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Sample records for 13c nuclear magnetic

  1. /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of cardiac metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Seeholzer, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed the increasing use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques for following the metabolic fate of compounds specifically labeled with /sup 13/C. The goals of the present study are: (1) to develop reliable quantitative procedures for measuring the /sup 13/C enrichment of specific carbon sites in compounds enriched by the metabolism of /sup 13/C-labeled substrates in rat heart, and (2) to use these quantitative measurements of fractional /sup 13/C enrichment within the context of a mathematical flux model describing the carbon flow through the TCA cycle and ancillary pathways, as a means for obtaining unknown flux parameters. Rat hearts have been perfused in vitro with various combinations of glucose, acetate, pyruvate, and propionate to achieve steady state flux conditions, followed by perfusion with the same substrates labeled with /sup 13/C in specific carbon sites. The hearts were frozen at different times after addition of /sup 13/C-labeled substrates and neutralized perchloric acid extracts were used to obtain high resolution proton-decoupled /sup 13/C NMR spectra at 90.55 MHz. The fractional /sup 13/C enrichment (F.E.) of individual carbon sites in different metabolites was calculated from the area of the resolved resonances after correction for saturation and nuclear Overhauser effects. These F.E. measurements by /sup 13/C NMR were validated by the analysis of /sup 13/C-/sup 1/H scalar coupling patterns observed in /sup 1/H NMR spectra of the extracted metabolites. The results obtained from perfusion of hearts glucose plus either (2-/sup 13/C) acetate or (3-/sup 13/C) pyruvate are similar to those obtained by previous investigators using /sup 14/C-labeled substrates.

  2. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance in graphite intercalation compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Resing, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    The (13)C NMR chemical shifts of graphite intercalation compounds were calculated. For acceptor types, the shifts come mainly from the paramagnetic (Ramsey) intra-atomic terms. They are related to the gross features of the two-dimensional band structures. The calculated anisotropy is about -140 ppm and is independent of the finer details such as charge transfer. For donor types, the carbon 2p pi orbitals are spin-polarized because of mixing with metal conduction electrons, thus there is an additional dipolar contribution which may be correlated with the electronic specific heat. The general agreement with experimental data is satisfactory.

  3. Study of natural diamonds by dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Li, L; Hu, H; Yang, B; Dan, Z; Qiu, J; Guo, J; Chen, F; Ye, C

    1994-11-01

    The results of a study of two types of natural-diamond crystals by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced high-resolution solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are reported. The home-built DNP magic-angle spinning (MAS) 13C NMR spectrometer operates at 54 GHz for electrons and 20.2 MHz for carbons. The power of the microwave source was about 30 W and the highest DNP enhancement factor came near to 10(3). It was shown that in the MAS spectra the 13C NMR linewidths of the Ib-type diamond were broader than those of IaB3-type diamond. From the hyperfine structure of the DNP enhancement as a function of frequency, four kinds of nitrogen-centred and one kind of carbon-centred free radicals could be identified in the Ib-type diamond. The hyperfine structures of the DNP enhancement curve that originated from the anisotropic hyperfine interaction between electron and nuclei could be partially averaged out by MAS. The 13C polarization time of DNP was rather long, i.e. 1500 s, and the spin-lattice relaxation time (without microwave irradiation) was about 300 s, which was somewhat shorter than anticipated. Discussions on these experimental results have been made in this report.

  4. /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance study of the complexation of calcium by taurine

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, C.S.; Hammer, B.E.; Danyluk, S.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    /sup 13/C Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts, /sup 1/J/sub c-c/ scalar coupling constants, spin-lattice relaxation times, and nuclear Overhauser effects were determined for taurine-(1, 2 /sup 13/C) and a taurine-(1 /sup 13/C) and taurine-(2 /sup 13/C) mixture in the presence and absence of calcium. Comparison of taurine titration shifts to values for related compounds reveals some unusual electronic properties of the taurine molecule. Stability constants of 1:1 calcium complexes with taurine zwitterions and anions, as well as their /sup 13/C chemical shifts, were obtained by least squares analysis of titration curves measured in the presence of calcium. The stability constants of calcium-taurine complexes were significantly lower than previous values and led to estimates that only approximately one percent of intracellular calcium of mammalian myocardial cells would exist in a taurine complex.

  5. Biosynthetic pathways in Methanospirillum hungatei as determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Ekiel, I; Smith, I C; Sprott, G D

    1983-01-01

    The main metabolic pathways in Methanospirillum hungatei GP1 were followed by using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, with 13C-labeled acetate and CO2 as carbon sources. The labeling patterns found in carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, and nucleosides were consistent with the formation of pyruvate from acetate and CO2 as the first step in biosynthesis. Carbohydrates are formed by the glucogenic pathway, and no scrambling of label was observed, indicating that the oxidative or reductive pentose phosphate pathways are not functioning at significant rates. The pathways for amino acid biosynthesis are the usual ones, with the exception of that for isoleucine. The tricarboxylic acid pathway is incomplete and operates in a reductive direction to form alpha-ketoglutarate. The phytanyl chains of lipids are synthesized from acetate via mevalonic acid. PMID:6619097

  6. 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Citrate and Glucose Cometabolism by Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Ana; Jordan, Kieran N.; Cogan, Timothy M.; Santos, Helena

    1994-01-01

    13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) was used to investigate the metabolism of citrate plus glucose and pyruvate plus glucose by nongrowing cells of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 19B under anaerobic conditions. The metabolism of citrate plus glucose during growth was also monitored directly by in vivo NMR. Although pyruvate is a common intermediate metabolite in the metabolic pathways of both citrate and glucose, the origin of the carbon atoms in the fermentation products was determined by using selectively labeled substrates, e.g., [2,4-13C]citrate, [3-13C]pyruvate, and [2-13C]glucose. The presence of an additional substrate caused a considerable stimulation in the rates of substrate utilization, and the pattern of end products was changed. Acetate plus acetoin and butanediol represented more than 80% (molar basis) of the end products of the metabolism of citrate (or pyruvate) alone, but when glucose was also added, 80% of the citrate (or pyruvate) was converted to lactate. This result can be explained by the activation of lactate dehydrogenase by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, an intermediate in glucose metabolism. The effect of different concentrations of glucose on the metabolism of citrate by dilute cell suspensions was also probed by using analytical methods other than NMR. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (but not pyruvate formate-lyase) was active in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A. α-Acetolactate was detected as an intermediate metabolite of citrate or pyruvate metabolism, and the labeling pattern of the end products agrees with the α-acetolactate pathway. It was demonstrated that the contribution of the acetyl coenzyme A pathway for the synthesis of diacetyl, should it exist, is lower than 10%. Evidence for the presence of internal carbon reserves in L. lactis is presented. PMID:16349269

  7. [Characterization of biochar by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance].

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-yu; Jin, Jie; Yan, Yu; Han, Lan-fang; Kang, Ming-jie; Wang, Zi-ying; Zhao, Ye; Sun, Ke

    2014-12-01

    The wood (willow branch) and grass (rice straw) materials were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 450 and 600 °C) to obtain the biochars used in the present study. The biochars were characterized using elementary analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and solid state 13C cross-polarization and magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) to illuminate the structure and composition of the biochars which were derived from the different thermal temperatures and biomass. The results showed that the H/C, O/C and (O+N)/C ratios of the biochars decreased with the increase in the pyrolysis temperatures. The surface polarity and ash content of the grass-derived biochars were higher than those of the wood-derived biochars. The minerals of the wood-derived biochars were mainly covered by the organic matter; in contrast, parts of the mineral surfaces of the grass-derived biochars were not covered by organic matter? The 13C NMR of the low temperature-derived biochars revealed a large contribution of aromatic carbon, aliphatic carbon, carboxyl and carbonyl carbon, while the high temperature-derived biochars contained a large amount of aromatic carbon. Moreover, the wood-derived biochars produced at low heat treatment temperatures contained more lignin residues than grass-derived ones, probably due to the existence of high lignin content in the feedstock soures of wood-derived biochars. The results of the study would be useful for environmental application of biochars.

  8. Magic angle sample spinning sup 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance of isotopically labeled bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhard, M.; Hess, B.; Emeis, D.; Metz, G.; Kreutz, W.; Siebert, F. )

    1989-05-02

    Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the light-driven proton pump protein from Halobacterium halobium, was biosynthetically labeled with (4-{sup 13}C)Asp. The incorporation yield was 48%. The magic angle sample spinning (MASS) {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of this sample revealed six different peaks superimposed on a broad band of naturally abundant peptide-bond {sup 13}C. Two of the six carbonyl signals can be attributed to internal-protonated Asp carboxyl groups, one of which might be Asp115. An additional resonance at 110 ppm can be associated with the C-11 carbon of Trp, indicating an unusual biosynthetic pathway of this amino acid in Halobacterium halobium. Similar measurements performed on papain-treated purple membrane which lacks the C-terminal tail display two new intense signals at 178 and 178.9 ppm. If the same spectrum is taken without cross-polarization, these signals do not decrease or disappear. On the basis of their intensities and their chemical shifts, one can assign in addition to the C-terminal Asp four Asp residues facing the cytoplasmic phase. In native bR, at least two of these form a salt-bridge-like bond which also might include the C-terminal tail. These experiments not only provide data about the chemical environment of the Asp residues within the hydrophobic core of bacteriorhodopsin but also yield information about the interactions between surface components.

  9. T1 nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion of hyperpolarized sodium and cesium hydrogencarbonate-(13) C.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Santiesteban, Francisco M; Dang, Thien Phuoc; Lim, Heeseung; Chen, Albert P; Scholl, Timothy J

    2017-09-01

    In vivo pH mapping in tissue using hyperpolarized hydrogencarbonate-(13) C has been proposed as a method to study tumor growth and treatment and other pathological conditions related to pH changes. The finite spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 ) of hyperpolarized media are a significant limiting factor for in vivo imaging. Relaxation times can be measured at standard magnetic fields (1.5 T, 3.0 T etc.), but no such data are available at low fields, where T1 values can be significantly shorter. This information is required to determine the potential loss of polarization as the agent is dispensed and transported from the polarizer to the MRI scanner. The purpose of this study is to measure T1 dispersion from low to clinical magnetic fields (0.4 mT to 3.0 T) of different hyperpolarized hydrogencarbonate formulations previously proposed in the literature for in vivo pH measurements. (13) C-enriched cesium and sodium hydrogencarbonate preparations were hyperpolarized using dynamic nuclear polarization, and the T1 values of different samples were measured at different magnetic field strengths using a fast field-cycling relaxometer and a 3.0 T clinical MRI system. The effects of deuterium oxide as a dissolution medium for sodium hydrogencarbonate were also analyzed. This study finds that the cesium formulation has slightly shorter T1 values compared with the sodium preparation. However, the higher solubility of cesium hydrogencarbonate-(13) C means it can be polarized at greater concentration, using less trityl radical than sodium hydrogencarbonate-(13) C. This study also establishes that the preparation and handling of sodium hydrogencarbonate formulations in relation to cesium hydrogencarbonate is more difficult, due to the higher viscosity and lower achievable concentrations, and that deuterium oxide significantly increases the T1 of sodium hydrogencarbonate solutions. Finally, this work also investigates the influence of pH on the spin-lattice relaxation of cesium

  10. Protonation of carbon single-walled nanotubes studied using 13C and 1H-13C cross polarization nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Davis, Mark F; Gennett, Thomas; Dillon, Anne C; Jones, Kim M; Heben, Michael J

    2005-12-14

    The reversible protonation of carbon single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) in sulfuric acid and Nafion was investigated using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopies. Magic-angle spinning (MAS) was used to obtain high-resolution 13C and 1H-13C cross polarization (CP) NMR spectra. The 13C NMR chemical shifts are reported for bulk SWNTs, H2SO4-treated SWNTs, SWNT-Nafion polymer composites, SWNT-AQ55 polymer composites, and SWNTs in contact with water. Protonation occurs without irreversible oxidation of the nanotube substrate via a charge-transfer process. This is the first report of a chemically induced change in a SWNT 13C resonance brought about by a reversible interaction with an acidic proton, providing additional evidence that carbon nanotubes behave as weak bases. Cross polarization was found to be a powerful technique for providing an additional contrast mechanism for studying nanotubes in contact with other chemical species. The CP studies confirmed polarization transfer from nearby protons to nanotube carbon atoms. The CP technique was also applied to investigate water adsorbed on carbon nanotube surfaces. Finally, the degree of bundling of the SWNTs in Nafion films was probed with the 1H-13C CP-MAS technique.

  11. In Vivo Natural-Abundance 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Living Ectomycorrhizal Fungi 1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francis; Canet, Daniel; Marchal, Jean-Pierre; Brondeau, Jean

    1984-01-01

    Natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study intact mycelia of the ectomycorrhizal fungi Cenococcum graniforme (Ascomycetes) and Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Basidiomycetes). A number of sharp resonances are observed in living fungi. These signals primarily arise from fatty acyl chains and carbohydrate nuclei. The spectra are interpreted in terms of relative concentrations of the major fatty acids present in the fungal triglycerides. The small line width of fatty acids (mainly oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids) resonances and spin-lattice relaxation time are indicative of fast rotational reorientations and are consequently thought to arise from fatty acyl chains in fat droplets. We were able to locate the site of lipids accumulation within mycelia using light microscopy and histological staining. Many lipid droplets were observed in mycelia of both species. These results suggest that fatty acids droplets could be involved in carbon storage and metabolism from ectomycorrhizal fungi. PMID:16663561

  12. 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance studies to the binding of isocyanides to various hemoglobins and myoglobins.

    PubMed

    Dill, K; Satterlee, J D; Richards, J H

    1978-10-03

    Interactions between ethyl and isopropyl isocyanides and various hemoglobins and myoglobins have been studied by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. The results indicate that the chemical shift of the bound isocyanide depends on the structure of the hemoglobin subunit or myoglobin. The resonances exhibited by isocyanides bound to myoglobin are sensitive to pH in contrast to the situation with rabbit and human hemoglobins. beta subunits of opossum, rabbit, and human hemoglobins show a significantly greater preferential affinity for CO relative to EIC than do alpha subunits which have allowed the assignment of resonances. Rabbit, human, and opossum hemoglobin subunits bind ethyl isocyanide without observable preferences and an excess of DPG does not appear to affect this random order of ligation. In contrast, an excess of IHP seems to cause preferential ligation of the alpha subunits in these hemoglobins. The results have been used to gain insights into the differing characteristics of the ligand binding pockets of these various hemoglobins.

  13. High-resolution (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy pattern recognition of fish oil capsules.

    PubMed

    Aursand, Marit; Standal, Inger B; Axelson, David E

    2007-01-10

    13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, in conjunction with multivariate analysis of commercial fish oil-related health food products, have been used to provide discrimination concerning the nature, composition, refinement, and/or adulteration or authentication of the products. Supervised (probabilistic neural networks, PNN) and unsupervised (principal component analysis, PCA; Kohonen neural networks; generative topographic mapping, GTM) pattern recognition techniques were used to visualize and classify samples. Simple PCA score plots demonstrated excellent, but not totally unambiguous, class distinctions, whereas Kohonen and GTM visualization provided better results. Quantitative class predictions with accuracies >95% were achieved with PNN analysis. Trout, salmon, and cod oils were completely and correctly classified. Samples reported to be salmon oils and cod liver oils did not cluster with true salmon and cod liver oil samples, indicating mislabeling or adulteration.

  14. Cryopreservation effects on intermediary metabolism in a pancreatic substitute: a (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hajira F; Simpson, Nicholas E; Lawson, Alison N; Sambanis, Athanassios

    2012-11-01

    Cryopreservation is important for clinical translation of tissue-engineered constructs. With respect to a pancreatic substitute, encapsulated islets or beta cells have been widely studied for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Besides cell viability loss, cryopreservation may affect the function of the remaining viable cells in a pancreatic substitute by altering fundamental processes in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, such as pathways associated with intermediary metabolism, potentially leading to insulin-secretion defects. In this study, we used (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and isotopomer analysis to determine the effects of conventional freezing and ice-free cryopreservation (vitrification) on carbon flow through tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-associated pathways in encapsulated murine insulinoma βTC-tet cells; the secretory function of the encapsulated cells postpreservation was also evaluated. Specifically, calcium alginate-encapsulated βTC-tet cells were frozen or vitrified with a cryoprotectant cocktail. Beads were warmed and (13)C labeling and extraction were performed. Insulin secretion rates were determined during basal and labeling periods and during small-scale glucose stimulation and K(+)-induced depolarization. Relative metabolic fluxes were determined from (13)C NMR spectra using a modified single pyruvate pool model with the tcaCALC modeling program. Treatments were compared with nonpreserved controls. Results showed that relative carbon flow through TCA-cycle-associated pathways was not affected by conventional freezing or vitrification. However, vitrification, but not freezing, led to impaired insulin secretion on a per viable cell basis. The reduced secretion from the Vitrified group occurred irrespective of scale and was present whether secretion was stimulated by glucose or K(+)-induced depolarization, indicating that it might be due to a defect in late-stage secretion events.

  15. Citrate and Sugar Cofermentation in Leuconostoc oenos, a (sup13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, A.; Santos, H.

    1996-01-01

    (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate citrate-glucose cometabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the wine lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc oenos. The use of isotopically enriched substrates allowed us to identify and quantify in the end products the carbon atoms derived from each of the substrates supplied; furthermore, it was possible to differentiate between products derived from the metabolism of endogenous carbon reserves and those derived from external substrates. Citrate-sugar cometabolism was also monitored in dilute cell suspensions for comparison with the nuclear magnetic resonance results. A clear metabolic shift of the end products from glucose metabolism was observed when citrate was provided along with glucose: ethanol was replaced by acetate, and 2,3-butanediol was produced. Reciprocally, the production of lactate and 2,3-butanediol from citrate was increased in the presence of glucose. When citrate was cometabolized with glucose, a 10-fold reduction in the intracellular concentration of glucose-6-phosphate was observed, a result in line with the observed citrate-induced stimulation of glucose consumption. The presence of citrate provided additional pathways for NADP(sup+) regeneration and allowed the diversion of sugar carbon to reactions in which ATP was synthesized. The increased growth rates and maximal biomass yields of L. oenos growing on citrate-glucose mixtures resulted from increased ATP synthesis both by substrate-level phosphorylation and by a chemiosmotic mechanism. PMID:16535363

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance line shapes of Wigner crystals in 13C-enriched graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côté, R.; Parent, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-01

    Assuming that the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal from a 13C-isotope-enriched layer of graphene can be made sufficiently intense to be measured, we compute the NMR line shape of the different crystals' ground states that are expected to occur in graphene in a strong magnetic field. We first show that in nonuniform states there is, in addition to the frequency shift due to the spin hyperfine interaction, a second contribution of equal importance from the coupling between the orbital motion of the electrons and the nuclei. We then show that if the linewidth of the bare signal can be made sufficiently small, the Wigner and bubble crystals have line shapes that differ qualitatively from that of the uniform state at the same density while crystal states that have spin or valley pseudospin textures do not. Finally, we find that a relatively small value of the bare linewidth is sufficient to wash out the distinctive signature of the crystal states in the NMR line shape.

  17. Solid-State 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Cellulose in the Cell Walls of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, R. H.; Davies, L. M.; Harris, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance was used to characterize the molecular ordering of cellulose in a cell-wall preparation containing mostly primary walls obtained from the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Proton and 13C spin relaxation time constants showed that the cellulose was in a crystalline rather than a paracrystalline state or amorphous state. Cellulose chains were distributed between the interiors (40%) and surfaces (60%) of crystallites, which is consistent with crystallite cross-sectional dimensions of about 3 nm. Digital resolution enhancement revealed signals indicative of triclinic and monoclinic crystalline forms of cellulose mixed in similar proportions. Of the five nuclear spin relaxation processes used, proton rotating-frame relaxation provided the clearest distinction between cellulose and other cell-wall components for purposes of editing solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. PMID:12226303

  18. 13C Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and µ-Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Sicilian Amber.

    PubMed

    Barone, Germana; Capitani, Donatella; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Proietti, Noemi; Raneri, Simona; Longobardo, Ugo; Di Tullio, Valeria

    2016-08-01

    (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and µ-Raman spectroscopy were applied to characterize Sicilian amber samples. The main goal of this work was to supply a complete study of simetite, highlighting discriminating criteria useful to distinguish Sicilian amber from fossil resins from other regions and laying the foundations for building a spectroscopic database of Sicilian amber. With this aim, a private collection of unrefined simetite samples and fossil resins from the Baltic region and Dominican Republic was analyzed. Overall, the obtained spectra permitted simetite to be distinguished from the other resins. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the spectroscopic data, allowing the clustering of simetite samples with respect to the Baltic and Dominican samples and to group the simetite samples in two sets, depending on their maturity. Finally, the analysis of loadings allowed for a better understanding of the spectral features that mainly influenced the discriminating characteristics of the investigated ambers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. (13)C-Decoupled J-Coupling Spectroscopy Using Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at Zero-Field.

    PubMed

    Sjolander, Tobias F; Tayler, Michael C D; Kentner, Arne; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2017-04-06

    We present a two-dimensional method for obtaining (13)C-decoupled, (1)H-coupled nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra in zero magnetic field using coherent spin-decoupling. The result is a spectrum determined only by the proton-proton J-coupling network. Detection of NMR signals in zero magnetic field requires at least two different nuclear spin species, but the proton J-spectrum is independent of isotopomer, thus potentially simplifying spectra and thereby improving the analytical capabilities of zero-field NMR. The protocol does not rely on a difference in Larmor frequency between the coupled nuclei, allowing for the direct determination of J-coupling constants between chemically equivalent spins. We obtain the (13)C-decoupled zero-field spectrum of [1-(13)C]-propionic acid and identify conserved quantum numbers governing the appearance of cross peaks in the two-dimensional spectrum.

  20. Tryptophan sidechain dynamics in hydrophobic oligopeptides determined by use of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Weaver, A J; Kemple, M D; Prendergast, F G

    1988-07-01

    Two oligopeptides, t-boc-LAWAL-OMe and t-boc-LALALW-OMe, were synthesized for the purpose of examining the sidechain dynamics of the tryptophan residue in hydrophobic environments by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy. In both peptides, the tryptophan sidechain was greater than 95% enriched with 13C at the C delta 1 position. Spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and steady-state nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) data were obtained at 50.3 and 75.4 MHz for both peptides in CD3OD, and at 75.4 MHz for t-boc-LALALW-OMe in lysolecithin-D2O micelles. We have adapted the model-free approach of G. Lipari and A. Szabo (1982, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104:4546) to interpret the 13C-NMR data. Computer-generated curves based on experimental data obtained at a single frequency demonstrate relationships between an effective correlation time for tryptophan sidechain motion (tau e), a generalized order parameter (sigma) describing the extent of motional restriction, and an overall correlation time for the peptide (tau m). Assuming predominantly dipolar relaxation, least-squares fits of the dual frequency relaxation data provide values for these parameters for both peptides. The contribution of chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), however, is also explicitly assessed in the data analysis, and is shown to perturb the predicted sigma, tau e, and tau m values and to decrease chi(2) values observed in nonlinear least-squares analysis of the data. Because of uncertainty in the contribution of CSA to the relaxation of the indole ring 13C delta 1 atom, nonlinear least-squares analysis of the relaxation data were performed with and without inclusion of a CSA term in the appropriate relaxation equations. Neglecting CSA, an overall peptide correlation time of 0.69 ns is predicted for t-boc-LAWAL-OMe in CD3OD at 20 degrees C compared with 1.28 ns for t-boc-LALALW-OMe. Given these tau m values and taking into account the effect of measurement error in the T1 and NOE data, the internal

  1. Chemistry and biochemistry of 13C hyperpolarized magnetic resonance using dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Keshari, Kayvan R; Wilson, David M

    2014-03-07

    The study of transient chemical phenomena by conventional NMR has proved elusive, particularly for non-(1)H nuclei. For (13)C, hyperpolarization using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique has emerged as a powerful means to improve SNR. The recent development of rapid dissolution DNP methods has facilitated previously impossible in vitro and in vivo study of small molecules. This review presents the basics of the DNP technique, identification of appropriate DNP substrates, and approaches to increase hyperpolarized signal lifetimes. Also addressed are the biochemical events to which DNP-NMR has been applied, with descriptions of several probes that have met with in vivo success.

  2. Chemistry and biochemistry of 13C hyperpolarized magnetic resonance using dynamic nuclear polarization

    PubMed Central

    Keshari, Kayvan R.; Wilson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of transient chemical phenomena by conventional NMR has proved elusive, particularly for non-1H nuclei. For 13C, hyperpolarization using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique has emerged as a powerful means to improve SNR. The recent development of rapid dissolution DNP methods has facilitated previously impossible in vitro and in vivo study of small molecules. This review presents the basics of the DNP technique, identification of appropriate DNP substrates, and approaches to increase hyperpolarized signal lifetimes. Also addressed are the biochemical events to which DNP-NMR has been applied, with descriptions of several probes that have met with in vivo success. PMID:24363044

  3. New insight in tholin chemical structure through 13C and 15N solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derenne, S.; Coelho, C.; Anquetil, C.; Szopa, C.; Quirico, E.; Bonhomme, C.

    2011-10-01

    Tholins are complex materials synthesized in laboratory as models of the molecules occurring in the atmosphere of Titan. Using labeled gases, pure 13C and 15N-enriched tholins were synthesized and analyzed using 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance. This study allowed confirming the presence of some functional groups (cyano, amino, imino) previously inferred from other techniques and to assess their relative contribution. It also indicated that some other functions (such as carbodiimide, protonated aromatic carbons) if present, only show a very low contribution and ruled out the occurrence of hydrazones.

  4. Measurement of soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hockaday, W.C.; Masiello, C.A.; Randerson, J.T.; Smernik, R.J.; Baldock, J.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Harden, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) of the net ecosystem carbon balance is the ratio of net O2 and CO2 fluxes resulting from photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and other lateral and vertical carbon flows. The OR of the terrestrial biosphere must be well characterized to accurately estimate the terrestrial CO2 sink using atmospheric measurements of changing O2 and CO2 levels. To estimate the OR of the terrestrial biosphere, measurements are needed of changes in the OR of aboveground and belowground carbon pools associated with decadal timescale disturbances (e.g., land use change and fire). The OR of aboveground pools can be measured using conventional approaches including elemental analysis. However, measuring the OR of soil carbon pools is technically challenging, and few soil OR data are available. In this paper we test three solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for measuring soil OR, all based on measurements of the closely related parameter, organic carbon oxidation state (Cox). Two of the three techniques make use of a molecular mixing model which converts NMR spectra into concentrations of a standard suite of biological molecules of known C ox. The third technique assigns Cox values to each peak in the NMR spectrum. We assess error associated with each technique using pure chemical compounds and plant biomass standards whose Cox and OR values can be directly measured by elemental analyses. The most accurate technique, direct polarization solid-state 13C NMR with the molecular mixing model, agrees with elemental analyses to ??0.036 Cox units (??0.009 OR units). Using this technique, we show a large natural variability in soil Cox and OR values. Soil Cox values have a mean of -0.26 and a range from -0.45 to 0.30, corresponding to OR values of 1.08 ?? 0.06 and a range from 0.96 to 1.22. We also estimate the OR of the carbon flux from a boreal forest fire. Analysis of soils from nearby intact soil profiles imply that soil carbon losses associated

  5. Chemical structural studies of natural lignin by dipolar dephasing solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two natural lignins, one from a gymnosperm wood the other from angiosperm wood, were examined by conventional solid-state and dipolar dephasing 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The results obtained from both techniques show that the structure of natural lignins is consistent with models of softwood and hardwood lignin. The dipolar dephasing NMR data provide a measure of the degree of substitution on aromatic rings which is consistent with the models. ?? 1987.

  6. Characterization of oleic acid and propranolol oleate mesomorphism using (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SSNMR).

    PubMed

    Crowley, K J; Forbes, R T; York, P; Apperley, D C; Nyqvist, H; Camber, O

    2000-10-01

    Lipids regularly exhibit complicated thermotropic and lyotropic phase behavior. In this study, the utility of (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SSNMR) in characterizing the phase properties of pharmaceutical lipids was investigated. Variable temperature (13)C SSNMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)(C)) were obtained for high-purity oleic acid (OA) and propranolol oleate (POA). Spectral changes took place following OA gamma-to-alpha phase transition that indicated increased nuclear inequivalence of aliphatic chain carbons in the alpha phase. T(1)(C) data for the alpha phase demonstrated considerable conformational changes throughout the aliphatic chain, not solely in the methyl side chain as previously reported. These data support alpha-OA classification as a conformationally disordered crystalline phase. The prevalence of low T(1)(C) values in both POA I and II suggested the absence of a rigid crystalline molecular lattice, so both phases were described as conformationally disordered crystalline phases. A two-phase mixture of POA I and II was also identified, emphasizing the sensitivity of this technique. (13)C SSNMR provided valuable information regarding the nuclear environment of specific functional groups in lipid crystalline and mesomorphic structures. Understanding phase behavior at the molecular level can aid selection of appropriate formulation strategies for lipids by allowing prediction of processing properties, and physical and chemical stability. (13)C SSNMR is a powerful technique for pharmaceutical lipid characterization. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 89:1286-1295, 2000

  7. 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Acetate Incorporation into Malate During Ca2+-Uptake by Isolated Leaf Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Borchert, Rolf; Everett, Grover W.

    1987-01-01

    13C Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of leaflets of Gleditsia triacanthos and Albizia julibrisin was used to determine the fate of acetate taken up during the absorption of calcium from 13C-labeled Ca-acetate solution. Small amounts of acetate accumulated temporarily in the leaf tissues, but the bulk of acetate was incorporated into malate. The initial rate of malate synthesis was very low, but increased rapidly during acetate treatment and reached its maximum after 8 hours; the enzymes involved in malate synthesis thus appear to be substrate induced. Use of acetate-2-13C yielded malate labeled in C-3, indicating that vacuolar malate accumulating during Ca-uptake might be synthesized via malate synthase from acetate and glyoxalate. However, a source of glyoxalate condensing with acetate during malate synthesis could not be identified. Glycolate produced in photorespiration is an unlikely source, because glycolate-2-13C was absorbed and metabolized by the leaf tissues into products of the glycolate pathway, but was not a major precursor in malate synthesis. Malate synthesis via the glyoxalate cycle is also unlikely, because no evidence for the recycling of a 13C-labeled 4-carbon organic acid was found. Malate synthesis in the leaflets of Gleditsia and Albizia thus appears to involve the inducible condensation of acetate with a 2-carbon compound of unidentified nature and origin. PMID:16665548

  8. Application of 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance To Elucidate the Unexpected Biosynthesis of Erythritol by Leuconostoc oenos

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Da-Cunha, Maria; Firme, Paula; Romão, M. Vitória San; Santos, Helena

    1992-01-01

    Natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) revealed the production of erythritol and glycerol by nongrowing cells of Leuconostoc oenos metabolizing glucose. The ratio of erythritol to glycerol was strongly influenced by the aeration conditions of the medium. The elucidation of the metabolic pathway responsible for erythritol production was achieved by 13C-NMR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy using specifically 13C-labelled d-glucose. The 1H-NMR spectrum of the cell supernatant resulting from the metabolism of [2-13C]glucose showed that only 75% of the glucose supplied was metabolized heterofermentatively and that the remaining 25% was channelled to the production of erythritol. The synthesis of this polyol resulted from the reduction of the C-4 moiety of the intermediate fructose 6-phosphate. Oxygen has an inhibitory effect on the production of erythritol by L. oenos. Preaeration of a suspension of nongrowing cells of L. oenos resulted in 30% less erythritol and in 70% more glycerol formed during the anaerobic metabolism of glucose. The anaerobic production of erythritol from glucose was also found in growing cultures of L. oenos, although to a smaller extent. PMID:16348738

  9. Effect of tacticity on the segmental dynamics of polypropylene melts investigated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippow, S. M.; Qiu, XiaoHua; Ediger, M. D.

    2001-09-01

    13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T1 and nuclear Overhauser effect measurements are reported for syndiotactic and isotactic polypropylene from their melting points to 525 K. These results indicate that the segmental dynamics of syndiotactic polypropylene are 1.7 times slower than for isotactic polypropylene at 500 K. Recent molecular dynamics computer simulations [Antoniadis, Samara, and Theodorou, Macromolecules 32, 8635 (1999)] predict this trend qualitatively but predict too large a dependence of dynamics upon tacticity. The contribution of normal mode relaxation to the decay of the C-H vector autocorrelation function is significantly larger for syndiotactic polypropylene than for either isotactic or atactic polypropylene.

  10. 13C and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Glycogen Futile Cycling in Strains of the Genus Fibrobacter

    PubMed Central

    Matheron, Christelle; Delort, Anne-Marie; Gaudet, Geneviève; Forano, Evelyne; Liptaj, Tibor

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the carbon metabolism of three strains of Fibrobacter succinogenes and one strain of Fibrobacter intestinalis. The four strains produced the same amounts of the metabolites succinate, acetate, and formate in approximately the same ratio (3.7/1/0.3). The four strains similarly stored glycogen during all growth phases, and the glycogen-to-protein ratio was close to 0.6 during the exponential growth phase. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of [1-13C]glucose utilization by resting cells of the four strains revealed a reversal of glycolysis at the triose phosphate level and the same metabolic pathways. Glycogen futile cycling was demonstrated by 13C NMR by following the simultaneous metabolism of labeled [13C]glycogen and exogenous unlabeled glucose. The isotopic dilutions of the CH2 of succinate and the CH3 of acetate when the resting cells were metabolizing [1-13C]glucose and unlabeled glycogen were precisely quantified by using 13C-filtered spin-echo difference 1H NMR spectroscopy. The measured isotopic dilutions were not the same for succinate and acetate; in the case of succinate, the dilutions reflected only the contribution of glycogen futile cycling, while in the case of acetate, another mechanism was also involved. Results obtained in complementary experiments are consistent with reversal of the succinate synthesis pathway. Our results indicated that for all of the strains, from 12 to 16% of the glucose entering the metabolic pathway originated from prestored glycogen. Although genetically diverse, the four Fibrobacter strains studied had very similar carbon metabolism characteristics. PMID:12033219

  11. Elucidation of metabolic pathways in glycogen-accumulating organisms with in vivo 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Paulo C; Dai, Yu; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jurg; Santos, Helena; Reis, Maria A M

    2007-11-01

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) are found in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems where they compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms for external carbon substrates. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C-NMR) was used to elucidate the metabolic pathways operating in an enriched GAO culture dominated by two known GAOs (81.2%). The experiments consisted of adding (13)C-acetate (labelled on position 1 or 2) to the culture under anaerobic conditions, and operating the culture through a cycle consisting of an anaerobic, an aerobic and a further anaerobic phase. The carbon transformations over the cycle were monitored using in vivo(13)C-NMR. The two-carbon moieties in hydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate were derived from acetate, while the propionyl precursor of hydroxyvalerate was primarily derived from glycogen, with only a small fraction originating from acetate. Comparison of the labelling patterns in hydroxyvalerate at the end of the first and the second anaerobic periods in pulse experiments with 2-(13)C-acetate showed that the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway was used for the breakdown of glycogen. This conclusion was further supported by the labelling pattern on glycogen observed in the pulse experiments with 1-(13)C-acetate, which can only be explained by the operation of ED with recycling of pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate via gluconeogenesis. The activity of the ED pathway for glycogen degradation by GAOs is demonstrated here for the first time. In addition, the decarboxylating part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was confirmed to operate also under anaerobic conditions.

  12. Following Suberization in Potato Wound Periderm by Histochemical and Solid-State 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods.

    PubMed

    Stark, R. E.; Sohn, W.; Pacchiano Jr, R. A.; Al-Bashir, M.; Garbow, J. R.

    1994-02-01

    The time course of suberization in wound periderm from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) has been monitored by histochemical and high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Light microscopy conducted after selective staining of the lipid and double-bonded constituents shows that suberin is deposited at the outermost intact cell-wall surface during the first 7 d of wound healing; suberization forms a barrier to tissue infiltration at later times. Cross polarization-magic angle spinning 13C NMR spectra demonstrate the deposition of a polyester containing all major suberin functional groups after just 4 d of wound healing. Initially the suberin includes a large proportion of aromatic groups and fairly short aliphatic chains, but the spectral data demonstrate the growing dominance of long-chain species during the period 7 to 14 d after wounding. The results of preliminary 13C-labeling experiments with sodium [2-13C]acetate and DL-[1-13C]phenylalanine provide an excellent prospectus for future NMR-based studies of suberin biosynthesis.

  13. Energy contribution of octanoate to intact rat brain metabolism measured by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Douglas; Haller, Ronald G; Walton, Marlei E

    2003-07-02

    Glucose is the dominant oxidative fuel for brain, but studies have indicated that fatty acids are used by brain as well. We postulated that fatty acid oxidation in brain could contribute significantly to overall energy usage and account for non-glucose-derived energy production. [2,4,6,8-13C4]octanoate oxidation in intact rats was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found that oxidation of 13C-octanoate in brain is avid and contributes approximately 20% to total brain oxidative energy production. Labeling patterns of glutamate and glutamine were distinct, and analysis of these metabolites indicated compartmentalized oxidation of octanoate in brain. Examination of liver and blood spectra revealed that label from 13C-octanoate was incorporated into glucose and ketones, which enabled calculation of its overall energy contribution to brain metabolism: glucose (predominantly unlabeled) and 13C-labeled octanoate can account for the entire oxidative metabolism of brain. Additionally, flux through anaplerotic pathways relative to tricarboxylic acid cycle flux (Y) was calculated to be 0.08 +/- 0.039 in brain, indicating that anaplerotic flux is significant and should be considered when assessing brain metabolism. Y was associated with the glutamine synthesis compartment, consistent with the view that anaplerotic flux occurs primarily in astrocytes.

  14. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies of carbon metabolism in the actinomycin D producer Streptomyces parvulus by use of 13C-labeled precursors.

    PubMed

    Inbar, L; Lapidot, A

    1991-12-01

    Fructose and glutamate metabolism was monitored in cell suspensions of streptomyces parvulus by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. The experiments were performed for cells grown with various 13C sources in a growth medium containing D-[U-13C]fructose, L-[13C]glutamate, or L-[U-13C]aspartate and with nonlabeled precursors to compare intracellular pools in S. parvulus cells at different periods of the cell life cycle. The transport of fructose into the cells was biphasic in nature; during rapid transport, mannitol, fructose, and glucose 6-phosphate were accumulated intracellularly, whereas during the passive diffusion of fructose, the intracellular carbohydrate pool comprised mainly trehalose (1,1'-alpha-alpha-D-glucose). The regulation of fructokinase activity by the intracellular intermediates may play an important role in fructose catabolism in S. parvulus. Transaldolase activity in S. parvulus was determined from the 13C nuclear magnetic resonance labeling pattern of trehalose carbons obtained from cells grown in medium containing either L-[U-13C]aspartate or L-[U-13C]glutamate. Only carbons 4, 5, and 6 of the disaccharide were labeled. Isotopomer analysis of the trehalose carbons led us to conclude that the flux through the reverse glycolytic pathway, condensation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate with dihydroxyacetone phosphate, makes at best a minor contribution to the 13C-labeled glucose units observed in trehalose. The pentose pathway and transaldolase activity can explain the labeling pattern of 4,5,6-13C3 of trehalose. Moreover, the transfer of the 13C label of L-[U-13C]aspartate into the different isotopomers of trehalose C4, C5, and C6 by the transaldolase activity allowed us to calculate the relative fluxes from oxaloacetate via gluconeogenesis and through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The ratio of the two fluxes is approximately 1. However, the main carbon source for trehalose synthesis in S. parvulus is fructose and not glutamate or aspartate. The 13C

  15. Chemical characterization of pigment gallstones using /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, W.R.; Grant, D.M.; Straight, R.C.; Englert, E. Jr.

    1982-07-30

    The unique ability of Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis with cross polarization/magic angle spinning techniques to investigate chemical structures of solids is used to probe the chemical characteristics of several gallstone types. New pulse program techniques are used to distinguish various carbon atoms in studying the polymeric nature of the black bilirubinoid pigment of pigment gallstones. Evidence for the involvement of the carboxyl group and noninvolvement of vinyl groups of bilirubinoids in the polymeric bond formation is presented. Conjugated bilirubin structures are found to be present in some solid residues from pigment stones extracted with acidic methanol/chloroform.

  16. 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of kerogen from Cretaceous black shales thermally altered by basaltic intrusions and laboratory simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennis, L.W.; Maciel, G.E.; Hatcher, P.G.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1982-01-01

    Cretaceous black shales from DSDP Leg 41, Site 368 in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean were thermally altered during the Miocene by an intrusive basalt. The sediments overlying and underlying the intrusive body were subjected to high temperatures (up to ~ 500??C) and, as a result, their kerogen was significantly altered. The extent of this alteration has been determined by examination by means of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, using cross polarization/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS). Results indicate that the kerogen becomes progressively more aromatic in the vicinity of the intrusive body. Laboratory heating experiments, simulating the thermal effects of the basaltic intrusion, produced similar results on unaltered shale from the drill core. The 13C CP/MAS results appear to provide a good measure of thermal alteration. ?? 1982.

  17. Biodegradation of lignocellulose in Bermuda grass by white rot fungi analyzed by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gamble, G R; Sethuraman, A; Akin, D E; Eriksson, K E

    1994-09-01

    Following the solid-state fermentation of Bermuda grass by two lignin-degrading white rot fungi, compositional changes have been observed in situ by utilization of cross-polarization and magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance difference spectra and interrupted decoupling spectra. Intensity differences in the 13C resonances assigned to specific components of the cell wall were used to observe these changes. Bermuda grass treated with Phanerochaete chrysosporium K-3 exhibited losses primarily in the polysaccharide components, with a smaller proportion of phenolic components also being degraded. In contrast, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora FP 90031-sp removed a proportionate amount of phenolic components compared with polysaccharide components. The results also indicated that C. subvermispora preferentially removes guaiacyl phenolic components relative to syringyl phenolic components, while P. chrysosporium was nonspecific in its attack on phenolic components.

  18. Biodegradation of lignocellulose in Bermuda grass by white rot fungi analyzed by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, G R; Sethuraman, A; Akin, D E; Eriksson, K E

    1994-01-01

    Following the solid-state fermentation of Bermuda grass by two lignin-degrading white rot fungi, compositional changes have been observed in situ by utilization of cross-polarization and magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance difference spectra and interrupted decoupling spectra. Intensity differences in the 13C resonances assigned to specific components of the cell wall were used to observe these changes. Bermuda grass treated with Phanerochaete chrysosporium K-3 exhibited losses primarily in the polysaccharide components, with a smaller proportion of phenolic components also being degraded. In contrast, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora FP 90031-sp removed a proportionate amount of phenolic components compared with polysaccharide components. The results also indicated that C. subvermispora preferentially removes guaiacyl phenolic components relative to syringyl phenolic components, while P. chrysosporium was nonspecific in its attack on phenolic components. PMID:7944358

  19. Characterization of polyxylylenes with solid state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, D.A.; Assink, R.A.; Jamison, G.M.; McNamara, W.F.; Schneider, D.A.; Prabakar, S.

    1996-02-01

    Polyxylylenes are thermoplastics used as encapsulants for electronic devices. Five polyxylylenes were prepared by pyrolysis of [2.2]paracyclophanes and characterized by solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shift data, in combination with interrupted decoupling experiments, allowed assignment of resonances to their carbon sources in the polymers. This confirmed the integrity of the xylylene building block in the polymers and is consistent with linear polymers. No crosslinking could be detected within the NMR sensitivity limits. Residual paracyclophane was detected by {sup 13}C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy in the polyxylylene samples prepared at room temperature; however discrete {sup 13}C resonances due to amorphous and crystalline phases in the polymers were not resolved.

  20. Oil stability prediction by high-resolution (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Gómez, Gemma; Navarro, José L; Zamora, Rosario

    2002-10-09

    (13)C NMR spectra of oil fractions obtained chromatographically from 66 vegetable oils were obtained and analyzed to evaluate the potential use of those fractions in predicting oil stabilities and to compare those results with oil stability prediction by using chemical determinations. The oils included the following: virgin olive oils from different cultivars and regions of Europe and north Africa; "lampante" olive, refined olive, refined olive pomace, low-erucic rapeseed, high-oleic sunflower, corn, grapeseed, soybean, and sunflower oils. Oils were analyzed for fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition, as well as for phenol and tocopherol contents. By using stepwise linear regression analysis (SLRA), the chemical determinations and the (13)C NMR data that better explained the oil stability determined by the Rancimat were selected. These selected variables were related to both the susceptibility of the oil to be oxidized and the content of minor components that most contributed to oil stability. Because (13)C NMR considered many more variables than those determined by chemical analysis, the predicted stabilities calculated by using NMR data were always better than those obtained by using chemical determinations. All these results suggest that (13)C NMR may be a powerful tool to predict oil stabilities when applied to chromatographically enriched oil fractions.

  1. Structural characterization of ion-vapor deposited hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings by solid state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jiao; Kato, Takahisa; Watanabe, Sadayuki; Hayashi, Hideo; Kawaguchi, Masahiro

    2014-01-07

    In the present study, unique structural heterogeneity was observed in ion-vapor deposited a-C:H coatings by performing {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C CPMAS experiments on solid state nuclear magnetic resonance devices. Two distinct types of sp{sup 2} C clusters were discovered: one of them denoted as sp{sup 2} C′ in content of 3–12 at. % was non-protonated specifically localized in hydrogen-absent regions, while the other dominant one denoted as sp{sup 2} C″ was hydrogenated or at least proximate to proton spins. On basis of the notably analogous variation of sp{sup 2} C′ content and Raman parameters as function of substrate bias voltage in the whole range of 0.5 kV–3.5 kV, a model of nano-clustering configuration was proposed that the sp{sup 2} C′ clusters were embedded between sp{sup 2} C″ clusters and amorphous sp{sup 3} C matrix as trapped interfaces or boundaries where the sp{sup 2} carbon bonds were highly distorted. Continuous increase of bias voltage would promote the nano-clustering and re-ordering of dominant sp{sup 2} C″ clusters, thus results in a marked decrease of interspace and a change of the content of sp{sup 2} C′ clusters. Further investigation on the {sup 13}C magnetization recovery showed typical stretched-exponential approximation due to the prominent presence of paramagnetic centers, and the stretched power α varied within 0.6–0.9 from distinct types of sp{sup 2} C clusters. Differently, the magnetization recovery of {sup 1}H showed better bi-exponential approximation with long and short T{sub 1}(H) fluctuated within 40–60 ms and 0.1–0.3 ms approximately in content of 80% ± 5% and 20% ± 5%, respectively, varying with various bias voltages. Meanwhile, the interrupted {sup 13}C saturation recovery with an interval of short T{sub 1}(H) showed that most of quick-relaxing protons were localized in sp{sup 2} C″ clusters. Such a short T{sub 1}(H) was only possibly resulted from a relaxation mechanism

  2. Catabolism of Glucose and Lactose in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Studied by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Irene; Gaspar, Paula; Sánchez, Borja; Gueimonde, Miguel; Neves, Ana Rute

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are widely used as probiotics in several commercial products; however, to date there is little knowledge about their carbohydrate metabolic pathways. In this work, we studied the metabolism of glucose and lactose in the widely used probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 by in vivo 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The metabolism of [1-13C]glucose was characterized in cells grown in glucose as the sole carbon source. Moreover, the metabolism of lactose specifically labeled with 13C on carbon 1 of the glucose or the galactose moiety was determined in suspensions of cells grown in lactose. These experiments allowed the quantification of some intermediate and end products of the metabolic pathways, as well as determination of the consumption rate of carbon sources. Additionally, the labeling patterns in metabolites derived from the metabolism of glucose specifically labeled with 13C on carbon 1, 2, or 3 in cells grown in glucose or lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the glucose moiety ([1-13Cglucose]lactose), lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the galactose moiety ([1-13Cgalactose]lactose), and [1-13C]glucose in lactose-grown cells were determined in cell extracts by 13C NMR. The NMR analysis showed that the recovery of carbon was fully compatible with the fructose 6-phosphate, or bifid, shunt. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acetate kinase, fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase, and pyruvate formate lyase differed significantly between glucose and lactose cultures. The transcriptional analysis of several putative glucose and lactose transporters showed a significant induction of Balat_0475 in the presence of lactose, suggesting a role for this protein as a lactose permease. This report provides the first in vivo experimental evidence of the metabolic flux distribution in the catabolic pathway of glucose and lactose in bifidobacteria and shows that the bifid shunt is the only pathway

  3. Infrared and 13C MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of acetylation of cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebajo, Moses O.; Frost, Ray L.

    2004-01-01

    The acetylation of commercial cotton samples with acetic anhydride without solvents in the presence of about 5% 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) catalyst was followed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. This preliminary investigation was conducted in an effort to develop hydrophobic, biodegradable, cellulosic materials for subsequent application in oil spill cleanup. The FTIR results provide clear evidence for successful acetylation though the NMR results indicate that the level of acetylation is low. Nevertheless, the overall results indicate that cotton fibres are potential candidates suitable for further development via acetylation into hydrophobic sorbent materials for subsequent oil spill cleanup application. The results also indicate that de-acetylation, the reverse of the equilibrium acetylation reaction, occurred when the acetylation reaction was prolonged beyond 3 h.

  4. 13C-Isotopic enrichment of glutathione in cell extracts determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gamcsik, M P

    1999-01-01

    An NMR method was developed for measuring the isotopic enrichment of glutathione in extracts of cells fed a medium containing [3, 3'-13C2]cystine. Two sublines of human mammary adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells were exposed to growth medium containing the labeled cystine for varying periods, treated with monobromobimane, harvested, and extracted with perchloric acid. The glutathione-bimane adduct was partially purified by solid-phase extraction before analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The isotopic enrichment of the beta-carbon of the cysteinyl residue of glutathione was determined directly in the cell extracts without further purification. These isotopic enrichment data can be used to determine the rate of synthesis of glutathione in cell and tissue extracts. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Natural-abundance 13C nuclear-magnetic-resonance study of toxin II from Anemonia sulcata.

    PubMed

    Norton, R S; Zwick, J; Béress, L

    1980-12-01

    Natural-abundance 13C NMR spectra (at 15.04 MHz) of the polypeptide toxin II from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata have been analysed and compared with corresponding spectra reported recently for a closely related polypeptide anthopleurin A. The spectra contain many resolved one-carbon and two-carbon resonances from carbonyl, aromatic and methyl carbons, many of which have been assigned to individual carbons in the molecule on the basis of their chemical shifts, including their pH dependence, and by comparison with the 13C NMR spectrum of anthopleurin A. Analysis of the effects of pH on the spectrum yields estimates for the pKa values of a number of functional groups in the molecule, as follows: side-chain carboxylates of the two aspartic acid residues 2 and 3.1; COOH-terminal carboxylic acid, 3.5; imidazolium moieties of the two histidine residues, 6.7 and 7.6 NH2-terminal ammonium, 8. The similarity between the pKa values of these functional groups in toxin II and those of corresponding groups in anthopleurin A, together with the close agreement between chemical shifts of conserved carbons, indicates that many local interactions are nearly identical in the two molecules, and thus supports the thesis that their overall conformations in solution are similar. However, the local interactions involving one of the aspartic acid residues are altered in toxin II. Together with other data, this leads to a proposal for the site in these two molecules which is responsible for their cardiac stimulatory activity.

  6. Mevalonic acid is partially synthesized from amino acids in Halobacterium cutirubrum: a /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance study

    SciTech Connect

    Ekiel, I.; Sprott, G.D.; Smith, I.C.P.

    1986-05-01

    /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance revealed an unusual pathway for the biosynthesis of lipids in Halobacterium cutirubrum and H. halobium. Mevalonic acid was not synthesized from three acetyl-coenzyme A molecules, as has been suggested previously, and the branch-methyl and methine carbons in phytanyl chains were derived from neither acetate nor glycerol. Instead, they were supplied by the degradation of amino acids, in particular of lysine. Presumably, two different types of two-carbon fragments were used simultaneously by halobacteria for the biosynthesis of mevalonate. The labeling pattern of squalene supported the above conclusions. Based on these data, a general scheme is proposed to account for the contribution of lysine-to-lipid biosynthesis.

  7. Properties of mixtures of cholesterol with phosphatidylcholine or with phosphatidylserine studied by (13)C magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Epand, Richard M; Bain, Alex D; Sayer, Brian G; Bach, Diana; Wachtel, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of cholesterol is different in mixtures with phosphatidylcholine as compared with phosphatidylserine. In (13)C cross polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, resonance peaks of the vinylic carbons of cholesterol are a doublet in samples containing 0.3 or 0.5 mol fraction cholesterol with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylserine (POPS) or in cholesterol monohydrate crystals, but a singlet with mixtures of cholesterol and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC). At these molar fractions of cholesterol with POPS, resonances of the C-18 of cholesterol appear at the same chemical shifts as in pure cholesterol monohydrate crystals. These resonances do not appear in samples of POPS with 0.2 mol fraction cholesterol or with POPC up to 0.5 mol fraction cholesterol. In addition, there is another resonance from the cholesterol C18 that appears in all of the mixtures of phospholipid and cholesterol but not in pure cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Using direct polarization, the fraction of cholesterol present as crystallites in POPS with 0.5 mol fraction cholesterol is found to be 80%, whereas with the same mol fraction of cholesterol and POPC none of the cholesterol is crystalline. After many hours of incubation, cholesterol monohydrate crystals in POPS undergo a change that results in an increase in the intensity of certain resonances of cholesterol monohydrate in (13)C cross polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, indicating a rigidification of the C and D rings of cholesterol but not other regions of the molecule. PMID:12324423

  8. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of coalified gymnosperm xylem tissue from Australian brown coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.; Bates, A.L.; Verheyen, T.V.

    1989-01-01

    We report here on the use of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to contrast the average chemical composition of modern degraded gymnosperm woods with fossil gymnosperm woods from Australian brown coals (Miocene). We first established the quantitative nature of the NMR techniques for these samples so that the conventional solid-state 13C NMR spectra and the dipolar dephasing NMR spectra could be used with a high degree of reliability to depict average chemical compositions. The NMR results provide some valuable insights about the early coalification of xylem tissue from gymnosperms. Though the cellulosic components of wood are degraded to varying degrees during peatification and ensuing coalification, it is unlikely that they play a major role in the formation of aromatic structures in coalified woods. The NMR data show that gynmosperm lignin, the primary aromatic contribution to the coal, is altered in part by demethylation of guaiacyl-units to catechol-like structures. The dipolar dephasing NMR data indicate that the lignin also becomes more cross-linked or condensed. ?? 1989.

  9. Advanced new relaxation filter-selective signal excitation methods for (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Asada, Mamiko; Nemoto, Takayuki; Mimura, Hisashi; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2014-10-21

    We have developed new relaxation filter-selective signal excitation (RFS) methods for (13)C solid-state NMR, which enable extraction of the spectrum of a target component from a mixture of several components. These methods are based on the equalization of proton relaxation time in a single domain via rapid intraproton spin diffusion and the difference in proton relaxation time of individual components in the mixture. We recently reported two types of RFS methods using proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame ((1)H T1rho) in (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Here, to increase the availability of RFS methods, we focus on proton spin-lattice relaxation time ((1)H T1). Introduction of simple pulse sequences to one-dimensional experiments reduced data acquisition time and increased flexibility, and led to the development of two new types of RFS methods using (1)H T1. We then demonstrated these methods by selectively exciting the (13)C signals of target components in a commercially available drug and a number of physical mixtures, and we showed them to be applicable to the quantitative analysis of individual components in these solid mixtures with an experimental duration of 1.5 to about 10 h. The practicality and versatility of these four RFS methods were increased by combining two or more of them, or by using a flip-back pulse, which is an effective means of shortening experimental duration. These RFS methods are suitable for use in a broad range of fields.

  10. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data of lanosterol derivatives—Profiling the steric topology of the steroid skeleton via substituent effects on its 13C NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Jerry Ray; Gao, Hongwu

    2009-12-01

    The 13C NMR spectra of over 24 tetracyclic triterpenoid derivatives have been structurally analyzed. The 13C NMR chemical shifts allow one to probe the steric topology of the rigid steroid skeleton and inductive effects of its substituents. Use of deuterium labeling in chemical shift assignment and B-ring aromatic terpenoids are also featured.

  11. Molecular analysis of elastic properties of the stratum corneum by solid-state 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jokura, Y; Ishikawa, S; Tokuda, H; Imokawa, G

    1995-05-01

    To elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms underlying stratum corneum (SC) elasticity, we investigated the molecular dynamics of chemical residues within keratin fibers of human plantar SC under various conditions by cross polarization/magic angle spinning 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance. The intensities of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra responsible for amide carbonyl, C alpha methine, and side-chain aliphatic carbons in the intact SC decreased markedly with increasing water content of up to 30% in dry SC, and then remained constant at greater than 30%. Lipid extraction of intact SC with acetone/ether (1:1) did not induce any significant change in the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum, whereas additional treatment with water, which released natural moisturizing factors (mainly amino acids), caused the SC to lose elasticity. The observed decrease in elasticity of the SC recovered after treatment with basic and neutral amino acids, but not after treatment with acidic amino acid. With the latter treatment, movement of amino acid molecules was significantly disturbed, suggesting a strong interaction with keratin fibers. Parallel studies of the complex elastic modulus of a pig SC sheet with a rheovibron also demonstrated that removal of natural moisturizing factor reduced the elasticity of the SC; this effect was also reversed by the application of basic and neutral amino acids, but not by the application of acidic amino acid. These findings suggest that structural keratin proteins, mainly consisting of 10-nm filaments, acquire their elasticity with the help of hydrated natural moisturizing factor via the reduction of intermolecular forces, probably through nonhelical regions between keratin fibers.

  12. Site-specific 13C content by quantitative isotopic 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry: a pilot inter-laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Chaintreau, Alain; Fieber, Wolfgang; Sommer, Horst; Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro; Pagelot, Alain; Moskau, Detlef; Moreno, Aitor; Schleucher, Jürgen; Reniero, Fabiano; Holland, Margaret; Guillou, Claude; Silvestre, Virginie; Akoka, Serge; Remaud, Gérald S

    2013-07-25

    Isotopic (13)C NMR spectrometry, which is able to measure intra-molecular (13)C composition, is of emerging demand because of the new information provided by the (13)C site-specific content of a given molecule. A systematic evaluation of instrumental behaviour is of importance to envisage isotopic (13)C NMR as a routine tool. This paper describes the first collaborative study of intra-molecular (13)C composition by NMR. The main goals of the ring test were to establish intra- and inter-variability of the spectrometer response. Eight instruments with different configuration were retained for the exercise on the basis of a qualification test. Reproducibility at the natural abundance of isotopic (13)C NMR was then assessed on vanillin from three different origins associated with specific δ (13)Ci profiles. The standard deviation was, on average, between 0.9 and 1.2‰ for intra-variability. The highest standard deviation for inter-variability was 2.1‰. This is significantly higher than the internal precision but could be considered good in respect of a first ring test on a new analytical method. The standard deviation of δ (13)Ci in vanillin was not homogeneous over the eight carbons, with no trend either for the carbon position or for the configuration of the spectrometer. However, since the repeatability for each instrument was satisfactory, correction factors for each carbon in vanillin could be calculated to harmonize the results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of [1-13C]Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and [1-13C]Acrylate Metabolism by a DMSP Lyase-Producing Marine Isolate of the α-Subclass of Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ansede, John H.; Pellechia, Perry J.; Yoch, Duane C.

    2001-01-01

    The prominence of the α-subclass of Proteobacteria in the marine bacterioplankton community and their role in dimethylsulfide (DMS) production has prompted a detailed examination of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) metabolism in a representative isolate of this phylotype, strain LFR. [1-13C]DMSP was synthesized, and its metabolism and that of its cleavage product, [1-13C]acrylate, were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. [1-13C]DMSP additions resulted in the intracellular accumulation and then disappearance of both [1-13C]DMSP and [1-13C]β-hydroxypropionate ([1-13C]β-HP), a degradation product. Acrylate, the immediate product of DMSP cleavage, apparently did not accumulate to high enough levels to be detected, suggesting that it was rapidly β-hydroxylated upon formation. When [1-13C]acrylate was added to cell suspensions of strain LFR it was metabolized to [1-13C]β-HP extracellularly, where it first accumulated and was then taken up in the cytosol where it subsequently disappeared, indicating that it was directly decarboxylated. These results were interpreted to mean that DMSP was taken up and metabolized by an intracellular DMSP lyase and acrylase, while added acrylate was β-hydroxylated on (or near) the cell surface to β-HP, which accumulated briefly and was then taken up by cells. Growth on acrylate (versus that on glucose) stimulated the rate of acrylate metabolism eightfold, indicating that it acted as an inducer of acrylase activity. DMSP, acrylate, and β-HP all induced DMSP lyase activity. A putative model is presented that best fits the experimental data regarding the pathway of DMSP and acrylate metabolism in the α-proteobacterium, strain LFR. PMID:11425733

  14. Quantitative solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometric analyses of wood xylen: effect of increasing carbohydrate content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bates, A.L.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    Isolated lignin with a low carbohydrate content was spiked with increasing amounts of alpha-cellulose, and then analysed by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using cross-polarization with magic angle spinning (CPMAS) and dipolar dephasing methods in order to assess the quantitative reliability of CPMAS measurement of carbohydrate content and to determine how increasingly intense resonances for carbohydrate carbons affect calculations of the degree of lignin's aromatic ring substitution and methoxyl carbon content. Comparisons were made of the carbohydrate content calculated by NMR with carbohydrate concentrations obtained by phenol-sulfuric acid assay and by the calculation from the known amounts of cellulose added. The NMR methods used in this study yield overestimates for carbohydrate carbons due to resonance area overlap from the aliphatic side chain carbons of lignin. When corrections are made for these overlapping resonance areas, the NMR results agree very well with results obtained by other methods. Neither the calculated methoxyl carbon content nor the degree of aromatic ring substitution in lignin, both calculated from dipolar dephasing spectra, change with cellulose content. Likewise, lignin methoxyl content does not correlate with cellulose abundance when measured by integration of CPMAS spectra. ?? 1992.

  15. Chemical structures of swine-manure chars produced under different carbonization conditions investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two types of swine manure chars, hydrothermally-produced hydrochar and slow-pyrolysis pyrochar, and their raw swine manure solid were characterized using advanced 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Compared with the parent raw swine manure, both hydrochars and pyrochar di...

  16. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Shift Reagents: Abnormal 13C Shifts Produced by Complexation of Lanthanide Chelates with Saturated Amines and n-Butyl Isocyanide

    PubMed Central

    Marzin, Claude; Leibfritz, Dieter; Hawkes, Geoffrey E.; Roberts, John D.

    1973-01-01

    Lanthanide-induced shfits of 13C nuclear magnetic resonances are reported for several amines and n-butyl isocyanide. Contact contributions to such shifts, especially of β carbons, are clearly important for the chelates of Eu+3 and Pr+3. The importance of contact terms is shown to change in a rather predictable manner with the structure of the amine. PMID:16592062

  17. Use of in vivo 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to elucidate L-arabinose metabolism in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, César; Neves, Ana Rute; Antunes, Alexandra M M; Noronha, João Paulo; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Santos, Helena; Spencer-Martins, Isabel

    2008-03-01

    Candida arabinofermentans PYCC 5603(T) and Pichia guilliermondii PYCC 3012 were shown to grow well on L-arabinose, albeit exhibiting distinct features that justify an in-depth comparative study of their respective pentose catabolism. Carbon-13 labeling experiments coupled with in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to investigate L-arabinose metabolism in these yeasts, thereby complementing recently reported physiological and enzymatic data. The label supplied in L-[2-(13)C]arabinose to nongrowing cells, under aerobic conditions, was found on C-1 and C-2 of arabitol and ribitol, on C-2 of xylitol, and on C-1, C-2, and C-3 of trehalose. The detection of labeled arabitol and xylitol constitutes additional evidence for the operation in yeast of the redox catabolic pathway, which is widespread among filamentous fungi. Furthermore, labeling at position C-1 of trehalose and arabitol demonstrates that glucose-6-phosphate is recycled through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). This result was interpreted as a metabolic strategy to regenerate NADPH, the cofactor essential for sustaining l-arabinose catabolism at the level of L-arabinose reductase and L-xylulose reductase. Moreover, the observed synthesis of D-arabitol and ribitol provides a route with which to supply NAD(+) under oxygen-limiting conditions. In P. guilliermondii PYCC 3012, the strong accumulation of L-arabitol (intracellular concentration of up to 0.4 M) during aerobic L-arabinose metabolism indicates the existence of a bottleneck at the level of L-arabitol 4-dehydrogenase. This report provides the first experimental evidence for a link between L-arabinose metabolism in fungi and the oxidative branch of the PPP and suggests rational guidelines for the design of strategies for the production of new and efficient L-arabinose-fermenting yeasts.

  18. Use of In Vivo 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy To Elucidate l-Arabinose Metabolism in Yeasts▿

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, César; Neves, Ana Rute; Antunes, Alexandra M. M.; Noronha, João Paulo; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Santos, Helena; Spencer-Martins, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Candida arabinofermentans PYCC 5603T and Pichia guilliermondii PYCC 3012 were shown to grow well on l-arabinose, albeit exhibiting distinct features that justify an in-depth comparative study of their respective pentose catabolism. Carbon-13 labeling experiments coupled with in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to investigate l-arabinose metabolism in these yeasts, thereby complementing recently reported physiological and enzymatic data. The label supplied in l-[2-13C]arabinose to nongrowing cells, under aerobic conditions, was found on C-1 and C-2 of arabitol and ribitol, on C-2 of xylitol, and on C-1, C-2, and C-3 of trehalose. The detection of labeled arabitol and xylitol constitutes additional evidence for the operation in yeast of the redox catabolic pathway, which is widespread among filamentous fungi. Furthermore, labeling at position C-1 of trehalose and arabitol demonstrates that glucose-6-phosphate is recycled through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). This result was interpreted as a metabolic strategy to regenerate NADPH, the cofactor essential for sustaining l-arabinose catabolism at the level of l-arabinose reductase and l-xylulose reductase. Moreover, the observed synthesis of d-arabitol and ribitol provides a route with which to supply NAD+ under oxygen-limiting conditions. In P. guilliermondii PYCC 3012, the strong accumulation of l-arabitol (intracellular concentration of up to 0.4 M) during aerobic l-arabinose metabolism indicates the existence of a bottleneck at the level of l-arabitol 4-dehydrogenase. This report provides the first experimental evidence for a link between l-arabinose metabolism in fungi and the oxidative branch of the PPP and suggests rational guidelines for the design of strategies for the production of new and efficient l-arabinose-fermenting yeasts. PMID:18245253

  19. Use of 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance To Assess Fossil Fuel Biodegradation: Fate of [1-13C]Acenaphthene in Creosote Polycyclic Aromatic Compound Mixtures Degraded by Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Selifonov, Sergey A.; Chapman, Peter J.; Akkerman, Simon B.; Gurst, Jerome E.; Bortiatynski, Jacqueline M.; Nanny, Mark A.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    1998-01-01

    [1-13C]acenaphthene, a tracer compound with a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-active nucleus at the C-1 position, has been employed in conjunction with a standard broad-band-decoupled 13C-NMR spectroscopy technique to study the biodegradation of acenaphthene by various bacterial cultures degrading aromatic hydrocarbons of creosote. Site-specific labeling at the benzylic position of acenaphthene allows 13C-NMR detection of chemical changes due to initial oxidations catalyzed by bacterial enzymes of aromatic hydrocarbon catabolism. Biodegradation of [1-13C]acenaphthene in the presence of naphthalene or creosote polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) was examined with an undefined mixed bacterial culture (established by enrichment on creosote PACs) and with isolates of individual naphthalene- and phenanthrene-degrading strains from this culture. From 13C-NMR spectra of extractable materials obtained in time course biodegradation experiments under optimized conditions, a number of signals were assigned to accumulated products such as 1-acenaphthenol, 1-acenaphthenone, acenaphthene-1,2-diol and naphthalene 1,8-dicarboxylic acid, formed by benzylic oxidation of acenaphthene and subsequent reactions. Limited degradation of acenaphthene could be attributed to its oxidation by naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase or related dioxygenases, indicative of certain limitations of the undefined mixed culture with respect to acenaphthene catabolism. Coinoculation of the mixed culture with cells of acenaphthene-grown strain Pseudomonas sp. strain A2279 mitigated the accumulation of partial transformation products and resulted in more complete degradation of acenaphthene. This study demonstrates the value of the stable isotope labeling approach and its ability to reveal incomplete mineralization even when as little as 2 to 3% of the substrate is incompletely oxidized, yielding products of partial transformation. The approach outlined may prove useful in assessing bioremediation performance

  20. Interactions between Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Fibrobacter succinogenes S85: a 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Enzymatic Study

    PubMed Central

    Matheron, Christelle; Delort, Anne-Marie; Gaudet, Genevieve; Liptaj, Tibor; Forano, Evelyne

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the presence of ammonia on [1-13C]glucose metabolism in the rumen fibrolytic bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 was studied by 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Ammonia halved the level of glycogen storage and increased the rate of glucose conversion into acetate and succinate 2.2-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively, reducing the succinate-to-acetate ratio. The 13C enrichment of succinate and acetate was precisely quantified by 13C-filtered spin-echo difference 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The presence of ammonia did not modify the 13C enrichment of succinate C-2 (without ammonia, 20.8%, and with ammonia, 21.6%), indicating that the isotopic dilution of metabolites due to utilization of endogenous glycogen was not affected. In contrast, the presence of ammonia markedly decreased the 13C enrichment of acetate C-2 (from 40 to 31%), reflecting enhanced reversal of the succinate synthesis pathway. The reversal of glycolysis was unaffected by the presence of ammonia as shown by 13C-NMR analysis. Study of cell extracts showed that the main pathways of ammonia assimilation in F. succinogenes were glutamate dehydrogenase and alanine dehydrogenase. Glutamine synthetase activity was not detected. Glutamate dehydrogenase was active with both NAD and NADP as cofactors and was not repressed under ammonia limitation in the culture. Glutamate-pyruvate and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase activities were evidenced by spectrophotometry and 1H NMR. When cells were incubated in vivo with [1-13C]glucose, only 13C-labeled aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and valine were detected. Their labelings were consistent with the proposed amino acid synthesis pathway and with the reversal of the succinate synthesis pathway. PMID:10223984

  1. Interactions between carbon and nitrogen metabolism in Fibrobacter succinogenes S85: a 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and enzymatic study.

    PubMed

    Matheron, C; Delort, A M; Gaudet, G; Liptaj, T; Forano, E

    1999-05-01

    The effect of the presence of ammonia on [1-13C]glucose metabolism in the rumen fibrolytic bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 was studied by 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Ammonia halved the level of glycogen storage and increased the rate of glucose conversion into acetate and succinate 2.2-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively, reducing the succinate-to-acetate ratio. The 13C enrichment of succinate and acetate was precisely quantified by 13C-filtered spin-echo difference 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The presence of ammonia did not modify the 13C enrichment of succinate C-2 (without ammonia, 20.8%, and with ammonia, 21.6%), indicating that the isotopic dilution of metabolites due to utilization of endogenous glycogen was not affected. In contrast, the presence of ammonia markedly decreased the 13C enrichment of acetate C-2 (from 40 to 31%), reflecting enhanced reversal of the succinate synthesis pathway. The reversal of glycolysis was unaffected by the presence of ammonia as shown by 13C-NMR analysis. Study of cell extracts showed that the main pathways of ammonia assimilation in F. succinogenes were glutamate dehydrogenase and alanine dehydrogenase. Glutamine synthetase activity was not detected. Glutamate dehydrogenase was active with both NAD and NADP as cofactors and was not repressed under ammonia limitation in the culture. Glutamate-pyruvate and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase activities were evidenced by spectrophotometry and 1H NMR. When cells were incubated in vivo with [1-13C]glucose, only 13C-labeled aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and valine were detected. Their labelings were consistent with the proposed amino acid synthesis pathway and with the reversal of the succinate synthesis pathway.

  2. Detection of tannins in modern and fossil barks and in plant residues by high-resolution solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Bark samples isolated from brown coal deposits in Victoria, Australia, and buried wood from Rhizophora mangle have been studies by high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Dipolar dephasing 13C NMR appears to be a useful method of detecting the presence of tannins in geochemical samples including barks, buried woods, peats and leaf litter. It is shown that tannins are selectively preserved in bark during coalification to the brown coal stage. ?? 1988.

  3. Solid-state /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of simultaneously metabolized acetate and phenol in a soil Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Heiman, A.S.; Copper, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was made of the concentration-dependent primary and secondary substrate relationships in the simultaneous metabolism of the ubiquitous pollutant phenol and the naturally occurring substrate acetate by a Pseudomonas sp. soil isolate capable of utilizing either substance as a sole source of carbon and energy. In addition to conventional analytical techniques, solid-state /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to follow the cellular distribution of (1-/sup 13/C)acetate in the presence of unlabeled phenol. These results suggest that, when phenol is present as the primary substrate, acetate is preferentially shuttled into fatty acyl chain synthesis, whereas phenol carbon is funnelled into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Thus, simultaneous use of a xenobiotic compound and a natural substrate apparently does occur, and the relative concentrations of the two substrates do influence the rate and manner in which the compounds are utilized. These results also demonstrate the unique advantage of using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques combined with /sup 13/C labeling of specific sites in substrates when doing microbial degradation studies. In this work, the entire cellular biomass was examined directly without extensive extraction, fractionation, or isolation of subcellular units; thus, there is no uncertainty about chemical alteration of substrate metabolites as a result of these often harsh treatments.

  4. Calibration of an analyzing magnet using the 12C(d, p0)13C nuclear reaction with a thick carbon target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, E.; Canto, C. E.; Rocha, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    The absolute energy of an ion beam produced by an accelerator is usually determined by an electrostatic or magnetic analyzer, which in turn must be calibrated. Various methods for accelerator energy calibration are extensively reported in the literature, like nuclear reaction resonances, neutron threshold, and time of flight, among others. This work reports on a simple method to calibrate the magnet associated to a vertical 5.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The method is based on bombarding with deuteron beams a thick carbon target and measuring with a surface barrier detector the particle energy spectra produced. The analyzer magnetic field is measured for each spectrum and the beam energy is deduced by the best fit of the simulation of the spectrum with the SIMNRA code that includes 12C(d,p0)13C nuclear cross sections.

  5. Optical hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins in nanodiamond ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Schwarz, I.; Jelezko, F.; Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.

    2015-11-01

    Dynamical nuclear polarization holds the key for orders of magnitude enhancements of nuclear magnetic resonance signals which, in turn, would enable a wide range of novel applications in biomedical sciences. However, current implementations of DNP require cryogenic temperatures and long times for achieving high polarization. Here we propose and analyze in detail protocols that can achieve rapid hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins in randomly oriented ensembles of nanodiamonds at room temperature. Our protocols exploit a combination of optical polarization of electron spins in nitrogen-vacancy centers and the transfer of this polarization to 13C nuclei by means of microwave control to overcome the severe challenges that are posed by the random orientation of the nanodiamonds and their nitrogen-vacancy centers. Specifically, these random orientations result in exceedingly large energy variations of the electron spin levels that render the polarization and coherent control of the nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins as well as the control of their coherent interaction with the surrounding 13C nuclear spins highly inefficient. We address these challenges by a combination of an off-resonant microwave double resonance scheme in conjunction with a realization of the integrated solid effect which, together with adiabatic rotations of external magnetic fields or rotations of nanodiamonds, leads to a protocol that achieves high levels of hyperpolarization of the entire nuclear-spin bath in a randomly oriented ensemble of nanodiamonds even at room temperature. This hyperpolarization together with the long nuclear-spin polarization lifetimes in nanodiamonds and the relatively high density of 13C nuclei has the potential to result in a major signal enhancement in 13C nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and suggests functionalized and hyperpolarized nanodiamonds as a unique probe for molecular imaging both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Enhanced forensic discrimination of pollutants by position-specific isotope analysis using isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Höhener, Patrick; Parinet, Julien; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S

    2016-01-15

    In forensic environmental investigations the main issue concerns the inference of the original source of the pollutant for determining the liable party. Isotope measurements in geochemistry, combined with complimentary techniques for contaminant identification, have contributed significantly to source determination at polluted sites. In this work we have determined the intramolecular (13)C profiles of several molecules well-known as pollutants. By giving additional analytical parameters, position-specific isotope analysis performed by isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-(13)C NMR) spectrometry gives new information to help in answering the major question: what is the origin of the detected contaminant? We have shown that isotope profiling of the core of a molecule reveals both the raw materials and the process used in its manufacture. It also can reveal processes occurring between the contamination site 'source' and the sampling site. Thus, irm-(13)C NMR is shown to be a very good complement to compound-specific isotope analysis currently performed by mass spectrometry for assessing polluted sites involving substantial spills of pollutant.

  7. Biosynthetic Pathway of Citrinin in the Filamentous Fungus Monascus ruber as Revealed by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Hajjaj, Hassan; Klaébé, Alain; Loret, Marie O.; Goma, Gérard; Blanc, Philippe J.; François, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Carbon isotope distribution of [13C]citrinin from Monascus ruber incubated with [13C]acetate revealed that the biosynthesis of the toxin originated from a tetraketide, instead of a pentaketide as has been shown for Penicillium and Aspergillus species. The production of polyketide red pigments and citrinin by M. ruber may therefore be regulated at the level of the tetraketide branch point. PMID:9872798

  8. High-resolution {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance evidence of phase transition of Rb,Cs-intercalated single-walled nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhrara, M.; Saih, Y.; Waagberg, T.; Goze-Bac, C.; Abou-Hamad, E.

    2011-09-01

    We present 13 C high-resolution magic-angle-turning (MAT) and magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance data of Cs and Rb intercalated single walled carbon nanotubes. We find two distinct phases at different intercalation levels. A simple charge transfer is applicable at low intercalation level. The new phase at high intercalation level is accompanied by a hybridization of alkali (s) orbitals with the carbon (sp2) orbitals of the single walled nanotubes, which indicate bundle surface sites is the most probable alkali site.

  9. Two-dimensional 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of roasted coffee bean extract.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feifei; Furihata, Kazuo; Hu, Fangyu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2011-09-14

    Coffee was characterized by proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. To identify the coffee components, a detailed and approximately 90% signal assignment was carried out using various two-dimensional NMR spectra and a spiking method, in which authentic compounds were added to the roasted coffee bean extract (RCBE) sample. A total of 24 coffee components, including 5 polysaccharide units, 3 stereoisomers of chlorogenic acids, and 2 stereoisomers of quinic acids, were identified with the NMR spectra of RCBE. On the basis of the signal assignment, state analyses were further launched for the metal ion-citrate complexes and caffeine-chlorogenate complexes. On the basis of the signal integration, the coffee components were successfully quantified. This NMR methodology yielded detailed information on RCBE using only a single observation and provides a systemic approach for the analysis of other complex mixtures.

  10. Fermentation and Cost-Effective 13C/15N Labeling of the Nonribosomal Peptide Gramicidin S for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berditsch, Marina; Afonin, Sergii; Steineker, Anna; Orel, Nataliia; Jakovkin, Igor; Weber, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Gramicidin S (GS) is a nonribosomally synthesized decapeptide from Aneurinibacillus migulanus. Its pronounced antibiotic activity is attributed to amphiphilic structure and enables GS interaction with bacterial membranes. Despite its medical use for over 70 years, the peptide-lipid interactions of GS and its molecular mechanism of action are still not fully understood. Therefore, a comprehensive structural analysis of isotope-labeled GS needs to be performed in its biologically relevant membrane-bound state, using advanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Here, we describe an efficient method for producing the uniformly 13C/15N-labeled peptide in a minimal medium supplemented by selected amino acids. As GS is an intracellular product of A. migulanus, we characterized the producer strain DSM 5759 (rough-convex phenotype) and examined its biosynthetic activity in terms of absolute and biomass-dependent peptide accumulation. We found that the addition of either arginine or ornithine increases the yield only at very high supplementing concentrations (1% and 0.4%, respectively) of these expensive 13C/15N-labeled amino acids. The most cost-effective production of 13C/15N-GS, giving up to 90 mg per gram of dry cell weight, was achieved in a minimal medium containing 1% 13C-glycerol and 0.5% 15N-ammonium sulfate, supplemented with only 0.025% of 13C/15N-phenylalanine. The 100% efficiency of labeling is corroborated by mass spectrometry and preliminary solid-state NMR structure analysis of the labeled peptide in the membrane-bound state. PMID:25795666

  11. Quantitative monitoring of extracellular matrix production in bone implants by 13C and 31P solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schulz, J; Pretzsch, M; Khalaf, I; Deiwick, A; Scheidt, H A; Salis-Soglio, G; Bader, A; Huster, D

    2007-04-01

    We used (31)P and (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to detect and analyze the major organic and inorganic components (collagen type I and bioapatite) in natural rabbit bone and beta-tricalcium phosphate implants loaded with osteogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells. High-resolution solid-state NMR spectra were obtained using the magic-angle spinning (MAS) technique. The (31)P NMR spectra of bone specimens showed a single line characteristic of bone calcium phosphate. (13)C cross-polarization (CP) MAS NMR spectra of bone exhibited the characteristic signatures of collagen type I with good resolution for all major amino acids in collagen. Quantitative measurements of (13)C-(1)H dipolar couplings indicated that the collagen segments are very rigid, undergoing only small amplitude fluctuations with correlation times in the nanosecond range. In contrast, directly polarized (13)C MAS NMR spectra of rabbit bone were dominated by signals of highly mobile triglycerides. These quantitative investigations of natural bone may provide the basis for a quality control of various osteoinductive bone substitutes. We studied the formation of extracellular bone matrix in artificial mesenchymal stem cell-loaded beta-tricalcium phosphate matrices that were implanted into the femoral condyle of rabbits. The NMR spectra of these bone grafts were acquired 3 months after implantation. In the (31)P NMR spectra, beta-tricalcium phosphate and bone calcium phosphate could be distinguished quantitatively, allowing recording of the formation of the natural bone matrix. Further, (13)C CPMAS allowed detection of collagen type I that had been produced in the implants. Comparison with the spectroscopic data from natural bone allowed assessment of the quality of the bone substitute material.

  12. Structure and dynamics of Brachypodium primary cell wall polysaccharides from two-dimensional (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Salazar, Andre; Zabotina, Olga A; Hong, Mei

    2014-05-06

    The polysaccharide structure and dynamics in the primary cell wall of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon are investigated for the first time using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). While both grass and non-grass cell walls contain cellulose as the main structural scaffold, the former contains xylan with arabinose and glucuronic acid substitutions as the main hemicellulose, with a small amount of xyloglucan (XyG) and pectins, while the latter contains XyG as the main hemicellulose and significant amounts of pectins. We labeled the Brachypodium cell wall with (13)C to allow two-dimensional (2D) (13)C correlation NMR experiments under magic-angle spinning. Well-resolved 2D spectra are obtained in which the (13)C signals of cellulose, glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX), and other matrix polysaccharides can be assigned. The assigned (13)C chemical shifts indicate that there are a large number of arabinose and xylose linkages in the wall, and GAX is significantly branched at the developmental stage of 2 weeks. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation spectra measured with long spin diffusion mixing times indicate that the branched GAX approaches cellulose microfibrils on the nanometer scale, contrary to the conventional model in which only unbranched GAX can bind cellulose. The GAX chains are highly dynamic, with average order parameters of ~0.4. Biexponential (13)C T1 and (1)H T1ρ relaxation indicates that there are two dynamically distinct domains in GAX: the more rigid domain may be responsible for cross-linking cellulose microfibrils, while the more mobile domain may fill the interfibrillar space. This dynamic heterogeneity is more pronounced than that of the non-grass hemicellulose, XyG, suggesting that GAX adopts the mixed characteristics of XyG and pectins. Moderate differences in cellulose rigidity are observed between the Brachypodium and Arabidopsis cell walls, suggesting different effects of the matrix polysaccharides on cellulose. These data provide the first

  13. Direct proof by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance of semi-purified extract and isolation of ent-Catechin from leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Sayonara Mendes; Abe, Simone Yae; Bueno, Fernanda Giacomini; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Nakashima, Tomoe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. is native to Australia and acclimatized to Southern Brazil. Its aromatic leaves are used for ornamental purposes and have great potential for essential oil production, although reports of its use in folk medicine are few. Objective: This study evaluated the composition of E. cinerea leaves using the solid state 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isolation of the compound from the semipurified extract (SE). Materials and Methods: The SE of E. cinerea leaves was evaluated in the solid state by 13C-NMR spectrum, and the SE was chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 column, followed by high-speed counter-current chromatography to isolate the compound. The SE was analyzed by 13C-NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight spectra. Results: Flavan-3-ol units were present, suggesting the presence of proanthocyanidins as well as a gallic acid unit. The uncommon ent-catechin was isolated. Conclusion: The presence of ent-catechin is reported for the first time in this genus and species. PMID:25210302

  14. Conformation of gramicidin A channel in phospholipid vesicles: a 13C and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, S; Wallace, B A; Blout, E R; Morrow, J S; Veatch, W

    1979-01-01

    We have determined the conformation of the channel-forming polypeptide antibiotic gramicidin A in phosphatidylcholine vesicles by using 13C and 19F NMR spectroscopy. The models previously proposed for the conformation of the dimer channel differ in the surface localization of the NH2 and COOH termini. We have incorporated specific 13C and 19F nuclei at both the NH2, and COOH termini of gramicidin and have used 13C and 19F chemical shifts and spin lattice relaxation time measurements to determine the accessibility of these labels to three paramagnetic NMR probes--two in aqueous solution and one attached to the phosphatidylcholine fatty acid chain9 all of our results indicate that the COOH terminus of gramicidin in the channel is located near the surface of the membrane and the NH2 terminus is buried deep within the lipid bilayer. These findings strongly favor an NH2-terminal to NH2-terminal helical dimer as the major conformation for the gramicidin channel in phosphatidylcholine vesicles. PMID:92025

  15. Estimates of Oil and Gas Potential of Source Rock by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbottom, T. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Boling, K. S.; Dworkin, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    Kerogen is defined as the insoluble fraction of organic matter preserved in sediments. Due to its structural complexity, kerogen is poorly understood, yet it holds vast economic importance as petroleum source rock, and represents the largest organic carbon pool on earth. Kerogen originates from a mixture of organic biomolecules and tends to be dominated by the polymeric components of cell walls and cellular membranes, which undergo interactions with sedimentary minerals at elevated temperature and pressure upon burial. Due to the importance of burial diagenesis to petroleum formation, much of our knowledge of chemical properties of kerogens is related to diagenetic and catagenetic effects. The more common geochemical evaluations of the oil and gas potentials of source rock are based upon proximate analyses such as hydrogen and oxygen indices and thermal stability indices, such as those provided by Fisher assay and Rock Eval®. However, proximate analyses provide limited information regarding the chemical structure of kerogens, and therefore provide little insight to the processes of kerogen formation. NMR spectra of kerogen have been previously shown to be useful in estimating oil and gas potential, and the proposed study seeks to refine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool in kerogen characterization, specifically for the purpose of oil and gas potential calculations.

  16. Cryptate 13C and 23Na nuclear magnetic relaxation as a probe of counterion dynamics in aqueous polyacrylate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Maarel, J. R. C.; Van Duijn, D.; De Bleijser, J.; Leyte, J. C.

    1987-03-01

    In a series of fully alkali neutralized polyacrylate solutions the counterions are included by a macrobicyclic ligand (cryptand) to form a well-defined coordination shell. Vapor pressure experiments show the polyacrylate-cryptate system to behave osmotically as an ordinary polyelectrolyte solution. Cryptate 13C and 23Na relaxation show that the influence of polyions on the counter-ion reorientational mobility is moderate. The main 23Na relaxation mechanism is found to be the fluctuating electric field gradient caused by the surrounding ligand.

  17. Fragment-based {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift predictions in molecular crystals: An alternative to planewave methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Joshua D.; Beran, Gregory J. O.; Monaco, Stephen; Schatschneider, Bohdan

    2015-09-14

    We assess the quality of fragment-based ab initio isotropic {sup 13}C chemical shift predictions for a collection of 25 molecular crystals with eight different density functionals. We explore the relative performance of cluster, two-body fragment, combined cluster/fragment, and the planewave gauge-including projector augmented wave (GIPAW) models relative to experiment. When electrostatic embedding is employed to capture many-body polarization effects, the simple and computationally inexpensive two-body fragment model predicts both isotropic {sup 13}C chemical shifts and the chemical shielding tensors as well as both cluster models and the GIPAW approach. Unlike the GIPAW approach, hybrid density functionals can be used readily in a fragment model, and all four hybrid functionals tested here (PBE0, B3LYP, B3PW91, and B97-2) predict chemical shifts in noticeably better agreement with experiment than the four generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals considered (PBE, OPBE, BLYP, and BP86). A set of recommended linear regression parameters for mapping between calculated chemical shieldings and observed chemical shifts are provided based on these benchmark calculations. Statistical cross-validation procedures are used to demonstrate the robustness of these fits.

  18. (13)C-labeled biochemical probes for the study of cancer metabolism with dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Cardona, Lucia; Keshari, Kayvan R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, advances in metabolic imaging have become dependable tools for the diagnosis and treatment assessment in cancer. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has recently emerged as a promising technology in hyperpolarized (HP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and has reached clinical relevance with the successful visualization of [1-(13)C] pyruvate as a molecular imaging probe in human prostate cancer. This review focuses on introducing representative compounds relevant to metabolism that are characteristic of cancer tissue: aerobic glycolysis and pyruvate metabolism, glutamine addiction and glutamine/glutamate metabolism, and the redox state and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate metabolism. In addition, a brief introduction of probes that can be used to trace necrosis, pH changes, and other pathways relevant to cancer is presented to demonstrate the potential that HP MRI has to revolutionize the use of molecular imaging for diagnosis and assessment of treatments in cancer.

  19. Detection of poly(ethylene glycol) residues from nonionic surfactants in surface water by1h and13c nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Wershaw, R. L.; Brown, P.A.; Noyes, T.I.

    1991-01-01

    ??? Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) residues were detected in organic solute isolates from surface water by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), 13C NMR spectrometry, and colorimetric assay. PEG residues were separated from natural organic solutes in Clear Creek, CO, by a combination of methylation and chromatographic procedures. The isolated PEG residues, characterized by NMR spectrometry, were found to consist of neutral and acidic residues that also contained poly(propylene glycol) moieties. The 1H NMR and the colorimetric assays for poly(ethylene glycol) residues were done on samples collected in the lower Mississippi River and tributaries between St. Louis, MO, and New Orleans, LA, in July-August and November-December 1987. Aqueous concentrations for poly(ethylene glycol) residues based on colorimetric assay ranged from undetectable to ???28 ??g/L. Concentrations based on 1H NMR spectrometry ranged from undetectable to 145 ??g/L.

  20. 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopic Comparison of Hydrophobic Acid, Transphilic Acid, and Reverse Osmosis May 2012 Isolates of Organic Matter from the Suwannee River

    PubMed Central

    Nwosu, Ugwumsinachi G.; Cook, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is found in most natural waters at concentrations low enough to make DOM isolation methodologies critical to full analytical characterization and preservation. During the last few decades, two major protocols have been developed for the extraction of DOM isolates from natural waters. These methods utilize XAD resins and reverse osmosis (RO). In this work, the hydrophobic acid (May 2012 HPOA) and transphilic acid (May 2012 TPIA) isolates from XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins, respectively, were compared with the RO (May 2012 RO) natural organic matter isolate of the Suwannee River water using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. 13C NMR analysis showed that the May 2012 RO isolate could be viewed as a hybrid of the more hydrophobic May 2012 HPOA isolate and more hydrophilic May 2012 TPIA isolate. The May 2012 HPOA isolate is shown to be higher in alkyl and aromatic moieties, while the May 2012 TPIA isolate is higher in O-alkyl moieties. EPR analysis revealed that the May 2012 TPIA and, in particular, May 2012 HPOA isolates had higher radical concentrations than the May 2012 RO isolate. It is postulated that some of the radical concentrations came from the use of base during the isolation procedures, especially in the XAD method. PMID:25565761

  1. (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopic Comparison of Hydrophobic Acid, Transphilic Acid, and Reverse Osmosis May 2012 Isolates of Organic Matter from the Suwannee River.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Ugwumsinachi G; Cook, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is found in most natural waters at concentrations low enough to make DOM isolation methodologies critical to full analytical characterization and preservation. During the last few decades, two major protocols have been developed for the extraction of DOM isolates from natural waters. These methods utilize XAD resins and reverse osmosis (RO). In this work, the hydrophobic acid (May 2012 HPOA) and transphilic acid (May 2012 TPIA) isolates from XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins, respectively, were compared with the RO (May 2012 RO) natural organic matter isolate of the Suwannee River water using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. (13)C NMR analysis showed that the May 2012 RO isolate could be viewed as a hybrid of the more hydrophobic May 2012 HPOA isolate and more hydrophilic May 2012 TPIA isolate. The May 2012 HPOA isolate is shown to be higher in alkyl and aromatic moieties, while the May 2012 TPIA isolate is higher in O-alkyl moieties. EPR analysis revealed that the May 2012 TPIA and, in particular, May 2012 HPOA isolates had higher radical concentrations than the May 2012 RO isolate. It is postulated that some of the radical concentrations came from the use of base during the isolation procedures, especially in the XAD method.

  2. Investigation of gamma radiation effect on the anion exchange resin Amberlite IRA-400 in hydroxide form by Fourier transformed infrared and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, A; Dupuy, N; Rebufa, C; Sergent, M; Labed, V

    2012-03-02

    Radiation-induced decomposition of the anion exchange resin Amberlite IRA-400 in hydroxide form by gamma radiolysis has been studied under different irradiation doses and irradiation atmospheres. In this work, we focused on the degradation of the solid part of the resin by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies associated with chemometric treatments. FTIR and (13)C NMR techniques showed that only -CH(2)N(+)(CH(3))(3) groups were detached from the resin whereas the polystyrene divinylbenzene backbone remains intact. The quaternary ammonium groups were replaced by amine or carbonyl groups according to the irradiation atmosphere (with or without water or oxygen). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to classify the degraded resins according to their irradiation conditions by separating the effect of the dose or the environment. The PCA loadings have shown spectral regions which discriminate the irradiated resins whereas SIMPLe-to-use Interactive Self-modeling Mixture Analysis (SIMPLISMA) allows to identify families of component characterizing the chemical structure of resins and estimate their relative contributions according to the irradiation atmospheres.

  3. 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of hepatic glucose metabolism in normal subjects and subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Cline, G W; Rothman, D L; Magnusson, I; Katz, L D; Shulman, G I

    1994-01-01

    To determine the effect of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) on rates and pathways of hepatic glycogen synthesis, as well as flux through hepatic pyruvate dehydrogenase, we used 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to monitor the peak intensity of the C1 resonance of the glucosyl units of hepatic glycogen, in combination with acetaminophen to sample the hepatic UDP-glucose pool and phenylacetate to sample the hepatic glutamine pool, during a hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp using [1-13C]-glucose. Five subjects with poorly controlled IDDM and six age-weight-matched control subjects were clamped at a mean plasma glucose concentration of approximately 9 mM and mean plasma insulin concentrations approximately 400 pM for 5 h. Rates of hepatic glycogen synthesis were similar in both groups (approximately 0.43 +/- 0.09 mumol/ml liver min). However, flux through the indirect pathway of glycogen synthesis (3 carbon units-->-->glycogen) was increased by approximately 50% (P < 0.05), whereas the relative contribution of pyruvate oxidation to TCA cycle flux was decreased by approximately 30% (P < 0.05) in the IDDM subjects compared to the control subjects. These studies demonstrate that patients with poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have augmented hepatic gluconeogenesis and relative decreased rates of hepatic pyruvate oxidation. These abnormalities are not immediately reversed by normalizing intraportal concentrations of glucose, insulin, and glucagon and may contribute to postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:7989593

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Mixed and Pure Cultures of Green Algae and Their Decomposed Residues by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zelibor, J. L.; Romankiw, L.; Hatcher, P. G.; Colwell, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    It is known that macromolecular organic matter in aquatic environments, i.e., humic substances, is highly aliphatic. These aliphatic macromolecules, predominantly paraffinic in structure, are prevalent in marine and lacustrine sediments and are believed to originate from algae or bacteria. A comparative study of mixed and pure cultures of green algae and their decomposed residues was performed by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as the primary analytical method. Results obtained in this study confirm the presence of components that are chemically refractory and that are defined as alghumin and hydrolyzed alghumin. These were detected in heterogeneous, homogeneous, and axenic biomasses composed of several genera of Chlorophyta. Although the chemical composition of algal biomass varied with culture conditions, the chemical structure of the alghumin and hydrolyzed alghumin, demonstrated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy appeared to be constant for members of the Chlorophyta examined in this study. The alghumin was dominated by carbohydrate-carbon, with minor amounts of amide or carboxyl carbon and paraffinic carbon, the latter surviving strong hydrolysis by 6 N HCI (hydrolyzed alghumin). Bacterial decomposition of heterogeneous algal biomass labeled with 13C was conducted under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions to determine chemical structure and stability of the refractory material. The refractory fraction ranged from 33% in aerobic to 44% in anaerobic cultures. The refractory fraction recovered from either aerobic or anaerobic degradation comprised 40% alghumin, which represented an enrichment by 10% relative to the proportion of alghumin derived from whole cells of algae. The paraffinic component in the hydrolyzed alghumin of whole algal cells was found to be 1.8% and increased to 5.1 and 6.9% after aerobic and anaerobic bacterial degradation, respectively. It is concluded that members of the Chlorophyta contain a

  5. Hyperpolarized 13C Metabolic Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kubala, Eugen; Muñoz-Álvarez, Kim A; Topping, Geoffrey; Hundshammer, Christian; Feuerecker, Benedikt; Gómez, Pedro A; Pariani, Giorgio; Schilling, Franz; Glaser, Steffen J; Schulte, Rolf F; Menzel, Marion I; Schwaiger, Markus

    2016-12-30

    In the past decades, new methods for tumor staging, restaging, treatment response monitoring, and recurrence detection of a variety of cancers have emerged in conjunction with the state-of-the-art positron emission tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]-FDG PET). (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((13)CMRSI) is a minimally invasive imaging method that enables the monitoring of metabolism in vivo and in real time. As with any other method based on (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), it faces the challenge of low thermal polarization and a subsequent low signal-to-noise ratio due to the relatively low gyromagnetic ratio of (13)C and its low natural abundance in biological samples. By overcoming these limitations, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) with subsequent sample dissolution has recently enabled commonly used NMR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems to measure, study, and image key metabolic pathways in various biological systems. A particularly interesting and promising molecule used in (13)CMRSI is [1-(13)C]pyruvate, which, in the last ten years, has been widely used for in vitro, preclinical, and, more recently, clinical studies to investigate the cellular energy metabolism in cancer and other diseases. In this article, we outline the technique of dissolution DNP using a 3.35 T preclinical DNP hyperpolarizer and demonstrate its usage in in vitro studies. A similar protocol for hyperpolarization may be applied for the most part in in vivo studies as well. To do so, we used lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalyzed the metabolic reaction of [1-(13)C]pyruvate to [1-(13)C]lactate in a prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3, in vitro using (13)CMRSI.

  6. Beta-hairpin formation in aqueous solution and in the presence of trifluoroethanol: a (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance conformational study of designed peptides.

    PubMed

    Santiveri, Clara M; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Rico, Manuel; Jiménez, M Angeles

    2005-10-15

    In order to check our current knowledge on the principles involved in beta-hairpin formation, we have modified the sequence of a 3:5 beta-hairpin forming peptide with two different purposes, first to increase the stability of the formed 3:5 beta-hairpin, and second to convert the 3:5 beta-hairpin into a 2:2 beta-hairpin. The conformational behavior of the designed peptides was investigated in aqueous solution and in 30% trifluoroethanol (TFE) by analysis of the following nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters: nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) data, and C(alpha)H, (13)C(alpha), and (13)C(beta) conformational shifts. From the differences in the ability to adopt beta-hairpin structures in these peptides, we have arrived to the following conclusions: (i) beta-Hairpin population increases with the statistical propensity of residues to occupy each turn position. (ii) The loop length, and in turn, the beta-hairpin type, can be modified as a function of the type of turn favored by the loop sequence. These two conclusions reinforce previous results about the importance of beta-turn sequence in beta-hairpin folding. (iii) Side-chain packing on each face of the beta-sheet may play a major role in beta-hairpin stability; hence simplified analysis in terms of isolated pair interactions and intrinsic beta-sheet propensities is insufficient. (iv) Contributions to beta-hairpin stability of turn and strand sequences are not completely independent. (v) The burial of hydrophobic surface upon beta-hairpin formation that, in turn, depends on side-chain packing also contributes to beta-hairpin stability. (vi) As previously observed, TFE stabilizes beta-hairpin structures, but the extent of the contribution of different factors to beta-hairpin formation is sometimes different in aqueous solution and in 30% TFE. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 79: 150-162, 2005.

  7. Carbon Flux Analysis by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance To Determine the Effect of CO2 on Anaerobic Succinate Production by Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Radoš, Dušica; Turner, David L.; Fonseca, Luís L.; Carvalho, Ana Lúcia; Blombach, Bastian; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Neves, Ana Rute

    2014-01-01

    Wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum produces a mixture of lactic, succinic, and acetic acids from glucose under oxygen deprivation. We investigated the effect of CO2 on the production of organic acids in a two-stage process: cells were grown aerobically in glucose, and subsequently, organic acid production by nongrowing cells was studied under anaerobic conditions. The presence of CO2 caused up to a 3-fold increase in the succinate yield (1 mol per mol of glucose) and about 2-fold increase in acetate, both at the expense of l-lactate production; moreover, dihydroxyacetone formation was abolished. The redistribution of carbon fluxes in response to CO2 was estimated by using 13C-labeled glucose and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the labeling patterns in end products. The flux analysis showed that 97% of succinate was produced via the reductive part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with the low activity of the oxidative branch being sufficient to provide the reducing equivalents needed for the redox balance. The flux via the pentose phosphate pathway was low (∼5%) regardless of the presence or absence of CO2. Moreover, there was significant channeling of carbon to storage compounds (glycogen and trehalose) and concomitant catabolism of these reserves. The intracellular and extracellular pools of lactate and succinate were measured by in vivo NMR, and the stoichiometry (H+:organic acid) of the respective exporters was calculated. This study shows that it is feasible to take advantage of natural cellular regulation mechanisms to obtain high yields of succinate with C. glutamicum without genetic manipulation. PMID:24610842

  8. Carbon flux analysis by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance to determine the effect of CO2 on anaerobic succinate production by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Radoš, Dušica; Turner, David L; Fonseca, Luís L; Carvalho, Ana Lúcia; Blombach, Bastian; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Neves, Ana Rute; Santos, Helena

    2014-05-01

    Wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum produces a mixture of lactic, succinic, and acetic acids from glucose under oxygen deprivation. We investigated the effect of CO2 on the production of organic acids in a two-stage process: cells were grown aerobically in glucose, and subsequently, organic acid production by nongrowing cells was studied under anaerobic conditions. The presence of CO2 caused up to a 3-fold increase in the succinate yield (1 mol per mol of glucose) and about 2-fold increase in acetate, both at the expense of l-lactate production; moreover, dihydroxyacetone formation was abolished. The redistribution of carbon fluxes in response to CO2 was estimated by using (13)C-labeled glucose and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the labeling patterns in end products. The flux analysis showed that 97% of succinate was produced via the reductive part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with the low activity of the oxidative branch being sufficient to provide the reducing equivalents needed for the redox balance. The flux via the pentose phosphate pathway was low (~5%) regardless of the presence or absence of CO2. Moreover, there was significant channeling of carbon to storage compounds (glycogen and trehalose) and concomitant catabolism of these reserves. The intracellular and extracellular pools of lactate and succinate were measured by in vivo NMR, and the stoichiometry (H(+):organic acid) of the respective exporters was calculated. This study shows that it is feasible to take advantage of natural cellular regulation mechanisms to obtain high yields of succinate with C. glutamicum without genetic manipulation.

  9. Metabolic Pathway for Propionate Utilization by Phosphorus-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge: 13C Labeling and In Vivo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Paulo C.; Serafim, Luísa S.; Santos, Margarida M.; Reis, Maria A. M.; Santos, Helena

    2003-01-01

    In vivo 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to study propionate metabolism by activated sludge in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. The fate of label supplied in [3-13C]propionate was monitored in living cells subjected to anaerobic/aerobic cycles. During the anaerobic phase, propionate was converted to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) with the following monomer composition: hydroxyvalerate, 74.2%; hydroxymethylvalerate, 16.9%; hydroxymethylbutyrate, 8.6%; and hydroxybutyrate, 0.3%. The isotopic enrichment in the different carbon atoms of hydroxyvalerate (HV) produced during the first anaerobic stage was determined: HV5, 59%; HV4, 5.0%; HV3, 1.1%; HV2, 3.5%; and HV1, 2.8%. A large proportion of the supplied label ended up on carbon C-5 of HV, directly derived from the pool of propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA), which is primarily labeled on C-3; useful information on the nature of operating metabolic pathways was provided by the extent of labeling on C-1, C-2, and C-4. The labeling pattern on C-1 and C-2 was explained by the conversion of propionyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA via succinyl-CoA and the left branch of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which involves scrambling of label between the inner carbons of succinate. This constitutes solid evidence for the operation of succinate dehydrogenase under anaerobic conditions. The labeling in HV4 is explained by backflux from succinate to propionyl-CoA. The involvement of glycogen in the metabolism of propionate was also demonstrated; moreover, it was shown that the acetyl moiety to the synthesis of PHA was derived preferentially from glycogen. According to the proposed metabolic scheme, the decarboxylation of pyruvate is coupled to the production of hydrogen, and the missing reducing equivalents should be derived from a source other than glycogen metabolism. PMID:12514001

  10. Determination of the 1,3- and 2-positional distribution of fatty acids in olive oil triacylglycerols by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    Linear models were selected from a large data set acquired for Italian olive oil samples by quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT). The models were used to determine the composition of the 2 fatty acid pools esterifying the 1,3- and 2-positions of triacylglycerols. The linear models selected proved that the 1,3- and 2-distribution of saturated, oleate, and linoleate chains in olive oil triacylglycerols deviated from the random distribution pattern to an extent that depended on the concentration of the fatty acid in the whole triacylglycerol. To calculate the fatty acid composition of the 1,3- and 2-positions of olive oil triacylglycerols, the equations of the selected linear models were applied to the fatty acid percentages determined by gas chromatography. These data were compared with the values predicted by the computer method (used to determine the theoretical amounts of triacylglycerols), which is based on the 1,3-random-2-random theory of the fatty acid distribution in triacylglycerols. The biggest differences were found in the linoleate chain, which is the chain that deviated the most from a random distribution pattern. The results confirmed that the 1,3-random-2-random distribution theory provides an approximate method for determining the structure of triacylglycerols; however, the linear models calculated by the direct method that applies 13C NMR spectroscopy represent a more precise measurement of the composition of the 2 fatty acid pools esterifying the 1,3- and 2-positions of triacylglycerols.

  11. Probing the molecular architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana secondary cell walls using two- and three-dimensional (13)C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dupree, Ray; Simmons, Thomas J; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Patel, Dharmesh; Iuga, Dinu; Brown, Steven P; Dupree, Paul

    2015-04-14

    The plant secondary cell wall is a thickened polysaccharide and phenolic structure, providing mechanical strength to cells, particularly in woody tissues. It is the main feedstock for the developing bioenergy and green chemistry industries. Despite the role that molecular architecture (the arrangement of biopolymers relative to each other, and their conformations) plays in dictating biomass properties, such as recalcitrance to breakdown, it is poorly understood. Here, unprocessed dry (13)C-labeled stems from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana were analyzed by a variety of (13)C solid state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance methods, such as one-dimensional cross-polarization and direct polarization, two-dimensional refocused INADEQUATE, RFDR, PDSD, and three-dimensional DARR, demonstrating their viability for the study of native polymer arrangements in intact secondary cell walls. All carbon sites of the two main glucose environments in cellulose (previously assigned to microfibril surface and interior residues) are clearly resolved, as are carbon sites of the other major components of the secondary cell wall: xylan and lignin. The xylan carbon 4 chemical shift is markedly different from that reported previously for solution or primary cell wall xylan, indicating significant changes in the helical conformation in these dried stems. Furthermore, the shift span indicates that xylan adopts a wide range of conformations in this material, with very little in the 31 conformation typical of xylan in solution. Additionally, spatial connections of noncarbohydrate species were observed with both cellulose peaks conventionally assigned as "surface" and as "interior" cellulose environments, raising questions about the origin of these two cellulose signals.

  12. /sup 18/O isotope effect in /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Part 9. Hydrolysis of benzyl phosphate by phosphatase enzymes and in acidic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Parente, J.E.; Risley, J.M.; Van Etten, R.L.

    1984-12-26

    The /sup 18/O isotope-induced shifts in /sup 13/C and /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to establish the position of bond cleavage in the phosphatase-catalyzed and acid-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions of benzyl phosphate. The application of the /sup 18/O-isotope effect in NMR spectroscopy affords a continuous, nondestructive assay method for following the kinetics and position of bond cleavage in the hydrolytic process. The technique provides advantages over most discontinuous methods in which the reaction components must be isolated and converted to volatile derivatives prior to analysis. In the present study, (..cap alpha..-/sup 13/C,ester-/sup 18/O)benzyl phosphate and (ester-/sup 18/O)benzyl phosphate were synthesized for use in enzymatic and nonenzymatic studies. Hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by the alkaline phosphatase from E. coli and by the acid phosphatases isolated from human prostate and human liver were all accompanied by cleavage of the substrate phosphorus-oxygen bond consistent with previously postulated mechanisms involving covalent phosphoenzyme intermediates. An extensive study of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of benzyl phosphate at 75/sup 0/C revealed that the site of bond cleavage is dependent on pH. At pH less than or equal to 1.3, the hydrolysis proceeds with C-O bond cleavage; at 1.3 < pH < 2.0, there is a mixture of C-O and P-O bond scission, the latter progressively predominating as the pH is raised; at pH greater than or equal to 2.0, the hydrolysis proceeds with exclusive P-O bond scission. (S)-(+)-(..cap alpha..-/sup 2/H)Benzyl phosphate was also synthesized. Hydrolysis of this chiral benzyl derivative demonstrated that the acid-catalyzed C-O bond scission of benzyl phosphate proceeds by an A-1 (S/sub N/1) mechanism with 70% racemization and 30% inversion at carbon. 37 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  13. The characterization of phospholipid functional group probe species on respirable silicon-containing dusts by solid-state 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Murray, David K

    2010-03-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies are reported for the interactions of probe molecules with respirable silicon-containing dusts as experimental evidence complementing computational studies reported by Snyder and Madura recently in J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 7095 (2008). The selected probe molecules represent the individual functional groups of a model lung surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC) deposited on a respirable silica and kaolin from water solution. (13)C and (31)P solid-state NMR spectroscopies were employed to detect chemical shift, line width, and chemical shift anisotropy, providing experimental evidence of mobility and relaxation changes describing the site and orientation of surface-associated species. NMR results confirm that only the phosphate and adjacent carbons are immobilized by surface hydroxyls on kaolin, while these and the carbons of the cationic head group are likewise immobilized by surface silanols on Miu-U-Sil 5. The phosphates in phosphoryl- and phosphatidyl-cholines were the primary interaction sites, with additional weak coordination with the trimethylammonium cation species. Covalent Al-O-P formation is not likely a factor in in vivo or in vitro toxicity mechanisms of respirable silicon-containing materials, but is rather the result of dehydration or demethoxylation reactions occurring over time or during heating or reduced pressure used in preparing materials for NMR spectroscopic study. Hydration is a critical factor in the formation and preparation for spectroscopic observation of coated dusts. Care must be taken to ensure that products formed and studied correspond to species formed in vivo under suitable concentration and hydration conditions.

  14. Chemical structures of coal lithotypes before and after CO2 adsorption as investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, X.; Mastalerz, Maria; Chappell, M.A.; Miller, L.F.; Li, Y.; Mao, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four lithotypes (vitrain, bright clarain, clarain, and fusain) of a high volatile bituminous Springfield Coal from the Illinois Basin were characterized using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR techniques included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS), cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, and recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing techniques. The lithotypes that experienced high-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherm analysis were also analyzed to determine possible changes in coal structure as a result of CO2 saturation at high pressure and subsequent evacuation. The main carbon functionalities present in original vitrain, bright clarain, clarain and fusain were aromatic carbons (65.9%-86.1%), nonpolar alkyl groups (9.0%-28.9%), and aromatic C-O carbons (4.1%-9.5%). Among these lithotypes, aromaticity increased in the order of clarain, bright clarain, vitrain, and fusain, whereas the fraction of alkyl carbons decreased in the same order. Fusain was distinct from other three lithotypes in respect to its highest aromatic composition (86.1%) and remarkably small fraction of alkyl carbons (11.0%). The aromatic cluster size in fusain was larger than that in bright clarain. The lithotypes studied responded differently to high pressure CO2 saturation. After exposure to high pressure CO2, vitrain and fusain showed a decrease in aromaticity but an increase in the fraction of alkyl carbons, whereas bright clarain and clarain displayed an increase in aromaticity but a decrease in the fraction of alkyl carbons. Aromatic fused-rings were larger for bright clarain but smaller for fusain in the post-CO2 adsorption samples compared to the original lithotypes. These observations suggested chemical CO2-coal interactions at high pressure and the selectivity of lithotypes in response to CO2 adsorption. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Direct assessment of liver glycogen storage by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and regulation of glucose homeostasis after a mixed meal in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R; Magnusson, I; Rothman, D L; Cline, G W; Caumo, A; Cobelli, C; Shulman, G I

    1996-01-01

    Despite extensive recent studies, understanding of the normal postprandial processes underlying immediate storage of substrate and maintenance of glucose homeostasis in humans after a mixed meal has been incomplete. The present study applied 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure sequential changes in hepatic glycogen concentration, a novel tracer approach to measure postprandial suppression of hepatic glucose output, and acetaminophen to trace the pathways of hepatic glycogen synthesis to elucidate the homeostatic adaptation to the fed state in healthy human subjects. After the liquid mixed meal, liver glycogen concentration rose from 207 +/- 22 to 316 +/- 19 mmol/liter at an average rate of 0.34 mmol/liter per min and peaked at 318 +/- 31 min, falling rapidly thereafter (0.26 mmol/liter per min). The mean increment at peak represented net glycogen synthesis of 28.3 +/- 3.7 g (approximately 19% of meal carbohydrate content). The contribution of the direct pathway to overall glycogen synthesis was 46 +/- 5 and 68 +/- 8% between 2 and 4 and 4 and 6 h, respectively. Hepatic glucose output was completely suppressed within 30 min of the meal. It increased steadily from 60 to 255 min from 0.31 +/- 32 to 0.49 +/- 18 mg/kg per min then rapidly returned towards basal levels (1.90 +/- 0.04 mg/kg per min). This pattern of change mirrored precisely the plasma glucagon/insulin ratio. These data provide for the first time a comprehensive picture of normal carbohydrate metabolism in humans after ingestion of a mixed meal. PMID:8550823

  16. Strongly polarizing weakly coupled 13C nuclear spins with optically pumped nitrogen-vacancy center

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Bao; Yang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the polarization of nuclear spins surrounding the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has recently attracted widespread attention due to its various applications. Here we present an analytical formula that not only provides a clear physical picture for the recently observed polarization reversal of strongly coupled13C nuclei over a narrow range of magnetic field [H. J. Wang et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 1940 (2013)], but also demonstrates the possibility to strongly polarize weakly coupled13C nuclei. This allows sensitive magnetic field control of the 13C nuclear spin polarization for NMR applications and significant suppression of the 13C nuclear spin noise to prolong the NV spin coherence time. PMID:26521962

  17. NOTE The effect of 13C enrichment in the glassing matrix on dynamic nuclear polarization of [1-13C]pyruvate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumata, Lloyd; Kovacs, Zoltan; Malloy, Craig; Sherry, A. Dean; Merritt, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) can effectively form a glassy matrix necessary for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments. We tested the effects of 13C enrichment in DMSO on DNP of [1-13C]pyruvate doped with trityl radical OX063Me. We found that the polarization build-up time τ of pyruvate in 13C-labeled DMSO glassing solution is twice as fast as the unenriched DMSO while the nuclear magnetic resonance enhancement was unchanged. This indicates that 13C-13C spin diffusion is a limiting factor in the kinetics of DNP in this system, but it has a minimal effect on the absolute value of polarization achievable for the target.

  18. The effect of 13C enrichment in the glassing matrix on dynamic nuclear polarization of [1-13C]pyruvate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumata, Lloyd; Kovacs, Zoltan; Malloy, Craig; Sherry, A. Dean; Merritt, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) can effectively form a glassy matrix necessary for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments. We tested the effects of 13C enrichment in DMSO on DNP of [1-13C]pyruvate doped with trityl radical OX063Me. We found that the polarization build-up time τ of pyruvate in 13C-labeled DMSO glassing solution is twice as fast as the unenriched DMSO while the nuclear magnetic resonance enhancement was unchanged. This indicates that 13C-13C spin diffusion is a limiting factor in the kinetics of DNP in this system, but it has a minimal effect on the absolute value of polarization achievable for the target.

  19. /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the biosynthesis by Microbacterium ammoniaphilum of L-glutamate selectively enriched with carbon-13

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.E.; Han, C.H.; Kollman, V.H.; London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.

    1982-02-10

    /sup 13/C NMR of isotopically enriched metabolites has been used to study the metabolism of Microbacterium ammoniaphilum, a bacterium which excretes large quantities of L-glutamic acid into the medium. Biosynthesis from 90% (1-/sup 13/C) glucose results in relatively high specificity of the label, with (2,4-/sup 13/C/sub 2/) glutamate as the major product. The predominant biosynthetic pathway for synthesis of glutamate from glucose was determined to be the Embden Meyerhof glycolytic pathway followed by P-enolpyruvate carboxylase and the first third of the Krebs cycle. Different metabolic pathways are associated with different correlations in the enrichment of the carbons, reflected in the spectrum as different /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C scalar multiplet intensities. Hence, intensity and /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C multiplet analysis allows quantitation of the pathways involved. Although blockage of the Krebs cycle at the ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase step is the basis for the accumulation of glutamate, significant Krebs cycle activity was found in glucose grown cells, and extensive Krebs cycle activity in cells metabolizing (1-/sup 13/C) acetate. In addition to the observation of the expected metabolites, the disaccharide ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..-trehalose and ..cap alpha..,..beta..-glucosylamine were identified from the /sup 13/C NMR spectra.

  20. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic detection of the adulteration of extra virgin olive oils extracted from different cultivars with cold-pressed hazelnut oil.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    13C NMR spectroscopy was applied to detect the adulteration of olive oils with hazelnut oil. Considering that the linolenate chain and the squalene hydrocarbon were absent in hazelnut oil, unlike olive oil, a 13C NMR spectroscopy method was developed to measure in addition to the triglyceride normal chains (i.e., saturated, oleate, and linoleate chains), the resonances of the linolenate chain and of squalene hydrocarbon. Acyl chain and squalene resonances highly discriminated olive oil samples by cultivars. Nevertheless, the "hazelnut oil percentage factor" prevailed over the "cultivar factor," thus correctly classifying 86% of the authentic and adulterated olive oil samples according to the hazelnut oil percentages. In particular, 85.7, 73.7, and 100.0% of the authentic olive oil samples, and the samples adulterated with 5 and 20% of hazelnut oil, were correctly classified through cross-validation.

  1. Application of Metabolic 13C Labeling in Conjunction with High-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Comparative Conformational Analysis of High Mannose-Type Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Yukiko; Yanagi, Kotaro; Kitajima, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Chiba, Yasunori; Kato, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    High mannose-type oligosaccharides are enzymatically trimmed in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in various processing intermediates with exposed glycotopes that are recognized by a series of lectins involved in glycoprotein fate determination in cells. Although recent crystallographic data have provided the structural basis for the carbohydrate recognition of intracellular lectins, atomic information of dynamic oligosaccharide conformations is essential for a quantitative understanding of the energetics of carbohydrate–lectin interactions. Carbohydrate NMR spectroscopy is useful for characterizing such conformational dynamics, but often hampered by poor spectral resolution and lack of recombinant techniques required to produce homogeneous glycoforms. To overcome these difficulties, we have recently developed a methodology for the preparation of a homogeneous high mannose-type oligosaccharide with 13C labeling using a genetically engineered yeast strain. We herein successfully extended this method to result in the overexpression of 13C-labeled Man9GlcNAc2 (M9) with a newly engineered yeast strain with the deletion of four genes involved in N-glycan processing. This enabled high-field NMR analyses of 13C-labeled M9 in comparison with its processing product lacking the terminal mannose residue ManD2. Long-range NOE data indicated that the outer branches interact with the core in both glycoforms, and such foldback conformations are enhanced upon the removal of ManD2. The observed conformational variabilities might be significantly associated with lectins and glycan-trimming enzymes. PMID:24970159

  2. sup 13 C and sup 15 N nuclear magnetic resonance evidence of the ionization state of substrates bound to bovine dihydrofolate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Selinsky, B.S.; Perlman, M.E.; London, R.E. ); Unkefer, C.J. ); Mitchell, J. ); Blakley, R.L. Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis )

    1990-02-06

    The state of protonation of substrates bound to mammalian dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has significance for the mechanism of catalysis. To investigate this, dihydrofolate and dihydropteroylpentaglutamate have been synthesized with {sup 15}N enrichment at N-5. {sup 15}N NMR studies have been performed on the binary complexes formed by bovine DHFR with these compounds and with (5-{sup 15}N)dihydrobiopterin. The results indicate that there is no protonation at N-5 in the binary complexes, and this was confirmed by {sup 13}C NMR studies with folate and dihydrofolate synthesized with {sup 13}C enrichment at C-6. The chemical shift displacements produced by complex formation are in the same direction as those which result from deprotonation of the N-3/C-4-O amide group and are consistent with at least partial loss of the proton from N-3. This would be possible if, as crystallographic data indicate, there is interaction of N-3 and the 2-amino group of the bound ligands with the carboxylate of the active site glutamate residue (Glu{sup 30}).

  3. Identification of Flavonoid Glycosides in Rosa chinensis Flowers by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry in Combination with 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Lin-Sen; Xue, Ying; Zhang, Jian-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Liang, Jian; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Yi-Ming; Liao, Xun

    2012-01-01

    Flowers of Rosa chinensis are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as well as in food industry. Flavonoid glycosides are believed to be the major components in R. chinensis that are responsible for its antioxidant activities. In this work, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC- MS/MS) method was developed for analysis of flavonoid glycosides presented in ethyl acetate extract of dried R. chinensis flowers. Twelve flavonoid glycosides were separated and detected. By comparing the retention times, UV spectra, and tandem MS fragments with those of respective authentic compounds, eight flavonoid glycosides were unequivocally identified. Although the other four were also identified as flavonoid glycosides, the glycosylation positions could not be determined due to lack of authentic compounds. Fortunately, the glycosylation effects were clearly observed in the 13C NMR spectrum of the extract. The detailed structural information was, therefore, obtained to identify the four flavonoid glycosides as quercetin-3-O-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-D-xyloside, kaempferol-3-O-D-xyloside and quercetin-3-O-D-(6″-coumaroyl)-galactoside. These flavonoid glycosides were detected and identified for the first time in this botanic material. This work reports on the first use of 13C NMR of a mixture to enhance a rapid HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The proposed analytical protocol was validated with a mixture of authentic flavonoid glycosides. PMID:22749452

  4. Characterization of fungal-degraded lime wood by X-ray diffraction and cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Larsson, Per Tomas; Tibirna, Carmen Mihaela; Vasile, Cornelia

    2010-09-01

    X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CP/MAS) (13)C-NMR spectroscopy were applied to determine changes over time in the morphology and crystallinity of lime wood (Tilia cordata Miller) generated by the soft-rot fungi. Wood samples were inoculated with Trichoderma viride Pers for various durations up to 84 days. Structural and morphological modifications were assessed by comparing the structural features of decayed lime wood samples with references. Significant morphology changes such as defibration or small cavities were clearly observed on the SEM micrographs of lime wood samples exposed to fungi. Following the deconvolution process of the diffraction patterns, the degree of crystallinity, apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains, and the cellulose fraction have been determined. It was found that all crystallographic data vary with the duration of exposure to fungi. The degree of crystallinity and cellulose fraction tend to decrease, whereas the apparent lateral crystallite size and the proportion of crystallite interior chains increase with prolonged biodegradation processes. The most relevant signals in CP/MAS (13)C-NMR spectra were assigned according to literature data. The differences observed were discussed in terms of lignin and cellulose composition: by fixing the lignin reference signal intensity, the cellulose and hemicelluloses moieties showed a relative decrease compared to the lignin signals in decayed wood.

  5. The use of dynamic nuclear polarization 13C-pyruvate MRS in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam Espe; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Clemmensen, Andreas Ettrup; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an immense development of new targeted anti-cancer drugs. For practicing precision medicine, a sensitive method imaging for non-invasive, assessment of early treatment response and for assisting in developing new drugs is warranted. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a potent technique for non-invasive in vivo investigation of tissue chemistry and cellular metabolism. Hyperpolarization by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is capable of creating solutions of molecules with polarized nuclear spins in a range of biological molecules and has enabled the real-time investigation of in vivo metabolism. The development of this new method has been demonstrated to enhance the nuclear polarization more than 10,000-fold, thereby significantly increasing the sensitivity of the MRS with a spatial resolution to the millimeters and a temporal resolution at the subsecond range. Furthermore, the method enables measuring kinetics of conversion of substrates into cell metabolites and can be integrated with anatomical proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many nuclei and substrates have been hyperpolarized using the DNP method. Currently, the most widely used compound is 13C-pyruvate due to favoring technicalities. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate results in appearance of 13C-lactate, 13C-alanine and 13C-bicarbonate resonance peaks depending on the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. In cancer, the lactate level is increased due to increased glycolysis. The use of DNP enhanced 13C-pyruvate has in preclinical studies shown to be a sensitive method for detecting cancer and for assessment of early treatment response in a variety of cancers. Recently, a first-in-man 31-patient study was conducted with the primary objective to assess the safety of hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate in healthy subjects and prostate cancer patients. The study showed an elevated 13C-lactate/13C-pyruvate ratio in regions of biopsy

  6. The use of dynamic nuclear polarization (13)C-pyruvate MRS in cancer.

    PubMed

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam Espe; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Clemmensen, Andreas Ettrup; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an immense development of new targeted anti-cancer drugs. For practicing precision medicine, a sensitive method imaging for non-invasive, assessment of early treatment response and for assisting in developing new drugs is warranted. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a potent technique for non-invasive in vivo investigation of tissue chemistry and cellular metabolism. Hyperpolarization by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is capable of creating solutions of molecules with polarized nuclear spins in a range of biological molecules and has enabled the real-time investigation of in vivo metabolism. The development of this new method has been demonstrated to enhance the nuclear polarization more than 10,000-fold, thereby significantly increasing the sensitivity of the MRS with a spatial resolution to the millimeters and a temporal resolution at the subsecond range. Furthermore, the method enables measuring kinetics of conversion of substrates into cell metabolites and can be integrated with anatomical proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many nuclei and substrates have been hyperpolarized using the DNP method. Currently, the most widely used compound is (13)C-pyruvate due to favoring technicalities. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate results in appearance of (13)C-lactate, (13)C-alanine and (13)C-bicarbonate resonance peaks depending on the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. In cancer, the lactate level is increased due to increased glycolysis. The use of DNP enhanced (13)C-pyruvate has in preclinical studies shown to be a sensitive method for detecting cancer and for assessment of early treatment response in a variety of cancers. Recently, a first-in-man 31-patient study was conducted with the primary objective to assess the safety of hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate in healthy subjects and prostate cancer patients. The study showed an elevated (13)C-lactate/(13)C-pyruvate ratio in regions of

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of interaction of ligands with Streptococcus faecium dihydrofolate reductase labeled with (. gamma. -/sup 13/C)tryptophan

    SciTech Connect

    London, R.E.; Groff, J.P.; Cocco, L.; Blakley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase from Streptococcus faecium has been labeled with (..gamma..-/sup 13/C)tryptophan. We have determined changes occurring in the chemical shifts and line widths of the four resonances of the /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of the labeled enzyme, due to its interaction with various ligands. These include the coenzyme, NPDPH and related nucleotides, folate and its polyglutamate derivatives, and many inhibitors including methotrexate and trimethoprim. In addition, paramagnetic relaxation effects produced by a bound spin-labeled analogue of 2'-phosphoadenosine-5'-diphosphoribose on the tryptophan C/sup ..gamma../ carbons have been measured. Distances calculated from the relaxation data have been compared with corresponding distances in the crystallographic model of the NADPH-methotrexate ternary complex of Lactobacillus casei reductase. The paramagnetic relaxation data indicate that the two downfield resonances (1 and 2) correspond to tryptophans (W/sub A/ and W/sub B/) that are more remote from the catalytic site, and from the crystallographic model these are seen to be Trp-115 and Trp-160. The upfield resonances (3 and 4) that show broadening due to chemical exchange correspond to closer residues (W/sub C/ and W/sub D/), and these are identified with Trp-6 and Trp-22. However, the relaxation data do not permit specific assignments within the nearer and farther pairs. Although resonance 3, which is split due to chemical exchange, was formerly assigned to Trp-6, data obtained for the enzyme in the presence of various ligands are better interpreted if resonance 3 is assigned to Trp-22, which is located on a loop that joins elements of secondary structure and forms one side of the ligand-binding cavity.

  8. Four-dimensional sup 13 C/ sup 13 C-edited nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy of a protein in solution: Application to interleukin 1. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Clore, G.M.; Kay, L.E.; Bax, A.; Gronenborn, A.M. )

    1991-01-01

    A four-dimensional {sup 13}C/{sup 13}C-edited NOESY experiment is described which dramatically improves the resolution of protein NMR spectra and enables the straightforward assignment of nuclear Overhauser effects involving aliphatic and/or aromatic protons in larger proteins. The experiment is demonstrated for uniformly (>95{percent}) {sup 13}C-labeled interleukin 1{beta}, a protein of 153 residues and 17.4 kDa, which plays a key role in the immune response. NOEs between aliphatic and/or aromatic protons are first spread out into a third dimension by the {sup 13}C chemical shift of the carbon atom attached to the originating proton and subsequently into a fourth dimension by the {sup 13}C chemical shift of the carbon atom attached to the destination proton. Thus, each NOE cross peak is labeled by four chemical shifts. By this means, ambiguities in the assignment of NOEs that arise from chemical shift overlap and degeneracy are completely removed. Further, NOEs between protons with the same chemical shifts can readily be detected providing their attached carbon atoms have different {sup 13}C chemical shifts. The design of the pulse sequence requires special care to minimize the level of artifacts arising from undesired coherence transfer pathways, and in particular those associated with diagonal peaks which correspond to magnetization that has not been transferred from one proton to another. The 4D {sup 13}C/{sup 13}C-edited NOESY experiment is characterized by high sensitivity as the through-bond transfer steps involve the large {sup 1}J{sub CH} (130 Hz) couplings, and it is possible to obtain high-quality spectra on 1-2 mM samples of {sup 13}C-labeled protein in as little as 3 days. This experiment should open up the application of protein structure determination by NMR to a large number of medium-sized proteins (150-300 residues) of biological interest.

  9. Monolayer to interdigitated partial bilayer smectic C transition in thiophene-based spacer mesogens: X-ray diffraction and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance studies.

    PubMed

    Kesava Reddy, M; Varathan, E; Lobo, Nitin P; Roy, Arun; Narasimhaswamy, T; Ramanathan, K V

    2015-10-06

    Mesophase organization of molecules built with thiophene at the center and linked via flexible spacers to rigid side arm core units and terminal alkoxy chains has been investigated. Thirty homologues realized by varying the span of the spacers as well as the length of the terminal chains have been studied. In addition to the enantiotropic nematic phase observed for all the mesogens, the increase of the spacer as well as the terminal chain lengths resulted in the smectic C phase. The molecular organization in the smectic phase as investigated by temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements revealed an interesting behavior that depended on the length of the spacer vis-a-vis the length of the terminal chain. Thus, a tilted interdigitated partial bilayer organization was observed for molecules with a shorter spacer length, while a tilted monolayer arrangement was observed for those with a longer spacer length. High-resolution solid state (13)C NMR studies carried out for representative mesogens indicated a U-shape for all the molecules, indicating that intermolecular interactions and molecular dynamics rather than molecular shape are responsible for the observed behavior. Models for the mesophase organization have been considered and the results understood in terms of segregation of incompatible parts of the mesogens combined with steric frustration leading to the observed lamellar order.

  10. New insights into the structure and chemistry of Titan's tholins via 13C and 15N solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derenne, S.; Coelho, C.; Anquetil, C.; Szopa, C.; Quirico, E.; Bonhomme, C.

    2012-09-01

    Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is characterized by a dense atmosphere, mainly composed of N2 (ca. 97 %) and CH4 (ca. 2 %). In the upper atmosphere, methane and nitrogen molecules undergo dissociation under the influence of solar UV radiation and electron impacts, followed by recombination reactions leading to a large variety of organic molecules. Some of these compounds form a thick, orange-coloured haze composed of solid organic aerosols that subsequently fall to the surface or remain in suspension in the atmosphere. To gain insight into the chemical composition and structural nature of these complex organic compounds, analogous materials, termed Titan's tholins, are produced in the laboratory, in particular using plasma discharge in gaseous N2 - CH4 mixtures with similar proportions as in Titan's atmosphere. Titan's tholins have been analysed using a wide variety of techniques which provided a wealth of information about potential functional groups and structural building blocks present within the tholin samples. Taken together, the results converge on a structure based on a CxHyNz chemistry that can contain a variety of C-C, C-N, N-H etc single or multiple bonds. It is now necessary to build on that information to refine the chemical and structural models for the Titan's tholins. Here we used solid state NMR techniques to investigate the carbon and nitrogen bonding environments in a 13C- and 15Nenriched sample.

  11. Biological degradation of tannins in sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) by the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus stercoreus analyzed by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, G R; Akin, D E; Makkar, H P; Becker, K

    1996-01-01

    Leaves of sericea lespedeza exhibit a high proportion of condensed tannin, resulting in poor forage quality. The white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus sterocoreus are known to preferentially degrade lignin in a variety of plants and were evaluated for their ability to degrade condensed tannin from sericea leaves with the aim of improving digestibility. Relative levels of condensed tannin, cutin, pectin, and cellulose were monitored as a function of fungal treatment by solid-state cross-polarization and magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total soluble phenolics, soluble tannins, and soluble and insoluble proanthocyanidin levels in fungus-treated and control samples were measured by established chemical techniques. Results indicate that both species of fungus preferentially degrade condensed tannin and that C. subvermispora is markedly superior to C. stercoreus in this capacity. PMID:8837414

  12. Biological degradation of tannins in sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) by the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus stercoreus analyzed by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gamble, G R; Akin, D E; Makkar, H P; Becker, K

    1996-10-01

    Leaves of sericea lespedeza exhibit a high proportion of condensed tannin, resulting in poor forage quality. The white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus sterocoreus are known to preferentially degrade lignin in a variety of plants and were evaluated for their ability to degrade condensed tannin from sericea leaves with the aim of improving digestibility. Relative levels of condensed tannin, cutin, pectin, and cellulose were monitored as a function of fungal treatment by solid-state cross-polarization and magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total soluble phenolics, soluble tannins, and soluble and insoluble proanthocyanidin levels in fungus-treated and control samples were measured by established chemical techniques. Results indicate that both species of fungus preferentially degrade condensed tannin and that C. subvermispora is markedly superior to C. stercoreus in this capacity.

  13. Magnetic susceptibility effects on 13C MAS NMR spectra of carbon materials and graphite.

    PubMed

    Freita, J C; Emmerich, F G; Cernicchiaro, G R; Sampaio, L C; Bonagamba, T J

    2001-01-01

    13C high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to study carbon materials prepared through the thermal decomposition of four different organic precursors (rice hulls, endocarp of babassu coconut, peat, and PVC). For heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) above about 600 C, all materials presented 13C NMR spectra composed of a unique resonance line associated with carbon atoms in aromatic planes. With increasing HTT a continuous broadening of this resonance and a diamagnetic shift in its central frequency were verified for all samples. The evolution of the magnitude and anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of the heat-treated carbon samples with HTT explains well these findings. It is shown that these results are better understood when a comparison is made with the features of the 13C NMR spectrum of polycrystalline graphite, for which the magnetic susceptibility effect is also present and is much more pronounced.

  14. Correlation between structure and fluidity of coal tar pitch fractions studied by ambient {sup 13}C and high temperature in-situ {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, J.M.; Schober, H.H.; Rusinko, F.J. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    The unique properties of coal tar pitches have resulted in numerous applications for carbon products, such as binders for carbon artifacts. However, as the number of by-product coke ovens is diminishing, the design of superior binders from alternative materials or processes is sought by the carbon industry. Accordingly, structural characterization of coal tar pitches and their solvent fractions, using quantitative analytical techniques is required to successfully obtain this goal. Quantitative solid state {sup 13}C NMR has previously been shown to be a powerful technique to study the overall aromatic ring-size for coal tar pitches and their toluene insoluble (TI) fractions. The TI fraction can further be separated into its quinoline soluble part (beta-resin) and insoluble fraction (QI). Both these fractions affect the overall coking yield and especially the fluidity of the pitches. The assessment of fluidity interactions between coal tar pitch solvent fractions during heating is therefore important for the future design of pitches from untraditional sources or processes. High temperature {sup 1}H NMR is a useful technique to investigate the fluid and rigid components of pitches, especially with its interaction with coal and to quantify mesophase. However, very little work has been performed to correlate the overall fluidity behavior of pitch with the mobility of its different solubility fractions and their structure. Accordingly, this paper addresses the fluidity interactions between different pitch solvent fractions (TS, beta-resin and QI) by high temperature {sup 1}H NMR. Particularly, the fluidity studies on the beta-resin alone can verify whether this fraction becomes plastic during heating.

  15. Development of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods in pharmaceutical application with new selective signal excitation methods for 13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance using 1 H T1rho relaxation time.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Mamiko; Nemoto, Takayuki; Mimura, Hisashi; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Most pharmaceutical drug substances and excipients in formulations exist in a crystalline or amorphous form, and an understanding of their state during manufacture and storage is critically important, particularly in formulated products. Carbon 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is useful for studying the chemical and physical state of pharmaceutical solids in a formulated product. We developed two new selective signal excitation methods in (13) C solid-state NMR to extract the spectrum of a target component from such a mixture. These methods were based on equalization of the proton relaxation time in a single domain via rapid intraproton spin diffusion and the difference in proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame ((1) H T1rho) of individual components in the mixture. Introduction of simple pulse sequences to one-dimensional experiments reduced data acquisition time and increased flexibility. We then demonstrated these methods in a commercially available drug and in a mixture of two saccharides, in which the (13) C signals of the target components were selectively excited, and showed them to be applicable to the quantitative analysis of individual components in solid mixtures, such as formulated products, polymorphic mixtures, or mixtures of crystalline and amorphous phases. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Optically detected magnetic resonances of nitrogen-vacancy ensembles in 13C-enriched diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarmola, A.; Bodrog, Z.; Kehayias, P.; Markham, M.; Hall, J.; Twitchen, D. J.; Acosta, V. M.; Gali, A.; Budker, D.

    2016-09-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the optically detected magnetic resonance signals for ensembles of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in a 13C isotopically enriched single-crystal diamond. We observe four broad transition peaks with superimposed sharp features at zero magnetic field and study their dependence on an applied magnetic field. A theoretical model that reproduces all qualitative features of these spectra is developed. Understanding the magnetic-resonance spectra of NV centers in an isotopically enriched diamond is important for emerging applications in nuclear magnetic resonance.

  17. Detection of kestoses and kestose-related oligosaccharides in extracts of Festuca arundinacea, Dactylis glomerate L. , and Asparagus officinalis L. root cultures and invertase by sup 13 C and sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, K.L.; Feather, M.S.; Gracz, H.; Wong, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Previous studies show that {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to detect and identify mixtures of 1-kestose and neokestose after conversion to the acetate derivatives. In this study, unequivocal assignments are made for the anomeric carbon and proton signals for the above two trisaccharide acetates as well as for 6-kestose hendecaacetate and for nystose tetradecaacetate (a 1-kestose-derived tetrasaccharide). A number of oligosaccharide fractions were isolated from several plant species, converted to the acetates, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra obtained. Using the above reference data, the following information was obtained. The trisaccharide fraction from Dactylis gomerata L. stem tissue and Asparagus officinalis L. roots contain both 1-kestose and neokestose, and the tetrasaccharide fractions contain three components, one of which is nystose. Penta- and hexasaccharide acetates were also isolated from A. officinalis L. roots and were found to contain, respectively, four and at least five components. All components of both of the above species appear to contain a kestose residue and to be produced by the sequential addition of fructofuranosyl units to these. The trisaccharide fraction from Festuca arundinacea is complex, and contains at least five different components, two of which appear to be 1-kestose and neokestose.

  18. (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of hyperpolarized [1-(13) C, U-(2) H5 ] ethanol oxidation can be used to assess aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dzien, Piotr; Kettunen, Mikko I; Marco-Rius, Irene; Serrao, Eva M; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Larkin, Timothy J; Timm, Kerstin N; Brindle, Kevin M

    2015-05-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is an emerging drug target for the treatment of heart disease, cocaine and alcohol dependence, and conditions caused by genetic polymorphisms in ALDH2. Noninvasive measurement of ALDH2 activity in vivo could inform the development of these drugs and accelerate their translation to the clinic. [1-(13) C, U-(2) H5 ] ethanol was hyperpolarized using dynamic nuclear polarization, injected into mice and its oxidation in the liver monitored using (13) C MR spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Oxidation of [1-(13) C, U-(2) H5 ] ethanol to [1-(13) C] acetate was observed. Saturation of the acetaldehyde resonance, which was below the level of detection in vivo, demonstrated that acetate was produced via acetaldehyde. Irreversible inhibition of ALDH2 activity with disulfiram resulted in a proportional decrease in the amplitude of the acetate resonance. (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of hyperpolarized [1-(13) C, U-(2) H5 ] ethanol oxidation allow real-time assessment of ALDH2 activity in liver in vivo. © 2014 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Medicine in Resonance.

  19. Dynamic nuclear polarization of carbonyl and methyl 13C spins in acetate using trityl OX063

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Lumata, Lloyd

    2015-03-01

    Hyperpolarization via dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a physics technique that amplifies the magnetic resonance signals by several thousand-fold for biomedical NMR spectroscopy and imaging (MRI). Herein we have investigated the effect of carbon-13 isotopic location on the DNP of acetate (one of the biomolecules commonly used for hyperpolarization) at 3.35 T and 1.4 K using a narrow ESR linewidth free radical trityl OX063. We have found that the carbonyl 13C spins yielded about twice the polarization produced in methyl 13C spins. Deuteration of the methyl group, beneficial in the liquid-state, did not produce an improvement in the polarization level at cryogenic conditions. Concurrently, the solid-state nuclear relaxation of these samples correlate with the polarization levels achieved. These results suggest that the location of the 13C isotopic labeling in acetate has a direct impact on the solid-state polarization achieved and is mainly governed by the nuclear relaxation leakage factor.

  20. Optimization of 13C dynamic nuclear polarization: isotopic labeling of free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kiswandi, Andhika; Lumata, Lloyd

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a physics technique that amplifies the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals by transferring the high polarization of the electrons to the nuclear spins. Thus, the choice of free radical is crucial in DNP as it can directly affect the NMR signal enhancement levels, typically on the order of several thousand-fold in the liquid-state. In this study, we have investigated the efficiency of four variants of the well-known 4-oxo-TEMPO radical (normal 4-oxo-TEMPO plus its 15N-enriched and/or perdeuterated variants) for use in DNP of an important metabolic tracer [1-13C]acetate. Though the variants have significant differences in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, we have found that changing the composition of the TEMPO radical through deuteration or 15N doping yields no significant difference in 13C DNP efficiency at 3.35 T and 1.2 K. On the other hand, deuteration of the solvent causes a significant increase of 13C polarization that is consistent over all the 4-oxo-TEMPO variants. These findings are consistent with the thermal mixing model of DNP. This work is supported by US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and the Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.

  1. Differential effects of safflower oil versus fish oil feeding on insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, and pyruvate dehydrogenase flux in skeletal muscle: a 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Jucker, B M; Cline, G W; Barucci, N; Shulman, G I

    1999-01-01

    To examine the effects of safflower oil versus fish oil feeding on in vivo intramuscular glucose metabolism and relative pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) versus tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, rats were pair-fed on diets consisting of 1) 59% safflower oil, 2) 59% menhaden fish oil, or 3) 59% carbohydrate (control) in calories. Rates of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis were assessed by monitoring [1-(13)C]glucose label incorporation into [1-(13)C]glycogen, [3-(13)C]lactate, and [3-(13)C]alanine in the hindlimb of awake rats via 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy during a euglycemic (approximately 6 mmol/l) hyperinsulinemic (approximately 180 microU/ml) clamp. A steady-state isotopic analysis of lactate, alanine, and glutamate was used to determine the relative PDH versus TCA cycle flux present in muscle under these conditions. The safflower oil-fed rats were insulin resistant compared with control and fish oil-fed rats, as reflected by a markedly reduced glucose infusion rate (Ginf) during the clamp (21.4 +/- 2.3 vs. 31.6 +/- 2.8 and 31.7 +/- 1.9 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) in safflower oil versus control and fish oil groups, respectively, P < 0.006). This decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in the safflower oil group was associated with a lower rate of glycolysis (21.7 +/- 2.2 nmol x g(-1) x min(-1)) versus control (62.1 +/- 10.3 nmol x g(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.001) and versus fish oil (45.7 +/- 6.7 nmol x g(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.04), as no change in glycogen synthesis (103 +/- 15, 133 +/- 19, and 125 +/- 14 nmol x g(-1) x min(-1) in safflower oil, fish oil, and control, respectively) was detected. The intramuscular triglyceride (TG) content was increased in the safflower oil group (7.3 +/- 0.8 micromol/g) compared with the control group (5.2 +/- 0.8 micromol/g, P < 0.05) and the fish oil group (3.6 +/- 1.1 micromol/g, P < 0.01). Conversely, the percent PDH versus TCA cycle flux was decreased in the safflower oil (43 +/- 8%) versus the control

  2. Influence of Dy3+ and Tb3+ doping on 13C dynamic nuclear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Fidelino, Leila; Khemtong, Chalermchai; Hayati, Zahra; Song, Likai; Martins, André; Sherry, A. Dean; Lumata, Lloyd

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a technique that uses a microwave-driven transfer of high spin alignment from electrons to nuclear spins. This is most effective at low temperature and high magnetic field, and with the invention of the dissolution method, the amplified nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals in the frozen state in DNP can be harnessed in the liquid-state at physiologically acceptable temperature for in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies. A current optimization practice in dissolution DNP is to dope the sample with trace amounts of lanthanides such as Gd3+ or Ho3+, which further improves the polarization. While Gd3+ and Ho3+ have been optimized for use in dissolution DNP, other lanthanides have not been exhaustively studied for use in 13C DNP applications. In this work, two additional lanthanides with relatively high magnetic moments, Dy3+ and Tb3+, were extensively optimized and tested as doping additives for 13C DNP at 3.35 T and 1.2 K. We have found that both of these lanthanides are also beneficial additives, to a varying degree, for 13 DNP. The optimal concentrations of Dy3+ (1.5 mM) and Tb3+ (0.25 mM) for 13 DNP were found to be less than that of Gd3+ (2 mM). W-band electron paramagnetic resonance shows that these enhancements due to Dy3+ and Tb3+ doping are accompanied by shortening of electron T1 of trityl OX063 free radical. Furthermore, when dissolution was employed, Tb3+-doped samples were found to have similar liquid-state 13C NMR signal enhancements compared to samples doped with Gd3+, and both Tb3+ and Dy3+ had a negligible liquid-state nuclear T1 shortening effect which contrasts with the significant reduction in T1 when using Gd3+. Our results show that Dy3+ doping and Tb3+ doping have a beneficial impact on 13C DNP both in the solid and liquid states, and that Tb3+ in particular could be used as a potential alternative to Gd3+ in 13C dissolution DNP experiments.

  3. Size dependence of 13C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in micro- and nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panich, A. M.; Sergeev, N. A.; Shames, A. I.; Osipov, V. Yu; Boudou, J.-P.; Goren, S. D.

    2015-02-01

    Size dependence of physical properties of nanodiamond particles is of crucial importance for various applications in which defect density and location as well as relaxation processes play a significant role. In this work, the impact of defects induced by milling of micron-sized synthetic diamonds was studied by magnetic resonance techniques as a function of the particle size. EPR and 13C NMR studies of highly purified commercial synthetic micro- and nanodiamonds were done for various fractions separated by sizes. Noticeable acceleration of 13C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation with decreasing particle size was found. We showed that this effect is caused by the contribution to relaxation coming from the surface paramagnetic centers induced by sample milling. The developed theory of the spin-lattice relaxation for such a case shows good compliance with the experiment.

  4. Size dependence of 13C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in micro- and nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Panich, A M; Sergeev, N A; Shames, A I; Osipov, V Yu; Boudou, J-P; Goren, S D

    2015-02-25

    Size dependence of physical properties of nanodiamond particles is of crucial importance for various applications in which defect density and location as well as relaxation processes play a significant role. In this work, the impact of defects induced by milling of micron-sized synthetic diamonds was studied by magnetic resonance techniques as a function of the particle size. EPR and (13)C NMR studies of highly purified commercial synthetic micro- and nanodiamonds were done for various fractions separated by sizes. Noticeable acceleration of (13)C nuclear spin-lattice relaxation with decreasing particle size was found. We showed that this effect is caused by the contribution to relaxation coming from the surface paramagnetic centers induced by sample milling. The developed theory of the spin-lattice relaxation for such a case shows good compliance with the experiment.

  5. 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements with hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate can be used to detect the expression of transgenic pyruvate decarboxylase activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dzien, Piotr; Tee, Sui‐Seng; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Lyons, Scott K.; Larkin, Timothy J.; Timm, Kerstin N.; Hu, De‐En; Wright, Alan; Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Serrao, Eva M.; Marco‐Rius, Irene; Mannion, Elizabeth; D'Santos, Paula; Kennedy, Brett W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization can increase the sensitivity of the 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiment by at least four orders of magnitude and offers a novel approach to the development of MRI gene reporters based on enzymes that metabolize 13C‐labeled tracers. We describe here a gene reporter based on the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1), which catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvate to produce acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. Methods Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis (zmPDC) and a mutant that lacked enzyme activity were expressed using an inducible promoter in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. Enzyme activity was measured in the cells and in xenografts derived from the cells using 13C MRS measurements of the conversion of hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate to H13 CO3–. Results Induction of zmPDC expression in the cells and in the xenografts derived from them resulted in an approximately two‐fold increase in the H13 CO3–/[1‐13C] pyruvate signal ratio following intravenous injection of hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate. Conclusion We have demonstrated the feasibility of using zmPDC as an in vivo reporter gene for use with hyperpolarized 13C MRS. Magn Reson Med 76:391–401, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26388418

  6. Study and validity of 13C stable carbon isotopic ratio analysis by mass spectrometry and 2H site-specific natural isotopic fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance isotopic measurements to characterize and control the authenticity of honey.

    PubMed

    Cotte, J F; Casabianca, H; Lhéritier, J; Perrucchietti, C; Sanglar, C; Waton, H; Grenier-Loustalot, M F

    2007-01-16

    Honey samples were analyzed by stable carbon isotopic ratio analysis by mass spectrometry (SCIRA-MS) and site-specific natural isotopic fractionation measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) to first determine their potentials for characterizing the substance and then to combat adulteration. Honey samples from several geographic and botanical origins were analyzed. The delta(13)C parameter was not significant for characterizing an origin, while the (D/H)(I) ratio could be used to differentiate certain single-flower varieties. Application of the official control method of adding a C(4) syrup (AOAC official method 998.12) to our authentic samples revealed anomalies resulting from SCIRA indices that were more negative than -1 per thousand (permil). A filtration step was added to the experimental procedure and provided results that were compliant with the natural origin of our honey samples. In addition, spiking with a C(4) syrup could be detected starting at 9-10%. The use of SNIF-NMR is limited by the detection of a syrup spike starting only at 20%, which is far from satisfying.

  7. {sup 13}C, {sup 1}H, {sup 6}Li magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and Fourier transform infrared study of intercalation electrodes based in ultrasoft carbons obtained below 3100 K

    SciTech Connect

    Alcantara, R.; Madrigal, F.J.F.; Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L.; Mateos, J.M.J.; Stoyanova, R.; Zhecheva, E.

    1999-01-01

    The past decade has seen an important development of materials for high-performance energy storage systems. Particularly, the field of electrode materials for advanced lithium batteries has attracted the interest of numerous researchers. Petroleum coke samples of different origins and heat treated at different temperatures below 3100 K have been studied by spectroscopic and electrochemical procedures. According to {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data, aromatic compounds and surface OH groups are present in green coke samples. The preparation of CMB (combustible) sample from 1673 K leads to a low-temperature graphitization process, as shown by the occurrence of multiphase products containing both turbostatic and graphitized solid. This process is accompanied by the loss of aromatic compounds and surface hydroxyls. The optimization of the lithium intercalation electrodes based in the green coke materials was carried out by thermal treatment at 1023 K under dynamic vacuum conditions. Such pretreatment of the electrode material leads to marked enhancement of reversible capacities without the higher temperatures usually required for other soft carbon materials. Finally, the results of {sup 6}Li MAS NMR and EPR have been correlated with the experimental determination of lithium diffusion coefficients and surface properties. On the basis of these results, spin resonance spectroscopies are found to be a powerful tool to discern between the different petroleum coke samples to select the active electrode material with best performance.

  8. Study of lignification by noninvasive techniques in growing maize internodes. An investigation by Fourier transform infrared cross-polarization-magic angle spinning 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and immunocytochemical transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Joseleau, J P; Ruel, K

    1997-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques were used for the study in situ of lignification in the maturing cell walls of the maize (Zea mays L.) stem. Within the longitudinal axis of a developing internode all of the stages of lignification can be found. The synthesis of the three types of lignins, p-hydroxyphenylpropane (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S), was investigated in situ by cross-polarization-magic angle spinning 13C-solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and immunocytochemical electron microscopy. The first lignin appearing in the parenchyma is of the G-type preceeding the incorporation of S nuclei in the later stages. However, in vascular bundles, typical absorption bands of S nuclei are visible in the Fourier transform infrared spectra at the earliest stage of lignification. Immunocytochemical determination of the three types of lignin in transmission electron microscopy was possible thanks to the use of antisera prepared against synthetic H, G, and the mixed GS dehydrogenative polymers (K. Ruel, O. Faix, J.P. Joseleau [1994] J Trace Microprobe Tech 12: 247-265). The specificity of the immunological probes demonstrated that there are differences in the relative temporal synthesis of the H, G, and GS lignins in the different tissues undergoing lignification. Considering the intermonomeric linkages predominating in the antigens used for the preparation of the immunological probes, the relative intensities of the labeling obtained provided, for the first time to our knowledge, information about the macromolecular nature of lignins (condensed versus noncondensed) in relation to their ultrastructural localization and development stage. PMID:9232887

  9. Thermal annihilation of photo-induced radicals following dynamic nuclear polarization to produce transportable frozen hyperpolarized 13C-substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, Andrea; Cheng, Tian; Boero, Giovanni; Roussel, Christophe; Comment, Arnaud

    2017-06-01

    Hyperpolarization via dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is pivotal for boosting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sensitivity and dissolution DNP can be used to perform in vivo real-time 13C MRI. The type of applications is however limited by the relatively fast decay time of the hyperpolarized spin state together with the constraint of having to polarize the 13C spins in a dedicated apparatus nearby but separated from the MRI magnet. We herein demonstrate that by polarizing 13C with photo-induced radicals, which can be subsequently annihilated using a thermalization process that maintains the sample temperature below its melting point, hyperpolarized 13C-substrates can be extracted from the DNP apparatus in the solid form, while maintaining the enhanced 13C polarization. The melting procedure necessary to transform the frozen solid into an injectable solution containing the hyperpolarized 13C-substrates can therefore be performed ex situ, up to several hours after extraction and storage of the polarized solid.

  10. Construction and (13) C hyperpolarization efficiency of a 180 GHz dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization system.

    PubMed

    Kiswandhi, Andhika; Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Ferguson, Sarah; Taylor, David; McDonald, George; Lumata, Lloyd

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) via the dissolution method has become one of the rapidly emerging techniques to alleviate the low signal sensitivity in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging. In this paper, we report on the development and (13) C hyperpolarization efficiency of a homebuilt DNP system operating at 6.423 T and 1.4 K. The DNP hyperpolarizer system was assembled on a wide-bore superconducting magnet, equipped with a standard continuous-flow cryostat, and a 180 GHz microwave source with 120 mW power output and wide 4 GHz frequency tuning range. At 6.423 T and 1.4 K, solid-state (13) C polarization P levels of 64% and 31% were achieved for 3 M [1-(13) C] sodium acetate samples in 1 : 1 v/v glycerol:water glassing matrix doped with 15 mM trityl OX063 and 40 mM 4-oxo-TEMPO, respectively. Upon dissolution, which takes about 15 s to complete, liquid-state (13) C NMR signal enhancements as high as 240 000-fold (P=21%) were recorded in a nearby high resolution (13) C NMR spectrometer at 1 T and 297 K. Considering the relatively lower cost of our homebuilt DNP system and the relative simplicity of its design, the dissolution DNP setup reported here could be feasibly adapted for in vitro or in vivo hyperpolarized (13) C NMR or magnetic resonance imaging at least in the pre-clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Influence of deuteration in the glassing matrix on 13C dynamic nuclear polarization†

    PubMed Central

    Lumata, Lloyd; Merritt, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of protons by deuterons in the glassing solvents led to 2–3-fold improvement of the 13C dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR signal for samples doped with large electron spin resonance (ESR) linewidth free radicals galvinoxyl, DPPH, and 4-oxo-TEMPO. Meanwhile, the reverse effect is observed for 13C DNP using small ESR linewidth free radicals BDPA and trityl OX063. PMID:23552448

  12. Dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced 13C NMR spectroscopy of static biological solids

    PubMed Central

    Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility of using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to enhance signals in structural studies of biological solids by solid state NMR without sample spinning. Specifically, we use 2D 13C-13C exchange spectroscopy to probe the peptide backbone torsion angles (ϕ,ψ) in a series of selectively 13C-labeled 40-residue β-amyloid (Aβ1–40) samples, in both fibrillar and non-fibrillar states. Experiments are carried out at 9.39 T and 8 K, using a static double-resonance NMR probe and low-power microwave irradiation at 264 GHz. In frozen solutions of Aβ1–40 fibrils doped with DOTOPA-TEMPO, we observe DNP signal enhancement factors of 16–21. We show that the orientation- and frequency-dependent spin polarization exchange between sequential backbone carbonyl 13C labels can be simulated accurately using a simple expression for the exchange rate, after experimentally determined homogeneous 13C lineshapes are incorporated in the simulations. The experimental 2D 13C-13C exchange spectra place constraints on the ϕ and ψ angles between the two carbonyl labels. Although the data are not sufficient to determine ϕ and ψ uniquely, the data do provide non-trivial constraints that could be included in structure calculations. With DNP at low temperatures, 2D 13C-13C exchange spectra can be obtained from a 3.5 mg sample of Aβ1–40 fibrils in 4 hr or less, despite the broad 13C chemical shift anisotropy line shapes that are observed in static samples. PMID:23562665

  13. How Energy Metabolism Supports Cerebral Function: Insights from 13C Magnetic Resonance Studies In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sonnay, Sarah; Gruetter, Rolf; Duarte, João M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral function is associated with exceptionally high metabolic activity, and requires continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients from the blood stream. Since the mid-twentieth century the idea that brain energy metabolism is coupled to neuronal activity has emerged, and a number of studies supported this hypothesis. Moreover, brain energy metabolism was demonstrated to be compartmentalized in neurons and astrocytes, and astrocytic glycolysis was proposed to serve the energetic demands of glutamatergic activity. Shedding light on the role of astrocytes in brain metabolism, the earlier picture of astrocytes being restricted to a scaffold-associated function in the brain is now out of date. With the development and optimization of non-invasive techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), several groups have worked on assessing cerebral metabolism in vivo. In this context, 1H MRS has allowed the measurements of energy metabolism-related compounds, whose concentrations can vary under different brain activation states. 1H-[13C] MRS, i.e., indirect detection of signals from 13C-coupled 1H, together with infusion of 13C-enriched glucose has provided insights into the coupling between neurotransmission and glucose oxidation. Although these techniques tackle the coupling between neuronal activity and metabolism, they lack chemical specificity and fail in providing information on neuronal and glial metabolic pathways underlying those processes. Currently, the improvement of detection modalities (i.e., direct detection of 13C isotopomers), the progress in building adequate mathematical models along with the increase in magnetic field strength now available render possible detailed compartmentalized metabolic flux characterization. In particular, direct 13C MRS offers more detailed dataset acquisitions and provides information on metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes, and their role in supporting neurotransmission. Here, we review state

  14. How Energy Metabolism Supports Cerebral Function: Insights from (13)C Magnetic Resonance Studies In vivo.

    PubMed

    Sonnay, Sarah; Gruetter, Rolf; Duarte, João M N

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral function is associated with exceptionally high metabolic activity, and requires continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients from the blood stream. Since the mid-twentieth century the idea that brain energy metabolism is coupled to neuronal activity has emerged, and a number of studies supported this hypothesis. Moreover, brain energy metabolism was demonstrated to be compartmentalized in neurons and astrocytes, and astrocytic glycolysis was proposed to serve the energetic demands of glutamatergic activity. Shedding light on the role of astrocytes in brain metabolism, the earlier picture of astrocytes being restricted to a scaffold-associated function in the brain is now out of date. With the development and optimization of non-invasive techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), several groups have worked on assessing cerebral metabolism in vivo. In this context, (1)H MRS has allowed the measurements of energy metabolism-related compounds, whose concentrations can vary under different brain activation states. (1)H-[(13)C] MRS, i.e., indirect detection of signals from (13)C-coupled (1)H, together with infusion of (13)C-enriched glucose has provided insights into the coupling between neurotransmission and glucose oxidation. Although these techniques tackle the coupling between neuronal activity and metabolism, they lack chemical specificity and fail in providing information on neuronal and glial metabolic pathways underlying those processes. Currently, the improvement of detection modalities (i.e., direct detection of (13)C isotopomers), the progress in building adequate mathematical models along with the increase in magnetic field strength now available render possible detailed compartmentalized metabolic flux characterization. In particular, direct (13)C MRS offers more detailed dataset acquisitions and provides information on metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes, and their role in supporting neurotransmission. Here

  15. Detection of inflammatory cell function using 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy of hyperpolarized [6-13C]-arginine

    PubMed Central

    Najac, Chloé; Chaumeil, Myriam M.; Kohanbash, Gary; Guglielmetti, Caroline; Gordon, Jeremy W.; Okada, Hideho; Ronen, Sabrina M.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are highly prevalent inflammatory cells that play a key role in tumor development and are considered therapeutic targets. MDSCs promote tumor growth by blocking T-cell-mediated anti-tumoral immune response through depletion of arginine that is essential for T-cell proliferation. To deplete arginine, MDSCs express high levels of arginase, which catalyzes the breakdown of arginine into urea and ornithine. Here, we developed a new hyperpolarized 13C probe, [6-13C]-arginine, to image arginase activity. We show that [6-13C]-arginine can be hyperpolarized, and hyperpolarized [13C]-urea production from [6-13C]-arginine is linearly correlated with arginase concentration in vitro. Furthermore we show that we can detect a statistically significant increase in hyperpolarized [13C]-urea production in MDSCs when compared to control bone marrow cells. This increase was associated with an increase in intracellular arginase concentration detected using a spectrophotometric assay. Hyperpolarized [6-13C]-arginine could therefore serve to image tumoral MDSC function and more broadly M2-like macrophages. PMID:27507680

  16. Distortion-free {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy in coal: {sup 1}H rotating-frame dynamic nuclear polarization and {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C cross-polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Wind, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    A {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C cross-polarization (CP) experiment is described in which the {sup 1}H magnetization, used in CP, is obtained via dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in the proton rotating frame (RF DNP). This experiment can be carried out in coal and other solids containing unpaired electrons. In this so-called RF DNP-CP experiment, interplay effects between the {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C polarization-transfer times and the {sup 1}H rotating-frame relaxation time are avoided; thus {sup 13}C spectral distortions due to these effects are prevented. Moreover, multiple-contact RF DNP-CP experiments are possible, and these experiments reduce the measuring time of a {sup 13}C spectrum. An application of the RF DNP-CP technique in a low-volatile bituminous coal is given. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  17. (13) C dynamic nuclear polarization using isotopically enriched 4-oxo-TEMPO free radicals.

    PubMed

    Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Lumata, Lloyd

    2016-12-01

    The nitroxide-based free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) is a widely used polarizing agent in NMR signal amplification via dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). In this study, we have thoroughly investigated the effects of (15) N and/or (2) H isotopic labeling of 4-oxo-TEMPO free radical on (13) C DNP of 3 M [1-(13) C] sodium acetate samples in 1 : 1 v/v glycerol : water at 3.35 T and 1.2 K. Four variants of this free radical were used for (13) C DNP: 4-oxo-TEMPO, 4-oxo-TEMPO-(15) N, 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16 and 4-oxo-TEMPO-(15) N,d16 . Our results indicate that, despite the striking differences seen in the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral features, the (13) C DNP efficiency of these (15) N and/or (2) H-enriched 4-oxo-TEMPO free radicals are relatively the same compared with (13) C DNP performance of the regular 4-oxo-TEMPO. Furthermore, when fully deuterated glassing solvents were used, the (13) C DNP signals of these samples all doubled in the same manner, and the (13) C polarization buildup was faster by a factor of 2 for all samples. The data here suggest that the hyperfine coupling contributions of these isotopically enriched 4-oxo-TEMPO free radicals have negligible effects on the (13) C DNP efficiency at 3.35 T and 1.2 K. These results are discussed in light of the spin temperature model of DNP. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Characterization of the International Humic Substances Society standard and reference fulvic and humic acids by solution state carbon-13 (13C) and hydrogen-1 (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Folan, Daniel W.; MacCarthy, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Standard and reference samples of the International Humic Substances Society have been characterized by solution state carbon-13 and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Samples included the Suwannee River, soil, and peat standard fulvic and humic acids, the Leonardite standard humic acid, the Nordic aquatic reference fulvic and humic acids, and the Summit Hill soil reference humic acid. Aqueous-solution carbon-13 NMR analyses included the measurement of spin-lattice relaxation times, measurement of nuclear Overhauser enhancement factors, measurement of quantitative carbon distributions, recording of attached proton test spectra, and recording of spectra under nonquantitative conditions. Distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer carbon-13 NMR spectra also were recorded on the Suwannee River fulvic acid in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide. Hydrogen-1 NMR spectra were recorded on sodium salts of the samples in deuterium oxide. The carbon aromaticities of the samples ranged from 0.24 for the Suwannee River fulvic acid to 0.58 for the Leonardite humic acid.

  19. Optimisation of dynamic nuclear polarisation of [1-13C] pyruvate by addition of gadolinium-based contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen-Waldner, Lanette; Chen, Albert; Mander, Will; Scholl, Timothy J.; McKenzie, Charles A.

    2012-10-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP) of carbon-13 (13C) enriched endogenous compounds provides a novel means for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of biological processes. Adding small amounts of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) to the 13C-enriched substrate matrix increases the amount of hyperpolarisation that can be achieved, but also may decrease the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) of the 13C nucleus in solution. This study examined the effects of five different GBCA at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mM on [1-13C]-enriched pyruvic acid. It was found that contrast agents with an open chain structure (Gadobenate dimeglumine, Gadopentetate dimeglumine, Gadodiamide) caused the largest enhancement (up to 82%) in solid state polarisation relative to solutions without GBCA. In the liquid state, T1 of pyruvate decreased by as much as 62% and polarisation was much lower (70%) relative to solutions without GBCA added. Conversely, for GBCA with macrocyclic structures (Gadoterate meglumine, Gadoteridol), the solid state polarisation enhancement was only slightly less than the open chain GBCA, but enhanced polarisation was retained much better in the liquid state with minimal decrease in T1 (25% at the highest GBCA concentrations). Near maximum polarisation in the solid state was obtained at a GBCA concentration of 2 mM, with a higher concentration of 3 mM producing minimal improvement. These results indicate that the macrocyclic contrast agents provide the best combination of high solid state and liquid state polarisations with minimal loss of T1 in experiments with hyperpolarised 13C-enriched pyruvate. This suggests that macrocyclic contrast agents should be the GBCA of choice for maximising signal in experiments with hyperpolarised 13C-enriched pyruvate, particularly for in vivo measurements where shortened substrate T1 is especially problematic.

  20. Metabolism of D-glucose in a wall-less mutant of Neurospora crassa examined by /sup 13/C and /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonances: effects of insulin

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, N.J.; McKenzie, M.A.; Adebodun, F.; Jordan, F.; Lenard, J.

    1988-11-15

    /sup 13/C NMR and /sup 31/P NMR have been used to investigate the metabolism of glucose by a wall-less strain of Neurospora crassa (slime), grown in a supplemented nutritionally defined medium and harvested in the early stationary stage of growth. With D-(1-/sup 13/C)- or D-(6-/sup 13/C)glucose as substrates, the major metabolic products identified from /sup 13/C NMR spectra were (2-/sup 13/C)ethanol, (3-/sup 13/C)alanine, and C/sub 1/- and C/sub 6/-labeled trehalose. Several observations suggested the existence of a substantial hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt: (i) a 70% greater yield of ethanol from C/sub 6/- than from C/sub 1/-labeled glucose; (ii) C/sub 1/-labeled glucose yielded 19% C/sub 6/-labeled trehalose, while C/sub 6/-labeled glucose yielded only 4% C/sub 1/-labeled trehalose; (iii) a substantial transfer of /sup 13/C from C/sub 2/-labeled glucose to the C/sub 2/-position of ethanol. /sup 31/P NMR spectra showed millimolar levels of intracellular inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/), phosphodiesters, and diphosphates including sugar diphosphates and polyphosphate. Addition of glucose resulted in a decrease in cytoplasmic P/sub i/ and an increase in sugar monophosphates, which continued for at least 30 min. Phosphate resonances corresponding to metabolic intermediates of both the glycolytic and HMP pathways were identified in cell extracts. Addition of insulin (100 nM) with the glucose had the following effects relative to glucose alone: (i) a 24% increase in the rate of ethanol production; (ii) a 38% increase in the rate of alanine production; (iii) a 27% increase in the rate of glucose disappearance. Insulin thus increases the rates of production of ethanol and alanine in these cells, in addition to increasing production of CO/sub 2/ and glycogen, as previously shown.

  1. Optical Potential Parameters of Weakly Bound Nuclear System 17F+13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Guang-Peng; Lin, Cheng-Jian; Zhang, Huan-Qiao; Liu, Zu-Hua; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Gao-Long; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Wu, Zhen-Dong; Jia, Fei; Jia, Hui-Ming; Xu, Xin-Xing; Bai, Chun-Lin; Yu, Ning

    2008-12-01

    Elastic scattering angular distributions of the 14N+16O system and the angular distributions of transfer reaction 16O(14N,13 C)17 F at ELab = 76.2 MeV and 57MeV have been measured and calculated by means of the exact finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation with the PTOLEMY code. The optical potential parameters for the weakly bound nuclear system 17F+13 C have been deduced and applied to analyse the elastic scattering angular distributions of the similar systems 17F+12C and 17F+14N which are taken from literature. The result shows that the transfer reaction with stable projectile and target combination can be used as an alternative method to extract the optical potential parameters for the weakly bound nuclear system.

  2. Real-time assessment of Krebs cycle metabolism using hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Marie A; Atherton, Helen J; Ball, Daniel R; Cole, Mark A; Heather, Lisa C; Griffin, Julian L; Clarke, Kieran; Radda, George K; Tyler, Damian J

    2009-08-01

    The Krebs cycle plays a fundamental role in cardiac energy production and is often implicated in the energetic imbalance characteristic of heart disease. In this study, we measured Krebs cycle flux in real time in perfused rat hearts using hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). [2-(13)C]Pyruvate was hyperpolarized and infused into isolated perfused hearts in both healthy and postischemic metabolic states. We followed the enzymatic conversion of pyruvate to lactate, acetylcarnitine, citrate, and glutamate with 1 s temporal resolution. The appearance of (13)C-labeled glutamate was delayed compared with that of other metabolites, indicating that Krebs cycle flux can be measured directly. The production of (13)C-labeled citrate and glutamate was decreased postischemia, as opposed to lactate, which was significantly elevated. These results showed that the control and fluxes of the Krebs cycle in heart disease can be studied using hyperpolarized [2-(13)C]pyruvate.

  3. 15N Nuclear magnetic resonance of some pyrazines, 1,2,4-triazines and their N-oxides. Correlation and interrelationship of 15N with 13C chemical shifts of π-deficient heterocyclic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Misa V.

    The 15N chemical shifts of a number of pyrazines, 1,2,4-triazines, and their N-oxides are reported. The shielding effects of a substituent ortho to a ring nitrogen on that nitrogen atom depend on the π-deficiency of the heterocyclic ring. These π-deficiency values are related to ortho13C chemical shifts in substituted benzenes. A new relationship between 13C and 15N chemical shifts of several π-deficient heteroaromatic compounds is described. The N-oxides of pyrazine and 1,2,4-triazine show significant "backdonation" to the groundstate of these ring systems. This contribution becomes more important as the number of nitrogens in the ring increases. The "backdonation" is also reflected by a significant shielding of nitrogen atoms α and/or γ to the N-oxide group.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on covalent modification of amino acids thiol and amino residues by monofunctional aryl 13C-isocyanates, models of skin and respiratory sensitizers: transformation of thiocarbamates into urea adducts.

    PubMed

    Fleischel, Olivier; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to aryl isocyanates, intermediates in the manufacture of polyurethanes, provokes lung sensitization and asthma but also occupational allergic contact dermatitis, sensitization occurring from a single accidental exposure. The initial step in the sensitization process is believed to be the covalent binding of the -N triple bond C triple bond O group with nucleophilic residues on proteins. While a wide knowledge exists on the reactivity of skin sensitizers toward amino acids, little is known about respiratory sensitizers such as aryl isocyanates. (13)C-Labeled monofunctional aryl isocyanates were synthesized, and their reactivities toward nucleophilic amino acids, GSH, and a model peptide were studied by (13)C and [(1)H-(13)C] NMR spectroscopy. An acetonitrile/buffer solution was used as a solvent to avoid the hampering of the follow up of the reactivity by the isocyanate hydrolysis competing reaction. The compounds reacted with thiol groups, through the formation of thiocarbamate bonds and with amino groups to form urea derivatives. The reactivity was confirmed with GSH, containing both free amino and thiol groups, and with a model peptide, particularly in the case of the reaction with lysine. The use of (13)C NMR to follow the aryl isocyanates reversible conjugation with thiol groups is also reported. Particularly, it is shown that thiocarbamate adducts can be converted into adducts of the urea kind by reaction with amino groups. These results confirmed the hypothesis by which thiol-containing peptides/proteins may act as carriers of isocyanates for possible reaction at a later time and/or place with other nucleophiles and confirmed the role of lysine as a good competing nucleophilic amino acid. The reactivity of aryl isocyanates with thiol and amino groups needs thus to be considered in their assigned sensitization processes.

  5. Hyperpolarized (13) C magnetic resonance evaluation of renal ischemia reperfusion injury in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Baligand, Celine; Qin, Hecong; True-Yasaki, Aisha; Gordon, Jeremy W; von Morze, Cornelius; Santos, Justin Delos; Wilson, David M; Raffai, Robert; Cowley, Patrick M; Baker, Anthony J; Kurhanewicz, John; Lovett, David H; Wang, Zhen Jane

    2017-07-14

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Persistent oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated across diverse forms of AKI and in the transition to CKD. In this study, we applied hyperpolarized (HP) (13) C dehydroascorbate (DHA) and (13) C pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to investigate the renal redox capacity and mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, respectively, in a murine model of AKI at baseline and 7 days after unilateral ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Compared with the contralateral sham-operated kidneys, the kidneys subjected to IRI showed a significant decrease in the HP (13) C vitamin C/(vitamin C + DHA) ratio, consistent with a decrease in redox capacity. The kidneys subjected to IRI also showed a significant decrease in the HP (13) C bicarbonate/pyruvate ratio, consistent with impaired PDH activity. The IRI kidneys showed a significantly higher HP (13) C lactate/pyruvate ratio at day 7 compared with baseline, although the (13) C lactate/pyruvate ratio was not significantly different between the IRI and contralateral sham-operated kidneys at day 7. Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated significantly reduced perfusion in the IRI kidneys. Renal tissue analysis showed corresponding increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced PDH activity in the IRI kidneys. Our results show the feasibility of HP (13) C MRS for the non-invasive assessment of oxidative stress and mitochondrial PDH activity following renal IRI. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The truncated driven NOE and (13)C NMR sensitivity enhancement in magnetically-aligned bicelles.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Peter M; Soong, Ronald

    2007-09-01

    The truncated driven nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) sequence is examined as a means of sensitivity enhancement in (13)C NMR spectroscopy of magnetically-aligned bicelles consisting of 4.5:1 mixtures of DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) plus DHPC (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), with 1 mole% DMPE-PEG 2000 (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000). Steady-state NOE enhancements were observed at all carbon segments except the lipid carbonyls, but full NOE enhancements were obtained only for the most mobile carbon segments, specifically the choline quaternary methyls and terminal acyl chain methyls of both DMPC and DHPC, as well as the ethylene oxide segments of the PEG head group of DMPE-PEG 2000. Other carbon segments exhibited NOE enhancements that scaled with mobility as determined by transient NOE measurements combined with spin-lattice relaxation measurements. We conclude that the truncated driven NOE provides sensitivity enhancement complimentary to that yielded by cross-polarization techniques and for mobile membrane-associated species may be preferred for its robustness and ease of setup.

  7. The truncated driven NOE and 13C NMR sensitivity enhancement in magnetically-aligned bicelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Peter M.; Soong, Ronald

    2007-09-01

    The truncated driven nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) sequence is examined as a means of sensitivity enhancement in 13C NMR spectroscopy of magnetically-aligned bicelles consisting of 4.5:1 mixtures of DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) plus DHPC (1,2-dihexanoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), with 1 mole% DMPE-PEG 2000 (1,2-dimyristoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine- N-methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000). Steady-state NOE enhancements were observed at all carbon segments except the lipid carbonyls, but full NOE enhancements were obtained only for the most mobile carbon segments, specifically the choline quaternary methyls and terminal acyl chain methyls of both DMPC and DHPC, as well as the ethylene oxide segments of the PEG head group of DMPE-PEG 2000. Other carbon segments exhibited NOE enhancements that scaled with mobility as determined by transient NOE measurements combined with spin-lattice relaxation measurements. We conclude that the truncated driven NOE provides sensitivity enhancement complimentary to that yielded by cross-polarization techniques and for mobile membrane-associated species may be preferred for its robustness and ease of setup.

  8. HYPERPOLARIZED 13C MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND ITS USE IN METABOLIC ASSESSMENT OF CULTURED CELLS AND PERFUSED ORGANS

    PubMed Central

    Lumata, Lloyd; Yang, Chendong; Ragavan, Mukundan; Carpenter, Nicholas; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Merritt, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Diseased tissue is often characterized by abnormalities in intermediary metabolism. Observing these alterations in situ may lead to an improved understanding of pathological processes and novel ways to monitor these processes non-invasively in human patients. Although 13C is a stable isotope safe for use in animal models of disease as well as human subjects, its utility as a metabolic tracer has largely been limited to ex vivo analyses employing analytical techniques like mass spectrometry or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neither of these techniques is suitable for non-invasive metabolic monitoring, and the low abundance and poor gyromagnetic ratio of conventional 13C make it a poor nucleus for imaging. However, the recent advent of hyperpolarization methods, particularly dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), make it possible to enhance the spin polarization state of 13C by many orders of magnitude, resulting in a temporary amplification of the signal sufficient for monitoring kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living tissue through magnetic resonance spectroscopy or magnetic resonance imaging. Here we review DNP techniques to monitor metabolism in cultured cells, perfused hearts, and perfused livers, focusing on our experiences with hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. We present detailed approaches to optimize the DNP procedure, streamline biological sample preparation, and maximize detection of specific metabolic activities. We also discuss practical aspects in the choice of metabolic substrates for hyperpolarization studies, and outline some of the current technical and conceptual challenges in the field, including efforts to use hyperpolarization to quantify metabolic rates in vivo. PMID:26358902

  9. Antiferromagnetic nuclear spin helix and topological superconductivity in 13C nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction arising from the hyperfine coupling between localized nuclear spins and conduction electrons in interacting 13C carbon nanotubes. Using the Luttinger liquid formalism, we show that the RKKY interaction is sublattice dependent, consistent with the spin susceptibility calculation in noninteracting carbon nanotubes, and it leads to an antiferromagnetic nuclear spin helix in finite-size systems. The transition temperature reaches up to tens of mK, due to a strong boost by a positive feedback through the Overhauser field from ordered nuclear spins. Similar to GaAs nanowires, the formation of the helical nuclear spin order gaps out half of the conduction electrons, and is therefore observable as a reduction of conductance by a factor of 2 in a transport experiment. The nuclear spin helix leads to a density wave combining spin and charge degrees of freedom in the electron subsystem, resulting in synthetic spin-orbit interaction, which induces nontrivial topological phases. As a result, topological superconductivity with Majorana fermion bound states can be realized in the system in the presence of proximity-induced superconductivity without the need of fine tuning the chemical potential. We present the phase diagram as a function of system parameters, including the pairing gaps, the gap due to the nuclear spin helix, and the Zeeman field perpendicular to the helical plane.

  10. Multiple locations of peptides in the hydrocarbon core of gel-phase membranes revealed by peptide (13)C to lipid (2)H rotational-echo double-resonance solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Jia, Lihui; Liang, Shuang; Weliky, David P

    2015-01-27

    Membrane locations of peptides and proteins are often critical to their functions. Solid-state rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance is applied to probe the locations of two peptides via peptide (13)CO to lipid (2)H distance measurements. The peptides are KALP, an α-helical membrane-spanning peptide, and HFP, the β-sheet N-terminal fusion peptide of the HIV gp41 fusion protein that plays an important role in HIV-host cell membrane fusion. Both peptides are shown to have at least two distinct locations within the hydrocarbon core of gel-phase membranes. The multiple locations are attributed to snorkeling of lysine side chains for KALP and to the distribution of antiparallel β-sheet registries for HFP. The relative population of each location is also quantitated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clear experimental support of multiple peptide locations within the membrane hydrocarbon core. These data are for gel-phase membranes, but the approach should work for liquid-ordered membranes containing cholesterol and may be applicable to liquid-disordered membranes with appropriate additional analysis to take into account protein and lipid motion. This paper also describes the methodological development of (13)CO-(2)H REDOR using the lyophilized I4 peptide that is α-helical and (13)CO-labeled at A9 and (2)Hα-labeled at A8. The I4 spins are well-approximated as an ensemble of isolated (13)CO-(2)H spin pairs each separated by 5.0 Å with a 37 Hz dipolar coupling. A pulse sequence with rectangular 100 kHz (2)H π pulses results in rapid and extensive buildup of REDOR (ΔS/S0) with a dephasing time (τ). The buildup is well-fit by a simple exponential function with a rate of 24 Hz and an extent close to 1. These parameter values reflect nonradiative transitions between the (2)H spin states during the dephasing period. Each spin pair spends approximately two-thirds of its time in the (13)CO-(2)H (m = ±1) states and

  11. Novel Imaging Contrast Methods for Hyperpolarized 13 C Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Galen Durant

    Magnetic resonance imaging using hyperpolarized 13C-labeled small molecules has emerged as an extremely powerful tool for the in vivo monitoring of perfusion and metabolism. This work presents methods for improved imaging, parameter mapping, and image contrast generation for in vivo hyperpolarized 13C MRI. Angiography using hyperpolarized urea was greatly improved with a highly T2-weighted acquisition in combination with 15N labeling of the urea amide groups. This is due to the fact that the T2 of [13C]urea is strongly limited by the scalar coupling to the neighboring quadrupolar 14N. The long in vivo T2 values of [13C, 15N2]urea were utilized for sub-millimeter projection angiography using a contrast agent that could be safely injected in concentrations of 10-100 mM while still tolerated in patients with renal insufficiency. This study also presented the first method for in vivo T2 mapping of hyperpolarized 13C compounds. The in vivo T2 of urea was short in the blood and long within the kidneys. This persistent signal component was isolated to the renal filtrate, thus enabling for the first time direct detection of an imaging contrast agent undergoing glomerular filtration. While highly T2-weighted acquisitions select for molecules with short rotational correlation times, high diffusion weighting selects for those with the long translational correlation times. A specialized spin-echo EPI sequence was developed in order to generate highly diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized 13C images on a clinical MRI system operating within clinical peak- RF and gradient amplitude constraints. Low power adiabatic spin echo pulses were developed in order to generate a sufficiently large refocused bandwidth while maintaining low nominal power. This diffusion weighted acquisition gave enhanced tumor contrast-to-noise ratio when imaging [1-13C]lactate after infusion of [1-13C]pyruvate. Finally, the first in-man hyperpolarized 13C MRI clinical trial is discussed.

  12. 13C Mrs Studies of the Control of Hepatic Glycogen Metabolism at High Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Corin O.; Cao, Jin; Zhu, He; Chen, Li M.; Wilson, George; Kennan, Richard; Gore, John C.

    2017-06-01

    and induction of glycogen breakdown. In the perfused liver, inclusion of insulin was able to dose-dependently block the effect of glucagon. Conclusion: Hepatic glycogen synthesis, as well as acute hormonally-induced changes thereof, can be measured using 13C MRS at high magnetic fields both ex-vivo

  13. Vanadium bisimide bonding investigated by X-ray crystallography, 51V and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and V L(3,2)-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    La Pierre, Henry S; Minasian, Stefan G; Abubekerov, Mark; Kozimor, Stosh A; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Arnold, John; Bergman, Robert G; Toste, F Dean

    2013-10-07

    Syntheses of neutral halide and aryl vanadium bisimides are described. Treatment of VCl2(NtBu)[NTMS(N(t)Bu)], 2, with PMe3, PEt3, PMe2Ph, or pyridine gave vanadium bisimides via TMSCl elimination in good yield: VCl(PMe3)2(N(t)Bu)2 3, VCl(PEt3)2(N(t)Bu)2 4, VCl(PMe2Ph)2(N(t)Bu)2 5, and VCl(Py)2(N(t)Bu)2 6. The halide series (Cl-I) was synthesized by use of TMSBr and TMSI to give VBr(PMe3)2(N(t)Bu)2 7 and VI(PMe3)2(N(t)Bu)2 8. The phenyl derivative was obtained by reaction of 3 with MgPh2 to give VPh(PMe3)2(N(t)Bu)2 9. These neutral complexes are compared to the previously reported cationic bisimides [V(PMe3)3(N(t)Bu)2][Al(PFTB)4] 10, [V(PEt3)2(N(t)Bu)2][Al(PFTB)4] 11, and [V(DMAP)(PEt3)2(N(t)Bu)2][Al(PFTB)4] 12 (DMAP = dimethylaminopyridine, PFTB = perfluoro-tert-butoxide). Characterization of the complexes by X-ray diffraction, (13)C NMR, (51)V NMR, and V L(3,2)-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy provides a description of the electronic structure in comparison to group 6 bisimides and the bent metallocene analogues. The electronic structure is dominated by π bonding to the imides, and localization of electron density at the nitrogen atoms of the imides is dictated by the cone angle and donating ability of the axial neutral supporting ligands. This phenomenon is clearly seen in the sensitivity of (51)V NMR shift, (13)C NMR Δδ(αβ), and L3-edge energy to the nature of the supporting phosphine ligand, which defines the parameters for designing cationic group 5 bisimides that would be capable of breaking stronger σ bonds. Conversely, all three methods show little dependence on the variable equatorial halide ligand. Furthermore, this analysis allows for quantification of the electronic differences between vanadium bisimides and the structurally analogous mixed Cp/imide system CpV(N(t)Bu)X2 (Cp = C5H5(1-)).

  14. Multistep approach for the structural identification of biotransformation products of iodinated X-ray contrast media by liquid chromatography/hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Kormos, Jennifer Lynne; Schulz, Manoj; Wagner, Manfred; Ternes, Thomas A

    2009-11-15

    This study investigated the application of a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (Qq-LIT-MS) in combination with NMR to elucidate the chemical structures of 27 biotransformation products (TPs) of the nonionic iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM), iohexol, iomeprol, and iopamidol, formed in contact with soil. The combination of MS(2) and MS(3) spectra with Qq-LIT-MS was essential to determine the MS fragmentation pathways crucial for structural elucidation. (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses were needed to confirm the chemical structures of TPs proposed by MS fragmentation. Biotransformation occurred exclusively at the side chains of the iodinated X-ray contrast media, while the iodinated benzene ring remained unaltered. Several of the newly identified TPs of the ICM were found in surface water, groundwater, and even drinking water. Concentrations as high as 1450 +/- 110 ng/L (iomeprol TP629) were detected in groundwater that is influenced by wastewater infiltration, and as high as 289 +/- 41 ng/L (iomeprol TP643) in drinking water.

  15. Spectral density mapping at multiple magnetic fields suitable for (13)C NMR relaxation studies.

    PubMed

    Kadeřávek, Pavel; Zapletal, Vojtěch; Fiala, Radovan; Srb, Pavel; Padrta, Petr; Přecechtělová, Jana Pavlíková; Šoltésová, Mária; Kowalewski, Jozef; Widmalm, Göran; Chmelík, Josef; Sklenář, Vladimír; Žídek, Lukáš

    2016-05-01

    Standard spectral density mapping protocols, well suited for the analysis of (15)N relaxation rates, introduce significant systematic errors when applied to (13)C relaxation data, especially if the dynamics is dominated by motions with short correlation times (small molecules, dynamic residues of macromolecules). A possibility to improve the accuracy by employing cross-correlated relaxation rates and on measurements taken at several magnetic fields has been examined. A suite of protocols for analyzing such data has been developed and their performance tested. Applicability of the proposed protocols is documented in two case studies, spectral density mapping of a uniformly labeled RNA hairpin and of a selectively labeled disaccharide exhibiting highly anisotropic tumbling. Combination of auto- and cross-correlated relaxation data acquired at three magnetic fields was applied in the former case in order to separate effects of fast motions and conformational or chemical exchange. An approach using auto-correlated relaxation rates acquired at five magnetic fields, applicable to anisotropically moving molecules, was used in the latter case. The results were compared with a more advanced analysis of data obtained by interpolation of auto-correlated relaxation rates measured at seven magnetic fields, and with the spectral density mapping of cross-correlated relaxation rates. The results showed that sufficiently accurate values of auto- and cross-correlated spectral density functions at zero and (13)C frequencies can be obtained from data acquired at three magnetic fields for uniformly (13)C-labeled molecules with a moderate anisotropy of the rotational diffusion tensor. Analysis of auto-correlated relaxation rates at five magnetic fields represents an alternative for molecules undergoing highly anisotropic motions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectral density mapping at multiple magnetic fields suitable for 13C NMR relaxation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadeřávek, Pavel; Zapletal, Vojtěch; Fiala, Radovan; Srb, Pavel; Padrta, Petr; Přecechtělová, Jana Pavlíková; Šoltésová, Mária; Kowalewski, Jozef; Widmalm, Göran; Chmelík, Josef; Sklenář, Vladimír; Žídek, Lukáš

    2016-05-01

    Standard spectral density mapping protocols, well suited for the analysis of 15N relaxation rates, introduce significant systematic errors when applied to 13C relaxation data, especially if the dynamics is dominated by motions with short correlation times (small molecules, dynamic residues of macromolecules). A possibility to improve the accuracy by employing cross-correlated relaxation rates and on measurements taken at several magnetic fields has been examined. A suite of protocols for analyzing such data has been developed and their performance tested. Applicability of the proposed protocols is documented in two case studies, spectral density mapping of a uniformly labeled RNA hairpin and of a selectively labeled disaccharide exhibiting highly anisotropic tumbling. Combination of auto- and cross-correlated relaxation data acquired at three magnetic fields was applied in the former case in order to separate effects of fast motions and conformational or chemical exchange. An approach using auto-correlated relaxation rates acquired at five magnetic fields, applicable to anisotropically moving molecules, was used in the latter case. The results were compared with a more advanced analysis of data obtained by interpolation of auto-correlated relaxation rates measured at seven magnetic fields, and with the spectral density mapping of cross-correlated relaxation rates. The results showed that sufficiently accurate values of auto- and cross-correlated spectral density functions at zero and 13C frequencies can be obtained from data acquired at three magnetic fields for uniformly 13C -labeled molecules with a moderate anisotropy of the rotational diffusion tensor. Analysis of auto-correlated relaxation rates at five magnetic fields represents an alternative for molecules undergoing highly anisotropic motions.

  17. Assessing Oxidative Stress in Tumors by Measuring the Rate of Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Dehydroascorbic Acid Reduction Using 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Kerstin N.; Hu, De-En; Williams, Michael; Wright, Alan J.; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Kennedy, Brett W. C.; Larkin, Timothy J.; Dzien, Piotr; Marco-Rius, Irene; Bohndiek, Sarah E.; Brindle, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid cancer cell proliferation promotes the production of reducing equivalents, which counteract the effects of relatively high levels of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species levels increase in response to chemotherapy and cell death, whereas an increase in antioxidant capacity can confer resistance to chemotherapy and is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype. The pentose phosphate pathway is a major site of NADPH production in the cell, which is used to maintain the main intracellular antioxidant, glutathione, in its reduced state. Previous studies have shown that the rate of hyperpolarized [1-13C]dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) reduction, which can be measured in vivo using non-invasive 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, is increased in tumors and that this is correlated with the levels of reduced glutathione. We show here that the rate of hyperpolarized [1-13C]DHA reduction is increased in tumors that have been oxidatively prestressed by depleting the glutathione pool by buthionine sulfoximine treatment. This increase was associated with a corresponding increase in pentose phosphate pathway flux, assessed using 13C-labeled glucose, and an increase in glutaredoxin activity, which catalyzes the glutathione-dependent reduction of DHA. These results show that the rate of DHA reduction depends not only on the level of reduced glutathione, but also on the rate of NADPH production, contradicting the conclusions of some previous studies. Hyperpolarized [1-13C]DHA can be used, therefore, to assess the capacity of tumor cells to resist oxidative stress in vivo. However, DHA administration resulted in transient respiratory arrest and cardiac depression, which may prevent translation to the clinic. PMID:27994059

  18. Brain energy metabolism measured by (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo upon infusion of [3-(13)C]lactate.

    PubMed

    Duarte, João M N; Girault, Freya-Merret; Gruetter, Rolf

    2015-07-01

    The brain uses lactate produced by glycolysis as an energy source. How lactate originated from the blood stream is used to fuel brain metabolism is not clear. The current study measures brain metabolic fluxes and estimates the amount of pyruvate that becomes labeled in glial and neuronal compartments upon infusion of [3-(13)C]lactate. For that, labeling incorporation into carbons of glutamate and glutamine was measured by (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 14.1 T and analyzed with a two-compartment model of brain metabolism to estimate rates of mitochondrial oxidation, glial pyruvate carboxylation, and the glutamate-glutamine cycle as well as pyruvate fractional enrichments. Extracerebral lactate at supraphysiological levels contributes at least two-fold more to replenish the neuronal than the glial pyruvate pools. The rates of mitochondrial oxidation in neurons and glia, pyruvate carboxylase, and glutamate-glutamine cycles were similar to those estimated by administration of (13)C-enriched glucose, the main fuel of brain energy metabolism. These results are in agreement with primary utilization of exogenous lactate in neurons rather than astrocytes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Impact of Ho3+-doping on 13C dynamic nuclear polarization using trityl OX063 free radical

    PubMed Central

    Kiswandhi, Andhika; Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kaur, Pavanjeet; Martins, André; Fidelino, Leila; Khemtong, Chalermchai; Song, Likai; Sherry, A. Dean

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of Ho-DOTA doping on the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of [1-13C] sodium acetate using trityl OX063 free radical at 3.35 T and 1.2 K. Our results indicate that addition of 2 mM Ho-DOTA on 3 M [1-13C] sodium acetate sample in 1:1 v/v glycerol:water with 15 mM trityl OX063 improves the DNP-enhanced 13C solid-state nuclear polarization by a factor of around 2.7-fold. Similar to the Gd3+ doping effect on 13C DNP, the locations of the positive and negative 13C maximum polarization peaks in the 13C microwave DNP sweep are shifted towards each other with the addition of Ho-DOTA on the DNP sample. W-band electron spin resonance (ESR) studies have revealed that while the shape and linewidth of the trityl OX063 ESR spectrum was not affected by Ho3+-doping, the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of trityl OX063 was prominently reduced at cryogenic temperatures. The reduction of trityl OX063 electron T1 by Ho-doping is linked to the 13C DNP improvement in light of the thermodynamic picture of DNP. Moreover, the presence of Ho-DOTA in the dissolution liquid at room temperature has negligible reduction effect on liquid-state 13C T1, in contrast to Gd3+-doping which drastically reduces the 13C T1. The results here suggest that Ho3+-doping is advantageous over Gd3+ in terms of preservation of hyperpolarized state—an important aspect to consider for in vitro and in vivo NMR or imaging (MRI) experiments where a considerable preparation time is needed to administer the hyperpolarized 13C liquid. PMID:27424954

  20. Noninvasive characterization of neonatal adipose tissue by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Hanrahan, J D; Ala-Korpela, M; Jenkinson, G; Azzopardi, D; Iles, R A; Bell, J D

    1997-06-01

    In vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was applied noninvasively to analyze the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue in 21 full-term newborn infants and 6 mothers. In order to assess the effects of gestational and postnatal age on adipose tissue composition, we studied preterm infants at birth, term infants at the ages of 6 wk and at 6 mon. We also investigated the influence of maternal diet on infant adipose tissue composition by studying the breast-fed infants of women who maintained either an omnivore or a vegan diet. Significant differences were observed in adipose tissue composition of neonates compared with their mothers. Neonates had more saturated and less unsaturated fatty acids than their mothers (P < 0.01). We also observed changes in adipose tissue composition with maturity. From birth to 6 wk of age 13C MR spectra showed a significant increase in the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.01). Similarly, differences were seen as a result of gestational age. Preterm infants had relatively fewer unsaturated fatty acids than full-term infants. A greater proportion of these unsaturated fatty acids were polyunsaturated. Our results demonstrate that 13C MRS can be utilized to assess noninvasively neonatal adipose tissue lipid composition and to monitor the effects of developmental changes due to gestational age and oral feeding.

  1. 13C-engineered carbon quantum dots for in vivo magnetic resonance and fluorescence dual-response.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Li, Yu-Hao; Wang, Yue; Cui, Jian-Lin; Yin, Xue-Bo; He, Xi-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2014-10-21

    (13)C-engineered carbon quantum dots ((13)C-QDs) were used as magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence dual-response probe. The enhanced (13)C-MR signal was observed at 171 ppm from carboxylic and carboxyl carbons in (13)C-QDs with 160-fold improvement on signal-to-noise ratio even when no hyperpolarization was applied, whereas the intrinsic fluorescence of C-QDs was still maintained. The stable MR and fluorescence dual-response was successfully used for long-term observation of zebrafish embryonic development. Cross-validation between MR and fluorescence confirmed the distribution of (13)C-QD in zebrafish. (13)C-MR provides specific information about the presence, magnitude, and progression of (13)C-QDs by defining MR intensity, whereas fluorescence reveals the location of (13)C-QDs with its high sensitivity. (13)C-MR and fluorescence was simultaneously observed within (13)C-QDs, and this work may expand the applications of isotope-engineered nanomaterials.

  2. Dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced 1H–13C double resonance NMR in static samples below 20 K

    PubMed Central

    Potapov, Alexey; Thurber, Kent R.; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of one-dimensional and two-dimensional 1H–13C double resonance NMR experiments with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 9.4 T and temperatures below 20 K, including both 1H–13C cross-polarization and 1H decoupling, and discuss the effects of polarizing agent type, polarizing agent concentration, temperature, and solvent deuteration. We describe a two-channel low-temperature DNP/NMR probe, capable of carrying the radio-frequency power load required for 1H–13C cross-polarization and high-power proton decoupling. Experiments at 8 K and 16 K reveal a significant T2 relaxation of 13C, induced by electron spin flips. Carr–Purcell experiments and numerical simulations of Carr–Purcell dephasing curves allow us to determine the effective correlation time of electron flips under our experimental conditions. The dependence of the DNP signal enhancement on electron spin concentration shows a maximum near 80 mM. Although no significant difference in the absolute DNP enhancements for triradical (DOTOPA-TEMPO) and biradical (TOTAPOL) dopants was found, the triradical produced greater DNP build-up rates, which are advantageous for DNP experiments. Additionally the feasibility of structural measurements on 13C-labeled biomolecules was demonstrated with a two-dimensional 13C–13C exchange spectrum of selectively 13C-labeled β-amyloid fibrils. PMID:22743540

  3. Weak coupling between magnetically inequivalent spins: The deceptively simple, complicated spectrum of a 13C-labeled trimethylated amine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Paige, Ulric B.; Smits, Bauke; 't Hart, Peter; Lefeber, Fons; Martin, Nathaniel I.; van Ingen, Hugo

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic inequivalence of nuclear spins is well known to cause additional splittings that complicate spectral analysis. Here, we present an extraordinary case of magnetic inequivalence, manifested in the 13-spin system of a 13C,15N-labeled trimethylated amine. All methyl group protons are chemically equivalent due to the molecular symmetry, but not all are magnetically equivalent as they have different 1JCH and 3JCH couplings. In general, spectra of such a large spin system can be expected to be extremely complicated by the presence of hundreds if not thousands of extra lines, caused by the strong coupling between inequivalent nuclei. Surprisingly, the 1H spectrum presented consists of very few lines, in a pattern of the utmost simplicity. Using sub-spectral analysis we show that this is due to weak coupling between the magnetically inequivalent nuclei, as a consequence of the particular combination of coupling constants. We find that the 4JHH geminal methyl coupling constant is 0.43 Hz and 2JCC is ∼0 Hz. In addition, we demonstrate that homo-decoupling can be used to transform the spin system to a set of fully equivalent spins, resulting in disappearance of 4JHH-splittings. We believe this curious case is a highly instructive example of magnetic inequivalence. The spectra may be considered deceptively simple, as fewer lines are observed than one would anticipate. At the same time, the spectra are deceptively complicated, as they can very well be approximated by intuitive reasoning.

  4. Magnetic and micellar effects on photoreactions. 1. /sup 13/C isotopic enrichment of dibenzyl ketone via photolysis in aqueous detergent solution

    SciTech Connect

    Turro, N.J.; Chow, M.F.; Chung, C.J.; Kraeutler, B.

    1981-07-01

    The photolysis of dibenzyl ketone (DBK) in homogeneous organic solutions and in micelle-containing detergent solutions has been investigated from the standpoint of determining the extent and location of /sup 13/C enrichment that occurs. In a series of experiments it is established that for incomplete conversions the residual, recovered DBK is enriched in /sup 13/C relative to the initial unphotolyzed DBK. The efficiency of the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C separation is shown to be characterized by an isotope enrichment parameter, ..cap alpha.., which is independent of the extent of conversion. A combination of mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides support for the primary location of the /sup 13/C enrichment at C-1 (the carbonyl carbon) with a lesser but significant enrichment at C-2 (the methylene carbon). A very small but experimentally distinct enrichment of the aromatic rings is indicated by /sup 13/C NMR analysis. An isomer of DBK, 1-phenyl-4'-methylacetophenone (PMAP) is formed as a minor product of photolysis in micellar solutions. PMAP, like the recovered, residual DBK, is found to be substantially enriched in /sup 13/C relative to the starting DBK. The magnitude of ..cap alpha.. is found to be significantly influenced by the application of laboratory magnetic fields to the photolysis sample. The latter result, along with the unusually large magnitude of ..cap alpha.., suggests that the mechanism involved in isotopic enrichment is not dominated by kinetic mass isotope effects but rather by nuclear magnetic moment and/or magnetic spin isotope effects.

  5. Quantitation of a spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) between a hyperpolarized (13) C-labeled cell metabolite and water protons.

    PubMed

    Marco-Rius, Irene; Bohndiek, Sarah E; Kettunen, Mikko I; Larkin, Timothy J; Basharat, Meer; Seeley, Colm; Brindle, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) describes the enhancement of spin polarization of solvent nuclei by the hyperpolarized spins of a solute. In this communication we demonstrate that SPINOEs can be observed between [1,4-(13) C2 ]fumarate, hyperpolarized using the dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization technique, and solvent water protons. We derive a theoretical expression for the expected enhancement and demonstrate that this fits well with experimental measurements. Although the magnitude of the effect is relatively small (around 2% measured here), the SPINOE increases at lower field strengths, so that at clinically relevant magnetic fields (1.5-3 T) it may be possible to track the passage through the circulation of a bolus containing a hyperpolarized (13) C-labeled substrate through the increase in solvent water (1) H signal. © 2014 The Authors. Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  6. Quantitation of a spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) between a hyperpolarized 13C-labeled cell metabolite and water protons

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Rius, Irene; Bohndiek, Sarah E; Kettunen, Mikko I; Larkin, Timothy J; Basharat, Meer; Seeley, Colm; Brindle, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) describes the enhancement of spin polarization of solvent nuclei by the hyperpolarized spins of a solute. In this communication we demonstrate that SPINOEs can be observed between [1,4-13C2]fumarate, hyperpolarized using the dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization technique, and solvent water protons. We derive a theoretical expression for the expected enhancement and demonstrate that this fits well with experimental measurements. Although the magnitude of the effect is relatively small (around 2% measured here), the SPINOE increases at lower field strengths, so that at clinically relevant magnetic fields (1.5–3 T) it may be possible to track the passage through the circulation of a bolus containing a hyperpolarized 13C-labeled substrate through the increase in solvent water 1H signal. © 2014 The Authors. Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. PMID:24523064

  7. Construction and 13C NMR signal-amplification efficiency of a dynamic nuclear polarizer at 6.4 T and 1.4 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiswandhi, Andhika; Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Ferguson, Sarah; Taylor, David; McDonald, George; Lumata, Lloyd

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a rapidly emerging technique in biomedical and metabolic imaging since it amplifies the liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and imaging (MRI) signals by >10,000-fold. Originally used in nuclear scattering experiments, DNP works by creating a non-Boltzmann nuclear spin distribution by transferring the high electron (γ = 28,000 MHz/T) thermal polarization to the nuclear spins via microwave irradiation of the sample at high magnetic field and low temperature. A dissolution device is used to rapidly dissolve the frozen sample and consequently produces an injectable ``hyperpolarized'' liquid at physiologically-tolerable temperature. Here we report the construction and performance evaluation of a dissolution DNP hyperpolarizer at 6.4 T and 1.4 K using a continuous-flow cryostat. The solid and liquid-state 13C NMR signal enhancement levels of 13C acetate samples doped with trityl OX063 and 4-oxo-TEMPO free radicals will be discussed and compared with the results from the 3.35 T commercial hyperpolarizer. This work is supported by US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.

  8. Parameterization of hyperpolarized (13)C-bicarbonate-dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Scholz, David Johannes; Otto, Angela M; Hintermair, Josef; Schilling, Franz; Frank, Annette; Köllisch, Ulrich; Janich, Martin A; Schulte, Rolf F; Schwaiger, Markus; Haase, Axel; Menzel, Marion I

    2015-12-01

    (13)C metabolic MRI using hyperpolarized (13)C-bicarbonate enables preclinical detection of pH. To improve signal-to-noise ratio, experimental procedures were refined, and the influence of pH, buffer capacity, temperature, and field strength were investigated. Bicarbonate preparation was investigated. Bicarbonate was prepared and applied in spectroscopy at 1, 3, 14 T using pure dissolution, culture medium, and MCF-7 cell spheroids. Healthy rats were imaged by spectral-spatial spiral acquisition for spatial and temporal bicarbonate distribution, pH mapping, and signal decay analysis. An optimized preparation technique for maximum solubility of 6 mol/L and polarization levels of 19-21% is presented; T1 and SNR dependency on field strength, buffer capacity, and pH was investigated. pH mapping in vivo is demonstrated. An optimized bicarbonate preparation and experimental procedure provided improved T1 and SNR values, allowing in vitro and in vivo applications.

  9. Characterization of the Interfacial Regions of Heterogeneous Blends of Immiscible Polymers by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (13)C NMR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-31

    a stable free radical, we can generate a dynamic nuclear polarization ( DNP ) enhanced 13C NMR signal from chains of the undoped component which are...within 100 A of the interface. DNP - enhanced NMR relaxation experiments performed on polycarbonate/free-radical-doped- polystyrene blends show that...perform DNP -selected, NMR relaxation experiments on a variety of polycarbonate-polystyrene blends with known thermal histories and solvent exposure. The

  10. Detecting response of rat C6 glioma tumors to radiotherapy using hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate and 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Day, Sam E.; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Cherkuri, Murali Krishna; Mitchell, James B.; Lizak, Martin J.; Morris, H. Douglas; Koretsky, Alan P.; Brindle, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    13C chemical shift images acquired following intravenous injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate into rats with implanted C6 gliomas showed significant labeling of lactate within the tumors but not in surrounding brain tissue. Signal from pyruvate was observed in blood vessels above the brain and from other major vessels elsewhere in the rat head. Pyruvate was largely undetectable within the tumor or surrounding normal brain tissue. The ratio of hyperpolarized 13C label in the injected pyruvate and endogenous lactate was decreased from 0.25 +/− 0.13 to 0.13 +/− 0.08, (a reduction of 48%) at 96 h following whole brain irradiation with 15 Gy. These data suggest that hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate may be useful in detecting treatment response in gliomas, where the use of 18FDG-PET is limited by the high background signals from normal brain tissue. PMID:21264939

  11. Characterization of hyperfine interaction between an NV electron spin and a first-shell 13C nuclear spin in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Rama Koteswara; Suter, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has attractive properties for a number of quantum technologies that rely on the spin angular momentum of the electron and the nuclei adjacent to the center. The nucleus with the strongest interaction is the 13C nuclear spin of the first shell. Using this degree of freedom effectively hinges on precise data on the hyperfine interaction between the electronic and the nuclear spin. Here, we present detailed experimental data on this interaction, together with an analysis that yields all parameters of the hyperfine tensor, as well as its orientation with respect to the atomic structure of the center.

  12. Quantitative analysis of molecular transport across liposomal bilayer by J-mediated 13C Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Goor, Olga J G M; Han, Songi

    2012-11-06

    We introduce a new NMR technique to dramatically enhance the solution-state (13)C NMR sensitivity and contrast at 0.35 T and at room temperature by actively transferring the spin polarization from Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP)-enhanced (1)H to (13)C nuclei through scalar (J) coupling, a method that we term J-mediated (13)C ODNP. We demonstrate the capability of this technique by quantifying the permeability of glycine across negatively charged liposomal bilayers composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG). The permeability coefficient of glycine across this DPPC/DPPG bilayer is measured to be (1.8 ± 0.1) × 10(-11)m/s, in agreement with the literature value. We further observed that the presence of 20 mol % cholesterol within the DPPC/DPPG lipid membrane significantly retards the permeability of glycine by a factor of 4. These findings demonstrate that the high sensitivity and contrast of J-mediated (13)C ODNP affords the measurement of the permeation kinetics of small hydrophilic molecules across lipid bilayers, a quantity that is difficult to accurately measure with existing techniques.

  13. Relativistic Force Field: Parametrization of (13)C-(1)H Nuclear Spin-Spin Coupling Constants.

    PubMed

    Kutateladze, Andrei G; Mukhina, Olga A

    2015-11-06

    Previously, we reported a reliable DU8 method for natural bond orbital (NBO)-aided parametric scaling of Fermi contacts to achieve fast and accurate prediction of proton-proton spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) in (1)H NMR. As sophisticated NMR experiments for precise measurements of carbon-proton SSCCs are becoming more user-friendly and broadly utilized by the organic chemistry community to guide and inform the process of structure determination of complex organic compounds, we have now developed a fast and accurate method for computing (13)C-(1)H SSCCs. Fermi contacts computed with the DU8 basis set are scaled using selected NBO parameters in conjunction with empirical scaling coefficients. The method is optimized for inexpensive B3LYP/6-31G(d) geometries. The parametric scaling is based on a carefully selected training set of 274 ((3)J), 193 ((2)J), and 143 ((1)J) experimental (13)C-(1)H spin-spin coupling constants reported in the literature. The DU8 basis set, optimized for computing Fermi contacts, which by design had evolved from optimization of a collection of inexpensive 3-21G*, 4-21G, and 6-31G(d) bases, offers very short computational (wall) times even for relatively large organic molecules containing 15-20 carbon atoms. The most informative SSCCs for structure determination, i.e., (3)J, were computed with an accuracy of 0.41 Hz (rmsd). The new unified approach for computing (1)H-(1)H and (13)C-(1)H SSCCs is termed "DU8c".

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of pH in vivo using hyperpolarized 13C-labelled bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Ferdia A; Kettunen, Mikko I; Day, Sam E; Hu, De-En; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Zandt, René in 't; Jensen, Pernille R; Karlsson, Magnus; Golman, Klaes; Lerche, Mathilde H; Brindle, Kevin M

    2008-06-12

    As alterations in tissue pH underlie many pathological processes, the capability to image tissue pH in the clinic could offer new ways of detecting disease and response to treatment. Dynamic nuclear polarization is an emerging technique for substantially increasing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging experiments. Here we show that tissue pH can be imaged in vivo from the ratio of the signal intensities of hyperpolarized bicarbonate (H(13)CO(3)(-)) and (13)CO(2) following intravenous injection of hyperpolarized H(13)CO(3)(-). The technique was demonstrated in a mouse tumour model, which showed that the average tumour interstitial pH was significantly lower than the surrounding tissue. Given that bicarbonate is an endogenous molecule that can be infused in relatively high concentrations into patients, we propose that this technique could be used clinically to image pathological processes that are associated with alterations in tissue pH, such as cancer, ischaemia and inflammation.

  15. Detecting response of rat C6 glioma tumors to radiotherapy using hyperpolarized [1- 13C]pyruvate and 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Day, Sam E; Kettunen, Mikko I; Cherukuri, Murali Krishna; Mitchell, James B; Lizak, Martin J; Morris, H Douglas; Matsumoto, Shingo; Koretsky, Alan P; Brindle, Kevin M

    2011-02-01

    We show here that hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate can be used to detect treatment response in a glioma tumor model; a tumor type where detection of response with (18) fluoro-2-deoxyglucose, using positron emission tomography, is limited by the high background signals from normal brain tissue. (13) C chemical shift images acquired following intravenous injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate into rats with implanted C6 gliomas showed significant labeling of lactate within the tumors but comparatively low levels in surrounding brain.Labeled pyruvate was observed at high levels in blood vessels above the brain and from other major vessels elsewhere but was detected at only low levels in tumor and brain.The ratio of hyperpolarized (13) C label in tumor lactate compared to the maximum pyruvate signal in the blood vessels was decreased from 0.38 ± 0.16 to 0.23 ± 0.13, (a reduction of 34%) by 72 h following whole brain irradiation with 15 Gy.

  16. Carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C and (14)C activity) of plant samples in the vicinity of the Slovene nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Martina; Vreča, Polona; Krajcar Bronić, Ines

    2012-08-01

    δ(13)C values of various plants (apples, wheat, and maize) collected in the vicinity of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant (Slovenia) during 2008 and 2009 were determined. By measuring dried samples and their carbonized counterparts we showed that no significant isotopic fractionation occurs during the carbonization phase of the sample preparation process in the laboratory. The measured δ(13)C values of the plants were used for δ(13)C correction of their measured (14)C activities.

  17. Long-Lived (13)C2 Nuclear Spin States Hyperpolarized by Parahydrogen in Reversible Exchange at Microtesla Fields.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zijian; Yu, Jin; Colell, Johannes F P; Laasner, Raul; Logan, Angus; Barskiy, Danila A; Shchepin, Roman V; Chekmenev, Eduard Y; Blum, Volker; Warren, Warren S; Theis, Thomas

    2017-07-06

    Parahydrogen is an inexpensive and readily available source of hyperpolarization used to enhance magnetic resonance signals by up to four orders of magnitude above thermal signals obtained at ∼10 T. A significant challenge for applications is fast signal decay after hyperpolarization. Here we use parahydrogen-based polarization transfer catalysis at microtesla fields (first introduced as SABRE-SHEATH) to hyperpolarize (13)C2 spin pairs and find decay time constants of 12 s for magnetization at 0.3 mT, which are extended to 2 min at that same field, when long-lived singlet states are hyperpolarized instead. Enhancements over thermal at 8.5 T are between 30 and 170 fold (0.02 to 0.12% polarization). We control the spin dynamics of polarization transfer by choice of microtesla field, allowing for deliberate hyperpolarization of either magnetization or long-lived singlet states. Density functional theory calculations and experimental evidence identify two energetically close mechanisms for polarization transfer: First, a model that involves direct binding of the (13)C2 pair to the polarization transfer catalyst and, second, a model transferring polarization through auxiliary protons in substrates.

  18. Temperature dependence of high field 13C dynamic nuclear polarization processes with trityl radicals below 35 Kelvin.

    PubMed

    Walker, Shamon A; Edwards, Devin T; Siaw, Ting Ann; Armstrong, Brandon D; Han, Songi

    2013-09-28

    In order to facilitate versatile applications with high field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), it is important to be able to optimize the DNP performance, i.e. reach high nuclear hyperpolarization within a short signal build up time. Given that the solid-state DNP process is strongly temperature-dependent, it is important to benchmark the temperature dependence of various DNP and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters that can then be used to test and develop theories and models for high field DNP mechanisms. However, DNP and EPR experiments at high fields and cryogenic temperatures below 20 Kelvin usually require home built instrumentation, and therefore even basic experimental observations are lacking in the literature. DNP and EPR experiments at 7 T (197 GHz) and 8.5 T (240 GHz), respectively, were conducted at temperatures between 35 K and 3.7 K where the electron thermal polarization changes from 13.4% to 85.6%, respectively. The samples are frozen solutions of 15 mM OX063Me trityl radicals in various mixtures of [1-(13)C]pyruvic acid, glycerol, and Gd(3+)-chelates. For all sample mixtures, the trityl EPR lines are found to be inhomogeneously broadened and the dominant DNP mechanism is shown to be the cross effect (CE). A 20%, 11%, and 6.77% (13)C polarization is achieved at 3.7 K with a [1-(13)C]pyruvic-glycerol-H2O sample, the addition of 2 mM of Gd(3+)-chelates, and pure [1-(13)C]pyruvic acid, respectively. When T1n is sufficiently long, our results seem to suggest T1e is a key variable in the DNP process, where longer T1e values correlate with larger DNP enhancements (εDNP). The experimental data reported here on the temperature dependence of T1n, T1e, Tm (electron phase memory time), the EPR linewidth, TDNP and ε(DNP) at high fields will be helpful for testing the mechanism and theory of DNP processes.

  19. Using magnetic coupling to implement 1H, 19F, 13C experiments in routine high resolution NMR probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, Paul; Finnigan, Jim; Marsden, Brian; Taber, Bob; Zens, Albert

    2015-12-01

    We report in this paper the design of 1H, 19F, 13C circuitry using magnetic coupling which can do on demand experiments where one of the three nuclei is observed and the other two are decoupled. The implementation of this circuitry in routine NMR probes is compared with capacitive coupling methods where it was found that by using magnetic coupling the performance of the routine NMR probe was not impacted by the addition of this circuitry. It is surmised that using this type of circuitry would be highly desirable for those chemists doing routine 19F NMR.

  20. Investigation of {sup 6}Li + {sup 13}C scattering and observation of a nuclear quasi-rainbow

    SciTech Connect

    Dem`yanova, A.S.; Ogloblin, A.A.; Osadchii, O.Ya.

    1994-11-01

    Differential cross sections for elastic scattering of {sup 6}Li ions by {sup 13}C at E{sub c.m.s.} = 26 MeV are measured in the range of c.m.s. angles 14 - 163{degrees} at the Kurchatov Institute cyclotron in both direct and inverse kinematics by the {Delta}E-E telescope technique. A broad maximum in the angular distribution that is exhausted completely by the far component is observed at approximately 100{degrees}. The maximum is a typical manifestation of the nuclear rainbow and can be explained by the interference of waves arriving from the two branches of the deflection function (DF). However, for the potential chosen in this study, the DF has a singularity, and nuclear-rainbow scattering cannot formally take place because there is no finite scattering angle. The observed effect, which is referred to as a quasi-rainbow, demonstrates that the principal peculiarities of elastic scattering are the same in the two energy regions that are considered in a direct semiclassical approximation as corresponding to two fundamentally different phenomena: orbiting and the rainbow. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. 13C metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Wiechert, W

    2001-07-01

    Metabolic flux analysis using 13C-labeled substrates has become an important tool in metabolic engineering. It allows the detailed quantification of all intracellular fluxes in the central metabolism of a microorganism. The method has strongly evolved in recent years by the introduction of new experimental procedures, measurement techniques, and mathematical data evaluation methods. Many of these improvements require advanced skills in the application of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques on the one hand and computational and statistical experience on the other hand. This minireview summarizes these recent developments and sketches the major practical problems. An outlook to possible future developments concludes the text.

  2. Functional groups identified by solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal manure is generally high in organic matter intensity so it is well suitable for 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Solid-state 13C NMR techniques used in characterizing organic matter and its components include, but are not limited to, cross-polarization /magic angle spinning (CP...

  3. 1H–13C hetero-nuclear dipole–dipole couplings of methyl groups in stationary and magic angle spinning solid-state NMR experiments of peptides and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chin H.; Das, Bibhuti B.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2010-01-01

    13C NMR of isotopically labeled methyl groups has the potential to combine spectroscopic simplicity with ease of labeling for protein NMR studies. However, in most high resolution separated local field experiments, such as polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle (PISEMA), that are used to measure 1H–13C hetero-nuclear dipolar couplings, the four-spin system of the methyl group presents complications. In this study, the properties of the 1H–13C hetero-nuclear dipolar interactions of 13C-labeled methyl groups are revealed through solid-state NMR experiments on a range of samples, including single crystals, stationary powders, and magic angle spinning of powders, of 13C3 labeled alanine alone and incorporated into a protein. The spectral simplifications resulting from proton detected local field (PDLF) experiments are shown to enhance resolution and simplify the interpretation of results on single crystals, magnetically aligned samples, and powders. The complementarity of stationary sample and magic angle spinning (MAS) measurements of dipolar couplings is demonstrated by applying polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle and magic angle spinning (PISEMAMAS) to unoriented samples. PMID:19896874

  4. (1)H-(13)C Hetero-nuclear dipole-dipole couplings of methyl groups in stationary and magic angle spinning solid-state NMR experiments of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin H; Das, Bibhuti B; Opella, Stanley J

    2010-02-01

    (13)C NMR of isotopically labeled methyl groups has the potential to combine spectroscopic simplicity with ease of labeling for protein NMR studies. However, in most high resolution separated local field experiments, such as polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle (PISEMA), that are used to measure (1)H-(13)C hetero-nuclear dipolar couplings, the four-spin system of the methyl group presents complications. In this study, the properties of the (1)H-(13)C hetero-nuclear dipolar interactions of (13)C-labeled methyl groups are revealed through solid-state NMR experiments on a range of samples, including single crystals, stationary powders, and magic angle spinning of powders, of (13)C(3) labeled alanine alone and incorporated into a protein. The spectral simplifications resulting from proton detected local field (PDLF) experiments are shown to enhance resolution and simplify the interpretation of results on single crystals, magnetically aligned samples, and powders. The complementarity of stationary sample and magic angle spinning (MAS) measurements of dipolar couplings is demonstrated by applying polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle and magic angle spinning (PISEMAMAS) to unoriented samples. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of 1H, 13C, and 59Co in a Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) Crystalline Lattice Doped with Cr(III)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The study of inorganic crystalline materials by solid-state NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the low sensitivity of heavy nuclei. However, these materials often contain or can be prepared with paramagnetic dopants without significantly affecting the structure of the crystalline host. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is generally capable of enhancing NMR signals by transferring the magnetization of unpaired electrons to the nuclei. Therefore, the NMR sensitivity in these paramagnetically doped crystals might be increased by DNP. In this paper we demonstrate the possibility of efficient DNP transfer in polycrystalline samples of [Co(en)3Cl3]2·NaCl·6H2O (en = ethylenediamine, C2H8N2) doped with Cr(III) in varying concentrations between 0.1 and 3 mol %. We demonstrate that 1H, 13C, and 59Co can be polarized by irradiation of Cr(III) with 140 GHz microwaves at a magnetic field of 5 T. We further explain our findings on the basis of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the Cr(III) site and analysis of its temperature-dependent zero-field splitting, as well as the dependence of the DNP enhancement factor on the external magnetic field and microwave power. This first demonstration of DNP transfer from one paramagnetic metal ion to its diamagnetic host metal ion will pave the way for future applications of DNP in paramagnetically doped materials or metalloproteins. PMID:25069794

  6. Dynamic nuclear polarization of (1)H, (13)C, and (59)Co in a tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) crystalline lattice doped with Cr(III).

    PubMed

    Corzilius, Björn; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Penzel, Susanne A; Ravera, Enrico; Smith, Albert A; Luchinat, Claudio; Griffin, Robert G

    2014-08-20

    The study of inorganic crystalline materials by solid-state NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the low sensitivity of heavy nuclei. However, these materials often contain or can be prepared with paramagnetic dopants without significantly affecting the structure of the crystalline host. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is generally capable of enhancing NMR signals by transferring the magnetization of unpaired electrons to the nuclei. Therefore, the NMR sensitivity in these paramagnetically doped crystals might be increased by DNP. In this paper we demonstrate the possibility of efficient DNP transfer in polycrystalline samples of [Co(en)3Cl3]2·NaCl·6H2O (en = ethylenediamine, C2H8N2) doped with Cr(III) in varying concentrations between 0.1 and 3 mol %. We demonstrate that (1)H, (13)C, and (59)Co can be polarized by irradiation of Cr(III) with 140 GHz microwaves at a magnetic field of 5 T. We further explain our findings on the basis of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the Cr(III) site and analysis of its temperature-dependent zero-field splitting, as well as the dependence of the DNP enhancement factor on the external magnetic field and microwave power. This first demonstration of DNP transfer from one paramagnetic metal ion to its diamagnetic host metal ion will pave the way for future applications of DNP in paramagnetically doped materials or metalloproteins.

  7. Evaluation of Heterogeneous Metabolic Profile in an Orthotopic Human Glioblastoma Xenograft Model Using Compressed Sensing Hyperpolarized 3D 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ilwoo; Hu, Simon; Bok, Robert; Ozawa, Tomoko; Ito, Motokazu; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Phillips, Joanna J.; James, C. David; Pieper, Russell O.; Ronen, Sabrina M.; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    High resolution compressed sensing hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was applied in orthotopic human glioblastoma xenografts for quantitative assessment of spatial variations in 13C metabolic profiles and comparison with histopathology. A new compressed sensing sampling design with a factor of 3.72 acceleration was implemented to enable a factor of 4 increase in spatial resolution. Compressed sensing 3D 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging data were acquired from a phantom and 10 tumor-bearing rats following injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate using a 3T scanner. The 13C metabolic profiles were compared with hematoxylin and eosin staining and carbonic anhydrase 9 staining. The high-resolution compressed sensing 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging data enabled the differentiation of distinct 13C metabolite patterns within abnormal tissues with high specificity in similar scan times compared to the fully sampled method. The results from pathology confirmed the different characteristics of 13C metabolic profiles between viable, non-necrotic, nonhypoxic tumor, and necrotic, hypoxic tissue. PMID:22851374

  8. Simultaneous PET/MRI with (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (hyperPET): phantom-based evaluation of PET quantification.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Adam E; Andersen, Flemming L; Henriksen, Sarah T; Vignaud, Alexandre; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas; Klausen, Thomas L

    2016-12-01

    Integrated PET/MRI with hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((13)C-MRSI) offers simultaneous, dual-modality metabolic imaging. A prerequisite for the use of simultaneous imaging is the absence of interference between the two modalities. This has been documented for a clinical whole-body system using simultaneous (1)H-MRI and PET but never for (13)C-MRSI and PET. Here, the feasibility of simultaneous PET and (13)C-MRSI as well as hyperpolarized (13)C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is evaluated using phantom experiments. Combined PET and (13)C-MRSI phantoms including a NEMA [(18)F]-FDG phantom, (13)C-acetate and (13)C-urea sources, and hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate were imaged repeatedly with PET and/or (13)C-MRSI. Measurements evaluated for interference effects included PET activity values in the largest sphere and a background region; total number of PET trues; and (13)C-MRSI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for urea and acetate phantoms. Differences between measurement conditions were evaluated using t tests. PET and (13)C-MRSI data acquisition could be performed simultaneously without any discernible artifacts. The average difference in PET activity between acquisitions with and without simultaneous (13)C-MRSI was 0.83 (largest sphere) and -0.76 % (background). The average difference in net trues was -0.01 %. The average difference in (13)C-MRSI SNR between acquisitions with and without simultaneous PET ranged from -2.28 to 1.21 % for all phantoms and measurement conditions. No differences were significant. The system was capable of (13)C-MRSI of hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate. Simultaneous PET and (13)C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is feasible. Phantom experiments showed that possible interference effects introduced by acquiring data from the two modalities simultaneously are small and non-significant. Further experiments can now investigate the benefits of simultaneous PET and

  9. Evidence for Rapid Oxidative Phosphorylation and Lactate Fermentation in Motile Human Sperm by Hyperpolarized (13)C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Steven; Ismail, Nurul Fadhlina Bt; Calvert, Sarah J; Pacey, Allan A; Paley, Martyn N J

    2017-06-28

    Poor sperm motility is a common cause of male infertility for which there are no empirical therapies. Sperm motility is powered by adenosine triphosphate but the relative importance of lactate fermentation and Oxidative Phosphorylation (OxPhos) is debated. To study the relationship between energy metabolism and sperm motility we used dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (dDNP) for the first time to show the rapid conversion of (13)C1-pyruvate to lactate and bicarbonate, indicating active glycolytic and OxPhos metabolism in sperm. The magnitude of both lactate and bicarbonate signals were positively correlated with the concentration of progressively motile sperm. After controlling for sperm concentration, increased progressive sperm motility generated more pyruvate conversion to lactate and bicarbonate. The technique of dDNP allows 'snapshots' of sperm metabolism to be tracked over the different stages of their life. This may provide help to uncover the causes of poor sperm motility and suggest new approaches for novel treatments or therapies.

  10. High-resolution hyperpolarized in vivo metabolic 13C spectroscopy at low magnetic field (48.7 mT) following murine tail-vein injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Aaron M.; Feldman, Matthew A.; Shchepin, Roman V.; Barskiy, Danila A.; Truong, Milton L.; Pham, Wellington; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy of hyperpolarized succinate-1-13C-2,3-d2 is reported in vitro and in vivo using a clinical-scale, biplanar (80 cm-gap) 48.7 mT permanent magnet with a high homogeneity magnetic field. Non-localized 13C NMR spectra were recorded at 0.52 MHz resonance frequency over the torso of a tumor-bearing mouse every 2 s. Hyperpolarized 13C NMR signals with linewidths of ∼3 Hz (corresponding to ∼6 ppm) were recorded in vitro (2 mL in a syringe) and in vivo (over a mouse torso). Comparison of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) for 13C NMR spectra acquired at 48.7 mT and at 4.7 T in a small-animal MRI scanner demonstrates a factor of ∼12 improvement for the 13C resonance linewidth attainable at 48.7 mT compared to that at 4.7 T in vitro. 13C hyperpolarized succinate-1-13C resonance linewidths in vivo are at least one order of magnitude narrower at 48.7 mT compared to those observed in high-field (≥3 T) studies employing HP contrast agents. The demonstrated high-resolution 13C in vivo spectroscopy could be useful for high-sensitivity spectroscopic studies involving monitoring HP agent uptake or detecting metabolism using HP contrast agents with sufficiently large 13C chemical shift differences.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, B.C.

    1984-02-07

    A nuclear magnetic resonance gyro using two nuclear magnetic resonance gases, preferably xenon 129 and xenon 131, together with two alkaline metal vapors, preferably rubidium, potassium or cesium, one of the two alkaline metal vapors being pumped by light which has the wavelength of that alkaline metal vapor, and the other alkaline vapor being illuminated by light which has the wavelength of that other alkaline vapor.

  12. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Surfactant: Low Temperature Magic Angle Spinning 13C and 29Si NMR Enhanced by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Lafon, Olivier; Thankamony, Aany S. Lilly; Kokayashi, Takeshi; Carnevale, Diego; Vitzthum, Veronika; Slowing, Igor I.; Kandel, Kapil; Vezin, Herve; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Pruski, Marek

    2012-12-21

    We show that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to enhance NMR signals of 13C and 29Si nuclei located in mesoporous organic/inorganic hybrid materials, at several hundreds of nanometers from stable radicals (TOTAPOL) trapped in the surrounding frozen disordered water. The approach is demonstrated using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), functionalized with 3-(N-phenylureido)propyl (PUP) groups, filled with the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The DNP-enhanced proton magnetization is transported into the mesopores via 1H–1H spin diffusion and transferred to rare spins by cross-polarization, yielding signal enhancements εon/off of around 8. When the CTAB molecules are extracted, so that the radicals can enter the mesopores, the enhancements increase to εon/off ≈ 30 for both nuclei. A quantitative analysis of the signal enhancements in MSN with and without surfactant is based on a one-dimensional proton spin diffusion model. The effect of solvent deuteration is also investigated.

  13. Non-invasive Monitoring of L-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-Carboxylate Metabolism in the Rat Brain by In vivo 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Clark, M. Daniel; Ludeman, Susan M.; Springer, James B.; D’Alessandro, Michael A.; Simpson, Nicholas E.; Pourdeyhimi, Roxana; Johnson, C. Bryce; Teeter, Stephanie D.; Blackband, Stephen J.; Thelwall, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    The cysteine precursor L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTZ, procysteine) can raise cysteine concentration, and thus glutathione levels, in some tissues. OTZ has therefore been proposed as a prodrug for combating oxidative stress. We have synthesized stable isotope labeled OTZ (i.e. L-2-oxo-[5-13C]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate, 13C-OTZ) and tracked its uptake and metabolism in vivo in rat brain by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Although uptake and clearance of 13C-OTZ was detectable in rat brain following a bolus dose by in vivo spectroscopy, no incorporation of isotope label into brain glutathione was detectable. Continuous infusion of 13C-OTZ over 20 h, however, resulted in 13C-label incorporation into glutathione, taurine, hypotaurine and lactate at levels sufficient for detection by in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Examination of brain tissue extracts by mass spectrometry confirmed only low levels of isotope incorporation into glutathione in rats treated with a bolus dose and much higher levels after 20 h of continuous infusion. In contrast to some previous studies, bolus administration of OTZ did not alter brain glutathione levels. Even a continuous infusion of OTZ over 20 h failed to raise brain glutathione levels. These studies demonstrate the utility of in vivo magnetic resonance for non-invasive monitoring of antioxidant uptake and metabolism in intact brain. These types of experiments can be used to evaluate the efficacy of various interventions for maintenance of brain glutathione. PMID:21161591

  14. A combination strategy for extraction and isolation of multi-component natural products by systematic two-phase solvent extraction-(13)C nuclear magnetic resonance pattern recognition and following conical counter-current chromatography separation: Podophyllotoxins and flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis (Hance) as examples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Youqian; Wu, Shihua

    2016-01-29

    Despite of substantial developments of extraction and separation techniques, isolation of natural products from natural resources is still a challenging task. In this work, an efficient strategy for extraction and isolation of multi-component natural products has been successfully developed by combination of systematic two-phase liquid-liquid extraction-(13)C NMR pattern recognition and following conical counter-current chromatography separation. A small-scale crude sample was first distributed into 9 systematic hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) two-phase solvent systems for determination of the optimum extraction solvents and partition coefficients of the prominent components. Then, the optimized solvent systems were used in succession to enrich the hydrophilic and lipophilic components from the large-scale crude sample. At last, the enriched components samples were further purified by a new conical counter-current chromatography (CCC). Due to the use of (13)C NMR pattern recognition, the kinds and structures of major components in the solvent extracts could be predicted. Therefore, the method could collect simultaneously the partition coefficients and the structural information of components in the selected two-phase solvents. As an example, a cytotoxic extract of podophyllotoxins and flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis (Hance) was selected. After the systematic HEMWat system solvent extraction and (13)C NMR pattern recognition analyses, the crude extract of D. versipellis was first degreased by the upper phase of HEMWat system (9:1:9:1, v/v), and then distributed in the two phases of the system of HEMWat (2:8:2:8, v/v) to obtain the hydrophilic lower phase extract and lipophilic upper phase extract, respectively. These extracts were further separated by conical CCC with the HEMWat systems (1:9:1:9 and 4:6:4:6, v/v). As results, total 17 cytotoxic compounds were isolated and identified. In general, whole results suggested that the strategy was very

  15. Increasing Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Flux as a Treatment for Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: A Combined 13C Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance and Echocardiography Study.

    PubMed

    Le Page, Lydia M; Rider, Oliver J; Lewis, Andrew J; Ball, Vicky; Clarke, Kieran; Johansson, Edvin; Carr, Carolyn A; Heather, Lisa C; Tyler, Damian J

    2015-08-01

    Although diabetic cardiomyopathy is widely recognized, there are no specific treatments available. Altered myocardial substrate selection has emerged as a candidate mechanism behind the development of cardiac dysfunction in diabetes. As pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity appears central to the balance of substrate use, we aimed to investigate the relationship between PDH flux and myocardial function in a rodent model of type 2 diabetes and to explore whether or not increasing PDH flux, with dichloroacetate, would restore the balance of substrate use and improve cardiac function. All animals underwent in vivo hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopy and echocardiography to assess cardiac PDH flux and function, respectively. Diabetic animals showed significantly higher blood glucose levels (10.8 ± 0.7 vs. 8.4 ± 0.5 mmol/L), lower PDH flux (0.005 ± 0.001 vs. 0.017 ± 0.002 s(-1)), and significantly impaired diastolic function (transmitral early diastolic peak velocity/early diastolic myocardial velocity ratio [E/E'] 12.2 ± 0.8 vs. 20 ± 2), which are in keeping with early diabetic cardiomyopathy. Twenty-eight days of treatment with dichloroacetate restored PDH flux to normal levels (0.018 ± 0.002 s(-1)), reversed diastolic dysfunction (E/E' 14 ± 1), and normalized blood glucose levels (7.5 ± 0.7 mmol/L). The treatment of diabetes with dichloroacetate therefore restored the balance of myocardial substrate selection, reversed diastolic dysfunction, and normalized blood glucose levels. This suggests that PDH modulation could be a novel therapy for the treatment and/or prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  16. Carbonic Anhydrase Activity Monitored In Vivo by Hyperpolarized 13C-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Demonstrates Its Importance for pH Regulation in Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Ferdia A; Sladen, Helen; Kettunen, Mikko I; Serrao, Eva M; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Wright, Alan; Gill, Andrew B; McGuire, Sarah; Booth, Thomas C; Boren, Joan; McIntyre, Alan; Miller, Jodi L; Lee, Shen-Han; Honess, Davina; Day, Sam E; Hu, De-En; Howat, William J; Harris, Adrian L; Brindle, Kevin M

    2015-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase buffers tissue pH by catalyzing the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)). We assessed the functional activity of CAIX in two colorectal tumor models, expressing different levels of the enzyme, by measuring the rate of exchange of hyperpolarized (13)C label between bicarbonate (H(13)CO3(-)) and carbon dioxide ((13)CO2), following injection of hyperpolarized H(13)CO3(-), using (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C-MRS) magnetization transfer measurements. (31)P-MRS measurements of the chemical shift of the pH probe, 3-aminopropylphosphonate, and (13)C-MRS measurements of the H(13)CO3(-)/(13)CO2 peak intensity ratio showed that CAIX overexpression lowered extracellular pH in these tumors. However, the (13)C measurements overestimated pH due to incomplete equilibration of the hyperpolarized (13)C label between the H(13)CO3(-) and (13)CO2 pools. Paradoxically, tumors overexpressing CAIX showed lower enzyme activity using magnetization transfer measurements, which can be explained by the more acidic extracellular pH in these tumors and the decreased activity of the enzyme at low pH. This explanation was confirmed by administration of bicarbonate in the drinking water, which elevated tumor extracellular pH and restored enzyme activity to control levels. These results suggest that CAIX expression is increased in hypoxia to compensate for the decrease in its activity produced by a low extracellular pH and supports the hypothesis that a major function of CAIX is to lower the extracellular pH.

  17. Carbonic anhydrase activity monitored in vivo by hyperpolarized 13C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrate its importance for pH regulation in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Ferdia A.; Sladen, Helen; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Serrao, Eva M.; Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Wright, Alan; Gill, Andrew B.; McGuire, Sarah; Booth, Thomas C.; Boren, Joan; McIntyre, Alan; Miller, Jodi L.; Lee, Shen-Han; Honess, Davina; Day, Sam E.; Hu, De-en; Howat, William J.; Harris, Adrian L.; Brindle, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) buffers tissue pH by catalyzing the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3−). We assessed the functional activity of CAIX in two colorectal tumor models, expressing different levels of the enzyme, by measuring the rate of exchange of hyperpolarized 13C label between bicarbonate (H13CO3−) and carbon dioxide (13CO2), following injection of hyperpolarized H13CO3−, using 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-MRS) magnetization transfer measurements. 31P-MRS measurements of the chemical shift of the pH probe, 3-aminopropylphosphonate, and 13C-MRS measurements of the H13CO3−/13CO2 peak intensity ratio showed that CAIX overexpression lowered extracellular pH in these tumors. However, the 13C measurements overestimated pH due to incomplete equilibration of the hyperpolarized 13C label between the H13CO3− and 13CO2 pools. Paradoxically, tumors overexpressing CAIX showed lower enzyme activity using magnetization transfer measurements, which can be explained by the more acidic extracellular pH in these tumors and the decreased activity of the enzyme at low pH. This explanation was confirmed by administration of bicarbonate in the drinking water, which elevates tumor extracellular pH and restored enzyme activity to control levels. These results suggest that CAIX expression is increased in hypoxia to compensate for the decrease in its activity produced by a low extracellular pH, and supports the hypothesis that a major function of CAIX is to lower the extracellular pH. PMID:26249175

  18. Tracing bacterial metabolism using multi-nuclear (1H, 2H, and 13C) Solid State NMR: Realizing an Idea Initiated by James Scott

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, G.; Fogel, M. L.; Jin, K.; Griffen, P.; Steele, A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 6 years ago, while at the Geophysical Laboratory, James Scott became interested in the application of Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to study bacterial metabolism. As often happens, other experiments intervened and the NMR experiments were not pursued. We have revisited Jame's question and find that using a multi-nuclear approach (1H, 2H, and 13C Solid State NMR) on laboratory cell culture has some distinct advantages. Our experiments involved batch cultures of E. coli (MG1655) harvested at stationary phase. In all experiments the growth medium consisted of MOPS medium for enterobacteria, where the substrate is glucose. In one set of experiments, 10 % of the water was D2O; in another 10 % of the glucose was per-deuterated. The control experiment used both water and glucose at natural isotopic abundance. A kill control of dead E. coli immersed in pure D2O for an extended period exhibited no deuterium incorporation. In both deuterium enriched experiments, considerable incorporation of deuterium into E. coli's biomolecular constituents was detected via 2H Solid State NMR. In the case of the D2O enriched experiment, 58 % of the incorporated deuterium is observed in a sharp peak at a frequency of 0.31 ppm, consistent with D incorporation in the cell membrane lipids, the remainder is observed in a broad peak at a higher frequency (centered at 5.4 ppm, but spanning out to beyond 10 ppm) that is consistent with D incorporation into predominantly DNA and RNA. In the case of the D-glucose experiments, 61 % of the deuterium is observed in a sharp resonance peak at 0.34 ppm, also consistent with D incorporation into membrane lipids, the remainder of the D is observed at a broad resonance peak centered at 4.3 ppm, consistent with D enrichment in glycogen. Deuterium abundance in the E. coli cells grown in 10 % D2O is nearly 2X greater than that grown with 10 % D-glucose. Very subtle differences are observed in both the 1H and 13C solid

  19. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, design, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is concluding the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the NMRG including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program. General performance results from phases 3 and 4 will also be presented.

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This presentation will describe the operational principles, design basics, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  2. In vivo measurement of ethanol metabolism in the rat liver using magnetic resonance spectroscopy of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Spielman, Daniel M.; Mayer, Dirk; Yen, Yi-Fen; Tropp, James; Hurd, Ralph E.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    [1-13C]pyruvate is readily polarizable substrate that has been the subject of numerous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of in vivo metabolism. In this work, 13C-MRS of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate is used to interrogate a metabolic pathway involved in neither aerobic nor anaerobic metabolism. In particular, ethanol consumption leads to altered liver metabolism, which when excessive is associated with adverse medical conditions including fatty liver disease, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancer. Here we present a method for noninvasively monitoring this important process in vivo. Following the bolus injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate, we demonstrate a significantly increased rat liver lactate production rate with the co-administration of ethanol (P = 0.0016 unpaired t-test). The affect is attributable to increased liver nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) associated with ethanol metabolism in combination with NADH's role as a coenzyme in pyruvate to lactate conversion. Beyond studies of liver metabolism, this novel in vivo assay of changes in NADH levels makes hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate a potentially viable substrate for studying the multiple in vivo metabolic pathways that use NADH (or NAD+) as a coenzyme, thus broadening the range of applications that have been discussed in the literature to date. PMID:19526498

  3. Earth's magnetic field enabled scalar coupling relaxation of 13C nuclei bound to fast-relaxing quadrupolar 14N in amide groups.

    PubMed

    Chiavazza, Enrico; Kubala, Eugen; Gringeri, Concetta V; Düwel, Stephan; Durst, Markus; Schulte, Rolf F; Menzel, Marion I

    2013-02-01

    Scalar coupling relaxation, which is usually only associated with closely resonant nuclei (e.g., (79)Br-(13)C), can be a very effective relaxation mechanism. While working on hyperpolarized [5-(13)C]glutamine, fast liquid-state polarization decay during transfer to the MRI scanner was observed. This behavior could hypothetically be explained by substantial T(1) shortening due to a scalar coupling contribution (type II) to the relaxation caused by the fast-relaxing quadrupolar (14)N adjacent to the (13)C nucleus in the amide group. This contribution is only effective in low magnetic fields (i.e., less than 800 μT) and prevents the use of molecules bearing the (13)C-amide group as hyperpolarized MRS/MRI probes. In the present work, this hypothesis is explored both theoretically and experimentally. The results show that high hyperpolarization levels can be retained using either a (15)N-labeled amide or by applying a magnetic field during transfer of the sample from the polarizer to the MRI scanner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Earth's magnetic field enabled scalar coupling relaxation of 13C nuclei bound to fast-relaxing quadrupolar 14N in amide groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavazza, Enrico; Kubala, Eugen; Gringeri, Concetta V.; Düwel, Stephan; Durst, Markus; Schulte, Rolf F.; Menzel, Marion I.

    2013-02-01

    Scalar coupling relaxation, which is usually only associated with closely resonant nuclei (e.g., 79Br-13C), can be a very effective relaxation mechanism. While working on hyperpolarized [5-13C]glutamine, fast liquid-state polarization decay during transfer to the MRI scanner was observed. This behavior could hypothetically be explained by substantial T1 shortening due to a scalar coupling contribution (type II) to the relaxation caused by the fast-relaxing quadrupolar 14N adjacent to the 13C nucleus in the amide group. This contribution is only effective in low magnetic fields (i.e., less than 800 μT) and prevents the use of molecules bearing the 13C-amide group as hyperpolarized MRS/MRI probes. In the present work, this hypothesis is explored both theoretically and experimentally. The results show that high hyperpolarization levels can be retained using either a 15N-labeled amide or by applying a magnetic field during transfer of the sample from the polarizer to the MRI scanner.

  5. Tricarboxylic acid cycle activity measured by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in rats subjected to the kaolin model of obstructed hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Melø, Torun M; Håberg, Asta K; Risa, Øystein; Kondziella, Daniel; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2011-10-01

    Evaluating early changes in cerebral metabolism in hydrocephalus can help in the decision making and the timing of surgical intervention. This study was aimed at examining the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate and (13)C label incorporation into neurotransmitter amino acids and other compounds 2 weeks after rats were subjected to kaolin-induced progressive hydrocephalus. In vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), combined with the infusion of [1,6-(13)C]glucose, was used to monitor the time courses of (13)C label incorporation into the different carbon positions of glutamate in the forebrains of rats with hydrocephalus as well as in those of controls. Metabolic rates were determined by fitting the measured data into a one-compartment metabolic model. The TCA cycle rate was 1.3 ± 0.2 μmoles/gram/minute in the controls and 0.8 ± 0.4 μmoles/gram/minute in the acute hydrocephalus group, the exchange rate between α-ketoglutarate and glutamate was 4.1 ± 2.5 μmoles/gram/minute in the controls and 2.7 ± 2.6 μmoles/gram/minute in the hydrocephalus group calculated from in vivo MRS. There were no statistically significant differences between these rates. Hydrocephalus caused a decrease in the amounts of glutamate, alanine and taurine. In addition, the concentration of the neuronal marker N-acetyl aspartate was decreased. (13)C Labelling of most amino acids derived from [1,6-(13)C]glucose was unchanged 2 weeks after hydrocephalus induction. The only indication of astrocyte impairment was the decreased (13)C enrichment in glutamine C-2. This study shows that hydrocephalus causes subtle but significant alterations in neuronal metabolism already early in the course of the disease. These sub-lethal changes, however, if maintained and if ongoing might explain the delayed and programmed neuronal damage as seen in chronic hydrocephalus.

  6. Influence of 13C isotopic labeling location of 13C DNP of acetate using TEMPO free radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Christopher; Niedbalski, Peter; Lumata, Lloyd

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) via the dissolution method enhances the liquid-state magnetic resonance (NMR or MRI) signals of insensitive nuclear spins by at least 10,000-fold. The basis for all these signal enhancements at room temperature is the polarization transfer from the electrons to nuclear spins at cryogenic temperature and high magnetic field. In this work, we have studied the influence of the location of 13C isotopic labeling on the DNP of sodium acetate at 3.35 T and 1.4 K using a wide ESR linewidth free radical 4-oxo-TEMPO. The carbonyl [1-13C]acetate spins produced a polarization level that is almost twice that of the methyl [2-13C]acetate spins. On the other hand, the polarization of the methyl 13C spins doubled to reach the level of [1-13C]acetate when the methyl group was deuterated. Meanwhile, the solid-state nuclear relaxation of these samples are the same and do not correlate with the polarization levels. These behavior implies that the nuclear relaxation for these samples is dominated by the contribution from the free radicals and the polarization levels can be explained by a thermodynamic picture of DNP.

  7. Conformation and dynamics of melittin bound to magnetically oriented lipid bilayers by solid-state (31)P and (13)C NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Naito, A; Nagao, T; Norisada, K; Mizuno, T; Tuzi, S; Saitô, H

    2000-01-01

    The conformation and dynamics of melittin bound to the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer and the magnetic orientation in the lipid bilayer systems were investigated by solid-state (31)P and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Using (31)P NMR, it was found that melittin-lipid bilayers form magnetically oriented elongated vesicles with the long axis parallel to the magnetic field above the liquid crystalline-gel phase transition temperature (T(m) = 24 degrees C). The conformation, orientation, and dynamics of melittin bound to the membrane were further determined by using this magnetically oriented lipid bilayer system. For this purpose, the (13)C NMR spectra of site-specifically (13)C-labeled melittin bound to the membrane in the static, fast magic angle spinning (MAS) and slow MAS conditions were measured. Subsequently, we analyzed the (13)C chemical shift tensors of carbonyl carbons in the peptide backbone under the conditions where they form an alpha-helix and reorient rapidly about the average helical axis. Finally, it was found that melittin adopts a transmembrane alpha-helix whose average axis is parallel to the bilayer normal. The kink angle between the N- and C-terminal helical rods of melittin in the lipid bilayer is approximately 140 degrees or approximately 160 degrees, which is larger than the value of 120 degrees determined by x-ray diffraction studies. Pore formation was clearly observed below the T(m) in the initial stage of lysis by microscope. This is considered to be caused by the association of melittin molecules in the lipid bilayer. PMID:10777736

  8. Atomic and nuclear polarization of /sup 12/C, /sup 13/C, and /sup 15/N by beam-foil interaction at 300--400 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, F.Q.; Tang, J.Y.; Deutch, B.I.

    1982-03-01

    Induced nuclear spin polarization P by hyperfine interaction following passage of 0.5 ..mu..A 300--keV beams of /sup 12/C/sup +/, /sup 13/C/sup +/, and /sup 15/N/sup +/ through single tilted carbon foils yields Vertical BarPVertical Bar = (0.4 +- 0.8)%, (3.2 +- 0.6)%, and (5.7 +- 0.9)%, respectively. The nuclear polarizations were enhanced by passage through two tilted foils, and the sign of the polarization flipped by a simple flip of the foil direction with respect to the beam direction. From quantum-beat measurements with circularly polarized light, experimental quantum beat frequencies ..omega.. = 6790 +- 570 and 747 +- 62 MHz for the unresolved 6578--6583 A doublet in CII, and ..omega..(5667 A) = 2860 +- 240, ..omega..(5680 A) = 4810 +- 40 MHz in NII are determined.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance blood flowmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Battocletti, J.H.; Halbach, R.E.; Antonich, F.J.; Sances, A. Jr.; Knox, T.A.

    1986-09-23

    An improved nuclear magnetic resonance blood flowmeter is described for non-invasively measuring blood flow in a human limb comprising; polarizing magnet means for generating a substantially uniform magnetic field; a limb receiving lumen for supporting a human limb within the field generated by the polarizing magnet means so that blood molecules within the limb are magnetically polarized thereby; transmitter means located adjacent the lumen for inducing a nuclear magnetic resonance response in the blood molecules of the human limb disposed within the lumen; scanning means including: first means for generating a first pair of opposing magnetic fields within the lumen for cancelling the nuclear magnetic resonance response induced by the transmitter means everywhere except within a first null plane along which the first opposing magnetic fields cancel each other; second means for generating a second pair of opposing magnetic fields; and control means coupled to the first and second means for generating the first and second pair of opposing magnetic fields.

  10. Determination of the (13)C/(12)C Carbon Isotope Ratio in Carbonates and Bicarbonates by (13)C NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pironti, Concetta; Cucciniello, Raffaele; Camin, Federica; Tonon, Agostino; Motta, Oriana; Proto, Antonio

    2017-10-09

    This paper is the first study focused on the innovative application of (13)C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy to determine the bulk (13)C/(12)C carbon isotope ratio, at natural abundance, in inorganic carbonates and bicarbonates. In the past, (13)C NMR spectroscopy (irm-(13)C NMR) was mainly used to measure isotope ratio monitoring with the potential of conducting (13)C position-specific isotope analysis of organic molecules with high precision. The reliability of the newly developed methodology for the determination of stable carbon isotope ratio was evaluated in comparison with the method chosen in the past for these measurements, i.e., isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), with very encouraging results. We determined the (13)C/(12)C ratio of carbonates and bicarbonates (∼50-100 mg) with a precision on the order of 1‰ in the presence of a relaxation agent, such as Cr(acac)3, and CH3(13)COONa as an internal standard. The method was first applied to soluble inorganic carbonates and bicarbonates and then extended to insoluble carbonates by converting them to Na2CO3, following a simple procedure and without observing isotopic fractionation. Here, we demonstrate that (13)C NMR spectroscopy can also be successfully adopted to characterize the (13)C/(12)C isotope ratio in inorganic carbonates and bicarbonates with applications in different fields, such as cultural heritage and geological studies.

  11. Determination of size and sign of hetero-nuclear coupling constants from 2D 19F-13C correlation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampt, Kirsten A. M.; Aspers, Ruud L. E. G.; Dvortsak, Peter; van der Werf, Ramon M.; Wijmenga, Sybren S.; Jaeger, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Fluorinated organic compounds have become increasingly important within the polymer and the pharmaceutical industry as well as for clinical applications. For the structural elucidation of such compounds, NMR experiments with fluorine detection are of great value due to the favorable NMR properties of the fluorine nucleus. For the investigation of three fluorinated compounds, triple resonance 2D HSQC and HMBC experiments were adopted to fluorine detection with carbon and/or proton decoupling to yield F-C, F-C{H}, F-C{Cacq} and F-C{H,Cacq} variants. Analysis of E.COSY type cross-peak patterns in the F-C correlation spectra led, apart from the chemical shift assignments, to determination of size and signs of the JCH, JCF, and JHF coupling constants. In addition, the fully coupled F-C HMQC spectrum of steroid 1 was interpreted in terms of E.COSY type patterns. This example shows how coupling constants due to different nuclei can be determined together with their relative signs from a single spectrum. The analysis of cross-peak patterns, as presented here, not only provides relatively straightforward routes to the determination of size and sign of hetero-nuclear J-couplings in fluorinated compounds, it also provides new and easy ways for the determination of residual dipolar couplings and thus for structure elucidation. The examples and results presented in this study may contribute to a better interpretation and understanding of various F-C correlation experiments and thereby stimulate their utilization.

  12. nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Karwacki, F. A.; Griffin, J.

    1985-04-02

    A nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope which derives angular rotation thereof from the phases of precessing nuclear moments utilizes a single-resonance cell situated in the center of a uniform DC magnetic field. The field is generated by current flow through a circular array of coils between parallel plates. It also utilizes a pump and read-out beam and associated electronics for signal processing and control. Encapsulated in the cell for sensing rotation are odd isotopes of Mercury Hg/sup 199/ and Hg/sup 201/. Unpolarized intensity modulated light from a pump lamp is directed by lenses to a linear polarizer, quarter wave plate combination producing circularly polarized light. The circularly polarized light is reflected by a mirror to the cell transverse to the field for optical pumping of the isotopes. Unpolarized light from a readout lamp is directed by lenses to another linear polarizer. The linearly polarized light is reflected by another mirror to the cell transverse to the field and orthogonal to the pump lamp light. The linear light after transversing the cell strikes an analyzer where it is converted to an intensity-modulated light. The modulated light is detected by a photodiode processed and utilized as feedback to control the field and pump lamp excitation and readout of angular displacement.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Mirijanian, James; Pavell, James

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) is being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC). Cold and hot atom interferometer based gyroscopes have suffered from Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) challenges and limits in bandwidth, scale factor stability, dead time, high rotation rate, vibration, and acceleration. NMRG utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as a reference for determining rotation, providing continuous measurement, high bandwidth, stable scale factor, high rotation rate measurement, and low sensitivity to vibration and acceleration in a low SWaP package. The sensitivity to vibration has been partially tested and demonstrates no measured sensitivity within error bars. Real time closed loop implementation of the sensor significantly decreases environmental and systematic sensitivities and supports a compact and low power digital signal processing and control system. Therefore, the NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost SWaP package. The poster will describe the history, operation, and design of the NMRG. General performance results will also be presented along with recent vibration test results.

  14. Molecular mobility and structure of elastin deduced from the solvent and temperature dependence of 13C magnetic resonance relaxation data.

    PubMed

    Lyerla, J R; Torchia, D A

    1975-11-18

    13C relaxation parameters, T1, line width, and NOE, have been determined for backbone carbons of ligamentum nuchae elastin swollen by 0.15 M NaCl, 0.15 M NaCl-formamide, 0.15 M NaCl-ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and formamide. The data have been analyzed in terms of (a) a single correlation time model and (b) a model employing a log-chi2 distribution of correlation times used by Schaefer (1973) to analyze solid cis-polyisoprene 13C relaxation data. Employing the latter mode, one obtains an approximately self-consistent quantitative analysis of all the elastin data. An average backbone correlation time, tau, of ca. 2 nsec is calculated for elastin swollen in the presence of polar organic solvents at 37 degrees, in approximate agreement with tau of 0.4 nsec obtained for bulk cis-polyisoprene at 35 degrees. The influence of solvent and temperature on elastin spectra indicate that the larger tau value (approximately 80 nsec) obtained for elastin swollen by 0.15 M NaCl at 37 degrees is a consequence of weak interchain polar and hydrophobic interactions, a result which is in accord with the reported viscoelastic behavior exhibited by water-swollen elastin at 37 degrees. The results obtained further suggest that Gly, Pro, and Val residues are significantly more mobile than Ala residues, which are located in the cross-link regions. Hence, the NMR data support the view that water-swollen elastin is composed of a network of mobile chains, except possibly in the cross-link regions.

  15. 13C and 1H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of solid polyolefines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudby, M. E. A.; Harris, R. K.; Metcalfe, K.; Packer, K. J.; Smith, P. W. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basis of H-1 and C-13 high-resolution NMR investigations of solid polymers is outlined. The C-13 NMR spectra of solid syndiotactic and isotactic polypropene are discussed and their interpretation in terms of conformation and chain-packing effects are reviewed. The effects of decreasing temperature on the C-13 high-resolution spectrum of an annealed sample of isotactic polypropene is described and interpreted in terms of the crystal structure. The question of the proportion of the sample giving rise to C-13 signals is addressed and some results reported. The main cause for observing only part of the total sample is shown to be the H-1 rotating frame spin-lattice relaxation behavior. The H-1 spin-lattice relaxation and spectral characteristics of a number of polyolefin samples are summarized and the role of spin-diffusion discussed.

  16. Measurement of soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    Treesearch

    W.C. Hockaday; C.A. Masiello; J.T. Randerson; R.J. Smernik; J.A. Baldock; O. A. Chadwick; J.W. Harden

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) of the net ecosystem carbon balance is the ratio of net O2 and CO2 fluxes resulting from photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and other lateral and vertical carbon flows. The OR of the terrestrial biosphere must be well characterized to accurately estimate the terrestrial CO2...

  17. 13C and 1H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of solid polyolefines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudby, M. E. A.; Harris, R. K.; Metcalfe, K.; Packer, K. J.; Smith, P. W. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basis of H-1 and C-13 high-resolution NMR investigations of solid polymers is outlined. The C-13 NMR spectra of solid syndiotactic and isotactic polypropene are discussed and their interpretation in terms of conformation and chain-packing effects are reviewed. The effects of decreasing temperature on the C-13 high-resolution spectrum of an annealed sample of isotactic polypropene is described and interpreted in terms of the crystal structure. The question of the proportion of the sample giving rise to C-13 signals is addressed and some results reported. The main cause for observing only part of the total sample is shown to be the H-1 rotating frame spin-lattice relaxation behavior. The H-1 spin-lattice relaxation and spectral characteristics of a number of polyolefin samples are summarized and the role of spin-diffusion discussed.

  18. Alterations of Brain Energy Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats Measured In Vivo by (13)C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Girault, Freya-Merret; Sonnay, Sarah; Gruetter, Rolf; Duarte, João M N

    2017-10-02

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with deterioration of brain structure and function. Here, we tested the hypothesis that T2D induces a reorganization of the brain metabolic networks that support brain function. For that, alterations of neuronal and glial energy metabolism were investigated in a T2D model, the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat. (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo at 14.1 T was used to detect (13)C labeling incorporation into carbons of glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate in the brain of GK (n = 7) and Wistar (n = 13) rats during intravenous [1,6-(13)C]glucose administration. Labeling of brain glucose and amino acids over time was analyzed with a two-compartment mathematical model of brain energy metabolism to determine the rates of metabolic pathways in neurons and glia. Compared to controls, GK rats displayed lower rates of brain glutamine synthesis (- 32%, P < 0.001) and glutamate-glutamine cycle (- 40%, P < 0.001), and mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate in neurons (- 7%, P = 0.036). In contrast, the TCA cycle rate of astrocytes was larger in GK rats than controls (+ 21%, P = 0.042). We conclude that T2D alters brain energy metabolism and impairs the glutamate-glutamine cycle between neurons and astrocytes, in line with diabetes-induced neurodegeneration and astrogliosis underlying brain dysfunction.

  19. Superconducting state of κ-(ET)2CUBr studied by 13C NMR: Evidence for vortex-core-induced nuclear relaxation and unconventional pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayaffre, H.; Wzietek, P.; Jérome, D.; Lenoir, C.; Batail, P.

    1995-11-01

    We present the first 13C NMR measurements carried out in the superconducting state of a two-dimensional organic superconducting single crystal. Spin lattice relaxation rate and Knight shift are reported for magnetic fields parallel and perpendicular to the conducting layers. For perpendicular fields, the relaxation is dominated by the electronic excitations in the vortex cores. From the field dependence of (T1)-1 we obtain the upper critical field. In parallel orientation, the absence of field dependence reveals the existence of a lock-in state, where only relaxation by superconducting excitations is expected. The (T1)-1 then exhibits a T3 law suggesting an unconventional pairing with a very anisotropic gap.

  20. Synthesis and solid-state NMR structural characterization of 13C-labeled graphite oxide.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weiwei; Piner, Richard D; Stadermann, Frank J; Park, Sungjin; Shaibat, Medhat A; Ishii, Yoshitaka; Yang, Dongxing; Velamakanni, Aruna; An, Sung Jin; Stoller, Meryl; An, Jinho; Chen, Dongmin; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2008-09-26

    The detailed chemical structure of graphite oxide (GO), a layered material prepared from graphite almost 150 years ago and a precursor to chemically modified graphenes, has not been previously resolved because of the pseudo-random chemical functionalization of each layer, as well as variations in exact composition. Carbon-13 (13C) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectra of GO for natural abundance 13C have poor signal-to-noise ratios. Approximately 100% 13C-labeled graphite was made and converted to 13C-labeled GO, and 13C SSNMR was used to reveal details of the chemical bonding network, including the chemical groups and their connections. Carbon-13-labeled graphite can be used to prepare chemically modified graphenes for 13C SSNMR analysis with enhanced sensitivity and for fundamental studies of 13C-labeled graphite and graphene.

  1. Design and test of a double-nuclear RF coil for 1H MRI and 13C MRSI at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Omar; Kwak, Tiffany; Cao, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2016-06-01

    RF coil operation at the ultrahigh field of 7 T is fraught with technical challenges that limit the advancement of novel human in vivo applications at 7 T. In this work, a hybrid technique combining a microstrip transmission line and a lumped-element L-C loop coil to form a double-nuclear RF coil for proton magnetic resonance imaging and carbon magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T was proposed and investigated. Network analysis revealed a high Q-factor and excellent decoupling between the coils. Proton images and localized carbon spectra were acquired with high sensitivity. The successful testing of this novel double-nuclear coil demonstrates the feasibility of this hybrid design for double-nuclear MR imaging and spectroscopy studies at the ultrahigh field of 7 T.

  2. Design and test of a double-nuclear RF coil for 1H MRI and 13C MRSI at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, Omar; Kwak, Tiffany; Cao, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    RF coil operation at the ultrahigh field of 7T is fraught with technical challenges that limit the advancement of novel human in vivo applications at 7T. In this work, a hybrid technique combining a microstrip transmission line and a lumped-element L-C loop coil to form a double-nuclear RF coil for proton magnetic resonance imaging and carbon magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T was proposed and investigated. Network analysis revealed a high Q-factor and excellent decoupling between the coils. Proton images and localized carbon spectra were acquired with high sensitivity. The successful testing of this novel double-nuclear coil demonstrates the feasibility of this hybrid design for double-nuclear MR imaging and spectroscopy studies at the ultrahigh field of 7T. PMID:27078089

  3. Design and test of a double-nuclear RF coil for (1)H MRI and (13)C MRSI at 7T.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Omar; Kwak, Tiffany; Cao, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2016-06-01

    RF coil operation at the ultrahigh field of 7T is fraught with technical challenges that limit the advancement of novel human in vivo applications at 7T. In this work, a hybrid technique combining a microstrip transmission line and a lumped-element L-C loop coil to form a double-nuclear RF coil for proton magnetic resonance imaging and carbon magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T was proposed and investigated. Network analysis revealed a high Q-factor and excellent decoupling between the coils. Proton images and localized carbon spectra were acquired with high sensitivity. The successful testing of this novel double-nuclear coil demonstrates the feasibility of this hybrid design for double-nuclear MR imaging and spectroscopy studies at the ultrahigh field of 7T.

  4. Analytical continuous slowing down model for nuclear reaction cross-section measurements by exploitation of stopping for projectile energy scanning and results for 13C(3He,α)12C and 13C(3He,p)15N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, S.

    2017-03-01

    Ion beam analysis is a set of precise, calibration free and non-destructive methods for determining surface-near concentrations of potentially all elements and isotopes in a single measurement. For determination of concentrations the reaction cross-section of the projectile with the targets has to be known, in general at the primary beam energy and all energies below. To reduce the experimental effort of cross-section measurements a new method is presented here. The method is based on the projectile energy reduction when passing matter of thick targets. The continuous slowing down approximation is used to determine cross-sections from a thick target at projectile energies below the primary energy by backward calculation of the measured product spectra. Results for 12C(3He,p)14N below 4.5 MeV are in rough agreement with literature data and reproduce the measured spectra. New data for reactions of 3He with 13C are acquired using the new technique. The applied approximations and further applications are discussed.

  5. Introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Mlynárik, Vladimír

    2016-05-19

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a useful tool for studying normal and pathological biochemical processes in tissues. In this review, the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance and methods of obtaining nuclear magnetic resonance spectra are briefly outlined. The origin of the most important spectroscopic parameters-chemical shifts, coupling constants, longitudinal and transverse relaxation times, and spectroscopic line intensities-is explained, and the role of these parameters in interpretation of spectra is addressed. Basic methodological concepts of localized spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging for the study of tissue metabolism in vivo are also described.

  6. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuhs, Bradley L.; Simsek, Senay

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique with a wide variety of applications. It may be used for complex structural studies, for protocol or process development, or as a simple quality assay for which structural information is important. It is nondestructive, and high-quality data may be obtained from milligram, even microgram, quantities of sample. Whereas other spectroscopy techniques may be used to determine the nature of the functional groups present in a sample, only NMR spectroscopy can provide the data necessary to determine the complete structure of a molecule. The applicability of NMR to food analysis has increased over the last three decades. In addition to improved instrumentation and much lower costs, very complex and specialized NMR techniques can now be routinely performed by a student or technician. These experiments can be set up with the click of a button/icon, as all the basic parameters are embedded into default experiment files listed in the data/work station software, and the results are obtained in a short time.

  7. Chemical shift tensor determination using magnetically oriented microcrystal array (MOMA): 13C solid-state CP NMR without MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumi, R.; Kimura, F.; Song, G.; Kimura, T.

    2012-10-01

    Chemical shift tensors for the carboxyl and methyl carbons of L-alanine crystals were determined using a magnetically oriented microcrystal array (MOMA) prepared from a microcrystalline powder sample of L-alanine. A MOMA is a single-crystal-like composite in which microcrystals are aligned three-dimensionally in a matrix resin. The single-crystal rotation method was applied to the MOMA to determine the principal values and axes of the chemical shift tensors. The result showed good agreement with the literature data for the single crystal of L-alanine. This demonstrates that the present technique is a powerful tool for determining the chemical shift tensor of a crystal from a microcrystal powder sample.

  8. NMR structure analysis of uniformly 13C-labeled carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Carolina; Kovacs, Helena; Widmalm, Göran

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a set of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, some of them commonly used in the study of (13)C-labeled proteins and/or nucleic acids, is applied for the structure determination of uniformly (13)C-enriched carbohydrates. Two model substances were employed: one compound of low molecular weight [(UL-(13)C)-sucrose, 342 Da] and one compound of medium molecular weight ((13)C-enriched O-antigenic polysaccharide isolated from Escherichia coli O142, ~10 kDa). The first step in this approach involves the assignment of the carbon resonances in each monosaccharide spin system using the anomeric carbon signal as the starting point. The (13)C resonances are traced using (13)C-(13)C correlations from homonuclear experiments, such as (H)CC-CT-COSY, (H)CC-NOESY, CC-CT-TOCSY and/or virtually decoupled (H)CC-TOCSY. Based on the assignment of the (13)C resonances, the (1)H chemical shifts are derived in a straightforward manner using one-bond (1)H-(13)C correlations from heteronuclear experiments (HC-CT-HSQC). In order to avoid the (1) J CC splitting of the (13)C resonances and to improve the resolution, either constant-time (CT) in the indirect dimension or virtual decoupling in the direct dimension were used. The monosaccharide sequence and linkage positions in oligosaccharides were determined using either (13)C or (1)H detected experiments, namely CC-CT-COSY, band-selective (H)CC-TOCSY, HC-CT-HSQC-NOESY or long-range HC-CT-HSQC. However, due to the short T2 relaxation time associated with larger polysaccharides, the sequential information in the O-antigen polysaccharide from E. coli O142 could only be elucidated using the (1)H-detected experiments. Exchanging protons of hydroxyl groups and N-acetyl amides in the (13)C-enriched polysaccharide were assigned by using HC-H2BC spectra. The assignment of the N-acetyl groups with (15)N at natural abundance was completed by using HN-SOFAST-HMQC, HNCA, HNCO and (13)C-detected (H)CACO spectra.

  9. Whole-core analysis by sup 13 C NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Tutunjian, P.N. ); Edelstein, W.A.; Roemer, P.B. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on a whole-core nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) system that was used to obtain natural abundance {sup 13}C spectra. The system enables rapid, nondestructive measurements of bulk volume of movable oil, aliphatic/aromatic ratio, oil viscosity, and organic vs. carbonate carbon. {sup 13}C NMR can be used in cores where the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum is too broad to resolve oil and water resonances separately. A 5 1/4-in. {sup 13}C/{sup 1}H NMR coil was installed on a General Electric (GE) CSI-2T NMR imager/spectrometer. With a 4-in.-OD whole core, good {sup 13}C signal/noise ratio (SNR) is obtained within minutes, while {sup 1}H spectra are obtained in seconds. NMR measurements have been made of the {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H density of crude oils with a wide range of API gravities. For light- and medium-gravity oils, the {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H signal per unit volume is constant within about 3.5%. For heavy crudes, the {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H density measured by NMR is reduced by the shortening of spin-spin relaxation time. {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR spin-lattice relaxation times were measured on a suite of Cannon viscosity standards, crude oils (4 to 60{degrees} API), and alkanes (C{sub 5} through C{sub 16}) with viscosities at 77{degrees}F ranging from 0.5 cp to 2.5 {times} 10{sup 7} cp. The {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H relaxation times show a similar correlation with viscosity from which oil viscosity can be estimated accurately for viscosities up to 100 cp. The {sup 13}C surface relaxation rate for oils on water-wet rocks is very low. Nonproton decoupled {sup 13}C NMR is shown to be insensitive to kerogen; thus, {sup 13}C NMR measures only the movable hydrocarbon content of the cores. In carbonates, the {sup 13}C spectrum also contains a carbonate powder pattern useful in quantifying inorganic carbon and distinguishing organic from carbonate carbon.

  10. (1)H and (13)C dynamic nuclear polarization in aqueous solution with a two-field (0.35 T/14 T) shuttle DNP spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Reese, Marcel; Türke, Maria-Teresa; Tkach, Igor; Parigi, Giacomo; Luchinat, Claudio; Marquardsen, Thorsten; Tavernier, Andreas; Höfer, Peter; Engelke, Frank; Griesinger, Christian; Bennati, Marina

    2009-10-28

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) permits increasing the NMR signal of nuclei by pumping the electronic spin transitions of paramagnetic centers nearby. This method is emerging as a powerful tool to increase the inherent sensitivity of NMR in structural biology aiming at detection of macromolecules. In aqueous solution, additional technical issues associated with the penetration of microwaves in water and heating effects aggravate the performance of the experiment. To examine the feasibility of low-field (9.7 GHz/0.35 T) DNP in high resolution NMR, we have constructed the prototype of a two-field shuttle DNP spectrometer that polarizes nuclei at 9.7 GHz/0.35 T and detects the NMR spectrum at 14 T. We report our first (1)H and (13)C DNP enhancements with this spectrometer. Effective enhancements up to 15 were observed for small molecules at (1)H 600 MHz/14 T as compared to the Boltzmann signal. The results provide a proof of principle for the feasibility of a shuttle DNP experiment and open up perspectives for the application potential of this method in solution NMR.

  11. Analyses of cocondensation of melamine and urea through carbon 13 enriched formaldehyde with carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    Tomita Bunchiro; Chung-Yun Hse

    1995-01-01

    The urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins, melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins, and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) cocondensed resins were synthesized using the labeling method with 13C enriched formaldehyde unde neutral conditions and their 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra were analyzed. The remarkable down-field...

  12. Analysis of cocondensation of melamine and urea through carbon 13 enriched formaldehyde with C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    Bunichiro Tomita; Chung-Yun Hse

    1995-01-01

    The urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins, melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins, and melamine-ureaformaldehyde (MUF) cocondensed resins were synthesized using the labeling method with 13C enriched formaldehyde under neutral conditions and their 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra were analyzed. The remarkable down-field...

  13. Analysis on cocondensation of melamine and urea through carbon 13 enriched formaldehyde with carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    Bunichiro Tomita; Chung-Yun Hse

    1995-01-01

    The urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins, melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins, and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) cocondensed resins were synthesized using the labeling method of 13C enriched formaldehyde udner neutral conditions and their 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra were analyzed. The remarkable down-field shifts...

  14. Updating the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale with Marine Magnetic Anomalies (Chrons C13-C33, 33-83 Ma): A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, K. W.; Malinverno, A.

    2016-12-01

    Marine magnetic anomalies are found in ocean basins worldwide, and are the result of the magnetization of basaltic rocks formed at seafloor spreading centers. Because the earth's geomagnetic field has reversed throughout history, these detected anomalies record the history of reversals on the flanks of mid-ocean ridges. Magnetic anomalies define the geometry of magnetized polarity blocks in the crust, and the width of these blocks combined with absolute ages and some assumptions on the variation of spreading rates can give us a Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS). Time scales are important in many fields of the earth sciences to determine past rates of change, correlate geological events, and constrain the history of seafloor spreading and plate motion. Our goal is to determine an improved GPTS for the Eocene-Late Cretaceous (Chrons C13-C33). The current GPTS is based on an assumption of smoothly varying spreading rates in the South Atlantic. To better constrain the duration of polarity chrons, we will minimize spreading rate fluctuations in several regions worldwide besides the South Atlantic. Our work thus far has focused on methods of analysis for the marine magnetic anomaly data. The Pacific-Antarctic ridge was chosen as a starting point for the project because of new data and clear anomalies in mid to high latitudes. In our analysis, we select magnetic anomaly data from cruises, project data onto a plate motion flow line, identify anomalies, and compare modeled and measured anomalies. We apply a Monte Carlo sampling method that allows us to estimate start and end distances along a flow line for polarity chrons in each ship track, and quantify the uncertainty of those distances. Using the estimated block model distances, we can determine how spreading rates change between chrons along each ship track for any given GPTS. With the method we developed, our goal is to use block model distances from several spreading centers to determine a GPTS that minimizes the

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Bolo, N.R.

    1991-11-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate the potential for and limitations of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for quantitation of glucose flux through the pentose phosphate pathway (shunt). Interest in the shunt is motivated by the possibility that its activity may be greatly increased in cancer and in the pathological states of cardiac and cerebral ischemia. The ability to dynamically monitor flux through the pentose shunt can give new knowledge about metabolism in pathological states. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor shunt activity by determination of the ratios of ({sup 13}C-4) to ({sup 13}C-5)-glutamate, ({sup 13}C-3) to ({sup 13}C-2)-alanine or ({sup 13}C-3) to ({sup 13}C-2)-lactate produced when ({sup 13}C-2)-glucose is infused. These methods provide measures of the effect of oxidative stresses on shunt activity in systems ranging from cell free enzyme-substrate preparations to cell suspensions and whole animals. In anaerobic cell free preparations, the fraction of glucose flux through the shunt was monitored with a time resolution of 3 minutes. This work predicts the potential for in vivo human studies of pentose phosphate pathway activity based on the mathematical simulation of the {sup 13}C fractional enrichments of C4 and C5-glutamate as a function of shunt activity and on the signal-to- noise ratio acquired in {sup 13}C NMR human studies from the current literature.

  16. Starch biosynthesis and intermediary metabolism in maize kernels. Quantitative analysis of metabolite flux by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Glawischnig, Erich; Gierl, Alfons; Tomas, Adriana; Bacher, Adelbert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2002-12-01

    The seeds of cereals represent an important sink for metabolites during the accumulation of storage products, and seeds are an essential component of human and animal nutrition. Understanding the metabolic interconversions (networks) underpinning storage product formation could provide the foundation for effective metabolic engineering of these primary nutritional sources. In this paper, we describe the use of retrobiosynthetic nuclear magnetic resonance analysis to establish the metabolic history of the glucose (Glc) units of starch in maize (Zea mays) kernels. Maize kernel cultures were grown with [U-(13)C(6)]Glc, [U-(13)C(12)]sucrose, or [1,2-(13)C(2)]acetate as supplements. After 19 d, starch was hydrolyzed, and the isotopomer composition of the resulting Glc was determined by quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. [1,2-(13)C(2)]Acetate was not incorporated into starch. [U-(13)C(6)]Glc or [U-(13)C(12)]sucrose gave similar labeling patterns of polysaccharide Glc units, which were dominated by [1,2,3-(13)C(3)]- and [4,5,6-(13)C(3)]-isotopomers, whereas the [U-(13)C(6)]-, [3,4,5,6-(13)C(4)]-, [1,2-(13)C(2)]-, [5,6-(13)C(2)], [3-(13)C(1)], and [4-(13)C(1)]-isotopomers were present at lower levels. These isotopomer compositions indicate that there is extensive recycling of Glc before its incorporation into starch, via the enzymes of glycolytic, glucogenic, and pentose phosphate pathways. The relatively high abundance of the [5,6-(13)C(2)]-isotopomer can be explained by the joint operation of glycolysis/glucogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway.

  17. Starch Biosynthesis and Intermediary Metabolism in Maize Kernels. Quantitative Analysis of Metabolite Flux by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance1

    PubMed Central

    Glawischnig, Erich; Gierl, Alfons; Tomas, Adriana; Bacher, Adelbert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    The seeds of cereals represent an important sink for metabolites during the accumulation of storage products, and seeds are an essential component of human and animal nutrition. Understanding the metabolic interconversions (networks) underpinning storage product formation could provide the foundation for effective metabolic engineering of these primary nutritional sources. In this paper, we describe the use of retrobiosynthetic nuclear magnetic resonance analysis to establish the metabolic history of the glucose (Glc) units of starch in maize (Zea mays) kernels. Maize kernel cultures were grown with [U-13C6]Glc, [U-13C12]sucrose, or [1,2-13C2]acetate as supplements. After 19 d, starch was hydrolyzed, and the isotopomer composition of the resulting Glc was determined by quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. [1,2-13C2]Acetate was not incorporated into starch. [U-13C6]Glc or [U-13C12]sucrose gave similar labeling patterns of polysaccharide Glc units, which were dominated by [1,2,3-13C3]- and [4,5,6-13C3]-isotopomers, whereas the [U-13C6]-, [3,4,5,6-13C4]-, [1,2-13C2]-, [5,6-13C2], [3-13C1], and [4-13C1]-isotopomers were present at lower levels. These isotopomer compositions indicate that there is extensive recycling of Glc before its incorporation into starch, via the enzymes of glycolytic, glucogenic, and pentose phosphate pathways. The relatively high abundance of the [5,6-13C2]-isotopomer can be explained by the joint operation of glycolysis/glucogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway. PMID:12481054

  18. GHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, T.A.; Drobny, G.; Trewhella, J.

    1994-12-01

    For the past dozen years, 500- and 600-MHz spectrometers have become available in many laboratories. The first 600-MHz NMR spectrometer (at Carnegie Mellon University) was commissioned more than 15 years ago and, until 1994, represented the highest field available for high-resolution NMR. This year, we have witnessed unprecedented progress in the development of very high field magnets for NMR spectroscopy, including the delivery of the first commercial 750-MHz NMR spectrometers. In addition, NMR signals have been obtained from 20-Tesla magnets (850 MHz for {sup 1}H`s) at both Los Alamos National Laboratory and Florida State University in the NHMFL (National High Magnetic Field Laboratory). These preliminary experiments have been performed in magnets with 100-ppm homogeneity, but a 20-Tesla magnet developed for the NHMFL will be brought to field this year with a projected homogeneity of 0.1 ppm over a 1-cm-diam spherical volume.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.T.; Hsieh, H.C.H.; Jackson, J.W.; Damadian, R.V.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a medical NMR scanner comprising a primary field magnet assembly including: (a) a ferromagnetic frame defining a patient-receiving space adapted to receive a human body, the frame having a pair of opposed polar regions aligned on a polar axis and disposed on opposite sides of the patient-receiving space, and the frame including a substantially continuous ferro-magnetic flux return path extending between the polar regions remote from the patient-receiving space; (b) flux-generating means including superconductive windings and cryostat means for maintaining the windings at superconducting temperatures; and (c) support means for maintaining the windings in proximity to the frame so that when a current passes through the windings magnetic flux emanating from the windings produces a magnetic field within the patient-receiving space and at least a portion of the flux passes into the patient-receiving space by way of the polar regions.

  20. Detection of human muscle glycogen by natural abundance /sup 13/C NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Avison, M.J.; Rothman, D.L.; Nadel, E.; Shulman, R.G.

    1988-03-01

    Natural abundance /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to detect signals from glycogen in the human gastrocnemius muscle. The reproducibility of the measurement was demonstrated, and the ability to detect dynamic changes was confirmed by measuring a decrease in muscle glycogen levels after exercise and its subsequent repletion. Single frequency gated /sup 1/H decoupling was used to obtain decoupled natural abundance /sup 13/C NMR spectra of the C-1 position of muscle glycogen.

  1. Theory of nuclear magnetic relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, J.

    1983-01-01

    A theory of nuclear magnetic interaction is based on the study of the stochastic rotation operator. The theory is applied explicitly to relaxation by anisotropic chemical shift and to spin-rotational interactions. It is applicable also to dipole-dipole and quadrupole interactions.

  2. First principles nuclear magnetic resonance signatures of graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ning; Huang, Ying; Li, Hai-bei; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2010-07-21

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used in graphene oxide (GO) structure studies. However, the detailed relationship between its spectroscopic features and the GO structural configuration remains elusive. Based on first principles (13)C chemical shift calculations using the gauge including projector augmented waves method, we provide a reliable spectrum-structure connection. The (13)C chemical shift in GO is found to be very sensitive to the atomic environment, even for the same type of oxidation groups. Factors determining the chemical shifts of epoxy and hydroxy groups have been discussed. GO structures previously reported in the literature have been checked from the NMR point of view. The energetically favorable hydroxy chain structure is not expected to be widely existed in real GO samples according to our NMR simulations. The epoxy pair species we proposed previously is also supported by chemical shift calculations.

  3. Analyses of cocondensation of melamine and urea through formaldehyde with carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    Tomita Bunchiro; Chung-Yun Hse

    1995-01-01

    The 13C-NMR (carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins, melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins, and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) cocondensed resins synthesized under various conditions were taken with a frequency of 75 MHz. The main purpose was to investigate whether or not the occurrences of cocondensation...

  4. Analysis of cocondensation of melamine and urea through formaldehyde with carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    Bunichiro Tomita; Chung-Yun Hse

    1995-01-01

    The 13C-NMR (carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins, melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins, and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) cocondensed resins synthesized under various conditions were taken with a frequency of 75 MHz. The main purpose was to investigate whether or not the occurrences of cocondensation...

  5. In vivo proton observed carbon edited (POCE) (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the rat brain using a volumetric transmitter and receive-only surface coil on the proton channel.

    PubMed

    Kumaragamage, Chathura; Madularu, Dan; Mathieu, Axel P; De Feyter, Henk; Rajah, M Natasha; Near, Jamie

    2017-05-12

    In vivo carbon-13 ((13) C) MR spectroscopy (MRS) is capable of measuring energy metabolism and neuroenergetics, noninvasively in the brain. Indirect ((1) H-[(13) C]) MRS provides sensitivity benefits compared with direct (13) C methods, and normally includes a (1) H surface coil for both localization and signal reception. The aim was to develop a coil platform with homogenous B1+ and use short conventional pulses for short echo time proton observed carbon edited (POCE) MRS. A (1) H-[(13) C] MRS coil platform was designed with a volumetric resonator for (1) H transmit, and surface coils for (1) H reception and (13) C transmission. The Rx-only (1) H surface coil nullifies the requirement for a T/R switch before the (1) H preamplifier; the highpass filter and preamplifier can be placed proximal to the coil, thus minimizing sensitivity losses inherent with POCE-MRS systems described in the literature. The coil platform was evaluated with a PRESS-POCE sequence (TE = 12.6 ms) on a rat model. The coil provided excellent localization, uniform spin nutation, and sensitivity. (13) C labeling of Glu-H4 and Glx-H3 peaks, and the Glx-H2 peaks were observed approximately 13 and 21 min following the infusion of 1-(13) C glucose, respectively. A convenient and sensitive platform to study energy metabolism and neurotransmitter cycling is presented. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Electric dipole moment of 13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Yamada, Taiichi; Hiyama, Emiko; Funaki, Yasuro

    2017-06-01

    We calculate for the first time the electric dipole moment (EDM) of 13C generated by the isovector charge conjugation-parity (CP)-odd pion exchange nuclear force in the α -cluster model, which describes well the structures of low-lying states of the 13C nucleus. The linear dependence of the EDM of 13C on the neutron EDM and the isovector CP-odd nuclear coupling is found to be d13C=-0.33 dn-0.0020 G¯π(1 ) . The linear enhancement factor of the CP-odd nuclear coupling is smaller than that of the deuteron, due to the difference of the structure between the 1 /21- state and the opposite-parity (1 /2+ ) states. We clarify the role of the structure played in the enhancement of the EDM. This result provides good guiding principles to search for other nuclei with large enhancement factor. We also mention the role of the EDM of 13C in determining the new physics beyond the standard model.

  7. A chemical synthesis of a multiply (13) C-labeled hexasaccharide: a high-mannose N-glycan fragment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhui; Pan, Qingfeng; Serianni, Anthony S

    2016-12-01

    As covalent modifiers of proteins, high-mannose N-glycans are important in maintaining protein structure and function in vivo. The conformations of these glycans can be studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using spin-spin couplings (J-couplings; scalar couplings) and other nuclear magnetic resonance parameters that are sensitive to the geometries of their constituent glycosidic linkages and other mobile elements in their structures. These analyses often require (13) C-labeling at specific carbon atoms, especially when measurements of (13) C-(13) C J-couplings are of interest. The selection of particular (13) C isotopomers of a glycan depends on the type of question under scrutiny. A chemical synthesis of a mannose-containing hexasaccharide, α[1-(13) C]Man(1→2)α[1,2-(13) C2 ]Man(1→6)[α[1-(13) C]Man(1→2)α[1,2-(13) C2 ]Man(1→3)]α[1,2-(13) C2 ]Man(1→6)βManOCH3 , which is a nested fragment of the high-mannose N-glycans of human glycoproteins and contains eight (13) C-enriched carbon sites, is described in this report. The selected (13) C isotopomer was chosen to maximize the measurement of J-couplings sensitive to linkage conformations. This work demonstrates that chemical syntheses of multiply (13) C-labeled oligosaccharides are technically feasible and practical using present synthetic methods. The availability of this and other multiply (13) C-labeled mannose-containing oligosaccharides will promote future studies of their conformations in solution and in the bound state. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. In Vivo13C Spectroscopy in the Rat Brain using Hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate and [2-13C]pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Marjańska, Małgorzata; Iltis, Isabelle; Shestov, Alexander A.; Deelchand, Dinesh K.; Nelson, Christopher; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Henry, Pierre-Gilles

    2010-01-01

    The low sensitivity of 13C spectroscopy can be enhanced using dynamic nuclear polarization. Detection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate and its metabolic products has been reported in kidney, liver, and muscle. In this work, the feasibility of measuring 13C signals of hyperpolarized 13C metabolic products in the rat brain in vivo following the injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate and [2-13C]pyruvate is investigated. Injection of [2-13C]pyruvate led to the detection of [2-13C]lactate, but no other downstream metabolites such as TCA cycle intermediates were detected. Injection of [1-13C]pyruvate enabled the detection of both [1-13C]lactate and [13C]bicarbonate. A metabolic model was used to fit the hyperpolarized 13C time courses obtained during infusion of [1-13C]pyruvate and to determine the values of VPDH and VLDH. PMID:20685141

  9. 13C MRS of Human Brain at 7 Tesla Using [2-13C]Glucose Infusion and Low Power Broadband Stochastic Proton Decoupling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shizhe; An, Li; Yu, Shao; Araneta, Maria Ferraris; Johnson, Christopher S.; Wang, Shumin; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of human brain at 7 Tesla (T) may pose patient safety issues due to high RF power deposition for proton decoupling. The purpose of present work is to study the feasibility of in vivo 13C MRS of human brain at 7 T using broadband low RF power proton decoupling. Methods Carboxylic/amide 13C MRS of human brain by broadband stochastic proton decoupling was demonstrated on a 7 T scanner. RF safety was evaluated using the finite-difference time-domain method. 13C signal enhancement by nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) and proton decoupling was evaluated in both phantoms and in vivo. Results At 7 T, the peak amplitude of carboxylic/amide 13C signals was increased by a factor of greater than 4 due to the combined effects of NOE and proton decoupling. The 7 T 13C MRS technique used decoupling power and average transmit power of less than 35 W and 3.6 W, respectively. Conclusion In vivo 13C MRS studies of human brain can be performed at 7 T well below the RF safety threshold by detecting carboxylic/amide carbons with broadband stochastic proton decoupling. PMID:25917936

  10. Refined Analysis of Brain Energy Metabolism Using In Vivo Dynamic Enrichment of 13C Multiplets.

    PubMed

    Dehghani M, Masoumeh; Lanz, Bernard; Duarte, João M N; Kunz, Nicolas; Gruetter, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with the infusion of (13)C-labeled precursors is a unique approach to study in vivo brain energy metabolism. Incorporating the maximum information available from in vivo localized (13)C spectra is of importance to get broader knowledge on cerebral metabolic pathways. Metabolic rates can be quantitatively determined from the rate of (13)C incorporation into amino acid neurotransmitters such as glutamate and glutamine using suitable mathematical models. The time course of multiplets arising from (13)C-(13)C coupling between adjacent carbon atoms was expected to provide additional information for metabolic modeling leading to potential improvements in the estimation of metabolic parameters.The aim of the present study was to extend two-compartment neuronal/glial modeling to include dynamics of (13)C isotopomers available from fine structure multiplets in (13)C spectra of glutamate and glutamine measured in vivo in rats brain at 14.1 T, termed bonded cumomer approach. Incorporating the labeling time courses of (13)C multiplets of glutamate and glutamine resulted in elevated precision of the estimated fluxes in rat brain as well as reduced correlations between them. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Refined Analysis of Brain Energy Metabolism Using In Vivo Dynamic Enrichment of 13C Multiplets

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani M., Masoumeh; Duarte, João M. N.; Kunz, Nicolas; Gruetter, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with the infusion of 13C-labeled precursors is a unique approach to study in vivo brain energy metabolism. Incorporating the maximum information available from in vivo localized 13C spectra is of importance to get broader knowledge on cerebral metabolic pathways. Metabolic rates can be quantitatively determined from the rate of 13C incorporation into amino acid neurotransmitters such as glutamate and glutamine using suitable mathematical models. The time course of multiplets arising from 13C-13C coupling between adjacent carbon atoms was expected to provide additional information for metabolic modeling leading to potential improvements in the estimation of metabolic parameters. The aim of the present study was to extend two-compartment neuronal/glial modeling to include dynamics of 13C isotopomers available from fine structure multiplets in 13C spectra of glutamate and glutamine measured in vivo in rats brain at 14.1 T, termed bonded cumomer approach. Incorporating the labeling time courses of 13C multiplets of glutamate and glutamine resulted in elevated precision of the estimated fluxes in rat brain as well as reduced correlations between them. PMID:26969691

  12. Towards hyperpolarized 13C-succinate imaging of brain cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Pratip; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Perman, William H.; Harris, Kent C.; Lin, Alexander P.; Norton, Valerie A.; Tan, Chou T.; Ross, Brian D.; Weitekamp, Daniel P.

    2007-05-01

    We describe a novel 13C enriched precursor molecule, sodium 1- 13C acetylenedicarboxylate, which after hydrogenation by PASADENA (Parahydrogen and Synthesis Allows Dramatically Enhanced Nuclear Alignment) under controlled experimental conditions, becomes hyperpolarized 13C sodium succinate. Fast in vivo 3D FIESTA MR imaging demonstrated that, following carotid arterial injection, the hyperpolarized 13C-succinate appeared in the head and cerebral circulation of normal and tumor-bearing rats. At this time, no in vivo hyperpolarized signal has been localized to normal brain or brain tumor. On the other hand, ex vivo samples of brain harvested from rats bearing a 9L brain tumor, 1 h or more following in vivo carotid injection of hyperpolarized 13C sodium succinate, contained significant concentrations of the injected substrate, 13C sodium succinate, together with 13C maleate and succinate metabolites 1- 13C-glutamate, 5- 13C-glutamate, 1- 13C-glutamine and 5- 13C-glutamine. The 13C substrates and products were below the limits of NMR detection in ex vivo samples of normal brain consistent with an intact blood-brain barrier. These ex vivo results indicate that hyperpolarized 13C sodium succinate may become a useful tool for rapid in vivo identification of brain tumors, providing novel biomarkers in 13C MR spectral-spatial images.

  13. Towards hyperpolarized 13C-succinate imaging of brain cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Pratip; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Perman, William H.; Harris, Kent C.; Lin, Alexander P.; Norton, Valerie A.; Tan, Chou T.; Ross, Brian D.; Weitekamp, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel 13C enriched precursor molecule, sodium 1-13C acetylenedicarboxylate, which after hydrogenation by PASADE-NA (Parahydrogen and Synthesis Allows Dramatically Enhanced Nuclear Alignment) under controlled experimental conditions, becomes hyperpolarized 13C sodium succinate. Fast in vivo 3D FIESTA MR imaging demonstrated that, following carotid arterial injection, the hyperpolarized 13C-succinate appeared in the head and cerebral circulation of normal and tumor-bearing rats. At this time, no in vivo hyperpolarized signal has been localized to normal brain or brain tumor. On the other hand, ex vivo samples of brain harvested from rats bearing a 9L brain tumor, 1 h or more following in vivo carotid injection of hyperpolarized 13C sodium succinate, contained significant concentrations of the injected substrate, 13C sodium succinate, together with 13C maleate and succinate metabolites 1-13C-glutamate, 5-13C-glutamate, 1-13C-glutamine and 5-13C-glutamine. The 13C substrates and products were below the limits of NMR detection in ex vivo samples of normal brain consistent with an intact blood–brain barrier. These ex vivo results indicate that hyperpolarized 13C sodium succinate may become a useful tool for rapid in vivo identification of brain tumors, providing novel biomarkers in 13C MR spectral-spatial images. PMID:17303454

  14. 13C NMR of tunnelling methyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detken, A.

    The dipolar interactions between the protons and the central 13C nucleus of a 13CH3 group are used to study rotational tunnelling and incoherent dynamics of such groups in molecular solids. Single-crystal 13C NMR spectra are derived for arbitrary values of the tunnel frequency upsilon t. Similarities to ESR and 2H NMR are pointed out. The method is applied to three different materials. In the hydroquinone/acetonitrile clathrate, the unique features in the 13C NMR spectra which arise from tunnelling with a tunnel frequency that is much larger than the dipolar coupling between the methyl protons and the 13C nucleus are demonstrated, and the effects of incoherent dynamics are studied. The broadening of the 13C resonances is related to the width of the quasi-elastic line in neutron scattering. Selective magnetization transfer experiments for studying slow incoherent dynamics are proposed. For the strongly hindered methyl groups of L-alanine, an upper limit for upsilon is derived from the 13C NMR spectrum. In aspirinTM (acetylsalicylic acid), incoherent reorientations dominate the spectra down to the lowest temperatures studied; their rate apparently increases with decreasing temperature below 25K.

  15. Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

  16. NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RELAXATION IN LIQUID METALS, ALLOYS, AND SALTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, *ALKALI METAL ALLOYS, *LIQUID METALS, * SALTS , NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, RELAXATION TIME... SODIUM , GALLIUM, SODIUM ALLOYS, THALLIUM, THALLIUM COMPOUNDS, MELTING, NUCLEAR SPINS, QUANTUM THEORY, OPERATORS(MATHEMATICS), BIBLIOGRAPHIES, INTEGRAL EQUATIONS, TEST EQUIPMENT, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS.

  17. Shiftless nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin H; Opella, Stanley J

    2008-02-07

    The acquisition and analysis of high resolution one- and two-dimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra without chemical shift frequencies are described. Many variations of shiftless NMR spectroscopy are feasible. A two-dimensional experiment that correlates the dipole-dipole and dipole-dipole couplings in the model peptide , (15)N labeled N-acetyl-leucine is demonstrated. In addition to the resolution of resonances from individual sites in a single crystal sample, the bond lengths and angles are characterized by the two-dimensional powder pattern obtained from a polycrystalline sample.

  18. Evanescent Waves Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Halidi, El Mohamed; Nativel, Eric; Akel, Mohamad; Kenouche, Samir; Coillot, Christophe; Alibert, Eric; Jabakhanji, Bilal; Schimpf, Remy; Zanca, Michel; Stein, Paul; Goze-Bac, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and imaging can be classified as inductive techniques working in the near- to far-field regimes. We investigate an alternative capacitive detection with the use of micrometer sized probes positioned at sub wavelength distances of the sample in order to characterize and model evanescent electromagnetic fields originating from NMR phenomenon. We report that in this experimental configuration the available NMR signal is one order of magnitude larger and follows an exponential decay inversely proportional to the size of the emitters. Those investigations open a new road to a better understanding of the evanescent waves component in NMR with the opportunity to perform localized spectroscopy and imaging. PMID:26751800

  19. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try to give a short overview of what the status is on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It's a subject where one really has to spend some time to look at the physics in detail to develop a proper working understanding. I feel it's not appropriate to present to you density matrices, Hamiltonians of all sorts, and differential equations representing the motion of spins. I'm really going to present some history and status, and show a few very simple concepts involved in NMR. It is a form of radio frequency spectroscopy and there are a great number of nuclei that can be studied very usefully with the technique. NMR requires a magnet, a r.f. transmitter/receiver system, and a data acquisition system.

  20. Monitoring tumor response of prostate cancer to radiation therapy by multi-parametric 1H and hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Vickie Yi

    Radiation therapy is one of the most common curative therapies for patients with localized prostate cancer, but despite excellent success rates, a significant number of patients suffer post- treatment cancer recurrence. The accurate characterization of early tumor response remains a major challenge for the clinical management of these patients. Multi-parametric MRI/1H MR spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) has been shown to increase the diagnostic performance in evaluating the effectiveness of radiation therapy. 1H MRSI can detect altered metabolic profiles in cancerous tissue. In this project, the concentrations of prostate metabolites from snap-frozen biopsies of recurrent cancer after failed radiation therapy were correlated with histopathological findings to identify quantitative biomarkers that predict for residual aggressive versus indolent cancer. The total choline to creatine ratio was significantly higher in recurrent aggressive versus indolent cancer, suggesting that use of a higher threshold tCho/Cr ratio in future in vivo 1H MRSI studies could improve the selection and therapeutic planning for patients after failed radiation therapy. Varying radiation doses may cause a diverse effect on prostate cancer micro-environment and metabolism, which could hold the key to improving treatment protocols for individual patients. The recent development and clinical translation of hyperpolarized 13C MRI have provided the ability to monitor both changes in the tumor micro-environment and its metabolism using a multi-probe approach, [1-13C]pyruvate and 13C urea, combined with 1H Multi-parametric MRI. In this thesis, hyperpolarized 13C MRI, 1H dynamic contrast enhancement, and diffusion weighted imaging were used to identify early radiation dose response in a transgenic prostate cancer model. Hyperpolarized pyruvate to lactate metabolism significantly decreased in a dose dependent fashion by 1 day after radiation therapy, prior to any changes observed using 1H DCE and diffusion

  1. Production and NMR signal optimization of hyperpolarized 13C-labeled amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Christopher; Niedbalski, Peter; Ferguson, Sarah; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Lumata, Lloyd

    Amino acids are targeted nutrients for consumption by cancers to sustain their rapid growth and proliferation. 13C-enriched amino acids are important metabolic tracers for cancer diagnostics using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Despite this diagnostic potential, 13C NMR of amino acids however is hampered by the inherently low NMR sensitivity of the 13C nuclei. In this work, we have employed a physics technique known as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to enhance the NMR signals of 13C-enriched amino acids. DNP works by transferring the high polarization of electrons to the nuclear spins via microwave irradiation at low temperature and high magnetic field. Using a fast dissolution method in which the frozen polarized samples are dissolved rapidly with superheated water, injectable solutions of 13C-amino acids with highly enhanced NMR signals (by at least 5,000-fold) were produced at room temperature. Factors that affect the NMR signal enhancement levels such as the choice of free radical polarizing agents and sample preparation will be discussed along with the thermal mixing physics model of DNP. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.

  2. Defect-induced magnetism in SiC probed by nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. T.; Dmytriieva, D.; Molatta, S.; Wosnitza, J.; Wang, Yutian; Helm, M.; Zhou, Shengqiang; Kühne, H.

    2017-02-01

    We give evidence for intrinsic defect-induced bulk paramagnetism in SiC by means of 13C and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The temperature dependence of the internal dipole-field distribution, probed by the spin part of the NMR Knight shift and the spectral linewidth, follows the Curie law and scales very well with the macroscopic dc susceptibility. In order to quantitatively analyze the NMR spectra, a microscopic model based on dipole-dipole interactions was developed. The very good agreement between these simulations and the NMR data establishes a direct relation between the frequency distribution of the spectral intensity and the corresponding real-space volumes of nuclear spins. The presented approach by NMR can be applied to a variety of similar materials and, thus, opens a new avenue for the microscopic exploration and exploitation of diluted bulk magnetism in semiconductors.

  3. An overview of methods using (13)C for improved compound identification in metabolomics and natural products.

    PubMed

    Clendinen, Chaevien S; Stupp, Gregory S; Ajredini, Ramadan; Lee-McMullen, Brittany; Beecher, Chris; Edison, Arthur S

    2015-01-01

    Compound identification is a major bottleneck in metabolomics studies. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations, resonance overlap often hinders unambiguous database matching or de novo compound identification. In liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), discriminating between biological signals and background artifacts and reliable determination of molecular formulae are not always straightforward. We have designed and implemented several NMR and LC-MS approaches that utilize (13)C, either enriched or at natural abundance, in metabolomics applications. For LC-MS applications, we describe a technique called isotopic ratio outlier analysis (IROA), which utilizes samples that are isotopically labeled with 5% (test) and 95% (control) (13)C. This labeling strategy leads to characteristic isotopic patterns that allow the differentiation of biological signals from artifacts and yield the exact number of carbons, significantly reducing possible molecular formulae. The relative abundance between the test and control samples for every IROA feature can be determined simply by integrating the peaks that arise from the 5 and 95% channels. For NMR applications, we describe two (13)C-based approaches. For samples at natural abundance, we have developed a workflow to obtain (13)C-(13)C and (13)C-(1)H statistical correlations using 1D (13)C and (1)H NMR spectra. For samples that can be isotopically labeled, we describe another NMR approach to obtain direct (13)C-(13)C spectroscopic correlations. These methods both provide extensive information about the carbon framework of compounds in the mixture for either database matching or de novo compound identification. We also discuss strategies in which (13)C NMR can be used to identify unknown compounds from IROA experiments. By combining technologies with the same samples, we can identify important biomarkers and corresponding metabolites of interest.

  4. Microcoil nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Webb, A G

    2005-08-10

    In comparison with most analytical chemistry techniques, nuclear magnetic resonance has an intrinsically low sensitivity, and many potential applications are therefore precluded by the limited available quantity of certain types of sample. In recent years, there has been a trend, both commercial and academic, towards miniaturization of the receiver coil in order to increase the mass sensitivity of NMR measurements. These small coils have also proved very useful in coupling NMR detection with commonly used microseparation techniques. A further development enabled by small detectors is parallel data acquisition from many samples simultaneously, made possible by incorporating multiple receiver coils into a single NMR probehead. This review article summarizes recent developments and applications of "microcoil" NMR spectroscopy.

  5. Combining Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations to Characterize Carvedilol Polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Carlos A; San Gil, Rosane A S; Borré, Leandro B; Pires, José Ricardo; Vaiss, Viviane S; Resende, Jackson A L C; Leitão, Alexandre A; De Alencastro, Ricardo B; Leal, Katia Z

    2016-09-01

    The experiments of carvedilol form II, form III, and hydrate by (13)C and (15)N cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP MAS) are reported. The GIPAW (gauge-including projector-augmented wave) method from DFT (density functional theory) calculations was used to simulate (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts. A very good agreement was found for the comparison between the global results of experimental and calculated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts for carvedilol polymorphs. This work aims a comprehensive understanding of carvedilol crystalline forms employing solution and solid-state NMR as well as DFT calculations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Metabolic pathways for ketone body production. /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy of rat liver in vivo using /sup 13/C-multilabeled fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl-Wostl, C.; Seelig, J.

    1986-11-04

    The hormonal regulation of ketogenesis in the liver of living rat has been studied noninvasively with /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance. The spatial selection for the liver was better than 90%, with extrahepatic adipose tissue contribution only a very small amount of signal. The metabolic activities of the liver were investigated by infusion of /sup 13/C-labeled butyrate in the jugular vein of the anesthetized rat. The rate of butyrate infusion was chosen to be close to the maximum oxidative capacity of the rat liver, and the /sup 13/C signal intensities were enhanced by using doubly labeled (1,3-/sup 13/C)butyrate as a substrate. Different /sup 13/C NMR spectra and hence different metabolites were observed depending on the hormonal state of the animal. The /sup 13/C NMR studies demonstrate that even when rate of acetyl-CoA production are high, the disposal of this compound is not identical in fasted and diabetic animals. This supports previous suggestions that the redox state of the mitochondrion represents the most important factor in regulation. For a given metabolic state of the animal, different signal intensities were obtained depending on whether butyrate was labeled at C-1, C-3, or C-1,3. From the ratios of incorporation of /sup 13/C label into the carbons of 3-hydroxybutyrate, it could be estimated that a large fraction of butyrate evaded ..beta..-oxidation to acetyl-CoA but was converted directly to acetoacetyl-CoA. /sup 13/C-labeled glucose could be detected in vivo in the liver of diabetic rats.

  7. Hyperpolarized 13C NMR lifetimes in the liquid-state: relating structures and T1 relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Christopher; Niedbalski, Peter; Hashami, Zohreh; Fidelino, Leila; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lumata, Lloyd

    Among the various attempts to solve the insensitivity problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the physics-based technique dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is probably the most successful method of hyperpolarization or amplifying NMR signals. Using this technique, liquid-state NMR signal enhancements of several thousand-fold are expected for low-gamma nuclei such as carbon-13. The lifetimes of these hyperpolarized 13C NMR signals are directly related to their 13C spin-lattice relaxation times T1. Depending upon the 13C isotopic location, the lifetimes of hyperpolarized 13C compounds can range from a few seconds to minutes. In this study, we have investigated the hyperpolarized 13C NMR lifetimes of several 13C compounds with various chemical structures from glucose, acetate, citric acid, naphthalene to tetramethylallene and their deuterated analogs at 9.4 T and 25 deg C. Our results show that the 13C T1s of these compounds can range from a few seconds to more than 60 s at this field. Correlations between the chemical structures and T1 relaxation times will be discussed and corresponding implications of these results on 13C DNP experiments will be revealed. US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance micro-imaging in the investigation of plant cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Köckenberger, W

    2001-04-01

    Micro-imaging based on nuclear magnetic resonance offers the possibility to map metabolites in plant tissues non-invasively. Major metabolites such as sucrose and amino acids can be observed with high spatial resolution. Stable isotope tracers, such as (13)C-labelled metabolites can be used to measure the in vivo conversion rates in a metabolic network. This review summarizes the different nuclear magnetic resonance micro-imaging techniques that are available to obtain spatially resolved information on metabolites in plants. A short general introduction into NMR imaging techniques is provided. Particular emphasis is given to the difficulties encountered when NMR micro-imaging is applied to plant systems.

  9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) as a tool for the study of the metabolism of Rickettsia slovaca.

    PubMed

    García-Álvarez, Lara; Busto, Jesús H; Peregrina, Jesús M; Santibáñez, Sonia; Portillo, Aránzazu; Avenoza, Alberto; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsial infections are caused by intracellular bacteria. They do not grow in standard culture media so there are limitations in routine practice to study their metabolism. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used for identification of metabolites in biological samples. Vero cells infected with Rickettsia slovaca as well as uninfected cells were monitored by (1)H NMR showing the presence of ethanol and lactic acid. As no differences were observed, labeled compounds were added into cultures. When D-[1-13C]glucose was monitored by (13)C NMR no differences among infected and uninfected cells were observed in metabolic profiles. Glucose was transformed into ethanol in all cultures. Monitored experiments carried out with [2-13C]glycine showed differences between infected and uninfected cell cultures spectra. Glycine was partially transformed into serine, but the amount of the serine formed was larger in those infected. Moreover, L-[2-13C]leucine, L-[1-13C]isoleucine and L-[15N]tyrosine were evaluated. No differences among infected and uninfected cells were observed in the metabolic profiles when tyrosine and leucine were monitored. The amino acid L-[1-13C]isoleucine exhibited different metabolism in presence of the R. slovaca, showing a promising behavior as biomarker. In this work we focused on finding one or more compounds that could be metabolized specifically by R. slovaca and could be used as an indicator of its activity.

  10. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance with magic-angle spinning and dynamic nuclear polarization below 25 K.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Kent R; Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We describe an apparatus for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) at 20-25 K and 9.4 Tesla. The MAS NMR probe uses helium to cool the sample space and nitrogen gas for MAS drive and bearings, as described earlier, but also includes a corrugated waveguide for transmission of microwaves from below the probe to the sample. With a 30 mW circularly polarized microwave source at 264 GHz, MAS at 6.8 kHz, and 21 K sample temperature, greater than 25-fold enhancements of cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals are observed in spectra of frozen glycerol/water solutions containing the triradical dopant DOTOPA-TEMPO when microwaves are applied. As demonstrations, we present DNP-enhanced one-dimensional and two-dimensional (13)C MAS NMR spectra of frozen solutions of uniformly (13)C-labeled l-alanine and melittin, a 26-residue helical peptide that we have synthesized with four uniformly (13)C-labeled amino acids. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance with magic-angle spinning and dynamic nuclear polarization below 25 K

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Kent R.; Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We describe an apparatus for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) at 20–25 K and 9.4 Tesla. The MAS NMR probe uses helium to cool the sample space and nitrogen gas for MAS drive and bearings, as described earlier (Thurber et al., J. Magn. Reson. 2008) [1], but also includes a corrugated waveguide for transmission of microwaves from below the probe to the sample. With a 30 mW circularly polarized microwave source at 264 GHz, MAS at 6.8 kHz, and 21 K sample temperature, greater than 25-fold enhancements of cross-polarized 13C NMR signals are observed in spectra of frozen glycerol/water solutions containing the triradical dopant DOTOPA-TEMPO when microwaves are applied. As demonstrations, we present DNP-enhanced one-dimensional and two-dimensional 13C MAS NMR spectra of frozen solutions of uniformly 13C-labeled L-alanine and melittin, a 26-residue helical peptide that we have synthesized with four uniformly 13C-labeled amino acids. PMID:23238592

  12. Real-time cardiac metabolism assessed with hyperpolarized [1-13C]acetate in a large-animal model

    PubMed Central

    Flori, Alessandra; Liserani, Matteo; Frijia, Francesca; Giovannetti, Giulio; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Casieri, Valentina; Positano, Vincenzo; Aquaro, Giovanni Donato; Recchia, Fabio A.; Santarelli, Maria Filomena; Landini, Luigi; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Menichetti, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Dissolution-Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (dissolution-DNP) for Magnetic Resonance (MR) Spectroscopic Imaging has recently emerged as a novel technique for non invasive studies of the metabolic fate of biomolecules in vivo. Since acetate is the most abundant extra- and intra-cellular short-chain fatty acid, we focused on [1-13C]acetate as a promising candidate for a chemical probe to study myocardial metabolism of beating heart. Dissolution-DNP procedure of Na[1-13C]acetate for in vivo cardiac applications with 3T MR scanner was optimized in pigs during bolus injection of doses up to 3 mmoles. The Na[1-13C]acetate formulation was characterized by a liquid-state polarization of 14.2% and T1Eff in vivo of 17.6 ± 1.7 s. In vivo Na[1-13C]acetate kinetic displayed a bimodal shape: [1-13C]acetyl carnitine (AcC) was detected in a slice covering the cardiac volume, and the signal of 13C-acetate and 13C-AcC was modeled using the total Area Under the Curve (AUC) for kinetic analysis. A good correlation was found between the ratio AUC(AcC)/AUC(acetate) and the apparent kinetic constant of metabolic conversion kAcC/r1 from [1-13C]acetate to [1-13C]AcC. Our study proved the feasibility and limitations of administration of large doses of hyperpolarized [1-13C]acetate with dissolution DNP to study by MR spectroscopy the myocardial conversion of [1-13C]acetate in [1-13C]acetyl-carnitine generated by acetyltransferase in healthy pigs. PMID:25201079

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis and molecular properties of berberine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ming-Ju; Lee, Ken S.; Hurley, Sharon J.

    An extensive theoretical study of berberine has been performed at the ab initio HF/6-31G**, HF/6-311G**, and B3LYP/6-311G** levels with and without solvent effects. The optimized structures are compared with X-ray data. We found that the optimized structures with solvent effects are in slightly better agreement with X-ray data than those without solvent effects. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of berberine were calculated by using the gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) (with and without solvent effects), CSGT, and IGAIM methods. The calculated chemical shifts were compared with the two-dimensional NMR experimental data. Overall, the calculated chemical shifts show very good agreement with the experimental results. The harmonic vibrational frequencies for berberine were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G** level.

  14. Development and performance of a 129-GHz dynamic nuclear polarizer in an ultra-wide bore superconducting magnet

    PubMed Central

    Lumata, Lloyd L.; Martin, Richard; Jindal, Ashish K.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Conradi, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to build a dynamic nuclear polarization system for operation at 4.6 T (129 GHz) and evaluate its efficiency in terms of 13C polarization levels using free radicals that span a range of ESR linewidths. Materials and methods A liquid helium cryostat was placed in a 4.6 T superconducting magnet with a 150-mm warm bore diameter. A 129-GHz microwave source was used to irradiate 13C enriched samples. Temperatures close to 1 K were achieved using a vacuum pump with a 453-m3/h roots blower. A hyperpolarized 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal was detected using a saddle coil and a Varian VNMRS console operating at 49.208 MHz. Samples doped with free radicals BDPA (1,3-bisdipheny-lene-2-phenylallyl), trityl OX063 (tris{8-carboxyl-2,2,6,6-benzo(1,2-d:4,5-d)-bis(1,3)dithiole-4-yl}methyl sodium salt), galvinoxyl ((2,6-di-tert-butyl-α-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)-p-tolyloxy), 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 4-oxo-TEMPO (4-Oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy) were assayed. Microwave dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) spectra and solid-state 13C polarization levels for these samples were determined. Results 13C polarization levels close to 50 % were achieved for [1-13C]pyruvic acid at 1.15 K using the narrow electron spin resonance (ESR) linewidth free radicals trityl OX063 and BDPA, while 10–20 % 13C polarizations were achieved using galvinoxyl, DPPH and 4-oxo-TEMPO. Conclusion At this field strength free radicals with smaller ESR linewidths are still superior for DNP of 13C as opposed to those with linewidths that exceed that of the 1H Larmor frequency. PMID:25120071

  15. Development and performance of a 129-GHz dynamic nuclear polarizer in an ultra-wide bore superconducting magnet.

    PubMed

    Lumata, Lloyd L; Martin, Richard; Jindal, Ashish K; Kovacs, Zoltan; Conradi, Mark S; Merritt, Matthew E

    2015-04-01

    We sought to build a dynamic nuclear polarization system for operation at 4.6 T (129 GHz) and evaluate its efficiency in terms of (13)C polarization levels using free radicals that span a range of ESR linewidths. A liquid helium cryostat was placed in a 4.6 T superconducting magnet with a 150-mm warm bore diameter. A 129-GHz microwave source was used to irradiate (13)C enriched samples. Temperatures close to 1 K were achieved using a vacuum pump with a 453-m(3)/h roots blower. A hyperpolarized (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal was detected using a saddle coil and a Varian VNMRS console operating at 49.208 MHz. Samples doped with free radicals BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl), trityl OX063 (tris{8-carboxyl-2,2,6,6-benzo(1,2-d:4,5-d)-bis(1,3)dithiole-4-yl}methyl sodium salt), galvinoxyl ((2,6-di-tert-butyl-α-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)-p-tolyloxy), 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 4-oxo-TEMPO (4-Oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy) were assayed. Microwave dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) spectra and solid-state (13)C polarization levels for these samples were determined. (13)C polarization levels close to 50 % were achieved for [1-(13)C]pyruvic acid at 1.15 K using the narrow electron spin resonance (ESR) linewidth free radicals trityl OX063 and BDPA, while 10-20 % (13)C polarizations were achieved using galvinoxyl, DPPH and 4-oxo-TEMPO. At this field strength free radicals with smaller ESR linewidths are still superior for DNP of (13)C as opposed to those with linewidths that exceed that of the (1)H Larmor frequency.

  16. Multigap Superconductivity in Y2C3: A 13C-NMR Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, A.; Akutagawa, S.; Miyamichi, Y.; Mukuda, H.; Kitaoka, Y.; Akimitsu, J.

    2007-02-01

    We report on the superconducting properties of Y2C3 with a relatively high transition temperature Tc = 15.7 K investigated by 13C nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) measurements under a magnetic field. The 13C Knight shift has revealed a significant decrease below Tc, suggesting a spin-singlet superconductivity. From an analysis of the temperature dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 in the superconducting state, Y2C3 is demonstrated to be a multigap superconductor that exhibits a large gap 2Δ/kBTc=5 at the main band and a small gap 2Δ/kBTc=2 at other bands. These results have revealed that Y2C3 is a unique multigap s-wave superconductor similar to MgB2.

  17. An improved nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Manatt, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    Cylindrical sample container provides a high degree of nuclear stabilization to a nuclear magnetic resonance /nmr/ spectrometer. It is placed coaxially about the nmr insert and contains reference sample that gives a signal suitable for locking the field and frequency of an nmr spectrometer with a simple audio modulation system.

  18. The role of solid state 13 C NMR spectroscopy in studies of the nature of native celluloses

    Treesearch

    R.H. Atalla; D.L. VanderHart

    1999-01-01

    Published spectroscopic observations pertaining to the crystal structure of native celluloses are reviewed for the purpose of defining our current level of understanding about crystalline polymorphism in these materials. Emphasis is placed on observations from solid state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which first led to the postulate that most native,...

  19. 13C NMR investigations of the metallic state of Li intercalated carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, M.; Goze-Bac, C.; Mehring, M.; Roth, S.; Bernier, P.

    2003-10-01

    13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance measurements were performed on pristine and lithium intercalated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). We investigated the NMR signatures by means of static and high resolution Magic Angle Spinning experiments. This allows us to measure in detail the modifications of the lineshape with the Li concentration. Our results can be explained in terms of charge transfer and changes of the metallic state with an increasing density of states at the Fermi level compared to the pristine SWNT.

  20. Transmembrane exchange of hyperpolarized 13C-urea in human erythrocytes: subminute timescale kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pagès, Guilhem; Puckeridge, Max; Liangfeng, Guo; Tan, Yee Ling; Jacob, Chacko; Garland, Marc; Kuchel, Philip W

    2013-11-05

    The rate of exchange of urea across the membranes of human erythrocytes (red blood cells) was quantified on the 1-s to 2-min timescale. (13)C-urea was hyperpolarized and subjected to rapid dissolution and the previously reported (partial) resolution of (13)C NMR resonances from the molecules inside and outside red blood cells in suspensions was observed. This enabled a stopped-flow type of experiment to measure the (initially) zero-trans transport of urea with sequential single-pulse (13)C NMR spectra, every second for up to ~2 min. Data were analyzed using Bayesian reasoning and a Markov chain Monte Carlo method with a set of simultaneous nonlinear differential equations that described nuclear magnetic relaxation combined with transmembrane exchange. Our results contribute to quantitative understanding of urea-exchange kinetics in the whole body; and the methodological approach is likely to be applicable to other cellular systems and tissues in vivo.

  1. Field dependence of T1 for hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Chattergoon, N; Martínez-Santiesteban, F; Handler, W B; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J H; Scholl, T J

    2013-01-01

    In vivo metabolism of hyperpolarized pyruvate has been demonstrated to be an important probe of cellular glycolysis in diseases such as cancer. The usefulness of hyperpolarized (13)C imaging is dependent on the relaxation rates of the (13)C-enriched substrates, which in turn depend on chemical conformation and properties of the dissolution media such as buffer composition, solution pH, temperature and magnetic field. We have measured the magnetic field dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation time of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate using field-cycled relaxometry. [1-(13)C]pyruvate was hyperpolarized using dynamic nuclear polarization and then rapidly thawed and dissolved in a buffered solution to a concentration of 80 mmol l(-1) and a pH of ~7.8. The hyperpolarized liquid was transferred within 8 s to a fast field-cycling relaxometer with a probe tuned for detection of (13)C at a field strength of ~0.75 T. The magnetic field of the relaxometer was rapidly varied between relaxation and acquisition fields where the sample magnetization was periodically measured using a small flip angle. Data were recorded for relaxation fields varying between 0.237 mT and 0.705 T to map the T(1) dispersion of the C-1 of pyruvate. Using similar methods, we also determined the relaxivity of the triarylmethyl radical (OX063; used for dynamic nuclear polarization) on the C-1 of pyruvate at field strengths of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 T using 0.075, 1.0 and 2.0 mmol l(-1) concentrations of OX063 in the hyperpolarized pyruvate solution. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Nuclear spin conversion of water inside fullerene cages detected by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Mamone, Salvatore Concistrè, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J.

    2014-05-21

    The water-endofullerene H{sub 2}O@C{sub 60} provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H{sub 2}O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H{sub 2}O molecules is catalysed by {sup 13}C nuclei present in the cages.

  3. Nuclear spin conversion of water inside fullerene cages detected by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2014-05-01

    The water-endofullerene H2O@C60 provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H2O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H2O molecules is catalysed by 13C nuclei present in the cages.

  4. Using solid 13C NMR coupled with solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to investigate molecular species and lability of organic carbon and phosphorus from aquatic plants in Tai Lake, China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquatic plants are involved in the storage and release capacity for organic matter and nutrients. In this study, solid 13C and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the biomass samples of six aquatic plants. Solid 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed the domin...

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging provides anatomical definition of normal and abnormal tissues with a contrast and detection sensitivity superior to those of x-ray computed tomography in the human head and pelvis and parts of the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Recent improvements in technology should lead to advances in diagnostic imaging of the breast and regions of the abdomen. Selected-region nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of protons, carbon-13, and phosphorus-31 has developed into a basic science tool for in vivo studies on man and a unique tool for clinical diagnoses of metabolic disorders. At present, nuclear magnetic resonance is considered safe if access to the magnet environment is controlled. Technological advances employing field strengths over 2 teslas will require biophysical studies of heating and static field effects.

  6. Photochemically induced nuclear spin polarization in reaction centers of photosystem II observed by 13C-solid-state NMR reveals a strongly asymmetric electronic structure of the P680.+ primary donor chlorophyll

    PubMed Central

    Matysik, Jörg; Alia; Gast, Peter; van Gorkom, Hans J.; Hoff, Arnold J.; de Groot, Huub J. M.

    2000-01-01

    We report 13C magic angle spinning NMR observation of photochemically induced dynamic nuclear spin polarization (photo- CIDNP) in the reaction center (RC) of photosystem II (PS2). The light-enhanced NMR signals of the natural abundance 13C provide information on the electronic structure of the primary electron donor P680 (chlorophyll a molecules absorbing around 680 nm) and on the pz spin density pattern in its oxidized form, P680⨥. Most centerband signals can be attributed to a single chlorophyll a (Chl a) cofactor that has little interaction with other pigments. The chemical shift anisotropy of the most intense signals is characteristic for aromatic carbon atoms. The data reveal a pronounced asymmetry of the electronic spin density distribution within the P680⨥. PS2 shows only a single broad and intense emissive signal, which is assigned to both the C-10 and C-15 methine carbon atoms. The spin density appears shifted toward ring III. This shift is remarkable, because, for monomeric Chl a radical cations in solution, the region of highest spin density is around ring II. It leads to a first hypothesis as to how the planet can provide itself with the chemical potential to split water and generate an oxygen atmosphere using the Chl a macroaromatic cycle. A local electrostatic field close to ring III can polarize the electronic charge and associated spin density and increase the redox potential of P680 by stabilizing the highest occupied molecular orbital, without a major change of color. This field could be produced, e.g., by protonation of the keto group of ring V. Finally, the radical cation electronic structure in PS2 is different from that in the bacterial RC, which shows at least four emissive centerbands, indicating a symmetric spin density distribution over the entire bacteriochlorophyll macrocycle. PMID:10944191

  7. A combined nuclear magnetic resonance and computational study of monohydroxyflavones applied to product ion mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Burns, Darcy C; Ellis, David A; Li, Hongxia; Lewars, Errol G; March, Raymond E

    2007-01-01

    A method is presented for the estimation of 13C-chemical shifts for carbon atoms in protonated and deprotonated molecules; in principle, this method can be applied to ions in general. Experimental 13C-chemical shifts were found to vary linearly with computed atomic charges using the PM3 method. Pseudo-13C-chemical shifts for atoms in protonated and deprotonated molecules can be estimated from computed atomic charges for such atoms using the above linear relationship. The pseudo-13C-chemical shifts obtained were applied to the rationalization of product ion mass spectra of protonated and deprotonated molecules of flavone and 3-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 2'-, 3'-, and 4'-hydroxyflavones, where product ion formation is due to either cross-ring cleavage of the C-ring (retro-Diels-Alder reaction) or to cleavage of a C-ring bond followed by loss of either a small neutral molecule or a radical. The total product ion abundance ratio of C-ring cross cleavage to C-ring bond cleavage, gamma, varied by a factor of 660 for deprotonated monohydroxyflavones, i.e., from 0.014:1 to 9.27:1. The magnitude of gamma, which is dependent on the relative bond orders within the C-ring of the protonated and deprotonated molecules of monohydroxyflavones, can be rationalized on the basis of the magnitudes of the 13C- and 1H-chemical shifts as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  10. Synthesis of D-[U-{sup 13}C]Glucal, D-[U-{sup 13}C] Galactal, and L-[U-{sup 13}C]Fucose for NMR structure studies of oligosaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.; Unkefer, C.J.; Silks, L.A. III

    1996-12-31

    The role of carbohydrates is well recognized in a variety of important biological phenomena such as cell surface recognition. Recent advances in carbohydrate chemistry, including the development of solid phase synthesis methods, have helped to provide significant quantities of material by offering general protocols for synthesis of well-defined, pure material. However, the study of the solution structure of oligosaccharides by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques have been hampered by the lack of enriched {sup 13}C material. In an effort to help alleviate this situation, we have been interested in the construction of the title compounds from a single economical carbon source, D-[U-{sup 13}C]glucose. Details of the syntheses will be provided.

  11. Zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wei; Tycko, Robert

    2012-09-01

    We present the theoretical description and experimental demonstration of a zero-quantum stochastic dipolar recoupling (ZQ-SDR) technique for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of 13C-labeled molecules, including proteins, under magic-angle spinning (MAS). The ZQ-SDR technique combines zero-quantum recoupling pulse sequence blocks with randomly varying chemical shift precession periods to create randomly amplitude- and phase-modulated effective homonuclear magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. To a good approximation, couplings between different 13C spin pairs become uncorrelated under ZQ-SDR, leading to spin dynamics (averaged over many repetitions of the ZQ-SDR sequence) that are fully described by an orientation-dependent N × N polarization transfer rate matrix for an N-spin system, with rates that are inversely proportional to the sixth power of internuclear distances. Suppression of polarization transfers due to non-commutivity of pairwise couplings (i.e., dipolar truncation) does not occur under ZQ-SDR, as we show both analytically and numerically. Experimental demonstrations are reported for uniformly 13C-labeled L-valine powder (at 14.1 T and 28.00 kHz MAS), uniformly 13C-labeled protein GB1 in microcrystalline form (at 17.6 T and 40.00 kHz MAS), and partially labeled 13C-labeled protein GB1 (at 14.1 T and 40.00 kHz MAS). The experimental results verify that spin dynamics under ZQ-SDR are described accurately by rate matrices and suggest the utility of ZQ-SDR in structural studies of 13C-labeled solids.

  12. High-resolution solid state sup 13 C NMR of bacteriorhodopsin: Characterization of (4- sup 13 C)asp resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, G.; Siebert, F. Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Biophysik, Frankfurt ); Engelhard, M. )

    1992-01-21

    Solid state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of bacteriorhodopsin labeled with (4-{sup 13}C)Asp show that resonances of single amino acids can be resolved. In order to assign and characterize the resonances of specific Asp residues, three different approaches were used. (1) Determination of the chemical shift anisotropy from side-band intensities provides information about the protonation state of Asp residues; (2) relaxation studies and T{sub 1} filtering allow one to discriminate between resonances with different mobility; (3) a comparison of the spectra of light- and dark-adapted bacteriorhodopsin provides evidence for resonances from aspartic acid residues in close neighborhood of the chromophore. In agreement with other investigations, four resonances are assigned to internal residues. Two of them are protonated in the ground state up to pH 10 (Asp{sub 96} and Asp{sub 115}). All other detected resonance, including Asp{sub 85} and Asp{sub 212}, are due to deprotonated aspartic acid. Two lines due to the two internal deprotonated groups change upon dark and light adaptation, whereas the protonated Asp residues are unaffected.

  13. Local and bulk 13C hyperpolarization in nitrogen-vacancy-centred diamonds at variable fields and orientations

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Bretschneider, Christian O.; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Kanda, Hisao; Onoda, Shinobu; Isoya, Junichi; Gershoni, David; Frydman, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Polarizing nuclear spins is of fundamental importance in biology, chemistry and physics. Methods for hyperpolarizing 13C nuclei from free electrons in bulk usually demand operation at cryogenic temperatures. Room temperature approaches targeting diamonds with nitrogen-vacancy centres could alleviate this need; however, hitherto proposed strategies lack generality as they demand stringent conditions on the strength and/or alignment of the magnetic field. We report here an approach for achieving efficient electron-13C spin-alignment transfers, compatible with a broad range of magnetic field strengths and field orientations with respect to the diamond crystal. This versatility results from combining coherent microwave- and incoherent laser-induced transitions between selected energy states of the coupled electron–nuclear spin manifold. 13C-detected nuclear magnetic resonance experiments demonstrate that this hyperpolarization can be transferred via first-shell or via distant 13Cs throughout the nuclear bulk ensemble. This method opens new perspectives for applications of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centres in nuclear magnetic resonance, and in quantum information processing. PMID:26404169

  14. Magnetic fusion driventransmutation of nuclear waste (FTW)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Cheng, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of magnetic Fusion driven Transmutation of Waste (FTW) was revisted and discussed recently. Nuclear wastes include all transuranium elements: Pu isotopes, minor actinides separated from the spent fission fuel, and fissile products. Elimination of thse long-life nuclear wastes is necessary for the long-term viability of fission power. A Small Business Innovative Research program has been initiated under the leadership of TSI Research to examine the efficacy of fusion transmutation of waste utilizing small fusion drivers.

  15. An overview of methods using 13C for improved compound identification in metabolomics and natural products

    PubMed Central

    Clendinen, Chaevien S.; Stupp, Gregory S.; Ajredini, Ramadan; Lee-McMullen, Brittany; Beecher, Chris; Edison, Arthur S.

    2015-01-01

    Compound identification is a major bottleneck in metabolomics studies. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations, resonance overlap often hinders unambiguous database matching or de novo compound identification. In liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), discriminating between biological signals and background artifacts and reliable determination of molecular formulae are not always straightforward. We have designed and implemented several NMR and LC-MS approaches that utilize 13C, either enriched or at natural abundance, in metabolomics applications. For LC-MS applications, we describe a technique called isotopic ratio outlier analysis (IROA), which utilizes samples that are isotopically labeled with 5% (test) and 95% (control) 13C. This labeling strategy leads to characteristic isotopic patterns that allow the differentiation of biological signals from artifacts and yield the exact number of carbons, significantly reducing possible molecular formulae. The relative abundance between the test and control samples for every IROA feature can be determined simply by integrating the peaks that arise from the 5 and 95% channels. For NMR applications, we describe two 13C-based approaches. For samples at natural abundance, we have developed a workflow to obtain 13C–13C and 13C–1H statistical correlations using 1D 13C and 1H NMR spectra. For samples that can be isotopically labeled, we describe another NMR approach to obtain direct 13C–13C spectroscopic correlations. These methods both provide extensive information about the carbon framework of compounds in the mixture for either database matching or de novo compound identification. We also discuss strategies in which 13C NMR can be used to identify unknown compounds from IROA experiments. By combining technologies with the same samples, we can identify important biomarkers and corresponding metabolites of interest. PMID:26379677

  16. In vivo dynamic turnover of cerebral 13C isotopomers from [U- 13C]glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Su; Shen, Jun

    2006-10-01

    An INEPT-based 13C MRS method and a cost-effective and widely available 11.7 Tesla 89-mm bore vertical magnet were used to detect dynamic 13C isotopomer turnover from intravenously infused [U- 13C]glucose in a 211 μL voxel located in the adult rat brain. The INEPT-based 1H → 13C polarization transfer method is mostly adiabatic and therefore minimizes signal loss due to B 1 inhomogeneity of the surface coils used. High quality and reproducible data were acquired as a result of combined use of outer volume suppression, ISIS, and the single-shot three-dimensional localization scheme built in the INEPT pulse sequence. Isotopomer patterns of both glutamate C4 at 34.00 ppm and glutamine C4 at 31.38 ppm are dominated first by a doublet originated from labeling at C4 and C5 but not at C3 (with 1JC4C5 = 51 Hz) and then by a quartet originated from labeling at C3, C4, and C5 (with 1JC3C4 = 35 Hz). A lag in the transition of glutamine C4 pattern from doublet-dominance to quartet dominance as compared to glutamate C4 was observed, which provides an independent verification of the precursor-product relationship between neuronal glutamate and glial glutamine and a significant intercompartmental cerebral glutamate-glutamine cycle between neurons and glial cells.

  17. Characterization of Acetate and Pyruvate Metabolism in Suspension Cultures of Zea mays by 13C NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Dennis J.; Lee, Rino Y.; Adams, Douglas O.

    1987-01-01

    Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been applied to the direct observation of acetate and pyruvate metabolism in suspension cultures of Zea mays (var Black Mexican Sweet). Growth of the corn cells in the presence of 2 millimolar [2-13C]acetate resulted in a rapid uptake of the substrate from the medium and initial labeling (0-4 hours) of primarily the intracellular glutamate and malate pools. Further metabolism of these intermediates resulted in labeling of glutamine, aspartate, and alanine. With [1-13C]acetate as the substrate very little incorporation into intermediary metabolites was observed in the 13C NMR spectra due to loss of the label as 13CO2. Uptake of [3-13C]pyruvate by the cells was considerably slower than with [2-13C]acetate; however, the labelling patterns were similar with the exception of increased [3-13C] alanine generation with pyruvate as the substrate. Growth of the cells for up to 96 hours with 2 millimolar [3-13C]pyruvate ultimately resulted in labeling of valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, and the polyamine putrescine. PMID:16665721

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance probes of membrane biophysics: Structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leftin, Avigdor

    The phospholipid membrane is a self-assembled, dynamic molecular system that may exist alone in association with only water, or in complex systems comprised of multiple lipid types and proteins. In this dissertation the intra- and inter-molecular forces responsible for the atomistic, molecular and collective equilibrium structure and dynamics are studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The multinuclear NMR measurements and various experimental techniques are able to provide data that enable the characterization of the hierarchical spatio-temporal organization of the phospholipid membrane. The experimental and theoretical studies conducted target membrane interactions ranging from model systems composed of only water and lipids, to multiple component domain forming membranes that are in association with peripheral and trans-membrane proteins. These measurements consisit of frequency spectrum lineshapes and nuclear-spin relaxation rates obtained using 2H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR and 1H NMR. The changes of these experimental observables are interpreted within a statistical thermodynamic framework that allows the membrane structure, activation energies, and correlation times of motion to be determined. The cases presented demonstrate how fundamental principles of NMR spectroscopy may be applied to a host of membranes, leading to the biophysical characterization of membrane structure and dynamics.

  19. Single crystal nuclear magnetic resonance in spinning powders.

    PubMed

    Pell, Andrew J; Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon

    2011-10-14

    We present a method for selectively exciting nuclear magnetic resonances (NMRs) from well-defined subsets of crystallites from a powdered sample under magic angle spinning. Magic angle spinning induces a time dependence in the anisotropic interactions, which results in a time variation of the resonance frequencies which is different for different crystallite orientations. The proposed method exploits this by applying selective pulses, which we refer to as XS (for crystallite-selective) pulses, that follow the resonance frequencies of nuclear species within particular crystallites, resulting in the induced flip angle being orientation dependent. By selecting the radiofrequency field to deliver a 180° pulse for the target orientation and employing a train of such pulses combined with cogwheel phase cycling, we obtain a high degree of orientational selectivity with the resulting spectrum containing only contributions from orientations close to the target. Typically, this leads to the selection of between 0.1% and 10% of the crystallites, and in extreme cases to the excitation of a single orientation resulting in single crystal spectra of spinning powders. Two formulations of this method are described and demonstrated with experimental examples on [1-(13)C]-alanine and the paramagnetic compound Sm(2)Sn(2)O(7).

  20. Single crystal nuclear magnetic resonance in spinning powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, Andrew J.; Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon

    2011-10-01

    We present a method for selectively exciting nuclear magnetic resonances (NMRs) from well-defined subsets of crystallites from a powdered sample under magic angle spinning. Magic angle spinning induces a time dependence in the anisotropic interactions, which results in a time variation of the resonance frequencies which is different for different crystallite orientations. The proposed method exploits this by applying selective pulses, which we refer to as XS (for crystallite-selective) pulses, that follow the resonance frequencies of nuclear species within particular crystallites, resulting in the induced flip angle being orientation dependent. By selecting the radiofrequency field to deliver a 180 ○ pulse for the target orientation and employing a train of such pulses combined with cogwheel phase cycling, we obtain a high degree of orientational selectivity with the resulting spectrum containing only contributions from orientations close to the target. Typically, this leads to the selection of between 0.1% and 10% of the crystallites, and in extreme cases to the excitation of a single orientation resulting in single crystal spectra of spinning powders. Two formulations of this method are described and demonstrated with experimental examples on [1 - 13C]-alanine and the paramagnetic compound Sm2Sn2O7.

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on the status of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from theoretical and clinical perspectives, reviewing NMR theory and relaxation parameters relevant to NMR imaging. Also reviews literature related to modern imaging strategies, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast agents, in vivo spectroscopy, spectroscopic imaging, clinical applications, and…

  2. Sample spinner for nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, E.O.

    1984-05-01

    A sample spinner for a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer having improved operating characteristics is described comprising a rotor supported at both ends by support gas bearings and positioned by a thrust gas bearing. Improved support gas bearings are also described which result in a spinner exhibiting long-term stable operation characteristics.

  3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on the status of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from theoretical and clinical perspectives, reviewing NMR theory and relaxation parameters relevant to NMR imaging. Also reviews literature related to modern imaging strategies, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast agents, in vivo spectroscopy, spectroscopic imaging, clinical applications, and…

  4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging. South Carolina Health Service Area 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Contents include: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMRI); (Clinical applications, Magnet types, Comparisons with other systems, Manpower, Manufacturers, Contraindications); Analysis of systems; (Availability, Accessibility, Cost, Quality, Continuity, Acceptability).

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Shieldings of Stacked Aromatic and Antiaromatic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Sundholm, Dage; Rauhalahti, Markus; Özcan, Nergiz; Mera-Adasme, Raúl; Kussmann, Jörg; Luenser, Arne; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2017-04-04

    Nuclear magnetic shieldings have been calculated at the density functional theory (DFT) level for stacks of benzene, hexadehydro[12]annulene, dodecadehydro[18]annulene, and hexabenzocoronene. The magnetic shieldings due to the ring currents in the adjacent molecules have been estimated by calculating nucleus independent molecular shieldings for the monomer in the atomic positions of neighbor molecules. The calculations show that the independent shielding model works reasonably well for the (1)H NMR shieldings of benzene and hexadehydro[12]annulene, whereas for the larger molecules and for the (13)C NMR shieldings the interaction between the molecules leads to shielding effects that are at least of the same size as the ring current contributions from the adjacent molecules. A better agreement is obtained when the nearest neighbors are also considered at full quantum mechanical (QM) level. The calculations suggest that the nearest solvent molecules must be included in the quantum mechanical system, at least when estimating solvent shifts at the molecular mechanics (MM) level. Current density calculations show that the stacking does not significantly affect the ring current strengths of the individual molecules, whereas the shape of the ring current for a single molecule differs from that of the stacked molecules.

  6. Quantification of 13C pyruvate and 13C lactate in dog blood by reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry after derivatization with 3-nitrophenylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Uran, Steinar; Landmark, Kristin Eitrem; Hjellum, Gro; Skotland, Tore

    2007-08-15

    Injection of hyperpolarized (13)C-labelled pyruvate ((13)C pyruvate) is under evaluation as an agent for medical metabolic imaging by measuring formation of (13)C lactate using magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the (13)C nuclei. A quantitative method for analysis of these (13)C-labelled substances in dog blood was needed as part of the development of this agent and we here describe a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for that purpose. Immediately after blood collection, the blood proteins were precipitated using methanol added internal standard ([U-(13)C]pyruvate and [U-(13)C]lactate). Prior to analysis, the compounds were derivatized using 3-nitrophenylhydrazine. Following separation on a Supelco Discovery HS C18 column, (13)C pyruvate and (13)C lactate were detected using negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Calibration standards (4.5-4500 microM (13)C pyruvate and 9-9000 microM (13)C lactate) and added internal standard were used to make the calibration curves, which were fitted to a non-linear equation y=a+bx+cx(2) and weighted with a weighting factor of 1/y(2). The analytical lower limit of quantification of (13)C pyruvate and (13)C lactate was 4.5 and 9 microM, respectively. The total precision of the method was below 9.2% for (13)C pyruvate and below 5.8% for (13)C lactate. The accuracy of the method showed a relative error less than 2.4% for (13)C pyruvate and less than 6.3% for (13)C lactate. The recoveries were in the range 93-115% for (13)C pyruvate and 70-111% for (13)C lactate. Both substances were stable in protein-free supernatant when stored for up to 3 weeks in a -20 degrees C freezer, during three freeze/thaw cycles, and when stored in an autosampler for at least 30 h.

  7. Multi-Spectroscopic Analysis of Seed Quality and 13C-Stable-Iotopologue Monitoring in Initial Growth Metabolism of Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Takanori; Ohishi, Risa; Shino, Amiu; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we applied nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, to Jatropha curcas to fulfill two objectives: (1) to qualitatively examine the seeds stored at different conditions, and (2) to monitor the metabolism of J. curcas during its initial growth stage under stable-isotope-labeling condition (until 15 days after seeding). NIR spectra could non-invasively distinguish differences in storage conditions. NMR metabolic analysis of water-soluble metabolites identified sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides as positive markers and gluconic acid as a negative marker of seed germination. Isotopic labeling patteren of metabolites in germinated seedlings cultured in agar-plate containg 13C-glucose and 15N-nitrate was analyzed by zero-quantum-filtered-total correlation spectroscopy (ZQF-TOCSY) and 13C-detected 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy (HETCOR). 13C-detected HETOCR with 13C-optimized cryogenic probe provided high-resolution 13C-NMR spectra of each metabolite in molecular crowd. The 13C-13C/12C bondmer estimated from 1H-13C HETCOR spectra indicated that glutamine and arginine were the major organic compounds for nitrogen and carbon transfer from roots to leaves. PMID:25401292

  8. One-thousand-fold enhancement of high field liquid nuclear magnetic resonance signals at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoquan; Levien, Marcel; Karschin, Niels; Parigi, Giacomo; Luchinat, Claudio; Bennati, Marina

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a fundamental spectroscopic technique for the study of biological systems and materials, molecular imaging and the analysis of small molecules. It detects interactions at very low energies and is thus non-invasive and applicable to a variety of targets, including animals and humans. However, one of its most severe limitations is its low sensitivity, which stems from the small interaction energies involved. Here, we report that dynamic nuclear polarization in liquid solution and at room temperature can enhance the NMR signal of (13)C nuclei by up to three orders of magnitude at magnetic fields of ∼3 T. The experiment can be repeated within seconds for signal averaging, without interfering with the sample magnetic homogeneity. The method is therefore compatible with the conditions required for high-resolution NMR. Enhancement of (13)C signals on various organic compounds opens up new perspectives for dynamic nuclear polarization as a general tool to increase the sensitivity of liquid NMR.

  9. One-thousand-fold enhancement of high field liquid nuclear magnetic resonance signals at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoquan; Levien, Marcel; Karschin, Niels; Parigi, Giacomo; Luchinat, Claudio; Bennati, Marina

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a fundamental spectroscopic technique for the study of biological systems and materials, molecular imaging and the analysis of small molecules. It detects interactions at very low energies and is thus non-invasive and applicable to a variety of targets, including animals and humans. However, one of its most severe limitations is its low sensitivity, which stems from the small interaction energies involved. Here, we report that dynamic nuclear polarization in liquid solution and at room temperature can enhance the NMR signal of 13C nuclei by up to three orders of magnitude at magnetic fields of ∼3 T. The experiment can be repeated within seconds for signal averaging, without interfering with the sample magnetic homogeneity. The method is therefore compatible with the conditions required for high-resolution NMR. Enhancement of 13C signals on various organic compounds opens up new perspectives for dynamic nuclear polarization as a general tool to increase the sensitivity of liquid NMR.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ({sup 31}P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the {sup 31}P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. {sup 1}H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T{sub 1} or T{sub 2}, consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T{sub 1} relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine {gamma}-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T{sub 1} with increasing magnetic field.

  11. Synthesis of exemestane labelled with (13)C.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Erminia; Pignatti, Alberto; Giribone, Danilo; Di Salle, Enrico

    2008-08-01

    The synthesis of exemestane Aromasin, an irreversible steroidal aromatase inhibitor, specifically labelled with (13)C is reported. The preparation of [(13)C(3)]exemestane was achieved according to an eight-step procedure starting from the commercially available testosterone.

  12. Synthesis of Site-Specifically (13)C Labeled Linoleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Offenbacher, Adam R; Zhu, Hui; Klinman, Judith P

    2016-10-12

    Soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) catalyzes the C-H abstraction from the reactive carbon (C-11) in linoleic acid as the first and rate-determining step in the formation of alkylhydroperoxides. While previous labeling strategies have focused on deuterium labeling to ascertain the primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects for this reaction, there is an emerging interest and need for selectively enriched (13)C isotopologues. In this report, we present synthetic strategies for site-specific (13)C labeled linoleic acid substrates. We take advantage of a Corey-Fuchs formyl to terminal (13)C-labeled alkyne conversion, using (13)CBr4 as the labeling source, to reduce the number of steps from a previous fatty acid (13)C synthetic labeling approach. The labeled linoleic acid substrates are useful as nuclear tunneling markers and for extracting active site geometries of the enzyme-substrate complex in lipoxygenase.

  13. Optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance of semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sophia E; Mui, Stacy; Ramaswamy, Kannan

    2008-02-07

    Optically pumped NMR (OPNMR) of direct gap and indirect gap semiconductors has been an area of active research interest, motivated by both basic science and technological perspectives. Proposals to enhance and to spatially localize nuclear polarization have stimulated interest in this area. Recent progress in OPNMR has focused on exploring the experimental parameter space in order to elucidate details of the underlying photophysics of optical pumping phenomena. The focus of this review is on recent studies of bulk samples of GaAs and InP, namely, the photon energy dependence, the magnetic field dependence, and the phase dependence of OPNMR resonances. Models for the development of nuclear polarization are discussed.

  14. [Nuclear magnetic resonance in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hamad, H

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a more recent technique than computerized tomography (CT), with which morphological, high quality, three-dimensional images can be obtained, it is capable of differentiating gray/white matter without patients' exposure to radiation. Clinical investigation studies demonstrate the following findings: In Schizophrenics: Enlargement of lateral ventricles volume in 67-73%, in naive patients 21-33%. The increase of the third ventricle varies from 19 to 73%, whose patients have significant flat affect. The temporal lobe gray matter is reduced, including amygdala-hippocampal complex, and parahippocampal gyrus. No specific corpus callosum results are concluded. There is cortical atrophy, specially of bilateral prefrontal regions. Basal ganglia (lenticular and caudate nuclei) are increased. The prefrontal, temporal and limbic dysfunction supports the abnormal connection hypothesis in schizophrenics. Basal ganglia also are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Clinical cortical atrophy symptoms are demonstrated by neuropsychological tests, although some cognitive deficits are remediable. Perinatal complications are more frequent, in children who will be schizophrenics, than their siblings (23.6% vs 12.8%); those of special interest are: toxemia, prematurity, long labor, jaundice and bleeding during pregnancy. In affective Bipolar Disorders: There is increase (19-50%) in the number of focal signal hyperintensities at the lateral limits of ventricles and in both hemispheres, and a trend towards larger ventricular size. The temporal lobe is smaller bilaterally, but the right side is 15% larger; its volume correlates negatively with long-term illness in males. In Unipolar Disorder an increase of frontal white matter T1 values is registered.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction.

  16. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction.

  17. Magnetic-field cycling instrumentation for dynamic nuclear polarization-nuclear magnetic resonance using photoexcited triplets.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Akinori; Negoro, Makoto; Takeda, Kazuyuki; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2009-04-01

    To advance static solid-state NMR with hyperpolarized nuclear spins, a system has been developed enabling dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) using electron spins in the photoexcited triplet state with X-band microwave apparatus, followed by static solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments using the polarized nuclear-spin system with a goniometer. In order to perform the DNP and NMR procedures in different magnetic fields, the DNP system and the NMR system are spatially separated, between which the sample can be shuttled while its orientation is controlled in a reproducible fashion. We demonstrate that the system developed in this work is operational for solid-state NMR with hyperpolarized nuclear-spin systems in static organic materials, and also discuss the application of our system.

  18. Nuclear magnetic moments and related sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, Wolfgang; Arima, Akito

    2011-05-06

    We first review the history and our present understanding of nuclear magnetic moments and Gamow-Teller transitions, with emphasis on the roles of configuration mixing and meson exchange currents. Then we discuss the renormalization of the orbital g-factor in nuclei, and its relation to the E1 sum rule for photoabsorption and the M1 sum rule for the scissors mode of deformed nuclei.

  19. High-resolution detection of 13C multiplets from the conscious mouse brain by ex vivo NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B.; Ma, Qian; Jeffrey, F. Mark; Malloy, Craig R.; Pascual, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Glucose readily supplies the brain with the majority of carbon needed to sustain neurotransmitter production and utilization., The rate of brain glucose metabolism can be computed using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy by detecting changes in 13C contents of products generated by cerebral metabolism. As previously observed, scalar coupling between adjacent 13C carbons (multiplets) can provide additional information to 13C contents for the computation of metabolic rates. Most NMR studies have been conducted in large animals (often under anesthesia) because the mass of the target organ is a limiting factor for NMR. Yet, despite the challengingly small size of the mouse brain, NMR studies are highly desirable because the mouse constitutes a common animal model for human neurological disorders. We have developed a method for the ex vivo resolution of NMR multiplets arising from the brain of an awake mouse after the infusion of [1,6-13C2]glucose. NMR spectra obtained by this method display favorable signal-to-noise ratios. With this protocol, the 13C multiplets of glutamate, glutamine, GABA and aspartate achieved steady state after 150 min. The method enables the accurate resolution of multiplets over time in the awake mouse brain. We anticipate that this method can be broadly applicable to compute brain fluxes in normal and transgenic mouse models of neurological disorders. PMID:21946227

  20. Characterization of a Mixture of CO2 Adsorption Products in Hyperbranched Aminosilica Adsorbents by (13)C Solid-State NMR.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeremy K; Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Mehta, Anil K; Conradi, Mark S; Jones, Christopher W; Hayes, Sophia E

    2015-11-17

    Hyperbranched amine polymers (HAS) grown from the mesoporous silica SBA-15 (hereafter "SBA-15-HAS") exhibit large capacities for CO2 adsorption. We have used static in situ and magic-angle spinning (MAS) ex situ (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the adsorption of CO2 by SBA-15-HAS. (13)C NMR distinguishes the signal of gas-phase (13)CO2 from that of the chemisorbed species. HAS polymers possess primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, leading to multiple chemisorption reaction outcomes, including carbamate (RnNCOO(-)), carbamic acid (RnNCOOH), and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) moieties. Carbamates and bicarbonate fall within a small (13)C chemical shift range (162-166 ppm), and a mixture was observed including carbamic acid and carbamate, the former disappearing upon evacuation of the sample. By examining the (13)C-(14)N dipolar coupling through low-field (B0 = 3 T) (13)C{(1)H} cross-polarization MAS NMR, carbamate is confirmed through splitting of the (13)C resonance. A third species that is either bicarbonate or a second carbamate is evident from bimodal T2 decay times of the ∼163 ppm peak, indicating the presence of two species comprising that single resonance. The mixture of products suggests that (1) the presence of amines and water leads to bicarbonate being present and/or (2) the multiple types of amine sites in HAS permit formation of chemically distinct carbamates.

  1. Determination of alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants in groundwater using macroreticular resins and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Willoughby, T.; Barber, L.B.; Thorn, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants were determined in groundwater at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg/L. The method uses XAD-8 resin for concentration, followed by elution with methanol, separation of anionic and nonionic surfactants by anion exchange, quantitation by titration, and identification by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Laboratory standards and field samples containing straight-chain and branched-chain alkylbenzenesulfonates, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and alkylbenzene ethoxylates were studied. The XAD-8 extraction of surfactants from groundwater was completed in the field, which simplified sample preservation and reduced the cost of transporting samples.

  2. Quantitative carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of mobile residues in bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.L.; Oldfield, E.

    1988-07-12

    The authors have used quantitative carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to study the dynamic structure of the backbone of bacteriorhodopsin in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium R/sub 1/ and JW-3. NMR experiments were performed using an internal sucrose quantitation standard on purple membranes in which one of the following /sup 13/C'-labeled amino acids had been biosynthetically incorporated: glycine, isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine, and valine. The results suggest that the C-terminus of the polypeptide chain backbone, and possibly one of the connecting loops, undergoes rapid, large angle fluctuations. The results are compared with previous NMR and fluorescence spectroscopic data obtained on bacteriorhodopsin.

  3. Study of molecular interactions with 13C DNP-NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, Mathilde H.; Meier, Sebastian; Jensen, Pernille R.; Baumann, Herbert; Petersen, Bent O.; Karlsson, Magnus; Duus, Jens Ø.; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan H.

    2010-03-01

    NMR spectroscopy is an established, versatile technique for the detection of molecular interactions, even when these interactions are weak. Signal enhancement by several orders of magnitude through dynamic nuclear polarization alleviates several practical limitations of NMR-based interaction studies. This enhanced non-equilibrium polarization contributes sensitivity for the detection of molecular interactions in a single NMR transient. We show that direct 13C NMR ligand binding studies at natural isotopic abundance of 13C gets feasible in this way. Resultant screens are easy to interpret and can be performed at 13C concentrations below μM. In addition to such ligand-detected studies of molecular interaction, ligand binding can be assessed and quantified with enzymatic assays that employ hyperpolarized substrates at varying enzyme inhibitor concentrations. The physical labeling of nuclear spins by hyperpolarization thus provides the opportunity to devise fast novel in vitro experiments with low material requirement and without the need for synthetic modifications of target or ligands.

  4. 13C Tracking after 13CO2 Supply Revealed Diurnal Patterns of Wood Formation in Aspen.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Amir; Linden, Pernilla; Hedenström, Mattias; Moritz, Thomas; Niittylä, Totte

    2015-06-01

    Wood of trees is formed from carbon assimilated in the photosynthetic tissues. Determining the temporal dynamics of carbon assimilation, subsequent transport into developing wood, and incorporation to cell walls would further our understanding of wood formation in particular and tree growth in general. To investigate these questions, we designed a (13)CO2 labeling system to study carbon transport and incorporation to developing wood of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides). Tracking of (13)C incorporation to wood over a time course using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed diurnal patterns in wood cell wall biosynthesis. The dark period had a differential effect on (13)C incorporation to lignin and cell wall carbohydrates. No (13)C was incorporated into aromatic amino acids of cell wall proteins in the dark, suggesting that cell wall protein biosynthesis ceased during the night. The results show previously unrecognized temporal patterns in wood cell wall biosynthesis, suggest diurnal cycle as a possible cue in the regulation of carbon incorporation to wood, and establish a unique (13)C labeling method for the analysis of wood formation and secondary growth in trees.

  5. Hot magnetized nuclear matter: Thermodynamic and saturation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Z.; Bordbar, G. H.

    2017-03-01

    We have used a realistic nuclear potential, AV_{18}, and a many-body technique, the lowest-order constraint variational (LOCV) approach, to calculate the properties of hot magnetized nuclear matter. By investigating the free energy, spin polarization parameter, and symmetry energy, we have studied the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the saturation properties of magnetized nuclear matter. In addition, we have calculated the equation of state of magnetized nuclear matter at different temperatures and magnetic fields. It was found that the flashing temperature of nuclear matter decreases by increasing the magnetic field. In addition, we have studied the effect of the magnetic field on liquid gas phase transition of nuclear matter. The liquid gas coexistence curves, the order parameter of the liquid gas phase transition, and the properties of critical point at different magnetic fields have been calculated.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance properties of lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, D.; Weeks, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Na-23, Al-27, and P-31 in fines samples 10084,60 and 14163,168 and in crystalline rock samples 12021,55 and 14321,166, have been recorded over a range of frequencies up to 20 MHz. A shift in the field at which maximum absorption occurs for all of the spectra relative to the field at which maximum absorption occurs for terrestrial analogues is attributed to a sample-dependent magnetic field at the Na, Al, and P sites opposing the laboratory field. The magnitude of these fields internal to the samples is sample dependent and varies from 5 to 10 G. These fields do not correlate with the iron content of the samples. However, the presence of single-domain particles of iron distributed throughout the plagioclase fraction that contains the principal fraction of Na and Al is inferred from electron magnetic resonance spectra shapes.

  7. Intracellular flux analysis in hybridomas using mass balances and in vitro (13)C nmr.

    PubMed

    Zupke, C; Stephanopoulos, G

    1995-02-20

    Intracellular fluxes are important in defining cellular physiology and its changes in response to environmental variations. Stoichiometric balances combined with extra cellular metabolite measurements were applied to the estimation of intracellular fluxes and the study of energy metabolism in the hybridoma cell line ATCC CRL 1606. Redundant measurements allowed the evaluation of the consistency of the stoichiometry, measurements, and pseudo-steady-state assumption leading to refinement of the assumed biochemistry and identification of measurement errors. To validate the flux estimates, two batch experiments were performed with glucose labeled in the 1 position with (13)C. The distribution of (13)C in secreted lactate was measured via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and compared to that predicted from the estimated intracellular fluxes. There was good agreement between the measured and estimated isotope distributions, demonstrating the validity of the flux estimates obtained from stoichiometric balances. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Estimation of procyanidin/prodelphinidin and cis/trans flavanol ratios of condensed tannin fractions by 1H-13C HSQC NMR spectroscopy: Correlation with thiolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integration of cross-peak contours of H/C-2’,6’ signals from prodelphinidin (PD) and of H/C-6’ signals from procyanidin (PC) units in 1H-13C HSQC nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of condensed tannins yielded nuclei-adjusted PC/PD estimates that were highly correlated with PC/PD ratios obtain...

  9. Regio-selective detection of dynamic structure of transmembrane alpha-helices as revealed from (13)C NMR spectra of [3-13C]Ala-labeled bacteriorhodopsin in the presence of Mn2+ ion.

    PubMed

    Tuzi, S; Hasegawa, J; Kawaminami, R; Naito, A; Saitô, H

    2001-07-01

    13C Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of [3-(13)C]Ala-labeled bacteriorhodopsin (bR) were edited to give rise to regio-selective signals from hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helices by using NMR relaxation reagent, Mn(2+) ion. As a result of selective suppression of (13)C NMR signals from the surfaces in the presence of Mn(2+) ions, several (13)C NMR signals of Ala residues in the transmembrane alpha-helices were identified on the basis of site-directed mutagenesis without overlaps from (13)C NMR signals of residues located near the bilayer surfaces. The upper bound of the interatomic distances between (13)C nucleus in bR and Mn(2+) ions bound to the hydrophilic surface to cause suppressed peaks by the presence of Mn(2+) ion was estimated as 8.7 A to result in the signal broadening to 100 Hz and consistent with the data based on experimental finding. The Ala C(beta) (13)C NMR peaks corresponding to Ala-51, Ala-53, Ala-81, Ala-84, and Ala-215 located around the extracellular half of the proton channel and Ala-184 located at the kink in the helix F were successfully identified on the basis of (13)C NMR spectra of bR in the presence of Mn(2+) ion and site-directed replacement of Ala by Gly or Val. Utilizing these peaks as probes to observe local structure in the transmembrane alpha-helices, dynamic conformation of the extracellular half of bR at ambient temperature was examined, and the local structures of Ala-215 and 184 were compared with those elucidated at low temperature. Conformational changes in the transmembrane alpha-helices induced in D85N and E204Q and its long-range transmission from the proton release site to the site around the Schiff base in E204Q were also examined.

  10. Solid-state 13C NMR and molecular modeling studies of acetyl aleuritolic acid obtained from Croton cajucara Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva San Gil, Rosane Aguiar; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; do Espírito Santo Gomes, Fabiano; de Castro Dantas, Tereza Neuma; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros

    2008-08-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) and with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to obtain structural data from a sample of acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA) extracted from the stem bark of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) and recrystallized from acetone. Since solid-state 13C NMR results suggested the presence of more than one molecule in the unitary cell for the AAA, DSC analysis and molecular modeling calculations were used to access this possibility. The absence of phase transition peaks in the DSC spectra and the dimeric models of AAA simulated using the semi-empirical PM3 method are in agreement with that proposal.

  11. Characterization of cerebral glutamine uptake from blood in the mouse brain: implications for metabolic modeling of 13C NMR data

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Puneet; Behar, Kevin L; Mason, Graeme F; De Feyter, Henk M; Rothman, Douglas L; Patel, Anant B

    2014-01-01

    13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of rodent and human brain using [1-13C]/[1,6-13C2]glucose as labeled substrate have consistently found a lower enrichment (∼25% to 30%) of glutamine-C4 compared with glutamate-C4 at isotopic steady state. The source of this isotope dilution has not been established experimentally but may potentially arise either from blood/brain exchange of glutamine or from metabolism of unlabeled substrates in astrocytes, where glutamine synthesis occurs. In this study, the contribution of the former was evaluated ex vivo using 1H-[13C]-NMR spectroscopy together with intravenous infusion of [U-13C5]glutamine for 3, 15, 30, and 60 minutes in mice. 13C labeling of brain glutamine was found to be saturated at plasma glutamine levels >1.0 mmol/L. Fitting a blood–astrocyte–neuron metabolic model to the 13C enrichment time courses of glutamate and glutamine yielded the value of glutamine influx, VGln(in), 0.036±0.002 μmol/g per minute for plasma glutamine of 1.8 mmol/L. For physiologic plasma glutamine level (∼0.6 mmol/L), VGln(in) would be ∼0.010 μmol/g per minute, which corresponds to ∼6% of the glutamine synthesis rate and rises to ∼11% for saturating blood glutamine concentrations. Thus, glutamine influx from blood contributes at most ∼20% to the dilution of astroglial glutamine-C4 consistently seen in metabolic studies using [1-13C]glucose. PMID:25074745

  12. 13C NMR spectral characterization of epimeric rotenone and some related tetrahydrobenzopyranofurobenzopyranones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abidi, S.L.; Abidi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectra of epimers of rotenone and four 12a-hydroxy-analogues were examined to determine the stereochemical effect of the B/C ring fusion involving the 6a- and 12a-carbon centers. Chemical shift differences between the epimeric carbon resonances of cis- and trans-6a,12a-compounds were notably larger than those of diastereoisomers derived from the same B/C ring junction stereochemistry. Results of the spectral analysis have been useful for the quantification of mixtures of epimers and for the measurement of rates of epimerization and oxygenation.

  13. (13)C NMR Metabolomics: INADEQUATE Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Clendinen, Chaevien S; Pasquel, Christian; Ajredini, Ramadan; Edison, Arthur S

    2015-06-02

    The many advantages of (13)C NMR are often overshadowed by its intrinsically low sensitivity. Given that carbon makes up the backbone of most biologically relevant molecules, (13)C NMR offers a straightforward measurement of these compounds. Two-dimensional (13)C-(13)C correlation experiments like INADEQUATE (incredible natural abundance double quantum transfer experiment) are ideal for the structural elucidation of natural products and have great but untapped potential for metabolomics analysis. We demonstrate a new and semiautomated approach called INETA (INADEQUATE network analysis) for the untargeted analysis of INADEQUATE data sets using an in silico INADEQUATE database. We demonstrate this approach using isotopically labeled Caenorhabditis elegans mixtures.

  14. Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with chemical resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Nabeel; Pfender, Matthias; Neumann, Philipp; Reuter, Rolf; Zappe, Andrea; Fávaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Denisenko, Andrej; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Onoda, Shinobu; Isoya, Junichi; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a key analytical technique in chemistry, biology, and medicine. However, conventional NMR spectroscopy requires an at least nanoliter-sized sample volume to achieve sufficient signal. We combined the use of a quantum memory and high magnetic fields with a dedicated quantum sensor based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond to achieve chemical shift resolution in 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy of 20-zeptoliter sample volumes. We demonstrate the application of NMR pulse sequences to achieve homonuclear decoupling and spin diffusion measurements. The best measured NMR linewidth of a liquid sample was ~1 part per million, mainly limited by molecular diffusion. To mitigate the influence of diffusion, we performed high-resolution solid-state NMR by applying homonuclear decoupling and achieved a 20-fold narrowing of the NMR linewidth.

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of liver hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, R.; Lanir, A.; Atlan, H.; Naschitz, J.E.; Simon, J.S.; Enat, R.; Front, D.; Israel, O.; Chisin, R.; Krausz, Y.

    1985-10-01

    Nine patients with cavernous hemangioma of the liver were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 0.5 T superconductive magnet. Spin-echo technique was used with varying time to echo (TE) and repetition times (TR). Results were compared with /sup 99m/Tc red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), echography, and arteriography. Four illustrated cases are reported. It was possible to establish a pattern for MRI characteristics of cavernous hemangiomas; rounded or smooth lobulated shape, marked increase in T1 and T2 values as compared with normal liver values. It is concluded that, although more experience is necessary to compare the specificity with that of ultrasound and CT, MRI proved to be very sensitive for the diagnosis of liver hemangioma, especially in the case of small ones which may be missed by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy.

  16. C nuclear magnetic resonance study of acetate incorporation into malate during ca-uptake by isolated leaf tissues.

    PubMed

    Borchert, R; Everett, G W

    1987-07-01

    (13)C Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of leaflets of Gleditsia triacanthos and Albizia julibrisin was used to determine the fate of acetate taken up during the absorption of calcium from (13)C-labeled Ca-acetate solution. Small amounts of acetate accumulated temporarily in the leaf tissues, but the bulk of acetate was incorporated into malate. The initial rate of malate synthesis was very low, but increased rapidly during acetate treatment and reached its maximum after 8 hours; the enzymes involved in malate synthesis thus appear to be substrate induced. Use of acetate-2-(13)C yielded malate labeled in C-3, indicating that vacuolar malate accumulating during Ca-uptake might be synthesized via malate synthase from acetate and glyoxalate. However, a source of glyoxalate condensing with acetate during malate synthesis could not be identified. Glycolate produced in photorespiration is an unlikely source, because glycolate-2-(13)C was absorbed and metabolized by the leaf tissues into products of the glycolate pathway, but was not a major precursor in malate synthesis. Malate synthesis via the glyoxalate cycle is also unlikely, because no evidence for the recycling of a (13)C-labeled 4-carbon organic acid was found. Malate synthesis in the leaflets of Gleditsia and Albizia thus appears to involve the inducible condensation of acetate with a 2-carbon compound of unidentified nature and origin.

  17. In situ 13C DEPT-MRI as a tool to spatially resolve chemical conversion and selectivity of a heterogeneous catalytic reaction occurring in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Akpa, Belinda S; Mantle, Michael D; Sederman, Andrew J; Gladden, Lynn F

    2005-06-07

    The distortionless enhancement by polarisation transfer (DEPT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been used to provide the first in situ spatially-resolved and quantitative measurement of chemical conversion and selectivity within a fixed-bed reactor using natural abundance 13C NMR.

  18. Microsolvation of methylmercury: structures, energies, bonding and NMR constants ((199)Hg, (13)C and (17)O).

    PubMed

    Flórez, Edison; Maldonado, Alejandro F; Aucar, Gustavo A; David, Jorge; Restrepo, Albeiro

    2016-01-21

    Hartree-Fock (HF) and second order perturbation theory (MP2) calculations within the scalar and full relativistic frames were carried out in order to determine the equilibrium geometries and interaction energies between cationic methylmercury (CH3Hg(+)) and up to three water molecules. A total of nine structures were obtained. Bonding properties were analyzed using the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). The analyses of the topology of electron densities reveal that all structures exhibit a partially covalent HgO interaction between methylmercury and one water molecule. Consideration of additional water molecules suggests that they solvate the (CH3HgOH2)(+) unit. Nuclear magnetic shielding constants σ((199)Hg), σ((13)C) and σ((17)O), as well as indirect spin-spin coupling constants J((199)Hg-(13)C), J((199)Hg-(17)O) and J((13)C-(17)O), were calculated for each one of the geometries. Thermodynamic stability and the values of NMR constants correlate with the ability of the system to directly coordinate oxygen atoms of water molecules to the mercury atom in methylmercury and with the formation of hydrogen bonds among solvating water molecules. Relativistic effects account for 11% on σ((13)C) and 14% on σ((17)O), which is due to the presence of Hg (heavy atom on light atom, HALA effect), while the relativistic effects on σ((199)Hg) are close to 50% (heavy atom on heavy atom itself, HAHA effect). J-coupling constants are highly influenced by relativity when mercury is involved as in J((199)Hg-(13)C) and J((199)Hg-(17)O). On the other hand, our results show that the values of NMR constants for carbon and oxygen, atoms which are connected through mercury (C-HgO), are highly correlated and are greatly influenced by the presence of water molecules. Water molecules introduce additional electronic effects to the relativistic effects due to the mercury atom.

  19. Investigation of enzymatic C-P bond formation using multiple quantum HCP nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kaifeng; Werner, Williard J; Allen, Kylie D; Wang, Susan C

    2015-04-01

    The biochemical mechanism for the formation of the C-P-C bond sequence found in l-phosphinothricin, a natural product with antibiotic and herbicidal activity, remains unclear. To obtain further insight into the catalytic mechanism of PhpK, the P-methyltransferase responsible for the formation of the second C-P bond in l-phosphinothricin, we utilized a combination of stable isotopes and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Exploiting the newly emerged Bruker QCI probe (Bruker Corp.), we specifically designed and ran a (13) C-(31) P multiple quantum (1) H-(13) C-(31) P (HCP) experiment in (1) H-(31) P two-dimensional mode directly on a PhpK-catalyzed reaction mixture using (13) CH3 -labeled methylcobalamin as the methyl group donor. This method is particularly advantageous because minimal sample purification is needed to maximize product visualization. The observed 3:1:1:3 multiplet specifically and unequivocally illustrates direct bond formation between (13) CH3 and (31) P. Related nuclear magnetic resonance experiments based upon these principles may be designed for the study of enzymatic and/or synthetic chemical reaction mechanisms.

  20. QED theory of the nuclear magnetic shielding in hydrogenlike ions.

    PubMed

    Yerokhin, V A; Pachucki, K; Harman, Z; Keitel, C H

    2011-07-22

    The shielding of the nuclear magnetic moment by the bound electron in hydrogenlike ions is calculated ab initio with inclusion of relativistic, nuclear, and quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects. The QED correction is evaluated to all orders in the nuclear binding strength parameter and, independently, to the first order in the expansion in this parameter. The results obtained lay the basis for the high-precision determination of nuclear magnetic dipole moments from measurements of the g factor of hydrogenlike ions.

  1. New guidelines for δ13C measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Brand, Willi A.; Gehre, Matthias; Groning, Manfred; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Toman, Blaza; Verkouteren, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Consistency of δ13C measurements can be improved 39−47% by anchoring the δ13C scale with two isotopic reference materials differing substantially in 13C/12C. It is recommended thatδ13C values of both organic and inorganic materials be measured and expressed relative to VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite) on a scale normalized by assigning consensus values of −46.6‰ to L-SVEC lithium carbonate and +1.95‰ to NBS 19 calcium carbonate. Uncertainties of other reference material values on this scale are improved by factors up to two or more, and the values of some have been notably shifted:  the δ13C of NBS 22 oil is −30.03%.

  2. Measuring changes in substrate utilization in the myocardium in response to fasting using hyperpolarized [1-13C]butyrate and [1-13C]pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaansen, Jessica A. M.; Merritt, Matthew E.; Comment, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is often associated with a shift in substrate preference for ATP production. Hyperpolarized (HP) 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has the unique ability to detect real-time metabolic changes in vivo due to its high sensitivity and specificity. Here a protocol using HP [1-13C]pyruvate and [1-13C]butyrate is used to measure carbohydrate versus fatty acid metabolism in vivo. Metabolic changes in fed and fasted Sprague Dawley rats (n = 36) were studied at 9.4 T after tail vein injections. Pyruvate and butyrate competed for acetyl-CoA production, as evidenced by significant changes in [13C]bicarbonate (−48%), [1-13C]acetylcarnitine (+113%), and [5-13C]glutamate (−63%), following fasting. Butyrate uptake was unaffected by fasting, as indicated by [1-13C]butyrylcarnitine. Mitochondrial pseudoketogenesis facilitated the labeling of the ketone bodies [1-13C]acetoacetate and [1-13C]β-hydroxybutyryate, without evidence of true ketogenesis. HP [1-13C]acetoacetate was increased in fasting (250%) but decreased during pyruvate co-injection (−82%). Combining HP 13C technology and co-administration of separate imaging agents enables noninvasive and simultaneous monitoring of both fatty acid and carbohydrate oxidation. This protocol illustrates a novel method for assessing metabolic flux through different enzymatic pathways simultaneously and enables mechanistic studies of the changing myocardial energetics often associated with disease. PMID:27150735

  3. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy of Sc13C2 and Sc12C13C: Establishing AN Accurate Structure of ScC2 (tilde{X}2A1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Mark; Halfen, DeWayne T.; Min, Jie; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2016-06-01

    Pure rotational spectra of Sc13C2 and Sc12C13C (tilde{X}2A1) have been obtained using Fourier Transform Microwave methods. These molecules were created from scandium vapor in combination with 13CH4 and/or 12CH4, diluted in argon, using a Discharge Assisted Laser Ablation Source (DALAS). Transitions in the frequency range of 14-30 GHz were observed for both species including hyperfine splitting due to the nuclear spin of Sc (I = 7/2) and 13C (I = 1/2). Rotational, spin-rotational, and hyperfine constants have been determined for Sc13C2 and Sc12C13C, as well as a refined structure for ScC2. In agreement with theoretical calculations and previous Sc12C2 results, these data confirm a cyclic (or T-shaped) structure for this molecule. Scandium carbides have been shown to form endohedral-doped fullerenes, which have unique electrical and magnetic properties due to electron transfer between the metal and the carbon-cage. Spectroscopy of ScC2 provides data on model systems for comparison with theory.

  4. An introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Andrew, E R

    1990-02-01

    In this paper the author illustrates the historical aspects of the development, first, of the fundamental principles of nuclear magnetic resonance and, second, the extension of these principles to magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo spectroscopy.

  5. Rotational diffusion measurements of suspended colloidal particles using two-dimensional exchange nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Barrall, G.A.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.; Lee, Y.K.; Landfester, K.; Zimmermann, H.; Chingas, G.C.; Pines, A. |

    1996-01-01

    We present here an experimental and theoretical study of the application of two-dimensional exchange nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to the investigation of the rotational diffusion of colloidal particles. The theoretical discussion includes the nature of the NMR frequency time-correlation function where the NMR interaction is represented by the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA). Time-correlation functions for the isotropic rotational diffusion of a suspension of colloidal particles containing single and multiple sites are derived in addition to time-correlation functions for the rotational diffusion of a suspension of symmetric top particles containing an isotropic distribution of a single CSA interaction. Simulations of two-dimensional exchange spectra for particles undergoing isotropic rotational diffusion are presented. We performed two-dimensional exchange NMR experiments on a colloidal suspension of spherical poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles which were synthesized with a 20{percent} enrichment in {sup 13}C at the carbonyl site. Rotational diffusion time-correlation functions determined from the experimental exchange spectra are consistent with the composition of the colloidal suspension. Detailed explanations of the syntheses of the enriched methyl {sup 13}C-(carbonyl)-methacrylate monomer and the small quantities of 20{percent} enriched {sup 13}C-(carbonyl)-poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres used for this study are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Rapid estimation of nuclear magnetic resonance experiment time in low-concentration environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Masoom, Hussain; Courtier-Murias, Denis; Farooq, Hashim; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Myrna J; Maas, Werner; Kumar, Rajeev; Monette, Martine; Stronks, Henry; Simpson, André J

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an essential tool for studying environmental samples but is often hindered by low sensitivity, especially for the direct detection of nuclei such as(13) C. In very heterogeneous samples with NMR nuclei at low abundance, such as soils, sediments, and air particulates, it can take days to acquire a conventional(13) C spectrum. The present study describes a prescreening method that permits the rapid prediction of experimental run time in natural samples. The approach focuses the NMR chemical shift dispersion into a single spike, and, even in samples with extremely low carbon content, the spike can be observed in two to three minutes, or less. The intensity of the spike is directly proportional to the total concentration of nuclei of interest in the sample. Consequently, the spike intensity can be used as a powerful prescreening method that answers two key questions: (1) Will this sample produce a conventional NMR spectrum? (2) How much instrument time is required to record a spectrum with a specific signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio? The approach identifies samples to avoid (or pretreat) and permits additional NMR experiments to be performed on samples producing high-quality NMR data. Applications in solid- and liquid-state(13) C NMR are demonstrated, and it is shown that the technique is applicable to a range of nuclei.

  7. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  8. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  9. Studies of Energy-Relevant Materials by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jinfang

    In this thesis, we have used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a local probe to microscopically study three different families of energy-relevant complex materials, namely the 122 Fe-based superconductors Ca(Fe1-xCox)2As2, GeTe-based thermoelectric tellurides GeTe and detonation nanodiamond. In Chapter 3 and Chapter 4, we investigated the Co substitution effects on static and dynamic magnetic properties of the single-crystalline Ca(Fe 1-xCox)2As2 (x = 0, 0.023, 0.028, 0.033, 0.059) via 75As NMR and resistivity measurements. Robustness of the Fe magnetic moments was evidenced by only slight decreases of Hint, although T N is strongly suppressed with Co substitution in antiferromagnetic (AFM) state. In the paramagnetic (PM) state, the temperature dependence of Knight shift K for all crystals shows similar T-dependence of magnetic susceptibility chi. The spin fluctuations with the q = 0 components are suppressed with Delta/k B. On the other hand, the growth of the stripe-type AFM fluctuations with q = (pi, 0) or (0, pi) upon cooling in the PM state for all samples is evidenced by the T-dependence of (1/ T1Tchi). A pseudogap-like phenomenon, i.e., suppression of the AFM spin fluctuations, was discovered with decreasing temperature below a x-independent characteristic temperature T* ( 100 K) in samples with x ≥ 0.028. In addition, clear evidence for the coexistence and competition of the stripe-type antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic (FM) spin correlations was given by modified Korringa ratio analysis in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, we have carried out 125Te NMR measurements to study the electronic properties of Ge50Te50, Ag 2Ge48Te50 and Sb2Ge48Te 50. NMR shift K and 1/T1T of Ge50Te50 are nearly temperature independent at T < 50 K and both increase slightly with increasing temperature at high temperatures. A two-band model, where one band overlaps the Fermi level and the other band is separated from the Fermi level by an energy gap, has been used to explain these

  10. Probing site-specific 13C/15N-isotope enrichment of spider silk with liquid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangyan; Yarger, Jeffery L; Holland, Gregory P

    2013-05-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been extensively used to elucidate spider silk protein structure and dynamics. In many of these studies, site-specific isotope enrichment is critical for designing particular NMR methods for silk structure determination. The commonly used isotope analysis techniques, isotope-ratio mass spectroscopy and liquid/gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, are typically not capable of providing the site-specific isotope information for many systems because an appropriate sample derivatization method is not available. In contrast, NMR does not require any sample derivatization or separation prior to analysis. In this article, conventional liquid-state (1)H NMR was implemented to evaluate incorporation of (13)C/(15)N-labeled amino acids in hydrolyzed spider dragline silk. To determine site-specific (13)C and (15)N isotope enrichments, an analysis method was developed to fit the (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(15)N J-splitting (J CH and J NH) (1)H NMR peak patterns of hydrolyzed silk fiber. This is demonstrated for Nephila clavipes spiders, where [U-(13)C3,(15)N]-Ala and [1-(13)C,(15)N]-Gly were dissolved in their water supplies. Overall, contents for Ala and Gly isotopomers are extracted for these silk samples. The current methodology can be applied to many fields where site-specific tracking of isotopes is of interest.

  11. Unraveling the 13C NMR chemical shifts in single-walled carbon nanotubes: dependence on diameter and electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Irurzun, Veronica M; Gjersing, Erica L; Holt, Josh M; Larsen, Brian A; Resasco, Daniel E; Blackburn, Jeffrey L

    2012-03-14

    The atomic specificity afforded by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy could enable detailed mechanistic information about single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) functionalization as well as the noncovalent molecular interactions that dictate ground-state charge transfer and separation by electronic structure and diameter. However, to date, the polydispersity present in as-synthesized SWCNT populations has obscured the dependence of the SWCNT (13)C chemical shift on intrinsic parameters such as diameter and electronic structure, meaning that no information is gleaned for specific SWCNTs with unique chiral indices. In this article, we utilize a combination of (13)C labeling and density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) to produce an array of (13)C-labeled SWCNT populations with varying diameter, electronic structure, and chiral angle. We find that the SWCNT isotropic (13)C chemical shift decreases systematically with increasing diameter for semiconducting SWCNTs, in agreement with recent theoretical predictions that have heretofore gone unaddressed. Furthermore, we find that the (13)C chemical shifts for small diameter metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs differ significantly, and that the full-width of the isotropic peak for metallic SWCNTs is much larger than that of semiconducting nanotubes, irrespective of diameter.

  12. Spatial localization in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Keevil, Stephen F

    2006-08-21

    The ability to select a discrete region within the body for signal acquisition is a fundamental requirement of in vivo NMR spectroscopy. Ideally, it should be possible to tailor the selected volume to coincide exactly with the lesion or tissue of interest, without loss of signal from within this volume or contamination with extraneous signals. Many techniques have been developed over the past 25 years employing a combination of RF coil properties, static magnetic field gradients and pulse sequence design in an attempt to meet these goals. This review presents a comprehensive survey of these techniques, their various advantages and disadvantages, and implications for clinical applications. Particular emphasis is placed on the reliability of the techniques in terms of signal loss, contamination and the effect of nuclear relaxation and J-coupling. The survey includes techniques based on RF coil and pulse design alone, those using static magnetic field gradients, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Although there is an emphasis on techniques currently in widespread use (PRESS, STEAM, ISIS and MRSI), the review also includes earlier techniques, in order to provide historical context, and techniques that are promising for future use in clinical and biomedical applications.

  13. Comparative study of ¹³C composition in ethanol and bulk dry wine using isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry and by nuclear magnetic resonance as an indicator of vine water status.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Francois; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Gaillard, Laetitia; Grand, Mathilde; Akoka, Serge; Remaud, Gérald S; Sabathié, Nathalie; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène

    2015-12-01

    The potential of wine (13)C isotope composition (δ(13)C) is presented to assess vine water status during grape ripening. Measurements of δ(13)C have been performed on a set of 32 authentic wines and their ethanol recovered after distillation. The data, obtained by isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry coupled to an elemental analyser (irm-EA/MS), show a high correlation between δ(13)C of the bulk wine and its ethanol, indicating that the distillation step is not necessary when the wine has not been submitted to any oenological treatment. Therefore, the ethanol/wine δ(13)C correlation can be used as an indicator of possible enrichment of the grape must or the wine with exogenous organic compounds. Wine ethanol δ(13)C is correlated to predawn leaf water potential (R(2) = 0.69), indicating that this parameter can be used as an indicator of vine water status. Position-specific (13)C analysis (PSIA) of ethanol extracted from wine, performed by isotope ratio monitoring by nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-(13)C NMR), confirmed the non-homogenous repartition of (13)C on ethanol skeleton. It is the δ(13)C of the methylene group of ethanol, compared to the methyl moiety, which is the most correlated to predawn leaf water potential, indicating that a phase of photorespiration of the vine during water stress period is most probably occurring due to stomata closure. However, position-specific (13)C analysis by irm-(13)C NMR does not offer a greater precision in the assessment of vine water status compared to direct measurement of δ(13)C on bulk wine by irm-EA/MS.

  14. Impact of Gd3+ doping and glassing solvent deuteration on 13C DNP at 5 Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiswandhi, Andhika; Lama, Bimala; Niedbalski, Peter; Goderya, Mudrekh; Long, Joanna; Lumata, Lloyd

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a technique which can be used to amplify signals in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by several thousand-fold. The most commonly available DNP system typically operates at the W-band field or 3.35 T, at which it has been shown that 13C NMR signal can be enhanced by deuteration and Gd3+ doping. In this work, we have investigated the applicability of these procedures at 5 T. Our results indicate that the deuteration of the glassing matrix still yields an enhancement of 13C DNP when 4-oxo-TEMPO free radical is used. The effect is attributed to the lower heat load of the deuterons compared to protons. An addition of a trace amount of Gd3+ gives a modest enhancement of the signal when trityl OX063 is used, albeit with a less pronounced relative enhancement compared to the results obtained at 3.35 T. The results suggest that the enhancement obtained via Gd3+ doping may become saturated at higher field. These results will be discussed using a thermodynamic model of DNP. This work is supported by US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.

  15. Small-Volume Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratila, Raluca M.; Velders, Aldrik H.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most information-rich analytical techniques available. However, it is also inherently insensitive, and this drawback precludes the application of NMR spectroscopy to mass- and volume-limited samples. We review a particular approach to increase the sensitivity of NMR experiments, namely the use of miniaturized coils. When the size of the coil is reduced, the sample volume can be brought down to the nanoliter range. We compare the main coil geometries (solenoidal, planar, and microslot/stripline) and discuss their applications to the analysis of mass-limited samples. We also provide an overview of the hyphenation of microcoil NMR spectroscopy to separation techniques and of the integration with lab-on-a-chip devices and microreactors.

  16. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Bryan, R. N.; Johnson, P.; Schonfeld, E.; Jhingran, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A number of physiological changes have been demonstrated in bone, muscle and blood after exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long duration space missions is an important NASA goal. The advent of tomographic nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR or MRI) gives NASA a way to greatly extend early studies of this phenomena in ways not previously possible; NMR is also noninvasive and safe. NMR provides both superb anatomical images for volume assessments of individual organs and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. The feasibility of NMR as a tool for human physiological research as it is affected by microgravity is demonstrated. The animal studies employed the rear limb suspended rat as a model of mucle atrophy that results from microgravity. And bedrest of normal male subjects was used to simulate the effects of microgravity on bone and muscle.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Modic, M.T.; Weinstein, M.A.; Pavlicek, W.; Starnes, D.L.; Duchesneau, P.M.; Boumphrey, F.; Hardy, R.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Forty subjects were examined to determine the accuracy and clinical usefulness of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) examination of the spine. The NMR images were compared with plain radiographs, high-resolution computed tomograms, and myelograms. The study included 15 patients with normal spinal cord anatomy and 25 patients whose pathological conditions included canal stenosis, herniated discs, metastatic tumors, primary cord tumor, trauma, Chiari malformations, syringomyelia, and developmental disorders. Saturation recovery images were best in differentiating between soft tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. NMR was excellent for the evaluation of the foramen magnum region and is presently the modality of choice for the diagnosis of syringomyelia and Chiari malformation. NMR was accurate in diagnosing spinal cord trauma and spinal canal block.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and method

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.E.; Vidrine, D.W.

    1981-08-18

    A nuclear magnetic resonance techniis described that allows simultaneous temperature determination and spectral acquisition. The technique employs a modification of the lock circuit of a varian xl-100 spectrometer which permits accurate measurement of the difference in resonance frequency between a primary lock nucleus and another , secondary, nucleus. The field stabilization function of the main lock circuit is not compromised. A feedback signal having a frequency equal to the frequency difference is substituted for the normal power supply in the spectrometer's existing radio frequency transmitter to modulate that transmitter. Thus, the transmitter's radio frequency signal is enhanced in a frequency corresponding to the resonance peak of the secondary nucleus. Determination of the frequency difference allows the determination of temperature without interference with the observed spectrum. The feedback character of the circuit and the presence of noise make the circuit self-activating.

  19. Geochemical Controls on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rosemary; Prasad, Manika; Keating, Kristina

    2003-11-11

    OAK-B135 Our research objectives are to determine, through an extensive set of laboratory experiments, the effect of the specific mineralogic form of iron and the effect of the distribution of iron on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation mechanisms. In the first nine months of this project, we have refined the experimental procedures to be used in the acquisition of the laboratory NMR data; have ordered, and conducted preliminary measurements on, the sand samples to be used in the experimental work; and have revised and completed the theoretical model to use in this project. Over the next year, our focus will be on completing the first phase of the experimental work where the form and distribution of the iron in the sands in varied.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, C S

    1986-01-01

    Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:3811023

  1. Solid state (13)C NMR analysis of human gallstones from cancer and benign gall bladder diseases.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, K; Sonkar, Kanchan; Behari, Anu; Kapoor, V K; Sinha, Neeraj

    2009-09-01

    Natural abundance (13)C cross polarized (CP) magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of human gall bladder stones collected from patients suffering from malignant and benign gall bladder disease was carried out which revealed different polymorphs of cholesterol in these stones. All gall bladder stones in present study had cholesterol as their main constituent. (13)C CP-MAS NMR analysis revealed three forms of cholesterol molecules in these stones, which are anhydrous form, monohydrate crystalline with amorphous form and monohydrate crystalline form. Our study revealed that stones collected from patients associated with chronic cholecystitis (CC) disease have mostly different polymorph of cholesterol than stones collected from patients associated with gall bladder cancer (GBC). Such study will be helpful in understanding the mechanism of formation of gallstones which are associated with different gall bladder diseases. This is the first study by solid state NMR revealing different crystal polymorphism of cholesterol in human gallstones, extending the applicability of (13)C CP-MAS NMR technique for the routine study of gallstones.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques in medicine.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, E M; Radda, G K; Allen, P S

    1983-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are now finding exciting new noninvasive applications in medicine. There are two major approaches. The first is as an analytical technique using 31P NMR spectroscopy for the identification and quantitation of the more abundant phosphate metabolites in various tissues. Changes in the levels of these metabolites and in intracellular cytoplasmic pH can be followed in various ischemic and hypoxic conditions to monitor metabolic response to stress situations and to diagnose inborn errors of metabolism. The second major approach is an entirely different application of NMR techniques and uses 1H, the nucleus most abundant in biological tissues, largely in water and fats, to produce NMR images of any section of the body. By applying non-uniform magnetic fields across a section of the body, hydrogen nuclei in different elemental volumes in the section are tagged with different frequencies and their signals can be processed to give an image of the section. In contrast to computed tomographic scanning, NMR has particularly powerful application in the imaging of soft tissues.

  3. Dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Thorsten; Debelouchina, Galia T.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Hu, Kan-Nian; Joo, Chan-Gyu; Mak–Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; van der Wel, Patrick C. A.; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a method that permits NMR signal intensities of solids and liquids to be enhanced significantly, and is therefore potentially an important tool in structural and mechanistic studies of biologically relevant molecules. During a DNP experiment, the large polarization of an exogeneous or endogeneous unpaired electron is transferred to the nuclei of interest (I) by microwave (μw) irradiation of the sample. The maximum theoretical enhancement achievable is given by the gyromagnetic ratios (γe/γl), being ∼660 for protons. In the early 1950s, the DNP phenomenon was demonstrated experimentally, and intensively investigated in the following four decades, primarily at low magnetic fields. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of DNP with a special emphasis on work done at high magnetic fields (≥5 T), the regime where contemporary NMR experiments are performed. After a brief historical survey, we present a review of the classical continuous wave (cw) DNP mechanisms—the Overhauser effect, the solid effect, the cross effect, and thermal mixing. A special section is devoted to the theory of coherent polarization transfer mechanisms, since they are potentially more efficient at high fields than classical polarization schemes. The implementation of DNP at high magnetic fields has required the development and improvement of new and existing instrumentation. Therefore, we also review some recent developments in μw and probe technology, followed by an overview of DNP applications in biological solids and liquids. Finally, we outline some possible areas for future developments. PMID:18266416

  4. BROADBAND EXCITATION IN NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, R.

    1984-10-01

    Theoretical methods for designing sequences of radio frequency (rf) radiation pulses for broadband excitation of spin systems in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are described. The sequences excite spins uniformly over large ranges of resonant frequencies arising from static magnetic field inhomogeneity, chemical shift differences, or spin couplings, or over large ranges of rf field amplitudes. Specific sequences for creating a population inversion or transverse magnetization are derived and demonstrated experimentally in liquid and solid state NMR. One approach to broadband excitation is based on principles of coherent averaging theory. A general formalism for deriving pulse sequences is given, along with computational methods for specific cases. This approach leads to sequences that produce strictly constant transformations of a spin system. The importance of this feature in NMR applications is discussed. A second approach to broadband excitation makes use of iterative schemes, i.e. sets of operations that are applied repetitively to a given initial pulse sequences, generating a series of increasingly complex sequences with increasingly desirable properties. A general mathematical framework for analyzing iterative schemes is developed. An iterative scheme is treated as a function that acts on a space of operators corresponding to the transformations produced by all possible pulse sequences. The fixed points of the function and the stability of the fixed points are shown to determine the essential behavior of the scheme. Iterative schemes for broadband population inversion are treated in detail. Algebraic and numerical methods for performing the mathematical analysis are presented. Two additional topics are treated. The first is the construction of sequences for uniform excitation of double-quantum coherence and for uniform polarization transfer over a range of spin couplings. Double-quantum excitation sequences are demonstrated in a liquid crystal system. The

  5. Global ocean climatology of the 13C Suess effect and preindustrial δ13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eide, Marie; Olsen, Are; Ninnemann, Ulysses; Eldevik, Tor; Johannessen, Truls

    2017-04-01

    We present the first observationally based estimate of the full global ocean 13C Suess effect since preindustrial times. This was constructed by using Olsen and Ninnemann's [2010] back-calculation method to calculate the 13C Suess effect with data from 29 cruises spanning the world ocean. We find a strong 13C Suess effect in the upper 1000 m of all basins, with strongest decrease in the Subtropical Gyres of the Northern Hemisphere, where δ13C has decreased by more than 0.8‰ since the industrial revolution. At greater depths, a significant 13C Suess effect can only be detected in the northern parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. The magnitude of the 13C Suess effect is correlated with the concentration of anthropogenic carbon, but their relationship varying strongly between water masses, reflecting the degree to which source waters are equilibrated with the atmospheric 13C Suess effect before sinking. From the 13C Suess effect estimates, we have estimated the preindustrial δ13C (δ13CPI) along the 29 sections. Further, we developed regional multilinear regression equations, which were applied on the World Ocean Atlas data to construct the δ13CPI climatology, which reveals the natural δ13C distribution in the global ocean. Compared to the modern distribution, the preindustrial δ13C spans a larger range of values, and we find that in some regions in the high northern latitudes, the gradient in modern ocean δ13C is completely reversed compared to the preindustrial. Maximum δ13CPI, of up to 1.8‰, are found in the subtropical gyres of all basins, in the upper and intermediate waters of the North Atlantic, as well as in mode waters with a Southern Ocean origin. Particularly strong gradients occur at intermediate depths, revealing a strong potential for using δ13C as a tracer for changes in water mass geometry at these levels. Further, we identify a much tighter relationship between δ13C and Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) than between δ13C and phosphate that

  6. 1H to 13C Energy Transfer in Solid State NMR Spectroscopy of Natural Organic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berns, Anne E.; Conte, Pellegrino

    2010-05-01

    ., van Lagen, B., Buurman, P. & de Jager, P.A., 1997. Quantitative Aspects of Solid-State 13C-NMR Spectra of Humic Substances from Soils of Volcanic Systems. Geoderma, 80, 327-338. Conte, P., Piccolo, A., van Lagen, B., Buurman, P. & Hemminga, M.A., 2002. Elemental quantitation of natural organic matter by CPMAS C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 21, 158-170. Conte, P., Spaccini, R. & Piccolo, A., 2004. State of the art of CPMAS C-13-NMR spectroscopy applied to natural organic matter. Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, 44, 215-223. Dria, K.J., Sachleben, J.R. & Hatcher, P.G., 2002. Solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance of humic acids at high magnetic field strengths. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31, 393-401. Kiem, R., Knicker, H., Korschens, M. & Kogel-Knabner, I., 2000. Refractory organic carbon in C-depleted arable soils, as studied by C-13 NMR spectroscopy and carbohydrate analysis. Organic Geochemistry, 31, 655-668. Kögel-Knabner, I., 2000. Analytical approaches for characterizing soil organic matter. Organic Geochemistry, 31, 609-625. Mao, J.D., Hu, W.G., Schmidt-Rohr, K., Davies, G., Ghabbour, E.A. & Xing, B., 2000. Quantitative characterization of humic substances by solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 873-884. Metz, G., Ziliox, M. & Smith, S.O., 1996. Towards quantitative CP-MAS NMR. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 7, 155-160. Preston, C.M., 2001. Carbon-13 solid-state NMR of soil organic matter - using the technique effectively. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 81, 255-270. Smernik, R.J. & Oades, J.M., 2000a. The use of spin counting for determining quantitation in solid state C-13 NMR spectra of natural organic matter 1. Model systems and the effects of paramagnetic impurities. Geoderma, 96, 101-129. Smernik, R.J. & Oades, J.M., 2000b. The use of spin counting for determining quantitation in solid state C-13 NMR spectra of natural

  7. Chiral discrimination in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2017-08-08

    Chirality is a fundamental property of molecules whose spatial symmetry is characterized by the absence of improper rotations, making them not superimposable to their mirror image. Chiral molecules constitute the elementary building blocks of living species and one enantiomer is in general favoured (e.g., L-aminoacids and D-sugars pervade terrestrial homochiral biochemistry), because most chemical reactions producing natural substances are enantioselective. Since the effect of chiral chemicals and drugs on living beings can be markedly different between enantiomers, the quest for practical spectroscopical methods to scrutinize chirality is an issue of great importance and interest. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a topmost analytical technique, but spectrometers currently used are ``blind'' to chirality, i.e., %%In fact, spectrometers presently used in NMR are unable to discriminate the two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule, because, in the absence of a chiral solvent, the spectral parameters, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants, are identical for enantiomers. Therefore, the development of new procedures for routine chiral recognition would offer basic support to scientists. However, in the presence of magnetic fields, a distinction between {\\em true} and {\\em false} chirality is mandatory. The former epitomizes natural optical activity, which is rationalized by a time-even pseudoscalar, i.e., the trace of a second-rank tensor, the mixed electric dipole/mag\\-net\\-ic dipole polarizability. The Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic optical activity are instead related to a time-odd axial vector. The present review summarizes recent theoretical and experimental efforts to discriminate enantiomers via NMR spectroscopy, with the focus on the deep connection between chirality

  8. 15N and 13C NMR Determination of Allantoin Metabolism in Developing Soybean Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Coker, George T.; Schaefer, Jacob

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of allantoin by immature cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max L. cv Elf) grown in culture was investigated using solid state 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance. All of the nitrogens of allantoin were incorporated into protein in a manner similar to that of each other and to the amide nitrogen of glutamine. The C-2 of allantoin was not incorporated into cellular material; presumably it was lost as CO2. About 50% of the C-5 of allantoin was incorporated into cellular material as a methylene carbon; the other 50% was presumably also lost as CO2. The 13C-15N bonds of [5-13C;1-15N] and [2-13C;1,3-15N]allantoin were broken prior to the incorporation of the nitrogens into protein. These data are consistent with allantoin's degradation to two molecules of urea and one two-carbon fragment. Cotyledons grown on allantoin as a source of nitrogen accumulated 21% of the nitrogen of cotyledons grown on glutamine. Only 50% of the nitrogen of the degraded allantoin was incorporated into the cotyledon as organic nitrogen; the other 50% was recovered as NH4+ in the media in which the cotyledons had been grown. The latter results suggests that the lower accumulation of nitrogen by cotyledons grown on allantoin was in part due to failure to assimilate NH4+ produced from allantoin. The seed coats had a higher activity of glutamine synthetase and a higher rate of allantoin degradation than cotyledons indicating that seed coats play an important role in the assimilation and degradation of allantoin. PMID:16663995

  9. Dynamic nuclear polarization in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment.

    PubMed

    Issac, Corinne E; Gleave, Christine M; Nasr, Paméla T; Nguyen, Hoang L; Curley, Elizabeth A; Yoder, Jonilyn L; Moore, Eric W; Chen, Lei; Marohn, John A

    2016-04-07

    We report achieving enhanced nuclear magnetization in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment at 0.6 tesla and 4.2 kelvin using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) effect. In our experiments a microwire coplanar waveguide delivered radiowaves to excite nuclear spins and microwaves to excite electron spins in a 250 nm thick nitroxide-doped polystyrene sample. Both electron and proton spin resonance were observed as a change in the mechanical resonance frequency of a nearby cantilever having a micron-scale nickel tip. NMR signal, not observable from Curie-law magnetization at 0.6 T, became observable when microwave irradiation was applied to saturate the electron spins. The resulting NMR signal's size, buildup time, dependence on microwave power, and dependence on irradiation frequency was consistent with a transfer of magnetization from electron spins to nuclear spins. Due to the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field introduced by the cantilever's magnetic tip, the electron spins in the sample were saturated in a microwave-resonant slice 10's of nm thick. The spatial distribution of the nuclear polarization enhancement factor ε was mapped by varying the frequency of the applied radiowaves. The observed enhancement factor was zero for spins in the center of the resonant slice, was ε = +10 to +20 for spins proximal to the magnet, and was ε = -10 to -20 for spins distal to the magnet. We show that this bipolar nuclear magnetization profile is consistent with cross-effect DNP in a ∼10(5) T m(-1) magnetic field gradient. Potential challenges associated with generating and using DNP-enhanced nuclear magnetization in a nanometer-resolution magnetic resonance imaging experiment are elucidated and discussed.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance for cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Brai, Maria; Camaiti, Mara; Casieri, Cinzia; De Luca, Francesco; Fantazzini, Paola

    2007-05-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) portable devices are now being used for nondestructive in situ analysis of water content, pore space structure and protective treatment performance in porous media in the field of cultural heritage. It is a standard procedure to invert T(1) and T(2) relaxation data of fully water-saturated samples to get "pore size" distributions, but the use of T(2) requires great caution. It is well known that dephasing effects due to water molecule diffusion in a magnetic field gradient can affect transverse relaxation data, even if the smallest experimentally available half echo time tau is used in Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill experiments. When a portable single-sided NMR apparatus is used, large field gradients due to the instrument, at the scale of the sample, are thought to be the dominant dephasing cause. In this paper, T(1) and T(2) (at different tau values) distributions were measured in natural (Lecce stone) and artificial (brick samples coming from the Greek-Roman Theatre of Taormina) porous media of interest for cultural heritage by a standard laboratory instrument and a portable device. While T(1) distributions do not show any appreciable effect from inhomogeneous fields, T(2) distributions can show strong effects, and a procedure is presented based on the dependence of 1/T(2) on tau to separate pore-scale gradient effects from sample-scale gradient effects. Unexpectedly, the gradient at the pore scale can be, in some cases, strong enough to make negligible the effects of gradients at the sample scale of the single-sided device.

  11. Burn injury by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Eising, Ernst G; Hughes, Justin; Nolte, Frank; Jentzen, Walter; Bockisch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has become a standard diagnostic procedure in clinical medicine and is well known to have hazards for patients with pacemaker or metallic foreign bodies. Compared to CT, the frequency of MRI examinations is increasing due to the missing exposure of the patients by X-rays. Furthermore, high-field magnetic resonance tomograph (MRT) with 3 T has entered clinical practice, and 7-T systems are installed in multiple scientific institutions. On the other hand, the possibility of burn injuries has been reported only in very few cases. Based on a clinical finding of a burn injury in a 31-year-old male patient during a routine MRI of the lumbar spine with standard protocol, the MR scanner was checked and the examination was simulated in an animal model. The patient received a third-degree burn injury of the skin of the right hand and pelvis in a small region of skin contact. The subsequent control of the MRI scanner indicated no abnormal values for radiofrequency (RF) and power. In the subsequent animal experiment, comparable injuries could only be obtained by high RF power in a microwave stove. It is concluded that 'tissue loops' resulting from a contact between hand and pelvis must be avoided. With regard to forensic aspects, the need to inform patients of such a minimal risk can be avoided if the patients are adequately positioned using an isolating material between the hands and pelvis. These facts must be emphasized more in the future, if high-field MRI with stronger RF gradients is available in routine imaging. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Origin of the conformational modulation of the 13C NMR chemical shift of methoxy groups in aromatic natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Toušek, Jaromír; Straka, Michal; Sklenář, Vladimír; Marek, Radek

    2013-01-24

    The interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters is essential to understanding experimental observations at the molecular and supramolecular levels and to designing new and more efficient molecular probes. In many aromatic natural compounds, unusual (13)C NMR chemical shifts have been reported for out-of-plane methoxy groups bonded to the aromatic ring (~62 ppm as compared to the typical value of ~56 ppm for an aromatic methoxy group). Here, we analyzed this phenomenon for a series of aromatic natural compounds using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. First, we checked the methodology used to optimize the structure and calculate the NMR chemical shifts in aromatic compounds. The conformational effects of the methoxy group on the (13)C NMR chemical shift then were interpreted by the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Chemical Shift (NCS) approaches, and by excitation analysis of the chemical shifts, breaking down the total nuclear shielding tensor into the contributions from the different occupied orbitals and their magnetic interactions with virtual orbitals. We discovered that the atypical (13)C NMR chemical shifts observed are not directly related to a different conjugation of the lone pair of electrons of the methoxy oxygen with the aromatic ring, as has been suggested. Our analysis indicates that rotation of the methoxy group induces changes in the virtual molecular orbital space, which, in turn, correlate with the predominant part of the contribution of the paramagnetic deshielding connected with the magnetic interactions of the BD(CMet-H)→BD*(CMet-OMet) orbitals, resulting in the experimentally observed deshielding of the (13)C NMR resonance of the out-of-plane methoxy group.

  13. 13C MAS NMR studies of crystalline cholesterol and lipid mixtures modeling atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, W; Hamilton, J A

    1996-01-01

    Cholesterol and cholesteryl esters are the predominant lipids of atherosclerotic plaques. To provide fundamental data for the quantitative study of plaque lipids in situ, crystalline cholesterol (CHOL) and CHOL/cholesteryl ester (CE) mixtures with other lipids were studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance with magic-angle-sample spinning. Highly distinctive spectra for three different crystalline structures of CHOL were obtained. When CHOL crystals were mixed with isotropic CE oil, solubilized CHOL (approximately 13 mol % CHOL) was detected by characteristic resonances such as C5, C6, and C3; the excess crystalline CHOL (either anhydrous or monohydrate) remained in its original crystalline structure, without being affected by the coexisting CE. By use of 13C-enriched CHOL, the solubility of CHOL in the CE liquid-crystalline phase (approximately 8 mol %) was measured. When phosphatidylcholine was hydrated in presence of CHOL and CE, magic-angle-sampling nuclear magnetic resonance revealed liquid-crystalline CHOL/phosphatidylcholine multilayers with approximately an equal molar ratio of CHOL/phosphatidylcholine. Excess CHOL existed in the monohydrate crystalline form, and CE in separate oil or crystalline phases, depending on the temperature. The magic-angle-sampling nuclear magnetic resonance protocol for identifying different lipid phases was applied to intact (ex vivo) atherosclerotic plaques of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Liquid, liquid-crystalline, and solid phases of CE were characterized. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:8913623

  14. Development of LC-13C NMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, H. C.; Wang, J. S.; Glass, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    This study involves the development of C-13 nuclear resonance as an on-line detector for liquid chromatography (LC-C-13 NMR) for the chemical characterization of aviation fuels. The initial focus of this study was the development of a high sensitivity flow C-13 NMR probe. Since C-13 NMR sensitivity is of paramount concern, considerable effort during the first year was directed at new NMR probe designs. In particular, various toroid coil designs were examined. In addition, corresponding shim coils for correcting the main magnetic field (B sub 0) homogeneity were examined. Based on these initial probe design studies, an LC-C-13 NMR probe was built and flow C-13 NMR data was obtained for a limited number of samples.

  15. Progress in 13C and 1H solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for paramagnetic systems under very fast magic angle spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Nalinda P.; Shaibat, Medhat A.; Jones, Christopher R.; Casabianca, Leah B.; de Dios, Angel C.; Harwood, John S.; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2008-02-01

    High-resolution solid-state NMR (SSNMR) of paramagnetic systems has been largely unexplored because of various technical difficulties due to large hyperfine shifts, which have limited the success of previous studies through depressed sensitivity/resolution and lack of suitable assignment methods. Our group recently introduced an approach using "very fast" magic angle spinning (VFMAS) for SSNMR of paramagnetic systems, which opened an avenue toward routine analyses of small paramagnetic systems by C13 and H1 SSNMR [Y. Ishii et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 3438 (2003); N. P. Wickramasinghe et al., ibid. 127, 5796 (2005)]. In this review, we discuss our recent progress in establishing this approach, which offers solutions to a series of problems associated with large hyperfine shifts. First, we demonstrate that MAS at a spinning speed of 20kHz or higher greatly improves sensitivity and resolution in both H1 and C13 SSNMR for paramagnetic systems such as Cu(II)(L-alanine)2ṡH2O (Cu( L-Ala )2) and Mn(acac)3, for which the spectral dispersions due to H1 hyperfine shifts reach 200 and 700ppm, respectively. Then, we introduce polarization transfer methods from H1 spins to C13 spins with high-power cross polarization and dipolar insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (INEPT) in order to attain further sensitivity enhancement and to correlate H1 and C13 spins in two-dimensional (2D) SSNMR for the paramagnetic systems. Comparison of C13 VFMAS SSNMR spectra with C13 solution NMR spectra revealed superior sensitivity in SSNMR for Cu( L-Ala )2, Cu(Gly)2, and V(acac)3. We discuss signal assignment methods using one-dimensional (1D) C13 SSNMR C13-H1 rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) and dipolar INEPT methods and 2D C13/H1 correlation SSNMR under VFMAS, which yield reliable assignments of H1 and C13 resonances for Cu(Ala-Thr). Based on the excellent sensitivity/resolution and signal assignments attained in the VFMAS approach, we discuss methods of elucidating multiple distance constraints in unlabeled paramagnetic systems by combing simple measurements of C13 T1 values and anisotropic hyperfine shifts. Comparison of experimental C13 hyperfine shifts and ab initio calculated shifts for α- and β-forms of Cu(8-quinolinol)2 demonstrates that C13 hyperfine shifts are parameters exceptionally sensitive to small structural difference between the two polymorphs. Finally, we discuss sensitivity enhancement with paramagnetic ion doping in C13 SSNMR of nonparamagnetic proteins in microcrystals. Fast recycling with exceptionally short recycle delays matched to short H1 T1 of ˜60ms in the presence of Cu(II) doping accelerated 1D C13 SSNMR for ubiquitin and lysozyme by a factor of 7.3-8.4 under fast MAS at a spinning speed of 40kHz. It is likely that the VFMAS approach and use of paramagnetic interactions are applicable to a variety of paramagnetic systems and nonparamagnetic biomolecules.

  16. The simultaneous binding of lanthanide and N-acetylglucosamine inhibitors to hen egg-white lysozyme in solution by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, S J; Johnson, L N; Phillips, D C; Dwek, R A

    1981-01-01

    Lanthanide ions and the N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) sugars are able to bind simultaneously to hen egg-white lysozyme (EC 3.2.1.17). The present study characterizes the properties of the ternary complexes with lysozyme, which involve up to seven paramagnetic lanthanides and two diamagnetic lanthanides, together with alpha GlcNAc, beta GlcNAc, alpha MeGlcNAc and beta MeGlcNAc. pH titrations and binding titrations of the GlcNAc sugars with lysozyme-La(III) complexes show that the GlcNAc sugars bind to at least two independent sites and that one of them competes with La(III) for binding to lysozyme. Given the known binding site of lanthanides at Asp-52 and Glu-35, the competitive binding site of GlcNAc is identified as subsite E. A simple analysis of the paramagnetic-lanthanide-induced shifts shows that the GlcNAc sugar binds in subsite C, in accordance with crystallographic results [Perkins, Johnson, Machin & Phillips (1979) Biochem. J. 181, 21-36]. This finding was refined by several computer analyses of the lanthanide-induced shifts of 17 proton and carbon resonances of beta MeGlcNAc. Good fits were obtained for all the signals, except for two that were affected by exchange broadening phenomena. No distinction could be made between a fit for a two-position model of Ln(III) binding with axial symmetry to lysozyme, according to the crystallographic result, or a one-position model with axial symmetry where the Ln(III) is positioned mid-way between Asp-52 and Glu-35. Although this work establishes the feasibility of lanthanide shift reagents for study of protein-ligand complexes, further work is required to establish the manner in which lanthanides bind to lysozyme in solution. PMID:7305947

  17. Potential traceable markers of organic matter in organic and conventional dairy manure using ultraviolet–visible and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic dairy (OD) production is drawing increasing attention because of public concerns about food safety, animal welfare and the potential environmental impacts of conventional dairy (CD) systems. However, very limited information is available on how organic farming practices affect the chemical ...

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems: Applications to liver preservation and metabolism in cultured pituitary tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fralix, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This study centers on applications of both {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to two different biological systems. The first application utilizes {sup 31}P NMR to study mobile phospholipids in the MMQ cell line, a pituitary tumor cell line. These measurements characterize membrane phospholipids thought to be part of a RNA-proteolipid complex unique to cellular transformation. The second application utilizes both {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C spectroscopy to study liver preservation and transplantation an a rat model. In this work, several questions were addressed: (1) to what extent do successful preservation solutions slow ATP breakdown (2) can clinically successful preservation conditions ameliorate total nucleotide breakdown (3) to what extent is energy reconstitution following cold storage correlated with transport success and (4) can any spectroscopic parameter be used as a diagnostic indicator of tissue viability

  19. Study of molecular interactions with 13C DNP-NMR.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Mathilde H; Meier, Sebastian; Jensen, Pernille R; Baumann, Herbert; Petersen, Bent O; Karlsson, Magnus; Duus, Jens Ø; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H

    2010-03-01

    NMR spectroscopy is an established, versatile technique for the detection of molecular interactions, even when these interactions are weak. Signal enhancement by several orders of magnitude through dynamic nuclear polarization alleviates several practical limitations of NMR-based interaction studies. This enhanced non-equilibrium polarization contributes sensitivity for the detection of molecular interactions in a single NMR transient. We show that direct (13)C NMR ligand binding studies at natural isotopic abundance of (13)C gets feasible in this way. Resultant screens are easy to interpret and can be performed at (13)C concentrations below muM. In addition to such ligand-detected studies of molecular interaction, ligand binding can be assessed and quantified with enzymatic assays that employ hyperpolarized substrates at varying enzyme inhibitor concentrations. The physical labeling of nuclear spins by hyperpolarization thus provides the opportunity to devise fast novel in vitro experiments with low material requirement and without the need for synthetic modifications of target or ligands. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Selectivity in multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, W.S.

    1980-11-01

    The observation of multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance transitions in isotropic or anisotropic liquids is shown to give readily interpretable information on molecular configurations, rates of motional processes, and intramolecular interactions. However, the observed intensity of high multiple-quantum transitions falls off dramatically as the number of coupled spins increases. The theory of multiple-quantum NMR is developed through the density matrix formalism, and exact intensities are derived for several cases (isotropic first-order systems and anisotropic systems with high symmetry) to shown that this intensity decrease is expected if standard multiple-quantum pulse sequences are used. New pulse sequences are developed which excite coherences and produce population inversions only between selected states, even though other transitions are simultaneously resonant. One type of selective excitation presented only allows molecules to absorb and emit photons in groups of n. Coherent averaging theory is extended to describe these selective sequences, and to design sequences which are selective to arbitrarily high order in the Magnus expansion. This theory and computer calculations both show that extremely good selectivity and large signal enhancements are possible.

  1. New Approaches to Quantum Computing using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, M; Krishnan, V V

    2003-02-07

    non-zero nuclear moments (spin 1/2 nuclei such as {sup 1}H or {sup 13}C) in an organic molecule dissolved in a solvent constitute the required qubits. The logic gates and algorithms correspond to set of instructions containing radio frequency (r.f) pulses and delays that manipulate the qubits and the final spectrum reflects the outcome of the algorithm. Three years ago, when we initiated proposal on NMR-QC, the foremost of the aim is to develop quantum computing as part of LLNL research programs and hence cultivate an interdisciplinary working group in the area of quantum computing. Our success in the proposal is in part responsible for the formation of the laboratory-wide exploratory group on ''quantum computing and information''. The PI's play an integral role in promoting the work performed using the LDRD funded project and hence acquire the attention within the lab as well outside. In specific goals of the project were to (a) develop experimental and sample based methods to improve the performance of NMR-QC, (b) define and estimate actual time cost or efficiency of a QCs, and (c) construct a comprehensive simulator of QC based on the principles of ensemble quantum computing. We were able to accomplish these goals and in particular we have reached some significant milestones in defining the QC efficiency and development of the QC-simulator. These developments have resulted to three publications.

  2. Hyperpolarized 13C Metabolic MRI of the Human Heart: Initial Experience.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles H; Lau, Justin Y C; Chen, Albert P; Geraghty, Benjamin J; Perks, William J; Roifman, Idan; Wright, Graham A; Connelly, Kim A

    2016-11-11

    Altered cardiac energetics is known to play an important role in the progression toward heart failure. A noninvasive method for imaging metabolic markers that could be used in longitudinal studies would be useful for understanding therapeutic approaches that target metabolism. To demonstrate the first hyperpolarized (13)C metabolic magnetic resonance imaging of the human heart. Four healthy subjects underwent conventional proton cardiac magnetic resonance imaging followed by (13)C imaging and spectroscopic acquisition immediately after intravenous administration of a 0.1 mmol/kg dose of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate. All subjects tolerated the procedure well with no adverse effects reported ≤1 month post procedure. The [1-(13)C]pyruvate signal appeared within the chambers but not within the muscle. Imaging of the downstream metabolites showed (13)C-bicarbonate signal mainly confined to the left ventricular myocardium, whereas the [1-(13)C]lactate signal appeared both within the chambers and in the myocardium. The mean (13)C image signal:noise ratio was 115 for [1-(13)C]pyruvate, 56 for (13)C-bicarbonate, and 53 for [1-(13)C]lactate. These results represent the first (13)C images of the human heart. The appearance of (13)C-bicarbonate signal after administration of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate was readily detected in this healthy cohort (n=4). This shows that assessment of pyruvate metabolism in vivo in humans is feasible using current technology. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02648009. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Application of Good's buffers to pH imaging using hyperpolarized (13)C MRI.

    PubMed

    Flavell, Robert R; von Morze, Cornelius; Blecha, Joseph E; Korenchan, David E; Van Criekinge, Mark; Sriram, Renuka; Gordon, Jeremy W; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Subramaniam, Sukumar; Bok, Robert A; Wang, Zhen J; Vigneron, Daniel B; Larson, Peder E; Kurhanewicz, John; Wilson, David M

    2015-09-25

    N-(2-Acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES), one of Good's buffers, was applied to pH imaging using hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rapid NMR- and MRI-based pH measurements were obtained by exploiting the sensitive pH-dependence of its (13)C chemical shift within the physiologic range.

  4. Application of Good's buffers to pH imaging using hyperpolarized 13C MRI

    PubMed Central

    Flavell, Robert R; von Morze, Cornelius; Blecha, Joseph E.; Korenchan, David; Van Criekinge, Mark; Sriram, Renuka; Gordon, Jeremy; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Subramaniam, Sukumar; Bok, Robert; Wang, Zhen J.; Vigneron, Daniel; Larson, Peder; Kurhanewicz, John; Wilson, David M

    2016-01-01

    N-(2-Acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES), one of Good's buffers, was applied to pH imaging using hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rapid NMR- and MRI-based pH measurements were obtained by exploiting the sensitive pH-dependence of its 13C chemical shift within the physiologic range. PMID:26257040

  5. 13C Tracking after 13CO2 Supply Revealed Diurnal Patterns of Wood Formation in Aspen1

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Amir; Linden, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Wood of trees is formed from carbon assimilated in the photosynthetic tissues. Determining the temporal dynamics of carbon assimilation, subsequent transport into developing wood, and incorporation to cell walls would further our understanding of wood formation in particular and tree growth in general. To investigate these questions, we designed a 13CO2 labeling system to study carbon transport and incorporation to developing wood of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides). Tracking of 13C incorporation to wood over a time course using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed diurnal patterns in wood cell wall biosynthesis. The dark period had a differential effect on 13C incorporation to lignin and cell wall carbohydrates. No 13C was incorporated into aromatic amino acids of cell wall proteins in the dark, suggesting that cell wall protein biosynthesis ceased during the night. The results show previously unrecognized temporal patterns in wood cell wall biosynthesis, suggest diurnal cycle as a possible cue in the regulation of carbon incorporation to wood, and establish a unique 13C labeling method for the analysis of wood formation and secondary growth in trees. PMID:25931520

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance data of C10H15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, H.-O.; Kumar, M.; Gupta, V.; Gupta, R.

    This document is part of Part 1 `Aliphatic Compounds' of Subvolume D 'Chemical Shifts and Coupling Constants for Carbon-13' of Landolt-Börnstein III/35 'Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data', Group III 'Condensed Matter'.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance data of C9H20OSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhova, B. M.

    This document is part of Part 6 `Organic Metalloid Compounds' of Subvolume D 'Chemical Shifts and Coupling Constants for Carbon-13' of Landolt-Börnstein III/35 'Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data', Group III 'Condensed Matter'.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance data of C8H18OSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhova, B. M.

    This document is part of Part 6 `Organic Metalloid Compounds' of Subvolume D 'Chemical Shifts and Coupling Constants for Carbon-13' of Landolt-Börnstein III/35 'Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data', Group III 'Condensed Matter'.

  9. Nuclear Magnetic Double Resonance Using Weak Perturbing RF Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, G. Fredric

    1977-01-01

    Describes a nuclear magnetic resonance experimental example of spin tickling; also discusses a direct approach for verifying the relative signs of coupling constants in three-spin cyclopropyl systems. (SL)

  10. Nuclear Magnetic Double Resonance Using Weak Perturbing RF Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, G. Fredric

    1977-01-01

    Describes a nuclear magnetic resonance experimental example of spin tickling; also discusses a direct approach for verifying the relative signs of coupling constants in three-spin cyclopropyl systems. (SL)

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with single spin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Müller, C.; Kong, X.; Cai, J.-M.; Melentijević, K.; Stacey, A.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D.; Isoya, J.; Pezzagna, S.; Meijer, J.; Du, J. F.; Plenio, M. B.; Naydenov, B.; McGuinness, L. P.; Jelezko, F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the ultimate sensitivity limit of single molecules or single nuclear spins requires fundamentally new detection strategies. The strong coupling regime, when interaction between sensor and sample spins dominates all other interactions, is one such strategy. In this regime, classically forbidden detection of completely unpolarized nuclei is allowed, going beyond statistical fluctuations in magnetization. Here we realize strong coupling between an atomic (nitrogen–vacancy) sensor and sample nuclei to perform nuclear magnetic resonance on four 29Si spins. We exploit the field gradient created by the diamond atomic sensor, in concert with compressed sensing, to realize imaging protocols, enabling individual nuclei to be located with Angstrom precision. The achieved signal-to-noise ratio under ambient conditions allows single nuclear spin sensitivity to be achieved within seconds. PMID:25146503

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of homoallylic and bis homoallylic substituted methyl fatty ester derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jie, M S; Cheng, K L

    1995-02-01

    Using a combination of selective irradiation 1H nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and two-dimensional 1H-13C correlation spectroscopy spectral analysis of homoallylic and bis homoallylic substituted (azido, acetoxy, chloro and oxo) fatty ester derivatives, the carbon shifts of the ethylenic carbon atoms were determined. In the case of methyl 12-azido-9Z-octadecenoate (homoallylic), the carbon chemical shifts of the ethylenic C-9 and C-10 carbon nuclei are 133.092 and 124.596 ppm, respectively. In methyl 9-azido-12Z-octadecenoate (bis homoallylic), the carbon chemical shift of the ethylenic C-12 and C-13 carbon nuclei are 128.118 and 131.243 ppm, respectively.

  13. Bonding in hard and elastic amorphous carbon nitride films investigated using 15N, 13C, and 1H NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammon, W. J.; Hoatson, G. L.; Holloway, B. C.; Vold, R. L.; Reilly, A. C.

    2003-11-01

    The nitrogen bonding in hard and elastic amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) films is examined with 15N, 13C, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Films were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering, in a pure nitrogen discharge on Si(001) substrates at 300 °C. Nanoindentation tests revealed an elastic recovery of 80%, a hardness of 5 GPa, and an elastic modulus of 47 GPa. The NMR results show that nitrogen bonding in this material is consistent with sp2 hybridized nitrogen incorporated in an aromatic carbon environment. The data also indicate that the a-CNx prepared for this study has very low hydrogen content and is hydrophilic. Specifically, analysis of 15N and 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning and 1H NMR experiments suggests that water preferentially protonates nitrogen sites.

  14. Comparative absorption of [13C]glucose and [13C]lactose by premature infants.

    PubMed

    Murray, R D; Boutton, T W; Klein, P D; Gilbert, M; Paule, C L; MacLean, W C

    1990-01-01

    Oxidation of orally administered [13C]glucose and [13C]lactose and fecal recovery of malabsorbed substrates were determined in two groups of premature infants. Eighteen studies were performed with six infants at Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH); 24 studies were performed with nine infants at Columbus Children's Hospital (CCH). The two groups differed in that JHH infants had shorter gestations but were older when studied. Fecal 13C loss after [13C]glucose administration did not differ between the two groups. Compared with glucose, the metabolism of lactose appeared to involve more malabsorption and colonic fermentation in JHH infants than in CCH infants and resulted in higher fecal losses of substrate carbon. Maturation appeared to involve increased proximal intestinal absorption and greater retention of absorbed carbohydrate. Simultaneous absorption of substrate from the small and large intestine may limit the usefulness of breath tests for 13C in the premature infant.

  15. Application of 13C-labeling and 13C-13C COSY NMR experiments in the structure determination of a microbial natural product.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yun; Park, Sunghyouk; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2014-08-01

    The elucidation of the structures of complex natural products bearing many quaternary carbons remains challenging, even in this advanced spectroscopic era. (13)C-(13)C COSY NMR spectroscopy shows direct couplings between (13)C and (13)C, which comprise the backbone of a natural product. Thus, this type of experiment is particularly useful for natural products bearing consecutive quaternary carbons. However, the low sensitivity of (13)C-based NMR experiments, due to the low natural abundance of the (13)C nucleus, is problematic when applying these techniques. Our efforts in the (13)C labeling of a microbial natural product, cyclopiazonic acid (1), by feeding (13)C-labeled glucose to the fungal culture, enabled us to acquire (13)C-(13)C COSY NMR spectra on a milligram scale that clearly show the carbon backbone of the compound. This is the first application of (13)C-(13)C COSY NMR experiments for a natural product. The results suggest that (13)C-(13)C COSY NMR spectroscopy can be routinely used for the structure determination of microbial natural products by (13)C-enrichment of a compound with (13)C-glucose.

  16. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c] And [2h3, 13c]Methyl Aryl Sulfides

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2004-03-30

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2,.sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to the labeled compounds of [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide and [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide.

  17. Comparison of nuclear electric resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance in integer and fractional quantum Hall states

    SciTech Connect

    Tomimatsu, Toru Shirai, Shota; Hashimoto, Katsushi Sato, Ken; Hirayama, Yoshiro

    2015-08-15

    Electric-field-induced nuclear resonance (NER: nuclear electric resonance) involving quantum Hall states (QHSs) was studied at various filling factors by exploiting changes in nuclear spins polarized at quantum Hall breakdown. Distinct from the magnetic dipole interaction in nuclear magnetic resonance, the interaction of the electric-field gradient with the electric quadrupole moment plays the dominant role in the NER mechanism. The magnitude of the NER signal strongly depends on whether electronic states are localized or extended. This indicates that NER is sensitive to the screening capability of the electric field associated with QHSs.

  18. Self-association of cromolyn sodium in aqueous solution characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuan; Stringfellow, Thomas C; Robinson, Joseph R

    2004-05-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate and characterize the solution properties of cromolyn sodium (in D(2)O or D(2)O/H(2)O phosphate buffer at pH 7.5) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The self-association of cromolyn molecules was examined primarily via one-dimensional (1)H and (13)C, and two-dimensional homonuclear NOESY NMR. Significant spectral shifts were observed for a majority of cromolyn (1)H and (13)C resonances, and are attributed to inter-molecular ring-stacking association accompanied by intra-molecular conformational changes. The critical self-association concentration was determined to be 10 mg/mL at pH 7.5 and 25 degrees C by measuring the chemical shift of a specific cromolyn (1)H resonance. The observed magnitude and sign changes of NOESY correlations indicate the formation of cromolyn aggregates with restricted molecular mobility. Mesomorphic liquid crystal formation is suggested by uniformly pronounced line broadening in concentrated cromolyn solutions; the transition concentration was approximately 60 mg/mL at 25 degrees C, which is consistent with literature findings based on other techniques. A stronger tendency toward association was observed at lower temperature but aggregation appeared to be independent of pH. Lastly, it was concluded that self-association of cromolyn is promoted by the presence of monovalent cations as a result of reduced electrostatic repulsive forces.

  19. Solution and Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Characterization of Efavirenz.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Eduardo Gomes Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Erika Martins de; San Gil, Rosane Aguiar da Silva; Santos, Tereza Cristina Dos; Borré, Leandro Bandeira; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo Andrade; Ellena, Javier

    2016-09-01

    Samples of efavirenz (EFZ) were evaluated to investigate the influence of the micronization process on EFZ stability. A combination of X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FTIR, observations of isotropic chemical shifts of (1)H in distinct solvents, their temperature dependence and spin-lattice relaxation time constants (T1), solution (1D and 2D) (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and solid-state (13)C NMR (CPMAS NMR) provides valuable structural information and structural elucidation of micronized EFZ and heptane-recrystallized polymorphs (EFZ/HEPT). This study revealed that the micronization process did not affect the EFZ crystalline structure. It was observed that the structure of EFZ/HEPT is in the same form as that obtained from ethyl acetate/hexane, as shown in the literature. A comparison of the solid-state NMR spectra revealed discrepancies regarding the assignments of some carbons published in the literature that have been resolved. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of organic matter in sediment cores of the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, by elemental analysis and 13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Costa, A B; Novotny, E H; Bloise, A C; de Azevedo, E R; Bonagamba, T J; Zucchi, M R; Santos, V L C S; Azevedo, A E G

    2011-08-01

    The impact of human activity on the sediments of Todos os Santos Bay in Brazil was evaluated by elemental analysis and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C NMR). This article reports a study of six sediment cores collected at different depths and regions of Todos os Santos Bay. The elemental profiles of cores collected on the eastern side of Frades Island suggest an abrupt change in the sedimentation regime. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) analysis corroborates this result. The range of depths of the cores corresponds to about 50 years ago, coinciding with the implantation of major onshore industrial projects in the region. Principal Component Analysis of the 13C NMR spectra clearly differentiates sediment samples closer to the Subaé estuary, which have high contents of terrestrial organic matter, from those closer to a local oil refinery. The results presented in this article illustrate several important aspects of environmental impact of human activity on this bay.

  1. Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Sallen, G.; Kunz, S.; Amand, T.; Bouet, L.; Kuroda, T.; Mano, T.; Paget, D.; Krebs, O.; Marie, X.; Sakoda, K.; Urbaszek, B.

    2014-01-01

    Optical and electrical control of the nuclear spin system allows enhancing the sensitivity of NMR applications and spin-based information storage and processing. Dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors is commonly achieved in the presence of a stabilizing external magnetic field. Here we report efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins at zero magnetic field in strain-free GaAs quantum dots. The strong interaction of a single, optically injected electron spin with the nuclear spins acts as a stabilizing, effective magnetic field (Knight field) on the nuclei. We optically tune the Knight field amplitude and direction. In combination with a small transverse magnetic field, we are able to control the longitudinal and transverse components of the nuclear spin polarization in the absence of lattice strain—that is, in dots with strongly reduced static nuclear quadrupole effects, as reproduced by our model calculations. PMID:24500329

  2. Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Sallen, G; Kunz, S; Amand, T; Bouet, L; Kuroda, T; Mano, T; Paget, D; Krebs, O; Marie, X; Sakoda, K; Urbaszek, B

    2014-01-01

    Optical and electrical control of the nuclear spin system allows enhancing the sensitivity of NMR applications and spin-based information storage and processing. Dynamic nuclear polarization in semiconductors is commonly achieved in the presence of a stabilizing external magnetic field. Here we report efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins at zero magnetic field in strain-free GaAs quantum dots. The strong interaction of a single, optically injected electron spin with the nuclear spins acts as a stabilizing, effective magnetic field (Knight field) on the nuclei. We optically tune the Knight field amplitude and direction. In combination with a small transverse magnetic field, we are able to control the longitudinal and transverse components of the nuclear spin polarization in the absence of lattice strain--that is, in dots with strongly reduced static nuclear quadrupole effects, as reproduced by our model calculations.

  3. Robust hyperpolarized (13)C metabolic imaging with selective non-excitation of pyruvate (SNEP).

    PubMed

    Chen, Way Cherng; Teo, Xing Qi; Lee, Man Ying; Radda, George K; Lee, Philip

    2015-08-01

    In vivo metabolic imaging using hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate provides localized biochemical information and is particularly useful in detecting early disease changes, as well as monitoring disease progression and treatment response. However, a major limitation of hyperpolarized magnetization is its unrecoverable decay, due not only to T1 relaxation but also to radio-frequency (RF) excitation. RF excitation schemes used in metabolic imaging must therefore be able to utilize available hyperpolarized magnetization efficiently and robustly for the optimal detection of substrate and metabolite activities. In this work, a novel RF excitation scheme called selective non-excitation of pyruvate (SNEP) is presented. This excitation scheme involves the use of a spectral selective RF pulse to specifically exclude the excitation of [1-(13)C]pyruvate, while uniformly exciting the key metabolites of interest (namely [1-(13)C]lactate and [1-(13)C]alanine) and [1-(13)C]pyruvate-hydrate. By eliminating the loss of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate magnetization due to RF excitation, the signal from downstream metabolite pools is increased together with enhanced dynamic range. Simulation results, together with phantom measurements and in vivo experiments, demonstrated the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the extension of the lifetime of the [1-(13)C]lactate and [1-(13)C]alanine pools when compared with conventional non-spectral selective (NS) excitation. SNEP has also been shown to perform comparably well with multi-band (MB) excitation, yet SNEP possesses distinct advantages, including ease of implementation, less stringent demands on gradient performance, increased robustness to frequency drifts and B0 inhomogeneity as well as easier quantification involving the use of [1-(13)C]pyruvate-hydrate as a proxy for the actual [1-(13)C] pyruvate signal. SNEP is therefore a promising alternative for robust hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate metabolic imaging with high

  4. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Gary E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines recent developments in techniques for obtaining high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra on solid samples, discussing the kinds of applications for which these techniques are well suited. Also discusses the characteristics of NMR of solids and generating magnetization for NMR in solids. (JN)

  5. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Gary E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines recent developments in techniques for obtaining high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra on solid samples, discussing the kinds of applications for which these techniques are well suited. Also discusses the characteristics of NMR of solids and generating magnetization for NMR in solids. (JN)

  6. Imaging pH with hyperpolarized 13C.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Ferdia A; Kettunen, Mikko I; Brindle, Kevin M

    2011-10-01

    pH is a fundamental physiological parameter that is tightly controlled by endogenous buffers. The acid-base balance is altered in many disease states, such as inflammation, ischemia and cancer. Despite the importance of pH, there are currently no routine methods for imaging the spatial distribution of pH in humans. The enormous gain in sensitivity afforded by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has provided a novel way in which to image tissue pH using MR, which has the potential to be translated into the clinic. This review explores the advantages and disadvantages of current pH imaging techniques and how they compare with DNP-based approaches for the measurement and imaging of pH with hyperpolarized (13)C. Intravenous injection of hyperpolarized (13)C-labeled bicarbonate results in the rapid production of hyperpolarized (13)CO(2) in the reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. As this reaction is close to equilibrium in the body and is pH dependent, the ratio of the (13)C signal intensities from H(13)CO(3)(-) and (13)CO(2), measured using MRS, can be used to calculate pH in vivo. The application of this technique to a murine tumor model demonstrated that it measured predominantly extracellular pH and could be mapped in the animal using spectroscopic imaging techniques. A second approach has been to use the production of hyperpolarized (13)CO(2) from hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate to measure predominantly intracellular pH. In tissues with a high aerobic capacity, such as the heart, the hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate undergoes rapid oxidative decarboxylation, catalyzed by intramitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase. Provided that there is sufficient carbonic anhydrase present to catalyze the rapid equilibration of the hyperpolarized (13)C label between CO(2) and bicarbonate, the ratio of their resonance intensities may again be used to estimate pH, which, in this case, is predominantly intracellular. As both pyruvate and bicarbonate are endogenous molecules they

  7. Electron transport through nuclear pasta in magnetized neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, D. G.

    2015-10-01

    We present a simple model for electron transport in a possible layer of exotic nuclear clusters (in the so-called nuclear pasta layer) between the crust and liquid core of a strongly magnetized neutron star. The electron transport there can be strongly anisotropic and gyrotropic. The anisotropy is produced by different electron effective collision frequencies along and across local symmetry axis in domains of exotic ordered nuclear clusters and by complicated effects of the magnetic field. We also calculate averaged kinetic coefficients in case local domains are freely oriented. Possible applications of the obtained results and open problems are outlined.

  8. Accurate determinations of one-bond 13C-13C couplings in 13C-labeled carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azurmendi, Hugo F.; Freedberg, Darón I.

    2013-03-01

    Carbon plays a central role in the molecular architecture of carbohydrates, yet the availability of accurate methods for 1DCC determination has not been sufficiently explored, despite the importance that such data could play in structural studies of oligo- and polysaccharides. Existing methods require fitting intensity ratios of cross- to diagonal-peaks as a function of the constant-time (CT) in CT-COSY experiments, while other methods utilize measurement of peak separation. The former strategies suffer from complications due to peak overlap, primarily in regions close to the diagonal, while the latter strategies are negatively impacted by the common occurrence of strong coupling in sugars, which requires a reliable assessment of their influence in the context of RDC determination. We detail a 13C-13C CT-COSY method that combines a variation in the CT processed with diagonal filtering to yield 1JCC and RDCs. The strategy, which relies solely on cross-peak intensity modulation, is inspired in the cross-peak nulling method used for JHH determinations, but adapted and extended to applications where, like in sugars, large one-bond 13C-13C couplings coexist with relatively small long-range couplings. Because diagonal peaks are not utilized, overlap problems are greatly alleviated. Thus, one-bond couplings can be determined from different cross-peaks as either active or passive coupling. This results in increased accuracy when more than one determination is available, and in more opportunities to measure a specific coupling in the presence of severe overlap. In addition, we evaluate the influence of strong couplings on the determination of RDCs by computer simulations. We show that individual scalar couplings are notably affected by the presence of strong couplings but, at least for the simple cases studied, the obtained RDC values for use in structural calculations were not, because the errors introduced by strong couplings for the isotropic and oriented phases are very

  9. Accurate determinations of one-bond 13C-13C couplings in 13C-labeled carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Azurmendi, Hugo F; Freedberg, Darón I

    2013-03-01

    Carbon plays a central role in the molecular architecture of carbohydrates, yet the availability of accurate methods for (1)D(CC) determination has not been sufficiently explored, despite the importance that such data could play in structural studies of oligo- and polysaccharides. Existing methods require fitting intensity ratios of cross- to diagonal-peaks as a function of the constant-time (CT) in CT-COSY experiments, while other methods utilize measurement of peak separation. The former strategies suffer from complications due to peak overlap, primarily in regions close to the diagonal, while the latter strategies are negatively impacted by the common occurrence of strong coupling in sugars, which requires a reliable assessment of their influence in the context of RDC determination. We detail a (13)C-(13)C CT-COSY method that combines a variation in the CT processed with diagonal filtering to yield (1)J(CC) and RDCs. The strategy, which relies solely on cross-peak intensity modulation, is inspired in the cross-peak nulling method used for J(HH) determinations, but adapted and extended to applications where, like in sugars, large one-bond (13)C-(13)C couplings coexist with relatively small long-range couplings. Because diagonal peaks are not utilized, overlap problems are greatly alleviated. Thus, one-bond couplings can be determined from different cross-peaks as either active or passive coupling. This results in increased accuracy when more than one determination is available, and in more opportunities to measure a specific coupling in the presence of severe overlap. In addition, we evaluate the influence of strong couplings on the determination of RDCs by computer simulations. We show that individual scalar couplings are notably affected by the presence of strong couplings but, at least for the simple cases studied, the obtained RDC values for use in structural calculations were not, because the errors introduced by strong couplings for the isotropic and

  10. Need for remeasurements of nuclear magnetic dipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Martin G.; Mårtensson-Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    1998-11-01

    The need for a reassessment of nuclear magnetic dipole moments is prompted by recent experiments on the ground-state hyperfine structure in highly charged hydrogenlike systems which are sufficiently sensitive to probe QED effects. This work gives an overview of the magnetic dipole moments for the nuclei of interest, i.e., 165Ho, 185,187Re, 203,205Tl, 207Pb, and 209Bi. It is found that the present uncertainties in the nuclear magnetic dipole moment limit the interpretation of the accurate experimental hyperfine structures for these systems.

  11. (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR studies on albendazole and cyclodextrin albendazole complexes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M João G; García, A; Leonardi, D; Salomon, Claudio J; Lamas, M Celina; Nunes, Teresa G

    2015-06-05

    (13)C and (15)N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were recorded from albendazole (ABZ) and from ABZ:β-cyclodextrin, ABZ:methyl-β-cyclodextrin, ABZ:hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and ABZ:citrate-β-cyclodextrin, which were prepared by the spray-drying technique. ABZ signals were typical of a crystalline solid for the pure drug and of an amorphous compound obtained from ABZ:cyclodextrin samples. Relevant spectral differences were correlated with chemical interaction between ABZ and cyclodextrins. The number and type of complexes revealed a strong dependence on the cyclodextrin group substituent. Solid-state NMR data were consistent with the presence of stable inclusion complexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Fourier Transform in Chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.

    1989-01-01

    Using fourier transformation methods in nuclear magnetic resonance has made possible increased sensitivity in chemical analysis. This article describes these methods as they relate to magnetization, the RF magnetic field, nuclear relaxation, the RF pulse, and free induction decay. (CW)

  13. The Fourier Transform in Chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.

    1989-01-01

    Using fourier transformation methods in nuclear magnetic resonance has made possible increased sensitivity in chemical analysis. This article describes these methods as they relate to magnetization, the RF magnetic field, nuclear relaxation, the RF pulse, and free induction decay. (CW)

  14. Routine screening for the presence of adulteration in raw materials using automated nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meriage, David; Rogers, Gary; Phillips, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to increase the security of the supply chain for raw materials used in the manufacture of human therapeutics, a routine screen to detect the presence of adulteration using fully automated nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been developed and qualified for use in quality control laboratories. The method involves the collection of one-dimensional (1)H and (13)C spectra, which are subsequently processed to identify and quantitate raw material constituents by comparison to a spectral database. The resulting method is an easy-to-use limit test that can automatically determine the integrity of incoming raw materials. The method is intended to be used in good manufacturing practice production facilities and is suitable for excipients and aqueous soluble raw materials used in biopharmaceutical processes. In an effort to increase the security of the supply chain for raw materials used in the manufacture of human therapeutics, a routine screen to detect the presence of adulteration using fully automated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been developed and qualified for use in quality control laboratories. The method involves the collection of NMR spectra, which are subsequently processed to identify and quantitate raw material constituents by comparison to a spectral database. The resulting method is an easy-to-use limit test that can automatically determine the integrity of incoming raw materials. The method is intended to be used in good manufacturing practice production facilities and is suitable for excipients and aqueous soluble raw materials used in biopharmaceutical processes.

  15. Least Squares Magnetic-Field Optimization for Portable Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Magnet Design

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, Jeffrey L; Franck, John; Demas, Vasiliki; Bouchard, Louis-S.

    2008-03-27

    Single-sided and mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have the advantages of portability, low cost, and low power consumption compared to conventional high-field NMR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. We present fast, flexible, and easy-to-implement target field algorithms for mobile NMR and MRI magnet design. The optimization finds a global optimum ina cost function that minimizes the error in the target magnetic field in the sense of least squares. When the technique is tested on a ring array of permanent-magnet elements, the solution matches the classical dipole Halbach solution. For a single-sided handheld NMR sensor, the algorithm yields a 640 G field homogeneous to 16 100 ppm across a 1.9 cc volume located 1.5 cm above the top of the magnets and homogeneous to 32 200 ppm over a 7.6 cc volume. This regime is adequate for MRI applications. We demonstrate that the homogeneous region can be continuously moved away from the sensor by rotating magnet rod elements, opening the way for NMR sensors with adjustable"sensitive volumes."

  16. (13)C MRS of human brain at 7 Tesla using [2-(13)C]glucose infusion and low power broadband stochastic proton decoupling.

    PubMed

    Li, Shizhe; An, Li; Yu, Shao; Ferraris Araneta, Maria; Johnson, Christopher S; Wang, Shumin; Shen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Carbon-13 ((13)C) MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the human brain at 7 Tesla (T) may pose patient safety issues due to high radiofrequency (RF) power deposition for proton decoupling. The purpose of present work is to study the feasibility of in vivo (13)C MRS of human brain at 7 T using broadband low RF power proton decoupling. Carboxylic/amide (13)C MRS of human brain by broadband stochastic proton decoupling was demonstrated on a 7 T scanner. RF safety was evaluated using the finite-difference time-domain method. (13)C signal enhancement by nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) and proton decoupling was evaluated in both phantoms and in vivo. At 7 T, the peak amplitude of carboxylic/amide (13)C signals was increased by a factor of greater than 4 due to the combined effects of NOE and proton decoupling. The 7 T (13)C MRS technique used decoupling power and average transmit power of less than 35 watts (W) and 3.6 W, respectively. In vivo (13)C MRS studies of human brain can be performed at 7 T, well below the RF safety threshold, by detecting carboxylic/amide carbons with broadband stochastic proton decoupling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. High-throughput hyperpolarized (13)C metabolic investigations using a multi-channel acquisition system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyuk; Ramirez, Marc S; Walker, Christopher M; Chen, Yunyun; Yi, Stacey; Sandulache, Vlad C; Lai, Stephen Y; Bankson, James A

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of hyperpolarized (HP) compounds such as [1-(13)C]-pyruvate have shown tremendous potential for offering new insight into disease and response to therapy. New applications of this technology in clinical research and care will require extensive validation in cells and animal models, a process that may be limited by the high cost and modest throughput associated with dynamic nuclear polarization. Relatively wide spectral separation between [1-(13)C]-pyruvate and its chemical endpoints in vivo are conducive to simultaneous multi-sample measurements, even in the presence of a suboptimal global shim. Multi-channel acquisitions could conserve costs and accelerate experiments by allowing acquisition from multiple independent samples following a single dissolution. Unfortunately, many existing preclinical MRI systems are equipped with only a single channel for broadband acquisitions. In this work, we examine the feasibility of this concept using a broadband multi-channel digital receiver extension and detector arrays that allow concurrent measurement of dynamic spectroscopic data from ex vivo enzyme phantoms, in vitro anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells, and in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. Throughput and the cost of consumables were improved by up to a factor of four. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential for efficient multi-sample studies employing hyperpolarized agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-throughput hyperpolarized 13C metabolic investigations using a multi-channel acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyuk; Ramirez, Marc S.; Walker, Christopher M.; Chen, Yunyun; Yi, Stacey; Sandulache, Vlad C.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Bankson, James A.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of hyperpolarized (HP) compounds such as [1-13C]-pyruvate have shown tremendous potential for offering new insight into disease and response to therapy. New applications of this technology in clinical research and care will require extensive validation in cells and animal models, a process that may be limited by the high cost and modest throughput associated with dynamic nuclear polarization. Relatively wide spectral separation between [1-13C]-pyruvate and its chemical endpoints in vivo are conducive to simultaneous multi-sample measurements, even in the presence of a suboptimal global shim. Multi-channel acquisitions could conserve costs and accelerate experiments by allowing acquisition from multiple independent samples following a single dissolution. Unfortunately, many existing preclinical MRI systems are equipped with only a single channel for broadband acquisitions. In this work, we examine the feasibility of this concept using a broadband multi-channel digital receiver extension and detector arrays that allow concurrent measurement of dynamic spectroscopic data from ex vivo enzyme phantoms, in vitro anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells, and in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. Throughput and the cost of consumables were improved by up to a factor of four. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential for efficient multi-sample studies employing hyperpolarized agents.

  19. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and the BCS Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slichter, Charles P.

    The author describes the inspiration for the experiment by Hebel and Slichter to measure the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time in super-conductors, the design considerations for the experiment, the surprising experimental results, their theoretical treatment using the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory, and how comparing the nuclear relaxation results with those for ultrasound absorption confirmed the central idea of the BCS theory, the BCS pair wave function.

  20. 13C-NOESY-HSQC with Split Carbon Evolution for Increased Resolution with Uniformly Labeled Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, Matthias; Gemmecker, Gerd; Kessler, Horst

    1998-06-01

    Two new pulse sequences are presented for the recording of 2D13C-HSQC and 3D13C-NOESY-HSQC experiments, containing two consecutive carbon evolution periods. The two periods are separated by az-filter which creates a clean CxHz-quantum state for evolution in the second period. Each period is incremented (in anon-constant-time fashion) only to the extent that the defocusing of carbon inphase magnetization throughJ-coupling with neighboring carbons remains insignificant. Therefore,13C homonuclearJ-couplings are rendered ineffective, reducing the loss of signal and peak splitting commonly associated with long13C evolution times. The two periods are incremented according to a special acquisition protocol employing a13C-13C gradient echo to yield a data set analogous to one obtained by evolution over the added duration of both periods. The spectra recorded with the new technique on uniformly13C-labeled proteins at twice the evolution time of the standard13C-HSQC experiment display a nearly twofold enhancement of resolution in the carbon domain, while maintaining a good sensitivity even in the case of large proteins. Applied to the IIAManprotein ofE. coli(31 kDa), the13C-HSQC experiment recorded with a carbon evolution time of 2 × 8 ms showed a 36% decrease in linewidths compared to the standard13C-HSQC experiment, and theS/Nratio of representative cross-peaks was reduced to 40%. This reduction reflects mostly the typical loss of intensity observed when recording with an increased resolution. The13C-NOESY-HSQC experiment derived from the13C-HSQC experiment yielded additional NOE restraints between resonances which previously had been unresolved.

  1. Capacitor-based detection of nuclear magnetization: nuclear quadrupole resonance of surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gregorovič, Alan; Apih, Tomaž; Kvasić, Ivan; Lužnik, Janko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvonko; Strle, Drago; Muševič, Igor

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate excitation and detection of nuclear magnetization in a nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) experiment with a parallel plate capacitor, where the sample is located between the two capacitor plates and not in a coil as usually. While the sensitivity of this capacitor-based detection is found lower compared to an optimal coil-based detection of the same amount of sample, it becomes comparable in the case of very thin samples and even advantageous in the proximity of conducting bodies. This capacitor-based setup may find its application in acquisition of NQR signals from the surface layers on conducting bodies or in a portable tightly integrated nuclear magnetic resonance sensor.

  2. Effective Giromagnetic Ratios in Artifical Nuclear Magnetization Pumping of the Noble Gases Mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, E. N.; Barantsev, K. A.; Litvinov, A. N.

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic of the nuclear magnetization of the two noble gases mix was studied in this research. Nuclear magnetization pumped along the induction of external magnetic field. Vector of nuclear magnetization is given a tilt by the week rotational magnetic field, which makes NMR for noble gases. Interaction between the nuclear magnetic moments of the different noble gases adducted to shifts at the frequency of nuclear moments precession in external magnetic field. Effective gyromagnetic ratios of the nuclear of noble gases is defined and it different from the tabulated value. There is theoretical calculation of effective gyromagnetic ratios in this research.

  3. Invited Review Article: Instrumentation for nuclear magnetic resonance in zero and ultralow magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Tayler, Michael C D; Theis, Thomas; Sjolander, Tobias F; Blanchard, John W; Kentner, Arne; Pustelny, Szymon; Pines, Alexander; Budker, Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    We review experimental techniques in our laboratory for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in zero and ultralow magnetic field (below 0.1 μT) where detection is based on a low-cost, non-cryogenic, spin-exchange relaxation free (87)Rb atomic magnetometer. The typical sensitivity is 20-30 fT/Hz(1/2) for signal frequencies below 1 kHz and NMR linewidths range from Hz all the way down to tens of mHz. These features enable precision measurements of chemically informative nuclear spin-spin couplings as well as nuclear spin precession in ultralow magnetic fields.

  4. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  5. Polywater: proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum.

    PubMed

    Page, T F; Jakobsen, R J; Lippincott, E R

    1970-01-02

    In the presence of water, the resonance of the strongly hydrogenbonded protons characteristic of polywater appears at 5 parts per million lower applied magnetic field than water. Polywater made by a new method confirms the infrared spectrum reported originally.

  6. Single Nuclear Spin Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-02

    Lab. In work not directly supported by this grant, these projects advanced MRFM detected Ferromagnetic Resonance ( FMR ) to enable studies of...directly supported by this grant, these projects advanced MRFM detected Ferromagnetic Resonance ( FMR ) to enable studies of submicron magnetic structures...our earlier NMR detection of 19F spins in CaF2 we have conducted 65Cu, 63Cu NMR stud- ies for studies of interface phenomena in multilayered magnetic

  7. Magnet design considerations for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Yuhu; Kessel, Chuck; El-guebaly, Laila; Titus, Peter

    2016-02-25

    The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a nuclear confinement facility to provide a fusion environment with components of the reactor integrated together to bridge the technical gaps of burning plasma and nuclear science between ITER and the demonstration power plant (DEMO). Compared to ITER, the FNSF is smaller in size but generates much higher magnetic field, 30 times higher neutron fluence with 3 orders of magnitude longer plasma operation at higher operating temperatures for structures surrounding the plasma. Input parameters to the magnet design from system code analysis include magnetic field of 7.5 T at the plasma center with plasma major radius of 4.8 m and minor radius of 1.2 m, and a peak field of 15.5 T on the TF coils for FNSF. Both low temperature superconductor (LTS) and high temperature superconductor (HTS) are considered for the FNSF magnet design based on the state-of-the-art fusion magnet technology. The higher magnetic field can be achieved by using the high performance ternary Restack Rod Process (RRP) Nb3Sn strands for toroidal field (TF) magnets. The circular cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) design similar to ITER magnets and a high aspect ratio rectangular CICC design are evaluated for FNSF magnets but low activation jacket materials may need to be selected. The conductor design concept and TF coil winding pack composition and dimension based on the horizontal maintenance schemes are discussed. Neutron radiation limits for the LTS and HTS superconductors and electrical insulation materials are also reviewed based on the available materials previously tested. As a result, the material radiation limits for FNSF magnets are defined as part of the conceptual design studies for FNSF magnets.

  8. Magnet Design Considerations for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Y.; Kessel, C.; El-Guebaly, L.; Titus, P.

    2016-06-01

    The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a nuclear confinement facility that provides a fusion environment with components of the reactor integrated together to bridge the technical gaps of burning plasma and nuclear science between the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the demonstration power plant (DEMO). Compared with ITER, the FNSF is smaller in size but generates much higher magnetic field, i.e., 30 times higher neutron fluence with three orders of magnitude longer plasma operation at higher operating temperatures for structures surrounding the plasma. Input parameters to the magnet design from system code analysis include magnetic field of 7.5 T at the plasma center with a plasma major radius of 4.8 m and a minor radius of 1.2 m and a peak field of 15.5 T on the toroidal field (TF) coils for the FNSF. Both low-temperature superconductors (LTS) and high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are considered for the FNSF magnet design based on the state-of-the-art fusion magnet technology. The higher magnetic field can be achieved by using the high-performance ternary restacked-rod process Nb3Sn strands for TF magnets. The circular cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) design similar to ITER magnets and a high-aspect-ratio rectangular CICC design are evaluated for FNSF magnets, but low-activation-jacket materials may need to be selected. The conductor design concept and TF coil winding pack composition and dimension based on the horizontal maintenance schemes are discussed. Neutron radiation limits for the LTS and HTS superconductors and electrical insulation materials are also reviewed based on the available materials previously tested. The material radiation limits for FNSF magnets are defined as part of the conceptual design studies for FNSF magnets.

  9. Magnet design considerations for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Zhai, Yuhu; Kessel, Chuck; El-guebaly, Laila; ...

    2016-02-25

    The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a nuclear confinement facility to provide a fusion environment with components of the reactor integrated together to bridge the technical gaps of burning plasma and nuclear science between ITER and the demonstration power plant (DEMO). Compared to ITER, the FNSF is smaller in size but generates much higher magnetic field, 30 times higher neutron fluence with 3 orders of magnitude longer plasma operation at higher operating temperatures for structures surrounding the plasma. Input parameters to the magnet design from system code analysis include magnetic field of 7.5 T at the plasma center withmore » plasma major radius of 4.8 m and minor radius of 1.2 m, and a peak field of 15.5 T on the TF coils for FNSF. Both low temperature superconductor (LTS) and high temperature superconductor (HTS) are considered for the FNSF magnet design based on the state-of-the-art fusion magnet technology. The higher magnetic field can be achieved by using the high performance ternary Restack Rod Process (RRP) Nb3Sn strands for toroidal field (TF) magnets. The circular cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) design similar to ITER magnets and a high aspect ratio rectangular CICC design are evaluated for FNSF magnets but low activation jacket materials may need to be selected. The conductor design concept and TF coil winding pack composition and dimension based on the horizontal maintenance schemes are discussed. Neutron radiation limits for the LTS and HTS superconductors and electrical insulation materials are also reviewed based on the available materials previously tested. As a result, the material radiation limits for FNSF magnets are defined as part of the conceptual design studies for FNSF magnets.« less

  10. A novel approach to the rapid assignment of (13)C NMR spectra of major components of vegetable oils such as avocado, mango kernel and macadamia nut oils.

    PubMed

    Retief, Liezel; McKenzie, Jean M; Koch, Klaus R

    2009-09-01

    Assignment of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of major fatty acid components of South African produced vegetable oils was attempted using a method in which the vegetable oil was spiked with a standard triacylglycerol. This proved to be inadequate and therefore a new rapid and potentially generic graphical linear correlation method is proposed for assignment of the (13)C NMR spectra of major fatty acid components of apricot kernel, avocado pear, grapeseed, macadamia nut, mango kernel and marula vegetable oils. In this graphical correlation method, chemical shifts of fatty acids present in a known standard triacylglycerol is plotted against the corresponding chemical shifts of fatty acids present in the vegetable oils. This new approach (under carefully defined conditions and concentrations) was found especially useful for spectrally crowded regions where significant peak overlap occurs and was validated with the well-known (13)C NMR spectrum of olive oil which has been extensively reported in the literature. In this way, a full assignment of the (13)C{1H} NMR spectra of the vegetable oils, as well as tripalmitolein was readily achieved and the resonances belonging to the palmitoleic acid component of the triacylglycerols in the case of macadamia nut and avocado pear oil resonances were also assigned for the first time in the (13)C NMR spectra of these oils. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Sensitivity-enhanced 13C MR spectroscopy of the human brain at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Klomp, D W J; Renema, W K J; van der Graaf, M; de Galan, B E; Kentgens, A P M; Heerschap, A

    2006-02-01

    A new coil design for sensitivity-enhanced 13C MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the human brain is presented. The design includes a quadrature transmit/receive head coil optimized for 13C MR sensitivity. Loss-less blocking circuits inside the coil conductors allow this coil to be used inside a homogeneous circularly polarized 1H B1 field for 1H decoupled 13C MRS. A quadrature 1H birdcage coil optimized for minimal local RF heating makes broadband 1H decoupling in the entire human brain possible at 3 Tesla while remaining well within international safety guidelines for RF absorption. Apart from a substantial increase in sensitivity compared to conventional small linear coils, the quadrature 13C coil combined with the quadrature 1H birdcage coil allows efficient cross polarization (CP) in the brain, resulting in an additional 3.5-fold sensitivity improvement compared to direct 13C measurements without nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) or polarization transfer. Combined with the gain in power efficiency, this setup allows broadband 1H to 13C CP over large areas of the brain. Clear 13C resonances from glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), aspartate (Asp), lactate (Lac), and gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) carbon spins in the human brain demonstrate the quality of 13C MR spectra obtained in vivo with this coil setup. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Observation of cytoplasmic and vacuolar malate in maize root tips by sup 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, K.; Roberts, J.K.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The accumulation of malate by maize (Zea mays L.) root tips perfused with KH{sup 13}CO{sub 3} was followed by {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectra contained distinct signals from two pools of malate in maize root tips, one at a pH {approximately}5.3 (assigned to the vacuole) and one at a pH > 6.5 (assigned to the cytoplasm). The ratio of cytoplasmic to vacuolar malate was lower in 12 millimeter long root tips than in 2 millimeter root tips. The relatively broad width of the signals from C1- and C4-labeled vacuolar malate indicated heterogeneity in vacuolar pH. During the 3 hour KH{sup 13}CO{sub 3} treatment, {sup 13}C-malate accumulated first primarily in the cytoplasm, increasing to a fairly constant level of {approximately}6 millimolar by 1 hour. After a lag, vacuolar malate increased throughout the experiment.

  13. Laboratory Precision Measurements of the Rotational Spectrum of 12C17O and 13C17O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, Gabriele; Surin, Leonid; Lewen, Frank; Müller, Holger S. P.; Pak, Igor; Winnewisser, Gisbert

    2003-01-01

    High-precision millimeter and submillimeter wave measurements were performed on two 17O isotopically substituted carbon monoxide species, i.e., 12C17O and 13C17O. Covering the frequency region from 100 GHz to 1 THz, the accuracy achievable is estimated to be +/-5 kHz in the Doppler-limited mode and +/-1 kHz for sub-Doppler-resolution measurements. From a weighted least-squares fit, the following molecular rotational parameters for 12C17O and 13C17O were obtained: for 12C17O,B0=56,179.99110(28)MHz,D0=174.330(6)kHzand for 13C17O,B0=53,644.7906(29)MHz,D0=158.918(19)kHzin both instances, the H0 values were kept fixed to IR data. The oxygen 17O nucleus exhibits a sizeable electric nuclear quadrupole moment, which has been measured for both isotopomers, i.e., eQq(12C17O)=4.298(44)MHz and eQq(13C17O)=4.355(182)MHz. The high precision of the Lamb dip measurements allowed us to observe additional small hyperfine effects caused by the magnetic moment of the 17O nucleus. These precision measurements allowed the determination of the nuclear spin-rotation constant CI(17O)=-31.60(72)Hz for 12C17O, solely from the Cologne data set. The highly precise transition frequencies reported here should warrant deep interstellar searches for the two molecules 12C17O and 13C17O. The latter has not been detected in space until very recently. On the basis of our laboratory data, we were able to report the discovery of 13C17O (by Bensch and coworkers) along with the observations of two additionalrare CO isotopomers including 12C17O and 12C18O toward core C of the ρ Ophiucus molecular cloud.

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring nuclear magnetic properties

    DOEpatents

    Weitekamp, D.P.; Bielecki, A.; Zax, D.B.; Zilm, K.W.; Pines, A.

    1987-12-01

    A method for studying the chemical and structural characteristics of materials is disclosed. The method includes placement of a sample material in a high strength polarizing magnetic field to order the sample nuclei. The condition used to order the sample is then removed abruptly and the ordering of the sample allowed to evolve for a time interval. At the end of the time interval, the ordering of the sample is measured by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. 5 figs.

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Lens, P N; Hemminga, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble and solid organic matter, removal of nutrients and xenobiotics, fate of heavy metal ions, and transport processes in bioreactor systems.

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring nuclear magnetic properties

    DOEpatents

    Weitekamp, Daniel P.; Bielecki, Anthony; Zax, David B.; Zilm, Kurt W.; Pines, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A method for studying the chemical and structural characteristics of materials is disclosed. The method includes placement of a sample material in a high strength polarizing magnetic field to order the sample nucleii. The condition used to order the sample is then removed abruptly and the ordering of the sample allowed to evolve for a time interval. At the end of the time interval, the ordering of the sample is measured by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollos, Stefan; Hollos, Richard

    2002-10-01

    We will address the challenges of doing NMR in the Earth's magnetic field. The design of an Earth's field proton precession magnetometer will be presented along with some preliminary attempts to do spectroscopy with this device.

  18. Saturated symmetric nuclear matter in strong magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, J. P. W.; Scholtz, F. G.

    2013-06-01

    Strongly magnetized symmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the context of effective baryon-meson exchange models. The magnetic field is coupled to the charge as well as the dipole moment of the baryons by including the appropriate terms in the Lagrangian density. The saturation density of magnetized, symmetric nuclear matter ρ0(B) was calculated for magnetic fields of the order of 1017 gauss. For the calculated range of ρ0(B) the binding energy, symmetry energy coefficient a4, and compressibility K of nuclear matter were also calculated. It is found that with an increasing magnetic field ρ0(B) increases, while the system becomes less bound. Furthermore, the depopulation of proton Landau levels leaves a distinct fluctuating imprint on K and a4. The calculations were also performed for increased values of the baryon magnetic dipole moment. By increasing the dipole moment strength ρ0(B) is found to decrease, but the system becomes more tightly bound while the fluctuations in K and a4 persist.

  19. Slow-down of 13C spin diffusion in organic solids by fast MAS: a CODEX NMR Study.

    PubMed

    Reichert, D; Bonagamba, T J; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2001-07-01

    One- and two-dimensional 13C exchange nuclear magnetic resonance experiments under magic-angle spinning (MAS) can provide detailed information on slow segmental reorientations and chemical exchange in organic solids, including polymers and proteins. However, observations of dynamics on the time scale of seconds or longer are hampered by the competing process of dipolar 13C spin exchange (spin diffusion). In this Communication, we show that fast MAS can significantly slow down the dipolar spin exchange effect for unprotonated carbon sites. The exchange is measured quantitatively using the centerband-only detection of exchange technique, which enables the detection of exchange at any spinning speed, even in the absence of changes of isotropic chemical shifts. For chemically equivalent unprotonated 13C sites, the dipolar spin exchange rate is found to decrease slightly less than proportionally with the sample-rotation frequency, between 8 and 28 kHz. In the same range, the dipolar spin exchange rate for a glassy polymer with an inhomogeneously broadened MAS line decreases by a factor of 10. For methylene groups, no or only a minor slow-down of the exchange rate is found.

  20. An improved 13C-tracer method for the study of lignin structure and reactions : differential 13C-NMR

    Treesearch

    Noritsugu Terashima; Dmitry Evtuguin; Carlos Pascoal Neto; Jim Parkas; Magnus Paulsson; Ulla Westermark; Sally Ralph; John Ralph

    2003-01-01

    The technique of selective 13C-enrichment of specific carbons in lignin combined with 13C-NMR differential spectrometry between spectra of 13C-enriched and unenriched lignins (Ä13C-NMR) provides definitive information on the structure of the lignin macromolecule. Improvements were made on, (1) specific 13C-enrichment of almost all carbons involved in inter-unit bonds...

  1. High Radiation Environment Nuclear Fragment Separator Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Stephen; Gupta, Ramesh

    2016-01-31

    Superconducting coils wound with HTS conductor can be used in magnets located in a high radiation environment. NbTi and Nb3Sn superconductors must operate at 4.5 K or below where removal of heat is less efficient. The HTS conductor can carry significant current at higher temperatures where the Carnot efficiency is significantly more favorable and where the coolant heat capacity is much larger. Using the HTS conductor the magnet can be operated at 40 K. This project examines the use of HTS conductor for the Michigan State University Facility For Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) fragment separator dipole magnet which bends the beam by 30° and is located in a high radiation region that will not be easily accessible. Two of these magnets are needed to select the chosen isotope. There are a number of technical challenges to be addressed in the design of this magnet. The separator dipole is 2 m long and subtends a large angle. The magnet should keep a constant transverse field profile along its beam reference path. Winding coils with a curved inner segment is difficult as the conductor will tend to unwind during the process. In the Phase I project two approaches to winding the conductor were examined. The first was to wind the coils with curved sections on the inner and outer segments with the inner segment wound with negative curvature. The alternate approach was to use a straight segment on the inner segment to avoid negative curvature. In Phase I coils with a limited number of turns were successfully wound and tested at 77 K for both coil configurations. The Phase II program concentrated on the design, coil winding procedures, structural analysis, prototyping and testing of an HTS curved dipole coil at 40 K with a heat load representative of the radiation environment. One of the key criteria of the design of this magnet is to avoid the use of organic materials that would degrade rapidly in radiation. The Lorentz forces expected from the coils interacting with the

  2. DC SQUID Spectrometers for Nuclear Quadrupole and Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    TonThat, Dinh M.

    1998-04-01

    The dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUJD) is a very sensitive detector of magnetic flux, with a typical flux noise of the order of 1 μΦ0Hz-1/2 at liquid helium temperature (Φ0=h/2e). This inherent flux sensitivity of the SQUID is used in a spectrometer for the detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR.)and nuclear quadruple resonance (NQR). The processing magnetic field from the nuclear spins is coupled to the SQUID by mean of a flux transformer. The SQUID NMR spectrometer is used to measure the longitudinal relaxation time T1 of solid 129Xe at 4.2 K down to 0.1 mT.

  3. Calculation of total meal d13C from individual food d13C.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variations in the isotopic signature of carbon in biological samples can be used to distinguish dietary patterns and monitor shifts in metabolism. But for these variations to have meaning, the isotopic signature of the diet must be known. We sought to determine if knowledge of the 13C isotopic abund...

  4. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-01-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  5. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-05-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  6. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The experiment builds upon basic concepts of NMR spectral analysis, typically taught in the undergraduate…

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with 90-nm resolution.

    PubMed

    Mamin, H J; Poggio, M; Degen, C L; Rugar, D

    2007-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging technique that typically operates on the scale of millimetres to micrometres. Conventional MRI is based on the manipulation of nuclear spins with radio-frequency fields, and the subsequent detection of spins with induction-based techniques. An alternative approach, magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), uses force detection to overcome the sensitivity limitations of conventional MRI. Here, we show that the two-dimensional imaging of nuclear spins can be extended to a spatial resolution better than 100 nm using MRFM. The imaging of 19F nuclei in a patterned CaF(2) test object was enabled by a detection sensitivity of roughly 1,200 nuclear spins at a temperature of 600 mK. To achieve this sensitivity, we developed high-moment magnetic tips that produced field gradients up to 1.4 x 10(6) T m(-1), and implemented a measurement protocol based on force-gradient detection of naturally occurring spin fluctuations. The resulting detection volume was less than 650 zeptolitres. This is 60,000 times smaller than the previous smallest volume for nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy, and demonstrates the feasibility of pushing MRI into the nanoscale regime.

  8. Concepts in Biochemistry: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Steve

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the nature of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment, the techniques used, the types of structural and dynamic information obtained, and how one can view and refine structures using computer graphics techniques in combination with NMR data. Provides several spectra and a computer graphics image from B-form DNA. (MVL)

  9. C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance in organic geochemistry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, B.; Wilson, D. M.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Study of C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of polycyclic fused systems. The fingerprint qualities of the natural abundance in C-13 NMR spectra permitting unequivocal identification of these compounds is discussed. The principle of structural additivity of C-13 NMR information is exemplified on alpha and beta androstanes, alpha and beta cholestanes, ergostanes, sitostanes, and isodecanes.

  10. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The experiment builds upon basic concepts of NMR spectral analysis, typically taught in the undergraduate…

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Coupling Constants and Electronic Structure in Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venanzi, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Theory of nuclear magnetic resonance spin-spin coupling constants and nature of the three types of coupling mechanisms contributing to the overall spin-spin coupling constant are reviewed, including carbon-carbon coupling (neither containing a lone pair of electrons) and carbon-nitrogen coupling (one containing a lone pair of electrons).…

  12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Coupling Constants and Electronic Structure in Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venanzi, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Theory of nuclear magnetic resonance spin-spin coupling constants and nature of the three types of coupling mechanisms contributing to the overall spin-spin coupling constant are reviewed, including carbon-carbon coupling (neither containing a lone pair of electrons) and carbon-nitrogen coupling (one containing a lone pair of electrons).…

  13. Concepts in Biochemistry: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Steve

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the nature of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment, the techniques used, the types of structural and dynamic information obtained, and how one can view and refine structures using computer graphics techniques in combination with NMR data. Provides several spectra and a computer graphics image from B-form DNA. (MVL)

  14. Real or imaginary? Human metabolism through nuclear magnetism.

    PubMed

    Ross, B D

    2000-09-01

    This account of the beginnings and later applications of the use of nuclear magnetic resonance for noninvasive medical diagnosis was presented at a Symposium held in Oxford, UK, during September 13-15, 2000 to mark the centenary of the birth of Hans Krebs, on August 25, 1900.

  15. Synthesis of 2H- and 13C-substituted dithanes

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [2-.sup.13 C]dithiane wherein the .sup.13 C atom is directly bonded to one or two deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [2-.sup.13 C]dithiane wherein the .sup.13 C atom is directly bonded to one or two deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to labeled compounds, e.g., [.sup.2 H.sub.1-2, .sup.13 C]methanol (arylthio)-, acetates wherein the .sup.13 C atom is directly bonded to exactly one or two deuterium atoms.

  16. Synthesis Of 2h- And 13c-Substituted Dithanes

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [2-.sup.13 C]dithane wherein the .sup.13 C atom is directly bonded to one or two deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [2-.sup.13 C]dithane wherein the .sup.13 C atom is directly bonded to one or two deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to labeled compounds, e.g., [.sup.2 H.sub.1-2, .sup.13 C]methanol (arylthio)-, acetates wherein the .sup.13 C atom is directly bonded to exactly one or two deuterium atoms.

  17. Mobile high resolution xenon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Appelt, Stephan; Häsing, F Wolfgang; Kühn, Holger; Perlo, Juan; Blümich, Bernhard

    2005-05-20

    Conventional high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are usually measured in homogeneous, high magnetic fields (>1 T), which are produced by expensive and immobile superconducting magnets. We show that chemically resolved xenon (Xe) NMR spectroscopy of liquid samples can be measured in the Earth's magnetic field (5 x 10(-5) T) with a continuous flow of hyperpolarized Xe gas. It was found that the measured normalized Xe frequency shifts are significantly modified by the Xe polarization density, which causes different dipolar magnetic fields in the liquid and in the gas phases.

  18. Universal quantum control in zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Ji; Jiang, Min; Cui, Jiangyu; Liu, Xiaomei; Chen, Botao; Ji, Yunlan; Zhang, Bo; Blanchard, John; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes a general method for the manipulation of nuclear spins in zero magnetic field. In the absence of magnetic fields, the spins lose the individual information on chemical shifts and inequivalent spins can only be distinguished by nuclear gyromagnetic ratios and spin-spin couplings. For spin-1/2 nuclei with different gyromagnetic ratios (i.e., different species) in zero magnetic field, we describe the scheme to realize a set of universal quantum logic gates, e.g., arbitrary single-qubit gates and a two-qubit controlled-not gate. This method allows for universal quantum control in systems which might provide promising applications in materials science, chemistry, biology, quantum information processing, and fundamental physics.

  19. hNCOcanH pulse sequence and a robust protocol for rapid and unambiguous assignment of backbone ((1)H(N), (15)N and (13)C') resonances in (15)N/(13)C-labeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2011-09-01

    A three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulse sequence named as hNCOcanH has been described to aid rapid sequential assignment of backbone resonances in (15)N/(13)C-labeled proteins. The experiment has been derived by a simple modification of the previously described HN(C)N pulse sequence [Panchal et al., J. Biomol. NMR 20 (2001) 135-147]; t2 evolution is used to frequency label (13)C' rather than (15)N (similar trick has also been used in the design of hNCAnH pulse sequence from hNcaNH [Frueh et al., JACS, 131 (2009) 12880-12881]). The modification results in a spectrum equivalent to HNCO, but in addition to inter-residue correlation peaks (i.e. Hi , Ci-1), the spectrum also contains additional intra-residue correlation peaks (i.e. Hi-1 , Ci-1) in the direct proton dimension which has maximum resolution. This is the main strength of the experiment and thus, even a small difference in amide (1) H chemical shifts (5-6 Hz) can be used for establishing a sequential connectivity. This experiment in combination with the HNN experiment described previously [Panchal et al., J. Biomol. NMR 20 (2001) 135-147] leads to a more robust assignment protocol for backbone resonances ((1) H(N) , (15)N) than could be derived from the combination of HNN and HN(C)N experiments [Bhavesh et al., Biochemistry, 40 (2001) 14727-14735]. Further, this new protocol enables assignment of (13)C' resonances as well. We believe that the experiment and the protocol presented here will be of immense value for structural-and functional-proteomics research by NMR. Performance of this experiment has been demonstrated using (13)C/(15)N labeled ubiquitin. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Broadband finite-pulse radio-frequency-driven recoupling (fp-RFDR) with (XY8)4(1) super-cycling for homo-nuclear correlations in very high magnetic fields at fast and ultra-fast MAS frequencies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming; Hu, Bingwen; Lafon, Oliver; Trébosc, Julien; Chen, Qun; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate that inter-residue (13)C-(13)C proximities (of about 380 pm) in uniformly (13)C-labeled proteins can be probed by applying robust first-order recoupling during several milliseconds in single-quantum single-quantum dipolar homo-nuclear correlation (SQ-SQ D-HOMCOR) 2D experiments. We show that the intensity of medium-range homo-nuclear correlations in these experiments is enhanced using broadband first-order finite-pulse radio-frequency-driven recoupling (fp-RFDR) NMR sequence with a nested (XY8)4(1) super-cycling. The robustness and the efficiency of the fp-RFDR-(XY8)4(1) method is demonstrated at high magnetic field (21.1T) and high Magic-Angle Spinning (MAS) speeds (up to 60 kHz). The introduced super-cycling, formed by combining phase inversion and a global four-quantum phase cycle, improves the robustness of fp-RFDR to (i) chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), (ii) spread in isotropic chemical shifts, (iii) rf-inhomogeneity and (iv) hetero-nuclear dipolar couplings for long recoupling times. We show that fp-RFDR-(XY8)4(1) is efficient sans (1)H decoupling, which is beneficial for temperature-sensitive biomolecules. The efficiency and the robustness of fp-RFDR-(XY8)4(1) is investigated by spin dynamics numerical simulations as well as solid-state NMR experiments on [U-(13)C]-L-histidine·HCl, a tetra-peptide (Fmoc-[U-(13)C,(15)N]-Val-[U-(13)C,(15)N]-Ala-[U-(13)C,(15)N]-Phe-Gly-t-Boc) and Al(PO(3))(3).

  1. EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS ON THE PROPAGATION OF NUCLEAR FLAMES IN MAGNETIC WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Kutsuna, Masamichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2012-04-10

    We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on the propagation of laminar flames of nuclear reactions taking place in white dwarfs with masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit. We calculate the velocities of laminar flames parallel and perpendicular to uniform magnetic fields as eigenvalues of steady solutions for magnetic hydrodynamical equations. As a result, we find that even when the magnetic pressure does not dominate the entire pressure it is possible for the magnetic field to suppress the flame propagation through the thermal conduction. Above the critical magnetic field, the flame velocity decreases with increasing magnetic field strength as v {approx} B{sup -1}. In media with densities of 10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} g cm{sup -3}, the critical magnetic fields are orders of {approx}10{sup 10}, 10{sup 11}, and 10{sup 12} G, respectively.

  2. 73Ge-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance/Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Investigation of Magnetic Properties of URhGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Fukumoto, Kenta; Toyama, Toshihiro; Tou, Hideki; Harima, Hisatomo; Harada, Atsushi; Kitaoka, Yoshio; Haga, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ōnuki, Yoshichika; Itoh, Kohei M.; Haller, Eugene E.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the 73Ge-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)/nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) results for the ferromagnetic (FM) superconductor URhGe. The magnitude and direction of the internal field, Hint, and the parameters of the electric field gradient at the Ge site were determined experimentally. By using powdered polycrystalline samples oriented by different methods, the field dependences of NMR shift and nuclear spin relaxation rates for H0 || c (easy axis) and H0 || b were obtained. From the NMR shifts for H0 || b, we confirmed a gradual suppression of the Curie temperature and observed a phase separation near the spin reorientation. The observation of the phase separation gives microscopic evidence that the spin reorientation under H0 || b is of first order at low temperatures. The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 indicates that the magnetic fluctuations are suppressed for H0 || c, whereas the fluctuations remain strongly for H0 || b. The enhancements of both 1/T1T and the nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate 1/T2 for H0 || b toward the spin reorientation field suggest that the field-induced superconductivity in URhGe emerges under the magnetic fluctuations along the b- and c-axes.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear spin relaxation in AlAs quantum well probed by ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchepetilnikov, A. V.; Frolov, D. D.; Nefyodov, Yu. A.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Smirnov, D. S.; Tiemann, L.; Reichl, C.; Dietsche, W.; Wegscheider, W.

    2016-12-01

    The study of nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation was conducted in an asymmetrically doped to n ˜1.8 ×1011cm-2 16 nm AlAs quantum well grown in the [001 ] direction. The dynamic polarization of nuclear spins due to a hyperfine interaction resulted in the so-called Overhauser shift of two-dimensional conduction electron spin resonance. The maximum shifts achieved in the experiments are several orders of magnitude smaller than in GaAs-based heterostructures, indicating that the hyperfine interaction is weak. The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time extracted from the decay of the Overhauser shift over time turned out to depend on the filling factor of the two-dimensional electron system. This observation indicates that nuclear spin-lattice relaxation is mostly due to the interaction between electron and nuclear spins. The Overhauser shift diminishes resonantly when the rf radiation of certain frequencies was applied to the sample. This effect served as an indirect, yet powerful, method for nuclear magnetic resonance detection: NMR quadrupole splitting of 75As nuclei was clearly resolved. Theoretical calculations performed describe well these experimental findings.

  4. Characterization via nuclear magnetic resonance of Portland cement and related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Christopher Lane

    The physicochemical and engineering performance properties of several API class G and H ordinary Portland cements (OPCs) from various foreign and domestic sources have been investigated. The engineering performance properties are found to vary from sample to sample, and sources for this variation were sought out and identified. Magic angle spinning (MAS) 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments were marked by unusual relaxation behavior due to paramagnetism inherent in OPCs. A model system was created to mimic the paramagnetism of the cements and the system's relaxation behavior was analyzed. The iron in the calcium aluminoferrite (C4AF) provides the paramagnetism sufficient to substantially increase the relaxation rates of the 29Si in the tricalcium silicate (C3S) and dicalcium silicate (C2S) of cement. Several relaxation techniques were evaluated for analyzing cement relaxation, and saturation recovery was identified as the preferred technique. Correlations of data from the saturation recovery experiments with engineering performance properties, especially the strength development of cement pastes, were obtained facilely. An error analysis of the NMR and engineering performance testing techniques was conducted, which indicated that NMR measurements produced less error than the engineering performance tests. A best practice, modified from the saturation recovery experiment, is proposed for use in property correlations. Additionally, 13C MAS NMR was used to characterize various fluorinated single-walled carbon nanotubes (F-SWNTs), which proved surprisingly effective in attenuating 13C-19F dipolar interactions and quantifying the extent of functionalization present at high degrees of reaction. The mixed-metal nanocluster known as FeMoC was also characterized by MAS NMR. The impact of the paramagnetic Fe3+ in the Keplerate cage on the 31P nuclei in the caged Keggin ion of FeMoC was evident in the greatly reduced relaxation times measured.

  5. Isotopomer measurement techniques in metabolic flux analysis I: nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Truong, Quyen X; Yoon, Jong Moon; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional [(1)H, (13)C] heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a comprehensive tool in metabolic flux analysis using (13)C-labeling experiments. NMR is particularly relevant when extensive isotopomer measurements are required, such as for plant cells and tissues, which contain multiple cellular compartments. Several isotope isomers (isotopomers) can be detected and their distribution extracted quantitatively from a single 2-D HSQC NMR spectrum. For example, 2-D HSQC detects the labeling patterns of adjacent carbon atoms and provides the enrichment of individual carbon atoms of the amino acids and glucosyl and mannosyl units present in hydrolysates of glycosylated protein. The HSQC analysis can quantitatively distinguish differences between the glucosyl units in the starch hydrolysate and a protein hydrolysate of plant biomass: this specifies crucial information about compartmentalization in the plant system. The peak structures obtained from the HSQC experiment show multiplet patterns that are directly related to the isotopomer abundances. These abundances have a nonlinear relationship to the fluxes via isotopomer balancing. Fluxes are obtained from the numerical solution of these balances and a stoichiometric model that includes biomass composition data as well as consumption rates of carbohydrate and nitrogen sources. Herein, we describe the methods for the experimental measurements for flux analysis, i.e., determination of the biomass composition (lipid, protein, soluble sugar, and starch) as well as detailed procedures of acid hydrolysis of protein and starch samples and NMR sample preparation, using soybean embryo culture as the model plant system. Techniques to obtain the relative intensity of 16 amino acids and glucosyl units for protein hydrolysate and the glucosyl units of starch hydrolysate of soybean embryos in 2-D HSQC NMR spectra also are provided.

  6. Accurate measurements of 13C-13C distances in uniformly 13C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Bjerring, Morten; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Application of sets of 13C-13C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important 13C-13C distances in uniformly 13C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl (13C') and aliphatic (13Caliphatic) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly 13C,15N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of 13C'-13Caliphatic distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform 13C,15N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antypas, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The difference between intracellular and extracellular proton relaxation rates provides the basis for the determination of the mean hemoglobin concentration (MHC) in red blood cells. The observed water T{sub 1} relaxation data from red blood cell samples under various conditions were fit to the complete equation for the time-dependent decay of magnetization for a two-compartment system including chemical exchange. The MHC for each sample was calculated from the hematocrit and the intracellular water fraction as determined by NMR. The binding of the phosphorylcholine (PC) analogue, 2-(trimethylphosphonio)-ethylphosphate (phosphoryl-phosphocholine, PPC) to the PC binding myeloma proteins TEPC-15, McPC 603, and MOPC 167 was studied by {sup 31}P NMR.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging at microscopic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Allan; Thompson, Morrow B.; Gewalt, Sally L.; Hayes, Cecil E.

    Resolution limits in NMR imaging are imposed by bandwidth considerations, available magnetic gradients for spatial encoding, and signal to noise. This work reports modification of a clinical NMR imaging device with picture elements of 500 × 500 × 5000 μm to yield picture elements of 50 × 50 × 1000 μm. Resolution has been increased by using smaller gradient coils permitting gradient fields >0.4 mT/cm. Significant improvements in signal to noise are achieved with smaller rf coils, close attention to choice of bandwidth, and signal averaging. These improvements permit visualization of anatomical structures in the rat brain with an effective diameter of 1 cm with the same definition as is seen in human imaging. The techniques and instrumentation should open a number of basic sciences such as embryology, plant sciences, and teratology to the potentials of NMR imaging.

  9. Investigation of the Possibility of Using Nuclear Magnetic Spin Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dent, William V., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the program to investigate a "Gasdynamic fusion propulsion system for space exploration" is to develop a fusion propulsion system for a manned mission to the planet mars. A study using Deuterium and Tritium atoms are currently in progress. When these atoms under-go fusion, the resulting neutrons and alpha particles are emitted in random directions (isotropically). The probable direction of emission is equal for all directions, thus resulting in wasted energy, massive shielding and cooling requirements, and serious problems with the physics of achieving fusion. If the nuclear magnetic spin moments of the deuterium and tritium nuclei could be precisely aligned at the moment of fusion, the stream of emitted neutrons could be directed out the rear of the spacecraft for thrust and the alpha particles directed forward into an electromagnet ot produce electricity to continue operating the fusion engine. The following supporting topics are discussed: nuclear magnetic moments and spin precession in magnetic field, nuclear spin quantum mechanics, kinematics of nuclear reactions, and angular distribution of particles.

  10. 2H-DNP-enhanced 2H–13C solid-state NMR correlation spectroscopy

    PubM