Chernobyl power plant accident, a pollution compounded by the slow rate of radionuclide self-cleaning and significant probability of sudden regional concentration increase.

  1. Measurements and Observations of 134Cs and 137Cs around a Nuclear Power Plant in Busan, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, H. Y.; Park, J. N.; Kim, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the change of representative species 134Cs and 137Cs of artificial radionuclides from the nuclear power station nearby for the last five years(2010~2014). The Kori Nuclear Power Plant, nuclear power facility located near Busan, is located in the south-east coast of Korea and about 21km north-east away from the Haeundae and about 25km south away from the Ulsan. An administrative district is Jangan-eup, Gijang-gun, Busan, Korea. A point was selected on the basis of the "Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan around Nuclear Power Plants" and periodically samples were collected and analyzed. The samples were collected from the soils of the surface in the Wolnae area (NW, 1.7km). The soil samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer with High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) of 40% relative efficiency and were measured for 80,000 sec. As a results of soil analysis, 137Cs were detected in samples only selected in March 2013. The activity concentration of 137Cs founded in the soil sample was 0.513±0.052Bq/kg-dry. In the other hands, the concentration of 137Cs in the year 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2014 were below the minimum detectable activity (MDA). 40K, natural radionuclides which is widely present, was detected in the soil samples and other artificial radionuclides were not detected. The result of overall comparison of the environmental radioactivity survey around Kori Nuclear Power Plant for the last five years is that radioactivity levels are within average range. However, it is necessary to continue to carefully observe a fine change in regional or the monthly radiation concentration.

  2. 137Cs and 90Sr in live and dead reindeer lichens (genera Cladonia) from the "Kraton-3" underground nuclear explosion site.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Mishine, A; Kaduka, M; Basalaeva, L; Brown, J; Andersson, K G

    2007-01-01

    The contents of 137Cs and 90Sr have been determined in 29 samples of live and dead reindeer lichens (genera Cladonia) collected at the "Kraton-3" underground nuclear explosion site (65.9 degrees N 112.3 degrees E, event year--1978) in Yakutia, Russia in 2002. The area contamination was within the range of 0.36-700 and 0.13-770 kBq m(-2) for 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. The dead organisms were on average much more contaminated than the live ones. Vertical fractionation of the live lichen carpet demonstrated maximal activity concentrations of both radionuclides in the lower older section of the plants, while for the dead lichens the maximal activity concentrations of 137Cs were detected in the upper part. The vertical distribution of 90Sr was more or less homogeneous in the cushions of dead lichens. Elevated levels of 137Cs and 90Sr activity concentrations were also detected in the re-establishing young lichens growing over the residua of some dead lichens.

  3. Transport of 137Cs and 239,240Pu with ice-rafted debris in the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Reimnitz, E.; Beals, D.M.; Pochkowski, J.M.; Winn, W.G.; Rigor, I.

    1998-01-01

    Ice rafting is the dominant mechanism responsible for the transport of fine-grained sediments from coastal zones to the deep Arctic Basin. Therefore, the drift of ice-rafted debris (IRD) could be a significant transport mechanism from the shelf to the deep basin for radionuclides originating from nuclear fuel cycle activities and released to coastal Arctic regions of the former Soviet Union. In this study, 28 samples of IRD collected from the Arctic ice pack during expeditions in 1989-95 were analyzed for 137Cs by gamma spectrometry and for 239Pu and 240Pu by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. 137Cs concentrations in the IRD ranged from less than 0.2 to 78 Bq??kg-1 (dry weight basis). The two samples with the highest 137Cs concentrations were collected in the vicinity of Franz Josef Land, and their backward trajectories suggest origins in the Kara Sea. Among the lowest 137Cs values are seven measured on sediments entrained on the North American shelf in 1989 and 1995, and sampled on the shelf less than six months later. Concentrations of 239Pu + 240Pu ranged from about 0.02 to 1.8 Bq??kg-1. The two highest values came from samples collected in the central Canada Basin and near Spitsbergen; calculated backward trajectories suggest at least 14 years of circulation in the Canada Basin in the former case, and an origin near Severnaya Zemlya (at the Kara Sea/Laptev Sea boundary) in the latter case. While most of the IRD samples showed 240Pu/239Pu ratios near the mean global fallout value of 0.185, five of the samples had lower ratios, in the 0.119 to 0.166 range, indicative of mixtures of Pu from fallout and from the reprocessing of weapons-grade Pu. The backward trajectories of these five samples suggest origins in the Kara Sea or near Severnaya Zemlya.

  4. Cross equator transport of 137Cs from North Pacific Ocean to South Pacific Ocean ( BEAGLE2003 cruises)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, M.; Fukasawa, M.; Hirose, K.; Hamajima, Y.; Kawano, T.; Povinec, P. P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I and some transuranics are important tracers of transport and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. 137Cs, with a half-life of 30 years, a major fission product present in a dissolved form in seawater, is a good tracer of oceanic circulation at a time scale of several decades. At WOCE P6 line along 30°S during the BEAGLE cruise in 2003, surface seawater (around 80 L) was collected a few meters below the ocean surface by a pumping system. Water column samples (from 5 to 20 L) were collected using a Rosette multisampling system and Niskin bottles. 137Cs was separated from seawater samples using ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) and analysed for 137Cs in low-level HPGe gamma-ray spectrometers. Results allowed to draw a detailed picture of the distribution of 137Cs in the South Pacific Ocean along P6 line. A 137Cs depth section was depicted from about 160 samples. 137Cs concentrations in the subsurface layers ranged from 0.07 ± 0.04 Bq m -3 to 1.85 ± 0.145 Bq m -3, high in the Tasman Sea and very low in the eastern region where upwelling occurs. Water column inventories of 137Cs from surface to 1000 dbar depth ranged from 270 ± 104 to 1048 ± 127 Bq m -2. It was concluded that the source of higher 137Cs concentration and inventories in the Tasman Sea was 137Cs deposited in the mid latitude of the North Pacific Ocean and transported across the equator during four decades.

  5. Constraints on the use of 137Cs as a time-marker to support CRS and SIT chronologies.

    PubMed

    Abril, J M

    2004-05-01

    CRS and SIT are two (210)Pb-based models widely used in the radiometric dating of recent sediments. (210)Pb chronologies should be validated using at least one independent tracer, such as (137)Cs. This paper demonstrates that simple methods based on the identification of (137)Cs fallout peaks cannot provide a definitive support for CRS and SIT chronologies. Two main arguments will support this assertion: Firstly, the (137)Cs time-marks cannot support a CRS or SIT chronology if the derived sedimentation rates cannot explain the whole (137)Cs activity profile without postulating mixing. Secondly, the support by the (137)Cs time-marks for a given CRS or SIT chronology cannot be considered as definitive if other dating models can equally explain the whole set of data, thereby producing a different chronology. Several case studies selected from the literature are used to support the present discussion.

  6. Assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr Fluxes in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, Gennady; Usiagina, Irina; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Ilin, Gennadii

    2014-05-01

    On the basis of published and own data the annual balance of radionuclide income/outcome was assessed for 137Cs and 90Sr in the Barents Sea for the period from 1950s to the presnt. The scheme of the isotope balance calculation in the Barents Sea included the following processes:atmospheric fallout; river run-off; liquid radioactive wastes releases, income from the Norwegian and the White Seas; outflow to the adjacent areas through the Novaya Zemlya straits and the transects Svalbard-Franz Josef Land and Franz Josef Land-Novaya Zemlya; radioactive decay. According to the multiyear dynamics, the inflow of 137Cs and 90Sr to the Barents Sea was significantly preconditioned by currents from the Norwegian Sea. Three peaks of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope concentrations were registered for the surface waters on the western border of the Barents Sea. The first one was observed in the mid-1960s and was conditioned by testing of nuclear weapons. The increase of isotope concentrations in 1975 and 1980 was preconditioned by the discharge of atomic waste by the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Nowadays, after the sewage disposal plant was built, the annual discharge of nuclear waste from Sellafield plant is low. The Norwegian Sea was a major source of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope income into the Barents Sea for the period of 1960-2014. Currently, the transborder transfer of 90Sr and 137Cs from the Norwegian Sea into the Barents Sea constitutes about 99% of income for each element. Atmospheric precipitation had a major impact in the 1950-1960s after the testing of the nuclear weapons, and in 1986 after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. In 1963, the atmospheric precipitation of 137Cs reached 1050 TBq; and that of 90Sr, 630 TBq. In 1986, a significant amount of 137Cs inflow (up to 1010 TBq/year) was registered. The 137Cs isotope income exceeded the 90Sr income in the 1960s-1980s, and equal amounts penetrated into the Barents Sea from the Norwegian Sea in the 1990s. Before

  7. AFCF and clinoptilolite use in reduction of (137)Cs deposition in several days' contaminated broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, B; Vitorovic, G; Vitorovic, D; Dakovic, A; Stojanovic, M

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the binding efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolite, mixed to the feed and administered orally using gastric tube to chronically (137)Cs alimentary contaminated broiler chicks. Seventy-five male Hybro broiler chicks, between 35 and 47 days of age were divided into five groups (15 birds per group) reared in cages (five birds in a cage) and fed a standard diet. Every day during 13 days of the experimental period all chicks received orally 1 ml CsCl water solution with activity of 1310 Bq ml(-1)(137)Cs (gastric tube). Group 1 was the control group and received no binders. The experimental groups received the binders. Group 2 received 0.2 g of AFCF in the form of water solution (gastric tube); group 3 received 0.2% AFCF in the feed; group 4 received 2g clinoptilolite in the form of water suspension (gastric tube) and group 5 received 2% clinoptilolite in the feed. Five chicks from each group were sacrificed on days 4, 10 and 13 of the experimental period. Using gamma spectrometric methods specific activity of (137)Cs was determined in the samples of breast meat, liver and gizzard. The results obtained showed that administering binders to the chronically contaminated broiler chicks significantly (p<0.01) reduced (137)Cs transfer and deposition in breast meat, liver and gizzard. Decreasing deposition of (137)Cs in breast meat and internal organs increased with time of contamination and binders' administration. With AFCF as a cesium binder, on day 13 of measuring the (137)Cs activity in breast meat was 80-83% lower than that in the control group, 89% in liver and 83-84% in gizzard. Natural clinoptilolite demonstrated lower binding efficiency. On day 13 of measuring the (137)Cs activity in breast meat was 53-69% lower than that in the control group, 67-60% in liver and 59-71% in gizzard.

  8. Monitoring 137Cs and 134Cs at marine coasts in Indonesia between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Suseno, Heny; Prihatiningsih, Wahyu Retno

    2014-11-15

    Environmental samples (seawater, sediments and biota) were collected along the eastern and western Indonesian coasts between 2011 and 2013 to anticipate the possible impacts of the Fukushima radioactive releases in Indonesia. On the eastern coasts (south and north Sulawesi), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.32 Bq m(-3) and 0.10-1.03 Bq kg(-1), respectively. On the western coasts (West Sumatra, Bangka Island, North Java, South Java and Madura island), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.66 Bq m(-3) and 0.19-1.64 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In general, the (137)Cs concentrations in the fish from several Indonesian coasts were 137)Cs concentrations in mollusk, crab and prawn were 10.65-38.78, 4.02 and 6.16 mBq kg(-1), respectively. (134)Cs was not detected in the seawater, sediments or biota. Thus, it was concluded that (137)Cs on the eastern and western Indonesian coasts originated from global fallout.

  9. The distribution of fallout {sup 137}Cs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, A.; Mora, P.

    1996-08-01

    Baseline levels of {sup 137}Cs on different sites throughout the Costa Rican territory are presented in this study from local and undisturbed soils. They are believed to represent the fallout input to the land surface. Seventy samples were collected from September 1991 to December 1993, and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. The territory was divided in three regions, Caribbean, Pacific, and Central, based on meteorological and geographical conditions to study spatial distribution of cesium. The results show a higher activity in the Caribbean region perhaps due to the wind influence and higher rain precipitation throughout the year. No relevant time variation of the activity levels of reach location was found. The highest value of 17.6 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} of {sup 137}Cs is compared with it generalized derived limit, being only 1.97% of the generalized derived limit value. The mean country activity value ranges from 0.4 to 17.8 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} with an average of 3.7 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Bioconcentration of fallout sup 137 Cs by fungi and red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi)

    SciTech Connect

    Mihok, S.; Schwartz, B.; Wiewel, A.M. )

    1989-12-01

    Cesium-137 and 40K concentrations were measured in vegetation and in red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi) in southeastern Manitoba, Canada, following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Voles from wet coniferous habitats contained concentrations of {sup 137}Cs twenty- to fiftyfold higher than voles from deciduous habitats. Maximum {sup 137}Cs values were observed in autumn. Voles captured in a spruce bog at this time contained an average body burden of about 11 Bq. Concentrations in vegetation samples were similar to those found by other researchers. Overall, there was only minimal evidence of contamination attributable to Chernobyl in either vegetation or voles. The primary source of {sup 137}Cs in voles appeared to be dietary, particularly mushrooms that contained up to 74 Bq g-1 ash. Based on physiological constraints, mushrooms were the only plausible source of {sup 137}Cs in autumn diets. Elevated values at other times in coniferous areas may have been related to the consumption of epiphytic lichens. These findings suggest that fungi, or the animals that consume them, can serve as sensitive indicators of {sup 137}Cs contamination in the environment.

  11. Prussian Blue decorporation of {sup 137}Cs in beagles of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, D.R.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    A 6-wk study was conducted using immature (4.7 mo), young adult (2.4 y), and aged (13.5 y) male beagles to determine the modifying effect of age on the effectiveness of Prussian Blue decorporation therapy for the removal of injected {sup 137}Cs. Whole-body clearance rates for injected {sup 137}Cs decreased with increasing age in the dogs. Treatment with Prussian Blue changed the ratio of fecal to urinary {sup 137}Cs excretion from 0.8 in untreated dogs to 2.2 in treated animals. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in tissues of untreated and Prussian Blue-treated dogs at the end of the 6-wk study were similar, with the greatest concentrations in the skeletal muscle tissue, spleen, and kidneys. There was a lower concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the livers of the treated dogs. The reductions in the average total whole-body doses resulting from Prussian Blue treatment during the course of this study were 51% in the immature, 31% in the young adult, and 38% in the aged dogs. Because of the differences in the intake of Prussian Blue by the dogs in the different groups relative to their body weight, it is unclear as to the relative effectiveness of Prussian Blue in dogs of different ages. 33 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Interpreting the deposition and vertical migration characteristics of (137)Cs in forest soil after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seongjoo; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Satta, Naoya; Fujita, Yasutaka; Shin, In Hwan

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the deposition and depth distributions of radiocesium in the Takizawa Research Forest, Iwate Prefecture, in order to understand the behavior of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The deposition distribution and vertical depth distribution of radiocesium in the soil were compared between topographically distinct parts of the forest where two different tree species grow. The results for all investigated locations show that almost 85% of the radiocesium has accumulated in the region of soil from the topmost organic layer to a soil depth of 0-4 cm. However, no activity was detected at depths greater than 20 cm. Analysis of the radiocesium deposition patterns in forest locations dominated by either coniferous or deciduous tree species suggests that radiocesium was sequestered and retained in higher concentrations in coniferous areas. The deposition data showed large spatial variability, reflecting the differences in tree species and topography. The variations in the measured (137)Cs concentrations reflected the variability in the characteristics of the forest floor environment and the heterogeneity of the initial ground-deposition of the Fukushima fallout. Sequential extraction experiments showed that most of the (137)Cs was present in an un-exchangeable form with weak mobility. Nevertheless, the post-vertical distribution of (137)Cs is expected to be governed by the percentage of exchangeable (137)Cs in the organic layer and the organic-rich upper soil horizons.

  13. Using Atmospheric (137)Cs Measurements and Hysplit to Confirm Chernobyl as a Source of (137)Cs in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    USING ATMOSPHERIC 137CS MEASUREMENTS AND HYSPLIT TO CONFIRM CHERNOBYL AS A SOURCE OF 137CS IN EUROPE Erik L. Swanberg1 and Steven G. Hoffert2...Veridian Systems1, Autometric2 Sponsored by Defense Threat Reduction Agency Contract No. DTRA01-99-C-0031 ABSTRACT The Chernobyl ...this 137Cs is the ground contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. The PIDC routinely uses HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated

  14. Transfer factor of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-12-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (Fvs) of (137)Cs and (90)Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The Fvs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Significant difference of log-Fvs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, Fvs of (90)Sr were higher than those of (137)Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher Fvs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. Fvs of (90)Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced Fvs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of Fvs for (137)Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest Fvs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in Fv for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to (137)Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent changes in Red Lake (Romania) sedimentation rate determined from depth profiles of 210Pb and 137Cs radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Begy, R; Cosma, C; Timar, A

    2009-08-01

    This work presents a first estimation of the sedimentation rate for the Red Lake (Romania). The sediment accumulation rates were determined by two well-known methods for recent sediment dating: (210)Pb and (137)Cs methods. Both techniques implied used the gamma emission of the above-mentioned radionuclides. The (210)Pb and (137)Cs concentrations in the sediment were measured using a gamma spectrometer with a HpGe detector, Gamma-X type. Activities ranging from 41+/-7 to 135+/-34Bq/kg were found for (210)Pb and from 3+/-0.5 to 1054+/-150Bq/kg for (137)Cs. The sediment profile indicates acceleration in sedimentation rate in the last 18 years. Thus, the sedimentation process for the Red Lake can be divided in two periods, the last 18 years, and respectively, the period before that. Using the Constant Rate of (210)Pb Supply method values between 0.18+/-0.04 and 1.85+/-0.5g/cm(2) year (0.32+/-0.08 and 2.83+/-0.7cm/year) were obtained. Considering both periods, an average sedimentation rate of 0.87+/-0.17g/cm(2) year (1.17cm/year) was calculated. Considering an average depth of 5.41m for the lake and the sedimentation rate estimated for the last 18 years, it could be estimated that the lake will disappear in 195 years.

  16. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  17. Depth profiling of Pu, 241Am and 137Cs in soils from southern Belarus measured by ICP-MS and alpha and gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Zoriy, Myroslav; Ketterer, Michael E; Becker, J Sabine

    2003-08-01

    The depth distribution of plutonium, americium, and 137Cs originating from the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was investigated in several soil profiles in the vicinity from Belarus. The vertical migration of transuranic elements in soils typical of the 30 km relocation area around Chernobyl NPP was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), alpha spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry. Transuranic concentrations in upper soil layers ranged from 6 x 10(-12) g g(-1) to 6 x 10(-10) g g(-1) for plutonium and from 1.8 x 10(-13) g g(-1) to 1.6 x 10(-11) g g(-1) for americium. These concentrations correspond to specific activities of (239+240)Pu of 24-2400 Bq kg(-1) and specific activity of 241Am of 23-2000 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Transuranics in turf-podzol soil migrate slowly to the deeper soil layers, thus, 80-95%, of radionuclide inventories were present in the 0-3 cm intervals of turf-podzol soils collected in 1994. In peat-marsh soil migration processes occur more rapidly than in turf-podzol and the maximum concentrations are found beneath the soil surface (down to 3-6 cm). The depth distributions of Pu and Am are essentially identical for a given soil profile. (239+240)Pu/137Cs and 241Am/137Cs activity ratios vary by up to a factor of 5 at some sites while smaller variations in these ratios were observed at a site close to Chernobyl, suggesting that 137Cs is dominantly particle associated close to Chernobyl but volatile species of 137Cs are of relatively greater importance at the distant sites.

  18. Transfer, pathways, enrichment, and discharge of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the pulp industry

    SciTech Connect

    Krosshavn, M.; Skipperud, L.; Lien, H.N.; Salbu, B.

    1996-09-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides are transferred from terrestrial ecosystems via the forest industry to coastal sea water. The material processed, i.e., wood, fresh water, and bark, have low levels of radionuclides, but large amounts of raw materials are processed annually. Thus the annual flux of radionuclides is substantial. The purpose of this investigation was to study transfer, redistribution, enrichment, and discharges of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in pulp industry employing the sulphate process. {sup 137}Cs was highly enriched in the recovering process for sodium, while {sup 90}Sr was enriched in the recovering system for calcium compared to concentration levels in raw materials. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in bark were almost ten times the concentration level in conifer wood. No {sup 137}Cs or {sup 90}Sr could be identified in atmospheric discharges from the combustion processes. The products contained very low levels of these radionuclides. Only 5% of the annual input of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were found in the products. Discharges of radionuclides from this particular pulp production plant is nearly 40% of the annual {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr input. The contribution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr to coastal seawater is probably of minor importance providing that wood or fresh water from highly contaminated areas are not utilized. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Modeling watershed-scale (137)Cs transport in a forested catchment affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lezhang; Kinouchi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Velleux, Mark L

    2017-05-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 resulted in (137)Cs contamination of large areas in northeast Japan. A watershed-scale (137)Cs transport model was developed and applied to a forested catchment in Fukushima area. This model considers (137)Cs wash-off from vegetation, movement through soils, and transport of dissolved and particulate (137)Cs adsorbed to clay, silt and sand. Comparisons between measurements and simulations demonstrated that the model well reproduced (137)Cs concentrations in the stream fed from the catchment. Simulations estimated that 0.57 TBq of (137)Cs was exported from the catchment between June, 2011 and December, 2014. Transport largely occurred with eroded sediment particles at a ratio of 17:70:13 of clay, silt, and sand. The overall (137)Cs reduction ratio by rainfall-runoff wash-off was about 1.6%. Appreciable (137)Cs remained in the catchment at the end of 2014. The largest rate of (137)Cs reduction by wash-off was simulated to occur in subwatersheds of the upper catchment. However, despite relatively low initial deposition, middle portions of the watershed exported proportionately more (137)Cs by rainfall-runoff processes. Simulations indicated that much of the transported (137)Cs originates from erosion over hillsides and river banks. These results suggested that areas where (137)Cs accumulates with redeposited sediments can be targeted for decontamination and also provided insight into (137)Cs transport at the watershed scale to assess risk management and decontamination planning efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dispersal of the radionuclide caesium-137 ((137)Cs) from point sources in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and its potential contamination of the Arctic marine food chain: coupling numerical ocean models with geographical fish distribution data.

    PubMed

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Vikebø, Frode; Johansen, Geir Odd

    2013-09-01

    Dispersal of (137)Cs from the nuclear submarine wrecks Komsomolets and K-159, which are resting on the seabed in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, respectively, is simulated using realistic rates and hypothetical scenarios. Furthermore, spatiotemporal (137)Cs concentrations in Northeast Arctic cod and capelin are estimated based on survey data. The results indicate that neither continuous leakages nor pulse discharges will cause concentrations of (137)Cs in cod muscle or whole body capelin exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fw. Continuous leakages from Komsomolets and K-159 and pulse discharges from Komsomolets induced negligible activity concentrations in cod and capelin. A pulse discharge of 100% of the (137)Cs-inventory of K-159 will, however, result in concentrations in muscle of cod of above 100 times the present levels in the eastern Barents Sea. Within three years after the release, (137)Cs levels above 20 Bq/kg fw in cod are no longer occurring in the Barents Sea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term box modelling of 137Cs in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Ortega, M.; Merino, J.; Masqué, P.

    2002-06-01

    Environmental radiotracers can be used to understand the underlying processes of the environment where they are found. Amongst others, 137Cs, which is a soluble element in sea water, is transported with water masses in the oceans. A numerical model, in which the Mediterranean Sea was divided into 40 boxes (10 regions of 4 layers each), was developed to better understand the distribution and behaviour of 137Cs in the Mediterranean Sea. It was run with a realistic source term, including global fallout, the Chernobyl accident, the nuclear industry and river runoff, and was used to predict 137Cs concentrations during the period 1954-1994. 137Cs surface water predicted concentrations ranged from 0 to 36 Bq·m -3. In most boxes the most prominent feature was the existence of two 137Cs predicted concentration maxima, corresponding to maximum air concentrations due to nuclear weapons fallout (1963) and the Chernobyl accident (1986). Maximum concentrations were predicted in surface waters in all regions, generally decreasing as mean water depth increased. Largest spatial concentration gradients were predicted during, and shortly after, the global fallout maxima. After the global fallout maximum was reached, predicted concentrations decreased, first rapidly and later on more slowly, reaching relatively low levels immediately before the Chernobyl accident. The maximum 137Cs predicted concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident in surface waters of each box showed widely different values because the deposition pattern was highly irregular. Levels reached values similar to those predicted immediately before the Chernobyl accident more rapidly than in the case of the global fallout maxima. In order to perform model validation, results were compared with annual mean values in each box and, in general, were found to be in good agreement. The main achievements of the model and its limitations are discussed.

  2. Accumulation and distributions of {sup 137}Cs in fresh water snail Pila ampullacea

    SciTech Connect

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-10-24

    Pila ampullacea are found in tropical freshwaters of Indonesia. This snail exhibit several characteristics of ideal indicator organisms in order to understand the bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs. Biokinetic experiment was performaced in aquaria system and under influenced of concentration K{sup +} in water. The result of experiment shown that Under difference K{sup +} concentration in water, Pila ampullacea have capability to accumulated {sup 137}Cs with CF value range 8.95 to 12.52 ml.g{sup −1}. Both uptake and depuration rate were influenced by concentration of K{sup +} in water.

  3. 137Cs soil-to-plant transfer for individual species in a semi-natural grassland. Influence of potassium soil content.

    PubMed

    Ciuffo, Liliana; Velasco, Hugo; Belli, Mar; Sansone, Umberto

    2003-09-01

    In the present study we assessed the radiocaesium uptake by plants in order to piece together information on factors affecting the uptake processes, particularly K supply and plant species differences. Vegetation uptake from soil contaminated by the Chernobyl accident was compared at two semi-natural grasslands. The Cs/K discrimination factor (DF), which is often used to evaluate a plant's efficiency in absorbing nutrients from soil, was estimated. The obtained DF values (0.01 to 0.8) vary with K soil concentrations and plant species, indicating that the (40)K is more efficiently absorbed than (137)Cs. The soil-to-plant relationship was evaluated by means of the transfer factor (TF). The (137)Cs TF(sp) values obtained from separated plant species varied within the range of 0.016 to 0.400 (site 1) and 0.017 to 0.171 (site 2). When mixed grass samples were considered a large variation was observed, mainly for site 1. The (137)Cs TF(mix) ranges were: 0.018 to 0.250 for site 1 and 0.017 to 0.167 for site 2. These values fall within the range of TFs commonly reported (0.0001-1). Our present data suggest that these pastures are apt for forage use. Different plant species presented different individual behavior regarding their (137)Cs TF(sp) when the (40)K soil activity concentration was taken in account. For most of the species analyzed, we observed a gradual decrease in the individual (137)Cs TF(sp) when the (40)K soil activity concentration was increased, with the exception of Taraxacum officinale at one of the sampling sites.

  4. Estimation of sedimentation rate in the Middle and South Adriatic Sea using 137Cs.

    PubMed

    Petrinec, Branko; Franic, Zdenko; Ilijanic, Nikolina; Miko, Slobodan; Strok, Marko; Smodis, Borut

    2012-08-01

    (137)Cs activity concentrations were studied in the sediment profiles collected at five locations in the Middle and South Adriatic. In the sediment profiles collected from the South Adriatic Pit, the deepest part of the Adriatic Sea, two (137)Cs peaks were identified. The peak in the deeper layer was attributed to the period of intensive atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (early 1960s), and the other to the Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986). Those peaks could be used to estimate sedimentation rates by relating them to the respective time periods. Grain-size analysis showed no changes in vertical distribution through the depth of the sediment profile, and these results indicate uniform sedimentation, as is expected in deeper marine environments. It was not possible to identify respective peaks on more shallow locations due to disturbance of the seabed either by trawlers (locations PalagruŽa and Jabuka) or by river sediment (location Albania). The highest sedimentation rates were found in Albania (∼4 mm y(-1)) and Jabuka (3.1 mm y(-1)). For PalagruŽa, the sedimentation rate was estimated to be 1.8 mm y(-1), similar to the South Adriatic Pit where the sedimentation rate was estimated to be 1.8±0.5 mm y(-1). Low sedimentation rates found for the Middle and South Adriatic Sea are consistent with previously reported results for the rest of the Mediterranean.

  5. Turnover of (137)Cs in 'soil-tree' system: An experience of measuring the isotope flows in a Siberian conifer forest.

    PubMed

    Gavrikov, Vladimir L; Sharafutdinov, Ruslan A; Mitev, Aleksandr R

    2016-12-01

    Little attention has been paid to the uptake of (137)Cs in natural forests under low levels of the isotope fallout when no immediate ecological danger presents. Here we present the extended assessments of the soil-to-plant and canopy-to-litter flows of (137)Cs recently evaluated in a native Siberian forested area. The area undergoes a typical after-fire long term succession, with light-conifer upper story being followed by undergrowth of Siberian fir and other dark-conifer species. The one-year-old needles of Siberian fir were found to accumulate the largest concentration of the isotope, 4.10 Bq/kg oven-dry weight during the first growth season, as compared with older needles that accumulated 4.67 Bq/kg oven-dry weight in 2-3 years of growth. Based on these data an approach was developed that, hypothetically, can allow one to estimate the (137)Cs activity concentration in soil solutions. Direct activity measurements in the soil solutions were not possible. The isotope activity in soil solutions was estimated to be 0.0061-0.0105 Bq/L. Based on the original data from the litter fall the annual flow of the isotope from the upper canopy to on-ground litter was found to be 0.42-0.84 Bq/m(2). The amount of (137)Cs that returns yearly back from canopy with falling litter was estimated to be 0.012-0.015% of the total soil isotope content. A combination of the estimations obtained in our study with the values of global (137)Cs fallout allowed us to assess the ages (the time of formation) of horizons of the soils in the area.

  6. Accuracy of post-bomb 137Cs and 14C in dating fluvial deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, L.L.; Webb, R.H.; Enzel, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of 137Cs and 14C for dating post-1950 alluvial deposits were evaluated for deposits from known floods on two rivers in Arizona. The presence of 137Cs reliably indicates that deposition occurred after intensive above-ground nuclear testing was initiated around 1950. There was a positive correlation between the measured level of 137Cs activity and the clay content of the sediments, although 137Cs was detected even in sandy flood sediments with low clay content. 137Cs is a valuable dating tool in arid environments where organic materials for 14C or tree-ring dating are scarce and observational records are limited. The 14C activity measured in different types of fine organic detritus yielded dates within 1 to 8 yr of a 1980 flood deposit, and the accuracy was species-dependent. However, undifferentiated mixtures of fine organic materials from several post-bomb deposits of various ages repeatedly yielded dates between 1958 and 1962, and detrital charcoal yielded a date range of 1676-1939. In semiarid environments, the residence time of most types of organic debris precludes accurate annual resolution of post-bomb 14C dates. ?? 1992.

  7. Effects of ageing and microbial component on chemical availability of (137)Cs in a long-term experimental site.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weiliang; Rosén, Klas; Mårtensson, Anna

    2007-06-01

    A loamy soil contaminated with (137)CsCl 40 years ago was investigated by a sequential extraction technique to determine the effect of ageing on chemical availability of (137)Cs. The soil samples were sequentially extracted with H(2)O, NH(4)Ac, NH(2)OH x HCl, H(2)O(2), and HNO(3). Extractability of (137)Cs decreased in the order: HNO(3) > Residual > H(2)O(2) > NH(4)Ac > NH(2)OH x HCl > H(2)O. Only 0.94% in labile fractions (H(2)O and NH(4)Ac), while more than 96% was found in the strongly bound fraction (HNO(3) and residual). However, the activity percentage in labile fractions was increased to 1.34% after autoclaving treatment, while those in the other fractions did not significantly differ. This indicates that the microbial activity played a role in the (137)Cs retention. In the subsequent pot experiments with ryegrass and leek, specific activities in both plants were significantly higher in autoclaved soil than in non-autoclaved soil, and uptake of (137)Cs in the five cuts by ryegrass was 25% of the labile (137)Cs in the soil. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the amount of (137)Cs in labile fractions and that by plant uptake.

  8. Porous Alumina Silicate Matrix Gubka for Solidification of {sup 137}Cs Strip Product

    SciTech Connect

    Aloy, Albert; Strelnikov, Alexander; Essimantovskiy, Vyacheslav

    2007-07-01

    Separated liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) fractions, in particular, about 100 liters of a {sup 137}Cs strip product with activity up to {approx} 100 Ci/l (3.7 TBq/l) have been produced during the development and testing of partitioning technology and temporarily stored at V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) (Saint-Petersburg, Russia). The bench-scale experimental unit designed for operation in the hot cell was developed for {sup 137}Cs strip product solidification using an alumina silicate porous inorganic material (PIM) called Gubka. Conditions of saturation, drying, and calcinations of the salts into Gubka pores were optimized, and the operations under a remote control regime were executed during tests using a simulated strip product doped with {sup 137}Cs. The volume reduction coefficients were equal by a factor of 3.2-3.9 and a {sup 137}Cs discharge into an off-gas system was not detected. {sup 137}Cs leach rates from Gubka blocks after calcination at 800 deg. C were 1.0-1.5.10{sup -3} g/m{sup 2}.per day. (authors)

  9. 137Cs re-sampling as a method for soil erosion assessment in Alpine grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bissig, Nicole; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Over the past decades, radioactive fallout 137Cs has been used as a tracer to provide information on soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, the method may produce relatively large uncertainties in Alpine grasslands. The latter difficulties are caused by a combination of (i) the heterogeneous distribution of atmospheric 137Cs Chernobyl fallout, (ii) the partly snow covered ground in Alpine areas during the fallout event in April 1986, which results in inhomogeneous 137Cs distribution during snow melt and (iii) uncertainties in finding undisturbed references sites in the geomorphological and anthropogenic highly active slopes of the Alps. To overcome these difficulties, our aim is to replace the classical 137Cs approach, where an undisturbed reference site is compared to erosional sites, with a re-sampling approach, where we re-sample sites which have already been measured for 137Cs inventories in the past. Thus, we use temporal instead of spatial reference. The study area is located in the Central Swiss Alps in the Urseren Valley. Potential erosional sites have been sampled in 2007 and re-sampled in 2012. Two different grassland types were investigated: hayfield (2 sites) and pasture without dwarf shrubs (3 sites). For each site, 4 to 9 sampling points have been defined, and at each point two soil samples have been collected. To reduce the random error, the two soil samples were bulked prior to gamma-analysis. 137Cs inventories of the two sampling years were calculated and used to assess recent soil erosion in the experimental sites. Our results show that within the 5 years measurable soil erosion and deposition processes have occurred within the sites, as indicated by the relevant difference between the 137Cs inventories of 2007 and 2012. 64% of the sites exhibit a decrease in 137Cs inventories, 20% of the sites an increase, and the remaining 16% no significant difference. In particular, hayfield sites have been affected by erosion processes, mostly due to

  10. Spatial distribution and vertical migration of (137)Cs in soils of Belgrade (Serbia) 25 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Jelena; Ćujić, Mirjana; Đorđević, Milan; Dragović, Ranko; Gajić, Boško; Miljanić, Šćepan; Dragović, Snežana

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the specific activity of (137)Cs was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in 72 surface soil samples and 11 soil profiles collected from the territory of Belgrade 25 years after the Chernobyl accident. Based on the data obtained the external effective gamma dose rates due to (137)Cs were assessed and geographically mapped. The influence of pedogenic factors (pH, specific electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, soil particle size and carbonate content) on the spatial and vertical distribution of (137)Cs in soil was estimated through Pearson correlations. The specific activity of (137)Cs in surface soil samples ranged from 1.00 to 180 Bq kg(-1), with a mean value of 29.9 Bq kg(-1), while in soil profiles they ranged from 0.90 to 58.0 Bq kg(-1), with a mean value of 15.3 Bq kg(-1). The mean external effective gamma dose at 1 m above the ground due to (137)Cs in the soil was calculated to be 1.96 nSv h(-1). Geographic mapping of the external effective gamma dose rates originating from (137)Cs revealed much higher dose rates in southern parts of Belgrade city and around the confluence of the Sava and Danube. Negative Pearson correlation coefficients were found between pH, cation exchange capacity and (137)Cs specific activity in surface soil. There were positive correlations between organic matter and (137)Cs specific activity in surface soil; and between specific electrical conductivity, organic matter, silt content and (137)Cs specific activity in soil profiles.

  11. Hindcast of 137Cs in the North Pacific Ocean from 1945 to 2013 by eddy-resolving ROMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2014-05-01

    We conducted the hindcast of 137Cs activity in the North Pacific Ocean from 1945 to 2013, before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) accident. We used the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) with high resolution (1/12°-1/4° in horizontal, 45 levels in vertical), of which domain was the North Pacific Ocean. This model employed the CORE normal year forcing data for a driving forcing and the 50 years averaged SODA data for boundary conditions. The reconstructed global fallout due to atmospheric nuclear weapons' tests and Chernobyl accident was employed for atmospheric input flux of 137Cs from 1945 to 2013. After the accident, the atmospheric deposition and direct release of 137Cs from 1F NPP were also employed for input condition. Five ensemble calculations of 137Cs activity were conducted by moving the start period of the input flux for one year. The simulated vertical distributions of 137Cs activity along 165°E represented the overall patterns of the observed 137Cs activity before (in 2002) and after (in 2012) the accident, in particular the high activity core of the 137Cs around North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water and Central Mode Water, indicating that this model can represent the subduction process and formation of the Mode Waters. The simulated 137Cs activity in the surface ranged from 0.75 to 2.Bq m-3 in the north of Kuroshio Extension in 2011 before the accident. The main body of high 137Cs activity water from 1F NPP was transported in the northern part of Kuroshio Extension after the accident. In Sep. 2012, 18 months after the accident, the main body of high 137Cs activity water (≥ 10 Bq m-3) was located at around 40°N, 150°E-160°W. The water over 10 Bq m-3 of 137Cs activity was not detected in surface layer, but in the layer of σθ=25.8-26.2 at two small areas (44°N, 180°W-165°W and 48°N, 160°W-140°W). This model simulation suggests that the main body of high 137Cs activity water from 1F NPP has never reached the

  12. [Regularities of changes in 137Cs content in milk in the long term after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S V; Pakhomov, A Iu; Pasternak, A D; Goriainov, V A; Fesenko, G A; Panov, A V

    2004-01-01

    Regularities of changes in 137Cs content in cattle milk in the long term after the Chernobyl accident have been analyzed. Contamination levels of haylands and pastures, soil properties, specific features of agricultural production and time after the fallout play a crucial role in 137Cs concentration changes in animal products. Trends have been studied that reflect the influence of these factors and their significance assessed. The half-life periods of 137Cs decay in milk vary over the period of 1994 to 2000 between 7.1 and 14.8 years and approach similar periods calculated for the long term after global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests.

  13. Levels of 137Cs and 40K in edible parts of some vegetables consumed in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Badran, H M; Sharshar, T; Elnimer, T

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K in some Egyptian foodstuffs have been measured. The results of this study can be considered as a first step towards calculating the baseline levels of radioactivity in foodstuffs in Egypt. Furthermore, the data presented herein can be used as a reference level for future food radioactivity monitoring after the possible operation of the planned nuclear power plants, as well as to screen imported foodstuffs that are suspected of being contaminated. The overall intake of (137)Cs is quite low and no significant radionuclide contamination was found. The highest contents of (137)Cs and (40)K among the tested foodstuffs were in Jew's mallow and roquette. Calculations were also made to determine the potential dose to an individual consuming vegetables.

  14. One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

    2013-08-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways: direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the accident site. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 137Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured 137Cs activities not only adjacent to the accident site, but also in a wide area in the model domain, therefore this implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Employment of improved nudging data by JCOPE2 improved both the offshore transport result and the reproducibility of 137Cs activities 30 km offshore. On the other hand, simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition into the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition into the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model

  15. Use of 129I and 137Cs in soils for the estimation of 131I deposition in Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Mironov, V; Kudrjashov, V; Yiou, F; Raisbeck, G M

    2002-01-01

    Using radioactivity measurements for 131I and 137Cs and nuclear activation analysis (NAA) or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for 129I, ratios of 131I/137Cs and 129I/137Cs have been determined in soils from Belarus. We find that the pre-Chernobyl ratio of 129I/137Cs in Belarus is significantly larger than expected from nuclear weapons fallout. For the Chernobyl accident, our results support the hypothesis that there was relatively little fractionation of iodine and caesium during migration and deposition of the radioactive cloud. For sites having 137Cs > 300 Bq/kg, 129I can potentially give more reliable retroactive estimates of Chernobyl 131I deposition. However, our results suggest that 137Cs can also give reasonably good (+/-50%) estimates for 131I in Belarus.

  16. Recent 137Cs deposition in sediments of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Christian J; Santos, Isaac R; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R; Schaefer, Carlos; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V

    2010-05-01

    Cesium-137, radium-226 and lead-210 profiles of a 25 cm sediment core give an indication of recent changes in land-ocean interactions at a polar coastal environment (Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica). The linear sedimentation accumulation rate at the study site calculated from the unsupported (210)Pb profile was 6.7 mm/year from 1965 to 2005. A 3.5-fold increase in (137)Cs concentrations was observed in the top layer of this sediment core. This sharp increase seems to indicate a recent redistribution of fallout radionuclides previously deposited on soil, vegetation and snow. These results imply enhanced land-ocean interactions at this site likely as a result of climate change. Because our results are based on a single core, additional investigations are needed to confirm our observations.

  17. The origin and dynamics of 137Cs discharge from a coniferous forest catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyléna, Torbjörn; Grip, Harald

    1997-05-01

    The turnover of radioactive caesium was studied experimentally and theoretically in a forested catchment that was covered by snow during the wet deposition of radioactive nuclides from the Chernobyl accident. The study spans from 1 week before to 8 years after the deposition event. A fraction of the catchment is covered by a mire (16010). From the edge of the mire a stream channel runs to the outlet of the catchment. Two phases of decreasing activity concentration in the stream water were found in addition to a positive influence of runoff on the activity concentration in the stream. The half-lives for 137CS in the stream water corresponding to the early and the later phase were estimated by non-linear regression to be 6.5 days and 4 years, respectively. During the first phase, which corresponded to the initial snow melt in 1986, 6.8% of the deposition was lost from the catchment, whereas the slow secondary loss during the following 8 years was 1.8%. The main contribution to the yearly discharge of 137Cs occurred during spring and autumn when the areal contribution to saturated surface runoff was highest. The remaining deposition in soil a few years after the fallout was significantly lower in the mire than in the surrounding forest. By using the calculated activity concentration of 137Cs in the stream water together with the remaining deposition in the different biotopes and information on stream flow for the catchment it was concluded that the loss originated from the mire. During the initial phase 44% of the deposition was lost from the mire, and during the following years the yearly loss was 30% from the fraction that constantly undergoes saturated surface runoff and 2% from the drier fractions of the mire. Until the end of the study it was not possible to demonstrate any loss from the recharge areas (podzol and cambisol soils), which means that physical decay will govern the decrease in activity in these areas.

  18. The effective and environmental half-life of 137Cs at Coral Islands at the former US nuclear test site.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Conrado, Cynthia L; Bogen, Kenneth T; Stoker, A Carol

    2003-01-01

    The United States (US) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Based on previous detailed dose assessments for Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap, and Utirik Atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 (137Cs) at Bikini Atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of 137Cs by food crops. The estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radiological decay of 137Cs (30-year half-life) and other radionuclides. However, there is a continuing inventory of 137Cs and 90Sr in the fresh water portion of the groundwater at all contaminated atolls even though the turnover rate of the fresh groundwater is about 5 years. This is evidence that a portion of the soluble fraction of 137Cs and 90Sr inventory in the soil is lost by transport to groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the lens, resulting in loss of 137Cs from the soil column and root zone of the plants. This loss is in addition to that caused by radioactive decay. The effective rate of loss was determined by two methods: (1) indirectly, from time-dependent studies of the 137Cs concentration in leaves of Pisonia grandis, Guettarda specosia, Tournefortia argentea (also called Messerschmidia), Scaevola taccada, and fruit from Pandanus and coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.), and (2) more directly, by evaluating the 137Cs/90Sr ratios at Bikini Atoll. The mean (and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits) for effective half-life and for environmental-loss half-life (ELH) based on all the trees studied on Rongelap, Bikini, and Enewetak Atolls are 8.5 years (8.0 years, 9.8 years), and 12 years (11 years, 15 years), respectively. The ELH based on the 137Cs/90Sr ratios in soil in 1987 relative to the 137Cs/90Sr ratios at the time of deposition in 1954 is less than 17 years. The magnitude of the decrease below 17 years depends on the ELH for 90Sr

  19. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as

  20. GIS supported calculations of (137)Cs deposition in Sweden based on precipitation data.

    PubMed

    Almgren, Sara; Nilsson, Elisabeth; Erlandsson, Bengt; Isaksson, Mats

    2006-09-15

    It is of interest to know the spatial variation and the amount of (137)Cs e.g. in case of an accident with a radioactive discharge. In this study, the spatial distribution of the quarterly (137)Cs deposition over Sweden due to nuclear weapons fallout (NWF) during the period 1962-1966 was determined by relating the measured deposition density at a reference site to the amount of precipitation. Measured quarterly values of (137)Cs deposition density per unit precipitation at three reference sites and quarterly precipitation at 62 weather stations distributed over Sweden were used in the calculations. The reference sites were assumed to represent areas with different quarterly mean precipitation. The extent of these areas was determined from the distribution of the mean measured precipitation between 1961 and 1990 and varied according to seasonal variations in the mean precipitation pattern. Deposition maps were created by interpolation within a geographical information system (GIS). Both integrated (total) and cumulative (decay corrected) deposition densities were calculated. The lowest levels of NWF (137)Cs deposition density were noted in north-eastern and eastern parts of Sweden and the highest levels in the western parts of Sweden. Furthermore the deposition density of (137)Cs, resulting from the Chernobyl accident was determined for an area in western Sweden based on precipitation data. The highest levels of Chernobyl (137)Cs in western Sweden were found in the western parts of the area along the coast and the lowest in the east. The sum of the deposition densities from NWF and Chernobyl in western Sweden was then compared to the total activity measured in soil samples at 27 locations. Comparisons between the predicted values of this study show a good agreement with measured values and other studies.

  1. Plutonium, 137Cs and 90Sr in selected invertebrates from some areas around Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Mietelski, Jerzy W; Maksimova, Svetlana; Szwałko, Przemysław; Wnuk, Katarzyna; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Błazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Paweł; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Orlov, Olexandr

    2010-06-01

    Results are presented for (137)Cs, (90)Sr and plutonium activity concentrations in more than 20 samples of terrestrial invertebrates, including species of beetles, ants, spiders and millipedes, collected in the highly contaminated area of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The majority of samples were collected in Belarus, with some also collected in the Ukraine. Three other samples were collected in an area of lower contamination. Results show that seven samples exceed an activity concentration of 100 kBq/kg (ash weight--a.w.) for (137)Cs. The maximum activity concentration for this isotope was 1.52+/-0.08 MBq/kg (a.w.) determined in ants (Formica cynerea). Seven results for (90)Sr exceeded 100 kBq/kg (a.w.), mostly for millipedes. Relatively high plutonium activity concentrations were found in some ants and earth-boring dung beetles. Analyses of activity ratios showed differences in transfer of radionuclides between species. To reveal the correlation structure of the multivariate data set, the Partial Least-Squares method (PLS) was used. Results of the PLS model suggest that high radiocesium activity concentrations in animal bodies can be expected mainly for relatively small creatures living on the litter surface. In contrast, high strontium activity concentrations can be expected for creatures which conduct their lives within litter, having mixed trophic habits and a moderate lifespan. No clear conclusions could be made for plutonium. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [137Cs and 90Sr accumulation in birch wood (Betula pendula Roth.) growing in regions with different soil conditions].

    PubMed

    Perevolotskiĭ, A N; Bulavik, I M; Perevolotskaia, T V; Paskrobko, L A; Andrush, S N

    2005-01-01

    The studies of 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation characteristics by birch wood (Betula pendula Roth.) growing in different edaphic conditions. Were conducted was stated that the increase in soil fertility from trophotops A to D results in 5-fold 137Cs transfer factor decrease and 2-fold decrease of 90Sr. Soil humidity increase for each grade of trophic net results happens the increase of 137Cs transfer factors to wood and decrease for 90Sr. Total activity of 37Cs and 90Sr in birch wood plantation depends on plantation productivity and on radionuclide transfer factors depending on different plantation conditions. In the most prevailing edaphotops (B2, B3, C2 and C3) birch wood accumulates 0.6-1.2% of 137Cs and 13-19% of 90Sr from total activity of radionuclides in biogeocenosis.

  3. /sup 137/Cs radioactive dating of Lake Ontario sediment cores

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.E.; Breeden, J.; Komisarcik, K.; Porter, R.; Czuczwa, J.; Kaminski, R.; McVeety, B.D.

    1987-12-01

    The distribution of /sup 137/Cs in sediment cores from Lake Ontario provides estimates of the sediment accumulation rates. Geochronology with /sup 210/Pb dating and distribution of Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen compare well with /sup 137/Cs dating. These methods can determine with precision, changes in sedimentation occurring over the past 100 years or so. Typical sedimentation rates of 0.18-0.36 cm/yr were measured. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. 137Cs and 40K soil-to-plant relationship in a seminatural grassland of the Giulia Alps, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ciuffo, L E C; Belli, M; Pasquale, A; Menegon, S; Velasco, H R

    2002-08-05

    To examine the soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs and 40K, we performed a study based on sampling of natural soil and plants from an alpine pasture site situated in the Giulia Alps, Italy, during July 1997. High 137Cs activity was present in the upper most soil layer, and decreased one order of magnitude at a depth of 10 cm. An opposite gradient was observed for 40K. Simultaneous sampling of soil and plant material was performed in order to analyse transfer factor (TF) values. In spite of homogeneous 137Cs activities in soil, grass samples showed a high variability. A negative correlation was detected between 40K- and 137Cs-activities in plants. TF values for 137Cs were highly variable, thus suggesting that this parameter would be independent of 137Cs soil activity. Lower variability was observed for 40K TFs values. Our results suggest that TFs are highly variable parameters that appear to be independent on radionuclide soil activity. Because soil and plant characteristics strongly affect TF values, caution is necessary when TF values are used as the sole parameter to predict radionuclide uptake by plants in semi-natural ecosystems.

  5. Biomonitoring fallout 137Cs in resident and migratory fishes collected along the southern coast of India and assessment of dose.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohan Feroz; Wesley, Samuel Godwin

    2012-05-01

    The globally distributed fallout radionuclide (137)Cs was monitored in 25 resident and 22 migratory fish species collected from some regions of west and east coast of southern India to establish a baseline data. The samples were collected during June 2008 to June 2009. Higher level of (137)Cs was noted in planktivorous fishes and lower level in herbivores. A significant variation in (137)Cs was observed between fishes with different feeding habits and different migratory pattern. Oceanodromic migratory fishes displayed higher cesium levels than other migratory types. Similarly, migratory fishes displayed higher (137)Cs concentration compared to resident fishes. The overall range of (137)Cs varied from 0.06 to 0.3 Bq/kg in fishes. The biological concentration varied from 55 to 250. The average external dose rate to fishes was calculated to be 2.7 × 10(-7) μGy/h, while the internal dose rate varied from 8.50 × 10(-6) to 5.27 × 10(-5) μGy/h. The hazard quotient for fishes was found to be less than 1. The average intake of (137)Cs via fishes to the public was calculated to be 3.5 Bq/year and subsequently the committed effective dose was 0.05 μSv/year. The data obtained were less than global average and comparable to those of many regions.

  6. Long-term simulations of the 137Cs dispersion from the Fukushima accident in the world ocean.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masanao; Povinec, Pavel P

    2012-09-01

    The LAMER calculation code was used for simulation of the distribution of (137)Cs released after the Fukushima accident into the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The maximum (137)Cs concentration predicted for surface waters of the open NW Pacific Ocean in 2012 (21 Bq/m(3) at 38 °N, 164 °E) will be comparable to that observed during the early 1960s after atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The (137)Cs in surface waters of the Pacific Ocean will reach the US coast 4-5 y after the accident, however, the levels will be low (<3 Bq/m(3)). All the North Pacific Ocean will be labeled with Fukushima (137)Cs 10 y after the accident with concentrations below 1 Bq/m(3). Thirty years after the accident the (137)Cs levels in the Pacific and Indian Oceans will be below 0.1 Bq/m(3), i.e. undetectable on the present global fallout background. The effective dose commitment with ingestion of marine biota found in 2012 in the open NW Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 1.7 μSv/y, mostly delivered by (134,137)Cs. The estimated dose is by about a factor of 500 lower than the present dose limit for the public.

  7. Transfer coefficient of 137Cs from feed to cow milk in tropical region Kaiga, India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, R M; James, J P; Dileep, B N; Mulla, R M; Reji, T K; Ravi, P M; Hegde, A G; Sarkar, P K

    2012-04-01

    In the transport model for the prediction of the concentration of (137)Cs in milk, the transfer coefficient from feed to milk, F(m), is an important parameter. Site-specific transfer coefficient from feed to cow's milk, for (137)Cs in the Kaiga environment, a nuclear power station site in India, determined over a period of 10 y is presented in this paper. The value is determined from (137)Cs concentration in milk and grass samples of the Kaiga region and the result ranged from 6.43E-03 to 1.09E-02 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 8.0E-03 d l(-1). The result is compared with that for (40)K, determined concurrently at the same region and ranged from 3.06E-03 to 3.48E-03 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 3.26E-03 d l(-1). This parameter is quite useful in decision-making for implementing countermeasures during a large area contamination with (137)Cs in tropical areas like Kaiga.

  8. Variation in airborne 137Cs peak levels with altitude from high-altitude locations across Europe after the arrival of Fukushima-labeled air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Olivier; Bieringer, Jacqueline; Dalheimer, Axel; Estier, Sybille; Evrard, Olivier; Penev, Ilia; Ringer, Wolfgang; Schlosser, Clemens; Steinkopff, Thomas; Tositti, Laura; de Vismes-Ott, Anne

    2015-04-01

    During the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident, a dozen of high-altitude aerosol sampling stations, located between 850 and 3,454 m above sea level (a.s.l.), provided airborne activity levels across Europe (Fig. 1). This represents at most 5% of the total number of aerosol sampling locations that delivered airborne activity levels (at least one result) in Europe, in connection with this nuclear accident. High altitude stations are typically equipped with a high volume sampler that collects aerosols on filters. The Fukushima-labeled air mass arrival and the peak of airborne cesium-137 (137Cs) activity levels were registered in Europe at different dates depending on the location, with differences up to a factor of six on a regional scale. Besides this statement related to lowland areas, we have compared the maximum airborne levels registered at high-altitude European locations (850 m < altitudes < 3450 m) with what was observed at the closest lowland location. The vertical distribution of 137Cs peak level was not uniform even after a long travel time/distance from Japan. This being true at least in the atmospheric boundary layer and in the lower free troposphere. Moreover the relation '137Csmax vs. altitude' shows a decreasing trend (Fig. 2). Results and discussion : Comparison of 137Cs and 7Be levels shows simultaneous increases at least when the 137Cs airborne level rose for the first time (Fig. 3). Zugspitze and Jungfraujoch stations attest of a time shift between 7Be and 137Cs peak that can be due to the particular dynamic of air movements at such high altitudes. After the 137Cs peak value, the plume concentration decreased whatever the 7Be level. Due to the cosmogenic origin of 7Be, its increase in the ground-level air is usually associated with downwind air movements, i.e. stratospheric air intrusions or at least air from high-tropospheric levels, into lower atmospheric layers. This means that Fukushima-labeled air masses registered at ground

  9. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae does not improve 137Cs uptake in crops grown in the Chernobyl region.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Mårtensson, A; Rosén, K

    2013-12-01

    Methods for cleaning up radioactive contaminated soils are urgently needed. In this study we investigated whether the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can improve (137)Cs uptake by crops. Barley, cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower were inoculated with AM fungi and grown in low-level radionuclide contaminated soils in a field experiment 70 km southwest of Chernobyl, Ukraine, during two successive years (2009-2010). Roots of barley, cucumber and sunflower plants were slightly or moderately infected with AM fungus and root infection frequency was negatively or non-correlated with (137)Cs uptake by plants. Roots of ryegrass were moderately infected with AM fungus and infection frequency was moderately correlated with (137)Cs uptake by ryegrass. The application of AM fungi to soil in situ did not enhance radionuclide plant uptake or biomass. The responsiveness of host plants and AM fungus combination to (137)Cs uptake varied depending on the soil, although mycorrhization of soil in the field was conditional and did not facilitate the uptake of radiocesium. The total amount of (137)Cs uptake by plants growing on inoculated soil was equal to amounts in plant cultivated on non-inoculated soil. Thus, the use of AM fungi in situ for bioremediation of soil contaminated with a low concentration of (137)Cs could not be recommended.

  10. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  11. Pre-assessment of dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co for marine biota from discharge of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Senlin; Zhang, Yongxing; Chen, Ling; Yan, Yuan; Cheng, Weiya; Lou, Hailin; Zhang, Yongbao

    2015-09-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant to be built in China was selected as a case for the dose pre-assessment for marine biota in this study. The concentrations of Cs and Co in organisms (turbot, yellow croaker, swimming crab, abalone, sea cucumber, and sea lettuce), seawater, and bottom sediment sampled on-site were measured by neutron activation analysis, and the site-specific transfer parameters (concentration ratios and distribution coefficients) of Cs and Co were calculated. (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co activity concentrations in the organisms and the sediment at the site were calculated with the site-specific transfer parameters and the anticipated activity concentrations in the liquid effluent of the nuclear power plant. The ERICA tool was used to estimate the dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the selected organisms based on the biological models developed. The total dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the six organisms were all <0.001 μGy h(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effective and ecological half-lives of 137Cs in cow's milk in alpine agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lettner, Herbert; Hubmer, Alexander; Bossew, Peter; Strebl, Friederike; Steinhäusler, Friedrich

    2009-02-01

    In the mountainous "Hohe Tauern" region of Salzburg (Austria), milk samples have been collected in a long-term montitoring programme since 1988, at eight alpine sites used for extensive, seasonal stock farming. For this alpine environment with its acidic soils developed on silicate bedrock, high soil-to-plant transfer factors and long-lasting (137)Cs contamination levels in milk--the main product of seasonal agriculture at elevated altitudes--are characteristic features. The decrease in (137)Cs concentration in milk measured since 1988 turned out to be best described by one or two effective half-lives. For the period from 1993 to 2007, which can be modelled with one effective half-life for all sites, effective half-lives between 3.7 and 15.0 years (ecological half-lives: 4.3-29.9 years) were obtained. The effective half-life increases with mean altitude of the investigated graze pastures, probably due to reduced migration velocities of (137)Cs and low (137)Cs half-value depths of a few centimetres in the soil.

  13. Enviromental influences on the {sup 137}Cs kinetics of the yellow-bellied turtle (Trachemys Scripta)

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.L.; Brisbin, L.I. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    Assessments of ecological risk require accurate predictions of contaminant dynamics in natural populations. However, simple deterministic models that assume constant uptake rates and elimination fractions may compromise both their ecological realism and their general application to animals with variable metabolism or diets. In particular, the temperature-dependent model of metabolic rates characteristic of ectotherms may lead to significant differences between observed and predicted contaminant kinetics. We examined the influence of a seasonally variable thermal environment on predicting the uptake and annual cycling of contaminants by ectotherms, using a temperature-dependent model of {sup 137}Cs kinetics in free-living yellow-bellied turtles, Trachemys scripta. We compared predictions from this model with those of deterministics negative exponential and flexibly shaped Richards sigmoidal models. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in a population if this species in Pond B, a radionuclide-contaminated nuclear reactor cooling reservoir, and {sup 137}Cs uptake by the uncontaminated turtles held captive in Pond B for 4 yr confirmed both the pattern of uptake and the equilibrium concentrations predicted by the temperature-dependent model. Almost 90% of the variance on the predicted time-integrated {sup 137}Cs concentration was explainable by linear relationships with model paramaters. The model was also relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the estimates of ambient temperature, suggesting that adequate estimates of temperature-dependent ingestion and elimination may require relatively few measurements of ambient conditions at sites of interest. Analyses of Richards sigmoidal models of {sup 137}Cs uptake indicated significant differences from a negative exponential trajectory in the 1st yr after the turtles` release into Pond B. 76 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. [Using 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) to trace the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon at a slope farmland in the black soil region].

    PubMed

    Fang, Hai-Yan; Sheng, Mei-Ling; Sun, Li-Ying; Cai, Qiang-Guo

    2013-07-01

    Soil cores were collected from a 28.5 hm2 slope farmland in the black soil region of Northeast China. Based on the sampled data of 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC, the potentials of applying 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) for assessing SOC redistribution were evaluated, aimed to approach the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon (SOC) in black soil region. At both planar and vertical directions, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC in the farmland had similar distribution patterns. Although there were large planar variations in the 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) areal activities and the SOC stock as affected by soil erosion and deposition, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC had similar changing trends over the landscape. Two depth distribution profiles were also used to study the relations of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) with SOC. At eroded site, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) and the SOC mass fraction did not show large variations in 0-25 cm soil layer, but decreased sharply below 25 cm. For the deposition sample, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) in 0-100 cm soil increased firstly and then decreased. The SOC mass fraction also had similar depth distribution pattern in this soil layer. The 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) presented positive linear correlations with the SOC, indicating that 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC moved with the same physical mechanism in the farmland, and fallout 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) could be used to study spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of SOC in the black soil region under the condition of soil erosion.

  15. Tracing soil erosion impacts on soil organisms using 137Cs and soil nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Craig; Rowan, John S.; McKenzie, Blair M.; Neilson, Roy

    2014-05-01

    The application of environmental radionuclides in soil tracing and erosion studies is now well established in geomorphology. Sediment and erosion-tracing studies are undertaken for a range of purposes in the earth sciences but until now few studies have used the technique to answer biological questions. An experiment was undertaken to measure patterns of soil loss and gain over 50 years, effectively calculating a field-scale sediment budget, to investigate soil erosion relationships between physical and biological soil components. Soil nematodes were identified as a model organism, a ubiquitous and abundant group sensitive to disturbance and thus useful indicator taxa of biological and physico-chemical changes. A field site was selected at the James Hutton Institute's experimental Balruddery Farm in NE Scotland. 10 metre-resolution topographical data was collected with differential GPS. Based on these data, a regular 30 m-resolution sampling grid was constructed in ArcGIS, and a field-sampling campaign undertaken. 104 soil cores (~50 cm-deep) were collected with a percussion corer. Radio-caesium (137Cs) activity concentrations were measured using high-purity germainum gamma-ray spectroscopy, and 137Cs areal activities derived from these values. Organic matter content by loss on ignition and grain-size distribution by laser granulometry were also measured. Additional samples were collected to characterise the soil nematode community, both for abundance and functional (trophic) composition using a combination of low-powered microscopy and molecular identification techniques (dTRFLP). Results were analysed with ArcGIS software using the Spatial Analyst package. Results show that spatial relationships between physical, chemical and biological parameters were complex and interrelated. Previous field management was found to influence these relationships. The results of this experiment highlight the role that soil erosion processes play in medium-term restructuring of the

  16. Replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Brian; Vetter, Richard J

    2009-02-01

    Self-shielded 137Cs irradiators have been used for many years to irradiate blood products to prevent graft vs. host disease and to irradiate cells and small animals in research. A report by the National Academy of Sciences recommends that careful consideration be given to replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators. Several manufacturers and users of x-ray irradiators were contacted to determine costs of replacing and maintaining 137Cs irradiators with x-ray units and to assess users' experience with x-ray irradiators. Purchase costs of x-ray units are similar to 137Cs irradiators, but maintenance costs are significantly higher if annual service contracts are used. Performance of the two irradiator types appears to be equivalent, but in some cases x-ray irradiations may need to be performed in multiple configurations to achieve adequate uniformity in dose. No literature reports were found that evaluated the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays; therefore, a careful study should be conducted to determine the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays for biological responses relevant to transfusion medicine and immunological research. Throughput may be problematic for large transfusion medicine programs, and back-up plans may be necessary in case the x-ray unit needs to be taken out of service for extended maintenance. Disposition of a 137Cs irradiator will add to the cost of replacement with an x-ray unit, but disposal may be possible through the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Source Recovery Program.

  17. Level and origin of 129I and 137Cs in lichen samples (Cladonia alpestris) in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Holm, E; Pinto-Gómez, A R

    2011-02-01

    Lichen is a symbiosis between algae and fungi. They have for decades been used as bioindicators for atmospheric deposition of heavy metals, organic compounds and radioactive elements. Especially the species Cladonia alpestris and Cladonia rangiferina are important for the food chain lichen-reindeer-man. The concentration of (129)I was determined in lichen samples (Cladonia alpestris) contaminated by fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests explosions and the Chernobyl accident. The samples were collected at Lake Rogen District (62.3°N, 12.4°E) in central Sweden in the periods 1961-1975 and 1987-1998, and analysed with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at CNA (Seville) to study its distribution in different layers. Data on the (137)Cs activity measured previously were also included in this study. The (129)I concentration ranged from (0.95 ± 0.13) × 10(8) at g(-1) in 1961 in the uppermost layer to (14.2 ± 0.5) × 10(8) at g(-1) in 1987 in deepest layer. The (129)I/(137)Cs atom ratio ranged between 0.12 and 0.27 for lichen samples collected in the period 1961-1975, indicating weapons tests fallout. For lichen samples collected between 1987 and 1998 the behaviour of (137)Cs concentrations reflected Chernobyl fallout. The concentrations of the two radionuclides followed each other quite well in the profile, reflecting the same origin for both. From the point of view of the spatial distribution in the lichen, it appears that (129)I was predominantly accumulated in the lowest layer, the opposite to (137)Cs for which the highest amounts were detected systematically in the topmost layer of lichen. This vertical distribution is important for radioecology because lichen is the initial link in the food chain lichen-reindeer-man, and reindeer only graze the upper parts of lichen carpets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs in foodstuffs samples collected from coastal areas of China.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Zhou, Qiang; Xu, Cuihua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Jianfeng; Su, Xu

    2016-05-01

    This study represents a total of 245 samples collected. The activities of (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined in samples of vegetables, tea, cereal (rice, wheat and corn), meat, poultry, freshwater product, seafood and seaweed that collected from the 30km safety zone of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) area. All the samples radionuclide activities were quantified by using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The geometric mean concentrations (Bqkg(-1) wet weight) for (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in all investigated foodstuffs samples, are 0.13, 0.16, 0.11, 68 and 0.02, respectively. The arithmetic mean concentrations (Bqkg(-1) wet weight) for (238)U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in all investigated foodstuffs samples, are 0.34, 0.65, 0.32, 111 and 0.09, respectively. Results of this study were compared with others, the measured values are the same with those of a previous investigation. Radiation doses due to the consumption of these foodstuffs to humans are estimated to comprise around 37-46% of the annual dose limit for public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Leaves of higher plants as biomonitors of radionuclides (137Cs, 40K, 210Pb and 7Be) in urban air.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Dragana; Popović, Dragana; Ajtić, Jelena; Nikolić, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Leaves of linden (Tilia tomentosa L. and Tilia cordata Mill.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) were analysed as biomonitors of radionuclides in urban air. Samples of soils, leaves and aerosols were collected in Belgrade, Serbia. Activities of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Pb and (7)Be in the samples were measured on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. "Soil-to-leaves" transfer factors were calculated. Student's t test and linear Pearson correlation coefficients were used for statistical analysis. Differences in local conditions at the sampling sites were not significant, and the mechanisms of the radionuclides' accumulation in both plant species are similar. Ceasium-137 was detected in some of the leaf samples only. Transfer factors for (137)Cs and (40)K were (0.03-0.08) and 1.3, respectively. The concentrations of (210)Pb and (7)Be in leaves were higher in autumn than in spring, and there were some similarities in their seasonal patterns in leaves and in air. Weak to medium correlation was obtained for the (210)Pb and (7)Be activities in leaves and aerosols. Large positive correlation was obtained for the (210)Pb activities in linden leaves and the mean activity in aerosols for the preceding months. Different primary modes of radionuclides accumulation in leaves were observed. Since large positive correlation was obtained for the (210)Pb activity in linden leaves and the mean in aerosols for the preceding months, mature linden leaves could be used as biomonitors of recent (210)Pb activity in air.

  20. Transport of (137)Cs, (241)Am and Pu isotopes in the Curonian Lagoon and the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lujanienė, G; Remeikaitė-Nikienė, N; Garnaga, G; Jokšas, K; Šilobritienė, B; Stankevičius, A; Šemčuk, S; Kulakauskaitė, I

    2014-01-01

    Activities of (137)Cs, (241)Am and (239,240)Pu were analyzed with special emphasis on better understanding of radionuclide transport from land via the Neman River estuaries to the Baltic Sea and behavior in the marine environment. Although activity concentrations of (137)Cs in water samples collected the Baltic Sea were almost 100 times higher as compared to the Curonian Lagoon, its activities in the bottom sediments were found to be comparable. Activity (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu and atom (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios indicated a different contribution of the Chernobyl-originated Pu to the suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediments. The largest amount of the Chernobyl-derived Pu was found in the smallest suspended matter particles of 0.2-1 μm in size collected in the Klaipeda Strait in 2011-2012. The decrease of characteristic activity (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu and atom (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios towards the global fallout ones in surface soil and the corresponding increase of plutonium (Pu) ratios in the suspended particulate matter and bottom sediments have indicated that the Chernobyl-derived Pu, primarily deposited on the soil surface, was washed out and transported to the Baltic Sea. Behavior of (241)Am was found to be similar to that of Pu isotopes.

  1. Areal distribution of /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 90/Sr in streambed gravels of White Oak Creek Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Cerling, T.E.; Spalding, B.P.

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 137/Cs in streambed gravels from contaminated drainages in White Oak Creek Watershed were determined. Methods to determine the relative contributions of various sources to the total discharge from the watershed were developed. Principal sources of /sup 90/Sr were: ORNL plant effluents (50%), leaching from solid waste disposal area (SWDA) 4 (30%), and leaching from SWDA 5 (10%). Minor sources included SWDA 3, the Molten Salt Reactor Facility, and intermediate-level liquid waste pit 1 with each representing 4% or less of the total basin discharge. The cooling water effluent from the High-Flux Isotope Reactor was the dominant source of /sup 60/Co contamination in the watershed. ORNL plant effluents accounted for almost all the /sup 137/Cs discharge from White Oak Creek basin. Downstream radionuclide concentrations were constant until significant dilution by other tributaries occurred. Any future activities giving rise to additional contamination can now be identified. Distribution coefficients between streambed gravels and streamwater for /sup 85/Sr, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 137/Cs were 50, 560, and 8460 ml/g, respectively. An abridged radiochemical fractionation developed for /sup 90/Sr was found to be as accurate and precise for these samples as the standard /sup 90/Sr method above levels of 2 dpm/g. (ERB)

  2. One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

    2013-04-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a~lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99%) by the end of

  3. Behaviour of oceanic 137Cs following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident for four years simulated numerically by a regional ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, M. S.; Koven, C. D.; Riley, W. J.; Zhu, B.; Hicks Pries, C.; Phillips, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition.We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the regional ocean for four years by numerical model, such as a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model. Direct release rate of 137Cs were estimated for four years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly release was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. Decrease rate were quite small after 2013. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be the order of magnitude of 1010 Bq/day by the end of March 2015. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. There is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011. Observed data of marine biota should reflect the history of 137Cs activity in this early period. We reconstructed the history of 137Cs activity in this early period by considering atmospheric deposition, river input, rain water runoff from the 1F NPP site. The comparisons between simulated 137Cs activity of marine biota by a dynamic biological compartment and observed data also suggest that simulated 137Cs activity attributable to atmospheric deposition was underestimated in this early period. The

  4. Behaviour of oceanic 137Cs following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident for four years simulated numerically by a regional ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Misumi, K.; Tateda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition.We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the regional ocean for four years by numerical model, such as a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model. Direct release rate of 137Cs were estimated for four years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly release was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. Decrease rate were quite small after 2013. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be the order of magnitude of 1010 Bq/day by the end of March 2015. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. There is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011. Observed data of marine biota should reflect the history of 137Cs activity in this early period. We reconstructed the history of 137Cs activity in this early period by considering atmospheric deposition, river input, rain water runoff from the 1F NPP site. The comparisons between simulated 137Cs activity of marine biota by a dynamic biological compartment and observed data also suggest that simulated 137Cs activity attributable to atmospheric deposition was underestimated in this early period. The

  5. Reassessment of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (134)Cs in the Coast off Japan Derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Castrillejo, Maxi; Casacuberta, Núria; Breier, Crystaline F; Pike, Steven M; Masqué, Pere; Buesseler, Ken O

    2016-01-05

    The years following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident, the distribution of (90)Sr in seawater in the coast off Japan has received limited attention. However, (90)Sr is a major contaminant in waters accumulated within the nuclear facility and in the storage tanks. Seawater samples collected off the FDNPP in September 2013 showed radioactive levels significantly higher than pre-Fukushima levels within 6 km off the FDNPP. These samples, with up to 8.9 ± 0.4 Bq·m(-3) for (90)Sr, 124 ± 3 Bq·m(-3) for (137)Cs, and 54 ± 1 Bq·m(-3) for (134)Cs, appear to be influenced by ongoing releases from the FDNPP, with a characteristic (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio of 3.5 ± 0.2. Beach surface water and groundwater collected in Sendai Bay had (137)Cs concentrations of up to 43 ± 1 Bq·m(-3), while (90)Sr was close to pre-Fukushima levels (1-2 Bq·m(-3)). These samples appear to be influenced by freshwater inputs carrying a (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio closer to that of the FDNPP fallout deposited on land in the spring of 2011. Ongoing inputs of (90)Sr from FDNPP releases would be on the order of 2.3-8.5 GBq·d(-1) in September 2013, likely exceeding river inputs by 2-3 orders of magnitude. These results strongly suggest that a continuous surveillance of artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean is still required.

  6. The activity concentration of post-Chernobyl ¹³⁷Cs in the area of the Opole Anomaly (southern Poland).

    PubMed

    Wróbel, Łukasz; Dołhańczuk-Śródka, Agnieszka; Kłos, Andrzej; Ziembik, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2007 and 2010, the activity concentration of (137)Cs accumulated in soil, mosses Pleurozium schreberi and lichens Hypogymnia physodes was measured. The studies covered the areas of the so-called Opole Anomaly. In consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant breakdown in 1986, relatively large amounts of this radionuclide were deposited in this area. In some areas of the Anomaly, over 100 times higher surface activity of (137)Cs was detected, compared to the lowest values registered in Poland. Currently, (137)Cs is still present in woodlands and wastelands. As at 2 April 2013, the surface activity concentration of (137)Cs in soil on the tested area was from 0.34 to 67.5 kBq m(-2). In comparison, the surface activity concentration of (137)Cs as at 1 June 1986, soon after deposition, was from 2.08 to over 125 kBq m(-2). The maximum specific activity concentrations of (137)Cs in mosses and lichens sampled for testing in 2010 were respectively 1234 and 959 Bq kg(-1). It was also proven that the changes in activity concentration of (137)Cs in the area of the Anomaly are mainly the consequence of the radioactive decay of this radionuclide.

  7. Artificial (137)Cs and (134)Cs and natural (40)K in sclerotia of Wolfiporia extensa fungus collected across of the Yunnan land in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanzhong; Zalewska, Tamara; Apanel, Anna; Zhang, Ji; Maćkiewicz, Zbigniew; Wiejak, Anna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Dried sclerotia of Wolfiporia extensa has a long history of medicinal and grocery uses in Asia and elsewhere. This study aimed at providing and evaluating data on activity concentrations from artificial (137)Cs and (134)Cs radionuclides and natural (40)K in sclerotia collected across of the Yunnan land in China, which is generally lacking information. Sclerotia of W. extensa showed a low contamination with (137)Cs while (134)Cs was below limit of quantification. Estimated, the nominal value of effective dose (μSv) received by adult eating annually 50 g of the 'average' Yunnan's origin sclerotia contained in the 'Fuling jiabing' snack due to (137)Cs could be between < 0.00091 and 0.0047 ± 0.0007 μSv per capita and at < 0.000015 to 0.000078 ± 0.000012 μSv per kg of body mass, which is a very low exposure. This study has revealed also that sclerotia of W. extensa are characterized by very low content of (40)K (hence also of total K) when compared to fruiting bodies of many saprobic and mycorrhizal mushrooms.

  8. {sup 137}Cs content in the fruit bodies of various Tuber species

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzelli, R.; Lamma, A.; Zambonelli, A.; Serra, F.

    1996-12-01

    In this research, the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the fruit bodies of the Tuber species T. magnatum Pico, T. borchii Vitt., T. aestivum Vitt., and T. excavatum Vitt. collected in three different regions of Italy was determined. The values obtained have been compared to the soil concentration of {sup 137}Cs, and the transfer factor was determined. The radiocesium content of the examined fruit bodies ranged from 2.5 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} to 33.3 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} fresh weight; the median transfer factor values of the four species ranged between 0.06 and 0.6. Our findings indicate that the radiocesium level in truffles from these regions of Italy is generally low, and, thus, their consumption is not of radiological concern. The results may suggest certain hypotheses as to the mechanisms involved in radiocesium uptake in these fungi. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs of different dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs in the beagle dog was investigated at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of programs to evaluate the biological effects of both radionuclides in atomic bomb fallout and internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. In the ITRI study, young adult dogs were exposed once by intravenous injection to a range of {sup 137}Cs concentrations; the results have recently been published. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the ANL study and to compare the results of the two studies. At ANL, 63 dogs in three age groups (15 juveniles, 142-151 days old; 38 young adults, 388-427 days old; and 10 middle-aged dogs, 1387-2060 days old) were given {sup 137}Cs intravenously at levels (61-162f MBq/kg) near those expected to be lethal within 30 days after injection. There were 17 control dogs from the same colony. Twenty-three of the dogs injected with {sup 137}Cs, including all middle-aged dogs, died within 52 days after injection due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia that led to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. The other significant early effect was damage to the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. The design of the ANL study revealed an age- and gender-related differential radiosensitivity for early effects. The middle-aged dogs died significantly earlier due to complications of hematological dyscrasia compared to the juvenile and young adult dogs, and the middle-aged females died significantly earlier than the middle-aged males. The most significant non-neoplastic late effects in the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs from ANL and ITRI were atrophy of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules with azoospermia, and a significant dose-dependent decrease in survival. The survival of the ANL dogs was decreased more than that of the ITRI dogs at similar radiation doses from {sup 137}Cs. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in tropical plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, R. M.; Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Veiga, R.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Macario, K.

    2007-02-01

    The accumulation and distribution of 40K and 137Cs in several tropical plant species were studied through measurements of gamma-ray spectra, focusing on establishing the suitability of using radiocesium to trace the plant uptake of nutrients such as potassium.

  12. MUD: a Model to investigate the migration of 137Cs in the Urban environment and Drainage and sewage treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    A model is presented for the migration of 137Cs in the urban environment, including the drainage systems and the sewage treatment plants, with flexibility to be adapted to different configurations common in urban areas. The dynamics of 137Cs is simulated both under natural evolution and in case of forced decontamination, which can have a direct impact on the radioactivity going to sewers. The model assesses the activity concentrated in sewage sludge and that discharged with the treated or untreated effluent to the receiving watercourse. Tests made for two post-Chernobyl contamination scenarios in Sweden show differences between model predictions and observed results within the range of the experimental uncertainties. An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the main model parameters indicates that some parameters may have a significant influence on the results of the model. Moreover, the model uncertainty is driven by a few parameters; therefore, additional research could be necessary into these parameters, aiming at simplifying the model without losing its predictive power.

  13. Determination of 137Cs in large volume seawater using Cu-hexacyanoferrate cartridge filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visetpotjanakit, S.; Tumnoi, Y.

    2017-06-01

    A simple method to determine 137Cs in seawater has been developed based on the use of a Cu-hexacyanoferrate scavenger. The Cu-hexacyanoferrate supported on cotton wound cartridge filter was used to absorb 137Cs from seawater by passing large volumes over the cartridge filters with flowrate of 240 L hr-1. Results from the Cu-hexacyanoferrate method were proved acceptable for accuracy with bias below ± 20 % i.e. - 9.16 to + 18.55 % when compared with the traditional ammonium molybdophosphate pre-concentration method. This developed method is cost-effective and less time consuming. In addition it can be easily performed at sampling fields.

  14. Mapping of 137Cs deposition over eastern France 16 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Philippe; Pourcelot, Laurent; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Morello, Marcel

    2003-06-20

    We observed the relationship between present-day 137Cs surface activity and the rainfall in May 1986 to establish a relevant map of 137Cs deposition over eastern France. This study was performed in an area of the lower Rhône valley where clayey soils are assumed to trap caesium efficiently. Based on the rainwater/airborne activity ratio deduced from this relationship, we verified that present-day activities, measured in clayey soils of this type, are relatively representative of the initial depositions. The interlocked contaminated areas of the resulting map can be related to rainfall occurrences, as is the case for all countries affected by the Chernobyl fallout. This map can be reasonably compared with those obtained for countries bordering France in terms of both activity levels and extent of homogeneous activity areas. Lastly, we demonstrate that it would not be possible to produce a coherent map of initial fallout by extending the campaign over the whole of the eastern territory based on present-day soil activity measurements alone. Hence, only the relationship between 137Cs deposition and the rainfall of the first week of May 1986 can be used to construct a map depicting the Chernobyl fallout over eastern France.

  15. (137)Cs contamination over Transylvania region (Romania) after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Begy, R Cs; Simon, H; Vasilache, D; Kelemen, Sz; Cosma, C

    2017-12-01

    Following the radionuclide releases due to Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, various studies were completed by researchers all over the world in order to measure the surface contaminations by artificial radionuclides. The aim of this study was to evaluate (137)Cs surface contamination and to create an inventory distribution for Transylvania region (Romania) after the Chernobyl event using γ spectrometric measurements on soil samples collected from 153 locations. The results were compared to measured data from the Danube Delta and Moldova Republic, as well as to (137)Cs concentrations from the rest of Europe reported by literature. The (137)Cs surface concentrations in soil samples ranged between 0.4±0.1kBqm(-2) and 301.1±3.0kBqm(-2), having an average of 8.3±0.2kBqm(-2), with more elevated values in the mountain areas (18.3±0.6kBqm(-2)) compared to the hills and plains (2.6±0.1kBqm(-2)). Taking into consideration the cardinal regions, the northern and western regions received the least amount of (137)Cs (2.9±0.1kBqm(-2)), while the southern part received 16.3±0.6kBqm(-2). Sampling points with eastern slope exposure received the highest average (27.8±0.5kBqm(-2)), while southern, north-western and north-eastern ones received less than 8kBqm(-2). Two hotspots are reported at Iezer-Ighiel (72.7±5.9kBqm(-2)) and Tulgheș areas (51.5±0.6kBqm(-2)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Geographical trends in 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident and leaching from natural surface soil in Norway.

    PubMed

    Gjelsvik, Runhild; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2013-12-01

    In order to follow the turnover of (137)Cs in natural soils and estimate future trends in exposure of livestock, samples of natural surface soils were collected at 0-3 cm depth at 464 sites in 1995 and 463 sites in 2005 covering the country. In both cases the geographical pattern observed was similar to the original distribution from 1986, but the decline of (137)Cs activity in the surface soil was not the same everywhere. In 1995 the (137)Cs reduction since 1986 was found to be considerably greater in coastal areas than farther inland. The main reason for this appears to be the much greater deposition of marine cations such as Mg(2+) and Na(+) in the coastal areas, replacing Cs ions fixed on soil particle surfaces. This cation exchange appeared to be particularly strong near the southern coast where deposition of NH4(+) from transboundary air pollution is evident in addition to the marine cations. During 1995-2005 the (137)Cs decline in the surface soil was more uniform over the country than in the preceding 10-year period but still significantly higher in coastal areas than inland. Differences in precipitation chemistry may have influenced the uptake of (137)Cs in terrestrial food chains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Modifying effect of incorporated 137Cs on the mechanism of adrenergic control of myocardial contraction].

    PubMed

    Lobanok, L M; Bulanova, K Ia; Gerasimovich, N V; Sineleva, M V; Miliutin, A A

    1994-01-01

    Incorporated 137Cs (absorbed dose of 0.26 Gy) causes decrease of myocardial's contractile function and inotropic response to beta-adrenagonists effect, isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenoreceptors affinity. Adrenergic effects, mediated by alpha-adrenergic structures on heart contractile function, on the contrary, become stronger, that is due to the increase of the receptors' density on sarcolemma surface.

  18. Prediction of groundwater contamination with 137Cs and 131I from the Fukushima nuclear accident in the Kanto district.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tomoko; Mahara, Yasunori; Kubota, Takumi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Keiko; Takamiya, Koichi; Yoshinaga, Hisao; Mizuochi, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2012-09-01

    We measured the concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs released from the Fukushima nuclear accident in soil and rainwater samples collected March 30-31, 2011, in Ibaraki Prefecture, Kanto district, bordering Fukushima Prefecture to the south. Column experiments revealed that all (131)I in rainwater samples was adsorbed onto an anion-exchange resin. However, 30% of (131)I was not retained by the resin after it passed through a soil layer, suggesting that a portion of (131)I became bound to organic matter from the soil. The (137)Cs migration rate was estimated to be approximately 0.6 mm/y in the Kanto area, which indicates that contamination of groundwater by (137)Cs is not likely to occur in rainwater infiltrating into the surface soil after the Fukushima accident.

  19. Combining radiometric images, 137Cs, geochemical and digital elevation data to quantify erosion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, F.; Tourliere, B.; Bonte, P.; Perrin, J.; Bourdon, B.; Pili, E.

    2003-04-01

    In this study, gamma-spectroscopic airborne data, digital elevation data, together with river and sediment geochemical data have been combined to quantify chemical and physical erosion within a rather small watershed (150 km2). In addition, the 137Cs technique is applied to have a better understanding of present-day erosion and weathering processes. The Hyrome watershed, South-East Armorican Massif (France), mainly consists of brioverian micaschists. We have examined particularly how past and present physical and chemical erosion is distributed within the drainage basin. In order to enhance these merged effects all the data are combined by Hierarchy Ascending Classification (HAC - cluster analysis). The multivariable analysis sorts each individual data point into separate groups characterized by radiometry, geochemistry, slope and difference between altitude and base level affinities. HAC groups delineate zones used to select target sites inside the watershed. The radiometric airborne data clearly show that the plateau areas are depleted in K and U as a result of chemical erosion while Th is fairly constant. In contrast, the valleys are characterized by larger K and U concentrations reflecting the bedrock original composition. This probably indicates more recent incision and/or faster physical erosion. The 137Cs is used as a tracer of soil erosion because of its adsorption since 40 years on surface soil particles. Suitable undisturbed sites have been found for 137Cs measurements using a field-portable HP-Ge gamma detector and then on core samples. The 137Cs technique provides a quantitative estimation of erosion and weathering processes and a qualitative determination of origin, transport and accumulation zones from those pre-selected with HAC. This data will be used to establish how the present-day erosion and soil redistribution relate to the pattern of erosion visible by airborne gamma-spectrometry.

  20. Spatial distribution of fallout 137Cs in the coastal marine environment of India.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Gothankar, S S; Sartandel, S; Pote, M B; Hemalatha, P; Rajan, M P; Vidyasagar, D; Indumati, S P; Shrivastava, R; Puranik, V D

    2012-11-01

    The data on the fallout (137)Cs in the coastal marine environment assume significance in view of massive expansion of nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region and to fulfill the benchmark study required to evaluate the possible impact of the Fukushima radioactive releases in the Asia-Pacific region. Measurements of (137)Cs in sea water, along with salinity and temperature, were carried out at 30 locations covering the coastal area of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. For the present study the Indian coastal area is divided in three different regions. The (137)Cs concentration in sea water of the entire Indian coastal region varies from 0.30 to 1.25 Bq m(-3). The data obtained in the present study was compared with the North Indian Ocean data and it was observed that there is a 33% decrease in the Arabian Sea (region I), 50% in the high rainfall coastal area (region II) and 24% in the Bay of Bengal (region III).

  1. Determination and analysis of distribution coefficients of 137Cs in soils from Biscay (Spain).

    PubMed

    Elejalde, C; Herranz, M; Legarda, F; Romero, F

    2000-10-01

    The distribution coefficient of (137)Cs has been determined in 58 soils from 12 sampling points from Biscay by treating 10 g with 25 ml of an aqueous solution with an activity of 1765 Bq in the radionuclide, by shaking during 64 h and measuring the residual activity with a suitable detector. Soils were characterised by sampling depth, particle size analysis and the usual chemical parameters. Soils were thereafter treated to fix the chemical forms of (137)Cs speciation by successive extractions in order to determine fractions due to exchangeable, associated with carbonates, iron oxide and organic matter fractions, obtaining by difference the amount taken by the rest of the soil constituents. For this research, 16 soils from four points were selected from the previous samples. The greatest mean percentages of (137)Cs sorption were with the rest (69.93), exchangeable (13.17) and organic matter (12.54%) fractions. This paper includes also the calculation of partial distribution coefficients for chemical species as well as relations of distribution coefficients both among them and with soil parameters.

  2. Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs used to determine sediment accretion rates at selected northern European coastal wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.C.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    Sediment cores were collected form five coastal wetlands along the North Sea (England and Netherlands) and Baltic Sea (Poland). {sup 137}Cs dating was used to assess sediment accretion rates, including rates based on the {sup 137}Cs peak from the 1986 accident at Chernobyl. Peaks form the Chernobyl fallout were found in cores from the Oder and Vistula Rivers in Poland, from the Eastern Scheldt in the Netherlands, and in one of the two cores from Stiffkey Marsh, UK. No evidence of Chernobyl fallout was found in cores from Dengie Marsh, UK. The Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs peak serves as an excellent marker for short-term accretion rates because of its high activity. Vertical accretion rates (cm yr{sup {minus}1}) based on 1963 and 1986 peaks were similar at most sites; differences may be due to large inputs of sediment from storms or recent accumulation of organic matter. Large differences in sediment characteristics and accretion rates were found between samples from Poland and western Europe. Vertical accretion rates over the period 1963-1986 ranged from 0.26 to 0.85 cm{sup {minus}1} and from 0.30 to 1.90 cm yr{sup {minus}1} over the 1986-1991 period. Vertical accretion rates for the period these sites are in imminent danger of excessive flooding. The Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs peak will be especially useful for studies of short-term (i.e. very recent) sedimentation in the near future and for comparisons of sediment processes over different time scales. 33 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Assessing soil redistribution in a complex karst catchment using fallout 137Cs and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, A.; López-Vicente, M.; Gaspar, L.; Machín, J.

    2013-08-01

    Caesium-137 derived from nuclear testing in the past century has been widely used as a sediment tracer of soil redistribution, providing information on medium term (40-50 years) erosion rates. To date, most studies have focused on individual fields of limited extent, but estimated rates and patterns of soil redistribution require upscaling to catchment level. An attempt to assess soil redistribution processes with strong geomorphic control on complex terrain, such as an internally drained karst catchment, is presented in this work. A comprehensive geomorphological survey of the Estanya Lake catchment (Spanish Pyrenees) enabled the main geomorphic elements to be identified with a grid resolution of 5 × 5 m, which was the basis for the terrain analyses. A detailed DEM was constructed and improved after field identification of the drainage system and point measures on gentle slopes with Total Topographic Station. A 100 × 100 m sampling grid was established to derive point data of 137Cs inventories across the catchment. Geostatistical interpolation of point samples of 137Cs inventories in soil was carried out to identify and assess the areas of sediment gain and loss by comparing with 137Cs reference inventories. Profile activity models were used to calibrate 137Cs data and to derive estimates of soil redistribution. GIS was used to provide spatially distributed erosion and deposition rates in the landscape for the whole catchment. The median values of soil erosion and deposition of 4.7 and 3.1 Mg ha- 1 year- 1, respectively, showed a large variability and reveal coupling between erosional and depositional forms in the catchment. The highest erosion and deposition rates were found in cultivated fields at the southern sector of the catchment. The spatial analysis of the results supports the importance of taking into account geomorphological features in karst catchments as relevant controlling factors in soil redistribution processes.

  4. Growth and (137)Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw; Aye, Yi Swe; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different (137)Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of (137)Cs concentration and higher (137)Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different (137)Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna>turnip>mustard>radish. TF values of (137)Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher (137)Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher (137)Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher (137)Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Update global budget of 134Cs and 137Cs derived from Fukushima NPP1 accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Michio; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misuimi, Kazuhiro; Inomata, Yayoi; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Hamajima, Yasunori

    2014-05-01

    -in-time extrapolation approach because they did not include a major direct release period from 26 March to 6 April 2011, which perhaps increased the uncertainties in their estimations. On the other hand, other studies including our study considered the measured 137Cs activities during the major direct release period, and the results lay within the range from 3.5±0.7 to 5.5-5.9 PBq as total amount of direct discharge. It is also important that the largest estimation of direct release of 27 PBq needed a scaling factor of 0.15 to much simulated concentrations with the observed concentrations which implied an update inverse estimate for the total release amount of 3.3 PBq. Although summing up the inventories in the North Pacific Ocean and subtract total amount of direct discharge and deposition amount on land from them gave us a reliable estimation of total amount of atmospheric release of 14 - 17 PBq, reported estimations of total amount of atmospheric release of radiocaesium by inversion methods ranged from 6 PBq to 66 PBq. We will update global budget of radiocaesium released from Fukushima NPP1 accident.

  6. [Effect of soil microflora on 137Cs transition to plants].

    PubMed

    Pareniuk, O Yu; Shavanova, K E; Ilienko, V V; Tytova, L V; Levchuk, S E; Gudkov, I N

    2015-01-01

    The impact of certain types of microorganisms on 137Cs transfer from the substrate into the plant was analyzed in the experiment on artificial mediums. It was found that certain types of microorganisms could either reduce or increase the ratio of 137Cs transfer from the substrate to the plant. It is shown that this property is independent of the localization of the microorganism on the surface of the root, for all the analyzed bacteria belonging to the rhizospheric group. Azotobacter chroococcum UKM B-6003 stimulated the radionuclide transfer to plants up to 1.5 times, while the best bacteria for reducing its accumulation is Burkholderia sp IMER-B1 -53 - 1.3 times in comparison with the control. It was shown that the strain Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724 from the collection of the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of NASU has a high ability to accumulate radionuclides.

  7. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected.

  8. Long-term decrease of atmospheric test {sup 137}Cs in the soil-prairie plant-milk pathway in southern Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Schuller, P. Ellies, A.; Handl, J.

    1998-07-01

    The time dependency of nuclear test {sup 137}Cs in soil, prairie plants, and milk was observed on pastures of seven dairy farms in the 10th Region, Chile, from 1982 to 1997, without any appreciable deposition of radioactive fallout after 1983. Whereas the {sup 137}Cs concentration in the soil decreased at a rate close to that of the radionuclide`s physical decay during the whole observation period, the rate of decrease of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in the prairie plants and in the milk, having been very rapid between 1982--1990, became slower between 1991--1997. The effective half-lives of the concentration in plants were found to be 5.6 y and 12 y during the first and second observation periods, respectively. Similar half-lives of 5.5 y and 13 y were found for the concentration decline in milk during each period. These data clearly demonstrate a reduction in the long-term decrease of the {sup 137}Cs plant uptake, and consequently in the decrease of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in milk, resulting from a decline of {sup 137}Cs availability for prairie plants in the Hapludand soils over the whole 15-y observation period.

  9. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p < 0.001) and in residents living in more contaminated areas (p < 0.001). We also found a significant correlation between the proportion of residents in each city with an estimated annual exposure dose exceeding 0.1 mSv and 137Cs concentration of soil samples from family farms (r = 0.828, p = 0.003). In conclusion, more than 25 years after the Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure.

  10. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p < 0.001) and in residents living in more contaminated areas (p < 0.001). We also found a significant correlation between the proportion of residents in each city with an estimated annual exposure dose exceeding 0.1 mSv and 137Cs concentration of soil samples from family farms (r = 0.828, p = 0.003). In conclusion, more than 25 years after the Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure. PMID:26402065

  11. Evaluation of the possibility to use the plant-microbe interaction to stimulate radioactive 137Cs accumulation by plants in a contaminated farm field in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Djedidi, Salem; Terasaki, Akimi; Aung, Han Phyo; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Meunchang, Phatchayaphon; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments in a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, Fukushima were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the plant-microbe interaction on removal of radiocesium. Before plowing, 93.3% of radiocesium was found in the top 5 cm layer (5,718 Bq kg DW(-1)). After plowing, Cs radioactivity in the 0-15 cm layer ranged from 2,037 to 3,277 Bq kg DW(-1). Based on sequential extraction, the percentage of available radiocesium (water soluble + exchangeable) was fewer than 10% of the total radioactive Cs. The transfer of (137)Cs was investigated in three agricultural crops; komatsuna (four cultivars), Indian mustard and buckwheat, inoculated with a Bacillus or an Azospirillum strains. Except for komatsuna Nikko and Indian mustard, inoculation with both strains resulted in an increase of biomass production by the tested plants. The highest (137)Cs radioactivity concentration in above-ground parts was found in Bacillus-inoculated komatsuna Nikko (121 Bq kg DW(-1)), accompanied with the highest (137)Cs TF (0.092). Furthermore, komatsuna Nikko-Bacillus and Indian mustard-Azospirillum associations gave the highest (137)Cs removal, 131.5 and 113.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. Despite the beneficial effect of inoculation, concentrations of (137)Cs and its transfer to the tested plants were not very high; consequently, removal of (137)Cs from soil would be very slow.

  12. Freundlich and dual Langmuir isotherm models for predicting 137Cs binding on Savannah River Site soils.

    PubMed

    Goto, Momoko; Rosson, Robert; Wampler, J Marion; Elliott, W Crawford; Serkiz, Steven; Kahn, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of 137Cs and stable cesium between aqueous solution and near-surface soil samples from five locations at the Savannah River Site was measured in order to develop a predictive model for 137Cs uptake by the soils. Sorption of 137Cs in these soils appears to be mostly by hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite. Batch sorption studies with 4 d for equilibration were conducted at three cesium concentrations and at two backing electrolyte (NaNO3) concentrations. The soil-solution mixtures were pH-adjusted to evaluate the effects of pH on cesium sorption. Sorbed cesium was related to the equilibrium aqueous cesium concentrations by a Freundlich isotherm model. Model fits on logarithmic scales have a common slope of 0.60 +/- 0.03 for acidic mixtures and 0.69 +/- 0.04 for neutralized mixtures but have unique intercepts that are influenced by backing electrolyte concentration and pH. An ion-exchange model is proposed that pertains to all five soils and relates the Freundlich isotherms to the cation exchange capacity of soil and the aqueous concentrations of cesium, sodium, and a third ionic species that was hydrogen in the acidic mixtures and potassium in the neutralized mixtures. Model fits are consistent with Kd values in the entire range of 5-2,300 L kg(-1) determined for the five soil types. As an alternate model, dual Langmuir isotherms were fitted to the data. The results suggest cesium sorption by (1) relatively few interlayer-wedge sites, highly selective for cesium, and (2) much more abundant but less selective sites on internal and external planar surfaces.

  13. Vertical distribution and temporal changes of 137Cs in soil profiles under various land uses after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Junko; Tamura, Kenji; Suda, Tomoya; Matsumura, Ryo; Onda, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We monitored the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in soil profiles under eight different land uses for the 2 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, and discussed the temporal changes in the early-stage of the migration and the determinants of the initial distribution. The soil samples were collected for four surveys using a scraper plate at each study site, which consisted of three forests (mixed forest, mature cedar, and young cedar), two grasslands (pasture and meadow) and three abandoned agricultural fields (farm land, tobacco field, and paddy field). The land use patterns have a large influence on some soil properties and the migration processes of (137)Cs above ground, resulting in different distribution of (137)Cs in those soil profiles. Specifically, the secondary deposition of (137)Cs from the coniferous canopy, retention of (137)Cs by litter layer, and the homogenization of (137)Cs concentrations in surface soil by natural soil mixing such as the disturbance by cattle grazing, roots growing and the formation of needle ice were important to cause redistribution of the deposited (137)Cs. Only in the paddy field, the (137)Cs inventory in subsurface soils (5-10 cm) gradually increased and comprised 26% of the total (137)Cs in 2 y, showing the downward migration of (137)Cs to subsurface soil. In the other sites, it was considered that (137)Cs were strongly adsorbed by soil particles and rarely migrated downward as soluble form. Vertical distributions during the first survey were able to be used as the initial distributions and were well fitted to the exponential equation. The distribution parameters α (relaxation depth) and β (relaxation mass depth), calculated by the exponential equation were correlated with RIP (r = -0.806, p < 0.05), macro pore (r = 0.651, p = 0.11), and dispersible fine particle content (r = 0.856, p < 0.05). It indicated that the initial distribution would be influenced by the Cs fixation ability of

  14. Influence of water management and fertilizer application on (137)Cs and (133)Cs uptake in paddy rice fields.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Shokichi; Itoh, Sumio; Kihou, Nobuharu; Matsunami, Hisaya; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    Cesium-137 derived from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated large areas of agricultural land in Eastern Japan. Previous studies before the accident have indicated that flooding enhances radiocesium uptake in rice fields. We investigated the influence of water management in combination with fertilizers on (137)Cs concentrations in rice plants at two fields in southern Ibaraki Prefecture. Stable Cs ((133)Cs) in the plants was also determined as an analogue for predicting (137)Cs behavior after long-term aging of soil (137)Cs. The experimental periods comprised 3 y starting from 2012 in one field, and 2 y from 2013 in another field. These fields were divided into three water management sections: a long-flooding section without midsummer drainage, and medial-flooding, and short-flooding sections with one- or two-week midsummer drainage and earlier end of flooding than the long-flooding section. Six or four types of fertilizer subsections (most differing only in potassium application) were nested in each water management section. Generally, the long-flooding treatment led to higher (137)Cs and (133)Cs concentrations in both straw and brown rice than medial- and short-flooding treatments, although there were some notable exceptions in the first experimental year at each site. Effects of differing potassium fertilizer treatments were cumulative; the effects on (137)Cs and (133)Cs concentrations in rice plants were not obvious in 2012 and 2013, but in 2014, these concentrations were highest where potassium fertilizer had been absent and lowest where basal dressings of K had been tripled. The relationship between (137)Cs and (133)Cs in rice plants was not correlative in the first experimental year at each site, but correlation became evident in the subsequent year(s). This study demonstrates a novel finding that omitting midsummer drainage and/or delaying drainage during the grain-filling period enhances

  15. Accumulation of potassium, rubidium and caesium (133Cs and 137Cs in various fractions of soil and fungi in a Swedish forest.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Taylor, A F S; Rosén, K; Johanson, K J

    2010-05-15

    Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) was widely deposited over large areas of forest in Sweden as a result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and many people in Sweden eat wild fungi and game obtained from these contaminated forests. In terms of radioisotope accumulation in the food chain, it is well known that fungal sporocarps efficiently accumulate radiocaesium ((137)Cs), as well as the alkali metals potassium (K), rubidium (Rb) and caesium (Cs). The fungi then enhance uptake of these elements into host plants. This study compared the accumulation of these three alkali metals in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface, fungal mycelium and sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi in a Swedish forest. The soil-root interface was found to be distinctly enriched in K and Rb compared with the bulk soil. Potassium concentrations increased in the order: bulk soilconcentration in the order: bulk soilactively accumulated by fungi. Fungi showed a greater preference for Rb and K than Cs, so the uptake of (137)Cs could be prevented by providing additional Rb or K at contaminated sites. The levels of K, Rb, and Cs found in sporocarps were at least one order of magnitude higher than those in fungal mycelium. These results provide new insights into the use of transfer factors or concentration ratios. The final step, the transfer of alkali metals from fungal mycelium to sporocarps, raised some specific questions about possible mechanisms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution and Ratios of 137Cs and K in Control and K-treated Coconut Trees at Bikini Island where Nuclear Test Fallout Occurred: Effects and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Brown, P H; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2008-05-19

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg{sup -1}. When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, {sup 137}Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while {sup 137}Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally, low concentrations, however, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while {sup 137}Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 or 2.2 kg. Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). {sup 137}Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and {sup 137}Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and {sup 137}Cs in fronds as they age

  17. Distribution and ratios of 137Cs and K in control and K-treated coconut trees at Bikini Island where nuclear test fallout occurred: effects and implications.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Brown, Patrick H; Stone, Earl L; Hamilton, Terry F; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low, ranging from only 20 to 80mgkg(-1). When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of 137Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, 137Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while 137Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K-treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally low concentrations. However, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while 137Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 (2.2kg). Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K-fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). The 137Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K-treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and 137Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and 137Cs in fronds as they age is logarithmic, but K remobilization is

  18. Comparison of Pu and (137)Cs as tracers of soil and sediment transport in a terrestrial environment.

    PubMed

    Everett, S E; Tims, S G; Hancock, G J; Bartley, R; Fifield, L K

    2008-02-01

    Following atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s significant quantities of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu were deposited worldwide. In recent decades, (137)Cs has been commonly used as a tracer of soil erosion and sedimentation, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere where atomic deposition was three times as great as in the Southern Hemisphere. The relatively short 30-year half-life of this isotope means that its sensitivity as a tracer is rapidly decreasing. In contrast, with half-lives of 24,110 and 6561 years, the sensitivity of the two plutonium isotopes remains essentially the same as when it was deposited. Here we use the technique of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry to demonstrate the potential of anthropogenic Pu as an alternative to (137)Cs as a tracer of soil transport in Australia. We measure an average (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu activity ratio of 27.3+/-1.5 and an average (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio of 0.149+/-0.003, both slightly lower than the global average.

  19. Uptake of {sup 137}Cs in vegetable crops grown on a contaminated lakebed

    SciTech Connect

    Seel, J.F.; Adriano, D.C.; Whicker, F.W.

    1995-06-01

    Mean concentration and plant:soil concentration ratios of {sup 137}Cs were determined for six vegetable crops grown on an exposed, contaminated lakebed of a former reactor cooling reservoir in South Carolina. Each crop species was grown with or without potassium fertilizer. Selected crops were also irrigated with either reservoir water or groundwater. Subsamples of crops were prepared for human consumption before analysis to determine the extent of any loss. Plant:soil concentration ratios (dry basis) ranged from 0.22 to 6.82, values which were substantially higher than those used in generic assessment models. While there was no statistically significant effect of irrigation source or culinary preparation, the effect of potassium-fertilizer was dramatic. In many cases, concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in those plants receiving potassium were less than half of the concentrations in plants that did not receive potassium. Significant differences among species and {sup 131}Cs plant parts for concentrations were observed. Dose/risk calculations for the ingestion of these vegetables by a hypothetical 30-y resident indicates the possibility of a lifetime fatal cancer risk well-above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s regulatory guideline of 10{sup -4}. 33 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Evolution and fluxes of 137Cs in the Black Sea/Turkish Straits System/North Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfanti, R.; Özsoy, E.; Kaberi, H.; Schirone, A.; Salvi, S.; Conte, F.; Tsabaris, C.; Papucci, C.

    2014-07-01

    The vertical profiles of 137Cs were determined in the North Aegean, Marmara and Black Seas, to assess inventories and fluxes of the radionuclide in these basins. The inventory of 137Cs in the Western Black Sea integrated from the surface down to 400 m water depth is 3.4 ± 0.1 kBq m- 2, which is surprisingly close to the amount determined in 1988, decay corrected to 2007 (2.9 ± 0.1 kBq m- 2). On the other hand, based on the comparison of profiles roughly 20 years apart, it is estimated that about 1 kBq m- 2 has been transferred from above the halocline to depths below the halocline, emphasizing the effective redistribution of tracers within the same period. We estimate that about 12 TBq y- 1 of 137Cs presently leaves the Black Sea with the upper layer flow through the Bosphorus and only 2 TBq y- 1 is returned with the lower layer inflow of Mediterranean water from the Marmara Sea. Accounting for river fluxes, estimated on the order of 2 TBq y- 1 few years after the Chernobyl accident, and possibly decreased by now, we can thus estimate a net rate of loss of about 8-10 TBq y- 1. Investigating the effective redistribution in the upper water column, the supply by the inflowing Mediterranean water alone does not explain the increase of 137Cs concentration and inventory at intermediate depths in the Western Black Sea. The most important mechanism transferring 137Cs and dissolved contaminants from the surface water to the sub-pycnocline layer appears to be the turbulent entrainment of a larger quantity of Black Sea water into the inflowing plume of Mediterranean water through mixing processes on the southwestern shelf and continental slope following its exit from the Bosphorus. This process produces an extra export of some10 TBq y- 1 of 137Cs from the surface to the sub-pycnocline depths of the Black Sea, a quantity comparable in magnitude to the total export out from the basin. It is the entrainment flux resulting from the mixing, and the further advection and

  1. Potential of largemouth bass as vectors of 137Cs dispersal.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Fletcher, D E; Jones, T; Dyer, S A; Isely, J J; Littrell, J W

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a radio telemetry study on the movements of potentially contaminated largemouth bass between Steel Creek, a restricted access (137)Cs contaminated stream on the Savannah River Site (located in South Carolina, USA), and the publicly accessible Savannah River. Largemouth bass were relatively mobile in lower Steel Creek and the portion of the Savannah River near Steel Creek, and there was considerable movement between these two habitats. Largemouth bass had home ranges of about 500 linear meters of shoreline in the Savannah River but sometimes moved long distances. Such movements occurred primarily during the spawning season, largely upstream, and increased when water levels were changing or elevated. However, approximately 90% of the largemouth bass observations were within 10 km of Steel Creek. The total quantity of (137)Cs transported into the Savannah River by largemouth bass was much less than transported by water and suspended sediments discharged from Steel Creek. We conclude that largemouth bass from the Savannah River Site are unlikely to be responsible for long distance dispersal of substantial radiological contamination in the Savannah River.

  2. Post-Chernobyl investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in Adriatic Sea pilchards.

    PubMed

    Franić, Zdenko; Petrinec, Branko; Branica, Gina; Marović, Gordana; Kubelka, Dragan; Franić, Zrinka

    2012-08-01

    Investigations in the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2009) of radiocaesium activity concentrations in Adriatic pilchards are presented. Compared with pre-Chernobyl period, the Chernobyl nuclear accident caused increase of (137)Cs activity concentrations in pilchards. By fitting the measured (137)Cs activity concentrations to the theoretical curve was estimated to be 1.5±0.4 y for 1986-90 and 5.8±0.4 y for 1991-2009 and the bimodal behaviour for the ecological half-life of (137)Cs in pilchards has been observed. Estimated annual effective doses received by (134)Cs and (137)Cs intake due to consumption for an adult member of Croatian population are small. Collective dose for the 1986-2009 period was 4.9+0.3 person-Sv. The observed (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio in pilchards was similar to the ratio that has been found in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for pilchards was roughly estimated to be 93.7±39.2 l kg(-1), which is consistent with the values observed elsewhere.

  3. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls affected by U.S. nuclear testing: all exposure pathways, remedial measures, and environmental loss of (137)Cs.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F

    2010-01-01

    Radiation doses calculated for people resettling Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll, Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll, and Utrōk Island at Utrōk Atoll are presented. Residence is assumed to begin in 2010. In previous dose assessments it was shown that (137)Cs accounts for about 98% of the total dose for returning residents. About 85 to 90% (depending on the atoll) is via consumption of locally grown foods containing (137)Cs, and about 10 to 15% is due to external exposure from (137)Cs in the soil. These assessments were made using only the radiological half-life of (137)Cs (30.1 y). We have shown since that there is an environmental loss of (137)Cs from soil to groundwater that results in a more rapid loss of (137)Cs from the atoll ecosystem. The mean effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls is 8.5 y. Moreover, treatment of coconut trees with potassium (K) reduces (137)Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat at Bikini Atoll to about 5% of pretreatment concentrations. The magnitude of reduction is dependent on the concentration of (137)Cs in soil, and thereby in food crops, and is less for Enjebi and Rongelap Islands than for Bikini Island. Treatment of food crops and fruit trees with K and removal of the top 15 cm of soil around houses and community buildings prior to construction to reduce external exposure where people spend most of their time has been presented to the communities as a "Combined Option" remediation strategy. Doses presented here are calculated using the Combined Option, effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls, and a diet of both imported and local foods. The average natural background dose in the Marshall Islands, plus the anthropogenic nuclear test-related dose at Bikini, Enjebi, and Rongelap Islands, is less for each of the islands than the average background dose in the U.S. and Europe.

  4. 210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms and ingestion doses to man from high consumption rates of these wild foods.

    PubMed

    Gwynn, Justin P; Nalbandyan, Anna; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses activity concentrations of (210)Po, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms collected from Øvre Dividalen national park, Northern Norway and derives committed effective ingestion doses to man based on high consumption rates of these wild foods. Edible wild berries and mushrooms accumulated similar levels of (210)Pb, but mushrooms accumulated higher levels of (210)Po and (40)K than berries. There appears to be a clear difference in the ability of Leccinum spp. of fungi to accumulate (210)Po and/or translocate (210)Po to mushrooms compared to Russula spp. of fungi. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms from Øvre Dividalen national park reflected the lower levels of fallout of this radionuclide in Northern Norway compared to more central areas following the Chernobyl accident. For mushrooms, ingestion doses are dominated by (210)Po, while for berries, (40)K is typically the main contributor to dose. Based on high consumption rates, ingestion doses arising from the combination of (210)Po, (210)Pb and (40)K were up to 0.05 mSv/a for berries and 0.50 mSv/a for mushrooms. Consumption of such wild foods may result in a significant contribution to total annual doses when consumed in large quantities, particularly when selecting mushrooms species that accumulate high activity concentrations of (210)Po.

  5. Simulations of the transport and deposition of 137Cs over Europe after the Chernobyl NPP accident: influence of varying emission-altitude and model horizontal and vertical resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangeliou, N.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A.; Møller, A. P.

    2013-03-01

    The coupled model LMDzORINCA has been used to simulate the transport, wet and dry deposition of the radioactive tracer 137Cs after accidental releases. For that reason, two horizontal resolutions were deployed and used in the model, a regular grid of 2.5°×1.25°, and the same grid stretched over Europe to reach a resolution of 0.45°×0.51°. The vertical dimension is represented with two different resolutions, 19 and 39 levels, respectively, extending up to mesopause. Four different simulations are presented in this work; the first uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels assuming that the emissions took place at the surface (RG19L(S)), the second also uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels but realistic source injection heights (RG19L); in the third resolution the grid is regular and the vertical resolution 39 vertical levels (RG39L) and finally, it is extended to the stretched grid with 19 vertical levels (Z19L). The best choice for the model validation was the Chernobyl accident which occurred in Ukraine (ex-USSR) on 26 May 1986. This accident has been widely studied since 1986, and a large database has been created containing measurements of atmospheric activity concentration and total cumulative deposition for 137Cs from most of the European countries. According to the results, the performance of the model to predict the transport and deposition of the radioactive tracer was efficient and accurate presenting low biases in activity concentrations and deposition inventories, despite the large uncertainties on the intensity of the source released. However, the best agreement with observations was obtained using the highest horizontal resolution of the model (Z19L run). The model managed to predict the radioactive contamination in most of the European regions (similar to Atlas), and also the arrival times of the radioactive fallout. As regards to the vertical resolution, the largest biases were obtained for the 39 layers run due to the increase of

  6. Short-Term Environmental Impacts of Illite Clays When Used As An In SITU Method for Remediating 137Cs-Contaminated Wetland

    SciTech Connect

    KAPLAN, D.I.

    2004-05-17

    Over 1,200 hectares (3,000 acres) of wetlands such as L-Lake; Par Pond; Ponds A, 2, 4, 5, and B; canals; and several creeks (e.g. Steel Creek, Lower Three Runs, and Pen Branch) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) are contaminated with 560 Ci of 137Cs. These environmentally sensitive wetlands pose a significant remediation challenge to the Department of Energy (DOE). A new technology is needed to avoid environmentally destructive remediation. Current muck and truck technologies destroy the sensitive ecosystems, and may increase dose to workers. Because of relatively low amount of clay and weak 137Cs retention capabilities of kaolinite dominant sediments on the SRS, 137Cs has a greater bioavailability here than at any other DOE site. We have previously shown that naturally occurring illite minerals, with a high complexing capability for 137Cs, can sequester 137Cs and reduce its bioavailability when applied to 137Cs contaminated wetlands. Previous research showed that an in situ remediation method using illite minerals reduced 137Cs concentrations in the water 25- to 30-fold, in aquatic plants 3- to 5-fold, and in fish 2- to 3-fold. During this funding period (Fy03) we re-sampled study sites in Pond A and R-Canal that had been treated in 2001 with illite clays. The data revealed that 137Cs concentrations in water are still lower than untreated control sites, some 112 weeks later. This encouraging result indicates that the in situ remediation technique has a longer-term effectiveness than was previously reported. This positive finding occurred despite the study site experiencing a severe drought, as well as flooded conditions during the two-year period. Studies on the in situ application of illite minerals to 137Cs-contaminated wetlands continue to produce positive results. Additional measurements are needed, however, to determine the long-term effectiveness of the technique, and the environmental impacts on parameters not measured in this study. When coupled to earlier

  7. The behaviour of (137)Cs in the North Atlantic Ocean assessed from numerical modelling: Releases from nuclear fuel reprocessing factories, redissolution from contaminated sediments and leakage from dumped nuclear wastes.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, R; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Min, Byung-Il

    2016-12-15

    A Lagrangian model which simulates the dispersion of (137)Cs in the North Atlantic has been developed. The model includes water/sediment interactions. It has been tested comparing calculated and measured (137)Cs concentrations in water and sediments of the European Shelf resulting after the releases from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants of Sellafield and La Hague. Some additional numerical experiments have been carried out. First, the redissolution of (137)Cs from contaminated sediments after the reduction in releases from the reprocessing plants has been studied. This allowed to calculate effective half-lives of (137)Cs in several sub-basins. Later, potential leakage of (137)Cs from dumped nuclear wastes in several locations of the Atlantic has been investigated. Even in worst-case scenarios, these leakages should not lead to any radiological implications.

  8. Evaluation of (137)Cs body burden in inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast, Russian Federation, where a high incidence of thyroid cancer was observed after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Sekitani, Yui; Hayashida, Naomi; Karevskaya, Irina V; Vasilitsova, Olga A; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Omiya, Masanori; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2010-09-01

    To determine the current risk of internal radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident, the (137)Cs body burden of the inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast, Russian Federation was evaluated, from 1998 to 2008. The study population is composed of 84 666 people who visited Bryansk No. 2 Hospital. A whole-body counter was used for measurement of (137)Cs body burden. (137)Cs concentration was significantly higher in the late period during the study and showed seasonal variation, suggesting that inhabitants may have consumed contaminated forest products. However, people with high annual exposure doses were quite rare during all years of the study. In conclusion, although internal radiation exposure from (137)Cs continues to this day in Bryansk Oblast, the annual exposure dose is low in almost all inhabitants. Because of the long half-life of (137)Cs, the long-term follow-up is necessary to monitor the health status and relieve the anxiety of the inhabitants around Chernobyl.

  9. Spatial uncertainty of 137Cs-derived net (1950s-1990) soil redistribution for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Adrian; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A.; Loughran, Robert

    2011-12-01

    The caesium-137 (137Cs) technique has been used successfully in many parts of the world to estimate net (ca. 30-50 years) soil redistribution by wind and water erosion and tillage activities. The point-based technique has hitherto been confined largely to individual fields and hillslopes, particularly in Australia. Its application here to the Australian continent (≈5 km grid) was achieved using geostatistics and nationally coordinated measurements (early 1990s) from ≈200 locations at the ≈1 km scale. A map of the 137Cs reference inventory for Australia has been previously established. Sequential indicator co-simulation of the 137Cs inventory and the Australian Soil Classification was used to estimate net (between mid-1950s and early 1990s) soil redistribution using the Australian Empirical Model. This geostatistical approach showed that nearly five times more soil was lost from cultivated land (-4.29 to +0.17 t ha-1 yr-1) than from uncultivated (-0.91 to +0.05 t ha-1 yr-1) land in Australia. This information on spatial uncertainty is essential for regional soil management to assess the risk to soil conservation. Soil erosion exceeding a tolerable threshold value (e.g., 0.5 t ha-1 yr-1) occurred over 16% of Australia, mainly in cultivated regions (median = -1.26 t ha-1 yr-1). Soil erosion estimates are neglected in carbon balances for greenhouse gas abatement and carbon accounting models. Reliable quantitative data on the recent extent and rates of soil erosion are needed to underpin the selection of effective soil conservation measures, to inform carbon balances and to understand regional soil function for sustainable agricultural systems.

  10. Distribution of dissolved and particulate radiocesium concentrations along rivers and the relations between radiocesium concentration and deposition after the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Hideki; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Onishi, Takeo; Komai, Takeshi

    2014-09-01

    This study involved measurement of concentrations of dissolved and particulate radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in river water, and determination of the quantitative relations between the amount of deposited (137)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in river waters after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. First, the current concentrations of dissolved and particulate (134)Cs·(137)Cs were determined in a river watershed from 20 sampling locations in four contaminated rivers (Abukuma, Kuchibuto, Shakado, and Ota). Distribution characteristics of different (137)Cs forms varied with rivers. Moreover, a higher dissolved (137)Cs concentration was observed at the sampling location where the (137)Cs deposition occurred much more heavily. In contrast, particulate (137)Cs concentration along the river was quite irregular, because fluctuations in suspended solids concentrations occur easily from disturbance and heavy precipitation. A similar tendency with dissolved (137)Cs distribution was observed for the (137)Cs concentration per unit weight of suspended solids. Regression analysis between deposited (137)Cs and dissolved/particulate (137)Cs concentrations was performed for the four rivers. The results showed a strong correlation between deposited (137)Cs and dissolved (137)Cs, and a relatively weak correlation between deposited (137)Cs and particulate (137)Cs concentration for each river. However, if the particulate (137)Cs concentration was converted to (137)Cs concentration per unit weight of suspended solid, the values showed a strong correlation with deposited (137)Cs.

  11. Transfer of 137Cs from Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout to different Swedish population groups.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Hubbard, L; Falk, R; Agren, G; Vesanen, R

    2006-08-15

    Data from measurements on the body burden of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (40)K in various Swedish populations between 1959 and 2001 has been compiled into a national database. The compilation is a co-operation between the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmö and Göteborg, the National Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). In a previous study the effective ecological half time and the associated effective dose to various Swedish populations due to internal contamination of (134)Cs and (137)Cs have been assessed using the database. In this study values of human body burden have been combined with data on the local and regional ground deposition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests (only (137)Cs) and Chernobyl debris (both (134)Cs and (137)Cs), which have enabled estimates of the radioecological transfer in the studied populations. The assessment of the database shows that the transfer of radiocesium from Chernobyl fallout to humans varies considerably between various populations in Sweden. In terms of committed effective dose over a 70 y period from internal contamination per unit activity deposition, the general (predominantly urban) Swedish population obtains 20-30 microSv/kBq m(-2). Four categories of populations exhibit higher radioecological transfer than the general population; i.) reindeer herders ( approximately 700 microSv/kBq m(-2)), ii.) hunters in the counties dominated by forest vegetation ( approximately 100 microSv/kBq m(-2)), iii.) rural non-farming populations living in sub-arctic areas (40-150 microSv/kBq m(-2)), and iv.) farmers ( approximately 50 microSv/kBq m(-2)). Two important factors determine the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man; i.) dietary habits (intakes of foodstuff originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems), and ii.) inclination to follow the recommended food restriction by the authorities. The transfer to the general population is considerably lower

  12. Spatiotemporal distribution of 137Cs in the sea surrounding Japanese Islands in the decades before the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011.

    PubMed

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Oikawa, Shinji; Isoyama, Naohiko; Suzuki, Chiyoshi; Misonoo, Jun; Morizono, Shigemitsu

    2013-10-01

    The historic spatiotemporal distribution of 137Cs in the seawaters and sea-floor sediments adjacent to nuclear power plants in Japan are summarized, using data obtained over a period of time more than 20 years prior to the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. Relatively uniform distributions of 137Cs were observed both in the surface seawaters (1 m in depth) and in deeper seawaters (10 to 30 m above the seabed and ranging from tens to hundreds of meters in depth) independent of the geographical position, although lower concentrations were observed in significantly deeper bottom seawaters. Conversely, there were wide variations in 137Cs levels between sediments, such that higher 137Cs concentrations were observed in the deeper sampling locations. A mathematical model describing the successive transfer of 137Cs from surface waters through deeper waters to sediments suggested that the transfer rate of 137Cs from deep water to the sediments, and the loss rate from bottom sediments, were both greater than the transfer rate from surface water to deeper water. It was found that the calculated regression lines for 137Cs depletion rates over time for surface waters, deeper waters, and sediments were approximately parallel when plotted on a semi-logarithmic coordinate system, regardless of the sampling location. A radionuclide depletion half-life was calculated to be 4 months to 16 years with the geometric mean of 2.22 y for the sediments in the Fukushima region, suggesting that nuclear contamination will be remediated over time through sediment redistribution processes such as remobilization, bioturbation, and migration due to sea currents.

  13. Initial spread of 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant over the Japan continental shelf: a study using a high-resolution, global-coastal nested ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Z.; Chen, C.; Beardsley, R.; Lin, H.; Ji, R.; Sasaki, J.; Lin, J.

    2013-08-01

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami triggered by the M9 and M7.9 earthquakes off the Tōhoku coast destroyed facilities at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) leading to a significant long-term flow of the radionuclide 137Cs into coastal waters. A high-resolution, global-coastal nested ocean model was first constructed to simulate the 11 March tsunami and coastal inundation. Based on the model's success in reproducing the observed tsunami and coastal inundation, model experiments were then conducted with differing grid resolution to assess the initial spread of 137Cs over the eastern shelf of Japan. The 137Cs was tracked as a conservative tracer (without radioactive decay) in the three-dimensional model flow field over the period of 26 March-31 August 2011. The results clearly show that for the same 137Cs discharge, the model-predicted spreading of 137Cs was sensitive not only to model resolution but also the FNPP seawall structure. A coarse-resolution (∼2 km) model simulation led to an overestimation of lateral diffusion and thus faster dispersion of 137Cs from the coast to the deep ocean, while advective processes played a more significant role when the model resolution at and around the FNPP was refined to ∼5 m. By resolving the pathways from the leaking source to the southern and northern discharge canals, the high-resolution model better predicted the 137Cs spreading in the inner shelf where in situ measurements were made at 30 km off the coast. The overestimation of 137Cs concentration near the coast is thought to be due to the omission of sedimentation and biogeochemical processes as well as uncertainties in the amount of 137Cs leaking from the source in the model. As a result, a biogeochemical module should be included in the model for more realistic simulations of the fate and spreading of 137Cs in the ocean.

  14. Sampling design and required sample size for evaluating contamination levels of (137)Cs in Japanese fir needles in a mixed deciduous forest stand in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yurika; Yamada, Toshihiro

    2017-05-01

    We estimated the sample size (the number of samples) required to evaluate the concentration of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in Japanese fir (Abies firma Sieb. & Zucc.), 5 years after the outbreak of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We investigated the spatial structure of the contamination levels in this species growing in a mixed deciduous broadleaf and evergreen coniferous forest stand. We sampled 40 saplings with a tree height of 150 cm-250 cm in a Fukushima forest community. The results showed that: (1) there was no correlation between the (137)Cs concentration in needles and soil, and (2) the difference in the spatial distribution pattern of (137)Cs concentration between needles and soil suggest that the contribution of root uptake to (137)Cs in new needles of this species may be minor in the 5 years after the radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. The concentration of (137)Cs in needles showed a strong positive spatial autocorrelation in the distance class from 0 to 2.5 m, suggesting that the statistical analysis of data should consider spatial autocorrelation in the case of an assessment of the radioactive contamination of forest trees. According to our sample size analysis, a sample size of seven trees was required to determine the mean contamination level within an error in the means of no more than 10%. This required sample size may be feasible for most sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 137Cs contained in books printed during the 1960s in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, A

    2001-09-01

    Radioactivity values of 137Cs in printed pages and covers of hardbound books issued during the 1960s in Japan were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The result showed that the main source of 137Cs present in the books was rice straw used to make the backing board of covers. The 1965 peak of 137Cs content of the book was explained by the variation of 137Cs content of rice straw with the harvest year and a change of the kind of board.

  16. Chronic Internal Exposure to Low Dose 137Cs Induces Positive Impact on the Stability of Atherosclerotic Plaques by Reducing Inflammation in ApoE-/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Le Gallic, Clélia; Phalente, Yohann; Manens, Line; Dublineau, Isabelle; Benderitter, Marc; Gueguen, Yann; Lehoux, Stephanie; Ebrahimian, Teni G.

    2015-01-01

    After Chernobyl and Fukushima Daï Chi, two major nuclear accidents, large amounts of radionuclides were released in the environment, mostly caesium 137 (137Cs). Populations living in contaminated territories are chronically exposed to radionuclides by ingestion of contaminated food. However, questions still remain regarding the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure on the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic internal exposure to 137Cs on atherosclerosis in predisposed ApoE-/- mice. Mice were exposed daily to 0, 4, 20 or 100 kBq/l 137Cs in drinking water, corresponding to range of concentrations found in contaminated territories, for 6 or 9 months. We evaluated plaque size and phenotype, inflammatory profile, and oxidative stress status in different experimental groups. Results did not show any differences in atherosclerosis progression between mice exposed to 137Cs and unexposed controls. However, 137Cs exposed mice developed more stable plaques with decreased macrophage content, associated with reduced aortic expression of pro-inflammatory factors (CRP, TNFα, MCP-1, IFNγ) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin). Lesions of mice exposed to 137Cs were also characterized by enhanced collagen and smooth muscle cell content, concurrent with reduced matrix metalloproteinase MMP8 and MMP13 expression. These results suggest that low dose chronic exposure of 137Cs in ApoE-/- mice enhances atherosclerotic lesion stability by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine and MMP production, resulting in collagen-rich plaques with greater smooth muscle cell and less macrophage content. PMID:26046630

  17. Chronic Internal Exposure to Low Dose 137Cs Induces Positive Impact on the Stability of Atherosclerotic Plaques by Reducing Inflammation in ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Le Gallic, Clélia; Phalente, Yohann; Manens, Line; Dublineau, Isabelle; Benderitter, Marc; Gueguen, Yann; Lehoux, Stephanie; Ebrahimian, Teni G

    2015-01-01

    After Chernobyl and Fukushima Daï Chi, two major nuclear accidents, large amounts of radionuclides were released in the environment, mostly caesium 137 (137Cs). Populations living in contaminated territories are chronically exposed to radionuclides by ingestion of contaminated food. However, questions still remain regarding the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure on the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic internal exposure to 137Cs on atherosclerosis in predisposed ApoE-/- mice. Mice were exposed daily to 0, 4, 20 or 100 kBq/l 137Cs in drinking water, corresponding to range of concentrations found in contaminated territories, for 6 or 9 months. We evaluated plaque size and phenotype, inflammatory profile, and oxidative stress status in different experimental groups. Results did not show any differences in atherosclerosis progression between mice exposed to 137Cs and unexposed controls. However, 137Cs exposed mice developed more stable plaques with decreased macrophage content, associated with reduced aortic expression of pro-inflammatory factors (CRP, TNFα, MCP-1, IFNγ) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin). Lesions of mice exposed to 137Cs were also characterized by enhanced collagen and smooth muscle cell content, concurrent with reduced matrix metalloproteinase MMP8 and MMP13 expression. These results suggest that low dose chronic exposure of 137Cs in ApoE-/- mice enhances atherosclerotic lesion stability by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine and MMP production, resulting in collagen-rich plaques with greater smooth muscle cell and less macrophage content.

  18. 137Cs in recent tsunami deposits - a potential tracer of selective tsunami sediment entrainment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiske, M.; Bahlburg, H.; Suckow, A.

    2012-12-01

    The tsunami of 27 February, 2010 affected a 600 km long stretch of the central Chilean coastline. We documented the tsunami deposits 4 months after the event in 2010 and two years later in 2012. The broad coastal plain at La Trinchera was inundated ca. 430 m inland and up to 8 m above sea level. A ca. 10 cm thick layer of tsunami sand was deposited on top of marsh sediments. A comparison of this layer in 2010 and 2012 reveals a change in the relative mineral composition and related grain size. In 2010 the layer consisted of 90-93% heavy minerals, 1-4% quartz, 2-3% organics and 1-3% feldspar. In 2012 the relative abundances changed to 63-76% heavy minerals, 10-12% quartz, 16-20% organics and 5-7% feldspar, as a result of the erosion of parts of the finer grained heavy minerals. Furthermore, the thickness decreased to ca. 8 cm. The concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs was recorded using high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. Especially in the northern hemisphere, 137Cs is a tracer for radioactive fallout emitted mainly during nuclear tests in the 1950s to 1960s, peaking around 1963, or nuclear bombing and accidents. In contrast, Cs-concentrations in the southern hemisphere are about four times lower (<1 Bq/kg). Generally, the Cs-signal in terrestrial sediments is higher compared to marine deposits due to Cs-dilution in sea water. For recent (younger than ca. 60 years) onshore tsunami sediments, a mixed Cs-signal is expected because a tsunami can entrain sediments from different depositional environments and different stratigraphic age levels. At La Trinchera, gamma-spectrometry revealed a 137Cs-content of 0.5 Bq/kg for the lower ca. 5 cm of the tsunami layer. The 137Cs-concentration of the upper 5 cm was below the detection limit of 0.1 Bq/kg. Even though the tsunami layer appears to be structureless, the Cs-content may help to distinguish between two distinctive depositional units within the layer. We suggest that the lower part represents reworked

  19. Removal of 137Cs from Dissolved Hanford Tank Saltcake by Treatment with IE-911

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M. ); Sinkov, Serguei I. ); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. )

    2003-04-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office plans to accelerate the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Testing new technology for the accelerated cleanup will require dissolved saltcake from single-shell tanks. However, the 137Cs will need to be removed from the saltcake to alleviate radiation hazards. A saltcake composite constructed from archived samples from Hanford Single Shell Tanks 241-S-101, 241-S-109, 241-S-110, 241-S-111, 241-U-106, and 241-U-109 was dissolved in water, adjusted to 5 M Na, and transferred from the 222-S building to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL). At the RPL, the approximately 5.5 liters of solution was passed through a 0.2-micron polyethersulfone filter, collected, and homogenized. The filtered solution then was passed through an ion exchange column containing approximately 150 mL IONSIV IE-911, an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate available from UOP, at approximately 200 mL/hour in a continuous operation until all of the feed solution had been run through the column. An analysis of the 137Cs concentrations in the initial feed solution and combined column effluent indicates that> 99.999 percent of the Cs in the feed solution was removed by this operation. This report describes the Cs-depletion operations together with a partial analysis of the as-received solution and a more extensive characterization of the Cs-depleted solution.

  20. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, R.C.; Schlapper, G.A.; McLain, M.E.; Pitt, W.W.

    1996-06-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Steam Electric Station (CPSES) in Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant. The CPSES environmental monitoring program collects broadleaf vegetation samples as per the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Broadleaf trees are scarce in the area because of local climate, soils, and geology. The dominate tree is an evergreen juniper. Few broadleaves are available during winter for sampling. This study compared the environmental {sup 137}C s radioactivity between broadleaf and evergreen foliage. The study`s objective was to determine if {sup 137}C s radioactivity is statistically the same in the deciduous and evergreen vegetation. Radioactivity from the same statistical population could allow the sampling program to collect evergreen (junipers) foliage. Broadleaf and evergreen tree leaf samples were collected on and off the CPSES area. Gamma-ray spectrometry was performed on the samples to measure {sup 137}Cs radioactivity. The means of the {sup 137}Cs concentrations in broadleaf and evergreen foliage samples were found to be statistically the same and therefore from the same population. This study`s conclusion is that evergreen leaves from juniper trees can be used to supplement and/or substitute for the broadleaf samples currently collected. This change in foliage collection, if approved by the NRC, would allow the CPSES to better satisfy its environmental sampling regulatory requirements.

  1. Removal of 137-Cs from Dissolved Hanford Tank Saltcake by Treatment with IE-911

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2003-12-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Richland Operations Office plans to accelerate the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Testing new technology for the accelerated cleanup will require dissolved saltcake from single-shell tanks. However, the 137Cs will need to be removed from the saltcake to alleviate radiation hazards. A saltcake composite constructed from archived samples from Hanford Site single-shell tanks 241-S-101, 241-S-109, 241-S-110, 241-S-111, 241-U-106, and 241-U-109 was dissolved in water, adjusted to 5 M Na, and transferred from the 222-S Laboratory to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL). At the RPL, the approximately 5.5 liters of solution was passed through a 0.2-micron polyethersulfone filter, collected, and homogenized. The filtered solution then was passed through an ion exchange column containing approximately 150 mL IONSIV® IE-911, an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate available from UOP, at approximately 200 mL/hour in a continuous operation until all of the feed solution had been run through the column. An analysis of the 137Cs concentrations in the initial feed solution and combined column effluent indicates that > 99.999 percent of the Cs in the feed solution was removed by this operation. PNNR

  2. Procedures for precise measurements of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios in environmental samples at extreme dynamic ranges and ultra-trace levels by thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dunne, James A; Richards, David A; Chen, Hsin-Wei

    2017-11-01

    Determination of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios has the potential to be a powerful tool for nuclear forensics and monitoring environmental processes. We present optimized chemical separation techniques and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) protocols to obtain precise (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios for a range of environmental sample types. We use a combination of double AMP-PAN separation and Sr-spec resin column purification to yield excellent separation from the alkali metals (Rb separation factor > 600), which normally suppress ionization of Cs. A range of emission activators for the ionization of Cs were evaluated and glucose solution yielded the optimal combination of a stable Cs(+) beam, minimal low-temperature polyatomic interferences and improved ionization efficiency. Mass-spectrometric determination of low abundance (135)Cs and (137)Cs is compromised by the presence of a very large (133)Cs(+) beam, which may be scattered and cause significant spectral interferences. These are explored using multi-static Faraday cup - ion counter methods and a range of energy filter settings. The method is evaluated using environmental samples and standards from regions affected by fallout from Chernobyl (IAEA-330) and Fukushima nuclear disasters. Where the intensity of (133)Cs(+) is large relative to (135)Cs(+) and (137)Cs(+) (< 30cps), minor polyatomic interferences need to be considered. In the absence of a standard with (135, 137)Cs/(133)Cs < 1 × 10(-8), we explored the reproducibility of (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios at these high dynamic ranges and extremely low abundance ((137)Cs ≈ 12 fg g(-1)) for sediments from an estuarine setting in SW England, UK. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of the transfer of 137Cs from fodder to cow milk in the region around Narora Atomic Power Station NPP Site, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Avinash; Sharma, A K; Singh, B; Ravi, P M; Sarkar, P K

    2013-09-01

    Site-specific transfer coefficient from feed to cow's milk, for (137)Cs in the villages around Narora, a nuclear power station site in India, determined over a period of 17 y, is presented in this paper. In the transport model for the prediction of the concentration of (137)Cs in milk, the transfer coefficient from feed to milk, Fm, is an important parameter. The transfer coefficient value is determined from (137)Cs concentration in milk and grass samples of the Narora region, and the result ranged from 4.28E-03 to 3.30E-02 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 1.15E-03 d l(-1). The highest and the lowest values were only below one order of magnitude different from the mean, regardless of the type of diet, milk yield and age of the cow. The result is compared with that for (40)K, determined concurrently at the same region and ranged from 6.92E-03 to 8.01E-03 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 7.45E-03 d l(-1). This parameter is quite useful in decision-making for implementing countermeasures during a large-area contamination with (137)Cs in tropical areas like Narora. The ingestion dose from fallout (137)Cs through milk intake for adult and child is also estimated.

  4. 137Cs measurement uncertainties and detection limits for airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) data analysed using a spectral windows method.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W; White, D C

    2006-02-01

    The uncertainties associated with airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) measurements analysed using a spectral windows method, and associated detection limits, have been investigated. For individual short measurements over buried 137Cs activity detection limits of 10 kBq m(-2) are achieved. These detection limits are reduced for superficial activity and longer integration times. For superficial activity, detection limits below 1 kBq m(-2) are achievable. A comparison is made with the detection limits for other data processing methods.

  5. Estimation of radionuclide ((137)Cs) emission rates from a nuclear power plant accident using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM).

    PubMed

    Park, Soon-Ung; Lee, In-Hye; Ju, Jae-Won; Joo, Seung Jin

    2016-10-01

    A methodology for the estimation of the emission rate of (137)Cs by the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) with the use of monitored (137)Cs concentrations around a nuclear power plant has been developed. This method has been employed with the MM5 meteorological model in the 600 km × 600 km model domain with the horizontal grid scale of 3 km × 3 km centered at the Fukushima nuclear power plant to estimate (137)Cs emission rate for the accidental period from 00 UTC 12 March to 00 UTC 6 April 2011. The Lagrangian Particles are released continuously with the rate of one particle per minute at the first level modelled, about 15 m above the power plant site. The presently developed method was able to simulate quite reasonably the estimated (137)Cs emission rate compared with other studies, suggesting the potential usefulness of the present method for the estimation of the emission rate from the accidental power plant without detailed inventories of reactors and fuel assemblies and spent fuels. The advantage of this method is not so complicated but can be applied only based on one-time forward LPDM simulation with monitored concentrations around the power plant, in contrast to other inverse models. It was also found that continuously monitored radionuclides concentrations from possibly many sites located in all directions around the power plant are required to get accurate continuous emission rates from the accident power plant. The current methodology can also be used to verify the previous version of radionuclides emissions used among other modeling groups for the cases of intermittent or discontinuous samplings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Transfer of 137Cs and 134Cs from litter into soil's of Japanese cypress forest after Fukushima nuclear accident in Karasawayama catchment, Tochigi prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengistu, T. T.; Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Gomi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The mega earthquake that rampaged north-east Japan on March 11, 2011 and the triggered subsequent tsunami hit the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power plant and resulted the discharge of about 770,000 terabecquerel radionuclide materials to the atmosphere. The distribution and deposition of the radionucides are then governed by the wind and rain following the release. When the cloud of radionuclide material by-pass the forest ecosystem (as radiodust-sinker), radionuclides are trapped and deposited to the forest floor through dry, litter, wet depositions. Litter-fall, as a key process of nutrient cycling in forest ecosystem, plays a great role in transferring canopy-trapped radionuclides to the forest soil. And so, we are monitoring the of Fukushima derived 137Cs deposition rate through litter to forest soil's of Japanese cypress(Chamaecyparis obutsa Sieb.et Zucc.) forests located approximately 160 km from the crippled nuclear power plant. For this purpose, five litter traps (1m2 areas each) were set up at one meter above the ground in the forest stand at the end of March 2011. Fukushima-derived 137Cs is then estimated from 134Cs:137Cs ratio as all 134Cs is originated from Fukushima. Within the two months of the accident, mean 134Cs:137Cs ratio was 0.8 in cypress litter. The inventories of both 137Cs and 134Cs in the upper 2cm forest soil were found 5089 Bq m-2 and 3571 Bq m-2, respectively. As a result, the amount of Fukushima-derived 137Cs deposition in upper 2cm soil layer by cypress litter is 4464 Bq m-2. This value account 88% of the total inventories of 137Cs in the upper 2cm soils and the other depositional paths (dry and wet fall) including old 137Cs cover only 12%. The transfer rate of 137Cs and 134Cs from canopy-litter to soil could be depend on litter's radionuclide adsorption strength (canopy and leaves architecture), the rate, amount of litter fall and its residence time in the canopy and forest floor. However, the results strongly confirmed that litter is

  7. Transfer kinetics and coefficients of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs from forage contaminated by Chernobyl fallout to milk of cows

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, S.; Sogni, R.; Lusardi, E.

    1994-04-01

    A experiment was conducted to study kinetics, transfer coefficients, and biological half-lives of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs from feed to milk. A cow was fed a diet containing alfalfa hay contaminated by Chernobyl fallout for 14.5 wk. The time-dependent activity in milk was approximated by a two-compartment model with fast biological half-lives of 2, 0.9, and 1 d and slow biological half-lives of 36.9, 8.7, and 12.4 d for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs respectively. The transfer coefficients determined in the experiment were 0.0008 d L{sup -1} for {sup 90}Sr, 0.0029 d L{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs, and 0.0031 d L{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs. The biological elimination phases of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were described by a two-compartment model while a one-compartment model was proposed for {sup 90}Sr. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. [sup 137]Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W. )

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread [sup 137]Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher [sup 137]Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue [sup 137]Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than [sup 137]Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the US sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of [sup 137]Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident.

  9. [137Cs vertical migration in boggy soils in the long term after the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Podvorko, G A; Sanzharova, N I; Spiridonov, S I; Konopleva, I V

    2004-01-01

    137Cs vertical migration in boggy soils has been studied 15 years after the Chernobyl accident. The rate of vertical migration of the radionuclide is shown to be dependent on the peculiarities of formation of peatbogs, their moistening regime and soil properties. 137Cs migration in a high-land peatbog is characterized by higher intensity then in lowland or transitional peatbogs. Differences in 137Cs vertical migration are to a large extent caused by the contents in soil of exhangeable and mobile radionuclide forms. The derived experimental data that describe 137Cs distribution over the profiles of peaty soils of different type are used for parameterization of two-component convective-diffusion model. Ecological and effective half-life periods of 137Cs content reduction in the soil root layer have been calculated. A long-term prediction is given of the dynamics of the radionuclide content in the root layer of peaty soils.

  10. Accuracy of field spectrometry in estimating 137Cs contamination in high altitude alpine soils.

    PubMed

    Agnesod, G; Lazzaron, R; Operti, C; Zappa, C

    2001-01-01

    In situ gamma ray spectrometry is an attractive method for providing information on the concentrations of radionuclides in the soil. This method requires separate knowledge of the soil density and of the radioactivity distribution relative to soil depth. In-field gamma spectrometry measurements were performed together with sampling of the soil at the same site for subsequent gamma spectrometry analysis in the laboratory. Results of 137Cs concentration were compared in order to: (i) verify the effectiveness of in situ gamma spectrometry in averaging local inhomogeneties in the soil; and (ii) quantify the sensitivity of the gamma ray spectrometry soil radioactivity evaluation with respect to the variability of the depth profiles obtained from a single site sampling. The site of study is a high altitude pasture, in the Alpine environment.

  11. Transfer of 137Cs from soil to grass--analysis of possible sources of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Konshin, O V

    1992-09-01

    On the basis of experimental data on the fallout of 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident, a statistical analysis was made of possible values of the coefficients of transfer via the soil-grass pathway. Model calculations of the possible radionuclide concentration in milk are performed by the Monte Carlo method using the probability distribution function obtained. It is shown that not only our limited knowledge and the possible diversity of the external conditions, but also the very nature of the phenomenon under consideration, make it desirable to switch from a deterministic to a stochastic formulation of the model. The fact that the dependence of the soil-to-grass radionuclide transfer coefficients on the initial concentration in soil might be non-linear in character is an indication of the limitation of the conventional linear model.

  12. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  13. Recent (210)Pb, (137)Cs and (241)Am accumulation in an ombrotrophic peatland from Amsterdam Island (Southern Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Li, Chuxian; Le Roux, Gaël; Sonke, Jeroen; van Beek, Pieter; Souhaut, Marc; Van der Putten, Nathalie; De Vleeschouwer, François

    2017-09-01

    Over the past 50 years, (210)Pb, (137)Cs and (241)Am have been abundantly used in reconstructing recent sediment and peat chronologies. The study of global aerosol-climate interaction is also partially depending on our understanding of (222)Rn-(210)Pb cycling, as radionuclides are useful aerosol tracers. However, in comparison with the Northern Hemisphere, few data are available for these radionuclides in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the South Indian Ocean. A peat core was collected in an ombrotrophic peatland from the remote Amsterdam Island (AMS) and was analyzed for (210)Pb, (137)Cs and (241)Am radionuclides using an underground ultra-low background gamma spectrometer. The (210)Pb Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model of peat accumulations is validated by peaks of artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs and (241)Am) that are related to nuclear weapon tests. We compared the AMS (210)Pb data with an updated (210)Pb deposition database. The (210)Pb flux of 98 ± 6 Bq·m(-2)·y(-1) derived from the AMS core agrees with data from Madagascar and South Africa. The elevated flux observed at such a remote location may result from the enhanced (222)Rn activity and frequent rainfall in AMS. This enhanced (222)Rn activity itself may be explained by continental air masses passing over southern Africa and/or Madagascar. The (210)Pb flux at AMS is higher than those derived from cores collected in coastal areas in Argentina and Chile, which are areas dominated by marine westerly winds with low (222)Rn activities. We report a (137)Cs inventory at AMS of 144 ± 13 Bq·m(-2) (corrected to 1969). Our data thus contribute to the under-represented data coverage in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Temporal variation of 137Cs water column inventory in the North Pacific since the 1960s.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, M; Hirose, K

    2003-01-01

    The temporal variation of water column inventories of 137Cs in the North Pacific since the 1960s was examined based on the analysis of the 137Cs profiles in HAM database. 137Cs in seawater in the North Pacific have originated mainly from global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, which occurred in the early 1960s. In the 1960s, both the meridional distribution of 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific and that of fallout on land stations showed mid-latitude maximum. The region with higher deposition at land stations, however, was more northern than the latitudes where the 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific showed a maximum. The difference of the latitude where maximum 137Cs deposition/inventory was observed reflects the difference of the geographical distribution of the precipitation amount in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans followed by the different warm current systems in each ocean. A good positive relation between 137Cs inventory and annual precipitation amount was discovered in the ocean stations at the middle latitude in the North Pacific. The horizontal distribution of 137Cs inventories at the middle latitudes in the North Pacific is characterized as west-high and east-low in the early 1960s, which was basically controlled by the distribution of annual precipitation amount. Eastward advection, then, modified it to be less difference in 1966-1967 after the highest deposition periods in 1963-1965. In the 1970s and 1980s, increases of the 137Cs inventory at the lower latitude of 10-20 deg. N are found. Surface and subsurface southward transports are considered as the source of this increasing 137Cs inventory.

  15. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident and dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Franić, Zdenko; Petrinec, Branko; Marović, Gordana; Franić, Zrinka

    2007-02-01

    Systematic investigations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2005) in the Republic of Croatia are summarized. The correlation between (137)Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r = 0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 18 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of (137)Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.8 +/- 1.1 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than the theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl (137)Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. The annual effective doses received by (134)Cs and (137)Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of the Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput Dose for the entire 1986-2005 period was calculated to be about 2.9 microSv, (134)Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Therefore, after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia.

  16. Inventory and vertical migration of 90Sr fallout and 137Cs/90Sr ratio in Spanish mainland soils.

    PubMed

    Herranz, M; Romero, L M; Idoeta, R; Olondo, C; Valiño, F; Legarda, F

    2011-11-01

    In this paper the inventory of (90)Sr in 34 points distributed along the Spanish peninsular territory is presented. Obtained values range between 173 Bq/m(2) and 2047 Bq/m(2). From these data set and those (137)Cs data obtained in a previous work the (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio has been established, laying this value between 0.9 and 3.6. Also the migration depth of both radionuclides has been analysed obtaining for (137)Cs an average value 57% lower than that obtained for (90)Sr. Additionally, this paper presents the results obtained in 11 sampling points in which the activity vertical profile has been measured. These profiles have been analysed to state the behaviour of strontium in soils and after, by using a convective-diffusive model, the parameters of the model which governs the vertical migration of (90)Sr in the soil, v (apparent convection velocity) and D (apparent diffusion coefficient) have been evaluated. Mean values obtained are 0.20 cm/year and 3.67 cm(2)/year, respectively.

  17. 137Cs vertical migration in a deciduous forest soil following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko

    2014-02-01

    The large amount of (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident represents a major potential long-term source for mobile (137)Cs. To investigate (137)Cs mobility in forest soils, we investigated the vertical migration of (137)Cs through seepage water, using a lysimetric method. The study was conducted in a deciduous forest soil over a period spanning 2 month to 2 y after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Our observations demonstrated that the major part of (137)Cs in the litter layer moved into the mineral soil within one year after the accident. On the other hand, the topsoil prevented migration of (137)Cs, and only 2% of (137)Cs in the leachate from litter and humus layer penetrated below a 10 cm depth. The annual migration below a 10 cm depth accounted for 0.1% of the total (137)Cs inventory. Therefore, the migration of (137)Cs by seepage water comprised only a very small part of the total (137)Cs inventory in the mineral soil, which was undetectable from the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in the soil profile. In the present and immediate future, most of the (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor will probably remain in the topsoil successively, although a small but certain amount of bioavailable (137)Cs exists in forest surface soil.

  18. Simultaneous determination of radiocesium ((135)Cs, (137)Cs) and plutonium ((239)Pu, (240)Pu) isotopes in river suspended particles by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liguo; Zheng, Jian; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Pan, Shaoming; Wang, Zhongtang; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-10-01

    Due to radioisotope releases in the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, long-term monitoring of radiocesium ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) and Pu isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in river suspended particles is necessary to study the transport and fate of these long-lived radioisotopes in the land-ocean system. However, it is expensive and technically difficult to collect samples of suspended particles from river and ocean. Thus, simultaneous determination of multi-radionuclides remains as a challenging topic. In this study, for the first time, we report an analytical method for simultaneous determination of radiocesium and Pu isotopes in suspended particles with small sample size (1-2g). Radiocesium and Pu were sequentially pre-concentrated using ammonium molybdophosphate and ferric hydroxide co-precipitation, respectively. After the two-stage ion-exchange chromatography separation from the matrix elements, radiocesium and Pu isotopes were finally determined by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS, respectively. The interfering elements of U ((238)U(1)H(+) and (238)U(2)H(+) for (239)Pu and (240)Pu, respectively) and Ba ((135)Ba(+) and (137)Ba(+) for (135)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively) were sufficiently removed with the decontamination factors of 1-8×10(6) and 1×10(4), respectively, with the developed method. Soil reference materials were utilized for method validation, and the obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios, and (239+240)Pu activities showed a good agreement with the certified/information values. In addition, the developed method was applied to analyze radiocesium and Pu in the suspended particles of land water samples collected from Fukushima Prefecture after the FDNPP accident. The (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios (0.329-0.391) and (137)Cs activities (23.4-152Bq/g) suggested radiocesium contamination of the suspended particles mainly originated from the accident-released radioactive contaminates, while similar Pu contamination of suspended

  19. Inverse modeling of the (137)Cs source term of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident constrained by a deposition map monitored by aircraft.

    PubMed

    Yumimoto, Keiya; Morino, Yu; Ohara, Toshimasa; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Tsuruta, Haruo; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-11-01

    The amount of (137)Cs released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of 11 March 2011 was inversely estimated by integrating an atmospheric dispersion model, an a priori source term, and map of deposition recorded by aircraft. An a posteriori source term refined finer (hourly) variations comparing with the a priori term, and estimated (137)Cs released 11 March to 2 April to be 8.12 PBq. Although time series of the a posteriori source term was generally similar to those of the a priori source term, notable modifications were found in the periods when the a posteriori source term was well-constrained by the observations. Spatial pattern of (137)Cs deposition with the a posteriori source term showed better agreement with the (137)Cs deposition monitored by aircraft. The a posteriori source term increased (137)Cs deposition in the Naka-dori region (the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) by 32.9%, and considerably improved the underestimated a priori (137)Cs deposition. Observed values of deposition measured at 16 stations and surface atmospheric concentrations collected on a filter tape of suspended particulate matter were used for validation of the a posteriori results. A great improvement was found in surface atmospheric concentration on 15 March; the a posteriori source term reduced root mean square error, normalized mean error, and normalized mean bias by 13.4, 22.3, and 92.0% for the hourly values, respectively. However, limited improvements were observed in some periods and areas due to the difficulty in simulating accurate wind fields and the lack of the observational constraints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Small Column Ion Exchange Testing of Superlig 644 for Removal of 137Cs from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (Tank 241-AN-107)

    SciTech Connect

    DE Kurath; DL Blanchard; JR Bontha

    2000-06-28

    concentration in the first samples collected from each column and the {sup 137}Cs concentration in the feed. The composite DF for {sup 137}Cs was 1,760, which provided an effluent with a {sup 137}Cs concentration of 8.7E-02 Ci/m{sup 3}. The {sup 137}Cs concentration is below the basis of design limit and is 7.2% of the contract limit for {sup 137}Cs.

  1. A simplified 137Cs transport model for estimating erosion rates in undisturbed soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinbao; Long, Yi; He, Xiubin; Fu, Jiexiong; Zhang, Yunqi

    2008-08-01

    (137)Cs is an artificial radionuclide with a half-life of 30.12 years which released into the environment as a result of atmospheric testing of thermo-nuclear weapons primarily during the period of 1950s-1970s with the maximum rate of (137)Cs fallout from atmosphere in 1963. (137)Cs fallout is strongly and rapidly adsorbed by fine particles in the surface horizons of the soil, when it falls down on the ground mostly with precipitation. Its subsequent redistribution is associated with movements of the soil or sediment particles. The (137)Cs nuclide tracing technique has been used for assessment of soil losses for both undisturbed and cultivated soils. For undisturbed soils, a simple profile-shape model was developed in 1990 to describe the (137)Cs depth distribution in profile, where the maximum (137)Cs occurs in the surface horizon and it exponentially decreases with depth. The model implied that the total (137)Cs fallout amount deposited on the earth surface in 1963 and the (137)Cs profile shape has not changed with time. The model has been widely used for assessment of soil losses on undisturbed land. However, temporal variations of (137)Cs depth distribution in undisturbed soils after its deposition on the ground due to downward transport processes are not considered in the previous simple profile-shape model. Thus, the soil losses are overestimated by the model. On the base of the erosion assessment model developed by Walling, D.E., He, Q. [1999. Improved models for estimating soil erosion rates from cesium-137 measurements. Journal of Environmental Quality 28, 611-622], we discuss the (137)Cs transport process in the eroded soil profile and make some simplification to the model, develop a method to estimate the soil erosion rate more expediently. To compare the soil erosion rates calculated by the simple profile-shape model and the simple transport model, the soil losses related to different (137)Cs loss proportions of the reference inventory at the Kaixian

  2. The influence of (134)Cs on the (137)Cs gamma-spectrometric peak-to-valley ratio and improvement of the peak-to-valley method by limiting the detector field of view.

    PubMed

    Östlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer; Mattsson, Sören; Rääf, Christopher L

    2017-10-01

    The peak-to-valley method was investigated under laboratory conditions and in situ with respect to both (134)Cs perturbation of the (137)Cs valley and use of collimation. The (134)Cs perturbation is significant down to (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratios of 1:100. In these cases the full energy peaks from (134)Cs (796 and 802keV) and associated valley should be used instead of the peak and valley from the (137)Cs 662keV peak. Use of collimators in situ outside Fukushima Daiichi significantly increased PTV for (134)Cs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A preliminary study for the development of reference material using oyster for determination of (137)Cs, (90)Sr and plutonium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Han; Oh, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jong-Man; Lee, Kyung-Bum; Park, Tae-Soon; Lee, Min-Kie; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Jong-Ki

    2016-03-01

    A new reference material for the determination of (137)Cs, (90)Sr and Pu isotopes ((238)Pu and (239,240)Pu) is being developed using dried oyster matrix by Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). The oyster was collected from Tongyoung harbour, southern part of Korea and the artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs, (90)Sr, (238)Pu and (239,240)Pu) were spiked into the material. After pretreatment and processing, the material was tested for homogeneity and massic activities were determined by measuring (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (238)Pu and (239,240)Pu. The reference value and extended uncertainty for those isotopes will be reported later. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution of (137)Cs on components in urban area four years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, K; Saito, K; Fujiwara, K

    2017-08-01

    Distribution of (137)Cs on components in urban areas such as roofs and roads is crucial for evaluating the behavior of radiocesium and ambient dose rates in the area. This study evaluated relative (137)Cs inventories, which are defined as the relative values of (137)Cs inventory on each component to that on a nearby permeable plane field, for 11 buildings in the evacuation zone about four years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The average relative inventory of paved ground accounted for 0.18 of that on permeable plane fields. Other components showed small average values of less than 0.1, indicating rapid removal of radiocesium from urban areas even without decontamination. The differences in the relative inventories on roads and roofs with those in the case of Europe suggest that human activity and component materials largely affect the reduction of radiocesium in urban area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution and source of (129)I, (239)(,240)Pu, (137)Cs in the environment of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ežerinskis, Ž; Hou, X L; Druteikienė, R; Puzas, A; Šapolaitė, J; Gvozdaitė, R; Gudelis, A; Buivydas, Š; Remeikis, V

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for (129)I, (137)Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of (238)Pu/((239,24)0)Pu, (129)I/(127)I and (131)I/(137)Cs were used to identify the origin of these radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu and (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios in the soil samples analyzed varied in the range of 0.02-0.18 and 0.18-0.24, respectively, suggesting the global fallout as the major source of Pu in Lithuania. The values of 10(-9) to 10(-6) for (129)I/(127)I atomic ratio revealed that the source of (129)I in Lithuania is global fallout in most cases though several sampling sites shows a possible impact of reprocessing releases. Estimated (129)I/(131)I ratio in soil samples from the southern part of Lithuania shows negligible input of the Chernobyl fallout. No correlation of the (137)Cs and Pu isotopes with (129)I was observed, indicating their different sources terms. Results demonstrate uneven distribution of these radionuclides in the Lithuanian territory and several sources of contamination i.e. Chernobyl accident, reprocessing releases and global fallout.

  6. Can 239 + 240Pu replace 137Cs as an erosion tracer in agricultural landscapes contaminated with Chernobyl fallout?

    PubMed

    Schimmack, W; Auerswald, K; Bunzl, K

    2001-01-01

    Erosion studies often use 137Cs from the global fallout (main period: 1953-1964) as a tracer in the soil. In many European countries, where 137Cs was deposited in considerable amounts also by the Chernobyl fallout in 1986, the global fallout fraction (GF-Cs) has to be separated from the Chernobyl fraction by means of the isotope 134Cs. In a few years, this will no longer be possible due to the short half-life of 134Cs (2 yr). Because GF-Cs in the soil can then no longer be determined, the potential of using 239 + 240Pu as a tracer is evaluated. This radionuclide originates in most European countries essentially only from the global fallout. The activities and spatial distributions of Pu and GF-Cs were compared in the soil of a steep field (inclination about 20%, area ca. 3 ha, main soil type Dystric Eutrochrept), sampled at 48 nodes of a 25 x 25 m2 grid. The reference values were determined at 12 points adjacent to the field. Their validity was assured by an inventory study of radiocaesium in a 70 ha area surrounding the field sampling 275 nodes of a 50 x 50 m2 grid. In the field studied, the activity concentrations of GF-Cs and Pu in the Ap horizon were not correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient R = 0.20, p > 0.05), and the activity balance of Pu differed from that of GF-Cs. Whereas no net loss of GF-Cs from the field was observed as compared to the reference site, Pu was more mobile with an average loss of ca. 11% per unit area. In addition, the spatial pattern of GF-Cs and Pu in the field differed significantly. The reason may be that due to their different associations with soil constituents, Pu and Cs represent different fractions of the soil, exhibiting different properties with respect to erosion/deposition processes. This indicates that both radionuclides or one of them may not be appropriate to quantity past erosion. When tracer losses are used to calibrate or verify erosion prediction models, systematic deviations may not only stem from model

  7. Soil to rice transfer factors for (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs: a study on rice grown in India.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Kumara, Sudeep; Ravi, P M

    2013-04-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is an essential component of the diet for a majority of the population in India. However, detailed studies aimed at the evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F(v)) for the rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents the soil to rice transfer factors for natural ((226)Ra, (228)Ra, (40)K, and (210)Pb) and artificial ((137)Cs) radionuclides for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant and the water required for this field was drawn from the cooling water discharge canal of the power plant. For a comparative study of the radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The study showed that the (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were below detection levels in different organs of the rice plant. The soil to un-hulled rice grain (40)K transfer factor varied in the range of 6.5 × 10(-1) to 2.9 with a mean of 0.15 × 10(1), and of (210)Pb varied in the range of <1.2 × 10(-2) to 8.1 × 10(-1) with a mean of 1.4 × 10(-1), and of (137)Cs varied in the range of 6.6 × 10(-2) to 3.4 × 10(-1) with a mean of 2.1 × 10(-1). The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F(r)) were 0.12 for (40)K, 0.03 for (210)Pb, and 0.14 for (137)Cs. Using these processing retention factors, the soil to white rice transfer factors were estimated and these were found to have mean values of 1.8 × 10(-1), 4.2 × 10(-3), and 3.0 × 10(-2) for (40)K, (210)Pb, and (137)Cs, respectively. The study has shown that the transfer of (40)K was higher for above the ground organs than for the root, but (210)Pb and (137)Cs were retained in the root and their transfer to above the ground organs of the rice plant is significantly lower. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Considerations on the ICRP model predictions of the transfer of (137)Cs from food to the milk and urine of lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Augusto; Risica, Serena

    2014-06-01

    A recent work has shown that the current ICRP biokinetic model for the transfer of caesium radionuclides from food to human breast milk was able to describe with satisfactory accuracy (137)Cs activity concentrations in human breast samples collected a few weeks after the Chernobyl accident as well as in samples collected some years later. However, systematic discrepancies were observed for the predictions of the activity concentrations in urine samples. In the present work, modifications to the model were investigated with the aim of improving the agreement between model predictions and data. It turned out that the disagreement for the urine data was ascribable to the mathematical simplifications used by the ICRP to describe urinary excretion in the first few days after delivery. However, the predictive performances of the model remained unchanged even when differences in the bioavailability of caesium from the ingested food types were considered or metabolic interactions between caesium and potassium were introduced into the model formulation.

  9. Computational modeling of 137Cs contaminant transfer associated with sediment transport in Abukuma River.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, T; Nabi, M; Shimizu, Y; Kimura, I

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model capable of simulating the transfer of (137)Cs in rivers associated with transport of fine sediment is presented. The accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) released radionuclides into the atmosphere, and after fallout several radionuclides in them, such as radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) and radioiodine ((131)I) were adsorbed on surface soil particles around FDNPP and transported by surface water. To understand the transport and deposition of the radioactive contaminant along with surface soil particles and its flux to the ocean, we modeled the transport of the (137)Cs contaminant by computing the water flow and the associated washload and suspended load transport. We have developed a two-dimensional model to simulate the plane flow structure, sediment transport and associated (137)Cs contaminant transport in rivers by combining a shallow water flow model and an advection-diffusion equation for the transport of sediment. The proposed model has been applied to the lower reach of Abukuma River, which is the main river in the highly contaminated area around FDNPP. The numerical results indicate that most (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river reach with washload would directly reach to Pacific Ocean. In contrast, washload-oriented (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river basin has a limited role in the radioactive contamination in the river. The results also suggest that the proposed framework of computational model can be a potential tool for understanding the sediment-oriented (137)Cs behavior in rivers.

  10. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by Auger electrons from (137)Cs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ritsuko; Hattori, Yuya; Kai, Takeshi

    2016-11-01

    To understand the biological effect of external and internal exposure from (137)Cs, DNA damage spectrum induced by directly emitted electrons (γ-rays, internal conversion electrons, Auger electrons) from (137)Cs was compared with that induced by (137)Cs γ-rays. Monte Carlo track simulation method was used to calculate the microscopic energy deposition pattern in liquid water. Simulation was performed for the two simple target systems in microscale. Radiation sources were placed inside for one system and outside for another system. To simulate the energy deposition by directly emitted electrons from (137)Cs placed inside the system, the multiple ejections of electrons after internal conversion were considered. In the target systems, induction process of DNA damage was modeled and simulated for both direct energy deposition and the water radical reaction on the DNA. The yield and spatial distribution of simple and complex DNA damage including strand breaks and base lesions were calculated for irradiation by electrons and γ-rays from (137)Cs. The simulation showed that the significant difference in DNA damage spectrum was not caused by directly ejected electrons and γ-rays from (137)Cs. The result supports the existing perception that the biological effects by internal and external exposure by (137)Cs are equivalent.

  11. An E5 transition in the 137Cs decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K.; McCutchan, E. A.; Zhu, S.; Lister, C. J.; Merchan, E.; Shearman, R.

    2013-10-01

    The beta decay of 137Cs is mainly to the Jπ = 11/2- 661.66 keV isomeric excited state in 137Ba and is usually followed by emission of a single gamma ray as the nucleus relaxes to the Jπ = 3/2+ ground state. It is a well-known standard γ-ray calibration reference. There is only one intermediate state, with Jπ = 1/2+ at 283.50 keV. The γ-ray decay branch to this level has never been observed. The transition must be of E5 or M6 multipolarity. The phase space limitation hinders this decay and a ~10-8 branch can be anticipated from the few known E5 decay matrix elements. The use of the Gammasphere detector array at Argonne National Lab allows a search for these rare events by selection of an optimal detector opening angle for coincidences, chosen to minimize the effects of Compton cross-scattering in the array. In this manner the E5 cascade transition was observed and the branching ratio measured. Rigorous E5 transitions are only known in four other cases to date, so this measurement adds significantly to the body of knowledge surrounding E5 matrix elements. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contracts No. DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  12. Vertical migration studies of 137Cs from nuclear weapons fallout and the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Almgren, S; Isaksson, M

    2006-01-01

    The vertical migration of (137)Cs originating from nuclear weapons fallout (NWF) and the Chernobyl accident has been studied at 33 sampling sites in western Sweden. An attempt to describe the present depth distribution with a solution to the convection-diffusion equation (CDE) with a pulse-like fallout event as the initial condition was made. A sum of two CDEs describing the NWF and Chernobyl debris was fitted to the actual depth profiles measured by soil sampling. The fitted depth profiles were used to correct in situ measurements for the actual depth distribution, showing good agreement with the accumulated activities in soil samples. As expected, the vertical migration was very slow and most caesium was still present in the upper soil layers. The ranges of the apparent convection velocity, v, and apparent diffusion coefficient, D, were between 0 and 0.35 cm/year and 0.06 and 2.63 cm(2)/year, respectively.

  13. Localized lesions induced by sup 137 Cs during the Goiania accident

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, A.R.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.; Valverde, N.J.; Farina, R.; Curado, M.P. )

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of initial symptoms and clinical observations regarding acute localized radiation lesions in 28 persons exposed to 137Cs during the Goiania radiological accident. Specialized procedures to estimate the extent and gravity of the lesions and establish a therapeutic strategy, as well as to anticipate the prognosis in each case, are briefly discussed. Measures taken for reduction of pain and inflammation are noted, and an explanation is given for difficulties encountered due to adverse working conditions and the serious clinical manifestations presented by various patients concomitantly with their lesions. Also noted is the difficulty in obtaining credible information regarding exposure, such as source-to-object distance, duration of exposure, and source activity, which precluded dosimetry studies in most cases.

  14. Enregistrement sédimentaire et chronologie ( 137Cs) d'une contamination en cadmium dans l'estuaire de la Gironde (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanneau, Jean-Marie; Castaing, Patrice; Grousset, Francis; Buat-Ménard, Patrick; Pedemay, Philippe

    1999-08-01

    The detailed analysis of the Cd distribution coupled with 137Cs measurements have been conducted in a core recovered from a flood-tidal dock of the Bordeaux harbour. They enabled reconstruction and dating of the record of industrial contamination which has developed over recent decades. The cadmium distribution accurately reflects the different stages of activity of a foundry at Viviès-Decazeville. The 137Cs curve likely records the fallout of the nuclear tests performed between 1950 and 1970, and probably also the Chernobyl fallout, that has never been mentioned in the Southwest of France until now.

  15. [Assessment of an association between fatty acid structure of lipids in pulmonary surfactant and 137Cs content in the body of children, residents of radiation-contaminated areas].

    PubMed

    Parkhomenko, V M; Kolpakov, I Ie; Studenykina, O M; Briuzhina, T S; Artemchuk, H P

    2012-01-01

    An evaluation of correlation between fatty acid composition in pulmonary surfactant lipids and 137Cs content in the body of children, residents of radiation-contaminated areas revealed that a increased incorporation of 137Cs promotes a disruption of fatty acid balance towards an increase in the saturation of the surfactant lipid complex, a destruction of lecithin fraction of surfactant, a decrease in antioxidant properties of surfactant system, an activation of lipid peroxidation processes in the respiratory area of lung by lipoxygenase type, a disturbance of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism on the stage of bioregulators-eicosanoid formation.

  16. Transfer of 137Cs and 60Co in a waste retention pond with emphasis on aquatic insects

    SciTech Connect

    Voshell, J.R. Jr.; Eldridge, J.S.; Oakes, T.W.

    1985-11-01

    The objectives of this research were (1) to analyze the transfers of 137Cs and 60Co in a retention pond, with emphasis on aquatic insects and (2) to determine if detectable concentrations of these radionuclides are exported by emerging aquatic insects. We analyzed the radionuclide concentrations in the following components: water solution, bottom sediments, suspended particulate matter, plankton, floating mats of filamentous algae, benthic macroinvertebrates, and emerging aquatic insects. Samples were collected quarterly from June 1981 to April 1982. The lowest concentrations (in picocuries per milliliter) occurred in solution (range: 1.4 X 10(2) to 3.2 X 10(2) for 137Cs and 8.1 X 10(-1) to 2.2 X 10(0) for 60Co). The highest concentrations (in picocuries per gram dry weight) occurred in the sediments (range: 1.5 X 10(4) to 1.1 X 10(8) for 137Cs and 1.0 X 10(2) to 4.3 X 10(6) for 60Co). The primary producers and aquatic insect consumers had concentrations of both radionuclides that were two to four orders of magnitude higher than the respective concentrations dissolved in water but two to three orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations in the sediments. The concentrations of both radionuclides decreased successively at higher trophic levels. There were considerable temporal variations as the radionuclides cycled among the abiotic and biotic components of the pond. Emerging adult aquatic insects had lower concentrations of both radionuclides than the immature stages that lived in the pond (adult/immature ratio about 0.25). Because the emerging adult insects contain detectable concentrations of radionuclides, have relatively long life spans, and disperse away from the aquatic habitat, we conclude that adult aquatic insects would be effective biological monitors.

  17. Transfer of 137Cs and 60Co in a waste retention pond with emphasis on aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Voshell, J R; Eldridge, J S; Oakes, T W

    1985-11-01

    The objectives of this research were (1) to analyze the transfers of 137Cs and 60Co in a retention pond, with emphasis on aquatic insects and (2) to determine if detectable concentrations of these radionuclides are exported by emerging aquatic insects. We analyzed the radionuclide concentrations in the following components: water solution, bottom sediments, suspended particulate matter, plankton, floating mats of filamentous algae, benthic macroinvertebrates, and emerging aquatic insects. Samples were collected quarterly from June 1981 to April 1982. The lowest concentrations (in picocuries per milliliter) occurred in solution (range: 1.4 X 10(2) to 3.2 X 10(2) for 137Cs and 8.1 X 10(-1) to 2.2 X 10(0) for 60Co). The highest concentrations (in picocuries per gram dry weight) occurred in the sediments (range: 1.5 X 10(4) to 1.1 X 10(8) for 137Cs and 1.0 X 10(2) to 4.3 X 10(6) for 60Co). The primary producers and aquatic insect consumers had concentrations of both radionuclides that were two to four orders of magnitude higher than the respective concentrations dissolved in water but two to three orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations in the sediments. The concentrations of both radionuclides decreased successively at higher trophic levels. There were considerable temporal variations as the radionuclides cycled among the abiotic and biotic components of the pond. Emerging adult aquatic insects had lower concentrations of both radionuclides than the immature stages that lived in the pond (adult/immature ratio about 0.25). Because the emerging adult insects contain detectable concentrations of radionuclides, have relatively long life spans, and disperse away from the aquatic habitat, we conclude that adult aquatic insects would be effective biological monitors.

  18. Relationships of 137Cs inventory with magnetic measures of calcareous soils of hilly region in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Ahmadi, Mohamamd; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Abbaszadeh Afshar, Farideh

    2012-10-01

    Erosion is a natural process, but it has been dramatically increased by human activities; and this adversely influences soil productivity and environmental quality. For quantification of soil erosion, several techniques including the use of Cs-137 have been employed. This study was conducted to explore the relationships of Cs-137 inventory with magnetic properties in calcareous soils in western Iran. Ten transects were selected in the hilly region in Chelgerd district of Iran. Soil samples from 0 to 30 and 30-50 cm depths were collected from fifty points to determine Cs-137 inventory, magnetic measures and selected physico-chemical properties (in total there were 100 soil samples). The results showed that simple mass balance model (SMBM) estimated a gross erosion rate of 29.6 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and a net soil deposition of 21.8 t ha(-1) yr(-1); hence, a net soil loss of 9.6 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and a sediment delivery ratio of 31.4%. Simple linear regression and non-linear regression analysis showed that mass magnetic susceptibility (χ(lf)) explained only 33.64% and 45% of variability in Cs-137 in the transects studied. The results of multiple linear regression analysis of (137)Cs with magnetic parameters and physico-chemical properties indicated that extractable potassium and χ(lf) explained approximately 61% of the total variability in (137)Cs in the area studied. Overall, the results suggest that further research is needed for the use of magnetic characteristics as an alternative technique in place Cs-137 methodology for calcareous soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mapping fields of 137Cs contamination in soils in the context of their stability and hierarchical spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, E.; Romanov, S.

    2009-04-01

    Technogenic radioisotopes now dispersed in the environment are involved in natural and technogenic processes forming specific geochemical fields and serving as tracers of modern mass migration and geofield transformation. Cs-137 radioisotopes having a comparatively long life time are known for a fast fixation by the top soil layer; radiocesium activity can be measured in the surface layer in field conditions. This makes 137Cs rather convenient for the study and modeling a behavior of toxic elements in soils [1-3, 5] and for the investigation of relative stability and hierarchical fractal structures of the soil contamination of the atmospheric origin [2]. The objective of the experimental study performed on the test site in Bryansk region was to find and prove polycentric regularities in the structure of 137Cs contamination field formed after the Chernobyl accident in natural conditions. Such a character of spatial variability can be seen on the maps showing different soil parameters and chemical element distribution measured in grids [3-5]. The research was undertaken to support our idea of the regular patterns in the contamination field structure that enables to apply a mathematical theory of the field to the geochemical fields modeling on the basis of a limited number of direct measurements sufficient to reproduce the configuration and main parameters of the geochemical field structure on the level of the elementary landscape geochemical system (top-slope-bottom). Cs-137 field measurements were verified by a direct soil sampling. Soil cores dissected into subsamples with increments of 2, 5 and 10 cm, were taken to the depth of 40 cm at points with various surface activity located at different elements of relief. According to laboratory measurements 137Cs inventory in soils varied from 344 to 3448 kBq/m2 (983 kBq/m2 on the average). From 95,1% to 98,0% to of the total inventory was retained in the top 20-cm soil layer. This confirmed that field gamma spectrometry

  20. Contribution of radioactive (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction from a headwater catchment in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Abe, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) migration from headwaters in forested areas provides important information, as the output from forest streams subsequently enters various land-use areas and downstream rivers. Thus, it is important to determine the composition of (137)Cs fluxes (dissolved fraction, suspended sediment, or coarse organic matter) that migrate through a headwater stream. In this study, the (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment and coarse organic matter from a forest headwater catchment was monitored. The (137)Cs concentrations in suspended sediment and coarse organic matter, such as leaves and branches, and the amounts of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured at stream sites in three headwater catchments in Yamakiya District, located ∼35 km northwest of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) from August 2012 to September 2013, following the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were sampled at intervals of approximately 1-2 months. The (137)Cs concentrations of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 2.4-49 kBq/kg and 0.85-14 kBq/kg, respectively. The (137)Cs concentrations of the suspended sediment were closely correlated with the average deposition density of the catchment. The annual proportions of contribution of (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction were 96-99%, 0.0092-0.069%, and 0.73-3.7%, respectively. The total annual (137)Cs discharge from the catchment was 0.02-0.3% of the deposition.

  1. Late biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1994-11-01

    The toxicity of intravenously administered {sup 137}CsCl in the Beagle dog was investigated as part of the ITRI program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited fission product radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Also, large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and additonal cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. The intravenous route of exposure was chosen because it was known that after intravenous injection, inhalation, or ingestion, internally deposited {sup 137}CsCl is rapidly adsorbed and distributed throughout the body, exposing the whole body to beta and gamma radiation, and because of the reduced radiation protection problems associated with high-level exposure via injection compared to these other routes.

  2. Relations of fine-root morphology on (137)Cs uptake by fourteen Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Aye, Yi Swe; Mensah, Akwasi Dwira; Omari, Richard Ansong; Djedidi, Salem; Oikawa, Yosei; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-12-01

    Fourteen Brassica species consisting of seven leafy vegetables and seven root vegetables were examined for (137)Cs uptake differences in relation to their fine-root morphological characters. A pot experiment was conducted from November 2014 to February 2015 in a Phytroton using a contaminated soil of Fukushima prefecture. Leafy vegetables showed bigger root diameters, larger root surface area and larger root volume. Consequently, leafy vegetables had higher (137)Cs uptake compared to root vegetables. Among the three fine-root parameters, only root surface area was observed as a significant contributing factor to higher (137)Cs uptake in terms of transfer factor (TF, dry weight basis). Kakina exhibited higher (137)Cs TF value (0.20) followed by Chinese cabbage (0.18) and mizuna (0.17). Lower TF values were observed in turnip (0.059), rutabaga (Kitanoshou) (0.062) and radish (Ha daikon) (0.064). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs by pike Esox lucius in the Yenisei River.

    PubMed

    Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Dementyev, D V; Bolsunovsky, A Ya

    2016-05-01

    Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs in the muscles and bodies of the pike Esox lucius (aged two to seven years) inhabiting a section of the Yenisei River polluted with artificial radionuclides has been studied. The content of (137)Cs in muscles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 Bq/kg of fresh weight. The maximum content of the radionuclide has been found in juveniles. The content of (137)Cs in pike muscles and body decreased considerably with age. The high content of (137)Cs in the muscles of juveniles is probably a consequence of their higher intensity of feeding as compared to older individuals, which is due to the intense growth of juveniles.

  4. Linking spatial patterns of soil redistribution traced with 137Cs and soil nutrients in a Mediterranean mountain agroecosystem (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems are prone to soil loss mainly due to the accelerated erosion as a consequence of human induced changes from agriculture and grazing practices over the last centuries and the climatic conditions (i.e. irregular and scarce precipitations and drought periods). Soil erosion leads to soil degradation inducing the loss of soil functions. The progressive decline of soil functions thereof soil quality is associated to a decrease of soil productivity and can threat the sustainability of cultivated soils. The use of fallout 137Cs as a soil movement tracer provides useful data to identify areas where loss and gain of 137Cs occurs and that of soil. This study aims to address soil movement and soil nutrient dynamics closely related to the status of soil degradation. A rain-fed cereal field (1.6 ha) representative of Mediterranean mountain agricultural landscapes (42°25'41''N 1°13'8''W) was selected to examine the effects of soil redistribution processes on the spatial variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) and their relationships with soil properties and topographic characteristics. From the hydrological point of view, the field is isolated due to the effect of landscape features and man-made structures. Climate is continental Mediterranean with an average annual rainfall of 500 mm and soils are Calcisols. The reference inventories of 137Cs and soil nutrients were established from 21 soil samples collected in nearby undisturbed areas under typical Mediterranean vegetation cover. A total of 156 bulk soil samples (30-50 cm depth) and 156 topsoil samples (5 cm) were collected on a 10 m grid. 137Cs and soil nutrients loss and gain areas were identified by comparing the reference inventories with the values of inventories at the sampling points. A new approach to characterize and measure active (ACF) and stable (SCF) carbon fraction contents by using a dry combustion method based on the oxidation temperature of carbon

  5. Trans-oceanic transport of 137Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident and impact of hypothetical Fukushima-like events of future nuclear plants in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Yu, Peter K N

    2015-03-01

    A Lagrangian model was adopted to assess the potential impact of (137)Cs released from hypothetical Fukushima-like accidents occurring on three potential nuclear power plant sites in Southern China in the near future (planned within 10 years) in four different seasons. The maximum surface (0-500 m) (137)Cs air concentrations would be reached 10 Bq m(-3) near the source, comparable to the Fukushima case. In January, Southeast Asian countries would be mostly affected by the radioactive plume due to the effects of winter monsoon. In April, the impact would be mainly on Southern and Northern China. Debris of radioactive plume (~1 mBq m(-3)) would carry out long-range transport to North America. The area of influence would be the smallest in July due to the frequent and intense wet removal events by trough of low pressure and tropical cyclone. The maximum worst-case areas of influence were 2382000, 2327000, 517000 and 1395000 km(2) in January, April, July and October, respectively. Prior to the above calculations, the model was employed to simulate the trans-oceanic transport of (137)Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Observed and modeled (137)Cs concentrations were comparable. Sensitivity runs were performed to optimize the wet scavenging parameterization. The adoption of higher-resolution (1° × 1°) meteorological fields improved the prediction. The computed large-scale plume transport pattern over the Pacific Ocean was compared with that reported in the literature.

  6. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively.

  7. Isotope ratios of (235)U/(238)U and (137)Cs/(235)U in black rain streaks on plaster wall caused by fallout of the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    PubMed

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Fujikawa, Yoko

    2012-02-01

    Radiological investigations of fallout from the atomic bomb detonated over Hiroshima city on 6 August 1945 are important to estimate doses for inhabitants. The authors have analyzed the concentrations of (137)Cs, (235)U, and (238)U in streaks of black rain caused by the atomic bomb using gamma-ray spectroscopy and the ICP-QMS method. The black rain streaks were deposited on a plaster wall of a house located 3.7 km west of the hypocenter that has been kept in the same condition as after the rainfall. Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) was detected from black streak samples. Concentration of (137)Cs in the black rain streaks is twice as high as fallout deposition on the ground in this area. A (235)U/(238)U atom ratio of 0.00887 was found, which is higher than the natural ratio, reflecting the fact that the atomic bomb "Little Boy" used enriched uranium as fuel. The ratio (137)Cs/(235)U was determined to be 0.0091, which is about eight times higher than the estimated ratio of 0.00113 based on the fission yield.

  8. 137Cs distribution among annual rings of different tree species contaminated after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Soukhova, N V; Fesenko, S V; Klein, D; Spiridonov, S I; Sanzharova, N I; Badot, P M

    2003-01-01

    The distributions of 137Cs among annual rings of Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula at four experimental sites located in the most contaminated areas in the Russian territory after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 were studied. Trees of different ages were sampled from four forest sites with different tree compositions and soil properties. The data analysis shows that 137Cs is very mobile in wood and the 1986 rings do not show the highest contamination. The difference between pine and birch in the pattern of radial 137Cs distribution can be satisfactorily explained by the difference in radial ray composition. 137Cs radial distribution in the wood can be described as the sum of two exponential functions for both species. The function parameters are height, age and species dependent. The distribution of 137Cs in birch wood reveals much more pronounced dependence on site characteristics and/or the age of trees than pines. The data obtained can be used to assess 137Cs content in wood.

  9. (137)Cs trapped by biomass within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Akio; Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H; Fujii, Yukiko; Adachi, Ayumu; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Hirohiko

    2013-09-03

    Analysis of (137)Cs trapped in biomass in highly contaminated zones is crucial in predicting the long-term fate of (137)Cs following the explosion at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. We surveyed forest 20-50 km from the plant in July and September 2011 to evaluate (137)Cs trapped in biomass within 20 km of the plant. We determined the ambient dose rate and collected forest soils and twigs at 150 sampling points. Removability from the canopy was evaluated by washing leaves and branches with water and organic solvents. The biomass of the forest canopy was then calculated. (137)Cs fallout was simulated with an atmospheric transport model. The modeled dose rate agreed with observations (n = 24) (r = 0.62; p < 0.01). Washing experiments demonstrated that unremovable portions accounted for 53.9 ± 6.4% of (137)Cs trapped by deciduous canopy (n = 4) and 59.3 ± 13.8% of (137)Cs trapped by evergreen canopy (n = 10). In total, it was estimated that 74.5 × 10(12) Bq was trapped by canopy in the forest within the no-go zone, with 44.2 × 10(12) Bq allocated to unremovable portions, and that 0.86% of the total release was trapped in biomass as of September 2011.

  10. Sediment and (137)Cs behaviors in the Ogaki Dam Reservoir during a heavy rainfall event.

    PubMed

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akihiro; Yokuda, Satoru Thomas; Onishi, Yasuo

    2014-11-01

    We performed a simulation of sediment and (137)Cs behaviors in the Ogaki Dam Reservoir, one of the main irrigation reservoirs in the Fukushima prefecture, Japan, during a heavy rainfall event occurred in 2013. The one-dimensional river and reservoir simulation scheme TODAM, Time-dependent One-dimensional Degradation and Migration, was applied for calculating the time dependent migration of sediment and (137)Cs in dissolved and sediment-sorbed forms in the reservoir. Continuous observational data achieved in the upper rivers were used as the input boundary conditions for the simulation. The simulation results were compared with the continuous data achieved in the lower river and we confirmed the predicted values of sediment and (137)Cs in sediment-sorbed form at the exit of reservoir satisfactorily reproduced the observational data. We also performed sediment and (137)Cs behavioral simulation by changing the water level of the reservoir, because such a dam operation could control the quantities of sediment and (137)Cs discharge from and/or deposition in the reservoir. The simulation clarified that the reservoir played an important role to delay and buffer the movement of radioactive cesium in heavy rainfall events and the buffer effect of the reservoir depended on particle sizes of suspended sediment and the water level. It was also understood that silt deposition was the main source of the bed contamination (except for the initial fallout impact), while clay was the main carrier of (137)Cs to the lower river at a later stage of rainfall events.

  11. The Concept of Conversion Factors and Reference Crops for the Prediction of 137Cs Root Uptake: Field Verification in Post-Chernobyl Landscape, 30 Years after Nuclear Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarova, Olga; Paramonova, Tatiana

    2017-04-01

    One of the notable lessons obtained from nuclear accidents could be revealing the general features of 137Cs root uptake by agricultural crops for prediction the radionuclide accumulation in plants and its further distribution via food chains. Transfer factors (TFs) (the ratio of 137Cs activities in vegetation and in soil) have become a basis for such assessment when the characteristics of radioactive contamination, soil properties and phylogenetic features of different plant taxons important for root uptake are known. For the sake of simplicity the concept of conversion factor (CF) was accepted by IAEA (2006) to obtain unknown value of TF from the TF value of the reference crop cultivated on the same soil. Cereals were selected like reference group of agricultural crops. Presuming TF for cereals equal 1, CFs for tubers and fodder leguminous are 4, for grasses - 4.5, for leafy vegetables - 9, ets. To verify TFs and corresponding CFs values under environmental conditions of post-Chernobyl agricultural landscape the study in the area of Plavsky radioactive hotspot (Tula region, Russia) was conducted. Nowadays, after 30 years after the Chernobyl accident ( the first half-life period of 137Cs), arable chernozems of the territory are still polluted at the level 126-282 kBq/m2. The main crops of field rotation: wheat and barley (cereals), potatoes (tubers), soybean (leguminous), amaranth (non-leafy vegetables), rape ("other crops"), as well as galega-bromegrass mixture (cultivated species of grasses) and pasture grasses of semi-natural dry and wet meadows have been studied. Accumulation parameters of 137Cs in aboveground biomass, belowground biomass and edible parts of the plants were examined separately. Experimentally obtained 137Cs TFs in cereals are 0.24-0.32 for total biomass, 0.07-0.14 for aerial parts, 0.54-0.64 for roots and 0.01-0.02 for grain. Thus, (i) 137Cs transfer in grain of wheat and barley is insignificant and (ii) corresponding TFs values in both crops

  12. Phytoremediation of a radiocesium-contaminated soil: Field evaluation of {sup 137}Cs bioaccumulation in the shoots of three plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Lasat, M.M.; Ebbs, S.D.; Kochian, L.V.; Fuhrman, M.; Cornish, J.

    1997-08-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the potential of three plant species for phytoremediation of a {sup 137}Cs-contaminated site. From the contaminated soil, approximately 40-fold more radiocesium was removed in shoots of red root pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) compared with those of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern) and tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray). The greater potential for {sup 137}Cs removal from the soil by Amaranthus was associated with both high concentration of radiocesium in shoots and high shoot biomass production. Approximately 3% of the total {sup 137}Cs was removed from the top 15 cm of the soil in shoots of three-month-old Amaranthus plants. Soil leaching tests conducted with 0.1 and 0.5 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solutions eluted as much as 15 and 19%, respectively, of the soil {sup 137}Cs. Addition of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to the soil, however, had no positive effect on {sup 137}Cs accumulation in shoots in any of the species investigated. It is proposed that either NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution quickly percolated through the soil before interacting at specific {sup 137}Cs binding sites or radiocesium mobilized by NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} application moved below the rhizosphere becoming unavailable for root uptake. Further research is required to enhance the phytotransfer of the NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-mobilized {sup 137}Cs. With two croppings of Amaranthus per year and a sustained rate of extraction, phytoremediation of this {sup 137}Cs-contaminated soil appears feasible in less than 15 years.

  13. Study of the formation of the primary (137)Cs vertical profile in the organic matter-rich sediments.

    PubMed

    Tarasiuk, N; Lukšienė, B; Maceika, E; Filistovičius, V; Žukauskaitė, Z; Nedzveckienė, L; Buivydas, Š

    2017-10-01

    A laboratory study of the formation of the primary vertical profile of the (137)Cs activity concentration in the anaerobic organic matter-rich sediments was carried out. The incubation was performed using sediment baths method (initial thickness of the water layer over the sediments ∼40 cm, initial radiocesium activity concentration in water ∼14.53 Bq·L(-1)). An exponential profile (R(2)∼0.999) with the half-height width of ∼0.65 cm was formed after ∼32 days of the incubation. A further course of the experiment (sediments were sampled after 64, 130 and 293 days of the incubation) revealed deviations in the form of the radiocesium activity concentration profile related to the appearance of the additional Gauss factor with the increasing half-height width of ∼1.2, ∼1.3 and ∼3 cm, respectively. In spite of the evident growth of the half-height width, the radiocesium migration rate decreased from 0.02 cm·day(-1) for the first 32 days of incubation down to 0.009 cm·day(-1) at the end of the incubation experiment. Such a time-dependent decrease in the radiocesium migration is possibly related to the beginning of the second radiocesium migration phase depending on the retardation factor. Besides diffusion, the formation of vertical profiles of radiocesium activity concentrations in sediments was additionally induced by effects of buoyancy of the upper sediment layer due to the seepage of the above lying water into sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An in situ method for the high resolution mapping of (137)Cs and estimation of vertical depth penetration in a highly contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Dowdall, Mark; Bondar, Yuri; Zabrotski, Viachaslau

    2017-12-15

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant meltdown has to date been the single largest release of radioactivity into the environment. As a result, radioactive contamination that poses a significant threat to human health still persists across much of Europe with the highest concentrations associated with Belarus, Ukraine, and western Russia. Of the radionuclides still prevalent with these territories (137)Cs presents one of the most problematic remediation challenges. Principally, this is due to the localised spatial and vertical heterogeneity of contamination within the soil (~10's of meters), thus making it difficult to accurately characterise through conventional measurement techniques such as static in situ gamma-ray spectrometry or soil cores. Here, a practical solution has been explored, which utilises a large number of short-count time spectral measurements made using relatively inexpensive, lightweight, scintillators (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide). This approach offers the added advantage of being able to estimate activity and burial depth of (137)Cs contamination in much higher spatial resolution compared to traditional approaches. During the course of this work, detectors were calibrated using the Monte Carlo Simulations and depth distribution was estimated using the peak-to-valley ratio. Activity and depth estimates were then compared to five reference sites characterised using soil cores. Estimates were in good agreement with the reference sites, differences of ~25% and ~50% in total inventory were found for the three higher and two lower activity sites, respectively. It was concluded that slightly longer count times would be required for the lower activity (<1MBqm(-2)) sites. Modelling and reference site results suggest little advantage would be gained through the use of the substantially more expensive lanthanum bromide detector over the sodium iodide detector. Finally, the potential of the approach was demonstrated by mapping one of the sites and its

  15. [The accumulation of the technogenic radionuclides by mushrooms in the area affected by the activity of the Krasnoyarsk mining-and-chemical industrial complex].

    PubMed

    Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia; Dement'ev, D V; Bondareva, L G

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclide content was measured in mushrooms collected in different sites situated in the zone of the radiation influence on the Mining-and-Chemical Combine at Zheleznogorsk and on the control site, near Krasnoyarsk, in 2002-2004. The analytical investigations of fruiting bodies of 12 mushroom species have revealed three gamma-emitting radionuclides: 7Be, 40K (natural) and 137Cs (artificial). It was found that only three species contain 7Be; activity concentration of 40K is not species- and site-dependent, averaging 1600 Bq/kg. All collected samples contain 137Cs, and its accumulation by mushrooms is species-specific. Suillus concentrates more 137Cs activity than other species and can be used as a bioindicator of soil contamination with radiocesium. The average activity concentration of 137Cs in Suillus granulatus collected in the sites subjected only to aerosol discharges of the MCC is more than twice higher than 137Cs content of the mushrooms collected in the control site--"Krasnoyarsk". The maximum activity concentration of 137Cs in Suillus samples collected in the sites that receive 137Cs with the flood water is an order of magnitude higher, amounting to 8624 Bq/kg. The analysis of the radionuclide distribution in a mushroom shows that 40K activity concentration is the same in caps and stems of Suillus, and 137Cs concentration in Suillus caps is 1.7-2.3 times higher than in stems. Binding of radionuclides by mushroom biomass was determined by chemical fractionation; it was found that the highest activities of 137Cs and 40K are in the exchange-adsorption fraction (56 to 71% of the total content of a radionuclide) and in the organic fraction (23 to 37%). Calculations were made for determination of the coefficients of 40K and 137Cs transfer from the soil to the fruiting body of Suillus.

  16. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of intravenously administered {sup 137}CsCl in the beagle dog was investigated as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. The intravenous route of exposure was chosen for simplicity and accuracy because it was known that after intravenous injection, inhalation or ingestion, internally deposited {sup 137}CsCl is rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body, exposing the whole body to {beta}-particle and {gamma} radiations. Fifty-four dogs were injected intravenously with {sup 137}Cs to provide one group of six dogs with mean initial body burdens of 141 MBq {sup 137}Cs/kg body mass and four groups of 12 dogs each with mean initial body burdens of 104, 72, 52 and 36 MBq {sup 137}Cs/kg. Twelve dogs were injected with isotonic saline as study controls. Because the number of study controls dogs was small, data from an additional 49 control dogs from other studies at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute that were performed over a similar span of years were also used. There was a significant, dose-dependent decrease in survival of the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs. Eleven {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs, including all six in the highest initial body burden group, died within 81 days after injection, primarily due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia. An additional 25 dogs had transient hematological dyscrasia but survived for long times. All {sup 137}Cs-injected male dogs had marked damage to the germinal epithelium of the testicular seminiferous tubules with azoospermia in the long-term survivors. benign and malignant neoplasms occurred in a variety of organs in {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs, rather than in a single target organ. When individual organs were considered, the incidence of malignant neoplasms was increased in the liver and in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs. 34 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Effects of chronic 137Cs ingestion on barrier properties of jejunal epithelium in rats.

    PubMed

    Dublineau, I; Grison, S; Grandcolas, L; Baudelin, C; Paquet, F; Voisin, P; Aigueperse, J; Gourmelon, P

    2007-05-15

    Environmental contamination by 137Cs is of particular public health interest because of the various sources of fallout originating from nuclear weapons, radiological source disruptions, and the Chernobyl disaster. This dispersion may lead to a chronic ecosystem contamination and subsequent ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to thus determine the impact of a chronic ingestion of low-dose 137Cs on small intestine functions in rats. The animals received 150 Bq per day in drinking water over 3 mo. At these environmental doses, 137Cs contamination did not modify the crypt and villus architecture. In addition, epithelial integrity was maintained following the chronic ingestion of 137Cs, as demonstrated by histological analyses (no breakdown of the surface mucosa) and electrical transepithelial parameters (no change in potential difference and tissue conductance). Furthermore, cesium contamination seemed to induce contradictory effects on the apoptosis pathway, with an increase in the gene expression of Fas/FasL and a decrease in the apoptotic cell number present in intestinal mucosa. No marked inflammation was observed following chronic ingestion of 137Cs, as indicated by neutrophil infiltration and gene expression of cytokines and chemokines. Results indicated no imbalance in the Th1/Th2 response induced by cesium at low doses. Finally, evaluation of the functionality of the jejunal epithelium in rats contaminated chronically with 137Cs did not demonstrate changes in the maximal response to carbachol, nor in the cholinergic sensitivity of rat jejunal epithelium. In conclusion, this study shows that chronic ingestion of 137Cs over 3 mo at postaccidental doses exerts few biological effects on the epithelium of rat jejunum with regard to morphology, inflammation status, apoptosis/proliferation processes, and secretory functions.

  18. Spatial uncertainty of the 137Cs reference inventory for Australian soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Adrian; Hancock, Gary; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A.; Loughran, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Soil erosion threatens the productivity of agricultural land, reduces the soil's ability to store water, promotes losses of nutrients, organic matter and soil biota and increases the amount of dust carried by wind. It is difficult to measure directly, particularly over time periods with sufficient duration to represent its variability. The caesium-137 (137Cs) technique estimates net soil redistribution by the combined effect of wind, water and tillage erosion. Used with a single sampling campaign, the 137Cs technique provides retrospective estimates for a given location on medium-term (30-40 years) erosion or deposition rates. In 1990 a national reconnaissance survey of soil erosion in Australia was performed using 137Cs. The aim here is to use the results of that national inventory to establish with spatial uncertainty a preliminary baseline map of the 137Cs reference inventory for Australia to subsequently estimate net (mid 1950s to early 1990s) soil redistribution for Australia. We used an indicator co-simulation between 141 samples of the 137Cs reference inventory and gridded mean annual (1954-1990) rainfall and compared the results with a deterministic method using rainfall and latitude. The former produced a baseline map which reconstructed the spatial data with less bias and smaller uncertainty than the latter. The Australian 137Cs reference inventory map can be improved over time with additional samples and the improved map used for subsequent soil redistribution assessments. Where sufficient data exist the geostatistical method may provide similarly reliable 137Cs reference inventory estimates at unsampled locations around the world.

  19. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of 137Cs generated from Nuclear Spent Fuel under Hypothetic Accidental Condition in the BNPP Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongkuk; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Yook, Daesik; Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-04-01

    of surface conditions were selected, including city area, hedge area, cut grass, and desert area. Four cases of simulations were performed under the same conditions except for surface the roughness factor. The results indicated that relatively high concentrations were found at the high surface roughness near the origin of the source point. The city area contained approximately four times 137Cs concentration than that of desert area. The atmospheric dispersion of 137Cs was affected by the surface condition in the proximal area. Moreover, movement of the radioactive material had a tendency to be dispersed in a relatively wide range in the desert areas compared to in the higher surface roughness areas. The results of these study offer useful information for developing environmental radiation monitoring systems (ERMSs) and evacuation plan under unexpected emergency condition for the BNPP and can be used to assess the environmental effects of new nuclear power plant. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Nuclear Safety Foundation(KORSAFe), granted financial resource from the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission(NSSC), Republic of Korea (No. 1503003).

  20. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) in rice fractions during polishing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Okunishi, Tomoya; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the distribution of cesium-134 ((134)Cs) and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) during polishing and cooking of rice to obtain their processing factors (Pf) and food processing retention factors (Fr) to make the information available for an adequate understanding of radioactive Cs dynamics. Polishing brown rice resulted in a decreased radioactive Cs concentration of the polished rice, but the bran and germ (outer layers) exhibited higher concentrations than brown rice. The Pf values for 100% polished rice and outer layers ranged from 0.47 to 0.48 and 6.5 to 7.8, respectively. The Fr values for 100% polished rice and outer layers were 0.43 and 0.58 to 0.60, respectively. The distribution of radioactive Cs in polished rice and outer layers was estimated at approximately 40 and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, cooked rice showed significantly lower levels of radioactive Cs than polished rice, and transfer of radioactive Cs into wash water was observed. The Pf and Fr values for cooked rice were 0.28 and 0.65 to 0.66, respectively. From these results, we can calculate that if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice is 100 Bq/kg, the concentrations of Cs in polished rice and cooked rice will be 47 to 48 Bq/kg and 13 Bq/kg, respectively.

  1. Toxicodynamic modeling of 137Cs to estimate white-tailed deer background levels for the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M; Bobryk, Christopher W; Blas, Susan A

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is a former nuclear weapon material production and current research facility adjacent to the Savannah River in South Carolina, USA. The purpose of this study was to determine the background radiocesium ((137)Cs) body burden (e.g., from global fallout) for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) inhabiting the SRS. To differentiate what the background burden is for the SRS versus (137)Cs obtained from SRS nuclear activities, data were analyzed spatially, temporally and compared to other off-site hunting areas near the SRS. The specific objectives of this study were: to compare SRS and offsite deer herds based on time and space; to interpret comparisons based on how data were collected as well as the effect of environmental and anthropogenic influences; to determine what the ecological half-life/decay rate is for (137)Cs in the SRS deer herd; and to give a recommendation to what should be considered the background (137)Cs level in the SRS deer herd. Based on the available information and analyses, it is recommended that the determination of what is considered background for the SRS deer herd be derived from data collected from the SRS deer herd itself and not offsite collections for a variety of reasons. Offsite data show extreme variability most likely due to environmental factors such as soil type and land-use patterns (e.g., forest, agriculture, residential activities). This can be seen from results where samples from offsite military bases (Fort Jackson and Fort Stewart) without anthropogenic (137)Cs sources were much higher than both the SRS and a nearby (Sandhills) study site. Moreover, deer from private hunting grounds have the potential to be baited with corn, thus artificially lowering their (137)Cs body burdens compared to other free-ranging deer. Additionally, sample size for offsite collections were not robust enough to calculate a temporal decay curve with an upper confidence level to

  2. [137Cs profile distribution character and its implication for soil erosion on Karst slopes of northwest Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Feng, Teng; Chen, Hong-song; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Yun-peng; Wang, Ke-lin

    2011-03-01

    This paper studied the profile distribution characters of 137Cs and soil organic carbon (SOC) on the Karst slopes and in the fissures in typical peak-cluster depression in Northwest Guangxi, aimed to approach the applicability of 137Cs method on Karst slopes and the implication of 37Cs for the characteristics of slope soil erosion. In all test profiles, there was a significant correlation between 137Cs and SOC, indicating that both of them might have the same loss pathway. On the slopes under secondary forests, 137Cs mainly existed within the depth 0-24 cm. On the upper middle and middle slope sites, 137Cs had an exponential decrease with depth, indicating no or slight surface erosion; while on the foot slope site, the distribution pattern of 137Cs indicated severer erosion. On the slopes with cultivated lands, 137Cs distributed uniformly within the plough layer. In the upper middle and middle slopes profiles, 137Cs mainly existed in the depth around 15 cm and far less than the background value, indicating severe soil erosion; while in foot slope profiles, 137Cs was aggraded to the depth 45 cm. A discontinuous distribution of 137Cs in the profiles was detected on the foot slopes under secondary forests, on the upper middle and foot slopes of cultivated lands, and in the fissures, indicating that the soil particles on Karst slopes had a trend of losing with rainwater to the underground, but the loss quantity was negligible, compared with surface erosion.

  3. Particle mixing rates in sediments of the eastern equatorial Pacific: Evidence from 210Pb, 239,240Pu and 137Cs distributions at MANOP sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, J. Kirk

    1985-05-01

    Particle mixing rates ( DB) calculated from excess 210Pb gradients in sediments of the east equatorial Pacific range from 0.04 to 0.5 cm 2/y, with variation of a factor of 3-4 at a single site. Diffusion of the 236Ra daughter 222Rn may affect 210Pb distributions under conditions of slow mixing and low 210Pb flux to the seafloor, as shown by a siliceous ooze-clay core which contained the fallout radionuclides 239,240Pu and 137Cs but no excess 210Pb (relative to 226Ra). There is no clear relationship between 210Pbderived mixing rates and sediment type, accumulation rate or organic carbon flux to the sediments. Comparison of 210Pb mixing rates with those calculated from 239,240Pu and 137Cs distributions reveals better agreement for a pulse input of the fallout radionuclides ( DB = 0.03-0.4 cm2/ y) than for continuous input at a constant rate ( DB = 0.1-1.6 cm2/ y), although the Pu and 137Cs data are better fit by the latter model. The agreement may be fortuitous because 239,240Pu and 137Cs appear significantly deeper than 210Pb in at least one core. Tracer separation could be caused by particle size-selective mixing by the benthic fauna or by chemical mobilization. If the fallout radionuclides are scavenged from surface waters by large, organic-rich particles such as fecal pellets, their release and migration may result from decomposition of the carrier in surface sediments. Either a relatively unreactive form of Pu (e.g. oxidized Pu) has been released by this process or a one-dimensional model is inadequate to explain its observed penetration into the sediments. Activity ratios of 239,240Pu /137Cs in the sediments decrease with increasing north latitude, and the trend reflects higher fluxes of 239,240Pu near the weapons test site at Christmas Island (2°N). The 239,240Pu /137Cs ratios and fluxes to the sediment (assuming constant input) at the siliceous ooze-red clay site are consistent with published sediment trap data from a nearby site. Thus if fallout

  4. Radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) from the Chernobyl reactor in Eurasian woodcock and earthworms in Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Kalas, J.A. ); Bretten, S.; Njastad, O. ); Byrkjedal, I. )

    1994-01-01

    To understand the ecological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, we investigated radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) levels in Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), earthworms (Lambricidae), litter (dead organic materials lying on the ground), humus (beneath litter 2 cm deep), and mineral soil samples (3-6 cm deep) from a heavily effected (20-60 kBq/m[sup 2][1 Bq = 1 nuclear fission/sec]) area in Norway. The highest concentrations measured in earthworms (1988 median = 142 Bq/Kg) and woodcock (1986 median = 730 Bq/kg) for human food (600 Bq/kg fresh mass) only were found in woodcock during 1986. Radiocesium concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) in earthworms (40%) and woodcock (95%) from 1986 to 1990. There was no reduction in total radiocesium in soil over the same period. The relatively high radiocesium concentrations in woodcock during 1986 and the decreasing radiocesium ratio in woodcock to earthworms during the first years following fallout could have been caused by woodcock ingesting abiotic radiocesium with earthworms. The decrease in radiocesium in woodcock and earthworms during the study (1986-90) probably resulted from decreasing bioavailability of radiocesium during the first years after fallout rather than by radiocesium disappearing from the ecosystem. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Sedimentary fluxes of 90Sr, 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 210Pb in the East Sea (Sea of Japan).

    PubMed

    Hong, G H; Lee, S H; Kim, S H; Chung, C S; Baskaran, M

    1999-09-30

    Sediment cores collected from the deep basins of the East Sea (Sea of Japan) provide an ongoing and historical record of artificial radionuclides contamination into one of the most highly publicized radioactive waste dumping areas in the world ocean. The depth distributions of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in sediment cores were investigated with the aid of 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation and mixing rates in the deep basins of the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Five box core samples were collected from the northern Yamato Ridge, Korea Plateau, Ulleung and Japan Basins below 1000-m depth. Sediment inventories of 137Cs and 239,240Pu are inversely correlated with water depth and linearly correlated with sediment accumulation rates. The inventories of these nuclides are linearly correlated with the accumulation rates of organic carbon in sediments. The 238Pu/239,240Pu activity ratios in sediments are 0.036 +/- 0.009 suggesting that most of the Pu to the study area is derived from the global fallout. The activity ratios of 239,240Pu/137Cs, and 90Sr/137Cs in bottom sediments are much lower than those of global fallout due to the differences of particle affinity and biological uptake of these nuclides. Sediment inventories of 90Sr and 137Cs constitute < 4% of the anticipated inventories from the global fallout, while those of 239,240Pu constitute 30-150% of the anticipated inventories from the global fallout. The residence time of the dissolved 239,240Pu in the study area is estimated to be 200-400 years based on the sediment inventory and/or sediment accumulation rate, and water column inventory.

  6. Sediment deposition rates on the continental margins of the eastern Arabian Sea using 210Pb, 137Cs and 14C.

    PubMed

    Somayajulu, B L; Bhushan, R; Sarkar, A; Burr, G S; Jull, A J

    1999-09-30

    Eight gravity cores from the active eastern continental margins of the Arabian Sea were dated using 210Pbxs, 137Cs and 14C. The short-term (< or = 100 years) sedimentation rates range from 0.06 to 0.66 cm/year where as the long-term (> or = 1000 years) ones using AMS 14C on planktonic foraminifera varied from 0.004 to 0.13 cm/year. For long-term chronology (< or = 50,000 years) AMS dating of well-cleaned planktonic foraminifera is most suited.

  7. Simulations of the transport and deposition of 137Cs over Europe after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: influence of varying emission-altitude and model horizontal and vertical resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangeliou, N.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A.; Møller, A. P.

    2013-07-01

    The coupled model LMDZORINCA has been used to simulate the transport, wet and dry deposition of the radioactive tracer 137Cs after accidental releases. For that reason, two horizontal resolutions were deployed and used in the model, a regular grid of 2.5° × 1.27°, and the same grid stretched over Europe to reach a resolution of 0.66° × 0.51°. The vertical dimension is represented with two different resolutions, 19 and 39 levels respectively, extending up to the mesopause. Four different simulations are presented in this work; the first uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels assuming that the emissions took place at the surface (RG19L(S)), the second also uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels but realistic source injection heights (RG19L); in the third resolution the grid is regular and the vertical resolution 39 levels (RG39L) and finally, it is extended to the stretched grid with 19 vertical levels (Z19L). The model is validated with the Chernobyl accident which occurred in Ukraine (ex-USSR) on 26 May 1986 using the emission inventory from Brandt et al. (2002). This accident has been widely studied since 1986, and a large database has been created containing measurements of atmospheric activity concentration and total cumulative deposition for 137Cs from most of the European countries. According to the results, the performance of the model to predict the transport and deposition of the radioactive tracer was efficient and accurate presenting low biases in activity concentrations and deposition inventories, despite the large uncertainties on the intensity of the source released. The best agreement with observations was obtained using the highest horizontal resolution of the model (Z19L run). The model managed to predict the radioactive contamination in most of the European regions (similar to De Cort et al., 1998), and also the arrival times of the radioactive fallout. As regards to the vertical resolution, the largest biases were obtained for

  8. [The optimization of the soil acidity of agrocenosis contaminated 137Cs and 90Sr: threshold parameters].

    PubMed

    Putiatin, Iu V; Seraia, T M

    2005-01-01

    During the field researches were determined the differences between agrochemical optimum of the acidity of the Sod-podzol loamy sand soil, which provides high productivity of the crops and the pH-value, which provides the minimal accumulation of 137Cs and of 90Sr by the biomass (the ecological optimum). On the average for the majority of the agricultural plants the minimal accumulations of 137Cs and of 90Sr are noticed under pHKCl 6.7, which is higher than agrochemical optimum on 0.7. The efficiency of liming under the discrimination of 137Cs and of 90Sr is much higher in soils with low values of pH. On the average, in crop rotation due to decreasing of the acidity in the soil from 4.9 to 5.9 pHKCl, the crop yield has grown on 9%, 137Cs contents has decreased on 16.7%, 90Sr--on 23.7%. The further decreasing of the soil acidity (from 5.9 to 6.8 pHKCl) was poorly effective: the productivity didn't change essentially. The transfer of 137Cs decreased on 8.9% and of 90Sr on 8.4%.

  9. {sup 137}Cs exposure in the Marshallese populations: An assessment based on whole-body counting measurements (1989-1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1997-07-01

    The Marshall Islands were the site of numerous tests of nuclear weapons by the United States. From 1946 to 1958, nuclear devices were detonated at Enemetak and Bikini Atolls. Following the inadvertent contamination of the northern islands downwind of the 1954 Bravo Test, Brookhaven National Laboratory became involved in the medical care and the radiological safety of the affected populations. One important technique employed in assessing the internally deposited radionuclides is whole-body counting. To estimate current and future exposures to 1376, data from 1989 to 1994 were analyzed and are reported in this paper. During this period, 3,618 measurements were made for the Marshallese. The cesium body contents were assumed to result from a series of chronic intakes. Also, it was assumed that cesium activity in the body reaches a plateau that is maintained over 365 d. We estimated the annual effective dose rate for each population, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average {sup 137}Cs uptake measured by the whole-body counting method varies from one population to another; it was consistent with measurements of external exposure rate. The analysis. though based on limited data, indicates that there is no statistical support for a seasonal effect on {sup 137}Cs uptake. The critical population group for cesium uptake is adult males. Within the 5-y monitoring period, all internal exposures to {sup 137}Cs mere less than 0.2 mSv y{sup -1}. Similarly, a persistent average cesium effective dose rate of 2 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} was determined for Majuro residents. 73 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Mass spectrometry for the determination of fission products 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr: A review of methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Xuemei; Long, Kaiming; Hu, Sheng; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    The radioactive fission products 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr have been released into the environment by human activities such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear power plant accidents. Monitoring of these radionuclides is important for dose assessment. Moreover, the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic ratio can be used as an important long-term fingerprint for radioactive source identification as it varies with weapon, reactor and fuel types. In recent years, mass spectrometry has become a powerful method for the determination of 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr in environmental samples. Mass spectrometry is characterized by the high sensitivity and low detection limit and the relatively shorter sample preparation and analysis times compared with radiometric methods. However, the mass spectrometric determination of radiocesium and 90Sr is affected by the peak tailings of the stable nuclides 133Cs and 88Sr, respectively, and the related isobaric and polyatomic interferences. Chemical separation and optimization of the mass spectrometry instrumental setup are strongly needed prior to the mass spectrometry detection. In this paper, we have reviewed the published works about the determination of 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr by mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric techniques we cover are resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For each technique, the principles or strategies used for the analysis of these radionuclides are discussed; these included the abundance sensitivity, ways to suppress the interference signals, and the instrumental setup. In particular, the chemical procedures for eliminating the interferences are also summarized. To date, triple quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QQQ) showed great ability for the analysis of these radionuclides and the detection limits were as low as 0.01 pg/mL levels. Finally, some investigations on the

  11. Marine radioactivity in the Arctic: a retrospect of environmental studies in Greenland waters with emphasis on transport of 90Sr and 137Cs with the East Greenland Current.

    PubMed

    Aarkrog, A; Dahlgaard, H; Nielsen, S P

    1999-09-30

    The waters around Greenland have received radioactive contamination from three major sources: Global fallout, discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant Sellafield in the UK, and the Chernobyl accident in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The global fallout peaked in the early 1960s. The radiologically most important radionuclides from this source are 90Sr and 137Cs. The input of global fallout to arctic waters was direct deposition from the atmosphere and indirect delivery through river run off and advection from the Atlantic Ocean via the north-east Atlantic current system. The waterborne discharges from Sellafield which were at their peak between 1974 and 1981 contributed primarily 137Cs, although some 90Sr was also discharged. The Chernobyl accident in 1986 was characterised by its substantial atmospheric release of radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs). Other sources may, however, also have contributed to the radioactivity in the Greenland waters. Examples include La Hague, France, and radioactive discharges to the great Siberian rivers (Ob, Yenisey and Lena) from nuclear activities in the Former Soviet Union or the local fallout from the Novaya Zemlya nuclear weapons test site. Dumping of nuclear waste in the Kara and Barents Seas may be another, although minor source. From measurements in Greenland waters carried out since 1962 the transport of radionuclides with the East Greenland Current is calculated and compared with the estimated inputs of 90Sr and 137Cs to the Arctic Ocean. This study focus on 90Sr and 137Cs because the longest time series are available for these two radionuclides.

  12. Curing time effect on the fraction of {sup 137}Cs from immobilized radioactive evaporator sludge by cement

    SciTech Connect

    Dimovic, Slavko; Plecas, Ilija

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Traditional methods of processing evaporator concentrates from NPP are evaporation and cementation. These methods allow to transform a liquid radioactive waste into the rather inert form, suitable for a final disposal. To assess the safety for disposal of radioactive mortar-waste composition, the leaching of {sup 137}Cs from immobilized radioactive evaporator concentrate into a surrounding fluid has been studied. Leaching tests were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by IAEA. Curing conditions and curing time prior to commencing the leaching test are critically important in leach studies since the extent of hydration of the cement materials determines how much hydration product develops and whether it is available to block the pore network, thereby reducing leaching. Incremental leaching rates Rn(cm/d) of {sup 137}Cs from evaporator concentrates after 180 days were measured. The results presented in this paper are examples of results obtained in a 20-year concrete testing project which will influence the design of the engineer trenches system for future central Serbian radioactive waste storing center. (authors)

  13. Levels of 137Cs in muddy sediments on the seabed in the Bay of Cadiz (Spain). Part II. Model of vertical migration of (137)Cs.

    PubMed

    Ligero, R A; Barrera, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2005-01-01

    This second part of the study reports the development of a model to describe the vertical migration of the artificial radioisotope (137)Cs in the sediment column on the seabed of the Bay of Cadiz. The application of the model provides an overall picture of the process of sedimentation in the Inner Bay of Cadiz. The spatial distribution of the rate of sedimentation enables us to study the sources of sediments and the means by which the sediments have been transported. A method has been derived from the rate of sedimentation to perform the dating of the layers of sediment. The model describes the behaviour of (137)Cs in the area under study, taking into account the time of residence in the zones that are the source of accumulation, the origin of the sedimentary material, together with the diffusion of the radionuclide in the sediment of the seabed.

  14. Pu and 137Cs in the Yangtze River estuary sediments: distribution and source identification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; Zheng, Jian; Pan, Shaoming; Dong, Wei; Yamada, Masatoshi; Aono, Tatsuo; Guo, Qiuju

    2011-03-01

    Pu isotopes and (137)Cs were analyzed using sector field ICP-MS and γ spectrometry, respectively, in surface sediment and core sediment samples from the Yangtze River estuary. (239+240)Pu activity and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.18) shows a generally increasing trend from land to sea and from north to south in the estuary. This spatial distribution pattern indicates that the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) source Pu transported by ocean currents was intensively scavenged into the suspended sediment under favorable conditions, and mixed with riverine sediment as the water circulated in the estuary. This process is the main control for the distribution of Pu in the estuary. Moreover, Pu is also an important indicator for monitoring the changes of environmental radioactivity in the estuary as the river basin is currently the site of extensive human activities and the sea level is rising because of global climate changes. For core sediment samples the maximum peak of (239+240)Pu activity was observed at a depth of 172 cm. The sedimentation rate was estimated on the basis of the Pu maximum deposition peak in 1963-1964 to be 4.1 cm/a. The contributions of the PPG close-in fallout Pu (44%) and the riverine Pu (45%) in Yangtze River estuary sediments are equally important for the total Pu deposition in the estuary, which challenges the current hypothesis that the riverine Pu input was the major source of Pu budget in this area.

  15. Multifractal analysis of the 137Cs fallout pattern in Austria resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Pausch, G; Bossew, P; Hofmann, W; Steger, F

    1998-06-01

    The cumulative deposition of the 137Cs fallout in Austria resulting from the passage of the Chernobyl cloud has been investigated by applying correlation dimension and hyperbolic frequency distribution methods. For the analysis, a total of 1,881 deposition values were used, which were collected by the Federal Environmental Agency of Austria and the Federal Ministry of Health, representing all available measurements of 137Cs in soil made in Austria after the Chernobyl accident. From these data a hyperbolic exponent for the frequency distribution of 4.0 and a set of fractal correlation dimensions, which decrease from 1.426 +/- 0.022 (for the whole network) to 0.706 +/- 0.047 (for 137Cs values > or = 100 kBq m(-2)), were derived, thus confirming that the fallout pattern can be described as a multifractal.

  16. Clinical and hematological aspects of sup 137 Cs: The Goiania radiation accident

    SciTech Connect

    Brandao-Mello, C.E.; Oliveira, A.R.; Valverde, N.J.; Farina, R.; Cordeiro, J.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Fifty persons involved in the {sup 137}Cs accident in Goiania showed symptoms of whole-body and local acute irradiation and also external or internal contamination mainly due to ingestion or absorption of {sup 137}Cs. Fourteen of the 50 developed severe bone marrow depression characterized by neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Eight of these 14 received GM-CSF intravenously. None were submitted to bone marrow transplantation. Four of the 14 died due to hemorrhage and infection. For those with significant internal contamination evaluated by in-vitro and in-vivo assays, Prussian Blue was administered with doses ranging from 1.5 to 10 g d-1. Besides Prussian Blue, other measures were taken to increase decorporation of {sup 137}Cs, including administration of diuretics, water overload, and ergometric exercises. From 50 to 100 persons are being followed in a medical protocol.

  17. Uptake of Carrier-free 137Cs by Ramalina reticulata 1

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Raymond; Overstreet, Roy

    1968-01-01

    The uptake of carrier-free 137Cs by Ramalina reticulata Kremp. does not appear to be directly linked to metabolism. The results indicate the presence of a barrier to entry of 137Cs. The barrier is stabilized by Ca ions. Removal of Ca by pretreatment of the tissue in monovalent salt solutions increases the uptake of 137Cs. Uptake under anaerobiosis is also greater than normal, but in this case, Ca displaced from the barrier membrane is not lost from the tissue and normal permeability is rapidly re-established when aerobic conditions are restored. Under anaerobiosis Ca2+ increases damage to the respiratory mechanism presumably by increasing retention of toxic products. PMID:16656927

  18. Prediction of spatial variation in global fallout of 137Cs using precipitation.

    PubMed

    Pálsson, S E; Howard, B J; Wright, S M

    2006-08-31

    Deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests (termed global fallout) has been shown to be proportional to the rate of precipitation. Here we describe methods for using precipitation and radionuclide deposition information for a reference site to estimate global fallout at other locations. These methods have been used to estimate global fallout in Iceland, identified during the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) by Wright et al. [Wright, S.M., Howard, B.J., Strand, P., Nylén, T., Sickel, M.A.K., 1999. Prediction of 137Cs deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests within the Arctic. Environ Pollut 104, 131-143.] as one of the Arctic areas which received the highest global fallout, but where measurements of contamination were sparse, and difficult to obtain due to the remote and inaccessible terrain of much of the country. Measurements of global fallout 137Cs deposition have been made in Iceland at sites close to meteorological stations to ensure that precipitation data were of high quality. The AMAP modeling approach, based on measured precipitation and radionuclide deposition data, was applied using a reference monitoring station located close to Reykjavik. The availability of good precipitation data and locally based estimates of time dependent ratios of 137Cs deposition to precipitation during the fallout period gave a better correlation between predicted and measured 137Cs global fallout (r2=0.96) than that achieved using the much more heterogeneous set of data collected by AMAP over the whole of the Arctic. Having obtained satisfactory results with the model for a number of calibration sites alongside meteorological stations we then produced a map of estimated 137Cs deposition based on a model of estimated precipitation. This deposition map was then successfully validated (r2=0.85) for sites where 137Cs deposition was measured; the associated uncertainty in predictions was also estimated.

  19. [Effect of soil radiation pollution on the plant content of 137Cs and biogenic elements].

    PubMed

    Gromova, V S

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the data of many years' studies of the effect of different soil radiation pollution levels on the plant accumulation of different types of 137Cs and potassium and phosphorus salts. With increased soil radiation levels, not only the plant content of 137Cs becomes higher, but that of potassium and phosphoric acid also changes. The amount of potassium is decreased in the topinambour and increased in the lentils, but only in its seeds; that of potassium and phosphoric acid is increased in all parts of rape.

  20. Inventories of 239+240Pu, 137Cs, and excess 210Pb in sediments from freshwater and brackish lakes in Rokkasho, Japan, adjacent to a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shinji; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Kondo, Kunio; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the vertical profiles of (239+240)Pu, (137)Cs, and excess (210)Pb ((210)Pb(ex)) in sediment core samples obtained from two freshwater lakes and two brackish lakes situated near the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan, before the final test of the plant using actual spent nuclear fuel. The inventory of (239+240)Pu in those lakes was larger than that in soil in Rokkasho, which indicated the inflow of (239+240)Pu from the catchment area in addition to direct deposition on the lake surfaces. The (137)Cs inventory in sediments of the brackish lakes was lower than that in the soil, which showed that part of the (137)Cs was removed from the sediments by the brackish water or that it was not deposited into the sediments, because of the high solubility of Cs in brackish water. The (137)Cs inventory in sediments of the freshwater lakes was higher than that of the brackish lakes, and comparable with that in soil except for one core sample out of four. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratio in freshwater lake sediments was higher than that in soil, and that indicated that part of the (137)Cs was lost from the sediments. The low inventory of (137)Cs may be attributable to competition for absorption sites in sediments with ammonium ions formed in the reducing environment which occurs from summer to fall in the sediments. Those data will be used as background data on the artificial radionuclides in the lakes to assess the effect of released radionuclides on their concentrations.

  1. Remediation of (137)Cs contaminated concrete using electrokinetic phenomena and ionic salt washes in nuclear energy contexts.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew J; Joyce, Malcolm J; Boxall, Colin

    2017-10-15

    This work describes the first known the use of electrokinetic treatments and ionic salt washes to remediate concrete contaminated with (137)Cs. A series of experiments were performed on concrete samples, contaminated with K(+) and (137)Cs, using a bespoke migration cell and an applied electric field (60V potential gradient and current limit of 35mA). Additionally, two samples were treated with an ionic salt wash (≤400molm(-3) of KCl) alongside the electrokinetic treatment. The results show that the combined treatment produces removal efficiencies three times higher (>60%) than the electrokinetic treatment alone and that the decontamination efficiency appears to be proportional to the initial degree of contamination. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiencies are equivalent to previous electrokinetic studies that utilised hazardous chemical enhancement agents demonstrating the potential of the technique for use on nuclear licensed site. The results highlight the relationship between the initial contamination concentration within the concrete and achievable removal efficiency of electrokinetic treatment and other treatments. This information would be useful when selecting the most appropriate decontamination techniques for particular contamination scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Medical aspects of sup 137 Cs decorporation: The Goiania radiological accident

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, R.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.; Oliveira, A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    In September 1987, the Goiania radiological accident involving a source of {sup 137}Cs culminated in about 140 victims who presented internal and/or external contamination and/or external exposure to radiation and/or radiation burns. Internal contamination was verified through analysis of urine and fecal samples. Internal contamination was also evaluated by measurements performed at the whole-body counter installed in Goiania in November 1987. To enhance the decorporation of 137Cs, patients were treated with the following: (1) Prussian Blue, oral administration, in 46 patients; (2) diuretics, oral administration, in 17 patients; (3) induced perspiration, increasing {sup 137}Cs elimination. These procedures were done under rigorous clinical evaluation and considering the data from assay of excreta and data obtained from the whole-body counter. The doses of Prussian Blue exceeded about 6.5 times the dose previously indicated in the literature. It was the first time diuretics were used in humans to treat {sup 137}Cs internal contamination. The results of these procedures are discussed.

  3. Reducing the 137Cs-load in the organism of "Chernobyl" children with apple-pectin.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, V B; Nesterenko, A V; Babenko, V I; Yerkovich, T V; Babenko, I V

    2004-01-10

    As a complement of standard radioprotective measures, apple-pectin preparations are given, especially in the Ukraine, to reduce the 137Cs uptake in the organism of children. The question has been raised: is oral pectin also useful when children receive radiologically clean food, or does this polysaccharide only act in binding 137Cs in the gut, blocking its intestinal absorption? In this case, pectin would be useless if radiologically clean food could be given. The study was a randomised, double blind placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a dry and milled apple-extract containing 15-16% pectin with a similar placebo-powder, in 64 children originating from the same group of contaminated villages of the Gomel oblast. The average 137Cs load was of about 30 Bq/kg bodyweight (BW). The trial was conducted during the simultaneous one-month stay in the sanatorium Silver Spring. In this clean radiological environment only radiologically "clean" food is given to the children. The average reduction of the 137Cs levels in children receiving oral pectin powder was 62.6%, the reduction with "clean" food and placebo was 13.9%, the difference being statistically significant (p <0.01). The reduction of the 137Cs load is medically relevant, as no child in the placebo group reached values below 20 Bq/kg BW (which is considered by Bandazhevsky as potentially associated with specific pathological tissue damages), with an average value of 25.8 +/- 0.8 Bq/kg. The highest value in the apple-pectin group was 15.4 Bq/kg, the average value being 11.3 +/- 0.6 Bq/kg BW.

  4. Gene Expression Response of Mice after a Single Dose of 137Cs as an Internal Emitter

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sunirmal; Ghandhi, Shanaz A.; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Melo, Dunstana; Guilmette, Raymond; Amundson, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    Cesium-137 is a radionuclide of concern in fallout from reactor accidents or nuclear detonations. When ingested or inhaled, it can expose the entire body for an extended period of time, potentially contributing to serious health consequences ranging from acute radiation syndrome to increased cancer risks. To identify changes in gene expression that may be informative for detecting such exposure, and to begin examining the molecular responses involved, we have profiled global gene expression in blood of male C57BL/6 mice injected with 137CsCl. We extracted RNA from the blood of control or 137CsCl-injected mice at 2, 3, 5, 20 or 30 days after exposure. Gene expression was measured using Agilent Whole Mouse Genome Microarrays, and the data was analyzed using BRB-ArrayTools. Between 466–6,213 genes were differentially expressed, depending on the time after 137Cs administration. At early times (2–3 days), the majority of responsive genes were expressed above control levels, while at later times (20–30 days) most responding genes were expressed below control levels. Numerous genes were overexpressed by day 2 or 3, and then underexpressed by day 20 or 30, including many Tp53-regulated genes. The same pattern was seen among significantly enriched gene ontology categories, including those related to nucleotide binding, protein localization and modification, actin and the cytoskeleton, and in the integrin signaling canonical pathway. We compared the expression of several genes three days after 137CsCl injection and three days after an acute external gamma-ray exposure, and found that the internal exposure appeared to produce a more sustained response. Many common radiation-responsive genes are altered by internally administered 137Cs, but the gene expression pattern resulting from continued irradiation at a decreasing dose rate is extremely complex, and appears to involve a late reversal of much of the initial response. PMID:25162453

  5. Observed half-lives of 3H, 90Sr and 137Cs in hydrosphere in the Vltava River basin (Bohemia).

    PubMed

    Hanslík, Eduard; Jedináková-Krízová, Vera; Ivanovová, Diana; Kalinová, Eva; Sedlárová, Barbora; Simonek, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    A near field study was set up to follow the effects of the Temelin nuclear power plant construction. Reference levels of artificial radionuclides were monitored in the Vltava River upper course and its tributaries in the period 1990-2001. Monitoring continued even after the waste water release startup during the pilot operation in 2002. The assessment of the (90)Sr and (137)Cs concentrations histories in ground water, river bottom sediments and fish showed a decreasing trend. This trend was not influenced by the nuclear power plant pilot operation. In the case of tritium, trend of increasing concentration had been already observed since the pilot operation startup. The monitoring of changes in concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides in influenced and uninfluenced profiles will be maintained to assess the possible influence of the operation of the Temelin nuclear power plant.

  6. Transfer of 137Cs in tea and other foods to man after the chernobyl accident in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetiner, M. A.; Özmen, A.

    1995-07-01

    The transfer fraction of 137Cs to man from ingestion of radioactively contaminated tea has been calculated. A transfer of 32% was calculated using the ( a, T1, T2) parameters of the 137Cs retention function recommended in ICRP-30. An alternate method using the 40K body burden yielded a transfer fraction of 33.6%.

  7. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg.

  8. Accumulation and distribution of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination.

    PubMed

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of (137)Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone - 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone - 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of (137)Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The (137)Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg - animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3-10.6 kBq/kg - animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of (137)Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of (90)Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that (90)Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of (90)Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg - animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained (90)Sr - 30.0-110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0-30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone.

  9. Use of illite clay for in situ remediation of 137Cs-contaminated water bodies: field demonstration of reduced biological uptake.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Thomas G; Kaplan, Daniel I; Knox, Anna S; Coughlin, Daniel P; Nascimento, Rebecca V; Watson, Siobahn I; Fletcher, Dean E; Koot, Bon-Jun

    2006-07-15

    We hypothesized that adding micaceous minerals to 137Cs-contaminated aquatic systems would serve as an effective in situ remediation technique by sequestering the contaminant and reducing its bioavailability. Results from several laboratory studies are presented from which an effective amendment material was chosen for a replicated field study. The field study was conducted over a 2-year period and incorporated 16 3.3-m diameter column-plots (limnocorrals) that were randomly placed in a 137Cs-contaminated pond. The limnocorrals received three rates of amendment treatments to their water surfaces. The amendment material was a commercially available mineral with high sorption (Kd > 9000 L kg(-1)) and low desorption (<20%) characteristics for cesium, even in the presence of high concentrations of the competing cation, NH4+. In the treated limnocorrals, 137Cs concentrations were reduced some 25-30-fold in the water, 4-5-fold in aquatic plants, and 2-3-fold in fish. The addition of the amendment did not adversely affect water chemistry, although increased turbidity and subsequent siltation did alter the aquatic macroinvertebrate insect community. This in situ technology provides a valuable, less-environmentally intrusive alternative to costly ex situ technologies that require the contaminated sediment to be excavated prior to treatment, or excavated and disposed of elsewhere.

  10. [Prediction of 137Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system in the territory of Semipalatinsk test site].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I; Mukusheva, M K; Gontarenko, I A; Fesenko, S V; Baranov, S A

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of 137Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system is presented. The model has been parameterized for the area adjacent to the testing area Ground Zero of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The model describes the main processes responsible for the changes in 137Cs content in the soil solution and, thereby, dynamics of the radionuclide uptake by vegetation. The results are taken from predictive and retrospective calculations that reflect the dynamics of 137Cs distribution by species in soil after nuclear explosions. The importance of factors governing 137Cs accumulation in plants within the STS area is assessed. The analysis of sensitivity of the output model variable to changes in its parameters revealed that the key soil properties significantly influence the results of prediction of 137Cs content in plants.

  11. Estimations of direct release rate of 137Cs and 90Sr to the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant for five-and-a-half years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Tateda, Yutaka

    2017-04-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. Additional release pathways by river input and runoff from 1F NPP site with precipitation and were also effective for coastal zone in the specific periods before starting direct release on March 26 2011. Direct release from 1F NPP site is dominant one year after the accident. We estimated the direct release rate of 137Cs and 90Sr for more than five-and-a-half years after the accident by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). Direct release rate of 137Cs were estimated for five-and-a-half years after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the 1F NPP site(at 5,6 discharge and south discharge). Directly release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be the order of magnitude of 1014 Bq/day and decreased exponentially with time to be the order of magnitude of 109 Bq/day by the end of September 2016. Estimated direct release rate have exponentially reduced with constant rate since November 2011. Apparent half-life of direct release rate was estimated to be 346 days. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.7±0.7 PBq for five and a half years. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Simulated 137Cs activity affected off coast in the Fukushima prefecture. We used the measured 137Cs activities by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) for the estimation of direct release. The sea water samples were corrected from the coast. The averaged 137Cs activities from November 2013 to June 2016 were 391 and 383 Bq/m3 at 5,6 discharge and south discharge, respectively. The averaged 137Cs activities measured by the

  12. Fractionation of (137)Cs and Pu in natural peatland.

    PubMed

    Mihalík, Ján; Bartusková, Miluše; Hölgye, Zoltán; Ježková, Tereza; Henych, Ondřej

    2014-08-01

    High Cs-137 concentrations in plants growing on peatland inspired us to investigate the quantity of its bioavailable fraction in natural peat. Our investigation aims to: a) estimate the quantity of bioavailable Cs-137 and Pu present in peat, b) verify the similarity of Cs-137 and K-40 behaviours, and c) perform a quantification of Cs-137 and Pu transfer from peat to plants. We analysed the vertical distribution of Cs-137 and Pu isotopes in the peat and their concentrations in plants growing on these places. Bioavailability of radionuclides was investigated by sequential extraction. Sequential analyses revealed that it was the upper layer which contained the majority of Cs-137 in an available form while deeper layers retained Cs-137 in immobile fractions. We can conclude that 18% of all Cs-137 in the peat is still bioavailable. Despite of the low quantity of bioavailable fraction of Cs-137 its transfer factor reached extremely high values. In the case of Pu, 64% of its total amount was associated with fulvic/humic acids which resulted in the high transfer factor from peat to plants. 27 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the significant part of radionuclides deposited in peatland is still bioavailable.

  13. Depth distribution of 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I in soil profile after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Teramage, Mengistu

    2012-09-01

    Soil, vegetation and other ecological compartments are expected to be highly contaminated by the deposited radionuclides after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident triggered by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami on 11 March 2011. However, there is no field measurement data on the depth distributions of radiocaesium and (131)I concentrations in soil profile. In this study, the depth distribution of the deposited radionuclides in the cultivated soil profile was investigated in one of the most contaminated area after FDNPP accident. The result of this study demonstrated that greater than 86% of total radiocaesium and 79% of total (131)I were absorbed in the upper 2.0 cm in the soil profile. The relaxation mass depth (h(0)) derived from the depth distribution of radiocaesium and (131)I in the soil profile at the study site were 9.1 kg m(-2) and 10.4 kg m(-2), respectively. The h(0) of (137)Cs in the studied soil profile was greater than those for the cultivated soils nearby the Chernobyl NPP. The positive relationship was found between clay content of topsoil and the h(0) of (137)Cs. However, further analysis is required to clarify the effect of clay content on the initial penetration depth of deposited (137)Cs in soil profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Accumulation of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs in bottom sediments of some Finnish lakes.

    PubMed

    Ilus, Erkki; Saxén, Ritva

    2005-01-01

    The amount and vertical distribution of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs in the bottom sediments of some Finnish lakes were studied. Sediment and surface water samples were taken in 2000 and 2003 from 12 stations in nine lakes and the results were compared with those obtained in corresponding surveys carried out in 1969, 1978, 1988 and 1990. Each of the five deposition categories of Chernobyl fallout in Finland were represented. The depth profiles of 137Cs in the sediments showed considerable variety in the lakes studied. The peak values varied between 1.5 and 46 kBq kg(-1) dry wt. The size and shape of the peak did not always correlate with the amount of deposition in the area, but on the other hand, reflected differences in sedimentation processes in different lakes. In some of the lakes the peak still occurred in the uppermost (0-2 cm) sediment layer, but in an extreme case the peak occurred at a depth of 22-23 cm corresponding to a sedimentation rate of 16 mm year(-1) during the 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. The total amounts of 137Cs in sediments varied from 15 to 170 kBq m(-2) at the sampling stations studied. Since 1990, the amounts have continued to increase slightly in two lakes, but started to decrease in the other lakes. In most of the lakes, the total amounts of 137Cs in sediments were about 1.5-2 times higher than in local deposition. In two lakes, the ratio was below 1, but in one case 3.2. Compared with the total amounts of 137Cs at the same stations in the late 1960s and 1970s, the values were now at their highest, at about 60-fold. The most important factors affecting 137Cs values in sediments were the local amount of deposition and the type of the lake and the sediment, but in addition, there were a number of other factors to be considered.

  15. Determination of 137Cs and 60Co pollution in the area of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salas Mar, Bernardo

    2015-11-01

    The project 'Radiological Analysis of Environmental Samples in the Gulf of Mexico and the coast of Quintana Roo', had the aim of identifying and quantifying anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental samples consisting of silt, sand and sea water. This paper presents the results of the radiological analysis of these samples, which was made in the multichannel system for gamma spectrometry with hyperpure germanium detector in the Laboratory of Radiological Analysis of Environmental Samples, located at the Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, of the Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM). The sampled points are along the coast of the contiguous states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan and Quintana Roo. This paper presents the qualitative and quantitative concentrations of the main identified anthropogenic radionuclides (60)Co and (137)Cs.

  16. References to Studies of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in the Pacific Ocean a Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.

    2001-02-01

    This report contains a listing of publications known to this author on reported concentrations, reviews and discussions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu in seawater, sediment and the biota from parts of the North and South Pacific Ocean. Each reference has been assigned an accession number consisting of the first three letters of the first author's last name followed by the first letter of the first name, the year of the publication and an assigned number. Studies in both the coastal areas and the open ocean are included as well as those providing data within lagoons of coral atolls. Some references to the radionuclides in the Indian Ocean are also provided.

  17. [Prognosis of dynamics and risk of exceeding permissible levels of 137Cs and 90Sr contents in fish in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Homutinin, Iu V; Kashparov, V A; Kuz'menko, A V; Pavliuchenko, V V

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide specific activity measurements made on 832 samples of fish in 2009-2011 and taking into account literature data, the parameters of the stochastic model have been derived to describe the 137Cs and 90Sr contents in typical commercial fish species in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident, including: statistical variability, seasonal changes and monotonous long-term trends. At any fixed moment of the year the standard deviations of logarithms of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific activities in carnivorous and benthophage fish species do not reliably differ, making up at average 0.4. The maximum vari- ation of the 137Cs specific activity (a four-fold decrease from April to November) was observed in pike. The obtained values of the ecological half-life periods for 137Cs and 90Sr (1.3-14 years) in fish of the Kiev reservoir in 2002-2012 were significantly lower than both the radioactive decay periods and the estimates of the IAEA Chernobyl Forum. Based on the obtained model parameters, the dynamics of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific ac- tivities in main commercial fish of the Kiev reservoir has been described and the risk of exceeding the permis- sible levels of these radionuclides in fish at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident has been estimated. Now the risk of catching fish with the specific activities of 137Cs and 90Sr above the permissible levels (150 Bq/kg and 35 Bq/kg, respectively) does not exceed 10% (except perch in the spring spawning period that is banned for fishing in Ukraine). Corresponding risks for roach, white bream and rudd are less than 0.1%.

  18. Small Column Ion Exchange Testing of Superlig 644 for Removal of 137Cs from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope A (Tank 241-AW-101)

    SciTech Connect

    DE Kurath; DL Blanchard; JR Bontha

    2000-07-12

    The current BNFL Inc. flow sheet for the pretreatment of the Hanford High-Level tank wastes includes the use of Superlig{reg_sign} materials for the removal of {sup 137}Cs from the aqueous fraction of the waste. The Superlig materials applicable to cesium removal include the cesium selective Superlig 632 and Superlig 644. These materials have been developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. The work contained in this report involves testing the Superlig 644 ion exchange material in a small dual column system (15 mL each; L/D = 5.7). The sample processed was approximately 2.5 L of diluted waste [Na{sup +}] = 4.6M from Tank 241-AW-101 (Envelope A). This waste had been previously clarified in a single tube cross-flow filtration unit. All ion exchange process steps were tested including resin bed preparation, loading, feed displacement water rinse, elution and resin regeneration. During the initial run, the lag column did not perform as expected so that the {sup 137}Cs concentration in the effluent composite was above the LAW treatment limits. This required a second column run with the partially decontaminated feed that was conducted at a higher flow rate. A summary of performance measures for both runs is shown in Table S1. The Cs {lambda} values represent a measure of the effective capacity of the SL-644 resin. The Cs {lambda} of 143 for the lead column in run 1 is very similar to the value obtained by the Savannah River Technology Center during Phase 1A testing. The larger Cs {lambda} value for run 2 reflects a general trend for the effective capacity of the SL-644 material to increase as the cesium concentration decreases. The low value for the lag column during the first run indicates that it did not perform as expected. This may have been due to insufficient conditioning of the bed prior to the start of the loading step or to air in the bed that caused channeling. Equilibrium data obtained with batch contacts using the AW-101 Cs

  19. Implications of excess 210Pb and 137Cs in sediment cores from Mikawa Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueqiang; Matsumoto, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected from Mikawa Bay, Japan, and excess 210Pb and 137Cs were measured by gamma spectrometry. Sedimentation rates for the four cores were determined by 210Pb method. The sedimentation rate range is 0.10-0.70 g/(cm2 x year). The bio-mixing depth for each core is less than 7.0 cm, and was determined by the excess 210Pb profiles as well. Therefore, the bioturbation is slight. The 210Pb-derived dates coincided with the results from 137Cs geochronology. Acceleration in sedimentation rate due to environmental alteration has been found in cores A2.5 and 05AS8, representing two depocenters due to their topography. Evidence of the Tokai Flood in 2000 was found in core 05AS8 according to the profiles of both radioisotopes and trace metals.

  20. Accumulation of /sup 137/Cs in commercial fish of the Belyarsk nuclear power station cooling supply

    SciTech Connect

    Trapeznikova, V.N.; Kulikov, N.V.; Trapeznikov, A.V.

    1984-07-01

    Results are presented of a comparative study of the accumulation of /sup 137/Cs in basic species of commercial fish of the Beloyarsk reservoir which is used as the cooling supply for the Beloyarsk nuclear power station. Possible reasons for interspecies differences in accumulation of the radionuclide are indicated, and the increased accumulation of /sup 137/Cs by free-living fish in the zone of heated water effluent from the station and the reduced accumulation of the emitter in carp, which are cultivated on artificial food in cages, are noted. Levels of the content of the radionuclide are compared in roach and farm carp from the cooling supplies of the Beloyarsk station and the Reftinsk power plant in the Urals.

  1. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    DOE PAGES

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-11-02

    135Cs/137Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135Cs/137Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement withmore » values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. Furthermore, the differences in 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.« less

  2. (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Snyder, Darin C

    2016-01-01

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. The differences in (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modification of the (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (60)Co transfer to wheat plantlets by NH4(+) fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Guillén, J; Muñoz-Muñoz, G; Baeza, A; Salas, A; Mocanu, N

    2017-03-01

    Inorganic fertilizers are used as agricultural countermeasures intended to inhibit the soil to plant transfer of radionuclides after a radioactive fallout. Two NH4(+) fertilizers, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and NPK, were applied to soil contaminated with a mixture of radionuclides to analyze whether they modify the transfer of (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (60)Co and stable elements (K, Na, Ca, and Mg) to wheat plantlets grown under controlled laboratory conditions. DAP introduced NH4(+) in the soil, which can increase (137)Cs transfer, while NPK also introduced K(+), which can decrease it. The application of DAP increased the accumulation of (137)Cs in wheat plantlets with increasing application rate, so did the (137)Cs/K in plantlets. Regarding the NPK application, the (137)Cs increased in all treatments, but at maximum rate, the available K introduced by the fertilizer was probably able to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of the wheat plantlet and the (137)Cs decreased relative to the recommended rate. The (137)Cs/K ratio in plantlet decreased with increasing NPK rates. The transfer of (90)Sr increased with increasing DAP rate and only at the maximum NPK rate. The (60)Co transfer only increased at the maximum application rates for DAP and NPK. These modifications should be considered when using these fertilizers as agricultural countermeasures.

  4. Decision support for the selection of reference sites using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bürge, Alexandra; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2017-08-01

    The classical approach of using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer is based on the comparison between stable reference sites and sites affected by soil redistribution processes; it enables the derivation of soil erosion and deposition rates. The method is associated with potentially large sources of uncertainty with major parts of this uncertainty being associated with the selection of the reference sites. We propose a decision support tool to Check the Suitability of reference Sites (CheSS). Commonly, the variation among 137Cs inventories of spatial replicate reference samples is taken as the sole criterion to decide on the suitability of a reference inventory. Here we propose an extension of this procedure using a repeated sampling approach, in which the reference sites are resampled after a certain time period. Suitable reference sites are expected to present no significant temporal variation in their decay-corrected 137Cs depth profiles. Possible causes of variation are assessed by a decision tree. More specifically, the decision tree tests for (i) uncertainty connected to small-scale variability in 137Cs due to its heterogeneous initial fallout (such as in areas affected by the Chernobyl fallout), (ii) signs of erosion or deposition processes and (iii) artefacts due to the collection, preparation and measurement of the samples; (iv) finally, if none of the above can be assigned, this variation might be attributed to turbation processes (e.g. bioturbation, cryoturbation and mechanical turbation, such as avalanches or rockfalls). CheSS was exemplarily applied in one Swiss alpine valley where the apparent temporal variability called into question the suitability of the selected reference sites. In general we suggest the application of CheSS as a first step towards a comprehensible approach to test for the suitability of reference sites.

  5. Correlation of /sup 137/Cs leachability from small-scale to large-scale waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Morcos, N.; Dayal, R.; Milian, L.; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    A study correlating the leachability of /sup 137/Cs from small-scale to large-scale cement forms was performed. The waste forms consisted of (a) organic ion exchange resins incorporated in Portland I cement, with a waste-to-cement ratio of 0.6 and a water-to-cement ratio of 0.4 (as free water) and (b) boric acid waste (12% solution) incorporated in Portland III cement, with a waste-to-cement ratio of 0.7. /sup 137/Cs was added to both waste types prior to solidification. The sample dimensions varied from 1 in. x 1 in. to 22 in. x 22 in. (diameter x height). Leach data extending over a period of 260 days were obtained using a modified IAEA leach test. A method based on semi-infinite plane source diffusion model was applied to interpret the leach data. A derived mathematical expression allows prediction of the amount of /sup 137/Cs leached from the forms as a function of leaching time and waste form dimensions. A reasonably good agreement between the experimental and calculated data was obtained. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Release, deposition and elimination of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in the terrestrial environment.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Khan, Ayesha Masood; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Akib, Shatirah; Balkhair, Khaled S; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu

    2014-12-01

    Radionuclide contamination in terrestrial ecosystems has reached a dangerous level. The major artificial radionuclide present in the environment is (137)Cs, which is released as a result of weapon production related to atomic projects, accidental explosions of nuclear power plants and other sources, such as reactors, evaporation ponds, liquid storage tanks, and burial grounds. The release of potentially hazardous radionuclides (radiocesium) in recent years has provided the opportunity to conduct multidisciplinary studies on their fate and transport. Radiocesium's high fission yield and ease of detection made it a prime candidate for early radio-ecological investigations. The facility setting provides a diverse background for the improved understanding of various factors that contribute toward the fate and transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem. In this review, we summarize the significant environmental radiocesium transfer factors to determine the damaging effects of radiocesium on terrestrial ecosystem. It has been found that (137)Cs can trace the transport of other radionuclides that have a high affinity for binding to soil particles (silts and clays). Possible remedial methods are also discussed for contaminated terrestrial systems. This review will serve as a guideline for future studies of the fate and transport of (137)Cs in terrestrial environments in the wake of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant disaster in 2011.

  7. Model simulations on the long-term dispersal of 137Cs released into the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Erik; Schwarzkopf, Franziska U.; Lübbecke, Joke F.; Böning, Claus W.

    2012-09-01

    A sequence of global ocean circulation models, with horizontal mesh sizes of 0.5°, 0.25° and 0.1°, are used to estimate the long-term dispersion by ocean currents and mesoscale eddies of a slowly decaying tracer (half-life of 30 years, comparable to that of 137Cs) from the local waters off the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants. The tracer was continuously injected into the coastal waters over some weeks; its subsequent spreading and dilution in the Pacific Ocean was then simulated for 10 years. The simulations do not include any data assimilation, and thus, do not account for the actual state of the local ocean currents during the release of highly contaminated water from the damaged plants in March-April 2011. An ensemble differing in initial current distributions illustrates their importance for the tracer patterns evolving during the first months, but suggests a minor relevance for the large-scale tracer distributions after 2-3 years. By then the tracer cloud has penetrated to depths of more than 400 m, spanning the western and central North Pacific between 25°N and 55°N, leading to a rapid dilution of concentrations. The rate of dilution declines in the following years, while the main tracer patch propagates eastward across the Pacific Ocean, reaching the coastal waters of North America after about 5-6 years. Tentatively assuming a value of 10 PBq for the net 137Cs input during the first weeks after the Fukushima incident, the simulation suggests a rapid dilution of peak radioactivity values to about 10 Bq m-3 during the first two years, followed by a gradual decline to 1-2 Bq m-3 over the next 4-7 years. The total peak radioactivity levels would then still be about twice the pre-Fukushima values.

  8. Triple-Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry with a High-Efficiency Sample Introduction System for Ultratrace Determination of (135)Cs and (137)Cs in Environmental Samples at Femtogram Levels.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Cao, Liguo; Tagami, Keiko; Uch