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Sample records for 13a14 shade-grown tobacco

  1. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  2. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  3. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  4. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  5. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  6. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  7. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  8. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  9. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  10. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  11. 29 CFR 780.507 - “Such tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âSuch tobacco.â 780.507 Section 780.507 Labor Regulations... Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.507 “Such tobacco.” To be within the exemption, the...

  12. 29 CFR 780.507 - “Such tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âSuch tobacco.â 780.507 Section 780.507 Labor Regulations... Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.507 “Such tobacco.” To be within the exemption, the...

  13. 29 CFR 780.507 - “Such tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âSuch tobacco.â 780.507 Section 780.507 Labor Regulations... Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.507 “Such tobacco.” To be within the exemption, the...

  14. 29 CFR 780.507 - “Such tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âSuch tobacco.â 780.507 Section 780.507 Labor Regulations... Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.507 “Such tobacco.” To be within the exemption, the...

  15. 29 CFR 780.507 - “Such tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âSuch tobacco.â 780.507 Section 780.507 Labor Regulations... Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.507 “Such tobacco.” To be within the exemption, the...

  16. Do shade-grown coffee plantations pose a disease risk for wild birds?

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sonia M; Peters, Valerie E; Weygandt, P Logan; Jimenez, Carlos; Villegas, Pedro; O'Connor, Barry; Yabsley, Michael J; Garcia, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Carroll, C Ron

    2013-06-01

    Shade-grown coffee plantations are often promoted as a conservation strategy for wild birds. However, these agro-ecosystems are actively managed for food production, which may alter bird behaviors or interactions that could change bird health, compared to natural forest. To examine whether there is a difference between the health parameters of wild birds inhabiting shade-grown coffee plantations and natural forest, we evaluated birds in Costa Rica for (1) their general body condition, (2) antibodies to pathogens, (paramyxovirus and Mycoplasma spp.), and (3) the prevalence and diversity of endo-, ecto-, and hemoparasites. We measured exposure to Mycoplasma spp. and paramyxovirus because these are pathogens that could have been introduced with domestic poultry, one mechanism by which these landscapes could be detrimental to wild birds. We captured 1,561 birds representing 75 species. Although seasonal factors influenced body condition, we did not find bird general body condition to be different. A total of 556 birds of 31 species were tested for antibodies against paramyxovirus-1. Of these, five birds tested positive, four of which were from shade coffee. Out of 461 other tests for pathogens (for antibodies and nucleotide detection), none were positive. Pterolichus obtusus, the feather mite of chickens, was found on 15 birds representing two species and all were from shade-coffee plantations. Larvated eggs of Syngamus trachea, a nematode typically associated with chickens, were found in four birds captured in shade coffee and one captured in forest. For hemoparasites, a total of 1,121 blood smears from 68 bird species were examined, and only one species showed a higher prevalence of infection in shade coffee. Our results indicate that shade-coffee plantations do not pose a significant health risk to forest birds, but at least two groups of pathogens may deserve further attention: Haemoproteus spp. and the diversity and identity of endoparasites.

  17. Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borkhataria, R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.; Jordan-Garcia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation, hoping lessons from Puerto Rico will apply to the international coffee industry. Throughout the 20th century, government intervention, including subsidies and technical assistance, supported coffee farming in Puerto Rico. In an effort to modernize coffee production and increase yields, the conversion from shade to sun coffee plantations was encouraged. Despite government support, the amount of land devoted to this once dominant agricultural commodity declined markedly between 1982 and 2007 (84%), due to labor shortages, low income, and catastrophic hurricanes. We found that a return to shaded plantations would be embraced by most farmers. Growers of shaded coffee were generally happier with their cultivation practices (89.3% satisfied) than growers of sun coffee (60.9% satisfied), valued biodiversity, and were willing to cultivate coffee under shade if given similar incentives to those received for farming sun coffee. The future of the coffee industry in Puerto Rico may depend on government programs that capitalize upon emerging markets for sustainably produced, shade-grown coffee. We conclude that where governments have close ties to the coffee industry, they should strive to wed economic development with the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecological services by providing support and incentives for the production of shade coffee. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. 29 CFR 780.517 - “For use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âFor use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco.â 780.517 Section 780.517... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and... tobacco.” The phrase “for use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco” limits the type of end product which may...

  19. 29 CFR 780.517 - “For use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âFor use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco.â 780.517 Section 780.517... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and... tobacco.” The phrase “for use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco” limits the type of end product which may...

  20. 29 CFR 780.517 - “For use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âFor use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco.â 780.517 Section 780.517... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and... tobacco.” The phrase “for use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco” limits the type of end product which may...

  1. 29 CFR 780.517 - “For use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âFor use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco.â 780.517 Section 780.517... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and... tobacco.” The phrase “for use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco” limits the type of end product which may...

  2. 29 CFR 780.517 - “For use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âFor use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco.â 780.517 Section 780.517... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and... tobacco.” The phrase “for use as Cigar-wrapper tobacco” limits the type of end product which may...

  3. Decreased photochemical efficiency of photosystem II following sunlight exposure of shade-grown leaves of avocado: because of, or in spite of, two kinetically distinct xanthophyll cycles?

    PubMed

    Jia, Husen; Förster, Britta; Chow, Wah Soon; Pogson, Barry James; Osmond, C Barry

    2013-02-01

    This study resolved correlations between changes in xanthophyll pigments and photosynthetic properties in attached and detached shade-grown avocado (Persea americana) leaves upon sun exposure. Lutein epoxide (Lx) was deepoxidized to lutein (L), increasing the total pool by ΔL over 5 h, whereas violaxanthin (V) conversion to antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) ceased after 1 h. During subsequent dark or shade recovery, de novo synthesis of L and Z continued, followed by epoxidation of A and Z but not of L. Light-saturated nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) was strongly and linearly correlated with decreasing [Lx] and increasing [L] but showed a biphasic correlation with declining [V] and increasing [A+Z] separated when V deepoxidation ceased. When considering [ΔL+Z], the monophasic linear correlation was restored. Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem (PSI; deduced from the delivery of electrons to PSI in saturating single-turnover flashes) showed a strong correlation in their continuous decline in sunlight and an increase in NPQ capacity. This decrease was also reflected in the initial reduction of the slope of photosynthetic electron transport versus photon flux density. Generally longer, stronger sun exposures enhanced declines in both slope and maximum photosynthetic electron transport rates as well as photochemical efficiency of PSII and PSII/PSI more severely and prevented full recovery. Interestingly, increased NPQ capacity was accompanied by slower relaxation. This was more prominent in detached leaves with closed stomata, indicating that photorespiratory recycling of CO(2) provided little photoprotection to avocado shade leaves. Sun exposure of these shade leaves initiates a continuum of photoprotection, beyond full engagement of the Lx and V cycle in the antenna, but ultimately photoinactivated PSII reaction centers. PMID:23213134

  4. Decreased photochemical efficiency of photosystem II following sunlight exposure of shade-grown leaves of avocado: because of, or in spite of, two kinetically distinct xanthophyll cycles?

    PubMed

    Jia, Husen; Förster, Britta; Chow, Wah Soon; Pogson, Barry James; Osmond, C Barry

    2013-02-01

    This study resolved correlations between changes in xanthophyll pigments and photosynthetic properties in attached and detached shade-grown avocado (Persea americana) leaves upon sun exposure. Lutein epoxide (Lx) was deepoxidized to lutein (L), increasing the total pool by ΔL over 5 h, whereas violaxanthin (V) conversion to antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) ceased after 1 h. During subsequent dark or shade recovery, de novo synthesis of L and Z continued, followed by epoxidation of A and Z but not of L. Light-saturated nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) was strongly and linearly correlated with decreasing [Lx] and increasing [L] but showed a biphasic correlation with declining [V] and increasing [A+Z] separated when V deepoxidation ceased. When considering [ΔL+Z], the monophasic linear correlation was restored. Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem (PSI; deduced from the delivery of electrons to PSI in saturating single-turnover flashes) showed a strong correlation in their continuous decline in sunlight and an increase in NPQ capacity. This decrease was also reflected in the initial reduction of the slope of photosynthetic electron transport versus photon flux density. Generally longer, stronger sun exposures enhanced declines in both slope and maximum photosynthetic electron transport rates as well as photochemical efficiency of PSII and PSII/PSI more severely and prevented full recovery. Interestingly, increased NPQ capacity was accompanied by slower relaxation. This was more prominent in detached leaves with closed stomata, indicating that photorespiratory recycling of CO(2) provided little photoprotection to avocado shade leaves. Sun exposure of these shade leaves initiates a continuum of photoprotection, beyond full engagement of the Lx and V cycle in the antenna, but ultimately photoinactivated PSII reaction centers.

  5. Light compensation points in shade-grown seedlings of deciduous broadleaf tree species with different successional traits raised under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Kitao, M; Hida, T; Eguchi, N; Tobita, H; Utsugi, H; Uemura, A; Kitaoka, S; Koike, T

    2016-01-01

    We measured leaf photosynthetic traits in shade-grown seedlings of four tree species native to northern Japan, raised under an elevated CO2 condition, to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 on shade tolerance of deciduous broadleaf tree species with different successional traits. We considered Betula platyphylla var. japonica and Betula maximowicziana as pioneer species, Quercus mongolica var. crispula as a mid-successional species, and Acer mono as a climax species. The plants were grown under shade conditions (10% of full sunlight) in a CO2 -regulated phytotron. Light compensation points (LCPs) decreased in all tree species when grown under elevated CO2 (720 μmol·mol(-1) ), which were accompanied by higher apparent quantum yields but no photosynthetic down-regulation. LCPs in Q. mongolica and A. mono grown under elevated CO2 were lower than those in the two pioneer birch species. The LCP in Q. mongolica seedlings was not different from that of A. mono in each CO2 treatment. However, lower dark respiration rates were observed in A. mono than in Q. mongolica, suggesting higher shade tolerance in A. mono as a climax species in relation to carbon loss at night. Thus, elevated CO2 may have enhanced shade tolerance by lowering LCPs in all species, but the ranking of shade tolerance related to successional traits did not change among species under elevated CO2 , i.e. the highest shade tolerance was observed in the climax species (A. mono), followed by a gap-dependent species (Q. mongolica), while lower shade tolerance was observed in the pioneer species (B. platyphylla and B. maximowicziana). PMID:26404633

  6. Light compensation points in shade-grown seedlings of deciduous broadleaf tree species with different successional traits raised under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Kitao, M; Hida, T; Eguchi, N; Tobita, H; Utsugi, H; Uemura, A; Kitaoka, S; Koike, T

    2016-01-01

    We measured leaf photosynthetic traits in shade-grown seedlings of four tree species native to northern Japan, raised under an elevated CO2 condition, to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 on shade tolerance of deciduous broadleaf tree species with different successional traits. We considered Betula platyphylla var. japonica and Betula maximowicziana as pioneer species, Quercus mongolica var. crispula as a mid-successional species, and Acer mono as a climax species. The plants were grown under shade conditions (10% of full sunlight) in a CO2 -regulated phytotron. Light compensation points (LCPs) decreased in all tree species when grown under elevated CO2 (720 μmol·mol(-1) ), which were accompanied by higher apparent quantum yields but no photosynthetic down-regulation. LCPs in Q. mongolica and A. mono grown under elevated CO2 were lower than those in the two pioneer birch species. The LCP in Q. mongolica seedlings was not different from that of A. mono in each CO2 treatment. However, lower dark respiration rates were observed in A. mono than in Q. mongolica, suggesting higher shade tolerance in A. mono as a climax species in relation to carbon loss at night. Thus, elevated CO2 may have enhanced shade tolerance by lowering LCPs in all species, but the ranking of shade tolerance related to successional traits did not change among species under elevated CO2 , i.e. the highest shade tolerance was observed in the climax species (A. mono), followed by a gap-dependent species (Q. mongolica), while lower shade tolerance was observed in the pioneer species (B. platyphylla and B. maximowicziana).

  7. 29 CFR 780.503 - What determines the application of the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 780.503 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Introductory § 780.503 What determines...

  8. 29 CFR 780.503 - What determines the application of the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 780.503 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Introductory § 780.503 What determines...

  9. 29 CFR 780.503 - What determines the application of the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 780.503 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Introductory § 780.503 What determines...

  10. 29 CFR 780.503 - What determines the application of the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 780.503 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Introductory § 780.503 What determines...

  11. 29 CFR 780.503 - What determines the application of the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 780.503 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Introductory § 780.503 What determines...

  12. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  13. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  14. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  15. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  16. 29 CFR 780.508 - Application of the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay.... Section 13(a)(14) of the Act is intended to exempt any agricultural employee from the minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  17. 29 CFR 780.508 - Application of the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay.... Section 13(a)(14) of the Act is intended to exempt any agricultural employee from the minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  18. 29 CFR 780.508 - Application of the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay.... Section 13(a)(14) of the Act is intended to exempt any agricultural employee from the minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  19. 29 CFR 780.508 - Application of the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay.... Section 13(a)(14) of the Act is intended to exempt any agricultural employee from the minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  20. 29 CFR 780.508 - Application of the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay.... Section 13(a)(14) of the Act is intended to exempt any agricultural employee from the minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  1. 29 CFR 780.511 - Meaning of “agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Meaning of âagricultural employee.â 780.511 Section 780.511... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.511 Meaning of “agricultural... dedication to agricultural work as a means of livelihood....

  2. 29 CFR 780.511 - Meaning of “agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Meaning of âagricultural employee.â 780.511 Section 780.511... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.511 Meaning of “agricultural... dedication to agricultural work as a means of livelihood....

  3. 29 CFR 780.511 - Meaning of “agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Meaning of âagricultural employee.â 780.511 Section 780.511... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.511 Meaning of “agricultural... dedication to agricultural work as a means of livelihood....

  4. 29 CFR 780.511 - Meaning of “agricultural employee.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Meaning of âagricultural employee.â 780.511 Section 780.511... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.511 Meaning of “agricultural... dedication to agricultural work as a means of livelihood....

  5. Decreased Photochemical Efficiency of Photosystem II following Sunlight Exposure of Shade-Grown Leaves of Avocado: Because of, or in Spite of, Two Kinetically Distinct Xanthophyll Cycles?1[W

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Husen; Förster, Britta; Chow, Wah Soon; Pogson, Barry James; Osmond, C. Barry

    2013-01-01

    This study resolved correlations between changes in xanthophyll pigments and photosynthetic properties in attached and detached shade-grown avocado (Persea americana) leaves upon sun exposure. Lutein epoxide (Lx) was deepoxidized to lutein (L), increasing the total pool by ΔL over 5 h, whereas violaxanthin (V) conversion to antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) ceased after 1 h. During subsequent dark or shade recovery, de novo synthesis of L and Z continued, followed by epoxidation of A and Z but not of L. Light-saturated nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) was strongly and linearly correlated with decreasing [Lx] and increasing [∆L] but showed a biphasic correlation with declining [V] and increasing [A+Z] separated when V deepoxidation ceased. When considering [ΔL+∆Z], the monophasic linear correlation was restored. Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem (PSI; deduced from the delivery of electrons to PSI in saturating single-turnover flashes) showed a strong correlation in their continuous decline in sunlight and an increase in NPQ capacity. This decrease was also reflected in the initial reduction of the slope of photosynthetic electron transport versus photon flux density. Generally longer, stronger sun exposures enhanced declines in both slope and maximum photosynthetic electron transport rates as well as photochemical efficiency of PSII and PSII/PSI more severely and prevented full recovery. Interestingly, increased NPQ capacity was accompanied by slower relaxation. This was more prominent in detached leaves with closed stomata, indicating that photorespiratory recycling of CO2 provided little photoprotection to avocado shade leaves. Sun exposure of these shade leaves initiates a continuum of photoprotection, beyond full engagement of the Lx and V cycle in the antenna, but ultimately photoinactivated PSII reaction centers. PMID:23213134

  6. 29 CFR 780.512 - “Employed in the growing and harvesting.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âEmployed in the growing and harvesting.â 780.512 Section... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.512 “Employed in the growing... performed by agricultural employees “employed in the growing and harvesting” of such tobacco. The use of...

  7. 29 CFR 780.512 - “Employed in the growing and harvesting.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âEmployed in the growing and harvesting.â 780.512 Section... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.512 “Employed in the growing... performed by agricultural employees “employed in the growing and harvesting” of such tobacco. The use of...

  8. 29 CFR 780.512 - “Employed in the growing and harvesting.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âEmployed in the growing and harvesting.â 780.512 Section... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.512 “Employed in the growing... performed by agricultural employees “employed in the growing and harvesting” of such tobacco. The use of...

  9. 29 CFR 780.512 - “Employed in the growing and harvesting.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âEmployed in the growing and harvesting.â 780.512 Section... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.512 “Employed in the growing... performed by agricultural employees “employed in the growing and harvesting” of such tobacco. The use of...

  10. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Smokeless Tobacco KidsHealth > For Teens > Smokeless Tobacco Print A A ... thing as a "safe" tobacco product. What Is Smokeless Tobacco? Smokeless tobacco is also called spit tobacco, chewing ...

  11. 29 CFR 780.514 - “Growing” and “harvesting.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.514 “Growing” and “harvesting.” The general meaning of “growing” and “harvesting” of agricultural commodities is explained in §§ 780.117 and 780.118... operations customarily performed in connection with the removal of the crops by the farmer from their...

  12. 29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrior to the stemming process.â 780.516 Section 780.516... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Exempt Processing § 780.516 “Prior to the stemming... operations on shade-grown tobacco are performed “prior to the stemming process.” (See H. Rept. No. 75,...

  13. 29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âPrior to the stemming process.â 780.516 Section 780.516... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Exempt Processing § 780.516 “Prior to the stemming... operations on shade-grown tobacco are performed “prior to the stemming process.” (See H. Rept. No. 75,...

  14. 29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âPrior to the stemming process.â 780.516 Section 780.516... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Exempt Processing § 780.516 “Prior to the stemming... operations on shade-grown tobacco are performed “prior to the stemming process.” (See H. Rept. No. 75,...

  15. 29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPrior to the stemming process.â 780.516 Section 780.516... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Exempt Processing § 780.516 “Prior to the stemming... operations on shade-grown tobacco are performed “prior to the stemming process.” (See H. Rept. No. 75,...

  16. 29 CFR 780.516 - “Prior to the stemming process.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âPrior to the stemming process.â 780.516 Section 780.516... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Exempt Processing § 780.516 “Prior to the stemming... operations on shade-grown tobacco are performed “prior to the stemming process.” (See H. Rept. No. 75,...

  17. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... stillbirth when used during pregnancy Smokeless tobacco can lead to nicotine poisoning and even death in children who mistake it for candy. Smokeless tobacco causes nicotine addiction. This can lead to smoking and using other forms of tobacco. ...

  18. Moderate Photoinhibition of Photosystem II Protects Photosystem I from Photodamage at Chilling Stress in Tobacco Leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that photosystem I (PSI) is susceptible to chilling-light stress in tobacco leaves, but the effect of growth light intensity on chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in tobacco is unclear. We examined the effects of chilling temperature (4°C) associated with moderate light intensity (300 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) on the activities of PSI and photosystem II (PSII) in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. k326). The sun leaves had a higher activity of alternative electron flow than the shade leaves. After 4 h chilling treatment, the sun leaves showed significantly a higher PSI photoinhibition than the shade leaves. At chilling temperature the sun leaves showed a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI, accompanying with a lower P700 oxidation ratio. When leaves were pre-treated with lincomycin, PSII activity decreased by 42% (sun leaves) and 47% (shade leaves) after 2 h exposure to the chilling-light stress, but PSI activity remained stable during the chilling-light treatment, because the electron flow from PSII to PSI was remarkably depressed. These results indicated that the stronger chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in the sun leaves was resulted from a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI. Furthermore, moderate PSII photoinhibition depressed electron flow to PSI and then protected PSI activity against further photodamage in chilled tobacco leaves. PMID:26941755

  19. Moderate Photoinhibition of Photosystem II Protects Photosystem I from Photodamage at Chilling Stress in Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that photosystem I (PSI) is susceptible to chilling-light stress in tobacco leaves, but the effect of growth light intensity on chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in tobacco is unclear. We examined the effects of chilling temperature (4°C) associated with moderate light intensity (300 μmol photons m-2 s-1) on the activities of PSI and photosystem II (PSII) in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. k326). The sun leaves had a higher activity of alternative electron flow than the shade leaves. After 4 h chilling treatment, the sun leaves showed significantly a higher PSI photoinhibition than the shade leaves. At chilling temperature the sun leaves showed a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI, accompanying with a lower P700 oxidation ratio. When leaves were pre-treated with lincomycin, PSII activity decreased by 42% (sun leaves) and 47% (shade leaves) after 2 h exposure to the chilling-light stress, but PSI activity remained stable during the chilling-light treatment, because the electron flow from PSII to PSI was remarkably depressed. These results indicated that the stronger chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in the sun leaves was resulted from a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI. Furthermore, moderate PSII photoinhibition depressed electron flow to PSI and then protected PSI activity against further photodamage in chilled tobacco leaves. PMID:26941755

  20. 7 CFR 30.41 - Class 6; cigar-wrapper types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-grown tobacco known as Connecticut Valley Shade-grown, produced principally in the Connecticut Valley section of Connecticut and Massachusetts. (b) Type 62. That type of shade-grown tobacco known as Georgia and Florida Shade-grown, produced principally in southwestern Georgia and in the central part...

  1. 7 CFR 30.41 - Class 6; cigar-wrapper types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-grown tobacco known as Connecticut Valley Shade-grown, produced principally in the Connecticut Valley section of Connecticut and Massachusetts. (b) Type 62. That type of shade-grown tobacco known as Georgia and Florida Shade-grown, produced principally in southwestern Georgia and in the central part...

  2. 7 CFR 30.41 - Class 6; cigar-wrapper types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-grown tobacco known as Connecticut Valley Shade-grown, produced principally in the Connecticut Valley section of Connecticut and Massachusetts. (b) Type 62. That type of shade-grown tobacco known as Georgia and Florida Shade-grown, produced principally in southwestern Georgia and in the central part...

  3. 7 CFR 30.41 - Class 6; cigar-wrapper types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-grown tobacco known as Connecticut Valley Shade-grown, produced principally in the Connecticut Valley section of Connecticut and Massachusetts. (b) Type 62. That type of shade-grown tobacco known as Georgia and Florida Shade-grown, produced principally in southwestern Georgia and in the central part...

  4. 7 CFR 30.41 - Class 6; cigar-wrapper types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-grown tobacco known as Connecticut Valley Shade-grown, produced principally in the Connecticut Valley section of Connecticut and Massachusetts. (b) Type 62. That type of shade-grown tobacco known as Georgia and Florida Shade-grown, produced principally in southwestern Georgia and in the central part...

  5. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tobacco-Related Disparities African Americans and Tobacco Use American Indians/Alaska Natives and Tobacco Use Asian Americans, Pacific ... YTS) Alaska Native Adult Tobacco Survey Guidance Manual American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey Implementation Manual Hispanic/Latino ATS ...

  6. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... harmful chemicals in smokeless tobacco? Does smokeless tobacco cause cancer? Does smokeless tobacco cause other diseases? Can a ... chemicals in smokeless tobacco have been found to cause cancer ( 1 ). The most harmful chemicals in smokeless tobacco ...

  7. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco or dip snuff think it's safer than smoking. But you don't have to smoke tobacco for it to be dangerous. Chewing or dipping carries risks like Cancer of the mouth Decay of exposed tooth roots Pulling away of the gums from the teeth White patches or red sores in the mouth that can ...

  8. Banishing Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, William U.

    1986-01-01

    The health consequences of active and passive smoking are well known and the smoking epidemic is growing steadily, but worldwide efforts to control tobacco use often are merely attempts to control or color information about the product. (Author/GC)

  9. Risks of tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... a variety of effects. Tobacco contains the chemical nicotine, which is an addictive substance. Tobacco smoke contains ... is not burned is called smokeless tobacco. Including nicotine, there are 29 chemicals in smokeless tobacco that ...

  10. [Smokeless tobacco].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Perriot, J

    2011-10-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (chewing tobacco and snuff) can lead to a number of consequences detrimental to health. ST rapidly delivers high doses of nicotine, which can lead to dependence and is also a source of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Changes usually develop in the mouth area where the ST is most often placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leuko-oedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. Oral premalignant lesions are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, submucosal fibrosis and lichen planus. Betel chewing, with or without tobacco, may increase the incidence of oral cancer. There is conflicting evidence with regard to snuff users about the risk of oral and gastro-oesophageal cancer. ST use is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and may increase the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, ST is associated with an increase in pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during ST cessation. However, they have not been shown to help long-term abstinence. Information concerning the potential hazards of ST products should be incorporated into educational programmes to discourage its use and to help users to quit. Smokeless tobacco is not recommended to help smoking cessation.

  11. Youth and Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... from Tobacco Regulations Restricting the Sale, Distribution, and Marketing of Cigarettes, Cigarette Tobacco, and Smokeless Tobacco. Preventing ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  12. Tobacco farmers and tobacco manufacturers: implications for tobacco control in tobacco-growing developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison Snow; Austin, W David; Beach, Robert H; Altman, David G

    2008-12-01

    Assisting tobacco farmers to transition to non-tobacco alternatives is a key element of comprehensive tobacco control's end-game strategy and specifically required by the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). We examine the historical relationship between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers in the United States, where the duration of the relationship has been longest and use information obtained to inform possible end-game strategies for tobacco control advocates working with tobacco farmers in developing countries. Tobacco Documents obtained under the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provide evidence of conflicts between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers. Findings support WHO FCTC articles aimed at helping developing country tobacco farmers adversely affected by tobacco control efforts and highlight difficulties in discouraging tobacco cultivation as long as it remains relatively profitable. We conclude that successful end-game strategies should take a long-term approach aimed at building alliances with tobacco farmers and at creating mechanisms for tobacco farmer investment in local infrastructure. PMID:19079300

  13. Tobacco farmers and tobacco manufacturers: implications for tobacco control in tobacco-growing developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison Snow; Austin, W David; Beach, Robert H; Altman, David G

    2008-12-01

    Assisting tobacco farmers to transition to non-tobacco alternatives is a key element of comprehensive tobacco control's end-game strategy and specifically required by the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). We examine the historical relationship between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers in the United States, where the duration of the relationship has been longest and use information obtained to inform possible end-game strategies for tobacco control advocates working with tobacco farmers in developing countries. Tobacco Documents obtained under the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provide evidence of conflicts between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers. Findings support WHO FCTC articles aimed at helping developing country tobacco farmers adversely affected by tobacco control efforts and highlight difficulties in discouraging tobacco cultivation as long as it remains relatively profitable. We conclude that successful end-game strategies should take a long-term approach aimed at building alliances with tobacco farmers and at creating mechanisms for tobacco farmer investment in local infrastructure.

  14. You(th) & Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... on tobacco. Spend it on CDs, clothes, computer games, and movies. Get involved: make your team, school, ... home for parents to review. Make all practices, games, and competitions tobacco-free—on the field and ...

  15. Tobacco and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Cancer Get information on cigarette, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use, and learn how it affects different groups ... Any Type of Smoking Safe? Health Risks of Smokeless Tobacco Health Risks of Secondhand Smoke Smoking While You ...

  16. Youth and Tobacco Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8 Lower socioeconomic status, including lower income or education Lack of skills to resist influences to tobacco use Lack of support or involvement from parents Accessibility, availability, and price of tobacco products Low levels of academic achievement ...

  17. Tobacco Harm to Kids

    MedlinePlus

    TOBACCO HARM TO KIDS Over 1.8 million high school students still smoke . 1 Nationwide, about one in ten ... women are exposed to secondhand smoke – causing enormous harms to newborn babies. 11 Tobacco Use Harms At ...

  18. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  19. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  20. Tobacco Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Camenga, Deepa R; Klein, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco use is a pervasive public health problem and the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. This article reviews the epidemiology of tobacco use in youth, with a description of cigarettes, alternative tobacco product, and polytobacco use patterns among the general population and among adolescents with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. The article also provides an update on the diagnosis and assessment of tobacco use disorder in adolescents, with a particular focus on the clinical management of tobacco use in adolescents with co-occurring disorders. PMID:27338966

  1. State Tobacco Control Highlights--1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Perry; Alexander, Vickie L.; Allison, Harmony; Coole, David F.; Fishman, Julie A.; Knox, Steven R.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Schooley, Michael W.; Shelton, Dana M.; Woollery, Trevor A.

    This document provides a compilation of tobacco information for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, covering topics such as the prevalence of tobacco use, the health impact and costs associated with tobacco use, tobacco control laws, and tobacco agriculture and manufacturing. Recommended practices for school-based programs are included.…

  2. Cadmium in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, L. )

    1992-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the cadmium level in tobacco planted in five main tobacco-producing areas, a cadmium polluted area, and in cigarettes produced domestically (54 brands). The results indicate that average cadmium content in tobacco was 1.48 (0.10-4.95 mg/kg), which was similar to that of Indian tobacco (1.24 mg/kg), but the cadmium of tobacco produced in the cadmium polluted area was quite high (8.60 mg/kg). The average cigarette cadmium was 1.05 micrograms/g (with filter tip) and 1.61 micrograms/g (regular cigarette). Therefore special attention should be paid to the soil used in planting tobacco.

  3. Tobacco-Control Policies in Tobacco-Growing States: Where Tobacco Was King

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Context The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. Methods This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. Findings The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states’ passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke-free laws. In addition, infrastructure built by National Cancer Institute research projects (COMMIT and ASSIST) led to long-standing tobacco-control coalitions that capitalized on these changes. Although tobacco production has dramatically fallen in these states, pro-tobacco sentiment still hinders tobacco-control policies in the major tobacco-growing states. Conclusions The environment has changed in the tobacco-growing states, following a fracture of the alliance between the tobacco companies and their former allies (tobacco growers and hospitality organizations). To continue this progress, health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in the tobacco-growing states, notably the

  4. Tobacco control in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiljun; Kim, Dae Soon; Park, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seon Kui

    2004-01-01

    The Tobacco Business Act and the National Health Promotion Act coexist in Korea, causing conflicts. While the Tobacco Business Act mainly emphasizes the state's financial and economic aspects by describing the operation and control of tobacco business, the National Health Promotion Act states the measures on warnings on the harmful effects of tobacco, prohibition of advertising, and sales limitation for the public's health. In addition to these legal problems, it is not acceptable to continue the Tobacco Business Act, which is completely opposite to the establishment of active social welfare policies for the quality improvement of people's lives. The Tobacco Business Act, whose objective is tobacco business promotion, should be abolished to meet and follow such a desire for health, international trend, and WHO (World Health Organization) FCTC (Framework Convention on Tobacco Control). It would be most proper to ratify the FCTC and abolish the Tobacco Business Act. Also, revision of the National Health Promotion Act is necessary to secure the enforcement and implementation of FCTC in Korea.

  5. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  6. Tobacco in Africa.

    PubMed

    Yach, D

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco has been a common commodity in Africa for over three centuries. By 1993, some 500 000 tons of tobacco were being grown in 33 African countries, with only two countries exporting more than they import. Attempts to measure the current and potential impact of the tobacco business on health, society and the environment are still in their early stages, but the need for preventive action is already inescapably clear. Comprehensive control strategies are urgently required to prevent a major epidemic of tobacco-related disease in Africa. PMID:8820139

  7. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease prevention and expands coverage for quit-smoking therapies Federal Tobacco Taxes Higher tobacco taxes reduce smoking, raise revenue and are popular with the public Internet Tobacco Sales The Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) ...

  8. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming in African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in “protecting” farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and wellbeing of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term wellbeing of the country concerned.1-3 We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions. PMID:25428192

  9. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tobacco-Related Disparities African Americans and Tobacco Use American Indians/Alaska Natives and Tobacco Use Asian Americans, Pacific ... YTS) Alaska Native Adult Tobacco Survey Guidance Manual American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey Implementation Manual Hispanic/Latino ATS ...

  10. Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on How to Stop

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on how to stop Why is it hard to quit using smokeless tobacco? Like cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (snuff or chewing tobacco) contains ...

  11. Tobacco Interventions. Fastback 421.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fibkins, William L.

    Tobacco is routinely used during the school day by many middle school, junior, and senior high school students. Since the cost of tobacco addiction in terms of illness and the drain on school resources are enormous, an in-school cessation program is needed. No other institution in the community is better situated to provide intervention programs…

  12. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed

    Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a 'smoking epidemic' in developing countries. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance including banning smoking in public places, advertising and forbidding sale of tobacco to minors. Preventing the use of tobacco in various forms as well as treating nicotine addiction is the major concern of dentists and physicians. The dental encounter probably constitutes a "teachable moment" when the patient is receptive to counseling about life- style issues. Both policy makers and health professionals must work together for achieving a smoke free society for our coming generations. PMID:17347536

  13. Tobacco Use and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ... Pregnancy HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ...

  14. Tobacco documents research methodology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  15. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide: Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Karen, Ed.

    This guide was designed to aid prevention specialists, educators, parents, and others in addressing tobacco problems among youth. Listed here are numerous publications--each one summarized--on tobacco use. The guide is divided into two sections: (1) Prevention Material for Tobacco; and (2) Studies, Articles, and Reports on Tobacco. Section one…

  16. Cadmium concentrations in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Barkemeyer, H.

    1983-02-01

    The amount of cadmium in tobacco depends on the variety and origin of the plant as well as on the analytical method used to determine cadmium. In the literature, cadmium concentrations in tobacco of between 0.5 and 5 ppm are reported. Modern German cigarette tobacco contains about 0.5-1.5 micrograms cadmium/cigarette. Of importance for the smoker is the amount of the metal in the mainstream smoke. The cadmium level in the mainstream smoke of modern cigarettes is reduced by means of filters and other construction features. The average Cd value of German filter cigarettes is less than 0.1 microgram/cigarette in mainstream smoke. An average daily intake of about 1 microgram cadmium by smoking 20 cigarettes can be calculated on the basis of an experimentally proved pulmonary retention rate of 50%. Pulmonary resorption rates relevant to uptake rates of cadmium by smoking are discussed. It can be assumed that cadmium uptake by smoking modern cigarettes has been reduced because of modifications in tobacco processing and cigarette construction in the last few decades.

  17. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  18. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  19. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  20. Tobacco and cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Tobacco and its various components increase the risk of several types of cancer especially cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, and cervix. Smoking also increases ...

  1. Smoked Tobacco Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... cigarettes primarily imported to the United States from India and other Southeast Asian countries. They are tobacco ... in the United States. However, research studies from India show that bidi smoking is associated with cancer ...

  2. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  3. Metabolomics analysis reveals the compositional differences of shade grown tea (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ku, Kang Mo; Choi, Jung Nam; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Jeong Kee; Yoo, Lang Gook; Lee, Sang Jun; Hong, Young-Shick; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2010-01-13

    The different cultivation methods affect tea quality by altering the basic metabolite profiles. In this study, the metabolome changes were investigated in green tea and shade cultured green tea (tencha) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with a multivariate data set. The principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) of green tea clearly showed higher levels of galloylquinic acid, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, succinic acid, and fructose, together with lower levels of gallocatechin, strictinin, apigenin glucosyl arabinoside, quercetin p-coumaroylglucosyl-rhamnosylgalactoside, kaempferol p-coumaroylglucosylrhamnosylgalactoside, malic acid, and pyroglutamic acid than tencha. The effects of some seasonal variations were also observed in the primary metabolite concentrations such as amino acids and organic acids. In addition, green tea showed stronger antioxidant activity than tencha in both April and July. The antioxidant activity of green tea samples were significantly correlated with their total phenol and total flavonoid contents. This present study delineates the possibility to get high umami and less astringent green teas in shade culture. It highlights the metabolomic approaches to find out the effect of cultivation methods on chemical composition in plants and the relationship with antioxidant activity.

  4. Tobacco document research reporting

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2005-01-01

    Design: Interpretive analysis of published research. Sample: 173 papers indexed in Medline between 1995 and 2004 that cited tobacco industry documents. Analysis: Information about year published, journal and author, and a set of codes relating to methods reporting, were managed in N*Vivo. This coding formed the basis of an interpretation of tobacco document research reporting. Results: Two types of papers were identified. The first used tobacco documents as the primary data source (A-papers). The second was dedicated to another purpose but cited a small number of documents (B-papers). In B-papers documents were used either to provide a specific example or to support an expansive contention. A-papers contained information about purpose, sources, searching, analysis, and limitations that differed by author and journal and over time. A-papers had no clear methodological context, but used words from three major traditions—interpretive research, positivist research, and history—to describe analysis. Interpretation: A descriptive mainstream form of tobacco document reporting is proposed, initially typical but decreasing, and a continuum of positioning of the researcher, from conduit to constructor. Reporting practices, particularly from experienced researchers, appeared to evolve towards researcher as constructor, with later papers showing more complex purposes, diverse sources, and detail of searching and analysis. Tobacco document research could learn from existing research traditions: a model for planning and evaluating tobacco document research is presented. PMID:16319359

  5. Tobacco Use in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E.; Ellegaard, Pernille K.; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behaviour, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  6. Tobacco industry strategy to undermine tobacco control in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and explain tobacco industry strategy in undermining tobacco control measures in Finland and results of these interferences in tobacco policy development during the 1980s and early 1990s. Methods: Tobacco industry documents, which have been publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA, were analysed. Documents were sought by Finland and by names of organisations and tobacco control activists. Documents were accessed and assessed between September 2000 and November 2002. Tactics of the tobacco industry activities were categorised as presented by Saloojee and Dagli. Results: The international tobacco companies utilised similar strategies in Finland as in other industrial markets to fight tobacco control and legislation, the health advocacy movement, and litigation. These activities slowed down the development and implementation of the Tobacco Act in Finland. However, despite the extensive pressure, the industry was not able to prevent the most progressive tobacco legislation in Europe from being passed and coming into force in Finland in 1977 and in 1995. Conclusion: Denying the health hazards caused by tobacco—despite indisputable scientific evidence—decreased the credibility of the tobacco industry. Strategy of denial was falsely chosen, as health advocacy groups were active both in society and the parliamentary system. The strong influence of the tobacco industry may have in fact increased the visibility of tobacco control in Finland as the litigation process was also drawing attention to negative health effects of tobacco. Therefore the tobacco industry did not manage to convince public opinion. However, the tobacco industry did obtain experience in Finland in how to object to tobacco control measures. PMID:14660780

  7. An endgame for tobacco?

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2013-01-01

    Since its origins in the 1960s, tobacco control has achieved remarkable success against the scourge of tobacco-produced disease and death. Yet tobacco use, especially cigarette smoking, remains the world's leading cause of preventable premature death and is likely to do so for decades to come. Evidence-based policies seem incapable of substantially hastening the demise of smoking. Slowness in the decline of smoking in developed nations, and increasing smoking in many low- and middle-income countries has sparked interest in novel, even radical 'endgame' strategies to eliminate the toll of tobacco. This paper identifies the principal endgame proposals and, with the other papers in this volume, has the goal of expanding and deepening the endgame conversation by engaging the broader tobacco control community. While we struggle today with often widely divergent perspectives and beliefs about what is possible and how it might be achieved, we all share the same vision of the final words to this story: ‘The end’. PMID:23591502

  8. School tobacco policies in a tobacco-growing state.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Rasnake, Rob; York, Nancy; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Riker, Carol A

    2005-08-01

    This study examined factors associated with tobacco-free policies and tobacco cessation in schools serving children in grades 6 to 12 in a tobacco-growing state using a cross-sectional telephone survey of school administrators from public and private middle and high schools (N = 691), representing 117 of the 120 Kentucky counties. Trained health department staff contacted 1028 schools; 691 (67%) participated in a phone survey, which lasted an average of 19 minutes. Variables of interest were indoor and outdoor smoking policies, fund-raising in Bingo halls, provision of cessation and prevention programs, owning or leasing a tobacco base, if the school received money from tobacco companies, type of school (public vs private), and school setting (urban vs rural). Only 20% of Kentucky schools reported comprehensive tobacco-free policies. Urban area schools were nearly twice as likely to have a tobacco-free campus than rural schools. Schools that did fund-raising in smoky Bingo halls were 30% less likely to have tobacco-free school policies. While few schools had a tobacco affiliation, those that received money from tobacco companies or grew tobacco were nearly 3 times as likely to provide cessation resources, compared to schools without tobacco affiliation. Rural schools were less likely to be tobacco free and provide cessation services. School-related, off-campus, extracurricular events might be considered as an element of tobacco-free school policy. Schools with tobacco affiliation may provide more cessation resources due to the increased prevalence of tobacco use in these areas.

  9. School Tobacco Policies in a Tobacco-Growing State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Rasnake, Rob; York, Nancy; Okoli, Chizimuzo T.C.; Riker, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with tobacco-free policies and tobacco cessation in schools serving children in grades 6 to 12 in a tobacco-growing state using a cross-sectional telephone survey of school administrators from public and private middle and high schools (N = 691), representing 117 of the 120 Kentucky counties. Trained health…

  10. Exposure to Tobacco Marketing and Support for Tobacco Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Methods: Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Results: Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported…

  11. Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sebrie, E; Barnoya, J; Perez-Stable, E; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Results: Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. Conclusions: The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope. PMID:16183967

  12. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review
    Abstract
    This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  13. 75 FR 76921 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1463 RIN 0560-AH30 Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is modifying the regulations for the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP) to clarify, consistent with current practice and as required by the Fair and Equitable...

  14. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  15. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  16. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  17. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  18. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  19. Sugars present in tobacco extracts.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S C; Pollack, R L; Hsu, A F; Going, R E

    1980-12-01

    The presence of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose in commercial tobacco products was identified and quantitated. Gas-liquid chromatographic studies showed that these five types of sugar were present in the water-soluble extracts of pouch and plug chewing tobacco, yet only fructose and glucose were found in extracts of snuff and unprocessed natural tobaccos. The amount of sucrose present in pouch chewing tobacco was twice that in plug chewing tobacco. No detectable amount of sucrose was found in snuff or unprocessed natural tobaccos. The content of maltose and isomaltose was much less than the content of fructose, glucose, or sucrose. All unprocessed natural tobacco leaves studied as controls contained low amounts of fructose and glucose, and no detectable amounts of sucrose, maltose, or isomaltose. The larger amounts of fructose and glucose, and the additional sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose present in pouch and plug chewing tobaccos are probably added during the manufacturing process. PMID:6935284

  20. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  1. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  2. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  3. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  4. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  5. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  6. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  7. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  8. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  9. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  10. The tobacco industry, state politics, and tobacco education in California.

    PubMed Central

    Begay, M E; Traynor, M; Glantz, S A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Proposition 99 added 25 cents to the California state cigarette tax and mandated that 20% of the new revenues be spent on tobacco education and prevention programs. This paper examines the implementation of these programs and the tobacco industry's response to Proposition 99. METHODS. Political expenditure data for twelve tobacco firms and associations were gathered from California's Fair Political Practices Commission and secretary of state's Political Reform Division. Tobacco education expenditure data were collected from Governor's Budgets and the Department of Finance. RESULTS. Since Proposition 99 passed, tobacco industry political expenditures in California have risen 10-fold, from $790,050 in the 1985-1986 election to $7,615,091 in the 1991-1992 election. The tobacco industry is contributing more heavily to the California legislature than to Congress. A statistical analysis of data on campaign contributions indicates that California legislators' policy-making is influenced by campaign contributions from the tobacco industry. Since fiscal year 1989-1990, the state has ignored the voters' mandate and spent only 14.7% of the new revenues to tobacco education. Medical care programs received more money than permitted by the voters. CONCLUSIONS. The tobacco industry has become politically active in California following the passage of Proposition 99. One result may be that the state has underfunded tobacco education by $174.7 million through the 1993-1994 fiscal year. The estimated redirection of funds to medical care would essentially eliminate the tobacco education campaign by the year 2000. PMID:8362994

  11. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    PubMed

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space. PMID:16998172

  12. [Biomarkers of tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Andrzej; Wardas, Władysław; Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela

    2005-01-01

    In order to estimate the exposure of passive and active smokers to tobacco smoke one can use the questionnaire method or laboratory examination of chemical compounds being widely accepted exposure biomarkers. Substances that make such biomarkers include some of the tobacco smoke components and its metabolites formed in the body. The study discusses two groups of biomarkers. First, includes substances that serve as exposure markers of carcinogenous properties (metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitrosamines, trans,transmuconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid). Second group includes substances which role is limited to the evaluation of exposure to tobacco smoke (nicotine, cotinine, anatabine, anabasine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, thiocyanate, carboxyhemoglobin, carbon monoxide). Sensitivity and specificity of biomakers used were evaluated, their concentration ranges in physiological fluids in non-smokers, passive-, and active smokers. The simplicity of the examination method was evaluated. Articles published during last two decades indicate that the substance that have all features that make it the most appropriate biomarker is cotinine. It can be assessed in plasma and in urine of smokers and persons exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-12-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  15. Tobacco and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Gerard; Porter, Alan

    1986-01-01

    Tobacco is both dangerous and addictive. Its production and use thus raise ethical questions which involve the smoker, parents, teachers, producers, distributors and the State. The moral responsibilities of the various parties are examined critically and legal restrictions are considered to be justified. PMID:3735230

  16. Tobacco + Teens = Trouble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meer, Phyllis Ann

    2002-01-01

    Presents guidance to help school nurses achieve three goals: describe the scope of the problems related to teen smoking, discuss the characteristics of teens most likely to begin smoking, and identify strategies that parents and nurses can use to discourage teen smoking. A sidebar includes a 10-question quiz on adolescent tobacco use as well as an…

  17. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

  18. Environmental Health Organisations against Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Maurice; Evans, David S.; Lahiffe, Blaithin; Goggin, Deirdre; Smyth, Colm; Hastings, Gerard; Byrne, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%). PMID:19440528

  19. Tobacco or health.

    PubMed

    Piha, T; Besselink, E; Lopez, A D

    1993-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the major cause of premature death among men in the CCEE/NIS. Reliable information on smoking prevalence and tobacco use is scarce, but the overall evidence points to two different patterns: a traditional and a high prevalence pattern. The traditional pattern dominates in the NIS and some of the CCEE, and is characterized by a high smoking rate in men (about 50%) and a low rate in women (10%). Smoking by women, however, is increasing, starting with the younger age groups. The high prevalence pattern found in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, for example, shows a high smoking prevalence in women (about 25%) in addition to a high prevalence in men. Predictions made in 1990 indicated further increases or stable tobacco consumption in the CCEE/NIS by the year 2000, in contrast with the steady decrease in western European countries. When smoking is combined with other types of harmful health behaviour and environmental influences, the result is some of the highest mortality rates from lung cancer and other diseases in the world. This situation has caused severe concern in public health professionals in many of the affected countries, but not in the public and policy-makers. The fundamental changes in social and economic structures have both improved and decreased opportunities to promote nonsmoking. In the short term, the negative influences seem to dominate, although some countries, such as Lithuania and Poland, are now introducing their first realistic policies on tobacco. In most countries, however, tobacco control has to compete with other issues for priority on a crowded public health agenda.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chadda, RK; Sengupta, SN

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace.

  1. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chadda, RK; Sengupta, SN

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace. PMID:19570251

  2. Changing smokeless tobacco products new tobacco-delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Feuer, Rachel M; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S

    2007-12-01

    Smokeless or noncombusted oral tobacco use as a substitute for cigarette smoking has been gaining greater interest and attention by the public health community and the tobacco industry. In order for the product to appeal to smokers, tobacco companies have been manufacturing new noncombusted oral tobacco (i.e., moist snuff) that is lower in moisture content and nitrosamine levels, packaged in small sachets and "spitless." While the primary motives of the major tobacco companies are to maintain or increase tobacco use, some members of the public health community perceive the use of noncombusted oral tobacco products as a harm reduction tool. Because cigarette smoking is associated with greater toxicant exposure compared to noncombusted oral tobacco, reduced mortality and morbidity are hypothesized to ensue, if cigarette smokers switched completely to these products. However, variability exists in levels of nicotine and toxicants and potential health consequences from use within and across countries. Therefore, promulgating noncombusted oral tobacco products as a safer alternative to smoking or as a substitute for smoking may engender more rather than less harm. To date, limited research is available on the effects of marketing noncombusted oral tobacco products to smokers, to support the use of these products as a harm reduction tool, and to determine the effects of varying levels of tobacco toxicants including nicotine on health. The need exists for manufacturing standards to lower toxicant levels of all noncombusted oral tobacco products, for the formulation of appropriate tobacco-product regulations and for the development of a strategic plan by the public health community to address this controversial topic.

  3. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    PubMed Central

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  4. [Tobacco dependence treatment guidelines].

    PubMed

    Králíková, Eva; Češka, Richard; Pánková, Alexandra; Štěpánková, Lenka; Zvolská, Kamila; Felbrová, Vladislava; Kulovaná, Stanislava; Zvolský, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Tobacco dependence causes every sixth death in the Czech Republic and is associated with diseases of the whole body. Treatment of tobacco dependence should be a standard part of clinical care to the extent of time available--from brief intervention at each clinical contact with patients up to intensive treatment. It includes psycho-socio-behavioural support and pharmacotherapy. It should apply to all professions in clinical medicine--as recommended by WHO mainly doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists, and should be covered within health care systems. Economically, it is one of the most cost-effective interventions in medicine. In our population over 15 years about 30% smokes (about 2.2 million people), diagnosis F17 relates to approximately 1.75 million people (about 80% of smokers). PMID:26955915

  5. Tobacco and the Movies

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  6. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  11. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in new tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Irina; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S

    2006-04-01

    New tobacco products, designed to attract consumers who are concerned about the health effects of tobacco, have been appearing on the market. Objective evaluation of these products requires, as a first step, data on their potentially toxic constituents. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are an important class of carcinogens in tobacco products, but virtually no data were available on their levels in these products. In the present study, we analyzed several new products-Ariva, Stonewall, Exalt, Revel, Smokey Mountain, and Quest-for TSNAs and compared their TSNA levels with those in nicotine replacement products and conventional smokeless tobacco and cigarette brands. TSNAs were not detected in Smokey Mountain, which is a tobacco-free snuff product. The lowest levels among the new products containing tobacco were in Ariva and Stonewall (0.26-0.28 microg/g wet weight of product). The highest levels in the new products were found in Exalt (3.3 microg/g tobacco), whereas Revel and Quest had intermediate amounts. Only trace amounts were found in nicotine replacement products, and conventional brands had levels consistent with those reported in the literature. These results demonstrate that TSNA levels in new tobacco products range from relatively low to comparable with those found in some conventional brands.

  12. 78 FR 38646 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 40, 41, and 44 [Docket No. TTB-2013-0006; Notice No... Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements for Tobacco Products, Processed Tobacco and Cigarette Papers and Tubes AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade...

  13. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  14. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  15. Tobacco use and dental disease.

    PubMed

    Hart, G T; Brown, D M; Mincer, H H

    1995-04-01

    The previously cited Indiana University School of Dentistry teaching monograph, "The Impact of Tobacco Use and Cessation on Nonmalignant and Precancerous Oral and Dental Diseases and Conditions," reviewed over 800 articles and concluded that tobacco use is strongly associated with many dental and oral mucosal diseases, and may contribute to others. Our study of a relatively small sample of 200 patients, of whom 33 percent were tobacco users, found statistically significant data correlating tobacco use with a higher Decayed, Missing and Filled Index (a measurement of caries and tooth loss experience of patients) and relating periodontal bone loss to smokeless tobacco use. And, while this investigation did not find a statistically significant correlation between smoking and periodontitis severity, there was a data trend in that direction. Conclusions about tooth loss in the Indiana monograph were limited to smokers; however, there was an association of ST use with gingival recession, which can become quite severe in the area in which the smokeless tobacco is placed. It might be theorized that the significantly larger number of missing teeth among ST users in our study is associated with the generally poor oral hygiene and less sophisticated outlook on health care that tobacco users often display. Indeed, of the 65 denture wearers in our study, 7.7 percent were ST users and 40.0 percent were tobacco users of some type. In view of the large amount of data in the scientific literature associating tobacco with dental diseases as summarized by the Indiana monograph, and the position of several groups such as the American Cancer Society that tobacco is one of the risk factors most associated with intraoral cancer, it would appear that dentists have a vested professional interest in promoting tobacco use cessation among their patients. Dentists should take every reasonable opportunity to persuade patients to discontinue the tobacco habit, thus preventing life

  16. Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furrukh, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:23984018

  17. Biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Mattes, William; Yang, Xi; Orr, Michael S; Richter, Patricia; Mendrick, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    Diseases and death caused by exposure to tobacco smoke have become the single most serious preventable public health concern. Thus, biomarkers that can monitor tobacco exposure and health effects can play a critical role in tobacco product regulation and public health policy. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco toxicants are well established and have been used in population studies to establish public policy regarding exposure to second-hand smoke, an example being the nicotine metabolite cotinine, which can be measured in urine. Biomarkers of biological response to tobacco smoking range from those indicative of inflammation to mRNA and microRNA patterns related to tobacco use and/or disease state. Biomarkers identifying individuals with an increased risk for a pathological response to tobacco have also been described. The challenge for any novel technology or biomarker is its translation to clinical and/or regulatory application, a process that requires first technical validation of the assay and then careful consideration of the context the biomarker assay may be used in the regulatory setting. Nonetheless, the current efforts to investigate new biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure promise to offer powerful new tools in addressing the health hazards of tobacco product use. This review will examine such biomarkers, albeit with a focus on those related to cigarette smoking. PMID:25735858

  18. Assessing Support for Campus Tobacco Policy in Tobacco Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Kerry; Simmons, Susan J.; Caldwell, Rebecca; Dowd, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of comprehensive tobacco policies has shown positive results regarding limiting exposure to secondhand smoke. While many states were moving forward with respect to implementation of tobacco policies, North Carolina has lagged behind in this regard. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess support for a…

  19. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal

    PubMed Central

    Shields, D.; Carol, J.; Balbach, E.; McGee, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of secondhand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal.
DESIGN—Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview.
SUBJECTS—54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry.
RESULTS—Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS—The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.


Keywords: films; movies; television; tobacco use PMID:10629243

  20. Associations between Schools' Tobacco Restrictions and Adolescents' Use of Tobacco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill

    2010-01-01

    Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…

  1. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-05-18

    Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.

  2. [Carcinogenic components of smokeless tobacco and tobacco-free cigarettes].

    PubMed

    Krivosheeva, L V; Khitrovo, I A; Belitskiĭ, G A; Levinskiĭ, S S; Sigachëva, N A; Zaridze, D G

    2006-01-01

    The investigation deals with an assessment of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of samples of smokeless tobacco now on the Russian market as well as ash from alternative cigarettes made of aromatic herbs. Our data showed that the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile and tobacco-specific N-nitrosoamines complied with the standards in the producer-countries. Smokeless tobacco extracts failed to show (Ames) any mutagenic effects such as the "read-out frame shift" or "base-pair replacement" patterns. No tobacco-specific N-nitrosoamines were identified in herbal cigarettes. However, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile N-nitrosoamines content appeared to be identical to that of tobacco. Herbal cigarette smoke extracts mutagenicity induced by side-effects of carcinogenic substances was of similar magnitude as well.

  3. Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ... Health HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ...

  4. Tobacco smoking, epilepsy, and seizures.

    PubMed

    Rong, Lingling; Frontera, Alfred T; Benbadis, Selim R

    2014-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered the greatest risk factor for death caused by noncommunicable diseases. In contrast to extensive research on the association between tobacco smoking and diseases such as heart attack, stroke, and cancers, studies on the association between tobacco smoking and seizures or epilepsy are insufficient. The exact roles tobacco smoking and nicotine use play in seizures or epilepsy have not been well reviewed. We reviewed available literature and found that 1) there are vast differences between tobacco smoke and nicotine based on their components and their effects on seizures or epilepsy; 2) the seizure risk in acute active tobacco smokers, women who smoke during pregnancy, electronic cigarette smokers, and the role of smoking in sudden unexplained/unexpected death in epilepsy remain unclear; 3) seizure risks are higher in acute secondhand smokers, chronic active smokers, and babies whose mothers smoke; 4) tobacco smoke protects against seizures in animal models whereas nicotine exerts mixed effects in animals; and 5) tobacco smoking agents can be noneffective, proconvulsant, or anticonvulsant. Finally, the opportunities for future research on this topic is discussed.

  5. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  6. WHEN TOBACCO TARGETS DIRECT DEMOCRACY

    PubMed Central

    Laposata, Elizabeth; Kennedy, Allison P.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco control advocates began to use ballot initiatives to enact tobacco control policies in the late 1970s. In response, the tobacco industry worked for over two decades to change laws governing initiative and referendum processes to prevent passage of tobacco control measures. In 1981, the tobacco industry’s political lobbying arm, the Tobacco Institute, created a front group that presented itself as a neutral initiative research clearinghouse to affect changes in state initiative and referenda laws. In 1990, the Tobacco Institute began creating an in-house team, and worked with third party groups to try to change state initiative laws. While the industry ultimately abandoned both efforts when neither achieved immediate success, over time, the industry’s goals have penetrated legitimate discourse on the I&R process in the United States and many specific ideas it advocated have garnered mainstream support. Direct democracy advocates, as well as public health advocates and policymakers, need to understand the tobacco industry’s goals (which other industries adopted) of limiting the direct democracy process in order to ensure that any changes do not inadvertently increase the power of the special interests that direct democracy was developed to counterbalance. PMID:24603083

  7. Attempts to Undermine Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2007-01-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses “youth smoking prevention” programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called “social reports,” media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted “youth smoking prevention” programs as part of their “Corporate Social Responsibility” campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry’s goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:17600260

  8. Tobacco retail regulation: the next frontier in tobacco control?

    PubMed

    Smyth, Colleen; Freeman, Becky; Maag, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Australia has experienced significant reductions in smoking rates in recent decades, and public health scrutiny is turning to how further gains will be made. Regulatory controls, such as licensing to reduce retailer density or limit tobacco proximity to schools or licensed premises, have been suggested by some public health advocates as appropriate next steps. This paper summarises best-practice evidence in relation to tobacco retailer regulation, noting measures undertaken in New South Wales (NSW). Research on controlling the display of tobacco products and supply of tobacco to minors is well established. The evidence shows that a combination of licensing, enforcement, education, promotion restrictions at the point of sale and a well-funded compliance program to prevent sales to minors is a best-practice approach to tobacco retail regulation. The evidence for other measures - such as restricting the number of retail outlets, and restricting how and where tobacco is sold - is far less developed. There is insufficient evidence to determine if a positive licensing system and controls on the density and location of tobacco outlets would be effective in the Australian context. More evidence is required from jurisdictions that have implemented a positive licensing scheme to evaluate the effect of such schemes on smoking rates, the potential cost benefits and any unintended consequences. PMID:26243488

  9. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    PubMed Central

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Methods: Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. Conclusion: The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously. PMID:15564224

  10. Roadmap to a Tobacco Epidemic: Transnational Tobacco Companies Invade Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Richard D.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Indonesia is the world’s fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. Objective To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. Methods We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and “The Roadmap.” Results Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernized versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI maintained the basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and Westernization of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. Conclusion PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians. PMID:21852413

  11. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-01-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  12. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    PubMed

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  13. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  14. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  15. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  16. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  17. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  18. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  19. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  20. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  1. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  2. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  3. Tobacco Initiation among Early Adolescent Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship of tobacco knowledge and attitudes, degree of acculturation, and gender with tobacco use initiation among early adolescent Mexican Americans. Surveys of fifth graders indicated that lack of knowledge about tobacco and positive attitudes toward smoking were the most predictive of tobacco initiation. Initiation rates were…

  4. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  7. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  8. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  9. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  10. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  13. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  14. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  15. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  18. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  19. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  20. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  1. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  2. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  3. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  4. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  6. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  8. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  9. Tobacco control: overview.

    PubMed

    Reid, D

    1996-01-01

    This chapter assesses the principal components of an effective tobacco control programme in relation to efficacy, reach (i.e. numbers of smokers influenced) and cost-effectiveness. National targets for the reduction of prevalence are most likely to be achieved through the use of high reach interventions such as fiscal policy and mass communications. Restrictions on smoking at work may contribute to declines in consumption, but advice from health professionals, though effective, has limited impact owing to low reach. Measures aimed primarily at youth can delay, but not prevent, recruitment to smoking. Media publicity not only reduces smoking, but also creates a climate of opinion in favour of effective measures such as fiscal policy. In the long run, health professionals can achieve more for their patients through the media than through personal advice. PMID:8746300

  10. Tobacco and the Movies

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Stanton Glantz

    2005-09-19

    The principal aim of this roadmap is to place the US and Fermilab in the best position to host the International Linear Collider (ILC). The strategy must be resilient against the many vicissitudes that will attend the development of such a large project. Pier Oddone will explore the tension between the needed concentration of effort to move a project as large as the ILC forward and the need to maintain the breadth of our field. America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the #1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  11. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria. PMID:22713586

  12. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

    2001-01-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.


Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

  13. Whole tobacco smoke extracts to model tobacco dependence in animals.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Katharine A; Laugesen, Murray; Truman, Penelope

    2014-11-01

    Smoking tobacco is highly addictive and a leading preventable cause of death. The main addictive constituent is nicotine; consequently it has been administered to laboratory animals to model tobacco dependence. Despite extensive use, this model might not best reflect the powerful nature of tobacco dependence because nicotine is a weak reinforcer, the pharmacology of smoke is complex and non-pharmacological factors have a critical role. These limitations have led researchers to expose animals to smoke via the inhalative route, or to administer aqueous smoke extracts to produce more representative models. The aim was to review the findings from molecular/behavioural studies comparing the effects of nicotine to tobacco/smoke extracts to determine whether the extracts produce a distinct model. Indeed, nicotine and tobacco extracts yielded differential effects, supporting the initiative to use extracts as a complement to nicotine. Of the behavioural tests, intravenous self-administration experiments most clearly revealed behavioural differences between nicotine and extracts. Thus, future applications for use of this behavioural model were proposed that could offer new insights into tobacco dependence.

  14. Research to stop tobacco deaths.

    PubMed

    Yach, Derek; Pratt, Angela; Glynn, Thomas J; Reddy, K Srinath

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world's first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

  15. Research to stop tobacco deaths.

    PubMed

    Yach, Derek; Pratt, Angela; Glynn, Thomas J; Reddy, K Srinath

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world's first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes).

  16. Tobacco and vascular disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Tobacco use and exposure may cause an acceleration of coronary artery disease and peptic ulcer disease. It is also linked to reproductive disturbances, esophageal reflux, hypertension, fetal illness and death, and ...

  17. Snuffing tobacco out of sport.

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, G N; Orleans, C T; Blum, A

    1992-01-01

    Use of oral snuff has risen sharply among baseball players following a tobacco industry marketing campaign that linked smokeless tobacco with athletic performance and virility. Millions of adolescents have copied these professional role models and, today, are at risk of developing oral cancer and other mouth disorders. New policies and programs are needed to break the powerful grip that the tobacco industry has on professional sport. Health agencies, including the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute for Dental Research, have teamed up with major league baseball to help players quit and reduce public use of oral tobacco. If these efforts are successful, our national pastime will once again become America's classroom for teaching health and fitness, not nicotine addiction. PMID:1536348

  18. Snuffing tobacco out of sport.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G N; Orleans, C T; Blum, A

    1992-03-01

    Use of oral snuff has risen sharply among baseball players following a tobacco industry marketing campaign that linked smokeless tobacco with athletic performance and virility. Millions of adolescents have copied these professional role models and, today, are at risk of developing oral cancer and other mouth disorders. New policies and programs are needed to break the powerful grip that the tobacco industry has on professional sport. Health agencies, including the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute for Dental Research, have teamed up with major league baseball to help players quit and reduce public use of oral tobacco. If these efforts are successful, our national pastime will once again become America's classroom for teaching health and fitness, not nicotine addiction.

  19. Research to stop tobacco deaths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

  20. Sport Sponsorship and Tobacco: Implications and Impact of Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotlar, David

    1992-01-01

    The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)

  1. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Secondhand ... Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "Light" Tobacco = Heavy Health Risks Federal law restricts the words" ...

  2. Music preferences and tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Posluszna, Joanna; Burtowy, Agnieszka; Palusinski, Robert

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the association of music preferences with tobacco smoking in a group of 152 high school and college students. Both the questionnaire and the listening survey indicated a higher preference for music associated with anxiety and depressed mood among smokers. These findings may reflect a common etiology of tobacco addiction and a specific type of music preferences. To elucidate this phenomenon further studies are needed. PMID:15077771

  3. Tobacco Companies’ Use of Developing Countries’ Economic Reliance on Tobacco to Lobby Against Global Tobacco Control: The Case of Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, Martin G.; Mamudu, Hadii M.

    2009-01-01

    Transnational tobacco manufacturing and tobacco leaf companies engage in numerous efforts to oppose global tobacco control. One of their strategies is to stress the economic importance of tobacco to the developing countries that grow it. We analyze tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data to show how tobacco companies used this argument in the case of Malawi, producing and disseminating reports promoting claims of losses of jobs and foreign earnings that would result from the impending passage of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). In addition, they influenced the government of Malawi to introduce resolutions or make amendments to tobacco-related resolutions in meetings of United Nations organizations, succeeding in temporarily displacing health as the focus in tobacco control policymaking. However, these efforts did not substantially weaken the FCTC. PMID:19696392

  4. [Tobacco control in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Walbeek, Corné

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are

  5. Tobacco industry denormalisation as a tobacco control intervention: a review

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Ruth E; Grundy, Quinn; Bero, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To conduct a review of research examining the effects of tobacco industry denormalisation (TID) on smoking-related and attitude-related outcomes. Methods The authors searched Pubmed and Scopus databases for articles published through December 2010 (see figure 1). We included all peer-reviewed TID studies we could locate that measured smoking-related outcomes and attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Exclusion criteria included: non-English language, focus on tobacco use rather than TID, perceived ad efficacy as sole outcome, complex program interventions without a separately analysable TID component and non peer-reviewed literature. We analysed the literature qualitatively and summarised findings by outcome measured. Results After excluding articles not meeting the search criteria, the authors reviewed 60 studies examining TID and 9 smoking-related outcomes, including smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, intention to smoke and intention to quit. The authors also reviewed studies of attitudes towards the tobacco industry and its regulation. The majority of studies suggest that TID is effective in reducing smoking prevalence and initiation and increasing intentions to quit. Evidence is mixed for some other outcomes, but some of the divergent findings may be explained by study designs. Conclusions A robust body of evidence suggests that TID is an effective tobacco control intervention at the population level that has a clear exposure–response effect. TID may also contribute to other tobacco control outcomes not explored in this review (including efforts to ‘directly erode industry power’), and thus may enhance public support and political will for structural reforms to end the tobacco epidemic. PMID:22345240

  6. Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention - A Review.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Sabiha Shaheen; Doshi, Dolar; Bandari, Srikanth Reddy; Madupu, Padma Reddy; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease, currently leading to over five million deaths each year worldwide. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Oral health professionals play an important role in promoting tobacco free-lifestyles. They should counsel their patients not to smoke; and reinforce the anti-tobacco message and refer the patients to smoking cessation services. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5 A's and 5 R's approach, quit lines and pharmacotherapy. Additionally, tobacco cessation programs should be conducted at community, state and national levels. Various policies should be employed for better tobacco control. Governments should implement the tobacco control measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke. In addition, there should be availability of leaflets, brochures, continuing patient education materials regarding tobacco cessation. PMID:27437378

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Rodgman, A

    1992-12-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a "draft" assessment of ETS and lung cancer in adults and respiratory disorders in children. Relying on weak and inconclusive epidemiological data, the supposed similarity between ETS and MS, the presence of "known or suspected carcinogens" in MS and by extrapolation in ETS, and the "biological plausibility" of an adverse relationship between ETS and health, the EPA recommended that ETS be classified as a "Group A (known human) carcinogen." Fundamental physical and quantitative chemical differences among ETS, MS, and SS and human exposure to each smoke were disregarded: The three are not equivalent nor is ETS exposure a quantitative variant of cigarette smoking. A substantial difference in retention percentage overlays the huge dosimetric difference between exposures. As a result, the "dosage" of ETS retained is miniscule relative to MS. Also, conclusions reached by the EPA and the use of tenuous relationships as bases for Group A classification are unwarranted because of failure to consider the data upon which the "tumorigenicity" of the ETS components was based, questions on the presence and/or levels of these components in MS, and data indicating that a 25- to 30-fold decrease of a high-level dose of MS or MS condensate diminished the effects observed in bioassays from pronounced to zero, i.e., a threshold was demonstrated. Finally, EPA overlooked the more than 100 tobacco smoke components known to inhibit the tumorigenic action of many of the listed "tumorigens."

  8. Tobacco use in Bollywood movies, tobacco promotional activities and their association with tobacco use among Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Neha; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Reddy, K Srinath; Sargent, James D

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12–16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Results Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Conclusion Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere. PMID:21730099

  9. Tobacco compliance check in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Kan, Ming-yue; Lau, Maggie

    2008-02-01

    We examined tobacco retailers' rates of compliance to the law forbidding the sale of tobacco products to persons under 18 years of age in Hong Kong. The overall compliance rate was only 18.9%. The low compliance rate may be attributed to poor enforcement of the youth access law. Overseas experiences show that regular checking is an effective way to evaluate the compliance of tobacco retailers to restrictions on youth access to tobacco. Periodic tobacco compliance checks should be adopted in Hong Kong to exert pressure on law enforcement bodies and tobacco retailers.

  10. 78 FR 46905 - Tobacco Transition Program; Final Assessment Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Tobacco Transition Program; Final Assessment... information about the final quarterly assessments for the Tobacco Transition Program (TTP). Through the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP), which is part of the TTP, eligible former tobacco quota...

  11. 77 FR 48992 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits AGENCY: Food... for Tobacco Products (CTP) is announcing an invitation for participation in its Tobacco Product... involved in the manufacturing of tobacco products, including any related laboratory testing, and...

  12. Toxic and trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, M.; Masironi, R.

    1992-01-01

    While the harmful health effects of carbon monoxide, nicotine, tar, irritants and other noxious gases that are present in tobacco smoke are well known, those due to heavy metals and other toxic mineral elements in tobacco smoke are not sufficiently emphasized. Tobacco smoking influences the concentrations of several elements in some organs. This review summarizes the known effects of some trace elements and other biochemically important elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Po-210, Se, and Zn) which are linked with smoking. Cigarette smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements not only to the smoker but also, through passive smoking, to nonsmokers. The adverse health effects of these toxic elements on the fetus through maternal smoking, and on infants through parental smoking, are of special concern. PMID:1600587

  13. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer – either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  14. Neighborhood-based tobacco advertising targeting adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Ammerman, S D; Nolden, M

    1995-01-01

    Adolescent tobacco use remains a serious problem, and adolescents may be particularly receptive to the glamorous images tobacco companies use in advertisements. A relatively new form of neighborhood-based outdoor advertising, the illuminated bus-stop-shelter billboard, was studied to determine tobacco companies' use of this medium. We hypothesized that in 2 distinct San Francisco, California, neighborhoods, 1 predominantly white and the other mostly Latino, we would find a predominance of tobacco advertising on these billboards in both neighborhoods, that tobacco advertisements would be more prevalent in the minority Latino neighborhood, and that tobacco advertising would target adolescents in both neighborhoods. Each bus-stop-shelter billboard advertisement in the study areas from April 1992 to March 1993 was recorded. The type and frequency of products advertised and qualitative content of tobacco advertisements were analyzed. Adolescents' possible exposure to these advertisements was noted. Our main outcome measures were the percentage of tobacco advertising, possible adolescent exposure to this advertising, and themes of the tobacco advertisements. About 10% of all bus-stop-shelter billboard advertisements in each area promoted tobacco use. Possible exposures to these advertisements were greater in the Latino neighborhood because of a greater adolescent population. Qualitative analyses of tobacco advertisements suggested that adolescents are the primary targets. We urge physicians and educators to explicitly address this form of tobacco advertising, and we urge a ban on neighborhood-based tobacco advertising. PMID:7618311

  15. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  16. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  17. [The Tobacco-Free Generation].

    PubMed

    de Kanter, W

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, every day some 100 adolescents become addicted to cigarettes. These new smokers fill the gap left by the 25% of smokers who die before reaching retirement age. The State Secretary for Health, Welfare and Sport in the Netherlands, the Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG), and the Dutch Cancer Society, Lung Foundation and Heart Foundation all support the concept of a tobacco-free generation. The concept is that, by applying public health interventions and restriction of tobacco accessibility through price hikes, in the near future none of the children in the Netherlands born in 2017 and beyond will take up smoking. This appealing plan can be phased in gradually, reaching full implementation by 2035. That gives politicians time to take evidence-based measures. The roadmap for this 'tobacco endgame' starts today with tobacco-free conception and pregnancy, and will follow the life of a child from then on. In this comment, I discuss the concept of a tobacco-free generation and focus on the responsibility of the government to take effective measures. PMID:27581862

  18. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC.

  19. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  20. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  1. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  2. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  3. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  4. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  5. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  6. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  7. 7 CFR 29.8001 - Designation of tobacco markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of tobacco markets. 29.8001 Section 29... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Orders of Designation of Tobacco Markets § 29.8001 Designation of tobacco... Tobacco Inspection Act” contains the following provisions: Sec. 2. That transactions in tobacco...

  8. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  9. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  10. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  11. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  12. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  13. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  14. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  15. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  16. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  17. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  18. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  19. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  20. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  1. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  2. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  3. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  4. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  5. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  6. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  7. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  8. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  9. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  10. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  11. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  12. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  13. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  14. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  15. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  16. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  17. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  18. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  19. 7 CFR 29.8001 - Designation of tobacco markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of tobacco markets. 29.8001 Section 29... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Orders of Designation of Tobacco Markets § 29.8001 Designation of tobacco... Tobacco Inspection Act” contains the following provisions: Sec. 2. That transactions in tobacco...

  20. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  1. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  2. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  3. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  4. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  5. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  6. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  7. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  8. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  9. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  10. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  11. 7 CFR 29.8001 - Designation of tobacco markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of tobacco markets. 29.8001 Section 29... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Orders of Designation of Tobacco Markets § 29.8001 Designation of tobacco... Tobacco Inspection Act” contains the following provisions: Sec. 2. That transactions in tobacco...

  12. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  13. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  14. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  15. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  16. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  17. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  18. 7 CFR 29.8001 - Designation of tobacco markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of tobacco markets. 29.8001 Section 29... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Orders of Designation of Tobacco Markets § 29.8001 Designation of tobacco... Tobacco Inspection Act” contains the following provisions: Sec. 2. That transactions in tobacco...

  19. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  20. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  1. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  2. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  3. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  4. 7 CFR 29.8001 - Designation of tobacco markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation of tobacco markets. 29.8001 Section 29... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Orders of Designation of Tobacco Markets § 29.8001 Designation of tobacco... Tobacco Inspection Act” contains the following provisions: Sec. 2. That transactions in tobacco...

  5. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  6. Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This literature review delineates the current status of smokeless tobacco, including prevalence, terminology, periodontal effects, and addiction potential. Also discussed is the possible influence on youth of smokeless tobacco use by popular sports figures. (Author/CB)

  7. Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Smokeless Tobacco URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and ... HealthDay News) -- There's a new concern about smokeless tobacco -- those products can harbor several species of potentially ...

  9. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    Cancer.gov

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  10. 75 FR 22147 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  11. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  12. Internal CO2 Supply during Photosynthesis of Sun and Shade Grown CAM Plants in Relation to Photoinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Adams, William W.; Osmond, C. Barry

    1988-01-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoë pinnata were exposed in the dark to air (allowing the fixation of CO2 into malic acid) or 2% O2, 0% CO2 (preventing malic acid accumulation). They were then exposed to bright light in the presence or absence of external CO2 and light dependent inhibition of photosynthetic properties assessed by changes in 77 K fluorescence from photosystem II (PSII), light response curves and quantum yields of O2 exchange, rates of electron transport from H2O through QB (secondary electron acceptor from the PSII reaction center) in isolated thylakoids, and numbers of functional PSII centers in intact leaf discs. Sun leaves of K. pinnata experienced greater photoinhibition when exposed to high light in the absence of CO2 if malic acid accumulation had been prevented during the previous dark period. Shade leaves experienced a high degree of photoinhibition when exposed to high light regardless of whether malic acid had been allowed to accumulate in the previous dark period or not. Quantum yields were depressed to a greater degree than was 77 K fluorescence from PSII following photoinhibition. PMID:16665850

  13. Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.

    2010-12-01

    The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

  14. Addressing Tobacco Dependence Through a Nurse-driven Tobacco Intervention Protocol.

    PubMed

    Ceass, Tasha; Parsons, Lynn C

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use contributes to the largest proportion of preventable disease, disability, and death. Use of tobacco products is at epidemic proportions in the United States. Estimates retrieved between 2012 and 2013 by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 1 in 5 adults used tobacco products. Tobacco use was greatest among men, young adults, those living in the Midwest and south, and those with less education. Cigarette smoking resulting in inhalation of tobacco and its by-products is the most common form of tobacco use. Tobacco use results in multiple diseases, including numerous cancers and chronic diseases. PMID:26596660

  15. The epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence.

    PubMed

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Kilfoy, Briseis A; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2006-03-01

    Tobacco use continues to be a public health issue of great importance. Acute and critical care nurses in particular have a unique opportunity to become a cornerstone for the nation's tobacco control efforts through integration of prevention and cessation interventions as part of patient care. This article provides readers with a working knowledge of tobacco use and dependence as background reading for the subsequent articles presented in this special issue addressing tobacco cessation in acute and critical care settings. PMID:16546003

  16. Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    PubMed

    Farber, Harold J; Nelson, Kevin E; Groner, Judith A; Walley, Susan C

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use and tobacco smoke exposure are among the most important health threats to children, adolescents, and adults. There is no safe level of tobacco smoke exposure. The developing brains of children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the development of tobacco and nicotine dependence. Tobacco is unique among consumer products in that it causes disease and death when used exactly as intended. Tobacco continues to be heavily promoted to children and young adults. Flavored and alternative tobacco products, including little cigars, chewing tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems are gaining popularity among youth. This statement describes important evidence-based public policy actions that, when implemented, will reduce tobacco product use and tobacco smoke exposure among youth and, by doing so, improve the health of children and young adults. PMID:26504133

  17. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  18. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  19. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  20. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  1. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  2. Tobacco Use Among Southwestern Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and exposure to tobacco products in a cohort of rural dwelling Alaska Native (AN) people. Methods: We conducted a study of 400 of AN adult tobacco users and nonusers living in Southwestern Alaska. Questionnaires covered variables such as demographics, tobacco-use history, current tobacco use and dependence scales, general health status, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco, and quitting history. Results: The study population smoked 7.8 cigarettes per day compared with 16.8 on average for the U.S. population: a significant proportion of the population engaged in dual use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products. Over one third (40.9%), first tried tobacco at age 11 or younger. The mean measures of tobacco addiction (e.g., Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, Severson Scale of Smokeless Tobacco Dependence) scores were lower compared with other U.S. populations. Conclusions: Very high tobacco-use prevalence, dual product use, and early tobacco use are observed in Southwestern AN people. Unexpectedly these did not appear to be correlated with heavier individual tobacco use or higher levels of addiction in this population. PMID:22949573

  3. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  4. Smokeless Tobacco Education for College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burak, Lydia J.

    2001-01-01

    Chewing tobacco and taking snuff are common practices among college athletes. This article describes one college's smokeless tobacco education program for students athletes in the health, physical education, and recreation department. Research on the multiple-strategy intervention indicated decreases in student athletes' smokeless tobacco use and…

  5. 7 CFR 29.3556 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3556 Section 29.3556 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  6. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3556 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3556 Section 29.3556 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  8. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3070 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3070 Section 29.3070 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  11. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3556 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3556 Section 29.3556 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3070 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3070 Section 29.3070 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  16. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  18. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2309 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2309 Section 29.2309 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2309 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2309 Section 29.2309 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2309 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2309 Section 29.2309 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  5. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2309 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2309 Section 29.2309 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  11. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  13. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3070 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3070 Section 29.3070 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2309 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2309 Section 29.2309 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  3. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3556 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3556 Section 29.3556 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3070 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3070 Section 29.3070 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3070 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3070 Section 29.3070 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3556 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3556 Section 29.3556 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  13. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  15. You and Me Tobacco Free: Children's Activities in Tobacco Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Judith K.

    This booklet is part of the "Children's Activity Series," a set of four supplemental teaching resources that promote awareness about health, family life, and cultural diversity for children in kindergarten through third grade. The booklet presents seven activities to teach young children in kindergarten through third grade to remain tobacco free.…

  16. BeTobaccoFree.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ... Menthol Doesn’t Make Cigarettes “Safer” All cigarette smoking is linked to cancer and other diseases. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is ... Services | 200 Independence Avenue S.W. | Washington DC 20201

  17. Tobacco ringspot virus in Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) has a broad host range among woody and perennial plants and has been reported from blackberry but not from red or black raspberry. The virus has been detected in blackberry in the southeastern United States with a single report from blackberry in British Columbia, Cana...

  18. Encyclopedia of Smoking and Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfelder, Arlene B.

    This encyclopedia presents an extensive listing of current and historical information relating to tobacco. It aims to provide accurate, current, and balanced information to people of all viewpoints and on both sides of the smoking debate. The A-to-Z format makes a vast amount of current information easily accessible. Over 600 entries are complied…

  19. Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 9):251–62 [accessed 2015 Nov 27]. Gupta PC, Ray CS. Smokeless Tobacco and Health in India ... 4):419–31 [cited 2015 Nov 27]. Gupta PC, Ray CS. Epidemiology of Betel Quid Usage [ PDF ...

  20. Reducing harm from tobacco use.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Ann; Munafò, Marcus R

    2013-01-01

    If current trends in smoking prevalence continue, even with the implementation of enhanced tobacco control measures, millions of smokers will continue to fall ill and die as a direct result of their smoking. Many of these will be from the most deprived groups in society - smoking continues to be one of the strongest drivers of health inequalities. The personal costs of this morbidity and mortality, as well as costs to business and the economy, are unequalled and will therefore remain high for several decades to come. However, there is an addition to the tobacco control armoury that could have a marked impact on public health, but it requires radical action to be taken. This would be to embrace harm reduction, but this approach is as controversial in the case of tobacco as it is in the case of illicit drugs from where it derives. However, harm reduction remains the Cinderella of the three major strategies for reducing smoking-related harm, the others being prevention and cessation. Here we make the case that harm reduction has an important role to play in reducing the health burden of tobacco use. PMID:23035032

  1. Banishing Tobacco. Worldwatch Paper 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, William U.

    This report focuses on topics and issues related to the global use of tobacco. It consists of an introduction and six major sections. These sections deal with: (1) the epidemic rate at which smoking is spreading, indicating that the global rate has grown nearly 75 percent over the past two decades and is growing at 2.1 percent per year, faster…

  2. Social Responsibility in Tobacco Production? Tobacco Companies Use of Green Supply Chains to Obscure the Real Costs of Tobacco Farming

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915

  3. Naturalistic observation of adolescent tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Sussman, S; Hahn, G; Dent, C W; Stacy, A W; Burton, D; Flay, B R

    1993-07-01

    A naturalistic observation study of adolescent tobacco use was conducted to corroborate previous studies which used self-report questionnaire or structured interview methods to study this problem behavior. Several findings converged with previous accounts of adolescent tobacco use. For example, most use occurred in small groups. However, other findings diverged somewhat from previous research in that an unexpectedly low number of offers of tobacco was observed, nonusers were present in smoking groups, and solitary smoking was common. These data suggest that direct, normative social pressure to use tobacco may not be as frequent as more subtle informational social influence, at least in high school adolescent tobacco use groups.

  4. How effective has tobacco tax increase been in the Gambia? A case study of tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626

  5. Tobacco-free campus initiative.

    PubMed

    Mayabb, Gina; Hoppers, Trevor

    2006-03-01

    College students in the United States face many health risks in what, for most, is their first extended stay away from home. Unhealthy diets, binge drinking, and stress can all contribute to the decreased health status of many 18-24 year olds attending college. Smoking on college campuses, however, is one factor that is not as often included in this list of risky behavior. Smoking and tobacco use is so prevalent that it is often considered the normal thing to do. To counter this belief, and hopefully provide a better way to equip Oklahoma students to lead tobacco-free lifestyles as adults, we have developed a thorough and pointed policy aimed at reducing tobacco use among the 18-24-year-old population. The Oklahoma statute entitled "Smoking in Public Places and Indoor Workplaces Act," Title 63, specifically addresses smoking in educational facilities in Section 1-1523 by giving educational facilities freedom to assign areas permissible for smoking outside buildings and during most activities. Part C of this section states, "Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit educational facilities from having more restrictive policies regarding smoking and the use of other tobacco products in the buildings or on the grounds of the facility." Part C is the premise of the following proposed policy. Outlined in this discussion will be the definition of the problem and basic rationale for such a policy, definition of educational facilities, an outline and communication of policy provisions, suggestions for assistance and cessation, types of enforcement, funding sources, and key players who need to be involved for effective application of this policy. Additionally discussed are the implications and limitations of a restricting policy on tobacco use. PMID:16629236

  6. Tobacco and poverty: evidence from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Efroymson, Debra; Pham, Hoang Anh; Jones, Lori; FitzGerald, Sian; Thu, Le Thi; Hien, Le Thi Thu

    2011-07-01

    This review examined existing evidence to investigate the link between tobacco and poverty in Vietnam, to assess the impact of tobacco control policies on employment related to tobacco consumption and to identify information gaps that require further research for the purposes of advocating stronger tobacco control policies. A Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar search identified studies addressing the tobacco and poverty association in Vietnam using extensive criteria. In all, 22 articles related either to tobacco and health or economics, or to the potential impact of tobacco control policies, were identified from titles, abstracts or the full text. 28 additional publications were identified by other means. PHA, LTT and LTTH reviewed the publications and prepared the initial literature review. There is extensive evidence that tobacco use contributes to poverty and inequality in Vietnam and that tobacco control policies would not have a negative impact on overall employment. Tobacco use wastes household and national financial resources and widens social inequality. The implementation and enforcement of a range of tobacco control measures could prove beneficial not only to improve public health but also to alleviate poverty.

  7. Meanings & motives. Experts debating tobacco addiction.

    PubMed

    Mars, Sarah G; Ling, Pamela M

    2008-10-01

    Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.

  8. Smokeless tobacco in Canada: deterring market development

    PubMed Central

    Wyckham, R.

    1999-01-01

    DATA SOURCES—A review of the literature identified demographic, cultural, and marketing variables related to the uptake and continuation of smokeless tobacco use. Government and industry data on production, marketing, and consumption of smokeless tobacco products are presented.
METHODS—The Canadian and American markets are compared in terms of prevalence, consumption per capita, and marketing practices. Lessons to be learned from the well-orchestrated development of the American market in the past 30 years are examined. Canadian tobacco regulations are described. Strategies by which the increased exploitation of the Canadian smokeless tobacco market can be deterred are discussed.
CONCLUSIONS—A long-term, independently financed strategy built around a national smokeless tobacco de-marketing organisation with a constellation of private local institutions is suggested as a means of combating smokeless tobacco marketing efforts.


Keywords: smokeless tobacco; marketing; Canada PMID:10629248

  9. Electrical disturbance in heart by smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Puri, Aniket; Chaudhary, Gaurav; Srivastava, Rohit; Tiwari, Sunita

    2013-05-01

    Smokeless tobacco use in the form of chewed tobacco or snuff is common in various parts of the world, including India. It is well known that smokeless tobacco consumption is responsible for cancer but less is known about its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Nicotine, the main constituent of tobacco smoke is responsible for the elevated risk of the cardiovascular disease and sudden coronary death associated with smoking, presumably by provoking cardiac arrhythmias. This review discusses some of the acute and chronic cardiac effects of smokeless tobacco on cardiovascular disease with special reference to the electrical disturbance as well as comparing nicotine kinetics between smoking and smokeless tobacco. It would further enhance the clamor to urge people to quit all forms of tobacco consumption.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of dry ice expanded tobacco.

    PubMed

    Theophilus, Eugenia H; Poindexter, Dale B; Meckley, Daniel R; Bombick, Betsy R; Borgerding, Michael F; Higuchi, Mark A; Ayres, Paul H; Morton, Michael J; Mosberg, Arnold T; Swauger, James E

    2003-11-30

    A tiered testing strategy has been developed to evaluate the potential of tobacco processes, ingredients, or technological developments to change the biological activity resulting from burning tobacco. The strategy is based on comparative chemical and biological testing. Dry ice expanded tobacco (DIET) is an example of a common tobacco expansion process currently used in the manufacture of cigarettes to increase tobacco filling capacity. As part of the toxicological evaluation of DIET, test cigarettes containing DIET were compared with control cigarettes containing tobacco expanded with a traditional expansion agent (Freon-11, also known as trichlorofluoromethane). Testing included mainstream cigarette smoke chemistry studies, genotoxicity studies (Ames and sister chromatid exchange, SCE), a 13-week inhalation study in Sprague-Dawley rats, and a 30-week dermal tumor promotion study in SENCAR mice. Cigarettes containing DIET or Freon-11 expanded tobacco were similar in biological activity. PMID:14581163

  11. Tobacco use in Tunisia: behaviour and awareness.

    PubMed Central

    Fakhfakh, Radhouane; Hsairi, Mohamed; Maalej, Mohsen; Achour, Nourredinne; Nacef, Taoufik

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess tobacco use and the awareness of and attitudes towards tobacco and its control in the adult population of Tunisia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1996 of a representative national sample of 5696 subjects aged 25 and over. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire in Arabic. FINDINGS: Tobacco use was reported by 30.4% of the respondents, of whom 24.6% smoked cigarettes and 5.8% consumed traditional tobacco, i.e. snuff, chewing tobacco and/or water pipe tobacco. Whereas 55.6% of men used tobacco, only 5.2% of women did so. Among men the proportion of tobacco users diminished with age as the rate of cessation increased. Among women, smoking peaked in the 35-54 age group. The proportion of men consuming traditional tobacco alone increased from 2.4% in the 25-34 age group to 20.4% in the 55+ age group; the corresponding values for women were 0.1% and 14.3%. Tobacco use was more widespread in rural than in urban areas and was relatively high among poorly educated men from economically deprived backgrounds. The use of tobacco was believed to be harmful to health by 98.6% of the respondents. Over 90% of the interviewees were aware that tobacco played a part in the development of heart disease. However, there were some gaps in awareness. A fear of cancer was expressed by 85% of the respondents, whereas only 5.6% were fearful of accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Informational and educational campaigns relating to tobacco control should be directed at individuals and communities, taking into account the gaps in awareness of the effects of tobacco on health. PMID:12077609

  12. The Tobacco Industry's Abuse of Scientific Evidence and Activities to Recruit Scientists During Tobacco Litigation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu

    2016-01-01

    South Korea's state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO) report's argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word "deadly" from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  13. STATE EXPENDITURES FOR TOBACCO-CONTROL PROGRAMS AND THE TOBACCO SETTLEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Cary P.; Soffer, Benny; Bach, Peter B.; Rajkumar, Rahul; Forman, Howard P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite controversy surrounding the use of funds arising from settlement agreements with the tobacco industry, little is known about the role of these funds in expenditures for state tobacco-control programs. Methods We evaluated state expenditures for tobacco-control programs in fiscal year 2001 in the context of the amount of tobacco-settlement funds received and allocated to tobacco-control programs and in the context of other state-level economic and health data. Results In 2001 the average state received $28.35 per capita from the tobacco settlement but allocated approximately 6 percent of these funds to tobacco-control programs. The average state dedicated $3.49 per capita (range, $0.10 to $15.47) to tobacco-control programs. The proportion of settlement funds allocated to tobacco-control programs varied from 0 to 100 percent and was strongly related to levels of tobacco-control funding (P<0.001). States with higher smoking rates tended to invest less per capita in tobacco-control programs (P=0.007), as did tobacco-producing states (the mean per capita expenditure was $1.20, as compared with $3.81 in non–tobacco-producing states; P<0.008). In a multivariate analysis, the proportion of the settlement revenue allocated to tobacco-control programs was the primary determinant of the level of total funding; the state tobacco-related health burden was unrelated to program funding. Conclusions State health needs appear to have little effect on the funding of state tobacco-control programs. Because only a very small proportion of the tobacco settlement is being used for tobacco-control programs, the settlement represents an unrealized opportunity to reduce morbidity and mortality from smoking. PMID:12362010

  14. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  15. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-01-01

    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products). PMID:23591505

  16. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-05-01

    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products).

  17. Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hecht, S S

    1999-07-21

    The complexity of tobacco smoke leads to some confusion about the mechanisms by which it causes lung cancer. Among the multiple components of tobacco smoke, 20 carcinogens convincingly cause lung tumors in laboratory animals or humans and are, therefore, likely to be involved in lung cancer induction. Of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone are likely to play major roles. This review focuses on carcinogens in tobacco smoke as a means of simplifying and clarifying the relevant information that provides a mechanistic framework linking nicotine addiction with lung cancer through exposure to such compounds. Included is a discussion of the mechanisms by which tobacco smoke carcinogens interact with DNA and cause genetic changes--mechanisms that are reasonably well understood--and the less well defined relationship between exposure to specific tobacco smoke carcinogens and mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Molecular epidemiologic studies of gene-carcinogen interactions and lung cancer--an approach that has not yet reached its full potential--are also discussed, as are inhalation studies of tobacco smoke in laboratory animals and the potential role of free radicals and oxidative damage in tobacco-associated carcinogenesis. By focusing in this review on several important carcinogens in tobacco smoke, the complexities in understanding tobacco-induced cancer can be reduced, and new approaches for lung cancer prevention can be envisioned. PMID:10413421

  18. [Lessons learned from tobacco control in Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R; Córdoba, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The growing involvement in Spain by civil society in the demand for tobacco control policies has been notable. The basis for the creation of the National Committee for Tobacco Prevention was established in 2004. At the end of that year, an intensive intervention was aimed at specifying, in law, the regulatory actions in the National Plan for Tobacco Prevention. This would facilitate a qualitative leap, taking advantage of the legal transposition of the European directive on advertising. With broad political consensus, the Law 28/2005 was established regarding sanitary measures for tobacco and the regulation of the sale, supply and consumption of tobacco products. The objective stated in this law is to prevent the initiation of tobacco consumption, especially among youth, guarantee the right of non-smokers to breathe air free from tobacco smoke and make quitting this habit easier for people who wish to do so. The main issues included are the prohibition of tobacco advertising and the limitation of tobacco consumption in common work areas and enclosed public spaces. The new law has replaced the previous rules in Spain, which were some of the most permissive in the European Union in terms of tobacco sales, advertising limitations and restrictions on smoking locations. It is clear that there is still much to be done. At this time, more social support needs to be generated in favor of the new regulations, and an important effort needs to be made to educate the public.

  19. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil. PMID:26710622

  20. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  1. [Tobacco farming in Italy receives more funds in comparison to tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Martino, Gianrocco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Aquilini, Ferruccio; Miligi, Lucia; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In the European Union almost 300,000 tons of raw tobacco are produced every year, contributing for 4% of the world production. In Italy, tobacco crop produces around 90,000 tons/year and is concentrated in Veneto, Tuscany, Umbria and Campania Regions. In 1970, Common Market Organisation provided a virtually unlimited support for European tobacco production. After 2004, funds progressively has been cut by half, even though the other half has been given for restructuring or reconversion of tobacco farms through the Rural Development Plan. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends conversion of tobacco crops, although there are no effective measures. Tobacco production requires large quantities of chemicals (pesticides, growth regulators, fertilisers), with significant workers' exposure if applied without personal protective equipments. Pesticides may have genotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, hormonal, and carcinogenic effects. Tobacco itself may cause also a disease called "Green tobacco sickness" syndrome, as a consequence of nicotine dermal absorption due to skin exposure to tobacco leaves. In Italy, financial resources for tobacco production and restructuring/conversion to other crops of previously tobacco planted fields are available. On the contrary, anti-smoking media interventions do not receive funds comparatively relevant as those for tobacco production. PMID:24736963

  2. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco...

  3. 18 CFR 1303.3 - Prohibition on tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibition on tobacco... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Tobacco Products § 1303.3 Prohibition on tobacco products. (a) Sale of tobacco products by vending machine on TVA property is prohibited. Tobacco product vending machines already in...

  4. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed...

  5. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco...

  6. 18 CFR 1303.3 - Prohibition on tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Prohibition on tobacco... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Tobacco Products § 1303.3 Prohibition on tobacco products. (a) Sale of tobacco products by vending machine on TVA property is prohibited. Tobacco product vending machines already in...

  7. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco...

  8. 18 CFR 1303.3 - Prohibition on tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prohibition on tobacco... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Tobacco Products § 1303.3 Prohibition on tobacco products. (a) Sale of tobacco products by vending machine on TVA property is prohibited. Tobacco product vending machines already in...

  9. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  10. 18 CFR 1303.3 - Prohibition on tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibition on tobacco... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Tobacco Products § 1303.3 Prohibition on tobacco products. (a) Sale of tobacco products by vending machine on TVA property is prohibited. Tobacco product vending machines already in...

  11. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  12. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco...

  13. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed...

  14. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco...

  15. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed...

  16. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  17. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed...

  18. 18 CFR 1303.3 - Prohibition on tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition on tobacco... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Tobacco Products § 1303.3 Prohibition on tobacco products. (a) Sale of tobacco products by vending machine on TVA property is prohibited. Tobacco product vending machines already in...

  19. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  20. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed...

  1. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  2. Bad Mouthin': What Smokeless Tobacco Can Do to You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Clearinghouse, Madison.

    This booklet presents, in comic book format, information for children and adolescents on the hazards of using smokeless tobacco. It touches on the use of smokeless tobacco by baseball players, the advertising of smokeless tobacco, and the illegality of selling smokeless tobacco to minors. Health consequences of using smokeless tobacco, including…

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  4. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  5. The Tobacco Use Management System: Analyzing Tobacco Control From a Systems Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Young, David; Coghill, Ken; Zhang, Jian Ying

    2010-01-01

    We use systems thinking to develop a strategic framework for analyzing the tobacco problem and we suggest solutions. Humans are vulnerable to nicotine addiction, and the most marketable form of nicotine delivery is the most harmful. A tobacco use management system has evolved out of governments’ attempts to regulate tobacco marketing and use and to support services that provide information about tobacco's harms and discourage its use. Our analysis identified 5 systemic problems that constrain progress toward the elimination of tobacco-related harm. We argue that this goal would be more readily achieved if the regulatory subsystem had dynamic power to regulate tobacco products and the tobacco industry as well as a responsive process for resourcing tobacco use control activities. PMID:20466970

  6. Global perspective on tobacco control. Part II. The future of tobacco control: making smoking history?

    PubMed

    Chapman, S

    2008-01-01

    Serious efforts to reduce the harm caused by tobacco use throughout populations require implementation policies and interventions capable of reaching all smokers and potential smokers. While the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control promises to accelerate the adoption of comprehensive tobacco control policies throughout the world, its extensive 'optional' language provides considerable latitude for governments unwilling to implement rigorous controls. This paper examines four broad areas in which important debates and policy advances will be necessary to ensure population-wide impact of tobacco control: harm reduction; demand reduction strategies involving particularly the use of news generation in increasing the coverage of tobacco and health issues; denormalisation of tobacco use, especially among health workers in nations where use remains high; and further efforts to regulate the tobacco industry, particularly in regard to plain packaging, under-the-counter retail sales and the regulation of tobacco products.

  7. Spit tobacco: not a safe alternative.

    PubMed

    Straffon, D; McGowan, J M

    1997-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief spread by misleading advertisements, spit tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarettes. An abundance of evidence indicates that these products are not only dangerous to health, but often lethal. In Michigan, a statewide educational campaign is now underway to alert the public to the facts about spit tobacco. The National Institute of Health recommends that dentists ask all patients, beginning at age 5, about their tobacco use. The use of nationally known celebrities seems a critically important ingredient in this anti-tobacco campaign, in order to offset the glamorous advertisements from the tobacco industry. Ultimately, however, it is steady, sure, ever-serious reminders by health professionals of the dangers of spit tobacco that will carry the most weight. Above all, it is the dentist who has this opportunity and this responsibility.

  8. TOBACCO ABUSE AND ITS HEALTH EFFECT.

    PubMed

    Dunga, Jacob Amos; Adamu, Yakubu; Kida, Ibrahim Musa; Alasiya, Datonya; Jibrin, Yusuf; Sabo, Umar; Ukoli, Christian; Chuhwak, C H; Musa, Jafiada Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is still one of the most important risk factor for Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and an estimated 90% of causes of lung cancer are attributable toTobacco smocking and equally 90% of peripheral vascular disease in non-diabetic population is attributable to Tobacco smoking, despite the health effect there is disturbing figures of people who take up smoking habit daily and increase level of failed quit smoking attempts. Environment and genetics still plays major role, and various forms of tobacco is used worldwide and its health consequence has been highlighted. Monitoring tobacco use and prevention policies through effective tax laws is paramount to reduction of the tobacco health effects in our environments. PMID:27487614

  9. Women and tobacco in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To present a broad exploration of the relationship of women and tobacco in Indonesia and to describe action on tobacco and health specific to women taken by government and non-government agencies.
DATA SOURCES—Published and unpublished prevalence surveys, official documents, vernacular newspapers, secondary sources, unstructured interviews, and personal observations.
STUDY SELECTION—Data on smoking prevalence among women was primarily sought from official household surveys but several smaller scale local surveys were also examined. The only representative national household data on smoking prevalence from 1995 suggested a national prevalence for occasional and regular smoking of 2.6% for women aged 20 years or older. Smaller, local level surveys had reported rates varying from 4% for junior high school girls, and 2.9% for women undergraduates at a provincial university, to 6.4% of women in a representative sample in Jakarta. Claims that the incidence of female smoking is increasing cannot be confirmed due to an absence of comparable national longitudinal data.
CONCLUSION—Although Indonesian women are conspicuous in growing and processing tobacco, their rates of smoking are low in comparison with their male compatriots and internationally. Anecdotal evidence suggests that their disinclination to smoke is commonly attributed to cultural values, which stigmatise women smokers as morally flawed, while at the same time sanctioning smoking by men. Although there is little evidence of tobacco advertising directly targeting women, Indonesian health activists interviewed by the author felt that women are increasingly taking up smoking due to a weakening of stigma and to Western cultural influences. Cultural factors in the low rates of smoking among Indonesian women deserve closer investigation as they have proved to be a major source of health protection, albeit within a stigmatising context. More also needs to be known about the dynamics of

  10. Health warnings on tobacco products: international practices.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L

    2012-06-01

    Health warnings on tobacco products have emerged as a prominent area of tobacco control policy. Regulatory practice has rapidly evolved over the past decade to the point where health warnings on tobacco products continue to set international precedents for their size and comprehensiveness. The current paper provides a general review of current regulatory practices, including physical design features (such as size and location), message content (pictorial vs. text and content themes), and regulatory considerations such as rotation period and other novel practices.

  11. Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Godish, T

    1989-01-01

    Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of upper respiratory system cancer and increase the risk of cancer in smokers. PMID:2665532

  12. Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Godish, T.

    1989-08-01

    Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of upper respiratory system cancer and increase the risk of cancer in smokers. 18 references.

  13. Complementary treatments for tobacco cessation: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sood, Amit; Ebbert, Jon O; Sood, Richa; Stevens, Susanna R

    2006-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the prevalence of use and interest in future use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for tobacco cessation among tobacco users. We conducted a self-administered anonymous survey among 1,175 patients seen at a midwestern outpatient tobacco treatment specialty clinic between November 2003 and July 2005. Patient use of CAM for tobacco cessation, perceived efficacy of these treatments, and interest in future use of CAM were ascertained. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and logistic regression models were used to determine the characteristics associated with past CAM use or interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. All of the patients who received the survey completed it. A total of 27% of patients reported previous use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The interventions most commonly used were hypnosis, relaxation, acupuncture, and meditation. CAM treatments most commonly perceived to be efficacious were yoga, relaxation, meditation, and massage therapy. A total of 67% of the patients reported interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The treatments of greatest interest for use in the future were hypnosis, herbal products, acupuncture, relaxation, and massage therapy. Female gender, previous use of conventional tobacco cessation products, previous use of CAM treatments, and a higher level of education were significantly associated with interest in future CAM use. The high level of interest in CAM among tobacco users underscores the need to conduct further research in this field.

  14. Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy.

    PubMed

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1991-10-01

    The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished.

  15. The tobacco endgame: it's all about behavior.

    PubMed

    Henningfield, Jack E

    2014-11-01

    One of the ten great public health achievements in the 20th century was turning the tide on one of the greatest public health disasters of that century: the tobacco use and related disease epidemic. The premature death and disease caused by tobacco can be considered largely as a side-effect of tobacco use behavior and the disease of addiction. The spread of that disease was fostered by an industry that researched the behavioral and biological basis of tobacco use and addiction and applied its findings and knowledge to develop products and marketing approaches to increase the likelihood that people, especially young people, would try tobacco products and develop persistent use and addiction. Researchers outside of the tobacco industry also investigated the behavioral biology of tobacco use and their research has been critical in turning the tide of the tobacco and disease epidemic. The behavioral factors are considered vital to understand and address by United States Food and Drug Administration and Surgeon General, as well as the World Health Organization in their tobacco control efforts. This commentary discusses key behavioral factors in the rise and fall of the epidemic, as well as some of those increasingly discussed as potential contributors to the endgame.

  16. Mapping the Tobacco Retailers in Edirne, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karlıkaya, Celal; İnce, Hüseyin; Özkan, Nurcan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The youth smoking rate is on the rise in Turkey. Although many marketing bans have been effectively implemented, regulations related to retail tobacco outlets have gone unnoticed and have not been effectively supervised. In this study, we aimed to show the lack of legal regulation related to the high retail tobacco outlet density with displays. Material and Methods: In the center of Edirne, the marketing environment, numbers and geographical distribution of retail tobacco outlets were documented and mapped with geographical positions. Results: There were 569 retail tobacco points of sale in 520 stores. We calculated one tobacco retail outlet per 270 people. This retail outlet density rate is above the national average and about four times higher than the density in Istanbul. Products especially attracting children, such as chocolate, sweet candy and chewing gum, were set up near the tobacco stands and were easy for children to recognize and reach. It can be seen on the city map that 47% of retail tobacco outlets are within 100 m of education, health or sport facilities. Conclusion: We concluded that one of the reasons for the increasing prevalence of cigarette use, especially among adolescents in Turkey, is deregulation of the retail tobacco marketing industry as a result of the privatization process of the national tobacco monopoly. Using mapping techniques can be useful in terms of controlling the retail marketing environment. PMID:25207039

  17. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003 and 2006 Data to Tobacco Control Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Gupta, Prakash C.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prasad, Vinayak M.; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework…

  18. Teenagers' Use of Tobacco and Their Perceptions of Tobacco Control Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Hannah J.; Kulik, Keri S.; Klingaman, Linda; Deutschlander, Sharon; Black, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use leads to more deaths each year than any other single factor. This research examined teenagers' perceptions of anti-tobacco messages to determine which campaigns and educational approaches were most effective in preventing tobacco use among youth. Methods: Students from five rural high schools in western Pennsylvania were…

  19. 78 FR 54657 - Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... regulation restricting the sale and distribution of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (75 FR 13225... Register of July 16, 2010 (75 FR 41498), FDA announced the availability of a draft guidance entitled... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer...

  20. 77 FR 20034 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Cosmetic Act'' (76 FR 5387) (available at www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/GuidanceComplianceRegulatory... Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments,'' 76 FR 50226 (August 12, 2011). The...AdvisoryCommittee/default.htm . \\2\\ See 75 FR 22147 (April 27, 2010) and 75 FR 33814 (June 15,...

  1. Monitoring the tobacco use epidemic II. The Agent: Current and Emerging Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Stellman, Steven D.; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This Agent paper summarizes the findings and recommendations of the Agent (product) Working Group of the November, 2002, National Tobacco Monitoring, Research and Evaluation Workshop. Methods The Agent Working Group evaluated the need to develop new surveillance systems for quantifying ingredients and emissions of tobacco and tobacco smoke and to improve methods to assess uptake and metabolism of these constituents taking into account variability in human smoking behavior. Results The toxic properties of numerous tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents are well known, yet systematic monitoring of tobacco products has historically been limited to tar, nicotine, and CO in mainstream cigarette smoke using a machine-smoking protocol that does not reflect human smoking behavior. Toxicity of smokeless tobacco products has not been regularly monitored. Tobacco products are constantly changing and untested products are introduced into the marketplace with great frequency, including potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs). The public health impact of new or modified tobacco products is unknown. Conclusions Systematic surveillance is recommended for mainstream smoke constituents such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), total and free-base nicotine, volatile organic compounds, aromatic amines, and metals; and design attributes including tobacco blend, additives, and filter ventilation. Research on smoking topography is recommended to help define machine-smoking protocols for monitoring emissions reflective of human smoking behavior. Recommendations are made for marketplace product sampling and for population monitoring of smoking topography, emissions of toxic constituents, biomarkers of exposure and, eventually, risk of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:18848577

  2. Push or be punished: tobacco industry documents reveal aggression against businesses that discourage tobacco use

    PubMed Central

    LANDMAN, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To learn how the tobacco industry reacted to businesses' voluntarily enacting policies to discourage tobacco use and minimise exposure of employees and patrons to secondhand smoke.
DATA SOURCES—Internal tobacco industry documents discovered among those posted on the internet. Approximately 24 million documents have been posted as of this writing. Information in this article was culled from among these documents, which have been made public as a unique requirement of the state of Minnesota's settlement with the industry.
STUDY SELECTION—Those documents were used that offered insight into, and which gave a perspective on, the industry's attitudes and reactions toward other businesses as they adopted tobacco-free policies.
CONCLUSIONS—In the wake of widespread acceptance that tobacco use causes illness and death, many individual businesses (and even entire industries) took positive steps to eliminate employees', customers', and facilities' exposure to tobacco smoke. Steps were also taken to discourage tobacco use among employees. Internal tobacco industry documents show that the industry reacted with aggression, and in some cases with retribution, against businesses that voluntarily adopted policies to discourage tobacco use. The intent of these actions appears to be to reverse these policies, with a broader goal of neutralising large scale public and private trends that reflect the decreasing social acceptability of tobacco use.


Keywords: tobacco industry; tobacco-free policies; aggression PMID:10982580

  3. Methods and techniques in the research of tobacco flavour.

    PubMed

    Podlejski, J; Olejniczak, W

    1983-01-01

    This paper performs possible ways of tobacco-flavour investigations which allow to identify flavour components and to settle aroma factors and correlations with organoleptic evaluation. At first, the basic methods of tobacco flavour research based on the analysis of tobacco raw material, tobacco smoke, and headspace vapours were discussed. The methods of tobacco flavour investigation being useful in evaluation of tobacco quality were also reported. Hence, the instrumental methods and sensory methods of tobacco flavour research were shown. The usability of these methods in detecting the flavour components of tobacco and tobacco smoke as well as in evaluating the tobacco quality in practice was considered. Furthermore, the methods of tobacco flavour research and flavour evaluation used in our department were given. The quality of tobacco flavour was evaluated by means of a definite interpretation of the chemical analysis of tobacco or tobacco smoke. The investigations of tobacco flavour were also carried out by a method basing on a special treatment of tobacco, which modifies the chemical composition of the raw material and at the same time the sensory properties. In this case the components being responsible for the tobacco flavour could be investigated by detailed tobacco- and tobacco-smoke analysis connected with sensory evaluation.

  4. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a prime target for tobacco advertising and marketing. And messages aimed at this age group also attract the attention of younger consumers—a plus for the tobacco industry. RETAIL MARKETING Tobacco companies use many marketing and advertising tools ...

  5. Tobacco and Pregnancy: Overview of exposures and effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    This opening paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms...

  6. [Tobacco cadmium health risk assessment and reduction techniques: A review].

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen-liang; Ma, Yi-bing; Li, Ju-mei; Wei, Dong-pu; Shi, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco is one of the cadmium accumulation and tolerance plants. Decreasing cadmium content of tobacco contributes to environmental safety and human health. Three aspects on tobacco cadmium research were reviewed in this paper, i.e. uptake and distribution of cadmium in tobacco, and health risk assessment of cadmium in tobacco and reduction measures. The current situations and existing challenges in the research field were discussed. The cadmium tolerance mechanisms of tobacco were reviewed, the factors on cadmium uptake were analyzed, and the general distribution of cadmium in tobacco was summarized. From the point of health risk assessment, the lack of cadmium limits in tobacco was identified, the recommended formula to calculate cadmium limits of tobacco based on atmosphere cadmium limits and digestion cadmium limits was provided and the cadmium limits of tobacco were estimated using each formula, and suggestions on cadmium limits in tobacco were presented. At last, we put forward several effective reduction measures to lower cadmium level in tobacco leaves.

  7. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Methods Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer‐reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Results Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak “share of voice” in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Conclusions Tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries. PMID:17130625

  8. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States. PMID:26020136

  9. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  10. Mistrusting Companies, Mistrusting the Tobacco Industry: Clarifying the Context of Tobacco Prevention Efforts that Focus on the Tobacco Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Jackson, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Campaigns to prevent adolescent smoking increasingly depict the tobacco industry as deceitful and exploitative. This study was undertaken to determine how adolescents' expectations about the trustworthiness of companies, in general, influence the pathway through which anti-tobacco industry campaigns prevent smoking. Structural equation modeling…

  11. The tobacco epidemic in the United States.

    PubMed

    Giovino, Gary A

    2007-12-01

    Tobacco use, primarily in the form of cigarettes and exposure to tobacco smoke pollution, has caused the premature deaths of more than 14 million Americans since 1964. The major diseases caused by tobacco and tobacco smoke include lung cancer, other cancers, coronary heart disease, other cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, pregnancy complications, and respiratory diseases in children. Per capita consumption of various tobacco products has declined substantially since 1950, with current consumption at approximately 3.7 pounds per capita. Whereas approximately two in five adults smoked cigarettes in 1965, approximately one in five did so in 2005. Several factors can influence initiation and cessation, including product factors (e.g., ventilation holes, additives, and flavorings); host factors (intention to use, level of dependence); tobacco company activities (e.g., marketing strategies, efforts to undermine public health activities); and environmental factors (e.g., peer and parental smoking, smoke-free air laws and policies). Efforts to prevent initiation, promote quitting, and protect nonsmokers should reduce exposure to pro-tobacco marketing and increase (1) the price of tobacco products, (2) protection from tobacco smoke pollution, (3) effective mass media strategies, (4) provision of effective cessation support, (5) effective regulation, and (6) litigation that holds the industry responsible for its misdeeds. Adequate implementation of effective tobacco-control strategies and useful scientific advances will help to ensure that per capita consumption decreases to the lowest level possible. The economic benefits of tobacco in our society are replaceable and they pale in comparison to the extent of human life lost. PMID:18021906

  12. Analysis of a tobacco vector and its actions in china: the activities of japan tobacco

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Japan Tobacco (JT) is the third largest tobacco company in the world, and China, the world's largest tobacco consumer, is one of the most important targets for JT. To provide information for tobacco control, we reviewed and analyzed JT and its tactics and strategies in the Chinese market mainly by systematic examination of documents which are made available in the University of California, San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. As a result, JT has had a special interest to expand sales of its cigarettes in the Chinese market. PMID:20979655

  13. Why the World Will Never Be Tobacco-Free: Reframing "Tobacco Control" Into a Traditional Tobacco Movement.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Gina; Hernandez, Carol; Hoffer, Donna; Preuss, Kathleen Starlight; Tibbetts-Barto, Linda; Villaluz, Nicole Toves; Scott, Sheryl

    2016-07-01

    As successes mount in reducing commercial tobacco use, an alarming disparity has taken shape in Minnesota. Recent studies revealed that overall smoking rates have dropped to 14%, whereas American Indians' rates remain higher than 50%. With support from ClearWay Minnesota, the organization created from the state's tobacco settlement, advocates working within sovereign tribal governments to create smoke-free policies came together to discuss effective strategies within tribal Nations. We discussed the history behind mainstream tobacco control's failure to resonate with Native audiences and the need to reframe the movement to a goal of restoring traditional tobacco practices. We share our insights on this critical area for achieving health equity and provide recommendations for tribes, non-Indian advocates, and funders, with a plea for tribal inclusion in commercial tobacco "end-game" strategies. PMID:27077360

  14. Why the World Will Never Be Tobacco-Free: Reframing "Tobacco Control" Into a Traditional Tobacco Movement.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Gina; Hernandez, Carol; Hoffer, Donna; Preuss, Kathleen Starlight; Tibbetts-Barto, Linda; Villaluz, Nicole Toves; Scott, Sheryl

    2016-07-01

    As successes mount in reducing commercial tobacco use, an alarming disparity has taken shape in Minnesota. Recent studies revealed that overall smoking rates have dropped to 14%, whereas American Indians' rates remain higher than 50%. With support from ClearWay Minnesota, the organization created from the state's tobacco settlement, advocates working within sovereign tribal governments to create smoke-free policies came together to discuss effective strategies within tribal Nations. We discussed the history behind mainstream tobacco control's failure to resonate with Native audiences and the need to reframe the movement to a goal of restoring traditional tobacco practices. We share our insights on this critical area for achieving health equity and provide recommendations for tribes, non-Indian advocates, and funders, with a plea for tribal inclusion in commercial tobacco "end-game" strategies.

  15. Attempts to undermine tobacco control: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" programs to undermine meaningful tobacco control in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-08-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry's goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  16. The Land of 10 000 Tobacco Products: How Minnesota Led the Way in Regulating Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Michael; Boyle, Raymond G.; Moilanen, Molly; Weisman, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    As state and local governments increase restrictions on cigarette smoking, tobacco manufacturers have shifted to marketing alternative tobacco products. Tobacco control laws need to be updated to reflect this shifting marketplace. With the 2010 enactment of the Tobacco Modernization and Compliance Act, Minnesota addressed regulatory gaps and created a model law for other states. We have detailed the updated definitions of tobacco and tobacco products and identified ways that future laws could be strengthened. PMID:24328644

  17. The land of 10,000 tobacco products: how Minnesota led the way in regulating tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Freiberg, Michael; Boyle, Raymond G; Moilanen, Molly; St Claire, Ann W; Weisman, Susan R

    2014-02-01

    As state and local governments increase restrictions on cigarette smoking, tobacco manufacturers have shifted to marketing alternative tobacco products. Tobacco control laws need to be updated to reflect this shifting marketplace. With the 2010 enactment of the Tobacco Modernization and Compliance Act, Minnesota addressed regulatory gaps and created a model law for other states. We have detailed the updated definitions of tobacco and tobacco products and identified ways that future laws could be strengthened.

  18. Identification of bacterial and fungal components in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Lennart; Szponar, Bogumila; Ridha, Beston; Pehrson, Christina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Sitkowska, Jolanta

    2008-07-31

    The microbiological composition of tobacco products was studied using culture and chemical analysis (of tobacco leaves) or chemical analysis only (tobacco and tobacco smoke). The chemical analyses utilized gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determining 3-hydroxy fatty acids, muramic acid, and ergosterol as markers of respectively lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan, and fungal biomass. Mesophilic bacteria dominated in both fresh and cured tobacco leaves; a range of additional bacteria and fungi were also found albeit in minor amounts. The peptidoglycan and LPS concentrations were approximately the same in tobacco leaves as in cigarette tobacco. The concentrations of the measured microbial components were much lower in some cigarettes locally produced in China, Korea, and Vietnam than in cigarettes of international brands purchased in the same countries, and the concentrations in the smoke were in general agreement with the concentrations in cigarette tobacco. No differences in microbial load in tobacco of "light" and "full flavor" cigarettes were seen. Storing cigarettes at high humidity resulted in elevated levels of fungi in the cigarette tobacco leading to increased ergosterol concentrations in the smoke. The fact that tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol may help to explain the high prevalence of respiratory disorders among smokers and non-smokers exposed to second hand smoke since the same symptoms are also commonly associated with exposure to bioaerosols.

  19. A Tobacco Reconceptualization in Psychiatry (TRIP): Towards the Development of Tobacco-Free Psychiatric Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Taryn G.; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Vessicchio, Jennifer C.; Mancuso, Vincenza; Cushing, Sandra J.; Pett, Michael; Kitchen, Kate; Selby, Peter; George, Tony P.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco dependence is the leading cause of death in persons with psychiatric and substance use disorders. This has lead to interest in the development of pharmacological and behavioral treatments for tobacco dependence in this subset of smokers. However, there has been little attention paid to the development of tobacco-free environments in psychiatric institutions despite the creation of smoke-free psychiatric hospitals mandated by the Joint Commission for Accreditation of Health Organizations (JCAHO) in 1992. This review article addresses the reasons why tobacco should be excluded from psychiatric and addictions treatment settings, and strategies that can be employed to initiate and maintain tobacco-free psychiatric settings. Finally, questions for further research in this field are delineated. This Tobacco Reconceptualization in Psychiatry (TRIP) is long overdue, given the clear and compelling benefits of tobacco-free environments in psychiatric institutions. PMID:20653636

  20. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  1. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    PubMed

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health.

  2. Smokeless Tobacco Use among Ontario Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

    1988-01-01

    Estimated use and characteristics of users of smokeless tobacco among probability sample of 4,267 Ontario (Canada) teenagers. Results indicated that smokeless tobacco use was not common, varying from one to three percent depending on age and gender, but was more likely to occur among smokers (10% to 32%). Group most prone to use was young smoking…

  3. Tobacco Advertising and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanauer, Peter; Pertschuk, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Presents an argument for the recently proposed ban on advertising of tobacco products. Differentiates between commercial speech, used to sell products and services, and political speech, which relates to ideas. Argues that tobacco is the only legal product that is dangerous when used as intended, therefore First Amendment rights regarding other…

  4. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERCHLORATE BY TOBACCO PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in the plant tissues. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of tobacco plants in phytoremediation, a technology that employs plants to degrade,...

  5. Tobacco: The Real Story. It's Your Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    This informational book on tobacco is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The goal of this book and…

  6. Tobacco Use and Health in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Brook, David W.; Zhang, Chenshu; Cohen, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors investigated the association between lifetime tobacco use and subsequent health problems by age 30. The authors interviewed a community group of 749 participants from upstate New York at mean ages of 14, 16, 22, and 27 years. Daily tobacco use during any of the time periods, as well as the number…

  7. Sustaining tobacco control coalitions amid declining resources.

    PubMed

    Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M

    2007-07-01

    Mississippi is unique among the 50 states in settling a lawsuit against tobacco companies earlier than the Master Settlement Agreement, devoting a relatively high amount of per capita funding on tobacco control, and avoiding tobacco-control budget cuts. Using a social-ecological approach combining insider and outsider strategies, tobacco-prevention coalitions in Mississippi succeeded in sustaining funding despite serious obstacles. Lessons learned included taking specific actions to embed themselves in the local community, wisely aligning with legislators, choosing courageous and effective champions, and ensuring that people are keenly aware of their existence and efforts. In using these strategies, tobacco-prevention coalitions in Mississippi have become an institution of the community and in so doing helped sustain their funding. PMID:17105805

  8. The scientific basis of tobacco product regulation.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the conclusions reached and recommendations made by the members of the WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation at its third meeting, during which it reviewed four background papers specially commissioned for the meeting and which dealt, respectively, with the following four themes. 1. The contents and design features of tobacco products: their relationship to dependence potential and consumer appeal. 2. Candy-flavoured tobacco products: research needs and regulatory recommendations. 3. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure and of tobacco smoke-induced health effects. 4. Setting maximum limits for toxic constituents in cigarette smoke. The Study Group's recommendations in relation to each theme are set out at the end of the section dealing with that theme; its overall recommendations are summarized in section 6.

  9. All Africa conference on tobacco control.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S.; Yach, D.; Saloojee, Y.; Simpson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Although the health hazards of smoking are now generally accepted in most Western countries, the arguments have not had much impact on poorer nations. A conference on tobacco control held in Harare, Zimbabwe, in November last year was the largest to tackle this problem. The conference heard how threats of epidemics of tobacco related disease in the distant future held little weight with governments of countries that often already had massive public health problems. More immediate effects needed to be emphasised. Speakers gave three cogent arguments; firstly, the loss of capacity for foreign trade in essential goods, since most African countries are net importers of tobacco; secondly, the extensive deforestation which is occurring to fuel the flue curing of tobacco; thirdly, evidence from Papua New Guinea that raising taxation on tobacco provides governments with increased income for many years before a decrease begins. Images p190-a PMID:8312774

  10. Nanofibrillated cellulose from tobacco industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Tuzzin, Glaiton; Godinho, Marcelo; Dettmer, Aline; Zattera, Ademir José

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco stems waste underwent steam explosion pulping for nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) production. In order to obtain NFC hydrogels, the pulp obtained by steam explosion was bleached and refined in a grinder employing specific energy of up to 5067kWh/t. Eucalyptus kraft pulp was processed under the same conditions to produce NFC hydrogels, later used in order to compare with NFC hydrogels from tobacco stems waste. According to statistical analysis, the optimum tobacco stems pulping condition was obtained with a severity index of log3.0 and active alkali of 16.25%. These conditions allowed obtaining a bleached pulp with Schopper Riegler degree of 46. Electronic microscopy with field emission showed a higher presence of nanofibers in the tobacco stems pulp than in commercial eucalyptus kraft pulp, both after refining. Thermal analysis indicated that tobacco stems pulp degrade at lower temperatures than eucalyptus kraft pulp. FTIR analysis did not indicate chemical bonding differences between the two pulps. PMID:27185117

  11. [New tobacco vaporizers: how to react?].

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2015-06-10

    Cigarette combustion, rather than either tobacco or nicotine, is the cause of a public health disaster. Fortunately, several new technologies that vaporize nicotine or tobacco may make cigarettes obsolete. Some of these new technologies are developed and owned by the tobacco industry, which invests massively for the research and development of these products. Because of its past scientific misconduct, the tobacco industry is ostracized. In the context of a fierce ideological debate on these new products, it is crucial that regulators and the public are provided with evidence-based guidance. Should the scientific production in this field be done with or without the tobacco industry? This thorny issue is discussed in this comment.

  12. Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully deduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the same time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystal grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were viusally perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This computer model shows the external coating or capsid. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, Univeristy of California at Irvin.

  13. Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Viurus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully reduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystals grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were visually perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the x-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This stylized ribbon model shows the protein coat in white and the nucleic acid in yellow. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California at Irvin.

  14. Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Bialous, S.; Yach, D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine deliveries", and the name of key players, in different combinations.
RESULTS—It is clear that the tobacco industry, through the Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA), play a major role in determining the scientific evidence and suggesting the standards that are eventually adopted as international standards for tobacco and tobacco products in several areas, including the measurement of cigarette tar and nicotine yield.
CONCLUSIONS—ISO's tobacco and tobacco products standards are not adequate to guide tobacco products regulatory policies, and no health claims can be made based on ISO's tobacco products standards. There is an urgent need for tobacco control advocates and groups worldwide to be more involved with the work of the ISO, both directly and through their national standardisation organisations.


Keywords: tar and nicotine measurement; International Organization for Standardization; ISO; Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco; CORESTA; regulatory policy PMID:11387528

  15. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  16. High school journalists' perspectives on tobacco.

    PubMed

    Malone, Ruth E; Wenger, Lynn D; Bero, Lisa A

    2002-01-01

    How issues are covered in the media is an important factor in influencing public opinion, policy, and individual behavior. During the 1990s, the tobacco control movement developed a youth focus, prompted by research showing that most adult smokers begin tobacco use as teens. However, concern has been raised that this youth focus has derailed the overall goal of achieving a smoke-free society. Numerous studies have analyzed tobacco coverage and documented the impacts of media messages on youth. To learn how tobacco is covered in a medium primarily produced by and for youth, we conducted an analysis of tobacco coverage in high school newspapers. High school newspapers, like other media, communicate social messages through both content selection and framing. We surveyed a national sample of high school journalists and conducted content and frames analyses of tobacco articles (n = 257) from their publications. The most commonly used frame was "kids" (46%), followed by "killer" (31%), "nonsmokers' rights" (10%), and "choice" (5%). "Kids"-framed articles were less likely to mention health effects and less likely to be favorable toward tobacco control policies than "killer"-framed articles. In addition, many "kids" articles included "resistance statements" congruent with viewing tobacco use as rebellion and/or independence. Lack of a consistently used frame has been identified as a barrier to effective tobacco control. Tobacco control media advocacy should focus on developing frames that are easily communicated, consistently used, and compatible with the developmental tasks of adolescents. Youth journalists should also be included in media advocacy efforts. PMID:12049422

  17. Tobacco related bar promotions: insights from tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    Katz, S; Lavack, A

    2002-01-01

    Design: Over 2000 tobacco industry documents available as a result of the Master Settlement Agreement were reviewed on the internet at several key web sites using keyword searches that included "bar", "night", "pub", "party", and "club". The majority of the documents deal with the US market, with a minor emphasis on Canadian and overseas markets. Results: The documents indicate that bar promotions are important for creating and maintaining brand image, and are generally targeted at a young adult audience. Several measures of the success of these promotions are used, including number of individuals exposed to the promotion, number of promotional items given away, and increased sales of a particular brand during and after the promotion. Conclusion: Bar promotions position cigarettes as being part of a glamorous lifestyle that includes attendance at nightclubs and bars, and appear to be highly successful in increasing sales of particular brands. PMID:11893819

  18. Tobacco Use Among Individuals With Schizophrenia: What Role Has the Tobacco Industry Played?*

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Hall, Sharon M.; Bero, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Rates of tobacco use among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia have been estimated as high as 80%. A variety of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the high rate of tobacco use among this vulnerable group. This study examined the tobacco industry's efforts to establish and promulgate beliefs about schizophrenic individuals’ need to smoke and the hazards of quitting. The current study analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents. The initial search was conducted during January–July 2005 in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. The search yielded 280 records dating from 1955 to 2004. Documents indicate the tobacco industry monitored or directly funded research supporting the idea that individuals with schizophrenia were less susceptible to the harms of tobacco and that they needed tobacco as self-medication. The tobacco industry promoted smoking in psychiatric settings by providing cigarettes and supporting efforts to block hospital smoking bans. The tobacco industry engaged in a variety of direct and indirect efforts that likely contributed to the slowed decline in smoking prevalence in schizophrenia via slowing nicotine dependence treatment development for this population and slowing the rate of policy implementation vis-à-vis smoking bans on psychiatric units. PMID:17984298

  19. [Tobacco taxes, prices and demand for tobacco products: a comparative analysis].

    PubMed

    Pinilla, J

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the extent to which an increase in tobacco taxes affects the demand for tobacco products, especially for cigarettes. Comparison of the studies reviewed revealed that higher tobacco taxes result in higher tobacco prices. The price-elasticity of cigarette demand in low- and middle-income countries is about double that in high-income countries, about 0.4. Furthermore, because of the addictive nature of tobacco use, demand for tobacco products is more elastic in the long run than in the short run. The effect of higher tobacco taxes is greater on the young, among whom demand is more sensitive to price than among adults. The empirical evidence for Spain estimates the price elasticity of cigarette demand in the short run to be in the range of 0.5 to 0.3, a result which is similar to other studies. These results do not suggest that tax policy is an effective tool for tobacco control, although taxes are useful for their revenue generating potential and for compensating the external costs generated by tobacco consumption. Furthermore, when the possibilities of substitutions among brands and the strategies of the tobacco industry to compensate for the effects of taxes (lowering prices and encouraging cigarette smuggling) are considered, the panorama is even more pessimistic

  20. Current Tobacco Use Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Shanta R.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of tobacco use among US adults. Methods. We used data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cell phone survey of adults aged 18 years and older, to estimate current use of any tobacco; cigarettes; cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; water pipes; snus; and pipes. We stratified estimates by gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, sexual orientation, and US state. Results. National prevalence of current use was 25.2% for any tobacco; 19.5% for cigarettes; 6.6% for cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; 3.4% for chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; 1.5% for water pipes; 1.4% for snus; and 1.1% for pipes. Tobacco use was greatest among respondents who were male, younger, of non-Hispanic “other” race/ethnicity, less educated, less wealthy, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Prevalence ranged from 14.1% (Utah) to 37.4% (Kentucky). Conclusions. Tobacco use varies by geography and sociodemographic factors, but remains prevalent among US adults. Evidence-based prevention strategies are needed to decrease tobacco use and the health and economic burden of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:22994278

  1. Arizona's tobacco control initiative illustrates the need for continuing oversight by tobacco control advocates

    PubMed Central

    Bialous, S. A.; Glantz, S.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In 1994, Arizona voters approved Proposition 200 which increased the tobacco tax and earmarked 23% of the new revenues for tobacco education programmes.
OBJECTIVE—To describe the campaign to pass Proposition 200, the legislative debate that followed the passage of the initiative, and the development and implementation of the tobacco control programme.
DESIGN—This is a case study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key players in the initiative campaign and in the tobacco education programme, and written records (campaign material, newspapers, memoranda, public records).
RESULTS—Despite opposition from the tobacco industry, Arizonans approved an increase in the tobacco tax. At the legislature, health advocates in Arizona successfully fought the tobacco industry attempts to divert the health education funds and pass preemptive legislation. The executive branch limited the scope of the programme to adolescents and pregnant women. It also prevented the programme from attacking the tobacco industry or focusing on secondhand smoke. Health advocates did not put enough pressure at the executive branch to force it to develop a comprehensive tobacco education programme.
CONCLUSIONS—It is not enough for health advocates to campaign for an increase in tobacco tax and to protect the funds at the legislature. Tobacco control advocates must closely monitor the development and implementation of tax-funded tobacco education programmes at the administrative level and be willing to press the executive to implement effective programmes.


Keywords: tobacco tax; health education; advocacy PMID:10478397

  2. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated. Method: Searches of previously secret tobacco industry documents, primarily the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and British American Tobacco collections. Additional information was collected through discussions with editors of DSM-III, and library and general internet searches. Results: The tobacco companies regarded the inclusion of tobacco dependence as a diagnosis in DSM-III as an adverse event. It worked to influence the content of the DSM-III and its impact following publication. These efforts included public statements and private lobbying of DSM-III editors and high ranking APA officers by prominent US psychiatrists with undisclosed ties to the tobacco industry. Following publication of DSM-III, tobacco companies contracted with two US professors of psychiatry to organise a conference and publish a monograph detailing controversies surrounding DSM-III. Conclusions: The tobacco industry and its allies lobbied to narrow the definition of tobacco dependence in serial revisions of DSM-III. Following publication of DSM-III, the industry took steps to try to mitigate its impact. These actions mirror industry tactics to influence medical research and policy in various contexts worldwide. Such tactics slow the spread of a professional and public understanding of smoking and health that otherwise would reduce smoking, smoking induced disease, and tobacco company profits. PMID:16183984

  3. The vector of the tobacco epidemic: tobacco industry practices in low and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungkyu; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To understand transnational tobacco companiesr’ (TTCs) practices in low and middle-income countries which serve to block tobacco-control policies and promote tobacco use. Methods Systematic review of published research on tobacco industry activities to promote tobacco use and oppose tobacco-control policies in low and middle-income countries. Results TTCs’ strategies used in low and middle-income countries followed four main themes—economic activity; marketing/promotion; political activity; and deceptive/manipulative activity. Economic activity, including foreign investment and smuggling, was used to enter new markets. Political activities included lobbying, offering voluntary self-regulatory codes, and mounting corporate social responsibility campaigns. Deceptive activities included manipulation of science and use of third-party allies to oppose smoke-free policies, delay other tobacco-control policies, and maintain support of policymakers and the public for a pro-tobacco industry policy environment. TTCs used tactics for marketing, advertising, and promoting their brands that were tailored to specific market environments. These activities included direct and indirect tactis, targeting particular populations, and introducing new tobacco products designed to limit marketing restrictions and taxes, maintain the social acceptability of tobacco use, and counter tobacco-control efforts. Conclusions TTCs have used similar strategies in high-income countries as these being described in low and middle-income countries. As required by FCTC Article 5.3, to counter tobacco industry pressures and to implement effective tobacco-control policies, governments and health professionals in low and middle-income countries should fully understand TTCs practices and counter them. PMID:22370696

  4. Tobacco use among adults in Cambodia: evidence for a tobacco epidemic among women

    PubMed Central

    Yel, Daravuth; Sin, Sovann; Khieng, Sothy; Lopez, Jaime; Job, Jayakaran; Ferry, Linda; Knutsen, Synnove

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the demographic characteristics of current tobacco users in Cambodia, particularly women, and to explore the reasons for current tobacco use in demographic subgroups of the Cambodian population. Methods We used a stratified three-stage cluster sample of 13 988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces in 2005–2006. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey that contained items on all forms of tobacco use and on health and lifestyle variables. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify demographic predictors of tobacco use. Findings Cigarette smoking occurred among 48.0% of men and 3.6% of women. We estimated that 560 482 women (95% confidence interval, CI: 504 783 to 616 180) currently chewed tobacco (typically as a component of betel quid) and that the prevalence more than doubles with each decade of adulthood up to the point that about half of all older women chew tobacco. Both men and women cited the influence of older relatives as their primary reason for starting to use tobacco. About one out of five rural women who used chewing tobacco started their habit for relief from morning sickness. The highest prevalence of chewing tobacco among women was seen among midwives (67.9%) and traditional healers (47.2%). High rates (66.8%) of cigarette and pipe tobacco use occurred among ethnic minorities who represent hill tribes found throughout south-east Asia. Conclusion The tobacco epidemic in Cambodia extends far beyond cigarette smoking in men. Tobacco control that focuses only on cigarettes will not address the health burden from smokeless tobacco use in women that may be an integral part of cultural, familial, and traditional medicine practices. PMID:20454481

  5. Mediation designs for tobacco prevention research

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Taborga, Marcia P.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research designs and statistical analyses to investigate how tobacco prevention programs achieve their effects on tobacco use. A theoretical approach to program development and evaluation useful for any prevention program guides the analysis. The theoretical approach focuses on action theory for how the program affects mediating variables and on conceptual theory for how mediating variables are related to tobacco use. Information on the mediating mechanisms by which tobacco prevention programs achieve effects is useful for the development of efficient programs and provides a test of the theoretical basis of prevention efforts. Examples of these potential mediating mechanisms are described including mediated effects through attitudes, social norms, beliefs about positive consequences, and accessibility to tobacco. Prior research provides evidence that changes in social norms are a critical mediating mechanism for successful tobacco prevention. Analysis of mediating variables in single group designs with multiple mediators are described as well as multiple group randomized designs which are the most likely to accurately uncover important mediating mechanisms. More complicated dismantling and constructive designs are described and illustrated based on current findings from tobacco research. Mediation analysis for categorical outcomes and more complicated statistical methods are outlined. PMID:12324176

  6. Litigation in Argentina: challenging the tobacco industry

    PubMed Central

    Flores, M L; Barnoya, J; Mejia, R; Alderete, E; Pérez‐Stable, E J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the processes and outcomes of tobacco litigation in Argentina and to analyse the strategies of the tobacco industry to oppose litigation using tobacco industry documents. Methods A systematic search of tobacco industry documents on the internet dating from 1978 to 2002. Law library searches using Argentinean official and unofficial reports systems were combined with computerised online searches. Results There have been at least 15 failed litigation cases in Argentina and the tobacco industry presented a concerted defence in every claim regardless of cost. We categorised 11 cases as product liability and nicotine addiction, two as health care reimbursement, and two as criminal law and secondhand smoke. Industry strategies included hiring legal consultants from prestigious international and Argentinean law firms and developing litigation prevention programmes. Industry monitored legal academic meetings, controlled the development of new product liability legislation, obtained favourable opinions from experts, and closely observed the development of litigation in Argentina. Conclusion The strategies used by the industry have been successful in preventing recovery for tobacco injuries through litigation. Argentinean health advocates and lawyers need to be aware of the roles and strategies of the tobacco industry in order to develop effective litigation in Argentina. PMID:16565455

  7. Tobacco Industry Research on Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation. OBJECTIVE Review tobacco industry marketing research on smoking cessation to guide new interventions and improve clinical practice, particularly to address young adult smokers’ needs. METHODS Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. RESULTS Compared to their share of the smoking population, young adult smokers have the highest spontaneous quitting rates. About 10% to 30% of smokers want to quit; light smokers and brand switchers are more likely to try. Tobacco companies attempted to deter quitting by developing products that appeared to be less addictive or more socially acceptable. Contrary to consumer expectations, “ultra low tar” cigarette smokers were actually less likely to quit. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco industry views of young adult quitting behavior contrast with clinical practice. Tobacco marketers concentrate on recapturing young quitters, while organized smoking cessation programs are primarily used by older smokers. As young people have both the greatest propensity to quit and the greatest potential benefits from smoking cessation, targeted programs for young adults are needed. Tobacco marketing data suggest that aspirational messages that decrease the social acceptability of smoking and support smoke-free environments resonate best with young adult smokers’ motivations. PMID:15109339

  8. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung.

    PubMed

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use. PMID:23673789

  9. Significance of exposure to sidestream tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D; Hoffmann, I

    1987-01-01

    The presence of toxins and carcinogens in ambient air polluted with tobacco smoke is largely due to the sidestream smoke emissions from the smouldering tobacco products. Levels of these toxins and carcinogens in sidestream smoke often exceed their concentrations in mainstream smoke. Dosimetry of tobacco-specific markers of exposure in physiologic fluids suggests that in regard to nicotine--which is the major tobacco alkaloid--exposure of humans to environmental tobacco smoke causes but a few percent of the nicotine levels reached as a result of active inhalation of cigarette mainstream smoke. Yet, this measurement of exposure is not universally applicable to all of the tobacco smoke pollutants in this complex matrix. Existing knowledge of the chemical composition of sidestream smoke and evidence of biological activity of sidestream smoke components suggests that this environmental pollutant has carcinogenic potential. Significance of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke must be evaluated on the basis of the severity of the pollution, the duration of exposure and personal variations in uptake.

  10. Dental students' attitudes toward tobacco cessation counseling.

    PubMed

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if level of education, gender, and tobacco history affected attitudes of dental students toward tobacco cessation counseling. A secondary objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the survey instrument. First- and fourth-year dental students at one school of dental medicine completed a survey examining attitudes toward tobacco cessation and perceived barriers to performing tobacco cessation counseling in a dental setting. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences in attitudes by gender, level of education, or personal and family tobacco use. A main effect for education level was discovered. Fourth-year students were more likely than first-year students to consider the prescription of nicotine gum and transdermal patches to be within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. No significant differences were seen with regard to gender or students' personal and family tobacco histories. Dental students were in general agreement that tobacco cessation counseling is within the responsibility of the dental profession, is within the scope of dental practice, and can be effective. Psychometric analysis revealed reliability of the survey instrument.

  11. CDC Grand Rounds: global tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Asma, Samira; Song, Yang; Cohen, Joanna; Eriksen, Michael; Pechacek, Terry; Cohen, Nicole; Iskander, John

    2014-04-01

    During the 20th century, use of tobacco products contributed to the deaths of 100 million persons worldwide. In 2011, approximately 6 million additional deaths were linked to tobacco use, the world's leading underlying cause of death, responsible for more deaths each year than human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria combined. One third to one half of lifetime users die from tobacco products, and smokers die an average of 14 years earlier than nonsmokers. Manufactured cigarettes account for 96% of all tobacco sales worldwide. From 1880 to 2009, annual global consumption of cigarettes increased from an estimated 10 billion cigarettes to approximately 5.9 trillion cigarettes, with five countries accounting for 58% of the total consumption: China (38%), Russia (7%), the United States (5%), Indonesia (4%), and Japan (4%). Among the estimated 1 billion smokers worldwide, men outnumber women by four to one. In 14 countries, at least 50% of men smoke, whereas in more than half of these same countries, fewer than 10% of women smoke. If current trends persist, an estimated 500 million persons alive today will die from use of tobacco products. By 2030, tobacco use will result in the deaths of approximately 8 million persons worldwide each year. Yet, every death from tobacco products is preventable. PMID:24699763

  12. CDC Grand Rounds: global tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Asma, Samira; Song, Yang; Cohen, Joanna; Eriksen, Michael; Pechacek, Terry; Cohen, Nicole; Iskander, John

    2014-04-01

    During the 20th century, use of tobacco products contributed to the deaths of 100 million persons worldwide. In 2011, approximately 6 million additional deaths were linked to tobacco use, the world's leading underlying cause of death, responsible for more deaths each year than human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria combined. One third to one half of lifetime users die from tobacco products, and smokers die an average of 14 years earlier than nonsmokers. Manufactured cigarettes account for 96% of all tobacco sales worldwide. From 1880 to 2009, annual global consumption of cigarettes increased from an estimated 10 billion cigarettes to approximately 5.9 trillion cigarettes, with five countries accounting for 58% of the total consumption: China (38%), Russia (7%), the United States (5%), Indonesia (4%), and Japan (4%). Among the estimated 1 billion smokers worldwide, men outnumber women by four to one. In 14 countries, at least 50% of men smoke, whereas in more than half of these same countries, fewer than 10% of women smoke. If current trends persist, an estimated 500 million persons alive today will die from use of tobacco products. By 2030, tobacco use will result in the deaths of approximately 8 million persons worldwide each year. Yet, every death from tobacco products is preventable.

  13. Tobacco and the Escalating Global Cancer Burden

    PubMed Central

    Oppeltz, Richard F.; Jatoi, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world. PMID:21869888

  14. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey.

    PubMed

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (p<0.01). The findings from this study reiterate the need for stronger legislation and strict enforcement of bans on direct and indirect advertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. PMID:25455648

  15. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey.

    PubMed

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (p<0.01). The findings from this study reiterate the need for stronger legislation and strict enforcement of bans on direct and indirect advertising and promotion of tobacco products in India.

  16. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: Findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey†

    PubMed Central

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Quah, Anne C.K.; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (p<0.01). The findings from this study reiterate the need for stronger legislation and strict enforcement of bans on direct and indirect advertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. PMID:25455648

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... on youth access to tobacco products and tobacco marketing to youth, and closely follow them. Check the photo ID of any customer trying to buy tobacco products who appears to be 26 years of age or younger, and never sell any tobacco product ...

  18. 7 CFR 29.75 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.75 Section 29.75... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75 Accessibility of tobacco. (a) All tobacco subject to mandatory inspection shall be made readily accessible for inspection. (b)(1)...

  19. 7 CFR 1463.108 - Payment to eligible tobacco producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment to eligible tobacco producers. 1463.108... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.108 Payment to eligible tobacco producers. (a)...

  20. 7 CFR 1463.104 - Eligible tobacco producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible tobacco producer. 1463.104 Section 1463.104... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.104 Eligible tobacco producer. (a) CCC will make a payment under...