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Sample records for 13c-labeled internal standards

  1. Streamlined pentafluorophenylpropyl column liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry and global (13)C-labeled internal standards improve performance for quantitative metabolomics in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yang, Song; Sadilek, Martin; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2010-11-19

    Streamlined quantitative metabolomics in central metabolism of bacteria would be greatly facilitated by a high-efficiency liquid chromatography (LC) method in conjunction with accurate quantitation. To achieve this goal, a methodology for LC-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) involving a pentafluorophenylpropyl (PFPP) column and culture-derived global (13)C-labeled internal standards (I.Ss.) has been developed and compared to hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-MS/MS and published combined two-dimensional gas chromatography and LC methods. All 50 tested metabolite standards from 5 classes (amino acids, carboxylic acids, nucleotides, acyl-CoAs and sugar phosphates) displayed good chromatographic separation and sensitivity on the PFPP column. In addition, many important critical pairs such as isomers/isobars (e.g. isoleucine/leucine, methylsuccinic acid/ethylmalonic acid and malonyl-CoA/3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA) and metabolites of similar structure (e.g. malate/fumarate) were resolved better on the PFPP than on the HILIC column. Compared to only one (13)C-labeled I.S., the addition of global (13)C-labeled I.Ss. improved quantitative linearity and accuracy. PFPP-MS/MS with global (13)C-labeled I.Ss. allowed the absolute quantitation of 42 metabolite pool sizes in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. A comparison of metabolite level changes published previously for ethylamine (C2) versus succinate (C4) cultures of M. extorquens AM1 indicated a good consistency with the data obtained by PFPP-MS/MS, suggesting this single approach has the capability of providing comprehensive metabolite profiling similar to the combination of methods. The more accurate quantification obtained by this method forms a fundamental basis for flux measurements and can be used for metabolism modeling in bacteria in future studies.

  2. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of (13)C Labeled Complex N-Glycans As Internal Standards for the Absolute Glycan Quantification by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Begoña; Etxebarria, Juan; Ruiz, Nerea; Hernandez, Álvaro; Calvo, Javier; Haberger, Markus; Reusch, Dietmar; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2015-11-17

    Methods for the absolute quantification of glycans are needed in glycoproteomics, during development and production of biopharmaceuticals and for the clinical analysis of glycan disease markers. Here we present a strategy for the chemo-enzymatic synthesis of (13)C labeled N-glycan libraries and provide an example for their use as internal standards in the profiling and absolute quantification of mAb glycans by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. A synthetic biantennary glycan precursor was (13)C-labeled on all four amino sugar residues and enzymatically derivatized to produce a library of 15 glycan isotopologues with a mass increment of 8 Da over the natural products. Asymmetrically elongated glycans were accessible by performing enzymatic reactions on partially protected UV-absorbing intermediates, subsequent fractionation by preparative HPLC, and final hydrogenation. Using a preformulated mixture of eight internal standards, we quantified the glycans in a monoclonal therapeutic antibody with excellent precision and speed.

  3. Biosynthetic production of universally (13)C-labelled polyunsaturated fatty acids as reference materials for natural health product research.

    PubMed

    Le, Phuong Mai; Fraser, Catherine; Gardner, Graeme; Liang, Wei-Wan; Kralovec, Jaroslav A; Cunnane, Stephen C; Windust, Anthony J

    2007-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) have become important natural health products with numerous proven benefits related to brain function and cardiovascular health. Not only are omega-3 fatty acids available in a plethora of dietary supplements, but they are also increasingly being incorporated as triglycerides into conventional foods, including bread, milk, yoghurt and confectionaries. Recently, transgenic oil seed crops and livestock have been developed that enhance omega-3 fatty acid content. This diverse array of matrices presents a difficult analytical challenge and is compounded further by samples generated through clinical research. Stable isotope (13)C-labelled LCPUFA standards offer many advantages as research tools because they may be distinguished from their naturally abundant counterparts by mass spectrometry and directly incorporated as internal standards into analytical procedures. Further, (13)C-labelled LCPUFAs are safe to use as metabolic tracers to study uptake and metabolism in humans. Currently, (13)C-labelled LCPUFAs are expensive, available in limited supply and not in triglyceride form. To resolve these issues, marine heterotrophic microorganisms are being isolated and screened for LCPUFA production with a view to the efficient biosynthetic production of U-(13)C-labelled fatty acids using U-(13)C glucose as a carbon source. Of 37 isolates obtained, most were thraustochytrids, and either DHA or omega-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6) were produced as the major LCPUFA. The marine protist Hyalochlorella marina was identified as a novel source of EPA and omega-3 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3). As proof of principle, gram-level production of (13)C-labelled DHA has been achieved with high chemical purity ( >99%) and high (13)C incorporation levels (>90%), as confirmed by NMR and MS analyses. Finally, U-(13)C-DHA was enzymatically re-esterified to

  4. Synthesis of Site-Specifically (13)C Labeled Linoleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Offenbacher, Adam R; Zhu, Hui; Klinman, Judith P

    2016-10-12

    Soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) catalyzes the C-H abstraction from the reactive carbon (C-11) in linoleic acid as the first and rate-determining step in the formation of alkylhydroperoxides. While previous labeling strategies have focused on deuterium labeling to ascertain the primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects for this reaction, there is an emerging interest and need for selectively enriched (13)C isotopologues. In this report, we present synthetic strategies for site-specific (13)C labeled linoleic acid substrates. We take advantage of a Corey-Fuchs formyl to terminal (13)C-labeled alkyne conversion, using (13)CBr4 as the labeling source, to reduce the number of steps from a previous fatty acid (13)C synthetic labeling approach. The labeled linoleic acid substrates are useful as nuclear tunneling markers and for extracting active site geometries of the enzyme-substrate complex in lipoxygenase.

  5. NMR structure analysis of uniformly 13C-labeled carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Carolina; Kovacs, Helena; Widmalm, Göran

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a set of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, some of them commonly used in the study of (13)C-labeled proteins and/or nucleic acids, is applied for the structure determination of uniformly (13)C-enriched carbohydrates. Two model substances were employed: one compound of low molecular weight [(UL-(13)C)-sucrose, 342 Da] and one compound of medium molecular weight ((13)C-enriched O-antigenic polysaccharide isolated from Escherichia coli O142, ~10 kDa). The first step in this approach involves the assignment of the carbon resonances in each monosaccharide spin system using the anomeric carbon signal as the starting point. The (13)C resonances are traced using (13)C-(13)C correlations from homonuclear experiments, such as (H)CC-CT-COSY, (H)CC-NOESY, CC-CT-TOCSY and/or virtually decoupled (H)CC-TOCSY. Based on the assignment of the (13)C resonances, the (1)H chemical shifts are derived in a straightforward manner using one-bond (1)H-(13)C correlations from heteronuclear experiments (HC-CT-HSQC). In order to avoid the (1) J CC splitting of the (13)C resonances and to improve the resolution, either constant-time (CT) in the indirect dimension or virtual decoupling in the direct dimension were used. The monosaccharide sequence and linkage positions in oligosaccharides were determined using either (13)C or (1)H detected experiments, namely CC-CT-COSY, band-selective (H)CC-TOCSY, HC-CT-HSQC-NOESY or long-range HC-CT-HSQC. However, due to the short T2 relaxation time associated with larger polysaccharides, the sequential information in the O-antigen polysaccharide from E. coli O142 could only be elucidated using the (1)H-detected experiments. Exchanging protons of hydroxyl groups and N-acetyl amides in the (13)C-enriched polysaccharide were assigned by using HC-H2BC spectra. The assignment of the N-acetyl groups with (15)N at natural abundance was completed by using HN-SOFAST-HMQC, HNCA, HNCO and (13)C-detected (H)CACO spectra.

  6. Synthesis and applications of selectively {sup 13}C-labeled RNA

    SciTech Connect

    SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Shen, L.X.; Lewis, H.; Cai, Z.; Tinoci, I. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    Spectral overlap is a substantial problem in NMR studies of RNA molecules >30 nucleotides. To overcome this difficulty, we synthesized selectively {sup 13}C-labeled RNAs and adapted several isotope-edited two- and three-dimensional NMR experiments originally developed for protein studies. We optimized protocols for synthesis of multi-gram quantities of CTP, UTp, ATP, and GTP using a combination of synthetic organic and enzymatic methods. Uracil is prepared in 40 to 50% yield from {sup 13}C-cyanide in two steps. Using acetyl- tribenzoyl-ribose and standard chemistry uracil is then attached to the sugar (90% yield). The tribenzoyl-uridine intermediate is converted into uridine or cytidine quantitatively, depending on the deblocking protocol. Labeled purines are synthesized using simple pyrimidine precursors and reacting with {sup 13}C-formic acid (80% yield). Purine nucleosides are then synthesized using uridine phosphorylase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase. The nucleosides were converted to NMPs by treatment with POC1{sub 3} in triethylphosphate. We converted NMPs to NTPs by standard enzymatic methods. Selectively labeled RNAs were synthesized by run-off transcription using {sup 13}C-labeled NTPs. Several different strategies help solve over-lap problems in larger RNAs. Isotope-edited two-dimensional NMR experiments such as {omega}1-1/2 X-filtered NOESY simplify NMR spectra by dividing the normal NOESY spectrum into two subspectra-one involving NOEs from protons bound to {sup 12}C and one from protons bound to {sup 13}C. For example, we labeled A and U residues of a 34-nucleotide pseudoknot, and the {sup 12}C subspectrum of the 1/2 X-filtered NOESY contained NOEs only from G and C residues (along with adenine 2H); the {sup 13}C subspectrum contained NOEs only from A and U residues. Each subspectrum has less overlap than the NOESY of an unlabeled sample; the editing strategy allows each resonance to be identified by residue type (A, C, G, or U).

  7. Synthesis and solid-state NMR structural characterization of 13C-labeled graphite oxide.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weiwei; Piner, Richard D; Stadermann, Frank J; Park, Sungjin; Shaibat, Medhat A; Ishii, Yoshitaka; Yang, Dongxing; Velamakanni, Aruna; An, Sung Jin; Stoller, Meryl; An, Jinho; Chen, Dongmin; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2008-09-26

    The detailed chemical structure of graphite oxide (GO), a layered material prepared from graphite almost 150 years ago and a precursor to chemically modified graphenes, has not been previously resolved because of the pseudo-random chemical functionalization of each layer, as well as variations in exact composition. Carbon-13 (13C) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectra of GO for natural abundance 13C have poor signal-to-noise ratios. Approximately 100% 13C-labeled graphite was made and converted to 13C-labeled GO, and 13C SSNMR was used to reveal details of the chemical bonding network, including the chemical groups and their connections. Carbon-13-labeled graphite can be used to prepare chemically modified graphenes for 13C SSNMR analysis with enhanced sensitivity and for fundamental studies of 13C-labeled graphite and graphene.

  8. Origin of acetaldehyde during milk fermentation using (13)C-labeled precursors.

    PubMed

    Ott, A; Germond, J E; Chaintreau, A

    2000-05-01

    Acetaldehyde formation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus during fermentation of cow's milk was investigated using (13)C-labeled glucose, L-threonine, and pyruvate with a recent static-and-trapped-headspace technique that does not require derivatization of acetaldehyde prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Over 90% and almost 100% of acetaldehyde originated from glucose during fermentation by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, respectively, taking into account both singly and doubly labeled acetaldehyde. As both microorganisms showed threonine aldolase activity and formed labeled acetaldehyde from (13)C-labeled threonine during the fermentation of milk, this amino acid should also contribute to the acetaldehyde produced.

  9. 13C-labelled microdialysis studies of cerebral metabolism in TBI patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Keri L.H.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Gallagher, Clare N.; Grice, Peter; Howe, Duncan J.; Mason, Andrew; Timofeev, Ivan; Helmy, Adel; Murphy, Michael P.; Menon, David K.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Sutherland, Garnette R.; Pickard, John D.; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Human brain chemistry is incompletely understood and better methodologies are needed. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes metabolic perturbations, one result of which includes increased brain lactate levels. Attention has largely focussed on glycolysis, whereby glucose is converted to pyruvate and lactate, and is proposed to act as an energy source by feeding into neurons’ tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, generating ATP. Also reportedly upregulated by TBI is the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) that does not generate ATP but produces various molecules that are putatively neuroprotective, antioxidant and reparative, in addition to lactate among the end products. We have developed a novel combination of 13C-labelled cerebral microdialysis both to deliver 13C-labelled substrates into brains of TBI patients and recover the 13C-labelled metabolites, with high-resolution 13C NMR analysis of the microdialysates. This methodology has enabled us to achieve the first direct demonstration in humans that the brain can utilise lactate via the TCA cycle. We are currently using this methodology to make the first direct comparison of glycolysis and the PPP in human brain. In this article, we consider the application of 13C-labelled cerebral microdialysis for studying brain energy metabolism in patients. We set this methodology within the context of metabolic pathways in the brain, and 13C research modalities addressing them. PMID:24361470

  10. (13)C-labelled microdialysis studies of cerebral metabolism in TBI patients.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Keri L H; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Gallagher, Clare N; Grice, Peter; Howe, Duncan J; Mason, Andrew; Timofeev, Ivan; Helmy, Adel; Murphy, Michael P; Menon, David K; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Carpenter, T Adrian; Sutherland, Garnette R; Pickard, John D; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2014-06-16

    Human brain chemistry is incompletely understood and better methodologies are needed. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes metabolic perturbations, one result of which includes increased brain lactate levels. Attention has largely focussed on glycolysis, whereby glucose is converted to pyruvate and lactate, and is proposed to act as an energy source by feeding into neurons' tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, generating ATP. Also reportedly upregulated by TBI is the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) that does not generate ATP but produces various molecules that are putatively neuroprotective, antioxidant and reparative, in addition to lactate among the end products. We have developed a novel combination of (13)C-labelled cerebral microdialysis both to deliver (13)C-labelled substrates into brains of TBI patients and recover the (13)C-labelled metabolites, with high-resolution (13)C NMR analysis of the microdialysates. This methodology has enabled us to achieve the first direct demonstration in humans that the brain can utilise lactate via the TCA cycle. We are currently using this methodology to make the first direct comparison of glycolysis and the PPP in human brain. In this article, we consider the application of (13)C-labelled cerebral microdialysis for studying brain energy metabolism in patients. We set this methodology within the context of metabolic pathways in the brain, and (13)C research modalities addressing them.

  11. A Method to Constrain Genome-Scale Models with 13C Labeling Data

    PubMed Central

    García Martín, Héctor; Kumar, Vinay Satish; Weaver, Daniel; Ghosh, Amit; Chubukov, Victor; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Arkin, Adam; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    Current limitations in quantitatively predicting biological behavior hinder our efforts to engineer biological systems to produce biofuels and other desired chemicals. Here, we present a new method for calculating metabolic fluxes, key targets in metabolic engineering, that incorporates data from 13C labeling experiments and genome-scale models. The data from 13C labeling experiments provide strong flux constraints that eliminate the need to assume an evolutionary optimization principle such as the growth rate optimization assumption used in Flux Balance Analysis (FBA). This effective constraining is achieved by making the simple but biologically relevant assumption that flux flows from core to peripheral metabolism and does not flow back. The new method is significantly more robust than FBA with respect to errors in genome-scale model reconstruction. Furthermore, it can provide a comprehensive picture of metabolite balancing and predictions for unmeasured extracellular fluxes as constrained by 13C labeling data. A comparison shows that the results of this new method are similar to those found through 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C MFA) for central carbon metabolism but, additionally, it provides flux estimates for peripheral metabolism. The extra validation gained by matching 48 relative labeling measurements is used to identify where and why several existing COnstraint Based Reconstruction and Analysis (COBRA) flux prediction algorithms fail. We demonstrate how to use this knowledge to refine these methods and improve their predictive capabilities. This method provides a reliable base upon which to improve the design of biological systems. PMID:26379153

  12. Enhancing Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiling of Soil Bacterial Communities via Substrate- Specific 13C-labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evershed, R. P.; Maxfield, P. J.; Bingham, E. M.; Dildar, N.; Brennand, E. L.; Hornibrook, E.

    2008-12-01

    A range of culture-independent methods, has recently emerged to study environmental microorganisms in situ[1]. One such method is phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, wherein these ubiquitous membrane lipids provide a powerful tool for the study of unculturable soil microorganisms. PLFA analyses have been used to investigate the impacts of a wide range of environmental factors on the soil microbial community. An acknowledged shortcoming of the PLFAs approach is the lack the chemotaxonoic specificity, which restricts the ability of the method to probe the activities of specific functional groups of the microbial community selectively. However, the selectivity of PLFAs analyses can be enhanced by incubating soils with 13C- labelled substrates followed by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry to reveal the specific PLFAs incorporating the 13C-label. The application of this approach will be demonstrated through our recent work on methanotrophic bacteria in soils. We applied this approach initially to mineral soils[2] and then extended chemotaxonomic assessments by using a combination of 13C-labelled PLFAs and hopanoids [3]. We have used this approach to explore the properties of high affinity methanotrophs in a range of environments, investigating the relationship between methane oxidation rates and the nature and magnitude of the methanotrophic community for the first time[4,5] More recently we extended the technique using a novel time series 13C-labelling of PLFAs[6] to estimate the rate and progression of 13C- label incorporation and turnover of methanotrophic populations. This modified approach has been used to investigate the impacts of various environmental variables, e.g. soil type, vegetation cover and land use, on the methanotrophic biomass[7.8]. The unique nature of the 13CH4 as a gaseous substate/carbon source means that can be readily introduced into soils via a specific subset of the soil microbial biomass, thereby offering many

  13. The use of 13-C-labelled polyaromatic hydrocarbons in soil bound residue formation

    SciTech Connect

    Richnow, H.H.; Seifert, R.; Hefter, J.

    1996-12-31

    The formation of non-extractable residues during biodegradation and humification processes in soils and sediments represent a major sink for organic contaminants. We studied the mode of incorporation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAM) and their metabolites into macromolecular organic matter during microbial degradation applying {sup 13}C-labelled compounds. Mineralization rates were determined by measuring the {sup 13}CO{sub 2} production. An incorporation of {sup 13}C-PAH-fragments into humic material could be traced by isotopic analysis of the bulk organic matter. Furthermore, selective chemical degradation reactions were applied to analyze the precise chemical structure of covalently bound {sup 13}C-labelled PAH fragments in soil humic substances. Structural assignments by GC-MS combined with isotope measurements on the bulk organic carbon and the molecular level (IRM-GC-MS) provide useful information on the fate of xenobiotics within the soil. The results are discussed in the context of long-term risk assessment of bioremediated soils.

  14. Synthesis and NMR studies of (13)C-labeled vitamin D metabolites.

    PubMed

    Okamura, William H; Zhu, Gui-Dong; Hill, David K; Thomas, Richard J; Ringe, Kerstin; Borchardt, Daniel B; Norman, Anthony W; Mueller, Leonard J

    2002-03-08

    Isotope-labeled drug molecules may be useful for probing by NMR spectroscopy the conformation of ligand associated with biological hosts such as membranes and proteins. Triple-labeled [7,9,19-(13)C(3)]-vitamin D(3) (56), its 25-hydroxylated and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxylated metabolites (58 and 68, respectively), and other labeled materials have been synthesized via coupling of [9-(13)C]-Grundmann's ketone 39 or its protected 25-hydroxy derivative 43 with labeled A ring enyne fragments 25 or 26. The labeled CD-ring fragment 39 was prepared by a sequence involving Grignard addition of [(13)C]-methylmagnesium iodide to Grundmann's enone 28, oxidative cleavage, functional group modifications leading to seco-iodide 38, and finally a kinetic enolate S(N)2 cycloalkylation. The C-7,19 double labeling of the A-ring enyne was achieved by the Corey-Fuchs/Wittig processes on keto aldehyde 11. By employing these labeled fragments in the Wilson-Mazur route, the C-7,9,19 triple-(13)C-labeled metabolites 56, 58, and 68 as well as other (13)C-labeled metabolites have been prepared. In an initial NMR investigation of one of the labeled metabolites prepared in this study, namely [7,9,19-(13)C(3)]-25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (58), the three (13)C-labeled carbons of the otherwise water insoluble steroid could be clearly detected by (13)C NMR analysis at 0.1 mM in a mixture of CD(3)OD/D(2)O (60/40) or in aqueous dimethylcyclodextrin solution and at 2 mM in 20 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous micellar solution. In the SDS micellar solution, a double half-filter NOESY experiment revealed that the distance between the H(19Z) and H(7) protons is significantly shorter than that of the corresponding distance calculated from the solid state (X-ray) structure of the free ligand. The NMR data in micelles reveals that 58 exists essentially completely in the alpha-conformer with the 3 beta-hydroxyl equatorially oriented, just as in the solid state. The shortened distance (H(19Z))-H(7)) in micellar

  15. Sparse (13)C labelling for solid-state NMR studies of P. pastoris expressed eukaryotic seven-transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Chang; Fan, Ying; Munro, Rachel A; Ladizhansky, Vladimir; Brown, Leonid S; Wang, Shenlin

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a novel sparse (13)C labelling approach for methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris expression system, towards solid-state NMR studies of eukaryotic membrane proteins. The labelling scheme was achieved by co-utilizing natural abundance methanol and specifically (13)C labelled glycerol as carbon sources in the expression medium. This strategy improves the spectral resolution by 1.5 fold, displays site-specific labelling patterns, and has advantages for collecting long-range distance restraints for structure determination of large eukaryotic membrane proteins by solid-state NMR.

  16. Uniformly sup 13 C-labeled algal protein used to determine amino acid essentiality in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Berthold, H.K.; Hachey, D.L.; Reeds, P.J.; Klein, P.D. ); Thomas, O.P. ); Hoeksema, S. )

    1991-09-15

    The edible alga Spirulina platensis was uniformly labeled with {sup 13}C by growth in an atmosphere of pure {sup 13}CO{sub 2}. The labeled biomass was then incorporated into the diet of a laying hen for 27 days. The isotopic enrichment of individual amino acids in egg white and yolk proteins, as well as in various tissues of the hen at the end of the feeding period, was analyzed by negative chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The amino acids of successive eggs showed one of two exclusive enrichment patterns: complete preservation of the intact carbon skeleton or extensive degradation and resynthesis. The same observation was made in tissue proteins. These patterns were cleanly divided according to known nutritional amino acid essentiality/nonessentiality but revealed differences in labeling among the nonessential amino acids: most notable was that proline accretion was derived entirely from the diet. Feeding uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled algal protein and recovering and analyzing de novo-synthesized protein provides a useful method to examine amino acid metabolism and determine conditional amino acid essentially in vivo.

  17. (13)C-Labeling the carbon-fixation pathway of a highly efficient artificial photosynthetic system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong; Nangle, Shannon N; Colón, Brendan C; Silver, Pamela A; Nocera, Daniel G

    2017-03-15

    Interfacing the CO2-fixing microorganism, Ralstonia eutropha, to the energy derived from hydrogen produced by water splitting is a viable approach to achieving renewable CO2 reduction at high efficiencies. We employ (13)C-labeling to report on the nature of CO2 reduction in the inorganic water splitting|R. eutropha hybrid system. Accumulated biomass in a reactor under a (13)C-enriched CO2 atmosphere may be sampled at different time points during CO2 reduction. Converting the sampled biomass into gaseous CO2 allows the (13)C/(12)C ratio to be determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After 2 hours of inoculation and the initiation of water splitting, the microbes adapted and began to convert CO2 into biomass. The observed time evolution of the (13)C/(12)C ratio in accumulated biomass is consistent with a Monod model for carbon fixation. Carbon dioxide produced by catabolism was found to be minimal. This rapid response of the bacteria to a hydrogen input and to subsequent CO2 reduction at high efficiency are beneficial to achieving artificial photosynthesis for the storage of renewable energy.

  18. A method to trace root-respired CO2 using a 13C label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperdock, S.; Breecker, D.; Litvak, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    In order to partition total soil respiration into root respiration and decomposition under ambient conditions in desert soils, the following method was developed using 13C-labeled CO2 in a modern juniper savannah in central New Mexico. The labeled CO2 was mixed with ambient air and pumped into a small (2.5 m diameter and 1.4 m tall) juniper tree canopy . 10 L of the 13CO2 was sufficient to generate a stream of air at 20 L/min for 1 hour with a CO2 concentration of 540 ppm and a δ13C value of approximately 35,000‰. Plastic tarpaulins were used as a wind block. The 13CO2 -labeled air was applied to the canopy during peak photosynthesis between 10 and 11 am on June 30 2014 during which canopy air CO2 was elevated by approximately 10 ppm over ambient and had δ13C values ranging from 50 to 1000 ‰. Over the next three days, gas and tissue samples were collected in order to trace the 13C label through the juniper tree. Leaf and root samples collected from the labeled tree and from several control trees were loaded into exetainer vials, flushed with CO2-free air and incubated in the dark for 5 hours in order to measure the carbon isotope composition of respired CO2. Samples of soil pore space gas were collected from wells under the labeled tree and a control tree and were transported to the laboratory in He-flushed exetainer vials. The δ13C values of CO2 in the soil gas samples and in the headspace of incubation vials were measured using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The δ13C values of foliar respiration were significantly higher than those of the control (by 3.6‰, p < 0.01) one and two days after labeling and δ13C values of root-respired CO2 were significantly higher (by 0.7‰, p = 0.01) than those of the control three days after labeling. In addition, δ13C values of soil respired CO2, determined from measurements of soil pore space CO2 at 50 cm three days after labeling, were significantly higher (by 0.7‰, p < 0.03)) for the labeled tree than control

  19. Microbial metabolism in soil at low temperatures: Mechanisms unraveled by position-specific 13C labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bore, Ezekiel

    2016-04-01

    Microbial transformation of organic substances in soil is the most important process of the C cycle. Most of the current studies base their information about transformation of organic substances on incubation studies under laboratory conditions and thus, we have a profound knowledge on SOM transformations at ambient temperatures. However, metabolic pathway activities at low temperature are not well understood, despite the fact that the processes are relevant for many soils globally and seasonally. To analyze microbial metabolism at low soil temperatures, isotopomeres of position-specifically 13C labeled glucose were incubated at three temperature; 5, -5 -20 oC. Soils were sampled after 1, 3 and 10 days and additionally after 30 days for samples at -20 °C. The 13C from individual molecule position was quantifed in respired CO2, bulk soil, extractable organic C and extractable microbial biomass by chloroform fumigation extraction (CFE) and cell membranes of microbial communities classified by 13C phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. 13CO2 released showed a dominance of the flux from C-1 position at 5 °C. Consequently, at 5 °C, pentose phosphate pathway activity is a dominant metabolic pathway of glucose metabolization. In contrast to -5 °C and -20 oC, metabolic behaviors completely switched towards a preferential respiration of the glucose C-4 position. With decreasing temperature, microorganism strongly shifted towards metabolization of glucose via glycolysis which indicates a switch to cellular maintenance. High recoveries of 13C in extractable microbial biomass at -5 °C indicates optimal growth condition for the microorganisms. PLFA analysis showed high incorporation of 13C into Gram negative bacteria at 5 °C but decreased with temperature. Gram positive bacteria out-competed Gram negatives with decreasing temperature. This study revealed a remarkable microbial activity at temperatures below 0 °C, differing significantly from that at ambient

  20. Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in Soils - revealed using 13C-labelled methane tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riekie, G. J.; Baggs, E. M.; Killham, K. S.; Smith, J. U.

    2008-12-01

    In marine sediments, anaerobic methane oxidation is a significant biogeochemical process limiting methane flux from ocean to atmosphere. To date, evidence for anaerobic methane oxidation in terrestrial environments has proved elusive, and its significance is uncertain. In this study, an isotope dilution method specifically designed to detect the process of anaerobic methane oxidation in methanogenic wetland soils is applied. Methane emissions of soils from three contrasting permanently waterlogged sites in Scotland are investigated in strictly anoxic microcosms to which 13C- labelled methane is added, and changes in the concentration and 12C/13C isotope ratios of methane and carbon dioxide are subsequently measured and used to calculate separate the separate components of the methane flux. The method used takes into account the 13C-methane associated with methanogenesis, and the amount of methane dissolved in the soil. The calculations make no prior assumptions about the kinetics of methane production or oxidation. The results indicate that methane oxidation can take place in anoxic soil environments. The clearest evidence for anaerobic methane oxidation is provided by soils from a minerotrophic fen site (pH 6.0) in Bin Forest underlain by ultra-basic and serpentine till. In the fresh soil anoxic microcosms, net consumption methane was observed, and the amount of headspace 13C-CO2 increased at a greater rate than the 12+13C-CO2, further proof of methane oxidation. A net increase in methane was measured in microcosms of soil from Murder Moss, an alkaline site, pH 6.5, with a strong calcareous influence. However, the 13C-CH4 data provided evidence of methane oxidation, both in the disappearance of C- CH4 and appearance of smaller quantities of 13C-CO2. The least alkaline (pH 5.5) microcosms, of Gateside Farm soil - a granitic till - exhibited net methanogenesis and the changes in 13C-CH4 and 13C-CO2 here followed the pattern expected if no methane is consumed

  1. Monitoring electron donor metabolism under variable electron acceptor conditions using 13C-labeled lactate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Yang, L.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Three sets of flow-through columns constructed with aquifer sediment from Hanford (WA) were used to study reduction of Cr(VI) to poorly soluble Cr(III) under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing/fermentative, and iron-reducing conditions with lactate as the electron donor. In order to understand the relationship between electron donors and biomarkers, and to determine the differences in carbon isotope fractionation resulting from different microbial metabolic processes, we monitored the variation in carbon isotopes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in total organic carbon (TOC), and in lactate, acetate and propionate. The greatest enrichment in 13C in columns was observed under denitrifying conditions. The δ13C of DIC increased by ~1750 to ~2000‰ fifteen days after supplementation of natural abundance lactate with a 13C-labeled lactate tracer (for an influent δ13C of ~2250‰ for the lactate) indicating almost complete oxidation of the electron donor. The denitrifying columns were among the most active columns and had the highest cell counts and the denitrification rate was highly correlated with Cr(VI) reduction rate. δ13C values of DIC ranged from ~540 to ~1170‰ for iron-reducing conditions. The lower enrichment in iron columns was related to the lower biological activity observed with lower yields of RNA and cell numbers in the column effluents. The carbon isotope shift in the sulfate-reducing ~198 to ~1960‰ for sulfate-reducing conditions reflecting the lower levels of the lactate in these columns. Additionally, in two of the sulfate columns, almost complete fermentation of the lactate occurred, producing acetate and propionate with the labeled carbon signature, but relatively smaller amounts of inorganic carbon. For all electron-accepting conditions, TOC yielded similar δ13C values as lactate stock solutions. Differences in C use efficiency, metabolic rate or metabolic pathway contributed to the differing TOC δ13C to DIC δ13C ratios between treatments

  2. Economical synthesis of 13C-labeled opiates, cocaine derivatives and selected urinary metabolites by derivatization of the natural products.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Morten; Liu, Huiling; Johansen, Jon Eigill; Hoff, Bård Helge

    2015-03-25

    The illegal use of opiates and cocaine is a challenge world-wide, but some derivatives are also valuable pharmaceuticals. Reference samples of the active ingredients and their metabolites are needed both for controlling administration in the clinic and to detect drugs of abuse. Especially, (13)C-labeled compounds are useful for identification and quantification purposes by mass spectroscopic techniques, potentially increasing accuracy by minimizing ion alteration/suppression effects. Thus, the synthesis of [acetyl-(13)C4]heroin, [acetyl-(13)C4-methyl-(13)C]heroin, [acetyl-(13)C2-methyl-(13)C]6-acetylmorphine, [N-methyl-(13)C-O-metyl-(13)C]codeine and phenyl-(13)C6-labeled derivatives of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, norcocaine and cocaethylene was undertaken to provide such reference materials. The synthetic work has focused on identifying (13)C atom-efficient routes towards these derivatives. Therefore, the (13)C-labeled opiates and cocaine derivatives were made from the corresponding natural products.

  3. Galacto-oligosaccharides have prebiotic activity in a dynamic in vitro colon model using a (13)C-labeling technique.

    PubMed

    Maathuis, Annet J H; van den Heuvel, Ellen G; Schoterman, Margriet H C; Venema, Koen

    2012-07-01

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are considered to be prebiotic, although the contribution of specific members of the microbiota to GOS fermentation and the exact microbial metabolites that are produced upon GOS fermentation are largely unknown. We aimed to determine this using uniformly (13)C-labeled GOS. The normal (control) medium and unlabeled or (13)C-labeled GOS was added to a dynamic, validated, in vitro model of the large-intestine containing an adult-type microbiota. Liquid-chromatography MS was used to measure the incorporation of (13)C label into metabolites. 16S-rRNA stable isotope probing coupled to a phylogenetic micro-array was used to determine label incorporation in microbial biomass. The primary members within the complex microbiota that were directly involved in GOS fermentation were shown to be Bifidobacterium longum, B. bifidum, B. catenulatum, Lactobacillus gasseri, and L. salivarius, in line with the prebiotic effect of GOS, although some other species incorporated (13)C label also. GOS fermentation led to an increase in acetate (+49%) and lactate (+23%) compared with the control. Total organic acid production was 8.50 and 7.52 mmol/g of carbohydrate fed for the GOS and control experiments, respectively. At the same time, the cumulative production of putrefactive metabolites (branched-chain fatty acids and ammonia) was reduced by 55%. Cross-feeding of metabolites from primary GOS fermenters to other members of the microbiota was observed. Our findings support a prebiotic role for GOS and its potential to act as a synbiotic in combination with certain probiotic strains.

  4. Use of 13C-Labeled Substrates to Determine Relative Methane Production Rates in Hypersaline Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, C. A.; Bebout, B.; Chanton, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rates and pathways of methane production were determined from photosynthetic soft microbial mats and gypsum-encrusted endoevaporites collected in hypersaline environments from California, Mexico and Chile, as well as an organic-rich mud from a pond in the El Tatio volcanic fields, Chile. Samples (mud, homogenized soft mats and endoevaporites) were incubated anaerobically with deoxygenated site water, and the increase in methane concentration through time in the headspaces of the incubation vials was used to determine methane production rates. To ascertain the substrates used by the methanogens, 13C-labeled methylamines, methanol, dimethylsulfide, acetate or bicarbonate were added to the incubations (one substrate per vial) and the stable isotopic composition of the resulting methane was measured. The vials amended with 13C-labeled methylamines produced the most 13C-enriched methane, generally followed by the 13C-labeled methanol-amended vials. The stable isotope data and the methane production rates were used to determine first order rate constants for each of the substrates at each of the sites. Estimates of individual substrate use revealed that the methylamines produced 55 to 92% of the methane generated, while methanol was responsible for another 8 to 40%.

  5. The fate of (13)C-labelled and non-labelled inulin predisposed to large bowel fermentation in rats.

    PubMed

    Butts, Christine A; Paturi, Gunaranjan; Tavendale, Michael H; Hedderley, Duncan; Stoklosinski, Halina M; Herath, Thanuja D; Rosendale, Douglas; Roy, Nicole C; Monro, John A; Ansell, Juliet

    2016-04-01

    The fate of stable-isotope (13)C labelled and non-labelled inulin catabolism by the gut microbiota was assessed in a healthy rat model. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned to diets containing either cellulose or inulin, and were fed these diets for 3 days. On day (d) 4, rats allocated to the inulin diet received (13)C-labelled inulin. The rats were then fed the respective non-labelled diets (cellulose or inulin) until sampling (d4, d5, d6, d7, d10 and d11). Post feeding of (13)C-labelled substrate, breath analysis showed that (13)C-inulin cleared from the host within a period of 36 hours. Faecal (13)C demonstrated the clearance of inulin from gut with a (13)C excess reaching maximum at 24 hours (d5) and then declining gradually. There were greater variations in caecal organic acid concentrations from d4 to d6, with higher concentrations of acetic, butyric and propionic acids observed in the rats fed inulin compared to those fed cellulose. Inulin influenced caecal microbial glycosidase activity, increased colon crypt depth, and decreased the faecal output and polysaccharide content compared to the cellulose diet. In summary, the presence of inulin in the diet positively influenced large bowel microbial fermentation.

  6. Survival of free-living Acholeplasma in aerated pig manure slurry revealed by 13C-labeled bacterial biomass probing

    PubMed Central

    Hanajima, Dai; Aoyagi, Tomo; Hori, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been performed on microbial community succession and/or predominant taxa during the composting process; however, the ecophysiological roles of microorganisms are not well understood because microbial community structures are highly diverse and dynamic. Bacteria are the most important contributors to the organic-waste decomposition process, while decayed bacterial cells can serve as readily digested substrates for other microbial populations. In this study, we investigated the active bacterial species responsible for the assimilation of dead bacterial cells and their components in aerated pig manure slurry by using 13C-labeled bacterial biomass probing. After 3 days of forced aeration, 13C-labeled and unlabeled dead Escherichia coli cell suspensions were added to the slurry. The suspensions contained 13C-labeled and unlabeled bacterial cell components, possibly including the cell wall and membrane, as well as intracellular materials. RNA extracted from each slurry sample 2 h after addition of E. coli suspension was density-resolved by isopycnic centrifugation and analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, followed by cloning and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. In the heavy isotopically labeled RNA fraction, the predominant 13C-assimilating population was identified as belonging to the genus Acholeplasma, which was not detected in control heavy RNA. Acholeplasma spp. have limited biosynthetic capabilities and possess a wide variety of transporters, resulting in their metabolic dependence on external carbon and energy sources. The prevalence of Acholeplasma spp. was further confirmed in aerated pig manure slurry from four different pig farms by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes; their relative abundance was ∼4.4%. Free-living Acholeplasma spp. had a competitive advantage for utilizing dead bacterial cells and their components more rapidly relative to other microbial populations, thus allowing the survival and prevalence

  7. Reliable Identification of Cross-Linked Products in Protein Interaction Studies by 13C-Labeled p-Benzoylphenylalanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettelkau, Jens; Ihling, Christian H.; Frohberg, Petra; van Werven, Lars; Jahn, Olaf; Sinz, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    We describe the use of the 13C-labeled artificial amino acid p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (Bpa) to improve the reliability of cross-linked product identification. Our strategy is exemplified for two protein-peptide complexes. These studies indicate that in many cases the identification of a cross-link without additional stable isotope labeling would result in an ambiguous assignment of cross-linked products. The use of a 13C-labeled photoreactive amino acid is considered to be preferred over the use of deuterated cross-linkers as retention time shifts in reversed phase chromatography can be ruled out. The observation of characteristic fragment ions additionally increases the reliability of cross-linked product assignment. Bpa possesses a broad reactivity towards different amino acids and the derived distance information allows mapping of spatially close amino acids and thus provides more solid structural information of proteins and protein complexes compared to the longer deuterated amine-reactive cross-linkers, which are commonly used for protein 3D-structure analysis and protein-protein interaction studies.

  8. The effect of biochar amendment on the soil microbial community - PLFA analyses and 13C labeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watzinger, A.; Feichtmair, S.; Rempt, F.; Anders, E.; Wimmer, B.; Kitzler, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Horacek, M.; Zehetner, F.; Kloss, S.; Richoz, S.; Soja, G.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of biochar amendment on plant growth and on the chemical / physical soil characteristics are well explored but only few studies have investigated the impact on soil microorganisms. The response of the soil microbial community to biochar amendment was investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis in (i) a large scale pot experiment, (ii) a small scale pot experiment using 13C labeled biochar and (iii) an incubation study using 13C labeled biochar. In the large scale pot experiment, three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four different types of biochar were investigated. In total, 25 treatments with 5 replicates each were set up and monitored over a year. The results from the pot experiments showed no significant influence of biochar amendment on the total microbial biomass in the first 100 days after biochar addition. However, discriminant analysis showed a distinction of biochar and control soils as well as a strong effect of the pyrolysis temperature on the microbial composition. The effect of biochar was dependent on the type of soil. In the Planosol, some PLFAs were affected positively, especially when adding biochar with a low pyrolysis temperature, in the first month. In the long term, microbial community composition altered. Growth of fungi and gram negative bacteria was enhanced. In the Chernozem, PLFAs from various microbial groups decreased in the long term. Variability in the incubation study was low. Consequently, many PLFAs were significantly affected by biochar amendment. Again, in the Planosol, gram negative bacteria, actinomycetes and, after 2 weeks, gram positive bacteria increased under biochar amendment whereas in the chernozem total microbial biomass and gram positive bacteria were negatively affected in the long term. The 13C labeling studies confirmed the low degradability of the biochar, i.e. no alteration of the content and the δ13C in the soil organic matter within 100 days

  9. The biosynthetic pathway of curcuminoid in turmeric (Curcuma longa) as revealed by 13C-labeled precursors.

    PubMed

    Kita, Tomoko; Imai, Shinsuke; Sawada, Hiroshi; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Seto, Haruo

    2008-07-01

    In order to investigate the biosynthesis of curcuminoid in rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa), we established an in vitro culture system of turmeric plants for feeding (13)C-labeled precursors. Analyses of labeled desmethoxycurcumin (DMC), an unsymmetrical curcuminoid, by (13)C-NMR, revealed that one molecule of acetic acid or malonic acid and two molecules of phenylalanine or phenylpropanoids, but not tyrosine, were incorporated into DMC. The incorporation efficiencies of the same precursors into DMC and curcumin were similar, and were in the order malonic acid > acetic acid, and cinnamic acid > p-coumaric acid > ferulic acid. These results suggest the possibility that the pathway to curcuminoids utilized two cinnamoyl CoAs and one malonyl CoA, and that hydroxy- and methoxy-functional groups on the aromatic rings were introduced after the formation of the curcuminoid skeleton.

  10. Enzymatic (13)C labeling and multidimensional NMR analysis of miltiradiene synthesized by bifunctional diterpene cyclase in Selaginella moellendorffii.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Yoshinori; Ueno, Yohei; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Oogami, Shingo; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Matsumoto, Sadamu; Natsume, Masahiro; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Kawaide, Hiroshi

    2011-12-16

    Diterpenes show diverse chemical structures and various physiological roles. The diversity of diterpene is primarily established by diterpene cyclases that catalyze a cyclization reaction to form the carbon skeleton of cyclic diterpene. Diterpene cyclases are divided into two types, monofunctional and bifunctional cyclases. Bifunctional diterpene cyclases (BDTCs) are involved in hormone and defense compound biosyntheses in bryophytes and gymnosperms, respectively. The BDTCs catalyze the successive two-step type-B (protonation-initiated cyclization) and type-A (ionization-initiated cyclization) reactions of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP). We found that the genome of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, contains six BDTC genes with the majority being uncharacterized. The cDNA from S. moellendorffii encoding a BDTC-like enzyme, miltiradiene synthase (SmMDS), was cloned. The recombinant SmMDS converted GGDP to a diterpene hydrocarbon product with a molecular mass of 272 Da. Mutation in the type-B active motif of SmMDS abolished the cyclase activity, whereas (+)-copalyl diphosphate, the reaction intermediate from the conversion of GGDP to the hydrocarbon product, rescued the cyclase activity of the mutant to form a diterpene hydrocarbon. Another mutant lacking type-A activity accumulated copalyl diphosphate as the reaction intermediate. When the diterpene hydrocarbon was enzymatically synthesized from [U-(13)C(6)]mevalonate, all carbons were labeled with (13)C stable isotope (>99%). The fully (13)C-labeled product was subjected to (13)C-(13)C COSY NMR spectroscopic analyses. The direct carbon-carbon connectivities observed in the multidimensional NMR spectra demonstrated that the hydrocarbon product by SmMDS is miltiradiene, a putative biosynthetic precursor of tanshinone identified from the Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza. Hence, SmMDS functions as a bifunctional miltiradiene synthase in S. moellendorffii. In this study, we demonstrate that one

  11. Determination of the Orientation and Dynamics of Ergosterol in Model Membranes Using Uniform 13C Labeling and Dynamically Averaged 13C Chemical Shift Anisotropies as Experimental Restraints

    PubMed Central

    Soubias, O.; Jolibois, F.; Massou, S.; Milon, A.; Réat, V.

    2005-01-01

    A new strategy was established to determine the average orientation and dynamics of ergosterol in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine model membranes. It is based on the analysis of chemical shift anisotropies (CSAs) averaged by the molecular dynamics. Static 13C CSA tensors were computed by quantum chemistry, using the gauge-including atomic-orbital approach within Hartree-Fock theory. Uniformly 13C-labeled ergosterol was purified from Pichia pastoris cells grown on labeled methanol. After reconstitution into dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine lipids, the complete 1H and 13C assignment of ergosterol's resonances was performed using a combination of magic-angle spinning two-dimensional experiments. Dynamically averaged CSAs were determined by standard side-band intensity analysis for isolated 13C resonances (C3 and ethylenic carbons) and by off-magic-angle spinning experiments for other carbons. A set of 18 constraints was thus obtained, from which the sterol's molecular order parameter and average orientation could be precisely defined. The validity of using computed CSAs in this strategy was verified on cholesterol model systems. This new method allowed us to quantify ergosterol's dynamics at three molar ratios: 16 mol % (Ld phase), 30 mol % (Lo phase), and 23 mol % (mixed phases). Contrary to cholesterol, ergosterol's molecular diffusion axis makes an important angle (14°) with the inertial axis of the rigid four-ring system. PMID:15923221

  12. The use of 13C labeling to enhance the sensitivity of 13C solid-state CPMAS NMR to study polymorphism in low dose solid formulations.

    PubMed

    Booy, Kees-Jan; Wiegerinck, Peter; Vader, Jan; Kaspersen, Frans; Lambregts, Dorette; Vromans, Herman; Kellenbach, Edwin

    2005-02-01

    (13)C labeling was used to enhance the sensitivity of (13)C solid-state NMR to study the effect of tabletting on the polymorphism of a steroidal drug. The steroidal drug Org OD 14 was (13)C labeled and formulated into tablets containing only 0.5-2.5% active ingredient. The tablets were subsequently studied by solid-state (13)C CPMAS NMR. The crystalline form present in tablets could readily be analyzed in tablets. No change in crystalline form was observed as a result of formulation or in subsequent stability studies. Solid-state NMR in combination with (13)C labeling can, in suitable cases, be used as a strategy to study the effect of formulation on the polymorphism of low dose drugs.

  13. Metabolic network analysis of Bacillus clausii on minimal and semirich medium using (13)C-labeled glucose.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Torben; Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-04-01

    Using (13)C-labeled glucose fed to the facultative alkalophilic Bacillus clausii producing the alkaline serine protease Savinase, the intracellular fluxes were quantified in continuous cultivation and in batch cultivation on a minimal medium. The flux through the pentose phosphate pathway was found to increase with increasing specific growth rate but at a much lower level than previously reported for Bacillus subtilis. Two futile cycles in the pyruvate metabolism were included in the metabolic network. A substantial flux in the futile cycle involving malic enzyme was estimated, whereas only a very small or zero flux through PEP carboxykinase was estimated, indicating that the latter enzyme was not active during growth on glucose. The uptake of the amino acids in a semirich medium containing 15 of the 20 amino acids normally present in proteins was estimated using fully labeled glucose in batch cultivations. It was found that leucine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine were taken up from the medium and not synthesized de novo from glucose. In contrast, serine and threonine were completely synthesized from other metabolites and not taken up from the medium. Valine, proline, and lysine were partly taken up from the medium and partly synthesized from glucose. The metabolic network analysis was extended to include analysis of growth on the semirich medium containing amino acids, and the metabolic flux distribution on this medium was estimated and compared with growth on minimal medium.

  14. High resolution 4D HPCH experiment for sequential assignment of (13)C-labeled RNAs via phosphodiester backbone.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Saurabh; Stanek, Jan; Cevec, Mirko; Plavec, Janez; Koźmiński, Wiktor

    2015-11-01

    The three-dimensional structure determination of RNAs by NMR spectroscopy requires sequential resonance assignment, often hampered by assignment ambiguities and limited dispersion of (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts, especially of C4'/H4'. Here we present a novel through-bond 4D HPCH NMR experiment involving phosphate backbone where C4'-H4' correlations are resolved along the (1)H3'-(31)P spectral planes. The experiment provides high peak resolution and effectively removes ambiguities encountered during assignments. Enhanced peak dispersion is provided by the inclusion of additional (31)P and (1)H3' dimensions and constant-time evolution of chemical shifts. High spectral resolution is obtained by using non-uniform sampling in three indirect dimensions. The experiment fully utilizes the isotopic (13)C-labeling with evolution of C4' carbons. Band selective (13)C inversion pulses are used to achieve selectivity and prevent signal dephasing due to the C4'-C3' and C4'-C5' homonuclear couplings. Multiple quantum line narrowing is employed to minimize sensitivity loses. The 4D HPCH experiment is verified and successfully applied to a non-coding 34-nt RNA consisting typical structure elements and a 14-nt RNA hairpin capped by cUUCGg tetraloop.

  15. Tracing metabolic pathways of lipid biosynthesis in ectomycorrhizal fungi from position-specific 13C-labelling in glucose.

    PubMed

    Scandellari, Francesca; Hobbie, Erik A; Ouimette, Andrew P; Stucker, Valerie K

    2009-12-01

    Six position-specific (13)C-labelled isotopomers of glucose were supplied to the ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus pungens and Tricholoma flavovirens. From the resulting distribution of (13)C among fungal PLFAs, the overall order and contribution of each glucose atom to fatty acid (13)C enrichment was: C6 (approximately 31%) > C5 (approximately 25%) > C1 (approximately 18%) > C2 (approximately 18%) > C3 (approximately 8%) > C4 (approximately 1%). These data were used to parameterize a metabolic model of the relative fluxes from glucose degradation to lipid synthesis. Our data revealed that a higher amount of carbon is directed to glycolysis than to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (60% and 40% respectively) and that a significant part flows through these pathways more than once (73%) due to the reversibility of some glycolysis reactions. Surprisingly, 95% of carbon cycled through glyoxylate prior to incorporation into lipids, possibly to consume the excess of acetyl-CoA produced during fatty acid turnover. Our approach provides a rigorous framework for analysing lipid biosynthesis in fungi. In addition, this approach could ultimately improve the interpretation of isotopic patterns at natural abundance in field studies.

  16. Determination of sup 13 C labeling pattern of citric acid cycle intermediates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Di Donato, L.; Montgomery, J.A.; Des Rosiers, C.; David, F.; Garneau, M.; Brunengraber, H. )

    1990-02-26

    Investigations of the regulation of the citric acid cycle require determination of labeling patterns of cycle intermediates. These were assayed to date, using infusion of: (i) ({sup 14}C)tracer followed by chemical degradation of intermediates and (ii) ({sup 13}C)tracer followed by NMR analysis of intermediates. The authors developed a strategy to analyze by GC-MS the ({sup 13}C) labeling pattern of {mu}mole samples of citrate (CIT), isocitrate (ICIT), 2-ketoglutarate (2-KG), glutamate (GLU) and glutamine (GLN). These are enzymatically or chemically converted to 2-KG, ICIT, 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) and 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-OHG). GC-MS analyses of TMS or TBDMS derivatives of these compounds yield the enrichment of each carbon. The authors confirmed the identity of each fragment using the spectra of (1-{sup 13}C), (5-{sup 13}C), (2,3,3,4,4-{sup 2}H{sub 5})glutamate and (1-{sup 13}C), (1,4-{sup 13}C)GABA.

  17. Linking autotrophic activity in environmental samples with specific bacterial taxa by detection of 13C-labelled fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Knief, Claudia; Altendorf, Karlheinz; Lipski, André

    2003-11-01

    A method for the detection of physiologically active autotrophic bacteria in complex microbial communities was developed based on labelling with the stable isotope 13C. Labelling of autotrophic nitrifying, sulphur-oxidizing and iron-oxidizing populations was performed in situ by incubation with NaH[13C]O3. Incorporated label into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) was detected and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring mode. Before the analyses of different environmental samples, the protocol was evaluated in pure culture experiments. In different environmental samples a selective labelling of fatty acids demonstrated which microbial taxa were responsible for the respective chemolithoautotrophic activity. The most strongly labelled fatty acids of a sample from a sulphide treating biofilter from an animal rendering plant were cis-7-hexadecenoic acid (16:1 cis7) and 11-methyl hexadecanoic acid (16:0 11methyl), which are as-yet not known for any sulphide-oxidizing autotroph. The fatty acid labelling pattern of an experimental biotrickling filter sample supplied with dimethyl disulphide clearly indicated the presence and activity of sulphide-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thiobacillus. For a third environmental sample from an acid mining lake sediment, the assignment of autotrophic activity to bacteria of the genus Leptospirillum but not to Acidithiobacillus could be made by this method, as the fatty acid patterns of these bacteria show clear differences.

  18. Probing metabolic processes of intact soil microbial communities using position-specific 13C-labeled glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbanks, D. E.; Hungate, B. A.; KOCH, G. W.; Schwartz, E.; Dijkstra, P.

    2012-12-01

    Soils represent one of the largest carbon pools in the terrestrial biosphere and fluxes into or out of this pool may feedback to current climate change. Understanding the mechanisms behind microbial processes regulating C cycling, microbial turnover, and soil organic matter stabilization is hindered by our lack of understanding of the details of microbial physiology in soils. Position-specific 13C labeled metabolic tracers are proposed as a new way to probe microbial community energy production, biosynthesis, C use efficiency (the proportion of substrate incorporated into microbial biomass), and enables the determination of C fluxes through the various C metabolic pathways. We determined the 13CO2 production from microbial communities within a one hour time frame by adding six isotopomers (1-13C, 2-13C, 3-13C, 4-13C, 5-13C, 6-13C) of glucose in parallel incubations using a young volcanic soil (Pinyon-juniper wood, near Sunset Crater, Flagstaff, Arizona). We compared the measured rates of position-specific 13CO2 production with modeled results based on glucose (1-13C and U-13C) and pyruvate (1-13C and 2,3-13C) incubations. These labeling and modeling techniques may improve our ability to analyze the biochemistry and ecophysiology of intact soil microbial communities.

  19. Effective Estimation of Dynamic Metabolic Fluxes Using 13C Labeling and Piecewise Affine Approximation: From Theory to Practical Applicability

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Robin; Wahl, S. Aljoscha

    2015-01-01

    The design of microbial production processes relies on rational choices for metabolic engineering of the production host and the process conditions. These require a systematic and quantitative understanding of cellular regulation. Therefore, a novel method for dynamic flux identification using quantitative metabolomics and 13C labeling to identify piecewise-affine (PWA) flux functions has been described recently. Obtaining flux estimates nevertheless still required frequent manual reinitalization to obtain a good reproduction of the experimental data and, moreover, did not optimize on all observables simultaneously (metabolites and isotopomer concentrations). In our contribution we focus on measures to achieve faster and robust dynamic flux estimation which leads to a high dimensional parameter estimation problem. Specifically, we address the following challenges within the PWA problem formulation: (1) Fast selection of sufficient domains for the PWA flux functions, (2) Control of over-fitting in the concentration space using shape-prescriptive modeling and (3) robust and efficient implementation of the parameter estimation using the hybrid implicit filtering algorithm. With the improvements we significantly speed up the convergence by efficiently exploiting that the optimization problem is partly linear. This allows application to larger-scale metabolic networks and demonstrates that the proposed approach is not purely theoretical, but also applicable in practice. PMID:26690237

  20. Identification of aquatically available carbon from algae through solution-state NMR of whole (13)C-labelled cells.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Mohammad; Dutta Majumdar, Rudraksha; Fortier-McGill, Blythe; Soong, Ronald; Liaghati-Mobarhan, Yalda; Simpson, Myrna; Arhonditsis, George; Schmidt, Sebastian; Heumann, Hermann; Simpson, André J

    2016-06-01

    Green algae and cyanobacteria are primary producers with profound impact on food web functioning. Both represent key carbon sources and sinks in the aquatic environment, helping modulate the dissolved organic matter balance and representing a potential biofuel source. Underlying the impact of algae and cyanobacteria on an ecosystem level is their molecular composition. Herein, intact (13)C-labelled whole cell suspensions of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella vulgaris and Synechocystis were studied using a variety of 1D and 2D (1)H/(13)C solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic experiments. Solution-state NMR spectroscopy of whole cell suspensions is particularly relevant as it identifies species that are mobile (dissolved or dynamic gels), 'aquatically available' and directly contribute to the aquatic carbon pool upon lysis, death or become a readily available food source on consumption. In this study, a wide range of metabolites and structural components were identified within the whole cell suspensions. In addition, significant differences in the lipid/triacylglyceride (TAG) content of green algae and cyanobacteria were confirmed. Mobile species in algae are quite different from those in abundance in 'classic' dissolved organic matter (DOM) indicating that if algae are major contributors to DOM, considerable selective preservation of minor components (e.g. sterols) or biotransformation would have to occur. Identifying the metabolites and dissolved components within algal cells by NMR permits future studies of carbon transfer between species and through the food chain, whilst providing a foundation to better understand the role of algae in the formation of DOM and the sequestration/transformation of carbon in aquatic environments.

  1. Changes in microbial structure and functional communities at different soil depths during 13C labelled root litter degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaullah, Muhammad; Baumann, Karen; Chabbi, Abad; Dignac, Marie-France; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter turnover depends on substrate quality and microbial activity in soil but little is known about how addition of freshly added organic material modifies the diversity of soil microbial communities with in a soil profile. We took advantage of a decomposition experiment, which was carried out at different soil depths under field conditions and sampled litterbags with 13C-labelled wheat roots, incubated in subsoil horizons at 30, 60 and 90 cm depth for up to 36 months. The effect of root litter addition on microbial community structure, diversity and activity was studied by determining total microbial biomass, PLFA signatures, molecular tools (DNA genotyping and pyrosequencing of 16S and 18S rDNAs) and extracellular enzyme activities. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) was also carried out to determine the differences in microbial community structure. We found that with the addition of root litter, total microbial biomass as well as microbial community composition and structure changed at different soil depths and change was significantly higher at top 30cm soil layer. Moreover, in the topsoil, population of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria increased with root litter addition over time, while subsoil horizons were relatively dominated by fungal community. Extra-cellular enzyme activities confirmed relatively higher fungal community at subsoil horizons compared with surface soil layer with bacteria dominant microbial population. Bacterial-ARISA profiling illustrated that the addition of root litter enhanced the abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, at all three soil depths. These bacteria correspond to copiotrophic attributes, which can preferentially consume of labile soil organic C pools. While disappearance of oligotrophic Acidobacteria confirmed the shifting of microbial communities due to the addition of readily available substrate. We concluded that root litter mixing altered microbial community

  2. Asymmetry of (13)C labeled 3-pyruvate affords improved site specific labeling of RNA for NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Chandar S; Dayie, T Kwaku

    2011-12-01

    Selective isotopic labeling provides an unparalleled window within which to study the structure and dynamics of RNAs by high resolution NMR spectroscopy. Unlike commonly used carbon sources, the asymmetry of (13)C-labeled pyruvate provides selective labeling in both the ribose and base moieties of nucleotides using E. coli variants, that until now were not feasible. Here we show that an E. coli mutant strain that lacks succinate and malate dehydrogenases (DL323) and grown on [3-(13)C]-pyruvate affords ribonucleotides with site specific labeling at C5' (~95%) and C1' (~42%) and minimal enrichment elsewhere in the ribose ring. Enrichment is also achieved at purine C2 and C8 (~95%) and pyrimidine C5 (~100%) positions with minimal labeling at pyrimidine C6 and purine C5 positions. These labeling patterns contrast with those obtained with DL323 E. coli grown on [1, 3-(13)C]-glycerol for which the ribose ring is labeled in all but the C4' carbon position, leading to multiplet splitting of the C1', C2' and C3' carbon atoms. The usefulness of these labeling patterns is demonstrated with a 27-nt RNA fragment derived from the 30S ribosomal subunit. Removal of the strong magnetic coupling within the ribose and base leads to increased sensitivity, substantial simplification of NMR spectra, and more precise and accurate dynamic parameters derived from NMR relaxation measurements. Thus these new labels offer valuable probes for characterizing the structure and dynamics of RNA that were previously limited by the constraint of uniformly labeled nucleotides.

  3. Using 13C-labeled benzene and Raman gas spectroscopy to investigate respiration and biodegradation kinetics following soil contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Tobias; Popp, Juergen; Frosch, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination with benzene can cause serious environmental damages. However, many soil microorganisms are capable to adapt and known to strongly control the fate of organic contamination. Cavity enhanced Raman gas spectroscopy (CERS) was applied to investigate the short-term response of indigenous soil bacteria to a sudden surface contamination with benzene regarding the temporal variations of gas products and their exchange rates with the adjacent atmosphere. 13C-labeled benzene was spiked on a silty-loamy soil column (sampled from Hainich National Park, Germany) in order to track and separate the changes in heterotrophic soil respiration - involving 12CO2 and O2 - from the microbial process of benzene degradation, which ultimately forms 13CO2.1 The respiratory quotient (RQ) of 0.98 decreased significantly after the spiking and increased again within 33 hours to a value of 0.72. This coincided with maximum 13CO2 concentration rates (0.63 μ mol m-2 s-1), indicating highest benzene degradation at 33 hours after the spiking event. The diffusion of benzene in the headspace and the biodegradation into 13CO2 were simultaneously monitored and 12 days after the benzene spiking no measurable degradation was detected anymore.1 The RQ finally returned to a value of 0.96 demonstrating the reestablished aerobic respiration. In summary, this study shows the potential of combining Raman gas spectroscopy and stable isotopes to follow soil microbial biodegradation dynamics while simultaneously monitoring the underlying respiration behavior. Support by the Collaborative Research Center 1076 Aqua Diva is kindly acknowledged. We thank Beate Michalzik for soil analysis and discussion. 1. T. Jochum, B. Michalzik, A. Bachmann, J. Popp and T. Frosch, Analyst, 2015, 140, 3143-3149.

  4. Carbon Metabolism of Soil microorganisms at Low Temperatures: Position-Specific 13C Labeled Glucose Reveals the Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostel, C.; Bore, E. K.; Halicki, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.; Dippold, M.

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic pathway activities at low temperature are not well understood, despite the fact that the processes are relevant for many soils globally and seasonally. To analyze soil metabolism at low temperature, isotopomeres of position-specifically 13C labeled glucose were applied at three temperature levels; +5, -5 -20 oC. In additon, one sterilization treatment with sodium azide at +5 oC was also performed. Soils were incubated for 1, 3 and 10 days while soil samples at -20 oC were additionally sampled after 30 days. The 13C from individual molecule position in respired CO2 was quantifed. Incorporation of 13C in bulk soil, extractable microbial biomass by chloroform fumigation extraction (CFE) and cell membranes of different microbial communities classified by 13C phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) was carried out. Our 13CO2 data showed a dominance of C-1 respiration at +5 °C for treatments with and without sodium azide, but total respiration for sodium azide inhibited treatments increased by 14%. In contrast, at -5 and -20 oC metabolic behavior showed intermingling of preferential respiration of the glucose C-4 and C-1 positions. Therefore, at +5 °C, pentose phosphate pathway activity is a dominant metabolic pathway used by microorganisms to metabolize glucose. The respiration increase due to NaN3 inhibition was attributed to endoenzymes released from dead organisms that are stabilized at the soil matrix and have access to suitable substrate and co-factors to permit their funtions. Our PLFA analysis showed that incorporation of glucose 13C was higher in Gram negative bacteria than other microbial groups as they are most competitive for LMWOS. Only a limited amount of microbial groups maintained their glucose utilizing activity at -5 and -20 °C and they strongly shifted towards a metabolization of glucose via both glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways indicating both growth and cellular maintenance. This study revealed a remarkable microbial acitivity

  5. Retrobiosynthetic NMR studies with 13C-labeled glucose. Formation of gallic acid in plants and fungi.

    PubMed

    Werner, I; Bacher, A; Eisenreich, W

    1997-10-10

    The biosynthesis of gallic acid was studied in cultures of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus and in leaves of the tree Rhus typhina. Fungal cultures were grown with [1-13C]glucose or with a mixture of unlabeled glucose and [U-13C6]glucose. Young leaves of R. typhina were kept in an incubation chamber and were supplied with a solution containing a mixture of unlabeled glucose and [U-13C6]glucose via the leaf stem. Isotope distributions in isolated gallic acid and aromatic amino acids were analyzed by one-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. A quantitative analysis of the complex isotopomer composition of metabolites was obtained by deconvolution of the 13C13C coupling multiplets using numerical simulation methods. This approach required the accurate analysis of heavy isotope chemical shift effects in a variety of different isotopomers and the analysis of long range 13C13C coupling constants. The resulting isotopomer patterns were interpreted using a retrobiosynthetic approach based on a comparison between the isotopomer patterns of gallic acid and tyrosine. The data show that both in the fungus and in the plant all carbon atoms of gallic acid are biosynthetically equivalent to carbon atoms of shikimate. Notably, the carboxylic group of gallic acid is derived from the carboxylic group of an early intermediate of the shikimate pathway and not from the side chain of phenylalanine or tyrosine. It follows that the committed precursor of gallic acid is an intermediate of the shikimate pathway prior to prephenate or arogenate, most probably 5-dehydroshikimate. A formation of gallic acid via phenylalanine, the lignin precursor, caffeic acid, or 3,4, 5-trihydroxycinnamic acid can be ruled out as major pathways in the fungus and in young leaves of R. typhina. The incorporation of uniformly 13C-labeled glucose followed by quantitative NMR analysis of isotopomer patterns is suggested as a general method for biosynthetic studies. As shown by the plant experiment, this

  6. Atmospheric CO2 level affects plants' carbon use efficiency: insights from a 13C labeling experiment on sunflower stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaoying; Schäufele, Rudi; Schnyder, Hans

    2015-04-01

    The increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration has been shown to stimulate plant photosynthesis and (to a lesser extent) growth, thereby acting as a possible sink for the additional atmospheric CO2. However, this effect is dependent on the efficiency with which plants convert atmospheric carbon into biomass carbon, since a considerable proportion of assimilated carbon is returned to the atmosphere via plant respiration. As a core parameter for carbon cycling, carbon use efficiency of plants (CUE, the ratio of net primary production to gross primary production) quantifies the proportion of assimilated carbon that is incorporated into plant biomass. CUE has rarely been assessed based on measurements of complete carbon balance, due to methodological difficulties in measuring respiration rate of plants in light. Moreover, foliar respiration is known to be inhibited in light, thus foliar respiration rate is generally lower in light than in dark. However, this phenomenon, termed as inhibition of respiration in light (IRL), has rarely been assessed at the stand-scale and been incorporated into the calculation of CUE. Therefore, how CUE responses to atmospheric CO2 levels is still not clear. We studied CUE of sunflower stands grown at sub-ambient CO2 level (200 μmol mol-1) and elevated CO2 level (1000 μmol mol-1) using mesocosm-scale gas exchange facilities which enabled continuous measurements of 13CO2/12CO2 exchange. Appling steady-state 13C labeling, fluxes of respiration and photosynthesis in light were separated, and tracer kinetic in respiration was analyzed. This study provides the first data on CUE at a mesocosm-level including respiration in light in different CO2 environments. We found that CUE of sunflower was lower at an elevated CO2 level than at a sub-ambient CO2 level; and the ignorance of IRL lead to erroneous estimations of CUE. Variation in CUE at atmospheric CO2 levels was attributed to several mechanisms. In this study, CO2 enrichment i) affected the

  7. International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; Lightbown, J. W.; Mussett, Marjorie V.

    1959-01-01

    A batch of highly purified phenoxymethylpenicillin has been examined by eight laboratories in seven different countries, and has been assayed against the phenoxymethylpenicillin standard of the Food and Drug Administration of the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The material examined has been established as the International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin, and the International Unit of Phenoxymethylpenicillin is defined as the activity contained in 0.000590 mg of the International Standard. PMID:14405369

  8. International dental standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek W

    2007-09-22

    International dental standards are vital in maintaining the safety and quality of both the products and materials used by dental professionals and the many oral health products used by members of the general public, yet many dentists will be unaware of the role standards play in their daily practice. In this article, Derek W. Jones outlines the vital work of the International Standards Organization and highlights how standards pervade nearly every dental procedure.

  9. Fast Volumetric Spatial-Spectral MR Imaging of Hyperpolarized 13C-Labeled Compounds using Multiple Echo 3D bSSFP

    PubMed Central

    Perman, William H.; Bhattacharya, Pratip; Leupold, Jochen; Lin, Alexander P.; Harris, Kent C.; Norton, Valerie A.; Hovener, Jan B.; Ross, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The goal of this work was to develop a fast 3D chemical shift imaging technique for the non-invasive measurement of hyperpolarized 13C-labeled substrates and metabolic products at low concentration. MATERIALS AND METHODS Multiple echo 3D balanced steady state MR imaging (ME-3DbSSFP) was performed in vitro on a syringe containing hyperpolarized [1,3,3-2H3; 1-13C]2-hydroxyethylpropionate (HEP) adjacent to a 13C-enriched acetate phantom, and in vivo on a rat before and after IV injection of hyperpolarized HEP at 1.5 T. Chemical shift images of the hyperpolarized HEP were derived from the multiple echo data by Fourier transformation along the echoes on a voxel by voxel basis for each slice of the 3D data set. RESULTS ME-3DbSSFP imaging was able to provide chemical shift images of hyperpolarized HEP in vivo, and in a rat with isotropic 7 mm spatial resolution, 93 Hz spectral resolution and 16 second temporal resolution for a period greater than 45 seconds. CONCLUSION Multiple echo 3D bSSFP imaging can provide chemical shift images of hyperpolarized 13C-labeled compounds in vivo with relatively high spatial resolution and moderate spectral resolution. The increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of this 3D technique will enable the detection of hyperpolarized 13C-labeled metabolites at lower concentrations as compared to a 2D technique. PMID:20171034

  10. Application of Metabolic 13C Labeling in Conjunction with High-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Comparative Conformational Analysis of High Mannose-Type Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Yukiko; Yanagi, Kotaro; Kitajima, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Chiba, Yasunori; Kato, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    High mannose-type oligosaccharides are enzymatically trimmed in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in various processing intermediates with exposed glycotopes that are recognized by a series of lectins involved in glycoprotein fate determination in cells. Although recent crystallographic data have provided the structural basis for the carbohydrate recognition of intracellular lectins, atomic information of dynamic oligosaccharide conformations is essential for a quantitative understanding of the energetics of carbohydrate–lectin interactions. Carbohydrate NMR spectroscopy is useful for characterizing such conformational dynamics, but often hampered by poor spectral resolution and lack of recombinant techniques required to produce homogeneous glycoforms. To overcome these difficulties, we have recently developed a methodology for the preparation of a homogeneous high mannose-type oligosaccharide with 13C labeling using a genetically engineered yeast strain. We herein successfully extended this method to result in the overexpression of 13C-labeled Man9GlcNAc2 (M9) with a newly engineered yeast strain with the deletion of four genes involved in N-glycan processing. This enabled high-field NMR analyses of 13C-labeled M9 in comparison with its processing product lacking the terminal mannose residue ManD2. Long-range NOE data indicated that the outer branches interact with the core in both glycoforms, and such foldback conformations are enhanced upon the removal of ManD2. The observed conformational variabilities might be significantly associated with lectins and glycan-trimming enzymes. PMID:24970159

  11. Combining position-specific 13C labeling with compound-specific isotope analysis: first steps towards soil fluxomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippold, Michaela; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics is one of the most important challenges in soil science. Transformation of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) is a key step in biogeochemical cycles because 1) all high molecular substances pass this stage during their decomposition and 2) only LMWOS will be taken up by microorganisms. Previous studies on LMWOS were focused on determining net fluxes through the LMWOS pool, but they rarely identified transformations. As LMWOS are the preferred C and energy source for microorganisms, the transformations of LMWOS are dominated by biochemical pathways of the soil microorganisms. Thus, understanding fluxes and transformations in soils requires a detailed knowledge on the biochemical pathways and its controlling factors. Tracing C fate in soil by isotopes became on of the most applied and promising biogeochemistry tools. Up to now, studies on LMWOS were nearly exclusively based on uniformly labeled organic substances i.e. all C atoms in the molecules were labeled with 13C or 14C. However, this classical approach did not allow the differentiation between use of intact initial substances in any process, or whether they were transformed to metabolites. The novel tool of position-specific labeling enables to trace molecule atoms separately and thus to determine the cleavage of molecules - a prerequisite for metabolic tracing. Position-specific labeling of LMWOS and quantification of 13CO2 and 13C in bulk soil enabled following the basic metabolic pathways of soil microorganisms. However, only the combination of position-specific 13C labeling with compound-specific isotope analysis of microbial biomarkers and metabolites allowed 1) tracing specific anabolic pathways in diverse microbial communities in soils and 2) identification of specific pathways of individual functional microbial groups. So, these are the prerequisites for soil fluxomics. Our studies combining position-specific labeled glucose with amino

  12. Utilization of low molecular weight organics by soil microorganisms: combination of 13C-labelling with PLFA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Dippold, Michaela; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Microbial metabolisation is the main transformation pathway of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS), but detailed knowledge concerning the fate of LMWOS in soils is strongly limited. Considering that various LMWOS classes enter biochemical cycles at different steps, we hypothesise that the percentage of their LMWOS-Carbon (C) used for microbial biomass (MB) production and consequently medium-term stabilisation in soil is different. We traced the three main groups of LMWOS: amino acids, sugars and carboxylic acids, by uniformly labelled 13C-alanine, -glutamate, -glucose, -ribose, -acetate and -palmitate. Incorporation of 13C from these LMWOS into MB (fumigation-extraction method) and into phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) (Bligh-Dyer extraction, purification and GC-C-IRMS measurement) was investigated under field conditions 3 d and 10 d after LMWOS application. The activity of microbial utilization of LMWOS for cell membrane construction was estimated by replacement of PLFA-C with 13C. Decomposition of LMWOS-C comprised 20-65% of the total label, whereas incorporation of 13C into MB amounted to 20-50% of initially applied 13C on day three and was reduced to 5-30% on day 10. Incorporation of 13C-labelled LMWOS into MB followed the trend sugars > carboxylic acids > amino acids. Differences in microbial utilisation between LMWOS were observed mainly at day 10. Thus, instead of initial rapid uptake, further metabolism within microbial cells accounts for the individual fate of C from different LMWOS in soils. Incorporation of 13C from each LMWOS into each PLFA occurred, which reflects the ubiquitous ability of all functional microbial groups for LMWOS utilization. The preferential incorporation of palmitate can be attributed to its role as a direct precursor for many fatty acids (FAs) and PLFA formation. Higher incorporation of alanine and glucose compared to glutamate, ribose and acetate reflect the preferential use of glycolysis-derived substances in the FAs

  13. Measuring and modeling C flux rates through the central metabolic pathways in microbial communities using position-specific 13C-labeled tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, P.; van Groenigen, K.; Hagerty, S.; Salpas, E.; Fairbanks, D. E.; Hungate, B. A.; KOCH, G. W.; Schwartz, E.

    2012-12-01

    The production of energy and metabolic precursors occurs in well-known processes such as glycolysis and Krebs cycle. We use position-specific 13C-labeled metabolic tracers, combined with models of microbial metabolic organization, to analyze the response of microbial community energy production, biosynthesis, and C use efficiency (CUE) in soils, decomposing litter, and aquatic communities. The method consists of adding position-specific 13C -labeled metabolic tracers to parallel soil incubations, in this case 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate and 1-13C and U-13C glucose. The measurement of CO2 released from the labeled tracers is used to calculate the C flux rates through the various metabolic pathways. A simplified metabolic model consisting of 23 reactions is solved using results of the metabolic tracer experiments and assumptions of microbial precursor demand. This new method enables direct estimation of fundamental aspects of microbial energy production, CUE, and soil organic matter formation in relatively undisturbed microbial communities. We will present results showing the range of metabolic patterns observed in these communities and discuss results from testing metabolic models.

  14. Application of 13C-labeling and 13C-13C COSY NMR experiments in the structure determination of a microbial natural product.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yun; Park, Sunghyouk; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2014-08-01

    The elucidation of the structures of complex natural products bearing many quaternary carbons remains challenging, even in this advanced spectroscopic era. (13)C-(13)C COSY NMR spectroscopy shows direct couplings between (13)C and (13)C, which comprise the backbone of a natural product. Thus, this type of experiment is particularly useful for natural products bearing consecutive quaternary carbons. However, the low sensitivity of (13)C-based NMR experiments, due to the low natural abundance of the (13)C nucleus, is problematic when applying these techniques. Our efforts in the (13)C labeling of a microbial natural product, cyclopiazonic acid (1), by feeding (13)C-labeled glucose to the fungal culture, enabled us to acquire (13)C-(13)C COSY NMR spectra on a milligram scale that clearly show the carbon backbone of the compound. This is the first application of (13)C-(13)C COSY NMR experiments for a natural product. The results suggest that (13)C-(13)C COSY NMR spectroscopy can be routinely used for the structure determination of microbial natural products by (13)C-enrichment of a compound with (13)C-glucose.

  15. Probing the origin of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate entering the citric acid cycle from the 13C labeling of citrate released by perfused rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Comte, B; Vincent, G; Bouchard, B; Des Rosiers, C

    1997-10-17

    We present a strategy for simultaneous assessment of the relative contributions of anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation, pyruvate decarboxylation, and fatty acid oxidation to citrate formation in the perfused rat heart. This requires perfusing with a mix of 13C-substrates and determining the 13C labeling pattern of a single metabolite, citrate, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mass isotopomer distributions of the oxaloacetate and acetyl moieties of citrate allow calculation of the flux ratios: (pyruvate carboxylation)/(pyruvate decarboxylation), (pyruvate carboxylation)/(citrate synthesis), (pyruvate decarboxylation)/(citrate synthesis) (pyruvate carboxylation)/(fatty acid oxidation), and (pyruvate decarboxylation)/(fatty acid oxidation). Calculations, based on precursor-product relationship, are independent of pool size. The utility of our method was demonstrated for hearts perfused under normoxia with [U-13C3](lactate + pyruvate) and [1-13C]octanoate under steady-state conditions. Under these conditions, effluent and tissue citrate were similarly enriched in all 13C mass isotopomers. The use of effluent citrate instead of tissue citrate allows probing substrate fluxes through the various reactions non-invasively in the intact heart. The methodology should also be applicable to hearts perfused with other 13C-substrates, such as 1-13C-labeled long chain fatty acid, and under various conditions, provided that assumptions on which equations are developed are valid.

  16. Redox dependent changes at the heme propionates in cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans: direct evidence from FTIR difference spectroscopy in combination with heme propionate 13C labeling.

    PubMed

    Behr, J; Hellwig, P; Mäntele, W; Michel, H

    1998-05-19

    Specific isotope labeling at the carboxyl groups of the four heme propionates of cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans was used in order to assign signals observed in electrochemically induced redox Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectra of this enzyme. For this purpose, the hemA gene of the P. denitrificans strain PD1222, coding for 5-aminolevulinate synthase, was deleted by partial replacement with a kanamycin resistance cartridge, resulting in a stable 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) auxotrophy. Normal growth of this deficient strain and cytochrome c oxidase yield comparable to that of P. dentrificans wild-type strain PD1222 could be obtained by supplementation with 0.1 mM ALA in the growth medium. Visible spectra and reduced-minus-oxidized FTIR spectra showed that the purified cytochrome c oxidase had spectral characteristics identical to those of the wild-type enzyme. The decrease of a negative signal at 1676 cm-1 in the reduced-minus-oxidized FTIR difference spectra of the 13C-labeled cytochrome c oxidase in comparison to those of the unlabeled protein allowed the assignment of this signal to a COOH vibration mode of at least one of the four heme propionates. Moreover, a negative band at approximately 1570 cm-1 shifted to smaller wavenumbers in the spectra of the 13C-labeled enzyme in comparison to the spectra of the unlabeled enzyme and was thus assigned to contributions from an antisymmetric COO- mode of one or more of the four heme propionates. Additionally, a positive signal at 1538 cm-1 shifted to approximately 1500 cm-1 in the spectra of the isotopically labeled protein and was therefore assigned to at least one antisymmetric COO- mode of the heme propionates. A negative signal at 1390 cm-1, which has been shifted to 1360 cm-1 in the spectra of the 13C-labeled enzyme, is due to a symmetric COO- mode from at least one heme propionate. These results suggest that at least two of the four heme propionates in cytochrome c oxidase

  17. Timing and magnitude of C partitioning through a young loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand using 13C labeling and shade treatments

    DOE PAGES

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Garten, Jr., Charles T.; ...

    2011-12-30

    The dynamics of rapid changes in carbon (C) partitioning within forest ecosystems are not well understood, which limits improvement of mechanistic models of C cycling. Our objective was to inform model processes by describing relationships between C partitioning and accessible environmental or physiological measurements, with a special emphasis on short-term C flux through a forest ecosystem. We exposed eight 7-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees to air enriched with 13CO2 and then implemented adjacent light shade (LS) and heavy shade (HS) treatments in order to manipulate C uptake and flux. The impacts of shading on photosynthesis, plant water potential,more » sap flow, basal area growth, root growth, and soil CO2 efflux rate (CER) were assessed for each tree over a three-week period. The progression of the 13C label was concurrently tracked from the atmosphere through foliage, phloem, roots, and surface soil CO2 efflux. The HS treatment significantly reduced C uptake, sap flow, stem growth and fine root standing crop, and resulted in greater residual soil water content to 1 m depth. Sap flow was strongly correlated with CER on the previous day, but not the current day, with no apparent treatment effect on the relationship. Although there were apparent reductions in new C flux belowground, the heavy shade treatment did not noticeably reduce the magnitude of belowground autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration based on surface soil CO2 efflux rate (CER), which was overwhelmingly driven by soil temperature and moisture. The 13C label was immediately detected in foliage on label day (half-life = 0.5 d), progressed through phloem by day 2 (half-life = 4.7 d), roots by day 2-4, and subsequently was evident as respiratory release from soil which peaked between days 3-6. The δ13C of soil CO2 efflux was strongly correlated with phloem 13C on the previous day, or two days earlier. While the 13C label was readily tracked through the ecosystem, the fate of root

  18. Structure and Metabolic-Flow Analysis of Molecular Complexity in a (13) C-Labeled Tree by 2D and 3D NMR.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takanori; Ohishi, Risa; Shino, Amiu; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-05-10

    Improved signal identification for biological small molecules (BSMs) in a mixture was demonstrated by using multidimensional NMR on samples from (13) C-enriched Rhododendron japonicum (59.5 atom%) cultivated in air containing (13) C-labeled carbon dioxide for 14 weeks. The resonance assignment of 386 carbon atoms and 380 hydrogen atoms in the mixture was achieved. 42 BSMs, including eight that were unlisted in the spectral databases, were identified. Comparisons between the experimental values and the (13) C chemical shift values calculated by density functional theory supported the identifications of unlisted BSMs. Tracing the (13) C/(12) C ratio by multidimensional NMR spectra revealed faster and slower turnover ratios of BSMs involved in central metabolism and those categorized as secondary metabolites, respectively. The identification of BSMs and subsequent flow analysis provided insight into the metabolic systems of the plant.

  19. Use of 13C Labeled Carbon Tetrachloride to Demonstrate the Transformation to Carbon Dioxide under Anaerobic Conditions in a Continuous Flow Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.

    2012-12-01

    The demonstration of transformation of chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CAHs) in the subsurface is a challenge, especially when the products are carbon dioxide (CO2) and chloride ion. The groundwater contaminant carbon tetrachloride (CT) is of particular interest since a broad range of transformation products can be potentially formed under anaerobic conditions. The ability to demonstrate the transformation of CT to CO2 as a non toxic endproduct, is also of great interest. Results will be presented from a continuous flow column study where 13C labeled CT was used to demonstrate its transformation to CO2. The column was packed with a quartz sand and bioaugmented the Evanite Culture (EV) that is capable of transforming tetrachloroethene (PCE) to ethene. The column was continously fed a synthetic groundwater that was amended with PCE (0.10 mM) and either formate (1.5 mM) or lactate (1.1 mM), which ferments to produce hydrogen (H2) as the ultimate electron donor. Earlier CT transformation studies with the column, in the absence of sulfate reduction, and with formate added as a donor found CT (0.015 mM) was over 98% transformed with about 20% converted to chloroform (CF) (0.003 mM) and with a transient detection of chloromethane (CM). Methane and carbon disulfide, as potential products, were not detected. Neither CT nor CF inhibited the reductive dehalogenation of PCE to ethene. A series of transient studies conducted after these initial CT transformation tests, but in the absence of CT, showed formate remained an effective substrate for maintaining sulfate reduction and PCE transformation. Lactate, which was effectively fermented prior to CT addition, was not effectively fermented, with propionate accumulating as a fermentation product. When lactate was added, PCE was mainly transformed to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and VC, and sulfate reduction did not occur. In order to restore effective lactate fermentation the column was then bioaugmented with an EV culture that

  20. Quantitation of a spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) between a hyperpolarized (13) C-labeled cell metabolite and water protons.

    PubMed

    Marco-Rius, Irene; Bohndiek, Sarah E; Kettunen, Mikko I; Larkin, Timothy J; Basharat, Meer; Seeley, Colm; Brindle, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effect (SPINOE) describes the enhancement of spin polarization of solvent nuclei by the hyperpolarized spins of a solute. In this communication we demonstrate that SPINOEs can be observed between [1,4-(13) C2 ]fumarate, hyperpolarized using the dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization technique, and solvent water protons. We derive a theoretical expression for the expected enhancement and demonstrate that this fits well with experimental measurements. Although the magnitude of the effect is relatively small (around 2% measured here), the SPINOE increases at lower field strengths, so that at clinically relevant magnetic fields (1.5-3 T) it may be possible to track the passage through the circulation of a bolus containing a hyperpolarized (13) C-labeled substrate through the increase in solvent water (1) H signal.

  1. Specific 13C labeling of leucine, valine and isoleucine methyl groups for unambiguous detection of long-range restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasshuber, Hannes Klaus; Demers, Jean-Philippe; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Here we present an isotopic labeling strategy to easily obtain unambiguous long-range distance restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies. The method is based on the inclusion of two biosynthetic precursors in the bacterial growth medium, α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketobutyrate, leading to the production of leucine, valine and isoleucine residues that are exclusively 13C labeled on methyl groups. The resulting spectral simplification facilitates the collection of distance restraints, the verification of carbon chemical shift assignments and the measurement of methyl group dynamics. This approach is demonstrated on the type-three secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri, where 49 methyl-methyl and methyl-nitrogen distance restraints including 10 unambiguous long-range distance restraints could be collected. By combining this labeling scheme with ultra-fast MAS and proton detection, the assignment of methyl proton chemical shifts was achieved.

  2. Mineral fertilization did not affect decay of old lignin and SOC in a 13C-labeled arable soil over 36 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A.; Heim, A.; Gioacchini, P.; Miltner, A.; Gehre, M.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2009-07-01

    Retardation of soil organic carbon (SOC) decay after nitrogen addition to litter or soil has been suggested in several recent studies and has been attributed to a retardation in lignin decay. With our study we tested the long-term effect of mineral fertilization (N+P) on the decay of the SOC component lignin in arable soil. To achieve this, we tracked 13C-labeled lignin and SOC in an arable soil that is part of a 36-year field experiment (conversion from C3 to C4 crops) with two mineral fertilization levels. We could show that fertilization neither retarded nor enhanced the decay of old SOC or lignin over a period of 36 years, proposing that decay of lignin was less sensitive to fertilization than previously suggested. However, for new, C4-derived lignin there were indications that decay might have been enhanced by the fertilization treatment, whereas decay of new SOC was unaffected.

  3. Probing pyruvate metabolism in normal and mutant fibroblast cell lines using 13C-labeled mass isotopomer analysis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Roya; Khairallah, Maya; Cameron, Jessie M; Pencharz, Paul B; Des Rosiers, Christine; Robinson, Brian H

    2009-12-01

    Fibroblast cell lines are frequently used to diagnose genetic mitochondrial defects in children. The effect of enzyme deficiency on overall flux rate through metabolic pathways is, however, not generally considered. We have transposed an experimental paradigm that was developed for isolated perfused organs using (13)C-labeled substrates and (13)C-isotopomer analysis to probe pyruvate mitochondrial metabolism in cultured human fibroblast cell lines with normal or genetically mutant pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC) or carboxylation (PC) activity. Cells were incubated with 1mM [U-(13)C]pyruvate, and the (13)C-molar percent enrichment (MPE) of intracellular pyruvate, citrate, malate (as a surrogate of oxaloacetate) and aspartate was assessed by mass spectrometry. We estimated various flux ratios relevant to metabolic pathways involved in energy production, namely pyruvate formation, PDC, PC, and citrate recycling in the citric acid cycle (CAC). In all cell lines, exogenous pyruvate was predominately decarboxylated (PC/PDC ratios 0.01-0.3). PC-deficient cell lines displayed an expected negligible contribution of PC flux to oxaloacetate formation for citrate synthesis (PC/CS), which was associated with a greater contribution of PDC to acetyl-CoA formation (PDC/CS), and greater recycling of (13)C-labeled citrate into the CAC. In PDH-deficient cell lines, metabolic flux alterations were most apparent in cells with more than 50% reduction in enzyme activity. This led to an unexpected lower PC/CS flux ratio, while the PDC/CS flux ratio was unchanged. These data illustrate the usefulness of this approach in identifying unexpected metabolic consequences of genetic defects related to pyruvate metabolism.

  4. 13C-labeled gluconate tracing as a direct and accurate method for determining the pentose phosphate pathway split ratio in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Kleijn, Roelco J; van Winden, Wouter A; Ras, Cor; van Gulik, Walter M; Schipper, Dick; Heijnen, Joseph J

    2006-07-01

    In this study we developed a new method for accurately determining the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) split ratio, an important metabolic parameter in the primary metabolism of a cell. This method is based on simultaneous feeding of unlabeled glucose and trace amounts of [U-13C]gluconate, followed by measurement of the mass isotopomers of the intracellular metabolites surrounding the 6-phosphogluconate node. The gluconate tracer method was used with a penicillin G-producing chemostat culture of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. For comparison, a 13C-labeling-based metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was performed for glycolysis and the PPP of P. chrysogenum. For the first time mass isotopomer measurements of 13C-labeled primary metabolites are reported for P. chrysogenum and used for a 13C-based MFA. Estimation of the PPP split ratio of P. chrysogenum at a growth rate of 0.02 h(-1) yielded comparable values for the gluconate tracer method and the 13C-based MFA method, 51.8% and 51.1%, respectively. A sensitivity analysis of the estimated PPP split ratios showed that the 95% confidence interval was almost threefold smaller for the gluconate tracer method than for the 13C-based MFA method (40.0 to 63.5% and 46.0 to 56.5%, respectively). From these results we concluded that the gluconate tracer method permits accurate determination of the PPP split ratio but provides no information about the remaining cellular metabolism, while the 13C-based MFA method permits estimation of multiple fluxes but provides a less accurate estimate of the PPP split ratio.

  5. Linear ion trap MS(n) of enzymatically synthesized 13C-labeled fructans revealing differentiating fragmentation patterns of β (1-2) and β (1-6) fructans and providing a tool for oligosaccharide identification in complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Scott; Xue, Hong; Lane, Geoff; Villas-Boas, Silas; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2012-02-07

    Fructans are polymeric carbohydrates, which play important roles as plant reserve carbohydrates and stress protectants, and are beneficial for human health and animal production. Fructans are formed by the addition of β-d-fructofuranosyl units to sucrose, leading to very complex mixtures of 1-kestose based inulins, 6-kestose linked levans, and 6G-kestose derived neoseries inulins and levans in cool season grasses such as Lolium perenne. The identification of isomeric fructan oligomers in chromatographic analysis of crude plant extracts is often hampered by the lack of authentic standards, and unambiguous peak assignment usually requires time-consuming analyses of purified fructan oligomers. We have developed a LC-MS(n) method for the separation and detection of fructan isomers and present here evidence for specific MS(n) fragmentation patterns associated with β 1-2 (inulins) and β 2-6 (levans) fructans. LC-MS(n) analysis of (13)C labeled fructan oligomers produced by L. perenne fructosyltransferases expressed in yeast has enabled us to account for the observed fragmentation patterns in terms of preferential cleavage of the glycosidic bond between O- and fructose C2 in both inulins and levans and to differentiate reducing-end from nonreducing end cross ring cleavages in levans. We propose that higher order MS fragmentation patterns can be used to distinguish between the two major classes of fructan, i.e., inulins and levans, without the need for authentic standards.

  6. Biokinetics of (13)C in the human body after oral administration of (13)C-labeled glucose as an index for the biokinetics of (14)C.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Tako, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kensaku; Takeda, Hiroshi; Endo, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2016-09-01

    The retention of (13)C in the human body after oral administration of (13)C-labeled glucose was studied in three healthy volunteer subjects to estimate the 50 year cumulative body burden for (13)C as an index of the committed dose of the radioisotope (14)C. After administration of (13)C-labeled glucose, the volunteers ingested controlled diets with a fixed number of calories for 112 d. Samples of breath and urine were collected up to 112 d after administration. Samples of feces were collected up to 14 d after administration. Hair samples were obtained at 119 d after administration and analyzed as a representative index of the rate of excretion of organic (13)C via pathways such as skin cell exfoliation and mucus secretion. All samples were analyzed for (13)C/(12)C atomic ratio to determine the rate of excretion via each pathway. We then constructed a metabolic model with a total of four pathways (breath, urine, feces, and other) comprising seven compartments. We determined the values of the biokinetic parameters in the model by using the obtained excretion data. From 74% to 94% of the (13)C administered was excreted in breath, whereas  <2% was excreted in urine and feces. In the other pathway, the excretion rate constant in the compartment with the longest residence time stretched to hundreds of days but the rate constant for each subject was not statistically significant (P value  >  0.1). In addition, the dataset for one of the three subjects was markedly different from those of the other two. When we estimated the 50 year cumulative body burden for (13)C by using our model and we included non-statistically significant parameters, a considerable cumulative body burden was found in the compartments excreting to the other pathway. Although our results on the cumulative body burden of (13)C from orally administered carbon as glucose were inconclusive, we found that the compartments excreting to the other pathway had a markedly long residence time and

  7. Evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in a contaminated aquifer by combined application of in situ and laboratory microcosms using (13)C-labelled target compounds.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Arne; Fischer, Anko; Vogt, Carsten; Bombach, Petra

    2015-02-01

    The number of approaches to evaluate the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within contaminated aquifers is limited. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of a novel method based on the combination of in situ and laboratory microcosms using (13)C-labelled PAHs as tracer compounds. The biodegradation of four PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and acenaphthene) was investigated in an oxic aquifer at the site of a former gas plant. In situ biodegradation of naphthalene and fluorene was demonstrated using in situ microcosms (BACTRAP(®)s). BACTRAP(®)s amended with either [(13)C6]-naphthalene or [(13)C5/(13)C6]-fluorene (50:50) were incubated for a period of over two months in two groundwater wells located at the contaminant source and plume fringe, respectively. Amino acids extracted from BACTRAP(®)-grown cells showed significant (13)C-enrichments with (13)C-fractions of up to 30.4% for naphthalene and 3.8% for fluorene, thus providing evidence for the in situ biodegradation and assimilation of those PAHs at the field site. To quantify the mineralisation of PAHs, laboratory microcosms were set up with BACTRAP(®)-grown cells and groundwater. Naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, or acenaphthene were added as (13)C-labelled substrates. (13)C-enrichment of the produced CO2 revealed mineralisation of between 5.9% and 19.7% for fluorene, between 11.1% and 35.1% for acenaphthene, between 14.2% and 33.1% for phenanthrene, and up to 37.0% for naphthalene over a period of 62 days. Observed PAH mineralisation rates ranged between 17 μg L(-1) d(-1) and 1639 μg L(-1) d(-1). The novel approach combining in situ and laboratory microcosms allowed a comprehensive evaluation of PAH biodegradation at the investigated field site, revealing the method's potential for the assessment of PAH degradation within contaminated aquifers.

  8. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  9. A Comparison between Radiolabeled Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake and Hyperpolarized 13C-Labeled Pyruvate Utilization as Methods for Detecting Tumor Response to Treatment12

    PubMed Central

    Witney, Timothy H; Kettunen, Mikko I; Day, Samuel E; Hu, De-en; Neves, Andre A; Gallagher, Ferdia A; Fulton, Sandra M; Brindle, Kevin M

    2009-01-01

    Detection of early tumor responses to treatment can give an indication of clinical outcome. Positron emission tomography measurements of the uptake of the glucose analog, [18F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG), have demonstrated their potential for detecting early treatment response in the clinic. We have shown recently that 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging measurements of the uptake and conversion of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate into [1-13C]lactate can be used to detect treatment response in a murine lymphoma model. The present study compares these magnetic resonance measurements with changes in FDG uptake after chemotherapy. A decrease in FDG uptake was found to precede the decrease in flux of hyperpolarized 13C label between pyruvate and lactate, both in tumor cells in vitro and in tumors in vivo. However, the magnitude of the decrease in FDG uptake and the decrease in pyruvate to lactate flux was comparable at 24 hours after drug treatment. In cells, the decrease in FDG uptake was shown to correlate with changes in plasma membrane expression of the facilitative glucose transporters, whereas the decrease in pyruvate to lactate flux could be explained by an increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and subsequent depletion of the NAD(H) pool. These results show that measurement of flux between pyruvate and lactate may be an alternative to FDG-positron emission tomography for imaging tumor treatment response in the clinic. PMID:19484146

  10. Characterization of uniformly and atom-specifically 13C-labeled heparin and heparan sulfate polysaccharide precursors using 13C NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao K. N.; Tran, Vy M.; Victor, Xylophone V.; Skalicky, Jack J.; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2010-01-01

    The biological actions of heparin and heparan sulfate, two structurally related glycosaminoglycans, depend on the organization of the complex heparanome. Due to the structural complexity of the heparanome, the sequence of variably sulfonated uronic acid and glucosamine residues is usually characterized by the analysis of smaller oligosaccharide and disaccharide fragments. Even characterization of smaller heparin/heparan sulfate oligosaccharide or disaccharide fragments using simple 1D 1H NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the extensive signal overlap. 13C NMR signals, on the other hand, overlap less and therefore, 13C NMR spectroscopy can greatly facilitate the structural elucidation of the complex heparanome and provide finer insights into the structural basis for biological functions. This is the first report of the preparation of anomeric carbon-specific 13C-labeled heparin/heparan sulfate precursors from the Escherichia coli K5 strain. Uniformly 13C- and 15N-labeled precursors were also produced and characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy. Mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically fragmented disaccharides revealed that anomeric carbon-specific labeling efforts resulted in a minor loss/scrambling of 13C in the precursor backbone, whereas uniform labeling efforts resulted in greater than 95% 13C isotope enrichment in the precursor backbone. These labeled precursors provided high-resolution NMR signals with great sensitivity and set the stage for studying the heparanome–proteome interactions. PMID:20832774

  11. C4'/H4' selective, non-uniformly sampled 4D HC(P)CH experiment for sequential assignments of (13)C-labeled RNAs.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Saurabh; Stanek, Jan; Cevec, Mirko; Plavec, Janez; Koźmiński, Wiktor

    2014-11-01

    A through bond, C4'/H4' selective, "out and stay" type 4D HC(P)CH experiment is introduced which provides sequential connectivity via H4'(i)-C4'(i)-C4'(i-1)-H4'(i-1) correlations. The (31)P dimension (used in the conventional 3D HCP experiment) is replaced with evolution of better dispersed C4' dimension. The experiment fully utilizes (13)C-labeling of RNA by inclusion of two C4' evolution periods. An additional evolution of H4' is included to further enhance peak resolution. Band selective (13)C inversion pulses are used to achieve selectivity and prevent signal dephasing due to the of C4'-C3' and C4'-C5' homonuclear couplings. For reasonable resolution, non-uniform sampling is employed in all indirect dimensions. To reduce sensitivity losses, multiple quantum coherences are preserved during shared-time evolution and coherence transfer delays. In the experiment the intra-nucleotide peaks are suppressed whereas inter-nucleotide peaks are enhanced to reduce the ambiguities. The performance of the experiment is verified on a fully (13)C, (15)N-labeled 34-nt hairpin RNA comprising typical structure elements.

  12. Multidimensional High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning and Solution-State NMR Characterization of 13C-labeled Plant Metabolites and Lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tetsuya; Tsuboi, Yuuri; Ishida, Nobuhiro; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Demura, Taku; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulose, which includes mainly cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, is a potential resource for the production of chemicals and for other applications. For effective production of materials derived from biomass, it is important to characterize the metabolites and polymeric components of the biomass. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to identify biomass components; however, the NMR spectra of metabolites and lignocellulose components are ambiguously assigned in many cases due to overlapping chemical shift peaks. Using our 13C-labeling technique in higher plants such as poplar samples, we demonstrated that overlapping peaks could be resolved by three-dimensional NMR experiments to more accurately assign chemical shifts compared with two-dimensional NMR measurements. Metabolites of the 13C-poplar were measured by high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, which allows sample analysis without solvent extraction, while lignocellulose components of the 13C-poplar dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide/pyridine solvent were analyzed by solution-state NMR techniques. Using these methods, we were able to unambiguously assign chemical shifts of small and macromolecular components in 13C-poplar samples. Furthermore, using samples of less than 5 mg, we could differentiate between two kinds of genes that were overexpressed in poplar samples, which produced clearly modified plant cell wall components. PMID:26143886

  13. Priming effect of 13C-labelled wheat straw in no-tillage soil under drying and wetting cycles in the Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enke; Wang, Jianbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Angers, Denis A.; Yan, Changrong; Oweis, Theib; He, Wenqing; Liu, Qin; Chen, Baoqing

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of drying and wetting (DW) cycles on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation and on the priming effect (PE) induced by the addition of 13C-labelled wheat straw to long-term no-tillage (NT) and conventional-tillage (CT) soils. We observed that the SOC mineralisation rate in rewetted soils was greater than that in soils that were kept at constant water content. The proportion of CO2 derived from the straw declined dramatically during the first 10 days. The priming direction was first positive, and then became slightly negative. The PE was higher under DW cycles than under constant water content. There was no significant effect of the tillage system on the SOC mineralisation rate or PE. The data indicate that the DW cycles had a significant effect on the SOC mineralisation rate and on the PE, demonstrating a positive combined effect between wheat straw and moisture fluctuations. Further research is needed to study the role of microbial communities and C pools in affecting the SOC mineralisation response to DW cycles. PMID:26345303

  14. Evaluation of biodegradability of phenol and bisphenol A during mesophilic and thermophilic municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion using 13C-labeled contaminants.

    PubMed

    Limam, Intissar; Mezni, Mohamed; Guenne, Angéline; Madigou, Céline; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Bouchez, Théodore; Mazéas, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the isotopic tracing using (13)C-labeled phenol and bisphenol A was used to study their biodegradation during anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. Microcosms were incubated anaerobically at 35 °C (mesophilic conditions) and 55 °C (thermophilic conditions) without steering. A continuous follow-up of the production of biogas (CH(4) and CO(2)), was carried out during 130 d until the establishment of stable methanogenesis. Then (13)C(12)-BPA, and (13)C(6)-phenol were injected in microcosms and the follow-up of their degradation was performed simultaneously by gas chromatography isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((13)C-NMR) Spectroscopy is used in the identification of metabolites. This study proves that the mineralization of phenol to CO(2) and CH(4) occurs during anaerobic digestion both in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions with similar kinetics. In mesophilic condition phenol degradation occurs through the benzoic acid pathway. In thermophilic condition it was not possible to identify the complete metabolic pathway as only acetate was identified as metabolite. Our results suggest that mineralization of phenol under thermophilic condition is instantaneous explaining why metabolites are not observed as they do not accumulate. No biodegradation of BPA was observed.

  15. Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy and segmental 13C labeling reveals the domain structure of human γD-crystallin amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Moran, Sean D; Woys, Ann Marie; Buchanan, Lauren E; Bixby, Eli; Decatur, Sean M; Zanni, Martin T

    2012-02-28

    The structural eye lens protein γD-crystallin is a major component of cataracts, but its conformation when aggregated is unknown. Using expressed protein ligation, we uniformly (13)C labeled one of the two Greek key domains so that they are individually resolved in two-dimensional (2D) IR spectra for structural and kinetic analysis. Upon acid-induced amyloid fibril formation, the 2D IR spectra reveal that the C-terminal domain forms amyloid β-sheets, whereas the N-terminal domain becomes extremely disordered but lies in close proximity to the β-sheets. Two-dimensional IR kinetics experiments show that fibril nucleation and extension occur exclusively in the C-terminal domain. These results are unexpected because the N-terminal domain is less stable in the monomer form. Isotope dilution experiments reveal that each C-terminal domain contributes two or fewer adjacent β-strands to each β-sheet. From these observations, we propose an initial structural model for γD-crystallin amyloid fibrils. Because only 1 μg of protein is required for a 2D IR spectrum, even poorly expressing proteins can be studied under many conditions using this approach. Thus, we believe that 2D IR and protein ligation will be useful for structural and kinetic studies of many protein systems for which IR spectroscopy can be straightforwardly applied, such as membrane and amyloidogenic proteins.

  16. Accurate measurements of 13C-13C distances in uniformly 13C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Bjerring, Morten; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Application of sets of 13C-13C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important 13C-13C distances in uniformly 13C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl (13C') and aliphatic (13Caliphatic) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly 13C,15N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of 13C'-13Caliphatic distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform 13C,15N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment.

  17. Impacts of proline on the central metabolism of an industrial erythromycin-producing strain Saccharopolyspora erythraea via (13)C labeling experiments.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ming; Huang, Mingzhi; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-08-10

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea E3 is an important industrial strain for erythromycin production and knowledge on its metabolism is limited. In the present work, (13)C labeling experiments were conducted to characterize the metabolism of S. erythraea E3. We found that S. erythraea E3 was difficult to grow on minimal medium with glucose as sole carbon source and the addition of proline remarkably improved the cell growth. The activity of EMP pathway was very low and ED pathway was alternatively the main glucose utilization pathway. The addition of proline resulted in remarkable changes in the fluxes of central metabolism. The fluxes in PP pathway, in TCA cycle and in ED pathway were 90% higher, 64% and 31% lower on Glc/Pro than on Glc, respectively. The maintenance energy on Glc/Pro was 58.4% lower than that on Glc. The energy charge was lower on Glc than on Glc/Pro, indicating that the cells on Glc suffered from energy burden. This study elucidates the impacts of proline on the central metabolism of S. erythraea and deepens the understanding of its metabolism.

  18. Incorporation of {sup 13}C-labeled intermediates into developing lignin revealed by analytical pyrolysis and CuO oxidation in combination with IRM-GC-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Eglinton, T.I.; Goni, M.A.; Boon, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    Tissue samples from Ginkgo shoots (Ginkgo biloba L.) and Rice grass (Oryzasitiva sp.) incubated in the presence of {sup 13}C-labeled substrates such as coniferin (postulated to be biosynthetic intermediates in lignin biosynthesis) were studied using thermal and chemical dissociation methods in combination with molecular-level isotopic measurements. The aim of the study was (1) to investigate dissociation mechanisms, and (2) to examine and quantify the proportions of labeled material incorporated within each sample. Isotopic analysis of specific dissociation products revealed the presence of the label in its original positions, and only within lignin-derived (phenolic) products. Moreover, the distribution and isotopic composition of the dissociation products strongly suggest an origin from newly-formed lignin. These results clearly indicate that there is no {open_quotes}scrambling{close_quotes} of carbon atoms as a result of the dissociation process, thereby lending support to this analytical approach. In addition, the data provide confidence in the selective labeling approach for elucidation of the structure and biosynthesis of lignin.

  19. Metabolite channeling and compartmentation in the human cell line AGE1.HN determined by 13C labeling experiments and 13C metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Jens; Sandig, Volker; Heinzle, Elmar

    2011-12-01

    This study focused on analyzing active pathways and the metabolic flux distribution in human neuronal AGE1.HN cells that is a desirable basis for a rational design and optimization of producing cell lines and production processes for biopharmaceuticals. (13)C-labeling experiments and (13)C metabolic flux analysis were conducted using glucose, glutamine, alanine and lactate tracers in parallel experiments. Connections between cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolite pools were verified, e.g., flux from TCA cycle metabolite (13)C to glycolytic metabolites. It was also found that lactate and alanine are produced from the same pyruvate pool and that consumed alanine is mainly directly metabolized and secreted as lactate. Activity of the pentose phosphate pathway was low being around 2.3% of the glucose uptake flux. This might be compensated in AGE1.HN by high mitochondrial malic enzyme flux producing NADPH. Mitochondrial pyruvate transport was almost zero. Instead pyruvate carbons were channeled via oxaloacetate into the TCA cycle which was mainly fed via α-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate during the investigated phase. The data indicate that further optimization of this cell line should focus on the improved substrate usage which can be accomplished by an improved connectivity between glycolytic and mitochondrial pyruvate pools or by better control of the substrate uptake.

  20. A method for (13)C-labeling of metabolic carbohydrates within French bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for decomposition studies in soils.

    PubMed

    Girardin, Cyril; Rasse, Daniel P; Biron, Philippe; Ghashghaie, Jaleh; Chenu, Claire

    2009-06-01

    The molecular composition of plant residues is suspected to largely govern the fate of their constitutive carbon (C) in soils. Labile compounds, such as metabolic carbohydrates, are affected differently from recalcitrant and structural compounds by soil-C stabilisation mechanisms. Producing (13)C-enriched plant residues with specifically labeled fractions would help us to investigate the fate in soils of the constitutive C of these compounds. The objective of the present research was to test (13)C pulse chase labeling as a method for specifically enriching the metabolic carbohydrate components of plant residues, i.e. soluble sugars and starch. Bean plants were exposed to a (13)CO(2)-enriched atmosphere for 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 21 h. The major soluble sugars were then determined on water-soluble extracts, and starch on HCl-hydrolysable extracts. The results show a quick differential labeling between water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. For both groups, (13)C-labeling increased linearly with time. The difference in delta(13)C signature between water-soluble and insoluble fractions was 7 per thousand after 0.5 h and 70 per thousand after 21 h. However, this clear isotopic contrast masked a substantial labeling variability within each fraction. By contrast, metabolic carbohydrates on the one hand (i.e. soluble sugars + starch) and other fractions (essentially cell wall components) on the other hand displayed quite homogeneous signatures within fractions, and a significant difference in labeling between fractions: delta(13)C = 414 +/- 3.7 per thousand and 56 +/- 5.5 per thousand, respectively. Thus, the technique generates labeled plant residues displaying contrasting (13)C-isotopic signatures between metabolic carbohydrates and other compounds, with homogenous signatures within each group. Metabolic carbohydrates being labile compounds, our findings suggest that the technique is particularly appropriate for investigating the effect of compound lability on the long

  1. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  2. Production of Hydrolysable Tannin-Like Structures During the Microbial Demethylation of lignin: An Assessment Using13C-Labeled Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Thermochemolysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T.; Blanchette, R.; Nierop, K.; Gamblin, D.

    2003-12-01

    Phenolic compounds in soils are important mediators of microbial activity, metal mobility, soil redox, and soil organic matter building processes. Direct tannin input and the microbial decomposition of lignin in litter and soil are important contributors to this pool of phenols. The ability to accurately assess the relative differences in lignin decay (which are initiated by demethylation and side chain oxidation) among synapyl, coniferyl, and p-coumaryl components of detrital lignin requires the ability to determine microbial demethylation within the complex soil residues. Differentiating between hydrolysable tannins and contributions from advanced lignin decay can be problematic for many of the most common molecular techniques such as alkaline CuO oxidation, pyrolysis GC, and tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis because of either the masking effects of derivatizing agents, oxidative damage to ortho-phenols or low volatility of lignin monomers. In this study we investigate lignin demethylation and polyhydroxyl-aromatic production in BC and C horizons of sandy forest soils dominated by oak, the A horizon from a red spruce forest, and controlled microbial inoculation studies of woody tissue using in-line 13C-labeled tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis. Both white-rot and brown-rot decay resulted in syringyl demethylation, with the latter exhibiting more aggressive demethylation chemistry, while coniferyl monomer demethylation was essentially restricted to brown-rot decay. In a typical brown-rot sequence demethylation of syringyl components occurs more rapidly than coniferyl units within the same tissue and lower molecular weight fragments are likewise more demethylated than lignin monomers containing the full glycerol side chain. Demethylation of both methoxyl groups in the syringyl monomer is evident in soil horizons as well as laboratory inoculations. The latter may suggest demethylation after lignin depolymerization. Low molecular weight

  3. Stabilization of glucose-C in microbial cell membranes (PLFA) and cell walls (amino sugars) evaluated by 13C-labelling in a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms control carbon (C) cycle and strongly contribute to formation of soil organic matter. Strong differences in the turnover of microbial groups and cellular compounds complicate the assessment of their contribution to microbial food webs and C sequestration in soil in situ. The uptake and incorporation of 13C labeled glucose by microbial groups were traced during 50 days after the labeling under field conditions. 13C was analysed: i) in the cytosolic pool by chloroform fumigation extraction, ii) in cell membranes by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), iii) in cell walls by amino sugars, and iv) remaining in bulk soil. This allowed tracing C in microbial groups as well as cellular compounds. Mean residence times (MRT) of C in PLFA and the cytosol were 47 and 150 days, respectively. Such long cytosol MRT depends on its heterogeneous composition, which includes high and low molecular weight organics. Amino sugars were mainly originated from microbial residues and thus, observation periods higher than 1 year are required for estimation of their MRT. Relative 13C incorporation (13C portion in total pool C) was the highest for PLFAs (~1.5% at day 3), whereas 13C content of the cytosol and amino sugars was one and two orders of magnitude less, respectively. Relative 13C incorporation into amino sugars of living microorganisms showed only 0.57% on day 3. Therefore, the turnover of cell membrane components is two times faster than that of cell walls, even in living microorganisms. Both PLFAs and amino sugars showed that glucose C was preferentially used by bacteria. 13C incorporation into bacterial cell walls and membranes decreased with time, but increased or remained constant for fungi, reflecting faster turnover of bacteria than fungi. Consequently, bacteria contribute more to the decomposition of low molecular weight organics, whereas fungi consume bacterial products or necromass and contribute more to long-term C stabilisation. Thus, tracing of 13C in cellular

  4. Molecular Investigation of the Short-term Sequestration of Natural Abundance 13C -labelled Cow Dung in the Surface Horizons of a Temperate Grassland Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungait, J.; Bol, R.; Evershed, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    An adequate understanding of the carbon (C) sequestration potential of grasslands requires that the quantity and residence times of C inputs be measured. Herbivore dung is largely comprised of plant cell wall material, a significant source of stable C in intensively grazed temperate grassland ecosystems that contributes to the soil carbon budget. Our work uses compound-specific isotope analysis to identify the pattern of input of dung-derived compounds from natural abundance 13C/-labelled cow dung into the surface horizons of a temperate grassland soil over one year. C4 dung (δ 13C \\-12.6 ‰ ) from maize fed cows was applied to a temperate grassland surface (δ 13C \\-29.95 ‰ ) at IGER-North Wyke (Devon, UK), and dung remains and soil cores beneath the treatments collected at ŧ = 7, 14, 28, 56, 112, 224 and 372 days. Bulk dung carbon present in the 0\\-1 cm and 1\\-5 cm surface horizons of a grassland soil over one year was estimated using Δ 13C between C4 dung and C3 dung, after Bol {\\et al.} (2000). The major biochemical components of dung were quantified using proximate forage fibre analyses, after Goering and Van Soest (1970) and identified using `wet' chemical and GC-MS methods. Plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin were found to account for up to 67 {%} of dung dry matter. Hydrolysed polysaccharides were prepared as alditol acetates for analyses (after Docherty {\\et al.}, 2001), and a novel application of an off-line pyrolysis method applied to measure lignin-derived phenolic compounds (after Poole & van Bergen, 2002). This paper focuses on major events in the incorporation of dung carbon, estimated using natural abundance 13C&-slash;labelling technique. This revealed a major bulk input of dung carbon after a period of significant rainfall with a consequent decline in bulk soil δ 13C values until the end of the experiment (Dungait {\\et al.}, submitted). Findings will be presented revealing contribution of plant cell wall polysaccharides and

  5. Incorporation of 13C labelled root-shoot residues in soil in the presence of Lumbricus terrestris: An isotopic and molecular approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Alix; Alexis, Marie; Nguyen Tu, Thanh Tu; Anquetil, Christelle; Vaury, Véronique; Derenne, Sylvie; Quenea, Katell

    2016-04-01

    Litter from plant biomass deposited on soil surface can either be mineralized; releasing CO2 to the atmosphere, or transferred into the soil as organic compounds. Both pathways depend on biotic factors such as litter characteristics and the of soil organism activity. During the last decades, many studies have focused on the origin of organic matter, with a particular attention to the fate of root and shoot litter. It is generally admitted that roots decompose at a slower rate than shoots, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in soil for compounds originating from roots. Earthworms play a central role in litter decomposition and carbon cycling, ingesting both organic and mineral compounds which are mixed, complexed and dejected in the form of casts at the soil surface or along earthworm burrows. The simultaneous impact of earthworms and root-shoot on soil carbon cycling is still poorly understood. This study aimed at (1) defining the rate of incorporation of root and shoot litter with or without earthworms and (2) characterizing the molecular composition of soil organic matter upon litter decomposition, after one year of experimentation. A mesocosm experiment was set up to follow the incorporation of 13C labelled Ryegrass root and shoot litter in the soil, in the presence of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Soil samples were collected at 0-20 and 40-60 cm, as well as surface casts, at the beginning and after 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 54 weeks of experiment. Organic carbon content and δ13C values were determined for all the samples with Elemental Analysis - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. Lipid-free soil and cast samples after 54 weeks of incubation were analyzed with Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Pyrolysis products were grouped into six classes: polysaccharides, lignin derived compounds, phenols, N-compounds, aliphatic compounds and sterols. Each pyrolysis product was quantified thanks to its peak area, relative to the total area of the

  6. The international standard for colistin*

    PubMed Central

    Lightbown, J. W.; Bond, J. M.; Grab, B.

    1973-01-01

    An International Standard for Colistin has been established and the International Unit defined as the activity contained in 0.00004878 mg of this preparation. The unit was defined on the basis of a collaborative assay in which nine laboratories from six different countries participated. The material used to prepare the international standard had been manufactured in Japan; it was shown to have a composition similar to that of material produced in Europe and to be suitable for the assay of colistin from the existing sources of manufacture. PMID:4541149

  7. International standardization compliance in aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Tyler B.

    The commercial aviation industry is global in the sense that passengers travel around the world from destination to destination. It is also global in that the states of the world (countries) regulate the industry domestically and internationally. There is a unique stage where the world comes together to promote aviation, discuss ideas and establish international standards. This stage is the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The 191 current member states signed treaties acknowledging their commitment to abiding by the standards and practices established by ICAO. No state is 100 percent compliant with international standards, however, and the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the fulfillment of compliance by individual member states and the safety of the commercial aviation industry in terms of fatality rates. Analysis of the results suggested that there is a relationship between compliance and fatalities, as compliance percentage increases the fatality rate decreases. Further analysis indicated the results were statistically significant regardless of the wealth of a state or size of a state's commercial operation.

  8. Synthesis of [13C4]-labeled ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol as internal standards for reducing ion suppressing/alteration effects in LC/MS-MS quantification.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Morten; Liu, Huiling; Johansen, Jon Eigill; Hoff, Bård Helge

    2014-09-01

    (-)-∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol is the principal psychoactive component of the cannabis plant and also the active ingredient in some prescribed drugs. To detect and control misuse and monitor administration in clinical settings, reference samples of the native drugs and their metabolites are needed. The accuracy of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric quantification of drugs in biological samples depends among others on ion suppressing/alteration effects. Especially, 13C-labeled drug analogues are useful for minimzing such interferences. Thus, to provide internal standards for more accurate quantification and for identification purpose, synthesis of [13C4]-∆9-tetrahydro-cannabinol and [13C4]-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol was developed via [13C4]-olivetol. Starting from [13C4]-olivetol the synthesis of [13C4]-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol was shortened from three to two steps by employing nitromethane as a co-solvent in condensation with (+)-apoverbenone.

  9. 78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... (NIGC) proposes to amend its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian... Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's...

  10. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... Commission (NIGC) amends its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian Gaming... NIGC published a final rule in the Federal Register called Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64...

  11. Flux response of glycolysis and storage metabolism during rapid feast/famine conditions in Penicillium chrysogenum using dynamic (13)C labeling.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Lodewijk; Buijs, Nicolaas A A; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M; Abate, Alessandro; Wahl, S Aljoscha

    2014-03-01

    The scale-up of fermentation processes frequently leads to a reduced productivity compared to small-scale screening experiments. Large-scale mixing limitations that lead to gradients in substrate and oxygen availability could influence the microorganism performance. Here, the impact of substrate gradients on a penicillin G producing Penicillium chrysogenum cultivation was analyzed using an intermittent glucose feeding regime. The intermittent feeding led to fluctuations in the extracellular glucose concentration between 400 μM down to 6.5 μM at the end of the cycle. The intracellular metabolite concentrations responded strongly and showed up to 100-fold changes. The intracellular flux changes were estimated on the basis of dynamic (13) C mass isotopomer measurements during three cycles of feast and famine using a novel hybrid modeling approach. The flux estimations indicated a high turnover of internal and external storage metabolites in P. chrysogenum under feast/famine conditions. The synthesis and degradation of storage requires cellular energy (ATP and UTP) in competition with other cellular functions including product formation. Especially, 38% of the incoming glucose was recycled once in storage metabolism. This result indicated that storage turnover is increased under dynamic cultivation conditions and contributes to the observed decrease in productivity compared to reference steady-state conditions.

  12. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement procedures at least...

  13. The roles of major international standards organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Steven

    2004-05-01

    This review paper describes and analyzes the roles of the major international standards organizations, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC). In particular, it analyzes the relationships of ISO and IEC with ANSI, CEN (including the ISO/CEN Vienna Agreement), and CENELEC. This paper also addresses recent developments to ensure the global relevance of ISO and IEC standards. Lastly, this paper addresses the myths, perceptions, and realities of European participation and potential dominance in ISO.

  14. Metabolic flux analysis of recombinant Pichia pastoris growing on different glycerol/methanol mixtures by iterative fitting of NMR-derived (13)C-labelling data from proteinogenic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Jordà, Joel; de Jesus, Sérgio S; Peltier, Solenne; Ferrer, Pau; Albiol, Joan

    2014-01-25

    The yeast Pichia pastoris has emerged as one of the most promising yeast cell factories for the production of heterologous proteins. The readily available genetic tools and the ease of high-cell density cultivations using methanol or glycerol/methanol mixtures are among the key factors for this development. Previous studies have shown that the use of mixed feeds of glycerol and methanol seem to alleviate the metabolic burden derived from protein production, allowing for higher specific and volumetric process productivities. However, initial studies of glycerol/methanol co-metabolism in P. pastoris by classical metabolic flux analyses using (13)C-derived Metabolic Flux Ratio (METAFoR) constraints were hampered by the reduced labelling information obtained when using C3:C1 substrate mixtures in relation to the conventional C6 substrate, that is, glucose. In this study, carbon flux distributions through the central metabolic pathways in glycerol/methanol co-assimilation conditions have been further characterised using biosynthetically directed fractional (13)C labelling. In particular, metabolic flux distributions were obtained under 3 different glycerol/methanol ratios and growth rates by iterative fitting of NMR-derived (13)C-labelling data from proteinogenic amino acids using the software tool (13)CFlux2. Specifically, cells were grown aerobically in chemostat cultures fed with 80:20, 60:40 and 40:60 (w:w) glycerol/methanol mixtures at two dilutions rates (0.05 hour(-1) and 0.16 hour(-1)), allowing to obtain additional data (biomass composition and extracellular fluxes) to complement pre-existing datasets. The performed (13)C-MFA reveals a significant redistribution of carbon fluxes in the central carbon metabolism as a result of the shift in the dilution rate, while the ratio of carbon sources has a lower impact on carbon flux distribution in cells growing at the same dilution rate. At low growth rate, the percentage of methanol directly dissimilated to CO2 ranges

  15. 77 FR 58707 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...The National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) amends its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act to provide comprehensive and updated standards for all aspects of Class II gaming. These amendments replace the partial standards published in 2008 with a set of comprehensive standards for the entire Class II gaming environment. The new sections......

  16. The International Standard for Human Syphilitic Serum

    PubMed Central

    Bentzon, M. Weis; Krag, P.

    1961-01-01

    Following the establishment by WHO of International Reference Preparations of Cardiolipin and Egg Lecithin to facilitate reproduction of cardiolipin antigens for use in serological tests for syphilis, a series of studies has been carried out between co-operating laboratories in several parts of the world, aiming at the establishment of an international standard preparation for freeze-dried human syphilitic serum. The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization, in 1957, established the new International Standard for Human Syphilitic Serum which is now available to national laboratories from the International Laboratory for Biological Standards, Statens Serum-institut, Copenhagen. The International Unit of Human Syphilitic Serum is equivalent to 3.617 mg of the freeze-dried International Standard. A solution containing 8 International Units per ml can be obtained by reconstituting the contents of one ampoule of the International Standard in 6.1 ml of 0.6% saline. The new Standard will allow major serological laboratories to calibrate their national reference sera in terms of the International Unit; the comparability of results from different areas will be improved by this procedure. Technical details are given on the investigations preceding the establishment of the Standard. The analysis of the collaborative assay between co-operating laboratories also includes data on titres, reactivity, turbidity and other technical aspects. PMID:20604087

  17. International Lessons about National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William H.; Houang, Richard; Shakrani, Sharif

    2009-01-01

    Whether to adopt national standards and tests has long been a subject of lively debate in the United States. With 47 states now participating in the Common Core State Standards Initiative, and a commitment from Education Secretary Arne Duncan to allocate hundreds of millions in stimulus funds to the development of common tests, the country is…

  18. De novo biosynthesis of linoleic acid and its conversion to the hydrocarbon (Z,Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene in the astigmatid mite, Carpoglyphus lactis: incorporation experiments with 13C-labeled glucose.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nobuhiro; Naito, Michiya; Mori, Naoki; Kuwahara, Yasumasa

    2014-02-01

    De novo biosynthesis of linoleic acid (LA) and its conversion to (Z,Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene were examined in Carpoglyphus lactis (Acarina, Carpoglyphidae). Experiments involving (13)C-administration using [1-(13)C]-d-glucose revealed that (13)C atoms were incorporated into LA of total lipid extracted from the mite, resulting in labeling of all even-numbered carbons. This result demonstrated that LA was produced from (13)C-labeled acetyl-CoA, which is indicative of direct de novo biosynthesis. In these feeding experiments involving [1-(13)C]-D-glucose, (13)C atoms were also incorporated into (Z,Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene, which is one of the major secretory components in the mite. The labeling pattern of (Z,Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene at odd-numbered carbons agreed well with that of LA after loss of the carboxyl carbon. It was concluded that the mites could stably convert LA into (Z,Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene without the dietary requirement of this essential fatty acid.

  19. Uniform {sup 15}N- and {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C-labeling of proteins in mammalian cells and solution structure of the amino terminal fragment of u-PA

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.P.; Petros, A.M.; Meadows, R.P.; Mazar, A.P.; Nettesheim, D.G.; Pederson, T.M.; Fesik, S.W.

    1994-12-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) is a 54-kDa glycoprotein that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, a broad-specificity protease responsible for the degradation of fibrin clots and extracellular matrix components. The u-PA protein consists of three individual modules: a growth factor domain (GFD), a kringle, and a serine protease domain. The amino terminal fragment (ATF) includes the GFD-responsible for u-PA binding to its receptor-and the kringle domains. This protein was expressed and uniformly {sup 15}N-and {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C-labeled in mammalian cells by methods that will be described. In addition, we present the three-dimensional structure of ATF that was derived from 1299 NOE-derived distance restraints along with the {phi} angle and hydrogen bonding restraints. Although the individual domains in the structures were highly converged, the two domains are structurally independent. The overall structures of the individual domains are very similar to the structures of homologous proteins. However, important structural differences between the growth factor domain of u-PA and other homologous proteins were observed in the region that has been implicated in binding the urokinase receptor. These results may explain, in part, why other growth factors show no appreciable affinity for the urokinase receptor.

  20. Use of {sup 13}C NMR to assess the biodegradation of 1-{sup 13}C-labeled acenaphthene in the presence of creosote polynuclear hydrocarbons (PAHs) and naphthalene by mixed bacterial cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Selifonov, S.A.; Bortiatynski, J.M.; Nanny, M.A.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1996-10-01

    1-{sup 13}C-acenaphthene mixed with creosote PAH`s or naphthalene was incubated with bacterial strains known to degrade naphthalene, phenanthrene and acenaphthene. After incubation, the reaction mixtures were extracted with organic solvent, and the biodegradation products were identified by {sup 13}C NMR. An accumulation of intermediate degradation products was identified and attributed to the non-specific action of naphthalene catabolic pathways of the mixed bacterial cultures. An acenaphthene degrading strain, Pseudomonas sp. strain A2279 was added to the nixed bacterial cultures to minimize the formation of the observed dead-end products. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra obtained from the experiments in which strain A2279 was present clearly showed the complete biodegradation of 1-{sup 13}C-acenaphthene without the accumulation of {sup 13}C-labeled products. This set of experiments clearly demonstrates the utility of {sup 13}C NMR as an effective tool for the assessment of the biodegradation of PAH`s such as 1-{sup 13}C-acenaphthene by various microbial strains.

  1. The Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum

    PubMed Central

    Felix, A.

    1954-01-01

    The Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum, prepared in 1935, provided standards of the O and the Vi antibodies, both contained in a single serum preparation, and was used for standardizing the potency of therapeutic antityphoid serum. The “Provisional Standard Serum for Vi Agglutination”, which is one of the series of proposed Standard Agglutinating Sera for Typhoid and Paratyphoid A and B Fevers, is based on the Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum. It is recommended that the Provisional International Standard Antityphoid Serum, in conjunction with a standard typhoid vaccine, be used in the test for the determination of the “functional efficacy” of the Vi antibody. This is one of the several tests recommended for the official control of the immunizing potency of typhoid vaccines. PMID:13199654

  2. The CARE International Evaluation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugh, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The 1996 American Evaluation Association conference in Atlanta featured a session on strategies to promote monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs). At that time, there was a lengthy list of proposed initiatives to be undertaken in CARE. With the perspective of hindsight and reviewing the…

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution of 13C labelled plant residues in soil aggregates and Lumbricus terrestris surface casts: A combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Alix; Remusat, Laurent; Watteau, Françoise; Derenne, Sylvie; Quenea, Katell

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms play a central role in litter decomposition, soil structuration and carbon cycling. They ingest both organic and mineral compounds which are mixed, complexed with mucus and dejected in form of casts at the soil surface and along burrows. Bulk isotopic or biochemical technics have often been used to study the incorporation of litter in soil and casts, but they could not reflect the complex interaction between soil, plant and microorganisms at the microscale. However, the heterogeneous distribution of organic carbon in soil structures induces contrasted microbial activity areas. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), which is a high spatial resolution method providing elemental and isotopic maps of organic and mineral materials, has recently been applied in soil science (Herrmann et al., 2007; Vogel et al., 2014). The combination of Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has proven its potential to investigate labelled residues incorporation in earthworm casts (Vidal et al., 2016). In line of this work, we studied the spatial and temporal distribution of plant residues in soil aggregates and earthworm surface casts. This study aimed to (1) identify the decomposition states of labelled plant residues incorporated at different time steps, in casts and soil, (2) identify the microorganisms implied in this decomposition (3) relate the organic matter states of decomposition with their 13C signature. A one year mesocosm experiment was set up to follow the incorporation of 13C labelled Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) litter in a soil in the presence of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Soil and surface cast samples were collected after 8 and 54 weeks, embedded in epoxy resin and cut into ultra-thin sections. Soil was fractionated and all and analyzed with TEM and NanoSIMS, obtaining secondary ion images of 12C, 16O, 12C14N, 13C14N and 28Si. The δ13C maps were obtained using the 13C14

  4. An automated GCxGC-TOF-MS protocol for batch-wise extraction and alignment of mass isotopomer matrixes from differential 13C-labelling experiments: a case study for photoautotrophic-mixotrophic grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells.

    PubMed

    Kempa, Stefan; Hummel, Jan; Schwemmer, Thorsten; Pietzke, Matthias; Strehmel, Nadine; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Kopka, Joachim; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2009-02-01

    Two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF-MS) is a promising technique to overcome limits of complex metabolome analysis using one dimensional GC-TOF-MS. Especially at the stage of data export and data mining, however, convenient procedures to cope with the complexity of GCxGC-TOF-MS data are still in development. Here, we present a high sample throughput protocol exploiting first and second retention index for spectral library search and subsequent construction of a high dimensional data matrix useful for statistical analysis. The method was applied to the analysis of (13)C-labelling experiments in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We developed a rapid sampling and extraction procedure for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii laboratory strain (CC503), a cell wall deficient mutant. By testing all published quenching protocols we observed dramatic metabolite leakage rates for certain metabolites. To circumvent metabolite leakage, samples were directly quenched and analyzed without separation of the medium. The growth medium was adapted to this rapid sampling protocol to avoid interference with GCxGC-TOF-MS analysis. To analyse batches of samples a new software tool, MetMax, was implemented which extracts the isotopomer matrix from stable isotope labelling experiments together with the first and second retention index (RI1 and RI2). To exploit RI1 and RI2 for metabolite identification we used the Golm metabolome database (GMD [1] with RI1/RI2-reference spectra and new search algorithms. Using those techniques we analysed the dynamics of (13)CO(2) and (13)C-acetate uptake in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells in two different steady states namely photoautotroph and mixotroph growth conditions.

  5. Accurate measurements of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Khaneja, Navin

    2014-09-21

    Application of sets of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl ({sup 13}C′) and aliphatic ({sup 13}C{sub aliphatic}) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of {sup 13}C′-{sup 13}C{sub aliphatic} distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment.

  6. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  7. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  8. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  9. International Labour Standards. A Workers' Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Concerned with the standard-setting work of the International Labor Organization (ILO), this manual is chiefly intended to provide guidance for worker's education instructors and trade union officials. It contains nine chapters: (1) the ILO origins and history are traced and the structure is explained; (2 & 3) procedures for the origination…

  10. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures... International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. (a) The International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.... Copies of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures Publication No. 4: (1) Are available...

  11. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures... International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. (a) The International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.... Copies of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures Publication No. 4: (1) Are available...

  12. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures... International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. (a) The International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.... Copies of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures Publication No. 4: (1) Are available...

  13. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures... International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. (a) The International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.... Copies of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures Publication No. 4: (1) Are available...

  14. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures... International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. (a) The International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.... Copies of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures Publication No. 4: (1) Are available...

  15. Guidelines International Network: toward international standards for clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Amir; Forland, Frode; Macbeth, Fergus; Ollenschläger, Günter; Phillips, Sue; van der Wees, Philip

    2012-04-03

    Guideline development processes vary substantially, and many guidelines do not meet basic quality criteria. Standards for guideline development can help organizations ensure that recommendations are evidence-based and can help users identify high-quality guidelines. Such organizations as the U.S. Institute of Medicine and the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have developed recommendations to define trustworthy guidelines within their locales. Many groups charged with guideline development find the lengthy list of standards developed by such organizations to be aspirational but infeasible to follow in entirety. Founded in 2002, the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) is a network of guideline developers that includes 93 organizations and 89 individual members representing 46 countries. The G-I-N board of trustees recognized the importance of guideline development processes that are both rigorous and feasible even for modestly funded groups to implement and initiated an effort toward consensus about minimum standards for high-quality guidelines. In contrast to other existing standards for guideline development at national or local levels, the key components proposed by G-I-N will represent the consensus of an international, multidisciplinary group of active guideline developers. This article presents G-I-N's proposed set of key components for guideline development. These key components address panel composition, decision-making process, conflicts of interest, guideline objective, development methods, evidence review, basis of recommendations, ratings of evidence and recommendations, guideline review, updating processes, and funding. It is hoped that this article promotes discussion and eventual agreement on a set of international standards for guideline development.

  16. Internal Standards For FTIR Analysis Of Isocyanurates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, William C.; Pratz, Earl; Smith, Doris A.

    1993-01-01

    Concentration of isocyanurate in polyurethane foam measured. Quantitative analysis important because concentration of isocyanurate affects chemical and physical properties of foam, and correlations between concentration and properties used to optimize foam formulations. Use of potassium ferricyanide as internal standard extended to other infrared spectral analyses of solids in which quantitative results required. Eliminates need to know thickness of sample. Synthesis of triphenylisocyanurate extended to production of pure compounds from substituted phenylisocyanates added to test foam formulations to determine improvements in thermal properties with pure or substituted triphenylisocyanurate.

  17. Office International des Epizooties international standards for bluetongue.

    PubMed

    Schudel, A; Wilson, D; Pearson, J E

    2004-01-01

    Preventing the spread of disease through international trade is one of the primary objectives of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), the World Organisation for Animal Health. This is accomplished by establishing international standards that facilitate trade while minimising the risk of introducing diseases such as bluetongue (BT). The OIE standards for BT are contained in the Terrestrial animal health code (Code) and the Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals (Manual). These standards include procedures for prompt reporting of BT outbreaks; requirements that should be met for a country or zone to be defined as free of bluetongue virus (BTV); recommendations for the safe importation of live animals, semen and embryos into a BTV-free country or zone; and the general provisions that countries should meet to reduce the risk of spread of BTV through trade. The Manual describes in detail the various tests for the diagnosis of BT. It provides a list of prescribed tests; these are the tests that are required by the Code for the testing of animals in connection with international trade. There are 24 serotypes of BTV and infected countries have the right to restrict imports from countries that have different types of BTV. However, this should only be done if a surveillance and monitoring programme has confirmed that the other types are not present. Zoning for an arbovirus is difficult to apply but zoning for vectors is practicable. Some countries have demonstrated that there is no evidence of infection in their country or parts of their country even though there has been unrestricted animal movement between endemic zones and free zones. This freedom is due to the absence of vectors in the free zone. Based on this observation, free countries and zones can be established if an appropriate surveillance and monitoring programme is in place to define their boundaries. Consequently, there have been extensive changes in the Code to allow the

  18. The use of International Standards Organization ISO 9000 quality assurance standards in place of military standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckerdite, Stanley M.

    1992-06-01

    The implementation of quality standards within the European Community by the creation of International Quality Standards 9000 is another step toward development of a global marketplace. It is in the interests of DoD to support this trend in order to help maintain the defense industrial base. The first part of this study performs a comparison of DoD quality standards to the ISO 9000 Standards. The second part of the study consists of a survey of U.S. firms that have become ISO 9000 registered. This survey is intended to provide an assessment of the current movement within the defense industrial base toward adoption of ISO 9000 Standards. The survey also attempts to identify potential implementation issues relating to adoption of ISO 9000 Standards in place of military standards. It is concluded that DoD should implement ISO 9000 and that the impact of this implementation will be favorable.

  19. Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards

  20. Standards-Based Assessment for Principal Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Glenn; Causey, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The Framework for School Leaders, an architecture derived from the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards, is utilized in the design of the Principal Internship Mentor's Assessment (PIMA). PIMA outcomes are reported for average scores for each standard and investigated as a measure of ISLLC Standards achievement and for…

  1. International Quality Standards in College. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, F. Craig; Birch, Derek W.

    A study was conducted to examine the application of quality standards developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) to colleges in England and Wales. The British Standards Institution (BSI) has applied these standards to service industries, thus providing a framework for case studies in colleges. Six colleges in England and Wales…

  2. Social connectedness, conformity, and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Hopkinson, Meghan M

    2010-01-01

    Internalization of societal standards of attractiveness is known to play a role in the development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and researchers are now working toward identifying factors that influence the internalization of those societal standards. The present study examined to what extent social connectedness and conformity were related to internalization. Female college students (n=300) completed measures of social connectedness, conformity, and internalization, as well as measures of body image concerns, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms. Path analysis showed that social connectedness was negatively related to conformity, and that conformity was positively related to internalization. Consistent with past research, internalization predicted body image concerns and dietary restraint, which in turn predicted bulimic symptoms. Conformity appears to be a risk factor for the internalization of societal standards of attractiveness, and could be targeted in efforts to reduce internalization, negative body image, and disordered eating.

  3. International Space Data Systems Standardization: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowen, Andrew Z.

    2004-01-01

    Standardization of products and services is the only way world Space Agencies and their providers can achieve substantial reduction in development and operations cost. Current and future CCSDS tasks will continue to center around providing tools for it to happen. NASA and other Space Agencies welcome efforts of companies and technology and standards organizations to provide our missions with even more tools to succeed.

  4. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  5. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  6. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 108.503 Section 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards....

  7. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 108.503 Section 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards....

  8. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  9. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section... ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to international standards. (a) This subpart and subparts B, C, and D of this part are based on Chapter III, SOLAS....

  10. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  11. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B...

  12. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section... ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to international standards. (a) This subpart and subparts B, C, and D of this part are based on Chapter III, SOLAS....

  13. International standards pertaining to thermography practices, training and certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West Åkerblom, Lisa

    2008-03-01

    American, European and International societies establish standards for individuals and companies within the field of infrared thermography. Historically addressing non-destructive testing (NDT) applications and personnel, standards exist and are being developed within the fields of condition monitoring (CM) and building diagnostics. Incorrect reference to or application of standards and guidelines create widespread market confusion. What type of claim can be made against which standards? Does the standard apply to a company or an individual? To what or whom is the standard intended? Does reference to a standard guarantee compliance or imply quality? How does one become educated or involved in standards? An overview of international standards within the field of thermography (with brief reference to recognizable guidelines and standards such as ASNT SNT-TC-1A and CEN 473), their status and application will be presented.

  14. Interrogating Identity: The International Standard School in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakhiyya, Zulfa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the International Standard School (ISS) on the identity of Indonesia as a postcolonial nation. According to the Indonesian Ministry of National Education, an ISS is "a school which complies with the National Standard of Education and enriches its standards from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  15. Cross-Cutting Issues in International Standards Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russon, Craig

    2004-01-01

    This issue has presented seven previous chapters on international program evaluation standards. Chapter One defined terms and identified major themes. Subsequent chapters examined evaluation standards created in North America, Europe, and Africa; those contemplated in Australasia; and the evaluation standards created by the European Commission and…

  16. Exposures from environmental radioactivity: international safety standards.

    PubMed

    Balonov, Mikhail

    2008-11-01

    The paper presents the current international system for the protection of the public against environmental radioactivity. The protection system applies to all the three human exposure situations, i.e., planned, emergency and existing exposures. Radiation protection is a developing scientific and practical discipline and some of the areas in public radiation protection and protection of the environment that are in need of further elaboration are identified in the paper.

  17. International Standards for Genomes, Transcriptomes, and Metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Mason, Christopher E; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Tighe, Scott; Wu, Shixiu; Levy, Shawn

    2017-03-17

    Challenges and biases in preparing, characterizing, and sequencing DNA and RNA can have significant impacts on research in genomics across all kingdoms of life, including experiments in single-cells, RNA profiling, and metagenomics (across multiple genomes). Technical artifacts and contamination can arise at each point of sample manipulation, extraction, sequencing, and analysis. Thus, the measurement and benchmarking of these potential sources of error are of paramount importance as next-generation sequencing (NGS) projects become more global and ubiquitous. Fortunately, a variety of methods, standards, and technologies have recently emerged that improve measurements in genomics and sequencing, from the initial input material to the computational pipelines that process and annotate the data. Here we review current standards and their applications in genomics, including whole genomes, transcriptomes, mixed genomic samples (metagenomes), and the modified bases within each (epigenomes and epitranscriptomes). These standards, tools, and metrics are critical for quantifying the accuracy of NGS methods, which will be essential for robust approaches in clinical genomics and precision medicine.

  18. International Standards for Genomes, Transcriptomes, and Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Christopher E.; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Tighe, Scott; Wu, Shixiu; Levy, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    Challenges and biases in preparing, characterizing, and sequencing DNA and RNA can have significant impacts on research in genomics across all kingdoms of life, including experiments in single-cells, RNA profiling, and metagenomics (across multiple genomes). Technical artifacts and contamination can arise at each point of sample manipulation, extraction, sequencing, and analysis. Thus, the measurement and benchmarking of these potential sources of error are of paramount importance as next-generation sequencing (NGS) projects become more global and ubiquitous. Fortunately, a variety of methods, standards, and technologies have recently emerged that improve measurements in genomics and sequencing, from the initial input material to the computational pipelines that process and annotate the data. Here we review current standards and their applications in genomics, including whole genomes, transcriptomes, mixed genomic samples (metagenomes), and the modified bases within each (epigenomes and epitranscriptomes). These standards, tools, and metrics are critical for quantifying the accuracy of NGS methods, which will be essential for robust approaches in clinical genomics and precision medicine. PMID:28337071

  19. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, A.

    2009-02-01

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes— Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone — Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  20. ISBD(M), International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications. First Standard Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, London (England). Committee on Cataloguing.

    The International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monograph Publications [ISBD(M)] provides a format for the international communication on bibliographic information, so that records may be interchanged between sources, interpreted across language barriers, and converted to machine readable form. The ISBD(M) standards are limited to the…

  1. 76 FR 32933 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... of Nutrition and Health Claims. Mandatory Nutrition Labeling. Guidelines for the Production... on Certain Mushrooms. Proposed draft Codex Standard for Canned Bamboo Shoots. The Committee continues... risk. In this process, work undertaken in this field at national, regional, and international...

  2. Using PISA as an International Benchmark in Standard Setting.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gary W; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) can be used to internationally benchmark state performance standards. The process is accomplished in three steps. First, PISA items are embedded in the administration of the state assessment and calibrated on the state scale. Second, the international item calibrations are then used to link the state scale to the PISA scale through common item linking. Third, the statistical linking results are used as part of the state standard setting process to help standard setting panelists determine how high their state standards need to be in order to be internationally competitive. This process was carried out in Delaware, Hawaii, and Oregon, in three subjects-science, mathematics and reading with initial results reported by Phillips and Jiang (2011). An in depth discussion of methods and results are reported in this article for one subject (mathematics) and one state (Hawaii).

  3. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the......

  4. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines.'' The EPA... Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary......

  5. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to..., ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion......

  6. 77 FR 70390 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ..., harmonization with current international standards will facilitate marketing of their products internationally... Harmonization With International Standards AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental notice of proposed... adopted international standards affecting design, performance, and testing for such lifesaving...

  7. An international standard for observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    , the observed property is water-level, and the result is a time-series of heights; stream quality is usually determined by ex-situ observation where the feature-of-interest is a specimen that is recovered from the stream, the observed property is water-quality, and the result is a set of measures of various parameters, or an assessment derived from these; on the other hand, distribution of surface temperature of a water body is typically determined through remote-sensing, where at observation time the procedure is located distant from the feature-of-interest, and the result is an image or grid. Observations usually involve sampling of an ultimate feature-of-interest. In the environmental sciences common sampling strategies are used. Spatial sampling is classified primarily by topological dimension (point, curve, surface, volume) and is supported by standard processing and visualisation tools. Specimens are used for ex-situ processing in most disciplines. Sampling features are often part of complexes (e.g. specimens are sub-divided; specimens are retrieved from points along a transect; sections are taken across tracts), so relationships between instances must be recorded. And observational campaigns involve collections of sampling features. The sampling feature model is a core part of O&M, and application experience has shown that describing the relationships between sampling features and observations is generally critical to successful use of the model. O&M was developed through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) as part of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative. Other SWE standards include SensorML, SOS, Sensor Planning Service (SPS). The OGC O&M standard (Version 1) had two parts: part 1 describes observation events, and part 2 provides a schema sampling features. A revised version of O&M (Version 2) is to be published in a single document as ISO 19156. O&M Version 1 included an XML encoding for data exchange, which is used as the payload for SOS responses. The new

  8. 78 FR 50259 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...: (A) The aggregate monetary value of transactions processed by the FMU; (B) the aggregate exposure of... standards, as well as policy and analytical work by other international committees including the Basel... international policy organizations to develop and promote effective regulatory, supervisory and other...

  9. The Origins of the International Standard Classification of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John A.

    2008-01-01

    This article recalls the earliest attempts to compile international educational statistics going back into the 19th century and retraces the steps that led up to the formulation and adoption of the International Standard Classification of Education in both its original and revised versions. It is in large part the story of how international…

  10. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  11. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  12. Summary Brief: International Baccalaureate Standards Development and Alignment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; Ward, Terri

    2009-01-01

    Although the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme is offered by many high schools in the United States and considered to be challenging and rich in content, the curriculum has not been analyzed to determine its alignment with college readiness standards or state educational standards in the U.S. The research methodology employed by…

  13. Using the international normalized ratio to standardize prothrombin time.

    PubMed

    Stern, R; Karlis, V; Kinney, L; Glickman, R

    1997-08-01

    The international normalized ratio, or INR, was introduced in 1983 by the World Health Organization, or WHO, Committee on Biological Standards to more accurately assess patients receiving anticoagulation therapy. The INR mandates the universal standardization of prothrombin time. This article describes the method used to calculate INR, as well as its clinical relevance to the practice of dentistry.

  14. Human Rights and Values Education: Using the International Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)

  15. International Standards: The Road to Universal Bibliographic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Elizabeth L.

    1976-01-01

    The evolution of modern practices in bibliographic description is traced to provide a frame of reference for consideration of the new ISBD(M) International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications. The origin and objectives of the standard are discussed, and the American experience in its application is reviewed. (Author)

  16. A Proposal for an International Standard Object Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses extand paradigms (ISBN, ISSN, ISMN, and the emerging ISAN). Models a procedure for assigning ISONs (International Standard Object Number) to objects and their surrogates. Describes resources requisite to the construction of the ISON, and outlines the necessarily cooperative work ahead if an ISON is to become a standard for visual…

  17. Evaluation of ¹³C- and ²H-labeled internal standards for the determination of amphetamines in biological samples, by reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Berg, Thomas; Karlsen, Morten; Oiestad, Ase Marit Leere; Johansen, Jon Eigill; Liu, Huiling; Strand, Dag Helge

    2014-05-30

    Stable isotope-labeled internal standards (SIL-ISs) are often used when applying liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze for legal and illegal drugs. ISs labeled with (13)C, (15)N, and (18)O are expected to behave more closely to their corresponding unlabeled analytes, compared with that of the more classically used (2)H-labeled ISs. This study has investigated the behavior of amphetamine, (2)H3-, (2)H5, (2)H6-, (2)H8-, (2)H11-, and (13)C6-labeled amphetamine, during sample preparation by liquid-liquid extraction and LC-MS/MS analyses. None or only minor differences in liquid-liquid extraction recoveries of amphetamine and the SIL-ISs were observed. The chromatographic resolution between amphetamine and the (2)H-labeled amphetamines increased with the number of (2)H-substitutes. For chromatographic studies we also included seven additional (13)C6-amphetamines and their analytes. All the (13)C6-labeled ISs were co-eluting with their analytes, both when a basic and when an acidic mobile phase were used. MS/MS analyses of amphetamine and its SIL-ISs showed that the ISs with the highest number of (2)H-substitutes required more energy for fragmentation in the collision cell compared with that of the ISs with a lower number. The findings, in this study, support those of previous studies, showing that (13)C-labeled ISs are superior to (2)H-labeled ISs, for analytical purposes.

  18. International reference preparations for standardization of biological medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Minor, P

    2014-10-01

    International standards are prepared as materials assigned an arbitrary unitage for a biological activity by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization of the World Health Organization. Working reference materials are calibrated against international standards giving a common unit of measurement between laboratories. The references are assessed by a collaborative study including all relevant assays rather than by a single reference method as in the SI (Le Système international d'unités) system and the unitage assigned is an arbitrary value derived from a consensus of all valid methods. The process has proved valuable in assaying the activity of therapeutic biological medicines and in standardizing certain types of diagnostics. Issues arise with maintaining the unit when the primary reference must be replaced and to some extent in assessing the commutability of the reference with real life analytes.

  19. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  20. IPDA PDS4 Project: Towards an International Planetary Data Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Santa; Roatsch, Thomas; Capria, Maria Teresa; Heather, David; Yamamoto, Yukio; Hughes, Steven; Stein, Thomas; Cecconi, Baptiste; Prashar, Ajay; Batanov, Oleg; Gopala Krishna, Barla

    2016-07-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an international collaboration of space agencies with the main objective of facilitating discovery, access and use of planetary data managed across international boundaries. For this purpose, the IPDA has adopted the NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standard as the de-facto archiving standard, and is working towards the internationalisation of the new generation of the standards, called PDS4. PDS4 is the largest upgrade in the history of the PDS, and is a significant step towards an online, distributed, model-driven and service-oriented architecture international archive. Following the successful deployment of PDS4 to support NASA's LADEE and MAVEN missions, PDS4 was endorsed by IPDA in 2014. This has led to the adoption of PDS4 by a number of international space agencies (ESA, JAXA, ISRO and Roscosmos, among others) for their upcoming missions. In order to closely follow the development of the PDS4 standards and to coordinate the international contribution and participation in its evolution, a group of experts from each international agency is dedicated to review different aspects of the standards and to capture recommendations and requirements to ensure the international needs are met. The activities performed by this group cover the assessment and implementation of all aspects of PDS4, including its use, documentation, tools, validation strategies and information model. This contribution will present the activities carried out by this group and how this partnership between PDS and IPDA provides an excellent foundation towards an international platform for planetary science research.

  1. The international standardization of the medical certification of civil aircrew.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W R

    1984-05-01

    The extremely heterogeneous nature of the various peoples and states of today's world makes the development of a satisfactory set of medical standards for the certification of civil aircrew extremely difficult. This difficulty is compounded by the varying roles aviation plays in different parts of the world. Essential to the understanding of this difficulty is a comprehension of the concept of the sovereignty of nations. Emphasis on aviation medical standards is affected by the variation in health care priorities seen amongst the worldwide community of nations. Annex 1 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation sets regulations and recommendations for aircrew licensure. The capability of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to enforce regulations is restricted by the same factors which restrict the power of any supernational organization. Nonetheless ICAO remains the most effective means available for achieving the diplomatic consensus so essential to the development of international standards.

  2. International standards for the control of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E

    2003-01-01

    The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) has developed international standards to reduce the risk of the spread of high-pathogenicity avian influenza though international trade. These standards include providing a definition of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), procedures for prompt reporting of HPAI outbreaks, requirements that must be met for a country or zone to be defined as free of HPAI, requirements that should be met to import live birds and avian products into a HPAI-free country or zone, and the general provisions that countries should meet to reduce the risk of spread of HPAI through trade. The goal of these standards is to facilitate trade while minimizing the risk of the introduction of HPAI.

  3. The first International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum.

    PubMed

    McGiven, J; Taylor, A; Duncombe, L; Sayers, R; Albert, D; Banai, M; Blasco, J M; Elena, S; Fretin, D; Garin-Bastuji, B; Melzer, F; Muñoz, P M; Nielsen, K; Nicola, A; Scacchia, M; Tittarelli, M; Dias, I Travassos; Walravens, K; Stack, J

    2011-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) requested an International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum (ISaBmS) to standardise diagnostic tests and reagents for sheep and goats. The agreed criteria were the highest dilution (in negative serum) of the standard which must give a positive result and the lowest dilution (in negative serum) which must simultaneously give a negative result. The two dilutions for each assay were, respectively: indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) 1/64 and 1/750, competitive ELISA (cELISA) 1/8 and 1/300, fluorescent polarisation assay (FPA) 1/16 and 1/200, Rose Bengal test (RBT) 1/16 and 1/200. The OIE International Standard Serum (OIEISS) will remain the primary standard for the RBT; the ISaBmS is an additional standard. It was impossible to set criteria for the complement fixation test, therefore the OIEISS will remain the primary standard. The ISaBmS can be used to standardise iELISA, cELISA and FPA to diagnose sheep and goat brucellosis. This standard should facilitate harmonisation of tests used for brucellosis surveillance and international trade in these species.

  4. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel

    PubMed Central

    Kácha, Ondřej; Kovács, Beáta E.; McCarthy, Cormac; Schuurmans, Angela A. T.; Dobyns, Christopher; Haller, Elisa; Hinrichs, Saba; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals traveling abroad is increasing annually. The rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently call for the development of international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for consideration: minimum standards of health-care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility, and patient centeredness. Several cultural challenges have been introduced that may pose a barrier to development of the guidelines and should be taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances benefits to patients and providers, which is an urgent necessity given the rapid growth in this industry. PMID:26973825

  5. 75 FR 13715 - Implementation of the 1995 Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers... Rulemaking (NPRM) on the Implementation of the 1995 Amendments to the International Convention on Standards... Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping...

  6. 76 FR 48101 - Implementation of the Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers...) entitled ``Implementation of the Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training... ``Implementation of the Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification...

  7. Metadata - an international standard for clinical knowledge resources.

    PubMed

    Klein, Gunnar O

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new European and International standard, ISO 13119 Health informatics - Clinical knowledge resources - Metadata that is intended for both health professionals and patients/citizens. This standard aims to facilitate two issues: 1) How to find relevant documents that are appropriate for the reader and situation and 2) How to ensure that the found knowledge documents have a sufficient or at least declared quality management? Example of use is provided from the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention.

  8. EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

  9. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological

  10. International reference standards: antibody standards for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Wright, P F; Tounkara, K; Lelenta, M; Jeggo, M H

    1997-12-01

    Reference standards are used to calibrate similar assay systems against an international reference protocol and to provide a template for the preparation of secondary and/or working standards. Three reference standards are recommended for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: a strong positive standard, a weak positive standard and a negative serum standard. The negative standard should be derived from a single serum or from a serum pool which exhibits typical background activity in the reference protocol. The strong and weak positive standards should be derived from a single serum or from a serum pool which typifies the humoral response (antibody) to natural infection. Suitable candidates for the positive reference standards should exhibit dose/response curves in the mid-range of antibody activity. The strong and weak positive standards should each be prepared from a one-time dilution in the negative standard, to yield antibody activities which are defined by specific points on the linear portion of the dose/response curve. The strong positive standard should represent an antibody activity (absorbance value) midway between the upper and central points and the weak positive standard should represent an antibody activity midway between the central and lower points of the linear portion of the curve. Owing to inherent differences among assay systems, antibody activities should be expressed in relative rather than in absolute terms. It is recommended that the antibody activity of the strong positive standard should denote 100% positivity. The activities of the weak positive and negative standards should then be expressed as relative percentages. Every set of international reference standards should be accompanied by an information sheet which includes, among other things, a plot of the dose/response curve and an indication of the dilutions used to prepare the standards.

  11. A blessing in disguise: international standards for the biotechnology industry.

    PubMed

    Lonien, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    Regardless of the industry, standards are ubiquitous in our everyday lives and essential to the interconnection of people, businesses, and countries. Standardization seeks to consensually establish the best technical application forany given process in order to ensure consistent quality, minimization of risks,and interoperability. As a life scientist, I was surprised to see my natural reservation towards draconic documentation change. Life science standards aref undamentally important for the smooth transaction of data and repetition of experiments, and may help small and medium enterprises gain the international attention they deserve and require, in order to get their innovations noticed.

  12. How Can International Standards Support Scientific Lineage Needs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.

    2008-12-01

    Recording the provenance of large-scale scientific datasets is an incredible challenge that will attracted a significant number of creative solutions. Many of these solutions will likely be customized in order to address specific needs of organizations that develop them. At the same time, standard representations of the provenance are required for preservation and ease of understanding by a wide variety of non-expert users. Emerging international metadata standards include mechanisms for describing provenance that are necessarily general and simplified. We will describe these mechanisms and some applications to begin to characterize situations in which these standards are useful.

  13. How to Integrate International Financial Reporting Standards into Accounting Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    It is expected the SEC will require U.S. domestic companies to prepare and file their annual 10Ks in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS) by 2016. Given the probability that the FASB-IASB convergence project (i.e., Norwalk Agreement) will continue subsequent to mandatory adoption, US accounting programs will be…

  14. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to...

  15. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a description of the activities and accomplishments of the American Society for Testing and Materials' U. S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to the International Standards Organization's Technical Committee 146 on Air Quality. The purpose of the TAG is to re...

  17. 78 FR 8431 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 172 RIN 2137-AE87 Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR) Correction In rule document 2012-31243 appearing on pages...

  18. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards. For... lifejackets, if carried, must be of the same or similar design as required by § 108.580(b). (d) Containers...

  19. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards. For... lifejackets, if carried, must be of the same or similar design as required by § 108.580(b). (d) Containers...

  20. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  1. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-02-01

    Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. γ-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ∝ and β genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services.

  2. International biological standards for coagulation factors and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Anthony R

    2007-04-01

    The use of international biological standards during the last 30 years has proved extremely successful in promoting global harmonization of estimates between laboratories and methods. Experience has led to the identification of physical criteria essential for standards to be suitable for long-term use. High precision of liquid filling coupled with low residual moisture and oxygen and the use of sealed glass ampoules have been found consistent with homogeneous and stable International Standards (ISs). Most plasma coagulation factors and inhibitors are calibrated in International Units (IU), which are defined as the amount of analyte in 1 mL of normal pooled plasma. Adoption of the IU has provided clarity in the definition of normal and abnormal states and has facilitated dose calculation for replacement therapy. The assay of like-versus-like materials (e.g., concentrate versus concentrate) has been found to improve interlaboratory agreement and there are now both plasma and concentrate ISs available for many coagulation factors and inhibitors. Studies into the assay of recombinant factor VIII have indicated that additional measures, such as modifications to assay methodology, are necessary to reduce interlaboratory variability. This experience may prove valuable in the future, when we have to deal increasingly with the challenges to standardization associated with the products of bioengineering.

  3. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  4. International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total-scattering draft standard.

    PubMed

    Kadkhoda, P; Müller, A; Ristau, D; Duparré, A; Gliech, S; Lauth, H; Schuhmann, U; Reng, N; Tilsch, M; Schuhmann, R; Amra, C; Deumie, C; Jolie, C; Kessler, H; Lindström, T; Ribbing, C G; Bennett, J M

    2000-07-01

    An international round-robin experiment has been conducted among laboratories in different countries to test the measurement and the data-analysis procedures in the International Organization for Standardization draft standard ISO/DIS 13696 for measuring total scattering from low-scatter laser optics. Ten laboratories measured total backscattering from high-reflectance mirrors, 50% beam splitters, and antireflection-coated windows. Results were sent to the Laser Zentrum Hannover, which acted as coordinator and analyzed all the backscattering data. The results showed that the procedure in the draft standard was useful for measuring and reporting backscattering for low-scatter optics. Problems encountered in the round-robin experiment included the accumulation of particles on the surfaces, particularly on the high-reflectance mirrors.

  5. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... international standards and regulations. 171.22 Section 171.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... the Use of International Transport Standards and Regulations § 171.22 Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations. (a) Authorized international standards...

  6. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... international standards and regulations. 171.22 Section 171.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... the Use of International Transport Standards and Regulations § 171.22 Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations. (a) Authorized international standards...

  7. Assessment of opacimeter calibration according to International Standard Organization 10155.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the calibration method for opacimeters issued by the International Standard Organization (ISO) 10155 with the manual reference method for determination of dust content in stack gases. ISO 10155 requires at least nine operational measurements, corresponding to three operational measurements per each dust emission range within the stack. The procedure is assessed by comparison with previous calibration methods for opacimeters using only two operational measurements from a set of measurements made at stacks from pulp mills. The results show that even if the international standard for opacimeter calibration requires that the calibration curve is to be obtained using 3 x 3 points, a calibration curve derived using 3 points could be, at times, acceptable in statistical terms, provided that the amplitude of individual measurements is low.

  8. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-04-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL`s analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described.

  9. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR NEUTRAL TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.25)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This standard operating procedure describes the method used for preparing internal standard, surrogate recovery standard and calibration standard solutions for neutral analytes used for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

  10. Translating Radiometric Requirements for Satellite Sensors to Match International Standards

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, Aaron; Datla, Raju; Kacker, Raghu; Cao, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    International scientific standards organizations created standards on evaluating uncertainty in the early 1990s. Although scientists from many fields use these standards, they are not consistently implemented in the remote sensing community, where traditional error analysis framework persists. For a satellite instrument under development, this can create confusion in showing whether requirements are met. We aim to create a methodology for translating requirements from the error analysis framework to the modern uncertainty approach using the product level requirements of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will fly on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R). In this paper we prescribe a method to combine several measurement performance requirements, written using a traditional error analysis framework, into a single specification using the propagation of uncertainties formula. By using this approach, scientists can communicate requirements in a consistent uncertainty framework leading to uniform interpretation throughout the development and operation of any satellite instrument. PMID:26601032

  11. Psychological assessment in XLMR: a proposal for setting international standards.

    PubMed

    Fisch, G S

    2000-01-01

    The need for an agreed upon set of standards for assessing individuals with XLMR was made quite evident this past year at the Fragile X and XLMR Workshop in Strasbourg. Several affected individuals from different families may have been incorrectly diagnosed as MR. Many factors can have a negative affect on IQ testing. As a result, evaluating individuals with cognitive deficits can be problematic. To be effective, psychological assessments must produce uniform results that are consistent with the definition of MR. Therefore, to foster international research in XLMR. I propose a two-stage standardized protocol. To determine which tests may be suitable. I review an assortment of instruments for psychological assessment at each stage, noting their strengths and weaknesses. Afterward, I present a set of standardized protocols based on age and language ability.

  12. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? 542.42 Section 542.42 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier C gaming operations, a separate internal audit department shall...

  13. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? 542.22 Section 542.22 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier A gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  14. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? 542.22 Section 542.22 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier A gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  15. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? 542.32 Section 542.32 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier B gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  16. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? 542.32 Section 542.32 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier B gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  17. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? 542.42 Section 542.42 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier C gaming operations, a separate internal audit department shall...

  18. 25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the deduction. (e) Each gaming operation shall establish internal control systems sufficient to ensure... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.19 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  19. 25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the deduction. (e) Each gaming operation shall establish internal control systems sufficient to ensure... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.19 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  20. National and international standards and calibration of thermoluminescence dosimetry systems.

    PubMed

    Soares, C G

    2002-01-01

    Radiation protection for radiation workers, the public, and the environment is of international concern. The use of thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) is an acceptable method for dose recording in most countries. For reasons of consistency and data gathering (research) it is important that a Sievert (Sv) in one part of the world equals an Sv on the other side of the globe. To this end, much work has gone into the development of standards and calibration practices for TLD systems so that they compare not only with similar systems, but also with other forms of radiation measurement. While most national laboratories provide calibration services for these systems some, as in the United States, depend on services of secondary calibration laboratories that are traceable to the national laboratories through accreditation programmes. The purpose of this paper is to explain how TLD measurements are traceable to their respective national standards for both personnel and environmental dosimetry.

  1. Integrated Procedures for Flight and Ground Operations Using International Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, John

    2011-01-01

    Imagine astronauts using the same Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM's) as the ground personnel who assemble or maintain their flight hardware, and having all of that data interoperable with design, logistics, reliability analysis, and training. Modern international standards and their corresponding COTS tools already used in other industries provide a good foundation for streamlined technical publications in the space industry. These standards cover everything from data exchange to product breakdown structure to business rules flexibility. Full Product Lifecycle Support (PLCS) is supported. The concept is to organize, build once, reuse many ways, and integrate. This should apply to all future and some current launch vehicles, payloads, space stations/habitats, spacecraft, facilities, support equipment, and retrieval ships.

  2. The protection of migrant workers and international labour standards.

    PubMed

    Bohning, W R

    1988-06-01

    International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory

  3. Production of isotopically-labeled standards from a uniformly labeled precursor for quantitative volatile metabolomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Cortés, Pilar; Brenna, J. Thomas; Sacks, Gavin L.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal accuracy and precision in small molecule profiling by mass spectrometry generally requires isotopically labeled standards chemically representative of all compounds of interest. However, preparation of mixed standards from commercially available pure compounds is often prohibitively expensive and time consuming, and many labeled compounds are not available in pure form. We used a single prototype uniformly labeled [U-13C]-compound to generate [U-13C]-volatile standards for use in subsequent experimental profiling studies. [U-13C]-α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, ALA) was thermally oxidized to produce labeled lipid degradation volatiles which were subsequently characterized qualitatively and quantitatively. Twenty-five [U-13C]-labeled volatiles were identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS) by comparison of spectra with unlabeled volatiles. Using 250 μL starting sample, labeled volatiles were quantified by a reverse isotope dilution procedure. Using the [U-13C]-labeled standards, limits of detection comparable to or better than previous HS-SPME reports were achieved, 0.010–1.04 ng/g. The performance of the [U-13C]-volatile standards was evaluated using a commodity soybean oil (CSO) oxidized at 60°C from 0 to 15 d. Relative responses of n-decane, an unlabeled internal standard otherwise absent from the mixture, and [U-13C]-oxidation products changed by up to 8-fold as the CSO matrix was oxidized, demonstrating that reliance on a single standard in volatile profiling studies yields inaccurate results due to changing matrix effects. The [U-13C]-standard mixture was used to quantify 25 volatiles in oxidized CSO and low-ALA soybean oil with an average relative standard deviation of 8.5%. Extension of this approach to other labeled substrates, e.g., [U-13C]-sugars and amino acids, for profiling studies should be feasible and can dramatically improve quantitative results compared to

  4. Applying International Standards for Hydrokinetic Energy Resource Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of hydrokinetic energy is the conversion of the kinetic energy of moving water into another more useful form of energy, frequently electricity. This water motion may be in the form of waves, tides, ocean currents or river flows. In addition to the development of the technology, the successful extraction of hydrokinetic energy requires a better understanding of physical, environmental and social aspects of the resource and their interactions with the technology. To assist with the development of the hydrokinetic industry as a whole, much work over the past decade has been completed developing international technical standards which can be used by the full range of stakeholders in the hydrokinetic industry. To support the design of projects for tidal energy extraction, a new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification (TS) has recently been published outlining a standardized methodology for performing resource assessments. In addition, presently work is ongoing on producing another TS for performing resource assessments on in-stream river projects. While the specific technology for extracting the energy from tidal and river flows may be similar, the methodologies for performing the respective resource assessments is quite different due to the differing nature of the physical processes involved. This presentation will discuss both the tidal and in-stream river methodologies, highlighting their respective key aspects. In addition, a case study illustrating the use of the published tidal TS will be presented.

  5. Competitor internal standards for quantitative detection of mycoplasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, M K; Rashidbaigi, A; Testa, D; Liao, M J

    1995-05-01

    Homologous internal controls were used as competitor DNA in the polymerase chain reaction for the quantitative detection of mycoplasma DNA. PCR primer sets were designed on the basis of the most conserved nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of mycoplasma species. Amplification of this gene was examined in five different mycoplasma species: Mycoplasma orale, M. hyorhinus, M. synoviae, M. gallisepticum and M. pneumoniae. To evaluate the primers, a number of different cell lines were assayed for the detection of mycoplasma infections. All positive cell lines showed a distinct product on agarose gels while uninfected cells showed no DNA amplification. Neither bacterial nor eukaryotic DNA produced any cross-reaction with the primers used, thus confirming their specificity. Internal control DNA to be used for quantitation was constructed by modifying the sizes of the wild-type amplified products and cloning them in plasmid vectors. These controls used the same primer binding sites as the wild-type and the amplified products were differentiated by a size difference. The detection limits for all the mycoplasma species by competitive quantitative PCR were estimated to range from 4 to 60 genome copies per assay as determined by ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. These internal standards also serve as positive controls in PCR-based detection of mycoplasma DNA, and therefore accidental contamination of test samples with wild-type positive controls can be eliminated. The quantitative PCR method developed will be useful in monitoring the progression and significance of mycoplasma in the disease process.

  6. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection.

    PubMed

    Czarwinski, R; Crick, M J

    2011-03-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO--as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS--the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as recordkeeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR.

  7. International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

    2008-05-01

    China has had an active program on energy efficiency standards for household appliances since the mid-1990s. Rice cooker is among the first to be subject to such mandatory regulation, since it is one of the most prevalent electric appliances in Chinese households. Since first introduced in 1989, the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers has not been revised. Therefore, the potential for energy saving is considerable. Initial analysis from CNIS indicates that potential carbon savings is likely to reach 7.6 million tons of CO2 by the 10th year of the standard implementation. Since September 2007, CNIS has been working with various groups to develop the new standard for rice cookers. With The Energy Foundation's support, LBNL has assisted CNIS in the revision of the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers that is expected to be effective in 2009. Specifically, work has been in the following areas: assistance in developing consumer survey on usage pattern of rice cookers, review of international standards, review of international test procedures, comparison of the international standards and test procedures, and assessment of technical options of reducing energy use. This report particularly summarizes the findings of reviewing international standards and technical options of reducing energy consumption. The report consists of an overview of rice cooker standards and labeling programs and testing procedures in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, and Japan's case study in developing energy efficiency rice cooker technologies and rice cooker efficiency programs. The results from the analysis can be summarized as the follows: Hong Kong has a Voluntary Energy Efficiency Labeling scheme for electric rice cookers initiated in 2001, with revision implemented in 2007; South Korea has both MEPS and Mandatory Energy Efficiency Label targeting the same category of rice cookers as Hong Kong; Thailand's voluntary endorsement labeling program is

  8. Outline of the International Organization for Standardization Standard for Circulatory Support Devices (ISO 14708-5).

    PubMed

    Imachi, Kou; Mussivand, Tofy

    2010-09-01

    The rapid progress of artificial heart and circulatory support devices enables us to apply them to severe heart failure patients. Many types of circulatory support devices have been developed in the United States, Europe, and Japan. This situation urged the establishment of an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard for the circulatory support devices. A new work, "Cardiac Ventricular Assist Devices," was proposed to the ISO/TC150/SC6 (TC150: Technical Committee of Implants for Surgery, SC6: Sub-committee of Active Implants) in 2000, and the work was finalized for publication at a 2009 meeting of the ISO/TC150 in Kyoto. In this article, the authors would like to introduce the ISO system and the outline of the ISO Standard for Circulatory Support Devices.

  9. 76 FR 62714 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Harmonization With International Standards AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental notice of proposed...) titled ``Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards'' in the... publishing an interim rule titled ``Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization...

  10. Standard Reference Materials for dioxins and other environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R

    1991-05-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology issues approximately 1100 Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) certified for chemical composition or physical properties. A number of these SRMs has been developed to assist chemists in analyzing environmental samples more reliably for chlorinated dioxins and other organic pollutants. Certification of the pollutant concentration in a natural matrix SRM is based on concordant analyses by the NIST Organic Analytical Research Division using at least two independent methods. For a calibration solution, such as SRM 1614, Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) in Isooctane, certification is based on agreement of the calculated concentration based on the gravimetric preparation and the concentration as determined experimentally. SRM 1614 also includes a 13C-labeled 2,3,7,8-TCDD for use as an internal standard in methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The certified concentrations (ng g-1) are 98.3 +/- 3.3 for the unlabeled dioxin and 95.6 +/- 1.5 for the labeled dioxin. The certificates for SRM 1588, Organics in Cod Liver Oil, and SRM 1589, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (as Aroclor 1260) in Human Serum, provide noncertified concentrations of dioxins. Concentrations of chlorinated dioxins in two urban particulate SRMs have been reported in the literature.

  11. International longitudinal pediatric reference standards for bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather

    2010-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P<0.05). Compared to White males, Asian males had 31.8 (6.8) g less WB BMC accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. We report similar findings for the PF and FN. Models for females for all sites were similar with age, height and weight as independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P<0.05). We provide a tool to calculate a child's BMC Z-score, accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific.

  12. Objectives And Structures Of The International Organization For Standardization (ISO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reihlen, Helmut

    1989-04-01

    I am certainly pleased to be with you here today, and to speak to you on the subject of international standardization. The work of some of the ISO technical committees, such as ISO/TC 36 "Cinematography", ISO/TC 42 "Photograhy" and, of course, ISO/TC 172 "Optics and optical instruments" may be familiar to many of you and their activities will be presented in your technical sessions. Rather than going into the detail of these technical committees it might be appropriate that, in my capacity as Vice-President of ISO, I present to you an overview of the organization, what it aims to do, with what means, what its achievements are and how it does its job in practice.

  13. Whole proteomes as internal standards in quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Ong, Shao-En

    2010-07-30

    As mass-spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics approaches become increasingly powerful, researchers are taking advantage of well established methodologies and improving instrumentation to pioneer new protein expression profiling methods. For example, pooling several proteomes labeled using the stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) method yields a whole-proteome stable isotope-labeled internal standard that can be mixed with a tissue-derived proteome for quantification. By increasing quantitative accuracy in the analysis of tissue proteomes, such methods should improve integration of protein expression profiling data with transcriptomic data and enhance downstream bioinformatic analyses. An accurate and scalable quantitative method to analyze tumor proteomes at the depth of several thousand proteins provides a powerful tool for global protein quantification of tissue samples and promises to redefine our understanding of tumor biology.

  14. 76 FR 37953 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0... for Stationary Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: The... standards of performance for new stationary compression ignition internal combustion engines under...

  15. 25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a credit instrument control form. (2) Records of all correspondence, transfers to and from outside... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  16. 25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a credit instrument control form. (2) Records of all correspondence, transfers to and from outside... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  17. 25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a credit instrument control form. (2) Records of all correspondence, transfers to and from outside... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  18. Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Teach the Internal Standard Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The internal standard method is widely applied in quantitative analyses. However, most analytical chemistry textbooks either omit this topic or only provide examples of a single-point internal standardization. An experiment designed to teach students how to prepare an internal standard calibration curve is described. The experiment is a modified…

  19. Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory

  20. International migration: security concerns and human rights standards.

    PubMed

    Crépeau, François; Nakache, Delphine; Atak, Idil

    2007-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns.

  1. The need for international seafarer medical fitness standards.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The text of this paper is based on a presentation at the First International Congress of Maritime, Tropical, and Hyperbaric Medicine, 4th July 2009, Gdynia, Poland. The assessment of fitness to work at sea is an important aspect of maritime risk management. The risks in the industry, the approaches used for assessment, and the evidence on which they are based have changed over time. The transition from an industry in which the nationality of seafarers and the ships on which they worked were the same to one in which ownership and crewing have become global means that, as is true for most other aspects of maritime risk management, compatible international criteria for decisions regarding fitness to work are required. Many parties, including flag states, employers and their insurers, and seafarers and their trade unions, are involved in agreeing international medical fitness criteria. While all have a common interest in improved health and safety at sea, each has their own more detailed agenda of sectional interests. The scope for development of agreed standards and the role of the parties involved is reviewed, and the current arrangements for taking this process forward are discussed. Contributions from maritime health professionals and other medical and scientific experts are essential to the development of rational and valid criteria, but the decisions on the level of authority to be given to these and the means adopted for ensuring compliance with them are essentially political issues where the voice of those with subject knowledge is only one among many in the processes for adoption and implementation of any new arrangements.

  2. International Docking Standard (IDSS) Interface Definition Document (IDD) . E; Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    This International Docking System Standard (IDSS) Interface Definition Document (IDD) is the result of a collaboration by the International Space Station membership to establish a standard docking interface to enable on-orbit crew rescue operations and joint collaborative endeavors utilizing different spacecraft. This IDSS IDD details the physical geometric mating interface and design loads requirements. The physical geometric interface requirements must be strictly followed to ensure physical spacecraft mating compatibility. This includes both defined components and areas that are void of components. The IDD also identifies common design parameters as identified in section 3.0, e.g., docking initial conditions and vehicle mass properties. This information represents a recommended set of design values enveloping a broad set of design reference missions and conditions, which if accommodated in the docking system design, increases the probability of successful docking between different spacecraft. This IDD does not address operational procedures or off-nominal situations, nor does it dictate implementation or design features behind the mating interface. It is the responsibility of the spacecraft developer to perform all hardware verification and validation, and to perform final docking analyses to ensure the needed docking performance and to develop the final certification loads for their application. While there are many other critical requirements needed in the development of a docking system such as fault tolerance, reliability, and environments (e.g. vibration, etc.), it is not the intent of the IDSS IDD to mandate all of these requirements; these requirements must be addressed as part of the specific developer's unique program, spacecraft and mission needs. This approach allows designers the flexibility to design and build docking mechanisms to their unique program needs and requirements. The purpose of the IDSS IDD is to provide basic common design parameters

  3. Biobanking of CSF: international standardization to optimize biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Charlotte E; Tumani, Hayrettin; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Mollenhauer, Brit

    2014-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflects pathophysiological aspects of neurological diseases, where neuroprotective strategies and biomarkers are urgently needed. Therefore, biobanking is very relevant for biomarker discovery and evaluation of neurological diseases. Important and unique features of CSF biobanking are intensive collaboration in international networks and the tight application of standardized protocols. The current adoption of standardized protocols for CSF and blood collection as presented in this review enables biomarker studies in large cohorts of patients and controls. Another topic of this review is the selection of control groups, which influences the outcome of biomarker investigations. Control groups in CSF biobanks mainly consist of different disease controls. This is in part due to the fact that lumbar punctures are mostly performed for clinical indications and rarely for research purposes only, as it is a relatively invasive procedure. Moreover, there is a lack of homogenous criteria and definition of control groups. We therefore propose uniform consensus definitions for such control groups in biomarker research, i.e. Healthy controls (HC), Spinal anesthesia subjects (SAS), Symptomatic controls (SC), Inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (CINDC), Peripheral Inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (PINDC) and Non-inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (NINDC). Another important aspect of CSF biobanking is quality control. Systematic studies to address effects of pre-analytical and storage variation on a broad range of CSF proteins are needed. In conclusion, biomarker research in neurodegenerative diseases has entered a new era due to the collaborative and multicenter efforts of many groups. The streamlining of biobanking procedures, including quality control, and the selection of optimal control groups for investigating biomarkers are important improvements to perform high quality biomarker studies.

  4. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... while tribes and operations transition to the new Class II Minimum Internal Control Standards that were... part 543, Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...

  5. The International Reference Ionosphere - Climatological Standard for the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) a joint project of URSI and COSPAR is the defacto standard for a climatological specification of ionospheric parameters. IRI is based on a wide range of ground and space data and has been steadily improved since its inception in 1969 with the ever-increasing volume of ionospheric data and with better mathematical descriptions of the observed global and temporal variation patterns. The IRI model has been validated with a large amount of data including data from the most recent ionospheric satellites (KOMPSAT, ROCSAT and TIMED) and data from global network of ionosondes. Several IRI teams are working on specific aspects of the IRI modeling effort including an improved representation of the topside ionosphere with a seamless transition to the plasmasphere, a new effort to represent the global variation of F2 peak parameters using the Neural Network (NN) technique, and the inclusion of several additional parameters in IRI, e.g., spread-F probability and ionospheric variability. Annual IRI workshops are the forum for discussions of these efforts and for all science activities related to IRI as well as applications of the IRI model in engineering and education. In this paper I will present a status report about the IRI effort with special emphasis on the presentations and results from the most recent IRI Workshops (Paris, 2004; Tortosa, 2005) and on the most important ongoing IRI activities. I will discuss the latest version of the IRI model, IRI-2006, highlighting the most recent changes and additions. Finally, the talk will review some of the applications of the IRI model with special emphasis on the use for radiowave propagation studies and communication purposes.

  6. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule document 2013-01288, appearing on pages 6674-6724 in the issue of...

  8. 77 FR 9859 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Harmonization With International Standards AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... rulemaking (NPRM) titled ``Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International... interim rule titled ``Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With...

  9. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR POLAR TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.26)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method used for preparing surrogate recovery standard and internal standard solutions for the analysis of polar target analytes. It also describes the method for preparing calibration standard solutions for polar analytes used for gas chromatography/mass sp...

  10. International Standards. U.S. Metric Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntoon, Robert D.; And Others

    In this first interim report on the feasibility of a United States changeover to a metric system stems from the U.S. Metric Study, a series of conclusions and recommendations, based upon a national survey of the role of SI (System's International) units in international trade and other areas of foreign relations, includes the following…

  11. A Simple Method for International Standardization of Photographic Documentation for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Seung Chul

    2017-02-03

    Due to the lack of internationally standardized, objective, and scientific photographic standardization methods, differences in photographic documents have gravely affected the truth of surgical outcomes by visual misperception or illusion, thus hindering the development of plastic surgery clinically and scholastically. Here I suggest a simple method for standardization of facial photographs. The method consists of an imaginary transverse line (tentatively the "PSA line") rather than the Frankfort horizontal plane and uses a white background with black grids and standard RGB with CMYK circles. This simplified method of photographic standardization would help our professional society to make international standards on facial photographic documentation to maintain scholastic ethics, conscience, and morals.

  12. International Metadata Standards and Enterprise Data Quality Metadata Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habermann, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Well-documented data quality is critical in situations where scientists and decision-makers need to combine multiple datasets from different disciplines and collection systems to address scientific questions or difficult decisions. Standardized data quality metadata could be very helpful in these situations. Many efforts at developing data quality standards falter because of the diversity of approaches to measuring and reporting data quality. The one size fits all paradigm does not generally work well in this situation. I will describe these and other capabilities of ISO 19157 with examples of how they are being used to describe data quality across the NASA EOS Enterprise and also compare these approaches with other standards.

  13. International standards for research integrity: An idea whose time has come?

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2009-07-01

    A movement to promulgate international ethics standards covering areas of conduct other than research with human subjects has now begun to gain momentum. This commentary explains why it is important to develop international research integrity standards and some of the problems that must be overcome to bring them to fruition.

  14. 25 CFR 543.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs? 543.9 Section 543.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.9 What are the minimum...

  15. 25 CFR 543.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs? 543.9 Section 543.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.9 What are the minimum...

  16. Internal Standards: A Source of Analytical Bias For Volatile Organic Analyte Determinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of internal standards in the determination of volatile organic compounds as described in SW-846 Method 8260C introduces a potential for bias in results once the internal standards (ISTDs) are added to a sample for analysis. The bias is relative to the dissimilarity betw...

  17. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR RESEARCH INTEGRITY: AN IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME?

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2014-01-01

    A movement to promulgate international ethics standards covering areas of conduct other than research with human subjects has now begun to gain momentum. This commentary explains why it is important to develop international research integrity standards and some of the problems that must be overcome to bring them to fruition. PMID:20183162

  18. What States Should Know about International Standards in Science: Highlights from Achieve's Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Achieve, through support from the Noyce Foundation, examined ten sets of international standards with the intent of informing the development of both the conceptual framework and Next Generation Science Standards. Achieve selected countries based on their strong performance on international assessments and/or their economic, political, or cultural…

  19. Discourse Surrounding the International Education Standards for Professional Accountants (IES): A Content Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugahara, Satoshi; Wilson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of the International Education Standards (IES) for professional accountants is currently an important issue in accounting education and for educators interested in a shift toward international education standards more broadly. The purpose of this study is to investigate professional and research discourse…

  20. The Role of Internal Standards and their Interaction with Soils Impact Accuracy of Volatile Organics Determinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 Methods 8260C/5035 and 8261A include mixing soil with water and addition of internal standards prior to analyses but the equilibration of internal standards with the soil is not required. With increasing total organic carbon (...

  1. Meeting the international standard ISO 9002/BS5750.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J A; Smithson, P H

    1990-05-01

    In this paper we outline the rationale for applying British Standard BS5750 to a medical equipment management service and introduce some of the concepts of the standard as they apply to this field. We see this application as essential in today's legal and commercial environment and indicate the ways in which this work is being carried forward by the Medical Equipment Management Organisation into total quality management systems.

  2. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained.

  3. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... the extension of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class... internal controls found in Sec. 543.3(c)(3) to October 13, 2011, in order to extend the transition...

  4. The Emerging Global Bibliographic Network: The Era of International Standardization in the Development of Cataloging Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, John D., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the growing interdependence of catalogers to provide uniform bibliographic control and access. Topics include the international applications of AACR2 (Anglo American Cataloging Rules 2); the PCC (Program for Cooperative Cataloging); ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description); and activities of IFLA (International Federation…

  5. Multicenter Evaluation of Whole-Blood Epstein-Barr Viral Load Standardization Using the WHO International Standard.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Touyana; Lupo, Julien; Alain, Sophie; Perrin-Confort, Gwladys; Grossi, Laurence; Dimier, Julie; Epaulard, Olivier; Morand, Patrice; Germi, Raphaële

    2016-07-01

    The first WHO international standard for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (WHO EBV standard) for nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT)-based assays was commercialized in January 2012 by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. In the study reported here, we compared whole-blood EBV DNA load (EDL) results from 12 French laboratories for seven samples (Quality Controls for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 proficiency panel) in order to determine whether expression in international units reduces interlaboratory variability in whole-blood EDLs. Each testing laboratory used a conversion factor to convert EDL results from copies per milliliter to international units per milliliter. This conversion factor was calculated from the WHO EBV standard according to the protocol described in this study (nine laboratories) or the recommendations of the PCR kit suppliers (three laboratories). The interlaboratory variability in whole-blood EDL results was reduced after standardization of the results using the WHO EBV standard. For the seven samples tested, standard deviations (SD) ranged from 0.41 to 0.55 when the results were expressed in log copies per milliliter, whereas the SD ranged from 0.17 to 0.32 when results were given in log international units per milliliter. Comparing the variance data (F test), we showed that the dispersion of whole-blood EDL results was significantly lower when they were expressed in log international units per milliliter (P < 0.001 for six of seven samples and P < 0.05 for one sample with a low mean EDL of 2.62 log IU/ml). This study showed that the use of the WHO EBV standard could improve the homogeneity of whole-blood EDL results between laboratories as well as the monitoring of patients at high risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders or other EBV-associated diseases.

  6. Multicenter Evaluation of Whole-Blood Epstein-Barr Viral Load Standardization Using the WHO International Standard

    PubMed Central

    Semenova, Touyana; Lupo, Julien; Alain, Sophie; Perrin-Confort, Gwladys; Grossi, Laurence; Dimier, Julie; Epaulard, Olivier; Morand, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The first WHO international standard for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (WHO EBV standard) for nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT)-based assays was commercialized in January 2012 by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. In the study reported here, we compared whole-blood EBV DNA load (EDL) results from 12 French laboratories for seven samples (Quality Controls for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 proficiency panel) in order to determine whether expression in international units reduces interlaboratory variability in whole-blood EDLs. Each testing laboratory used a conversion factor to convert EDL results from copies per milliliter to international units per milliliter. This conversion factor was calculated from the WHO EBV standard according to the protocol described in this study (nine laboratories) or the recommendations of the PCR kit suppliers (three laboratories). The interlaboratory variability in whole-blood EDL results was reduced after standardization of the results using the WHO EBV standard. For the seven samples tested, standard deviations (SD) ranged from 0.41 to 0.55 when the results were expressed in log copies per milliliter, whereas the SD ranged from 0.17 to 0.32 when results were given in log international units per milliliter. Comparing the variance data (F test), we showed that the dispersion of whole-blood EDL results was significantly lower when they were expressed in log international units per milliliter (P < 0.001 for six of seven samples and P < 0.05 for one sample with a low mean EDL of 2.62 log IU/ml). This study showed that the use of the WHO EBV standard could improve the homogeneity of whole-blood EDL results between laboratories as well as the monitoring of patients at high risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders or other EBV-associated diseases. PMID:27076661

  7. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, H. IV

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab.

  8. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Khanna, Nina Zheng; Fridley, David; Romankiewicz, John

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  9. Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.

    PubMed

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

    2002-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described.

  10. 75 FR 31749 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... the speed of the Codex standard-setting process, consider the Codex Strategic Plan and the capacity of... of a proposal for a re-evaluation process of substances in light of new data and new scientific... guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and marketing of organically produced foods (CAC/ GL...

  11. 78 FR 37505 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... for Hydrocyanic Acid for Cassava Flour and Gari (transfer from commodity standards to the General... Edible Cassava Flour, Gari and Sweet Cassava To be considered at Step 5/8: Proposed draft Maximum Levels... and Barley), including Sampling Plans, and in Flour, Semolina, Meal and Flakes Derived from...

  12. New International Reference Standards of Voltage and Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirvastava, V. P.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of the quantum standards of resistance and voltage, based on the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) and the Josephson Effect, can be used to establish highly reproducible and uniform representations of the ohm and volt worldwide. Discussed are the QHE and the Josephson Effect. (KR)

  13. Anthropometry and Standards for Wheeled Mobility: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeld, Edward; Maisel, Jordana; Feathers, David; D'Souza, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Space requirements for accommodating wheeled mobility devices and their users in the built environment are key components of standards for accessible design. These requirements typically include dimensions for clear floor areas, maneuvering clearances, seat and knee clearance heights, as well as some reference dimensions on wheeled mobility device…

  14. Comparability of Examination Standards between Subjects: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2009-01-01

    Heated discussions about the comparability of standards between examination subjects have kept Qualification Authorities, Testing Services, independent researchers and academics around the world busy for many years. As a result, many countries have adopted statistical techniques which aspire to make aggregated scores based on different subjects…

  15. Teacher Assessment Literacy: A Review of International Standards and Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Christopher; LaPointe-McEwan, Danielle; Luhanga, Ulemu

    2016-01-01

    Assessment literacy is a core professional requirement across educational systems. Hence, measuring and supporting teachers' assessment literacy have been a primary focus over the past two decades. At present, there are a multitude of assessment standards across the world and numerous assessment literacy measures that represent different…

  16. Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

  17. Prelude to the Common Core: Internationally Benchmarking a State's Math Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolard, J. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    As states struggle with the notion of international competitiveness, the quality and rigor of academic content standards has come into question. While Ohio's content standards are well regarded, the state initiated a process to revise the standards and eventually joined with the majority of states in adopting a voluntary set of national…

  18. Enabling Quantitative Analysis in Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Internal Standard Coated Capillary Samplers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangjiang; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    We describe a sampling method using glass capillaries for quantitative analysis of trace analytes in small volumes of complex mixtures (~1 μL) using ambient ionization mass spectrometry. The internal surface of a sampling glass capillary was coated with internal standard then used to draw liquid sample and so transfer both the analyte and internal standard in a single fixed volume onto a substrate for analysis. The internal standard was automatically mixed into the sample during this process and the volumes of the internal standard solution and sample are both fixed by the capillary volume. Precision in quantitation is insensitive to variations in length of the capillary, making the preparation of the sampling capillary simple and providing a robust sampling protocol. Significant improvements in quantitation accuracy were obtained for analysis of 1 μL samples using various ambient ionization methods. PMID:23731380

  19. PV Standards Work: Photovoltaic System and Component Certification, Test Facility Accreditation, and Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems International Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.; Chalmers, S.; Barikmo, H. O.

    2005-11-01

    This paper discusses efforts led by two companies (PowerMark Corporation and Sunset Technologies Inc.) to support both U.S. domestic and international photovoltaic (PV) system and component certification and test facility accreditation programs and the operation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC-82) Photovoltaic Energy Systems. International and national PV certification/accreditation programs are successfully facilitating entry of only the highest quality PV products into the marketplace. Standards also continue to be a cornerstone for assuring global PV product conformity assessment, reducing non-tariff trade barriers, and ultimately improving PV products while lowering cost.

  20. Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Bialous, S.; Yach, D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine deliveries", and the name of key players, in different combinations.
RESULTS—It is clear that the tobacco industry, through the Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA), play a major role in determining the scientific evidence and suggesting the standards that are eventually adopted as international standards for tobacco and tobacco products in several areas, including the measurement of cigarette tar and nicotine yield.
CONCLUSIONS—ISO's tobacco and tobacco products standards are not adequate to guide tobacco products regulatory policies, and no health claims can be made based on ISO's tobacco products standards. There is an urgent need for tobacco control advocates and groups worldwide to be more involved with the work of the ISO, both directly and through their national standardisation organisations.


Keywords: tar and nicotine measurement; International Organization for Standardization; ISO; Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco; CORESTA; regulatory policy PMID:11387528

  1. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  2. Teaching optical dimensional metrology of surfaces and international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2014-07-01

    Dimensional metrology is a demanding subject that requires an in-depth knowledge not only of the characteristics of the object of the measurement and the method and system to be used to perform the measurement but also of the standards to followed and strictly respected. This is especially true for surface metrology. The definition of surface, particularly when using optical methods in the measuring process, is a first problem to be understood. From this definition discussion, in our pedagogical approach, we move to the study of the characteristics of light and light/matter/surface interaction. Surface characterization parameters and the main ISO standards are studied. Particular attention is given within the study of the sensing/measuring processes to the definition of uncertainty of a measurement. ISO' Guide of Expression of Uncertainty of a Measurement, GUM, is studied (as well as the VIM). A review of the main optical surface inspection system is made. We believe on the importance of an active student centred learning and on the resource to hands-on experimental practice and therefore all this teaching approach evolves from practical examples and actual experiments and observations.

  3. Metabolomics Standards Workshop and the development of international standards for reporting metabolomics experimental results.

    PubMed

    Castle, Arthur L; Fiehn, Oliver; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Lindon, John C

    2006-06-01

    Informatics standards and controlled vocabularies are essential for allowing information technology to help exchange, manage, interpret and compare large data collections. In a rapidly evolving field, the challenge is to work out how best to describe, but not prescribe, the use of these technologies and methods. A Metabolomics Standards Workshop was held by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) to bring together multiple ongoing standards efforts in metabolomics with the NIH research community. The goals were to discuss metabolomics workflows (methods, technologies and data treatments) and the needs, challenges and potential approaches to developing a Metabolomics Standards Initiative that will help facilitate this rapidly growing field which has been a focus of the NIH roadmap effort. This report highlights specific aspects of what was presented and discussed at the 1st and 2nd August 2005 Metabolomics Standards Workshop.

  4. Survey and qualification of internal standards for quantification by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rundlöf, Torgny; Mathiasson, Marie; Bekiroglu, Somer; Hakkarainen, Birgit; Bowden, Tim; Arvidsson, Torbjörn

    2010-09-05

    In quantitative NMR (qNMR) selection of an appropriate internal standard proves to be crucial. In this study, 25 candidate compounds considered to be potent internal standards were investigated with respect to the ability of providing unique signal chemical shifts, purity, solubility, and ease of use. The (1)H chemical shift (delta) values, assignments, multiplicities and number of protons (for each signal), appropriateness (as to be used as internal standards) in four different deuterated solvents (D(2)O, DMSO-d(6), CD(3)OD, CDCl(3)) were studied. Taking into account the properties of these 25 internal standards, the most versatile eight compounds (2,4,6-triiodophenol, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-nitrobenzene, 3,4,5-trichloropyridine, dimethyl terephthalate, 1,4-dinitrobenzene, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, maleic acid and fumaric acid) were qualified using both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and NMR spectroscopy employing highly pure acetanilide as the reference standard. The data from these two methods were compared as well as utilized in the quality assessment of the compounds as internal standards. Finally, the selected internal standards were tested and evaluated in a real case of quantitative NMR analysis of a paracetamol pharmaceutical product.

  5. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

  6. Calibration and commutability assessment of the 1st International Standard for Diphtheria Antitoxin Human.

    PubMed

    Stickings, Paul; Rigsby, Peter; Coombes, Laura; von Hunolstein, Christina; Ralli, Luisa; Pinto, Antonella; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2013-11-01

    The 1st International Standard for Diphtheria Antitoxin Human (coded 10/262) was established by the World Health Organization Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2012. This paper describes the production, characterization and calibration of the new standard which is intended for use in the standardization of assays used to measure diphtheria antibody responses in human serum. The new standard was calibrated in terms of the International Standard for Diphtheria Antitoxin Equine in an international collaborative study. A total of 8 participants from 8 different countries performed in vivo and/or in vitro toxin neutralization tests and returned data that was used to assign units to the proposed new standard. The new standard has a diphtheria antitoxin potency of 2 IU/ampoule and is predicted to be stable. A follow up study was performed to assess commutability of the new standard. The follow up study was an existing external quality assessment, modified to include the new standard. Results obtained suggest that the new standard is commutable, showing comparable behaviour to native human serum samples in the majority of the assays compared, and is therefore suitable for use as a reference preparation in assays used to measure the level of anti-diphtheria antibodies in human serum.

  7. [From manual workshop to international standard maker: exploration on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Cao, Yang; Xia, Youbing

    2015-02-01

    ABSTRACT The exploration course on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school is reviewed in this paper. After new China was established, acupuncture needle standard was unified by Mr. CHENG Dan-an, which guided Suzhou Hua Erfang (predecessor of Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory) to make the quality standards and testing methods of acupuncture needle and improved the production process to make the modern acupuncture needle. Based on this, Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory followed the time development pace, ac tively introduced new technology, carried out technological innovation, and constantly improved the level of production technology, as a result, it gradually developed into one of the world's largest acupuncture needle production suppliers. Meanwhile, after establishing China's first national standard on acupuncture needle (GB 2024-1980), the Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory took the lead to draft "ISO) 17218:2014 the disposable use asepsis acupuncture needle", which was officially published as an international standard. The Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory developed from a manual workshop to an international standard maker.

  8. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and the transportation in commerce of hazardous materials in accordance with the International Civil... international transport standards and regulations authorized in paragraph (a) of this section (e.g., paragraph 1... transported in the United States in full compliance (i.e., packaged, marked, labeled, classed,...

  9. 25 CFR 543.21 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... surveillance? 543.21 Section 543.21 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.21 What are the minimum internal... gaming and count room activities. (11) A periodic inspection of the surveillance systems must...

  10. 25 CFR 543.21 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... surveillance? 543.21 Section 543.21 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.21 What are the minimum internal... gaming and count room activities. (11) A periodic inspection of the surveillance systems must...

  11. International Symposium on Information Technology: Standards for Bibliographic Control (Bangkok, Thailand, September 4-8, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thammasat Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Univ. Libraries.

    This document which covers the proceedings of the 1989 International Symposium on Information Technology, begins with several opening ceremony messages and includes the following papers: (1) "Reflections on International Bibliographic Standards" (Winston D. Roberts); (2) "Bibliographic Control from the User's Perspective" (Ruth…

  12. 78 FR 1826 - International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... the risks associated with fungi moving on wood commodities; and directed a TAG to report advances on... International Plant Protection Convention, and the North American Plant Protection Organization, and we are... specific information regarding the standard-setting activities of the International Plant...

  13. International Labour Standards and Technical Co-Operation: The Case of Special Public Works Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jean

    1989-01-01

    Applies international labor standards to results of the International Labour Office's special public works programs to discover whether program intentions have been met. Finds that while productive employment has been pursued, popular participation is not occurring and such issues as (1) forced labor, (2) child employment, and (3) inequality of…

  14. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  15. Evolution of Climate Science Modelling Language within international standards frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Dominic; Woolf, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML) was originally developed as part of the NERC Data Grid (NDG) project in the UK. It was one of the first Geography Markup Language (GML) application schemas describing complex feature types for the metocean domain. CSML feature types can be used to describe typical climate products such as model runs or atmospheric profiles. CSML has been successfully used within NDG to provide harmonised access to a number of different data sources. For example, meteorological observations held in heterogeneous databases by the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) were served uniformly as CSML features via Web Feature Service. CSML has now been substantially revised to harmonise it with the latest developments in OGC and ISO conceptual modelling for geographic information. In particular, CSML is now aligned with the near-final ISO 19156 Observations & Measurements (O&M) standard. CSML combines the O&M concept of 'sampling features' together with an observation result based on the coverage model (ISO 19123). This general pattern is specialised for particular data types of interest, classified on the basis of sampling geometry and topology. In parallel work, the OGC Met Ocean Domain Working Group has established a conceptual modelling activity. This is a cross-organisational effort aimed at reaching consensus on a common core data model that could be re-used in a number of met-related application areas: operational meteorology, aviation meteorology, climate studies, and the research community. It is significant to note that this group has also identified sampling geometry and topology as a key classification axis for data types. Using the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach as adopted by INSPIRE we demonstrate how the CSML application schema is derived from a formal UML conceptual model based on the ISO TC211 framework. By employing MDA tools which map consistently between UML and GML we

  16. International Cooperation for a Single World Production Standard of High Definition Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongcharu, Boonchai

    Broadcasters, television engineers and the production industry have encountered many problems with diverse television standards since the introduction of color television. With the advent of high definition television (HDTV), the chance to have a common production standard for international exchange of programs and technical information has…

  17. Commercial versus Internally Developed Standardized Tests: Lessons from a Small Regional School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjicharalambous, Costas

    2014-01-01

    The author compares the efficacy of commercially available and internally developed standardized tests and evaluates their strengths and weakness in assessing student learning outcomes. The author shares the experience of a regional school in developing a standardized test to assess business knowledge. Data from a sample of 268 students were used…

  18. 25 CFR 543.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and accounting? 543.23 Section 543.23 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.23 What are the... SICS, the gaming operation should review, and consider incorporating, other external standards such...

  19. 25 CFR 543.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and accounting? 543.23 Section 543.23 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.23 What are the... SICS, the gaming operation should review, and consider incorporating, other external standards such...

  20. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION: STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Calmet, D; Ameon, R; Bombard, A; Brun, S; Byrde, F; Chen, J; Duda, J-M; Forte, M; Fournier, M; Fronka, A; Haug, T; Herranz, M; Husain, A; Jerome, S; Jiranek, M; Judge, S; Kim, S B; Kwakman, P; Loyen, J; LLaurado, M; Michel, R; Porterfield, D; Ratsirahonana, A; Richards, A; Rovenska, K; Sanada, T; Schuler, C; Thomas, L; Tokonami, S; Tsapalov, A; Yamada, T

    2016-11-24

    Radiological protection is a matter of concern for members of the public and thus national authorities are more likely to trust the quality of radioactivity data provided by accredited laboratories using common standards. Normative approach based on international standards aims to ensure the accuracy or validity of the test result through calibrations and measurements traceable to the International System of Units. This approach guarantees that radioactivity test results on the same types of samples are comparable over time and space as well as between different testing laboratories. Today, testing laboratories involved in radioactivity measurement have a set of more than 150 international standards to help them perform their work. Most of them are published by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper reviews the most essential ISO standards that give guidance to testing laboratories at different stages from sampling planning to the transmission of the test report to their customers, summarizes recent activities and achievements and present the perspectives on new standards under development by the ISO Working Groups dealing with radioactivity measurement in connection with radiological protection.

  1. Standardization and future directions in pattern identification research: International brainstorming session.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Park, Bongki; Lee, Ju Ah; You, Sooseong; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Kim, Tae-Hun; Xu, Hao; Zaslawski, Chris; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-09-01

    An international brainstorming session on standardizing pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine on October 1, 2013 in Daejeon, South Korea. This brainstorming session was convened to gather insights from international traditional East Asian medicine specialists regarding PI standardization. With eight presentations and discussion sessions, the meeting allowed participants to discuss research methods and diagnostic systems used in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented a talk titled "The diagnostic criteria for blood stasis syndrome: implications for standardization of PI". Four speakers presented on future strategies and objective measurement tools that could be used in PI research. Later, participants shared information and methodology for accurate diagnosis and PI. They also discussed the necessity for standardizing PI and methods for international collaborations in pattern research.

  2. Standardization of therapeutic, urinary gonadotrophins: an update on the use and availability of International Standards for Menotrophin.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jackie; Hockley, Jason; Tiplady, Richard; Burns, Chris

    2013-11-01

    The potencies of therapeutic preparations of gonadotrophins of human, urinary origin, which comprise a heterogenous mix of isoforms with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) bioactivities, are standardized by WHO International Standards (IS). We report here, the evaluation, through an international collaborative study, of a candidate preparation, coded 10/286, to replace the 4th IS, 98/704, for human, urinary FSH and LH (Menotrophin) which has been used for many years for the potency assignment of therapeutic preparations using bioassays. The mean FSH and LH bioactivities of 10/286, determined by in vivo bioassays in terms of 98/704, were 183 IU per ampoule (95% confidence limits 165-202) and 177 IU per ampoule (95% confidence limits 159-197), respectively.

  3. Ethical issues in tissue banking for research: the prospects and pitfalls of setting international standards.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Karen J; Murray, Thomas H

    2004-01-01

    Bauer, Taub, and Parsi's review of an international sample of standards on informed consent, confidentiality, commercialization, and quality of research in tissue banking reveals that no clear national or international consensus exists for these issues. The authors' response to the lack of uniformity in the meaning, scope, and ethical significance of the policies they examined is to call for the creation of uniform ethical guidelines. This raises questions about whether harmonization should consist of voluntary international standards or international regulations that include an official oversight mechanism and sanctions for noncompliance, and about who should participate in the harmonization process. Moreover, the normative assumptions and political dynamics that shape global policymaking need to be addressed. This commentary explores the policy implications and normative questions raised by the idea of international ethical guidelines for the use of biotechnologies and biotechnological resources such as stored samples of human tissue.

  4. 2009 Review and Revisions of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen; Donovan, William; Graves, Daniel; Jha, Amitabh; Jones, Linda; Kirshblum, Steven; Marino, Ralph; Mulcahey, M.J; Reeves, Ronald; Scelza, William M; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Stein, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI. PMID:21061894

  5. _ 2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen; Donovan, William; Graves, Daniel; Jha, Amitabh; Jones, Linda; Kirshblum, Steven; Marino, Ralph; Mulcahey, M J; Reeves, Ronald; Scelza, William M; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Stein, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI.

  6. [International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC)--comments from the German point of view].

    PubMed

    Castell, S; Bauer, T; Diel, R; Hedrich, A; Magdorf, K; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Schaberg, T; Loddenkemper, R

    2012-04-01

    The "International Standards for Tuberculosis Care" (ISTC) were developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others to provide internationally agreed and, if possible, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care including the care by private providers who are not part of national tuberculosis programmes or health-care systems. Hence, the ISTC primarily address resource-restrained countries with high tuberculosis prevalence. In this article, the German translation of the 21 standards from 2009 is presented - addressing diagnostic and therapeutic standards, co-infection (especially with HIV) and public-health issues. The accompanying comments show how these standards have to be modified for Germany due to the medical resources available here and country-specific characteristics respectively.

  7. The Second International Standard for Vitamin D: crystalline vitamin D3*

    PubMed Central

    Coward, K. H.; Irwin, J. O.

    1954-01-01

    This report was presented to the Subcommittee on Fat-Soluble Vitamins of the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 1949 by the Vitamin D Sub-Committee of the Accessory Food Factors Committee of the Medical Research Council of Great Britain and formed the evidence on which the first-mentioned subcommittee based its recommendation of the adoption of crystalline vitamin D3 as the International Standard for Vitamin D, replacing the solution of irradiated ergosterol which had been adopted as Standard in 1931. The Vitamin D Sub-Committee organized a collaborative assay in which 32 laboratories in seven countries participated. In addition to 29g of crystalline vitamin D3 generously contributed by five firms, the following preparations were compared for vitamin D activity by biological tests on rats or chicks or both: the then current International Standard, a preparation of the purest calciferol obtainable, the British Standards Institution (BSI) Standard, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Cod Liver Oil, and the Swedish provisional standard. Altogether 29 rat assays and 25 chick assays were carried out, and the results were subjected to standard methods of analysis. The BSI Standard and the pure calciferol were found less potent than the Old Standard (potency ratios: 0.916 and 0.933, respectively); and the New Standard may be slightly less potent (0.981), but it is more potent than the BSI Standard (1.071). The USP Reference Oil is less potent than the BSI Standard (0.949), the Old Standard (0.896), and the New Standard (0.886). The fiducial range is generally less than 10%, but even where it is greater, it is still satisfactory for a biological test. PMID:13199651

  8. Relationship between internal medicine program board examination pass rates, accreditation standards, and program size

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, John L.; Gonzalo, Jed D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine Internal Medicine residency program compliance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 80% pass-rate standard and the correlation between residency program size and performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design from 2010-2012 American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination data of all Internal Medicine residency programs, comparisons were made between program pass rates to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard. To assess the correlation between program size and performance, a Spearman’s rho was calculated. To evaluate program size and its relationship to the pass-rate standard, receiver operative characteristic curves were calculated. Results Of 372 Internal Medicine residency programs, 276 programs (74%) achieved a pass rate of ≥80%, surpassing the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education minimum standard. A weak correlation was found between residency program size and pass rate for the three-year period (ρ=0.19, p<0.001). The area underneath the receiver operative characteristic curve was 0.69 (95% Confidence Interval [0.63-0.75]), suggesting programs with less than 12 examinees/year are less likely to meet the minimum Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard (sensitivity 63.8%, specificity 60.4%, positive predictive value 82.2%, p<0.001). Conclusions Although a majority of Internal Medicine residency programs complied with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standards, a quarter of the programs failed to meet this requirement. Program size is positively but weakly associated with American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination performance, suggesting other unidentified variables significantly contribute to program performance. PMID:25341205

  9. ASTM international workshop on standards and measurements for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A

    2015-07-01

    The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active "guide" documents for educational purposes, but few standard "test methods" or "practices." Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs.

  10. Trends for International Standards of the High Speed Powerline Communication Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Michimasa; Koga, Hisao; Atsuta, Akira

    The high speed powerline communication (PLC) technology is useful for a variety of applications especially for Smart Grid. Although the standardization of this technology has been desired for a long time, recently IEEE P1901 and ITU-T SG15 made significant progress and both of the Standards are expected to be completed by the end of 2010. The frame work of the coexistence mechanism among the different types of PLC technologies is also going to be resolved with the collaborative work between IEEE and ITU-T. In this paper, the authors introduce the summary of the International Standardizations of this technology, and also the future prospects of the Standards.

  11. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  12. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories.

  13. Evaluation of the International Organization for Standardization-International Dairy Federation (ISO-IDF) draft standard method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant food formulas.

    PubMed

    Besse, Nathalie Gnanou; Leclercq, Alexandre; Maladen, Véronique; Tyburski, Corinne; Bertrand, Lombard

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the growing recognition of Enterobacter sakazakii as an emergent pathogen, the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have standardized a reference method for the detection of E. sakazakii in milk powder products and powdered infant food formulas (IFF). The objectives of this study were to assess the applicability of the ISO-IDF draft standard, and to compare several chromogenic selective media for E. sakazakii [ready-to-use ESIATM, homemade E. sakazakii isolation agar, and Druggan-Forsythe-lversen (DFI) agar], and a selective media for Enterobacteriaceae Violet Red Bile Glucose (VRBG). We found that the method is sensitive, selective, and applicable to the analysis of powdered IFF, provided that some modifications are added. In particular, definition of typical colonies on chromogenic media should be less restrictive, and the possibility of using chromogenic media other than ESIA should be introduced. Any of the chromogenic media tested here could be used initially, since their performances were similar. In these media, alpha-glucosidase-positive but non-yellow-pigmented isolates should be also considered. Consequently, the yellow pigmentation test should be abandoned, or completed with another test in order to select colonies to confirm. Although the specificity of VRBG was relatively poor, it could be used as a second nonchromogenic medium.

  14. Avoiding ISO-lation: What international standards mean for U.S. industry

    SciTech Connect

    Crognale, G.; Walter-Slepicka, M.

    1996-03-01

    US companies are awash in an effort to promote and self-proclaim conformance to ISO 9000, the series of quality standards established by the International Organization for Standardization (Geneva, Switzerland). One only needs to drive along any roadway to note another banner proclaiming a company`s conformance or certification, or pick up a magazine or newspaper to read that a company is ISO 9001-certified. Quality standards are not quite the same as environmental standards, however. As a result, some companies may be receiving mixed signals with how ISO 9000 compares to the proposed ISO 14000 standards series for environmental management systems. This article clarifies some of these perceptions, and describes in greater detail what the environmental standards are, what they mean for industry and what they can do for companies that implement them.

  15. International standards on mental work-load--the ISO 10,075 series.

    PubMed

    Nachreiner, F

    1999-04-01

    After a short review of the history and an introduction into the background of standardization in the field of mental work-load an overview over the ISO 10,075 series of standards on ergonomic principles related to mental work-load is given. The review also presents relationships of these standards with some other ergonomic standards and some of the problems associated with standardization in the field of mental work-load. The stress-strain model, the concepts and the terminology used in ISO 10,075 are presented in the overview, together with the basic ideas and the frame of reference of the design guidelines provided by ISO 10,075-2. An outline of the state of discussion and possible developments of a working draft for ISO 10,075-3 on diagnostic methods concludes the presentation of the international standards on mental work-load.

  16. Open System Interconnection - NASA program communications of the future. [developed by International aorganization for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards are being developed by the ISO and the Consultative Committee on International Telephone and Telegraph with the support of industry. These standards are being developed to allow the interconnecting of computer systems and the interworking of applications such that the applications can be independent of any equipment manufacturer. Significant progress has been made, and the establishment of government OSI standards is being considered. There is considerable interest within NASA in the potential benefits of OSI and in communications standards in general. The OSI standards are being considered for possible application in the Space Station onboard data management system. The OSI standards have reached a high level of maturity, and it is now imperative that NASA plan for future migration to OSI where appropriate.

  17. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  18. Implementing standardized, inter-unit communication in an international setting: handoff of patients from emergency medicine to internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Kamna S; Peterson, Susan M; Elabd, Mohamed Moheb; Regan, Linda; Anton, Xavier; Al-Natour, Basil Ali; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Scheulen, James; Stewart de Ramirez, Sarah A

    2017-02-03

    Standardized handoffs may reduce communication errors, but research on handoff in community and international settings is lacking. Our study at a community hospital in the United Arab Emirates characterizes existing handoff practices for admitted patients from emergency medicine (EM) to internal medicine (IM), develops a standardized handoff tool, and assesses its impact on communication and physician perceptions. EM physicians completed a survey regarding handoff practices and expectations. Trained observers utilized a checklist based on the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model to observe 40 handoffs. EM and IM physicians collaboratively developed a written tool encouraging bedside handoff of admitted patients. After the intervention, surveys of EM physicians and 40 observations were subsequently repeated. 77.5% of initial observed handoffs occurred face-to-face, with 42.5% at bedside, and in four different languages. Most survey respondents considered face-to-face handoff ideal. Respondents noted 9-13 patients suffering harm due to handoff in the prior month. After handoff tool implementation, 97.5% of observed handoffs occurred face-to-face (versus 77.5%, p = 0.014), with 82.5% at bedside (versus 42.5%, p < 0.001), and all in English. Handoff was streamlined from 7 possible pathways to 3. Most post-intervention survey respondents reported improved workflow (77.8%) and safety (83.3%); none reported patient harm. Respondents and observers noted reduced inefficiency (p < 0.05). Our standardized tool increased face-to-face and bedside handoff, positively impacted workflow, and increased perceptions of safety by EM physicians in an international, non-academic setting. Our three-step approach can be applied towards developing standardized, context-specific inter-specialty handoff in a variety of settings.

  19. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is...

  20. WIAMan Technology Demonstrator Sensor Codes Conforming to International Organization for Standardization/Technical Standard (ISO/TS) 13499

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    ARL-TR-7619•MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory WIAMan Technology Demonstrator Sensor Codes Conforming to International Organization for...needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7619•MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory WIAMan Technology Demonstrator Sensor Codes Conforming to...ABSTRACT    c. THIS PAGE    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area  code )   Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98)    Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 March 2016 Final

  1. Production and NMR signal optimization of hyperpolarized 13C-labeled amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Christopher; Niedbalski, Peter; Ferguson, Sarah; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Lumata, Lloyd

    Amino acids are targeted nutrients for consumption by cancers to sustain their rapid growth and proliferation. 13C-enriched amino acids are important metabolic tracers for cancer diagnostics using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Despite this diagnostic potential, 13C NMR of amino acids however is hampered by the inherently low NMR sensitivity of the 13C nuclei. In this work, we have employed a physics technique known as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to enhance the NMR signals of 13C-enriched amino acids. DNP works by transferring the high polarization of electrons to the nuclear spins via microwave irradiation at low temperature and high magnetic field. Using a fast dissolution method in which the frozen polarized samples are dissolved rapidly with superheated water, injectable solutions of 13C-amino acids with highly enhanced NMR signals (by at least 5,000-fold) were produced at room temperature. Factors that affect the NMR signal enhancement levels such as the choice of free radical polarizing agents and sample preparation will be discussed along with the thermal mixing physics model of DNP. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.

  2. 13C labeling analysis of sugars by high resolution-mass spectrometry for metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Acket, Sébastien; Degournay, Anthony; Merlier, Franck; Thomasset, Brigitte

    2017-02-14

    Metabolic flux analysis is particularly complex in plant cells because of highly compartmented metabolism. Analysis of free sugars is interesting because it provides data to define fluxes around hexose, pentose, and triose phosphate pools in different compartment. In this work, we present a method to analyze the isotopomer distribution of free sugars labeled with carbon 13 using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, without derivatized procedure, adapted for Metabolic flux analysis. Our results showed a good sensitivity, reproducibility and better accuracy to determine isotopic enrichments of free sugars compared to our previous methods [5, 6].

  3. Metabolic Flux Elucidation for Large-Scale Models Using 13C Labeled Isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Suthers, Patrick F.; Burgard, Anthony P.; Dasika, Madhukar S.; Nowroozi, Farnaz; Van Dien, Stephen; Keasling, Jay D.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2007-01-01

    A key consideration in metabolic engineering is the determination of fluxes of the metabolites within the cell. This determination provides an unambiguous description of metabolism before and/or after engineering interventions. Here, we present a computational framework that combines a constraint-based modeling framework with isotopic label tracing on a large-scale. When cells are fed a growth substrate with certain carbon positions labeled with 13C, the distribution of this label in the intracellular metabolites can be calculated based on the known biochemistry of the participating pathways. Most labeling studies focus on skeletal representations of central metabolism and ignore many flux routes that could contribute to the observed isotopic labeling patterns. In contrast, our approach investigates the importance of carrying out isotopic labeling studies using a more comprehensive reaction network consisting of 350 fluxes and 184 metabolites in Escherichia coli including global metabolite balances on cofactors such as ATP, NADH, and NADPH. The proposed procedure is demonstrated on an E. coli strain engineered to produce amorphadiene, a precursor to the anti-malarial drug artemisinin. The cells were grown in continuous culture on glucose containing 20% [U-13C]glucose; the measurements are made using GC-MS performed on 13 amino acids extracted from the cells. We identify flux distributions for which the calculated labeling patterns agree well with the measurements alluding to the accuracy of the network reconstruction. Furthermore, we explore the robustness of the flux calculations to variability in the experimental MS measurements, as well as highlight the key experimental measurements necessary for flux determination. Finally, we discuss the effect of reducing the model, as well as shed light onto the customization of the developed computational framework to other systems. PMID:17632026

  4. Absorption and distribution kinetics of the 13C-labeled tomato carotenoid phytoene in healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoene is a tomato carotenoid which may contribute to the apparent health benefits of tomato consumption. While phytoene is a less prominent tomato carotenoid than lycopene, it is a major carotenoid in various human tissues. Phytoene distribution to plasma lipoproteins and tissues differs from lyc...

  5. Isotopomer studies of gluconeogenesis and the Krebs cycle with 13C-labeled lactate.

    PubMed

    Katz, J; Wals, P; Lee, W N

    1993-12-05

    Fasted rats were intragastrically infused with either [2,3-13C]lactate or [1,2,3-13C]lactate. The infusate also contained 14C-labeled lactate and [3-3H]glucose. Glucose, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine were isolated from liver and blood. There was near complete equilibration of lactate and alanine, and the relative specific activities and relative enrichments were the same in blood and liver. Glucose was cleaved enzymatically to lactate. The compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. From the mass isotopomer spectra of the lactate, glutamate, and glutamine and their cleavage fragments the positional isotopomer composition of these compounds was obtained. The enrichment and isotopomer pattern in the lactate from cleaved glucose represents that in phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). When [1,2,3-13C]lactate was infused the mass isotopomer spectrum of glutamates consisted only of compounds containing either one, two, or three 13C carbons per molecule (m1, m2, and m3). There was little 13C in C-4 and C-5 of glutamate. The rate of pyruvate decarboxylation is low, and 3-4% of the acetyl-CoA flux in the Krebs cycle is contributed by lactate carbon. The major isotopomers in lactate, alanine, and PEP were m3 and m2 with 13C in C-2 and C-3. The predominant isotopomer in PEP from [2,3-13C]lactate was m2 with 13C in C-2 and C-3. There was much more of m1 isotopomer with 13C in C-3 and C-2 than the m1 isotopomer with 13C in C-1. There was very little m3, the isotopomer with 13C in all three carbons. Most of the 13C in C-3 and C-4 of glucose and C-1 of glutamate was introduced via 13CO2 fixation. From the isotopomer distribution and the rate of glucose turnover we deduced, applying the analysis described in the "Appendix," the absolute rates of gluconeogenic pathways, recycling of PEP and the Cori cycle, and flux in the Krebs cycle. The flux from oxaloacetate (OAA)-->PEP was seven times that of OAA-->citrate, and about half of PEP was recycled to pyruvate via pyruvate kinase. The mass isotopomer patterns in glutamate and glutamine were similar but differed from those of lactate and glucose. It appears that the glutamates are derived from alpha-ketoglutarate from a different Krebs cycle pool than PEP. The flux from OAA to PEP in this pool was two to three times that of OAA to citrate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  6. Structural analysis of uniformly (13)C-labelled solids from selective angle measurements at rotational resonance.

    PubMed

    Patching, Simon G; Edwards, Rachel; Middleton, David A

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate that individual H-C-C-H torsional angles in uniformly labelled organic solids can be estimated by selective excitation of (13)C double-quantum coherences under magic-angle spinning at rotational resonance. By adapting a straightforward one-dimensional experiment described earlier [T. Karlsson, M. Eden, H. Luhman, M.H. Levitt, J. Magn. Reson. 145 (2000) 95-107], a double-quantum filtered spectrum selective for Calpha and Cbeta of uniformly labelled L-[(13)C,(15)N]valine is obtained with 25% efficiency. The evolution of Calpha-Cbeta double-quantum coherence under the influence of the dipolar fields of bonded protons is monitored to provide a value of the Halpha-Calpha-Cbeta-Hbeta torsional angle that is consistent with the crystal structure. In addition, double-quantum filtration selective for C6 and C1' of uniformly labelled [(13)C,(15)N]uridine is achieved with 12% efficiency for a (13)C-(13)C distance of 2.5A, yielding a reliable estimate of the C6-H and C1'-H projection angle defining the relative orientations of the nucleoside pyrimidine and ribose rings. This procedure will be useful, in favourable cases, for structural analysis of fully labelled small molecules such as receptor ligands that are not readily synthesised with labels placed selectively at structurally diagnostic sites.

  7. Structural analysis of uniformly 13C-labelled solids from selective angle measurements at rotational resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patching, Simon G.; Edwards, Rachel; Middleton, David A.

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate that individual H-C-C-H torsional angles in uniformly labelled organic solids can be estimated by selective excitation of 13C double-quantum coherences under magic-angle spinning at rotational resonance. By adapting a straightforward one-dimensional experiment described earlier [T. Karlsson, M. Eden, H. Luhman, M.H. Levitt, J. Magn. Reson. 145 (2000) 95-107], a double-quantum filtered spectrum selective for Cα and Cβ of uniformly labelled L-[ 13C, 15N]valine is obtained with 25% efficiency. The evolution of Cα-Cβ double-quantum coherence under the influence of the dipolar fields of bonded protons is monitored to provide a value of the Hα-Cα-Cβ-Hβ torsional angle that is consistent with the crystal structure. In addition, double-quantum filtration selective for C6 and C1' of uniformly labelled [ 13C, 15N]uridine is achieved with 12% efficiency for a 13C- 13C distance of 2.5 Å, yielding a reliable estimate of the C6-H and C1'-H projection angle defining the relative orientations of the nucleoside pyrimidine and ribose rings. This procedure will be useful, in favourable cases, for structural analysis of fully labelled small molecules such as receptor ligands that are not readily synthesised with labels placed selectively at structurally diagnostic sites.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of pH in vivo using hyperpolarized 13C-labelled bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Ferdia A; Kettunen, Mikko I; Day, Sam E; Hu, De-En; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Zandt, René in 't; Jensen, Pernille R; Karlsson, Magnus; Golman, Klaes; Lerche, Mathilde H; Brindle, Kevin M

    2008-06-12

    As alterations in tissue pH underlie many pathological processes, the capability to image tissue pH in the clinic could offer new ways of detecting disease and response to treatment. Dynamic nuclear polarization is an emerging technique for substantially increasing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging experiments. Here we show that tissue pH can be imaged in vivo from the ratio of the signal intensities of hyperpolarized bicarbonate (H(13)CO(3)(-)) and (13)CO(2) following intravenous injection of hyperpolarized H(13)CO(3)(-). The technique was demonstrated in a mouse tumour model, which showed that the average tumour interstitial pH was significantly lower than the surrounding tissue. Given that bicarbonate is an endogenous molecule that can be infused in relatively high concentrations into patients, we propose that this technique could be used clinically to image pathological processes that are associated with alterations in tissue pH, such as cancer, ischaemia and inflammation.

  9. Methanogenic capabilities of ANME-archaea deduced from (13) C-labelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Sebastian; Blumenberg, Martin; Michaelis, Walter; Siegert, Michael; Krüger, Martin; Seifert, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) are ubiquitous in marine sediments where sulfate dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs. Despite considerable progress in the understanding of AOM, physiological details are still widely unresolved. We investigated two distinct microbial mat samples from the Black Sea that were dominated by either ANME-1 or ANME-2. The (13) C lipid stable isotope probing (SIP) method using labelled substances, namely methane, bicarbonate, acetate, and methanol, was applied, and the substrate-dependent methanogenic capabilities were tested. Our data provide strong evidence for a versatile physiology of both, ANME-1 and ANME-2. Considerable methane production rates (MPRs) from CO2 -reduction were observed, particularly from ANME-2 dominated samples and in the presence of methane, which supports the hypothesis of a co-occurrence of methanotrophy and methanogenesis in the AOM systems (AOM/MPR up to 2:1). The experiments also revealed strong methylotrophic capabilities through (13) C-assimilation from labelled methanol, which was independent of the presence of methane. Additionally, high MPRs from methanol were detected in both of the mat samples. As demonstrated by the (13) C-uptake into lipids, ANME-1 was found to thrive also under methane free conditions. Finally, C35 -isoprenoid hydrocarbons were identified as new lipid biomarkers for ANME-1, most likely functioning as a hydrogen sink during methanogenesis.

  10. Computational Platform for Flux Analysis Using 13C-Label Tracing- Phase I SBIR Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dien, Stephen J.

    2005-04-12

    Isotopic label tracing is a powerful experimental technique that can be combined with metabolic models to quantify metabolic fluxes in an organism under a particular set of growth conditions. In this work we constructed a genome-scale metabolic model of Methylobacterium extorquens, a facultative methylotroph with potential application in the production of useful chemicals from methanol. A series of labeling experiments were performed using 13C-methanol, and the resulting distribution of labeled carbon in the proteinogenic amino acids was determined by mass spectrometry. Algorithms were developed to analyze this data in context of the metabolic model, yielding flux distributions for wild-type and several engineered strains of M. extorquens. These fluxes were compared to those predicted by model simulation alone, and also integrated with microarray data to give an improved understanding of the metabolic physiology of this organism.

  11. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  12. International standards on working postures and movements ISO 11226 and EN 1005-4.

    PubMed

    Delleman, N J; Dul, J

    2007-11-01

    Standards organizations have given considerable attention to the problem of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The publication of international standards for evaluating working postures and movements, ISO 11,226 in 2000 and EN 1,005-4 in 2005, may be considered as a support for those involved in preventing and controlling these disorders. The first one is a tool for evaluation of existing work situations, whereas the latter one is a tool for evaluation during a design/engineering process. Key publications and considerations that led to the content of the standards are presented, followed by examples of application.

  13. Differences in Students' Reading Comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards: A South African Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, Stephen A.; Janse van Rensburg, Cecile; Schmulian, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This study explores differences in students' reading comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards in a South African financial reporting class with a heterogeneous student cohort. Statistically significant differences were identified for prior academic performance, language of instruction, first language and enrolment in the…

  14. India Needs International Standards in Accreditation Problems in Adoption and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper outlines in brief, need and importance of introducing global quality standards in accreditation, prescribed by the international agreement "Washington Accord". This agreement is initially provisional and after scrutiny, if found fit, it is upgraded to Signatory status. It is this status which empowers students of engineering,…

  15. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  16. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  17. 25 CFR 543.24 - What are the minimum internal control standards for auditing revenue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... auditing revenue? 543.24 Section 543.24 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.24 What are the...) noted by the Class II gaming system for cashless transactions in and out, electronic funds transfer...

  18. 25 CFR 543.24 - What are the minimum internal control standards for auditing revenue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... auditing revenue? 543.24 Section 543.24 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.24 What are the...) noted by the Class II gaming system for cashless transactions in and out, electronic funds transfer...

  19. 25 CFR 543.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for lines of credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of credit? 543.15 Section 543.15 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.15 What are the.... (b) Establishment of lines of credit policy. (1) If a gaming operation extends lines of...

  20. 25 CFR 543.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for lines of credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of credit? 543.15 Section 543.15 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.15 What are the.... (b) Establishment of lines of credit policy. (1) If a gaming operation extends lines of...

  1. 77 FR 62434 - Policy Letters on the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    .... Issuing Endorsements and Approving Training This policy letter provides guidance on issuance of... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 104 46 CFR Parts 10, 11, 12, and 15 Policy Letters on the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 AGENCY: Coast...

  2. Evaluation of Vocational Services Provided to Jordanian Disabled People According to International Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Oweidi, Alia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the vocational rehabilitation services provided to people with disabilities according to international standards in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted of (56) managers and teachers in four specialized centers in vocational rehabilitation. The findings showed that the compatibility degree ranged…

  3. Functional Competency Development Model for Academic Personnel Based on International Professional Qualification Standards in Computing Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumthong, Suwut; Piriyasurawong, Pullop; Jeerangsuwan, Namon

    2016-01-01

    This research proposes a functional competency development model for academic personnel based on international professional qualification standards in computing field and examines the appropriateness of the model. Specifically, the model consists of three key components which are: 1) functional competency development model, 2) blended training…

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Perceptions of AACSB International's 2013 Accreditation Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Morgan P.; Franklin, Geralyn McClure; Grimmer, Martin; Heriot, Kirl C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of an exploratory survey designed to measure AACSB member deans' perceptions about the recently revised 2013 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) Accreditation Standards. In April of 2013, AACSB International released a major revision of its accreditation…

  5. 76 FR 70062 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 160, 180, and 199 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards Correction In rule document 2011-25035, appearing...

  6. International standardization of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee in vitro experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to improve and standardize cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Preve...

  7. A Principles-Based Approach to Teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Obeua

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the principles-based approach that emphasizes a "why" question by using the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) "Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting" to question and understand the basis for specific differences between IFRS and U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S.…

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the WHO International Standard for Hepatitis B Virus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Adrian; Minhas, Rehan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The World Health Organization (WHO) international standard (IS) for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA for use in nucleic acid amplification assays was characterized by determining the complete genome sequence, which was assigned genotype A. This information will aid the design, development, and evaluation of HBV DNA amplification assays. PMID:28209818

  9. An Illustrated Guide to the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, John L., Comp.; Hamburger, Roberta, Comp.

    Illustrations are provided for descriptive cataloging of monographs in the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) format. Sample cards, mostly from the Library of Congress, illustrate the cataloging rules of the newly revised Chapter 6 of the "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules." Arranged in the same order as in Chapter 6,…

  10. CCSDS Advanced Orbiting Systems - International data communications standards for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Adrian J.

    1990-01-01

    Established in 1982, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization that is staffed by data-handling experts from nearly all of the world's major space agencies. Its goal is to develop standard data-communications techniques so that several agencies may cross-support each other's data flow and thus allow complex, international missions to be flown. Under the general umbrella of Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS), an international CCSDS task force was formed in 1985 to develop standard data-communications concepts for manned missions, such as the Space Station Freedom and the Hermes space plane, and large unmanned vehicles, such as polar orbiting platforms. The history of the CCSDS and the development of the AOS recommendation are reviewed, and the user services and protocols embodied in its systems architecture are introduced.

  11. Possible applications of atomic frequency standards with an internal high resolution digital synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detoma, E.; Stern, A.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of Atomic Frequency Standards with an internal synthesizer (thereafter referred as 'Synthesized Frequency Standards or Oscillators') with a special emphasis on the Rb oscillator are reviewed. A fractional frequency synthesizer, developed by SEPA, was incorporated in the Frequency Locked Loop of a TFL Rubidium Frequency Standard. This combination allows a frequency settability in steps of 1.5 x 10(exp -12) (optional 1 x 10(exp -13) over a range of 6 x 10(exp -9) without having to resort to change the C-field to tune the output frequency of the device. This capability, coupled to the excellent short term stability of the Rb frequency standard, opens new possibilities for time and frequency users in the various fields (time metrology, navigation, communication, etc.) in which stable frequency standards find their application.

  12. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

    2002-01-01

    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified

  13. RNA internal standard synthesis by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification for competitive quantitative amplification reactions.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wan-Yu; Baeumner, Antje J

    2007-02-15

    Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reactions have been demonstrated to successfully synthesize new sequences based on deletion and insertion reactions. Two RNA internal standards were synthesized for use in competitive amplification reactions in which quantitative analysis can be achieved by coamplifying the internal standard with the wild type sample. The sequences were created in two consecutive NASBA reactions using the E. coli clpB mRNA sequence as model analyte. The primer sequences of the wild type sequence were maintained, and a 20-nt-long segment inside the amplicon region was exchanged for a new segment of similar GC content and melting temperature. The new RNA sequence was thus amplifiable using the wild type primers and detectable via a new inserted sequence. In the first reaction, the forwarding primer and an additional 20-nt-long sequence was deleted and replaced by a new 20-nt-long sequence. In the second reaction, a forwarding primer containing as 5' overhang sequence the wild type primer sequence was used. The presence of pure internal standard was verified using electrochemiluminescence and RNA lateral-flow biosensor analysis. Additional sequence deletion in order to shorten the internal standard amplicons and thus generate higher detection signals was found not to be required. Finally, a competitive NASBA reaction between one internal standard and the wild type sequence was carried out proving its functionality. This new rapid construction method via NASBA provides advantages over the traditional techniques since it requires no traditional cloning procedures, no thermocyclers, and can be completed in less than 4 h.

  14. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the WHO. If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues need to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and the definition of optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group of experts in growth and development and representatives from international organizations concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, based on available data, we cannot rule out that observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents must include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.

  15. World Health Organization International Standard to Harmonize Assays for Detection of Hepatitis E Virus RNA

    PubMed Central

    Blümel, Johannes; Mizusawa, Saeko; Matsubayashi, Keiji; Sakata, Hidekatsu; Okada, Yoshiaki; Nübling, C. Micha; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin O.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique–based assays are a primary method for the detection of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, but assay sensitivity can vary widely. To improve interlaboratory results for the detection and quantification of HEV RNA, a candidate World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) strain was evaluated in a collaborative study involving 23 laboratories from 10 countries. The IS, code number 6329/10, was formulated by using a genotype 3a HEV strain from a blood donation, diluted in pooled human plasma and lyophilized. A Japanese national standard, representing a genotype 3b HEV strain, was prepared and evaluated in parallel. The potencies of the standards were determined by qualitative and quantitative assays. Assay variability was substantially reduced when HEV RNA concentrations were expressed relative to the IS. Thus, WHO has established 6329/10 as the IS for HEV RNA, with a unitage of 250,000 International Units per milliliter. PMID:23647659

  16. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  17. Defining the Core Archive Data Standards of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Dan; Beebe, Reta; Guinness, Ed; Heather, David; Zender, Joe

    2007-01-01

    A goal of the International Planetary Data Alliance (lPDA) is to develop a set of archive data standards that enable the sharing of scientific data across international agencies and missions. To help achieve this goal, the IPDA steering committee initiated a six month proj ect to write requirements for and draft an information model based on the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive data standards. The project had a special emphasis on data formats. A set of use case scenarios were first developed from which a set of requirements were derived for the IPDA archive data standards. The special emphasis on data formats was addressed by identifying data formats that have been used by PDS nodes and other agencies in the creation of successful data sets for the Planetary Data System (PDS). The dependency of the IPDA information model on the PDS archive standards required the compilation of a formal specification of the archive standards currently in use by the PDS. An ontology modelling tool was chosen to capture the information model from various sources including the Planetary Science Data Dictionary [I] and the PDS Standards Reference [2]. Exports of the modelling information from the tool database were used to produce the information model document using an object-oriented notation for presenting the model. The tool exports can also be used for software development and are directly accessible by semantic web applications.

  18. Rabies vaccine standards: comparison of the 5th and 6th WHO international reference standards to the USDA veterinary reference standard.

    PubMed

    Hermann, J; Fry, A; Reising, M; Patterson, P; Siev, D; Gatewood, D

    2012-11-06

    Ensuring rabies vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing transmission of this deadly disease and safeguarding public health. Efficacy of human and veterinary vaccines is ensured by evaluating relative potency estimates of the vaccine compared to a rabies reference standard using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) test. Reference vaccines are based on the International Standard for Rabies Vaccine provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). A comparison study was conducted to determine the relative potency of the 5th WHO, 6th WHO, and United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 08-14 reference standards using the NIH test. Results from the study demonstrate that the 6th WHO reference standard is approximately twice as potent as the 5th WHO reference when reconstituted to contain 1 IU per ml. Based on these results, the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) doubled the reconstitution volume of USDA veterinary reference 08-14 from 13 ml to 26 ml, for an initial use dilution of 0.7 IU per ml for use by veterinary biologics manufacturers in the NIH test. This study emphasizes the importance of reference standard calibration for use in the National Institutes of Health test.

  19. Calibration of replacement international standards of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids for use in flocculation test.

    PubMed

    Preneta-Blanc, R; Rigsby, P; Wilhelmsen, E Sloth; Tierney, R; Brierley, M; Sesardic, D

    2008-09-01

    The 1st International Reference Reagents (IRR) of Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids for Flocculation Test (DIFT and TEFT) were established by the WHO in 1988. These reagents are essential for the standardization of assays used to calculate Lf units of toxoids. Candidate replacement materials were provided by several European vaccine manufacturers and were formulated and freeze-dried at NIBSC. This paper provides a summary of the results of an international collaborative study including 18 laboratories from 16 countries, which examined the candidate replacement materials in a variety of methods. Materials 02/176 and 04/150 were proposed and adopted by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization of WHO in October 2007 as 2nd WHO International Standards of Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoid for use in Flocculation Test. The replacement standards were assigned the value of 1100 and 690Lf/ampoule, respectively, based on results of flocculation tests carried out using provided reagents. Material coded 02/176 fully complied with the WHO specifications for stability, residual moisture content, precision of fill and sterility. Stability of material coded 04/150 was slightly lower than expected but predictions were based only on 2-year data and were to be further monitored, post-adoption.

  20. A collaborative study to establish the 3rd International Standard for tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Sands, Dawn; Whitton, Colin M; Merton, R Elizabeth; Longstaff, Colin

    2002-08-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to replace the 2nd International Standard (IS) for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The 2nd IS for tPA (86/670) was used to calibrate the replacement Standard, which was selected from two candidate materials included in the collaborative study. Participants were provided with five sets of four samples (A, B, C, D) and asked to use sample A (2nd IS, 86/670, 850 IU/ml) to determine the activity of B (86/624, approximately 850 IU/ml), C and D (coded duplicates of the same material, 98/714 approximately 11,000 IU/ml). A total of 14 laboratories returned results from Europe, USA, Japan and Australia, providing data from 60 independent assays. Four laboratories used a reference method based on a published monograph from the European Pharmacopoeia for Alteplase for Injection, 1998, and the remaining 10 used their own method. Fibrin was used as promoter of tPA activity by 12 out of the 14 laboratories, the remaining two used kits where fibrinogen fragments were the promoter. Data from this collaborative study and the previous study to establish the 2nd IS for tPA show that tPA from melanoma cells and recombinant tPA from CHO cells are both suitable materials as International Standards. It was agreed that sample C, D, recombinant tPA, 98/714, be established as the 3rd International Standard for tPA with a potency of 10,000 IU per ampoule, calculated as the mean value from laboratories using fibrin as a promoter of tPA activity. The standard was established by WHO in November 2000.

  1. Updating the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care. Entering the era of molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, Philip C; Fair, Elizabeth L; Uplekar, Mukund

    2014-03-01

    The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care, first published in 2006 (Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:710-725.) with a second edition in 2009 ( www.currytbcenter.ucsf.edu/international/istc_report ), was produced by an international coalition of organizations funded by the United States Agency for International Development. Development of the document was led jointly by the World Health Organization and the American Thoracic Society, with the aim of promoting engagement of all care providers, especially those in the private sector in low- and middle-income countries, in delivering high-quality services for tuberculosis. In keeping with World Health Organization recommendations regarding rapid molecular testing, as well as other pertinent new recommendations, the third edition of the Standards has been developed. After decades of dormancy, the technology available for tuberculosis care and control is now rapidly evolving. In particular, rapid molecular testing, using devices with excellent performance characteristics for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance, and that are practical and affordable for use in decentralized facilities in low-resource settings, is being widely deployed globally. Used appropriately, both within tuberculosis control programs and in private laboratories, these devices have the potential to revolutionize tuberculosis care and control, providing a confirmed diagnosis and a determination of rifampin resistance within a few hours, enabling appropriate treatment to be initiated promptly. Major changes have been made in the standards for diagnosis. Additional important changes include: emphasis on the recognition of groups at increased risk of tuberculosis; updating the standard on antiretroviral treatment in persons with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection; and revising the standard on treating multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  2. Progress, innovation and regulatory science in drug development: the politics of international standard-setting.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Reed, Tim

    2002-06-01

    This paper examines international standard-setting in the toxicology of pharmaceuticals during the 1990s, which has involved both the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies in an organization known as the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The analysis shows that the relationships between innovation, regulatory science and 'progress' may be more complex and controversial than is often assumed. An assessment of the ICH's claims about the implications of 'technical' harmonization of drug-testing standards for the maintenance of drug safety, via toxicological testing, and the delivery of therapeutic progress, via innovation, is presented. By demonstrating that there is not a technoscientific validity for these claims, it is argued that, within the ICH, a discourse of technological innovation and scientific progress has been used by regulatory agencies and prominent parts of the transnational pharmaceutical industry to legitimize the lowering and loosening of toxicological standards for drug testing. The mobilization and acceptance of this discourse are shown to be pivotal to the ICH's transformation of reductions in safety standards, which are apparently against the interests of patients and public health, into supposed therapeutic benefits derived from promises of greater access to more innovative drug products. The evidence suggests that it is highly implausible that these reductions in the standards of regulatory toxicology are consistent with therapeutic progress for patients, and highlights a worrying aspect embedded in the 'technical trajectories' of regulatory science.

  3. ISBD(S), International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials; Recommended by the Joint Working Group on the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials set up by the IFLA Committee on Cataloguing and the IFLA Committee on Serial Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, London (England). Committee on Cataloguing.

    The International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials--ISBD(S)--provides a format for the international communication of bibliographic information so that records may be interchanged between sources, interpreted across language barriers, and converted to machine readable form. The ISBD(S) standards are limited to the descriptive…

  4. International Standards and Reference Materials for Quantitative Molecular Infectious Disease Testing

    PubMed Central

    Madej, Roberta M.; Davis, Jack; Holden, Marcia J.; Kwang, Stan; Labourier, Emmanuel; Schneider, George J.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of quantitative molecular diagnostics for patient management depends on the ability to relate patient results to prior results or to absolute values in clinical practice guidelines. To do this, those results need to be comparable across time and methods, either by producing the same value across methods and test versions or by using reliable and stable conversions. Universally available standards and reference materials specific to quantitative molecular technologies are critical to this process but are few in number. This review describes recent history in the establishment of international standards for nucleic acid test development, organizations involved in current efforts, and future issues and initiatives. PMID:20075208

  5. A decade of international cooperation brings a standard seismic point of view

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitcomb, H. S

    1971-01-01

    Whether in a castle in Italy, a police station in Iceland, o an abandoned gold mine in Australia, the sensitive instruments in the Worldwide Seismograph Network send a steady flow of standard earthquake records to the geophysical scientific community. They provide the raw data that make possible very precise earthquake studies, precise because the instruments are identical and their product standard. A truly international program, this network of 115 stations in 61 countires and territories has laid the foundation for reserach in seismology for many years to come. 

  6. International standards and reference materials for quantitative molecular infectious disease testing.

    PubMed

    Madej, Roberta M; Davis, Jack; Holden, Marcia J; Kwang, Stan; Labourier, Emmanuel; Schneider, George J

    2010-03-01

    The utility of quantitative molecular diagnostics for patient management depends on the ability to relate patient results to prior results or to absolute values in clinical practice guidelines. To do this, those results need to be comparable across time and methods, either by producing the same value across methods and test versions or by using reliable and stable conversions. Universally available standards and reference materials specific to quantitative molecular technologies are critical to this process but are few in number. This review describes recent history in the establishment of international standards for nucleic acid test development, organizations involved in current efforts, and future issues and initiatives.

  7. Improved Measurement Performance of Inorganic Elements in Coal by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Coupled with Internal Standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shunchun; Xu, Jialong; Bai, Kaijie; Lu, Jidong

    2015-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to determine the inorganic elements in coal. To improve the measurement's accuracy and precision, a new internal standardization scheme, which we named changed internal standardization, was compared with the traditional internal standardization and no internal standardization for the analysis of inorganic elements. The new internal standardization scheme used the atomic line of carbon at 247.86 nm and the molecular band of CN at 388.34 nm and C2 at 516.32 nm to normalize the lines of inorganic elements that were distributed in the same spectral channel. The performance of the utilization of the new internal standardization scheme was evaluated using a set of coal samples, including twenty calibration samples and five validation samples. The results show that the coefficients of determination R2 and the slope of calibration models coupled with changed internal standardization are better than that of the calibration models coupled with fixed internal standardization and no internal standardization. Moreover, the measurement accuracy and reproducibility of changed internal standardization for the analysis of five validation samples also yielded further improvement. The results that we obtained suggest that changed internal standardization could compensate for the matrix effects, as well as the influence of the difference in the spectral response of the light collection system. supported by Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology of China (No. SKL2013KF03), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51206055, 51476061), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2014ZZ0014), the New Star of Pearl River on Science and Technology of Guangzhou, China (No. 2014J2200054), the Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes of China (No. KLB10004) and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and

  8. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Cases with classification challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kirshblum, S. C.; Biering-Sorensen, F.; Betz, R.; Burns, S.; Donovan, W.; Graves, D. E.; Johansen, M.; Jones, L.; Mulcahey, M. J.; Rodriguez, G. M.; Schmidt-Read, M.; Steeves, J. D.; Tansey, K.; Waring, W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification. PMID:24559416

  9. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Cases With Classification Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Biering-Sørensen, F.; Betz, R.; Burns, S.; Donovan, W.; Graves, D.E.; Johansen, M.; Jones, L.; Mulcahey, M.J.; Rodriguez, G.M.; Schmidt-Read, M.; Steeves, J.D.; Tansey, K.; Waring, W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification. PMID:25477729

  10. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: cases with classification challenges.

    PubMed

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sorensen, F; Betz, R; Burns, S; Donovan, W; Graves, D E; Johansen, M; Jones, L; Mulcahey, M J; Rodriguez, G M; Schmidt-Read, M; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K; Waring, W

    2014-03-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification.

  11. Internal standards: a source of analytical bias for volatile organic analyte determinations.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, Michael H

    2011-01-21

    The use of internal standards in the determination of volatile organic compounds as described in SW-846 Method 8260C introduces a potential for bias in results once the internal standards (ISTDs) are added to a sample for analysis. The bias is relative to the dissimilarity between the analyte and internal standard physical properties that influence how easily analytes are separated from a matrix and concentrated during analysis. Method 5032 is a vacuum distillation procedure for extracting analytes from a sample for use with Method 8260C. Vacuum distillation is also incorporated within another GC/MS analytical procedure, Method 8261A. Method 8260C/5032 and Method 8261A are experimentally identical, however, Method 8261A uses internal standards differently by relating the recovery of each compound to its boiling point and relative volatility. By processing each analysis (water, soil, and biota) using both Method 8260C and Method 8261A, the two approaches are compared on the basis of analyte bias and the failure rate of the quality controls. Analytes were grouped by how similar their boiling points and natural log of their relative volatilities (lnRVs) were to their Method 8260C recommended ISTDs. For the most similar analytes, the Method 8260C determinations yielded an average bias less than 10% and a failure to meet calibration criteria less than 7%. However, as the difference between analyte and ISTD became greater the bias increased to over 40% (matrix dependent) and its calibration failure rate approached 70%. In comparison, when the Method 8260C data were reprocessed as Method 8261A determinations, this trend for groupings was minimized with biases increasing from 6% to only 20% and the calibration failure rate went from 0% to 15%.

  12. World Health Organization International Standard To Harmonize Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C Micha; Baylis, Sally A; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Montag-Lessing, Thomas; Chudy, Michael; Kreß, Julia; Ulrych, Ursula; Czurda, Stefan; Rosengarten, Renate

    2015-09-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays (referred to here as NAT assays) are increasingly used as an alternative to culture-based approaches for the detection of mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures. Assay features, like the limit of detection or quantification, vary widely between different mycoplasma NAT assays. Biological reference materials may be useful for harmonization of mycoplasma NAT assays. An international feasibility study included lyophilized preparations of four distantly related mycoplasma species (Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma fermentans, M. orale, M. pneumoniae) at different concentrations which were analyzed by 21 laboratories using 26 NAT assays with a qualitative, semiquantitative, or quantitative design. An M. fermentans preparation was shown to decrease the interassay variation when used as a common reference material. The preparation was remanufactured and characterized in a comparability study, and its potency (in NAT-detectable units) across different NATs was determined. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) established this preparation to be the "1st World Health Organization international standard for mycoplasma DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays designed for generic mycoplasma detection" (WHO Tech Rep Ser 987:42, 2014) with a potency of 200,000 IU/ml. This WHO international standard is now available as a reference preparation for characterization of NAT assays, e.g., for determination of analytic sensitivity, for calibration of quantitative assays in a common unitage, and for defining regulatory requirements in the field of mycoplasma testing.

  13. Evaluation of internal standards for the analysis of ignitable liquids in fire debris.

    PubMed

    Locke, Amanda K; Basara, Gene J; Sandercock, P Mark L

    2009-03-01

    An evaluation of eight compounds for use as an internal standard in fire debris analysis was conducted. Tests were conducted on tetrachloroethylene, chlorobenzene, n-octylbenzene, 3-phenyltolune, and deuterated compounds toluene-d8, styrene-d8, naphthalene-d8, and diphenyl-d10 to measure the extraction efficiency of each compound in the presence of an interfering volatile compound (carbon disulfide). Other tests were conducted to evaluate whether or not the presence of an ignitable liquid or pyrolysis/combustion products from fire debris would interfere with the identification of these compounds when used as an internal standard. The results showed that while any of the eight compounds could be used as an internal standard in fire debris analysis, the more volatile compounds (toluene-d8, tetrachloroethylene, chlorobenzene, and styrene-d8) showed better extraction efficiencies at room temperature than when heated to 60 degrees C. Each of the less volatile compounds (naphthalene-d8, diphenyl-d10, n-octylbenzene, and 3-phenyltolune) performed well during extraction at 60 degrees C, while naphthalene-d8 showed better extraction efficiency in the presence of competing volatiles when extracted at room temperature.

  14. Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN coordinated international expert group.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Baker, Susan; Cleghorn, Geoff; Neto, Ulysses Fagundes; Gopalan, Sarath; Hernell, Olle; Hock, Quak Seng; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Lonnerdal, Bo; Pencharz, Paul; Pzyrembel, Hildegard; Ramirez-Mayans, Jaime; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Zong-Yi, Ding

    2005-11-01

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) develops food standards, guidelines and related texts for protecting consumer health and ensuring fair trade practices globally. The major part of the world's population lives in more than 160 countries that are members of the Codex Alimentarius. The Codex Standard on Infant Formula was adopted in 1981 based on scientific knowledge available in the 1970s and is currently being revised. As part of this process, the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses asked the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition to initiate a consultation process with the international scientific community to provide a proposal on nutrient levels in infant formulae, based on scientific analysis and taking into account existing scientific reports on the subject. ESPGHAN accepted the request and, in collaboration with its sister societies in the Federation of International Societies on Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, invited highly qualified experts in the area of infant nutrition to form an International Expert Group (IEG) to review the issues raised. The group arrived at recommendations on the compositional requirements for a global infant formula standard which are reported here.

  15. World Health Organization International Standard To Harmonize Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma DNA

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Sally A.; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Montag-Lessing, Thomas; Chudy, Michael; Kreß, Julia; Ulrych, Ursula; Czurda, Stefan; Rosengarten, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays (referred to here as NAT assays) are increasingly used as an alternative to culture-based approaches for the detection of mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures. Assay features, like the limit of detection or quantification, vary widely between different mycoplasma NAT assays. Biological reference materials may be useful for harmonization of mycoplasma NAT assays. An international feasibility study included lyophilized preparations of four distantly related mycoplasma species (Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma fermentans, M. orale, M. pneumoniae) at different concentrations which were analyzed by 21 laboratories using 26 NAT assays with a qualitative, semiquantitative, or quantitative design. An M. fermentans preparation was shown to decrease the interassay variation when used as a common reference material. The preparation was remanufactured and characterized in a comparability study, and its potency (in NAT-detectable units) across different NATs was determined. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) established this preparation to be the “1st World Health Organization international standard for mycoplasma DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays designed for generic mycoplasma detection” (WHO Tech Rep Ser 987:42, 2014) with a potency of 200,000 IU/ml. This WHO international standard is now available as a reference preparation for characterization of NAT assays, e.g., for determination of analytic sensitivity, for calibration of quantitative assays in a common unitage, and for defining regulatory requirements in the field of mycoplasma testing. PMID:26070671

  16. Polymerization Kinetics: Monitoring Monomer Conversion Using an Internal Standard and the Key Role of Sample "t[subscript 0]"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombani, Olivier; Langelier, Ophelie; Martwong, Ekkachai; Castignolles, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    The use of an internal standard is a conventional and convenient way to monitor the conversion of one or several monomers during a controlled radical polymerization. However, the validity of this technique relies on an accurate determination of the initial monomer-to-internal standard ratio, A[subscript 0], because all subsequent calculations of…

  17. 25 CFR 543.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player tracking systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gaming promotions and player tracking systems? 543.12 Section 543.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player...

  18. 25 CFR 543.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player tracking systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... gaming promotions and player tracking systems? 543.12 Section 543.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player...

  19. Starworld: Preparing Accountants for the Future: A Case-Based Approach to Teach International Financial Reporting Standards Using ERP Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Joseph M.; Savino, Christopher J.; Parashac, Paul; Hosler, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standards now constitute an important part of educating young professional accountants. This paper looks at a case based process to teach International Financial Reporting Standards using integrated Enterprise Resource Planning software. The case contained within the paper can be used within a variety of courses…

  20. The pluralization of the international: Resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the formation of an international politics of resistance and ‘alter-standardization’ in regenerative stem cell medicine. The absence of internationally harmonized regulatory frameworks in the clinical stem cell field and the presence of lucrative business opportunities have resulted in the formation of transnational networks adopting alternative research standards and practices. These oppose, as a universal global standard, strict evidence-based medicine clinical research protocols as defined by scientists and regulatory agencies in highly developed countries. The emergence of transnational spaces of alter-standardization is closely linked to scientific advances in rapidly developing countries such as China and India, but calls for more flexible regulatory frameworks, and the legitimization of experimental for-profit applications outside of evidence-based medical care, are emerging increasingly also within more stringently regulated countries, such as the United States and countries in the European Union. We can observe, then, a trend toward the pluralization of the standards, practices, and concepts in the stem cell field. PMID:26983174

  1. The pluralization of the international: Resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka

    2016-02-01

    The article explores the formation of an international politics of resistance and 'alterstandardization' in regenerative stem cell medicine. The absence of internationally harmonized regulatory frameworks in the clinical stem cell field and the presence of lucrative business opportunities have resulted in the formation of transnational networks adopting alternative research standards and practices. These oppose, as a universal global standard, strict evidence-based medicine clinical research protocols as defined by scientists and regulatory agencies in highly developed countries. The emergence of transnational spaces of alter-standardization is closely linked to scientific advances in rapidly developing countries such as China and India, but calls for more flexible regulatory frameworks, and the legitimization of experimental for-profit applications outside of evidence-based medical care, are emerging increasingly also within more stringently regulated countries, such as the United States and countries in the European Union. We can observe, then, a trend toward the pluralization of the standards, practices, and concepts in the stem cell field.

  2. Interpreting international governance standards for health IT use within general medical practice.

    PubMed

    Mahncke, Rachel J; Williams, Patricia A H

    2014-01-01

    General practices in Australia recognise the importance of comprehensive protective security measures. Some elements of information security governance are incorporated into recommended standards, however the governance component of information security is still insufficiently addressed in practice. The International Organistion for Standardisation (ISO) released a new global standard in May 2013 entitled, ISO/IEC 27014:2013 Information technology - Security techniques - Governance of information security. This standard, applicable to organisations of all sizes, offers a framework against which to assess and implement the governance components of information security. The standard demonstrates the relationship between governance and the management of information security, provides strategic principles and processes, and forms the basis for establishing a positive information security culture. An analysis interpretation of this standard for use in Australian general practice was performed. This work is unique as such interpretation for the Australian healthcare environment has not been undertaken before. It demonstrates an application of the standard at a strategic level to inform existing development of an information security governance framework.

  3. A Comprehensive Review of Spirit Drink Safety Standards and Regulations from an International Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiao-Na; Li, Zhao-Jie; Chen, Jing-Yu; Gao, Li-Juan; Han, Bei-Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Standards and regulations related to spirit drinks have been established by different countries and international organizations to ensure the safety and quality of spirits. Here, we introduce the principles of food safety and quality standards for alcoholic beverages and then compare the key indicators used in the distinct standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, the United States, Canada, and Australia. We also discuss in detail the "maximum level" of the following main contaminants of spirit drinks: methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl carbamate, hydrocyanic acid, heavy metals, mycotoxins, phthalates, and aldehydes. Furthermore, the control measures used for potential hazards are introduced. Harmonization of the current requirements based on comprehensive scope analysis and the risk assessment approach will enhance both the trade and quality of distilled spirits. This review article provides valuable information that will enable producers, traders, governments, and researchers to increase their knowledge of spirit drink safety requirements, control measures, and research trends.

  4. Selected Lessons Learned over the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the lessons learned in the sphere of international cooperation during the development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. From the begining all Partners shared a common objective to build, operate and utilize a crewed laboratory in low orbit as an international partnership. The importance of standards is emphasized.

  5. International comparison of a hydrocarbon gas standard at the picomol per mol level.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Duewer, David L; Apel, Eric; Baldan, Annarita; Hall, Bradley; Harling, Alice; Helmig, Detlev; Heo, Gwi Suk; Hueber, Jacques; Kim, Mi Eon; Kim, Yong Doo; Miller, Ben; Montzka, Steve; Riemer, Daniel

    2014-03-04

    Studies of climate change increasingly recognize the diverse influences of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, including roles in particulates and ozone formation. Measurements of key nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) suggest atmospheric mole fractions ranging from low picomoles per mol (ppt) to nanomoles per mol (ppb), depending on location and compound. To accurately establish mole fraction trends and to relate measurement records from many laboratories and researchers, it is essential to have accurate, stable, calibration standards. In February of 2008, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed and reported on picomoles per mol standards containing 18 nonmethane hydrocarbon compounds covering the mole fraction range of 60 picomoles per mol to 230 picomoles per mol. The stability of these gas mixtures was only characterized over a short time period (2 to 3 months). NIST recently prepared a suite of primary standard gas mixtures by gravimetric dilution to ascertain the stability of the 2008 picomoles per mol NMHC standards suite. The data from this recent chromatographic intercomparison of the 2008 to the 2011 suites confirm a much longer stability of almost 5 years for 15 of the 18 hydrocarbons; the double-bonded alkenes of propene, isobutene, and 1-pentene showed instability, in line with previous publications. The agreement between the gravimetric values from preparation and the analytical mole fractions determined from regression illustrate the internal consistency of the suite within ±2 pmol/mol. However, results for several of the compounds reflect stability problems for the three double-bonded hydrocarbons. An international intercomparison on one of the 2008 standards has also been completed. Participants included National Metrology Institutes, United States government laboratories, and academic laboratories. In general, results for this intercomparison agree to within about ±5% with the gravimetric mole fractions of the hydrocarbons.

  6. The Role of Planetary Data System Archive Standards in International Planetary Data Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, Edward; Slavney, Susan; Beebe, Reta; Crichton, Daniel

    . Over the next several years, there will be additional planetary missions to the Moon and Mars led by countries such as Japan, China, India, and Russia, along with the European Space Agency (ESA). Planetary missions are also beginning to involve more international collaboration. Thus, it is important that the archives produced by these missions have some common standards so that the data can be readily used in research by the international planetary science community. In addition, the adoption of common archive standards would save time and effort for agencies in terms of data archive design and development. ESA has successfully adopted PDS standards for archives from a suite of missions that includes Mars Express, Venus Express, Cassini-Huygens, and Rosetta. An approach for advancing the use of a common set of archiving standards for planetary data was the creation of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA). Representatives from the PDS are active participants in the IPDA. One of the PDS contributions to the IPDA is to work on IPDA projects that seek to develop a core set of archiving standards for use by the international space agencies.

  7. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  8. Development Of International Data Standards For The COSMOS/PEER-LL Virtual Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    The COSMOS -PEER Lifelines Project 2L02 completed a Pilot Geotechnical Virtual Data Center (GVDC) system capable of both archiving geotechnical data and of disseminating data from multiple linked geotechnical databases. The Pilot GVDC system links geotechnical databases of four organizations: the California Geological Survey, Caltrans, PG&E, and the U. S. Geological Survey The System was presented and reviewed in the COSMOS-PEER Lifelines workshop on June 21 - 23, 2004, which was co-sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and included participation by the United Kingdom Highways Agency (UKHA) , the Association of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists in the United Kingdom (AGS), the United States Army Corp of Engineers (USACOE), Caltrans, United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Geological Survey (CGS), a number of state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), county building code officials, and representatives of academic institutions and private sector geotechnical companies. As of February 2005 COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Project 2L03 is currently funded to accomplish the following tasks: 1) expand the Pilot GVDC Geotechnical Data Dictionary and XML Schema to include data definitions and structures to describe in-situ measurements such as shear wave velocity profiles, and additional laboratory geotechnical test types; 2) participate in an international cooperative working group developing a single geotechnical data exchange standard that has broad international acceptance; and 3) upgrade the GVDC system to support corresponding exchange standard data dictionary and schema improvements. The new geophysical data structures being developed will include PS-logs, downhole geophysical logs, cross-hole velocity data, and velocity profiles derived using surface waves. A COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Geophysical Data Dictionary Working Committee constituted of experts in the development of data dictionary standards and experts in the specific data to be

  9. Electrophysiologic recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: international standards guideline statement.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Gregory W; Dralle, Henning; Abdullah, Hisham; Barczynski, Marcin; Bellantone, Rocco; Brauckhoff, Michael; Carnaille, Bruno; Cherenko, Sergii; Chiang, Fen-Yu; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Finck, Camille; Hartl, Dana; Kamani, Dipti; Lorenz, Kerstin; Miccolli, Paolo; Mihai, Radu; Miyauchi, Akira; Orloff, Lisa; Perrier, Nancy; Poveda, Manuel Duran; Romanchishen, Anatoly; Serpell, Jonathan; Sitges-Serra, Antonio; Sloan, Tod; Van Slycke, Sam; Snyder, Samuel; Takami, Hiroshi; Volpi, Erivelto; Woodson, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) during thyroid and parathyroid surgery has gained widespread acceptance as an adjunct to the gold standard of visual nerve identification. Despite the increasing use of IONM, review of the literature and clinical experience confirms there is little uniformity in application of and results from nerve monitoring across different centers. We provide a review of the literature and cumulative experience of the multidisciplinary International Neural Monitoring Study Group with IONM spanning nearly 15 years. The study group focused its initial work on formulation of standards in IONM as it relates to important areas: 1) standards of equipment setup/endotracheal tube placement and 2) standards of loss of signal evaluation/intraoperative problem-solving algorithm. The use of standardized methods and reporting will provide greater uniformity in application of IONM. In addition, this report clarifies the limitations of IONM and helps identify areas where additional research is necessary. This guideline is, at its forefront, quality driven; it is intended to improve the quality of neural monitoring, to translate the best available evidence into clinical practice to promote best practices. We hope this work will minimize inappropriate variations in monitoring rather than to dictate practice options.

  10. Collaborative study for the calibration of a replacement International Standard for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Rob; Stickings, Paul; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Iwaki, Masaaki; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2011-11-01

    We present the results of a collaborative study for the establishment of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed. Two candidate preparations were included in the study, one of which was established as the 4th IS for Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed at the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization meeting in October 2010. This preparation was found to have a unitage of 490 IU/ampoule, based on calibration in guinea pig challenge assays. Results from mouse challenge assays suggest that the relative performance of two candidate preparations may differ significantly between guinea pigs and mice. The authors note that the number of laboratories that performed guinea pig challenge assays, which are used to calibrate and assign IU, is much lower than in previous collaborative studies and this may have implications for calibration of replacement standards in the future. The issue of assigning separate units to the IS for guinea pig and mouse assays is discussed. The study also assessed performance of the replacement standard in serological assays which are used as alternative procedures to challenge assays for tetanus potency testing. Results suggest that the replacement standard is suitable for use as the reference vaccine in serological assays.

  11. The Meaning of Curriculum-Related Examination Standards in Scotland and England: A Home-International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jo-Anne; Gray, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which examination standards are conceptualised and operationalised differently across nations has not been given sufficient attention. The international literature on standard-setting has been dominated by the psychometrics tradition. Broader conceptualisations of examination standards have been discussed in the literature in England,…

  12. [The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC): what is the importance for Japan?].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Paula I

    2008-07-01

    In 2005, the World Health Assembly resolved that all Member States should ensure that all persons with tuberculosis (TB) "have access to the universal standard of care based on proper diagnosis, treatment and reporting consistent with the DOTS strategy..." The purpose of the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) is to define the widely accepted level of care of persons either suspected of, or diagnosed with, TB by all health practitioners, especially those in the private sector, who often lack guidance and systematic evaluation of outcomes provided by government programs. Since their publication in 2006 on World TB Day, the standards have been endorsed by the major international health organizations as well as many country-level professional societies. The intention is to complement local and national control polices consistent with those of the World Health Organization: they are not intended to replace local guidelines, but are written to accommodate local differences in practice. The ISTC comprise seventeen evidence-based standards on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, as well as the responsibility of the public health sector. These are based on the basic principles of TB care: prompt and accurate diagnosis, standardized treatment regimens of proven efficacy, appropriate treatment support and supervision, monitoring of response to treatment and the carrying out of essential public health responsibilities. The relevance of the ISTC to the Japanese context is highlighted, in terms of when persons should be suspected of TB; the appropriate diagnostic modalities, including the use of chest radiographs; the advantages of fixed dose combinations; the importance of follow-up laboratory tests to document response to treatment, the importance of recordkeeping and reporting to public health authorities, the value of HIV testing of TB patients and the use of anti-retrovirals for those dually infected; and the assessment of drug resistance and the

  13. Valid internal standard technique for arson detection based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, Pedro A S; Borges, Carlos M F; Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo J N

    2012-09-28

    The most popular procedures for the detection of residues of accelerants in fire debris are the ones published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM E1412-07 and E1618-10). The most critical stages of these tests are the conservation of fire debris from the sampling to the laboratory, the extraction of residues of accelerants from the debris to the activated charcoal strips (ACS) and from those to the final solvent, as well as the analysis of sample extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the interpretation of the instrumental signal. This work proposes a strategy for checking the quality of the sample conservation, the accelerant residues transference to final solvent and GC-MS analysis, using internal standard additions. It is used internal standards ranging from a highly volatile compound for checking debris conservation to low volatile compound for checking GC-MS repeatability. The developed quality control (QC) parameters are not affected by GC-MS sensitivity variation and, specifically, the GC-MS performance control is not affected by ACS adsorption saturation that may mask test performance deviations. The proposed QC procedure proved to be adequate to check GC-MS repeatability, ACS extraction and sample conservation since: (1) standard additions are affected by negligible uncertainty and (2) observed dispersion of QC parameters are fit for its intended use.

  14. Partial synthesis of ganglioside and lysoganglioside lipoforms as internal standards for MS quantification

    PubMed Central

    Gantner, Martin; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad; Kolter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Within recent years, ganglioside patterns have been increasingly analyzed by MS. However, internal standards for calibration are only available for gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3. For this reason, we prepared homologous internal standards bearing nonnatural fatty acids of the major mammalian brain gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and of the tumor-associated gangliosides GM2 and GD2. The fatty acid moieties were incorporated after selective chemical or enzymatic deacylation of bovine brain gangliosides. For modification of the sphingoid bases, we developed a new synthetic method based on olefin cross metathesis. This method was used for the preparation of a lyso-GM1 and a lyso-GM2 standard. The total yield of this method was 8.7% for the synthesis of d17:1-lyso-GM1 from d20:1/18:0-GM1 in four steps. The title compounds are currently used as calibration substances for MS quantification and are also suitable for functional studies. PMID:25341943

  15. Vitamin D status as an international issue: national surveys and the problem of standardization.

    PubMed

    Sempos, Christopher T; Vesper, Hubert W; Phinney, Karen W; Thienpont, Linda M; Coates, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Wide spread variation in measurement results of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) confounds international efforts to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines. Accordingly, NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) in collaboration with CDC National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Ghent University established the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) in November 2010. VDSP objectives include: (1) standardize 25(OH)D concentration measurements in national health surveys around the world, (2) evaluate survey differences, (3) extend standardization efforts to assay manufacturers, and to clinical, commercial, and research laboratories, (4) promote standardization of emerging metabolites of vitamin D status, and (5) enable the use of standardized data in patient care and public health. An interlaboratory comparison study is being conducted to assess measurement variability among current assays. Participants include national health surveys from Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Mexico, South Korea, UK and USA, 15 assay manufacturers, and two external quality assurance programs. CDC will implement a formal laboratory certification program. Standardization activities will use single-donor, fresh-frozen serum collected using the CLSI C37 protocol. Initial assay performance criteria, based on biological variability data, are ≤ 10 % imprecision and ≤ 5 % bias in relation to the reference values. An ancillary study on commutability of NIST SRM 972a, external quality assurance testing materials is included. To increase the comparability of existing data from different national surveys, master equations will be developed to facilitate the conversion of already existing national survey data to the NIST-Ghent University reference measurement procedures.

  16. Standardizing Clinical Trials Workflow Representation in UML for International Site Comparison

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Elias Cesar Araujo; Jayanti, Madhav Kishore; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Kozan, Andreia M. O.; Rodrigues, Maria J.; Shah, Jatin; Loures, Marco R.; Patil, Sunita; Payne, Philip; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Background With the globalization of clinical trials, a growing emphasis has been placed on the standardization of the workflow in order to ensure the reproducibility and reliability of the overall trial. Despite the importance of workflow evaluation, to our knowledge no previous studies have attempted to adapt existing modeling languages to standardize the representation of clinical trials. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a computational language that can be used to model operational workflow, and a UML profile can be developed to standardize UML models within a given domain. This paper's objective is to develop a UML profile to extend the UML Activity Diagram schema into the clinical trials domain, defining a standard representation for clinical trial workflow diagrams in UML. Methods Two Brazilian clinical trial sites in rheumatology and oncology were examined to model their workflow and collect time-motion data. UML modeling was conducted in Eclipse, and a UML profile was developed to incorporate information used in discrete event simulation software. Results Ethnographic observation revealed bottlenecks in workflow: these included tasks requiring full commitment of CRCs, transferring notes from paper to computers, deviations from standard operating procedures, and conflicts between different IT systems. Time-motion analysis revealed that nurses' activities took up the most time in the workflow and contained a high frequency of shorter duration activities. Administrative assistants performed more activities near the beginning and end of the workflow. Overall, clinical trial tasks had a greater frequency than clinic routines or other general activities. Conclusions This paper describes a method for modeling clinical trial workflow in UML and standardizing these workflow diagrams through a UML profile. In the increasingly global environment of clinical trials, the standardization of workflow modeling is a necessary precursor to conducting a comparative

  17. Development of a proposed international standard for certification of aircraft to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Noel B.

    1993-01-01

    Avionic systems performing critical functions in modern aircraft are potentially susceptible to the hazards of electromagnetic radiation from ground and airborne transmitters. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested that the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) coordinate the development of procedures and guidance material which can be used during the aircraft certification process to ensure adequate protection against high intensity radiated fields (HIRF). This paper addresses both the technical challenge of drafting a certification procedure and guidance standard as well as the management process used by the SAE subcommittee AE4R to converge a diverse range of opinions by its international membership in the shortest possible time.

  18. Updates for the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Kirshblum, Steven; Waring, William

    2014-08-01

    The International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is the most widely used classification in the field of spinal cord injury medicine. Since its first publication in 1982, multiple revisions refining the recommended examination, scaling, and classification have taken place to improve communication, consistency, and clarity. This article describes a brief historical perspective on the development and changes over the years leading to the current ISNCSCI, detailing the most recent updates of 2011 and the worksheet 2013 as well as issues facing the ISNCSCI for the future.

  19. Double standards and the international trade of pesticides: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno; Soares, Wagner Lopes; Meyer, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Despite bans on certain pesticides and their replacement by others considered less hazardous, the widespread use of these substances in agriculture continues to threaten the environment and the health of millions of people. This article discusses the current double standard in the international trade of pesticides and focuses on Brazil, one of the main users of pesticides in the world, analyzing the trends in foreign trade (imports and exports) of selected pesticides as a function of changes in legislation in the United States, the European Union, and Brazil from 1989 to 2006. We applied time line analysis to eight organochlorines already banned in Brazil and conducted a case-by-case qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine other pesticides. The results indicate the existence of double standards, as demonstrated by the continued exports to Brazil of some pesticides banned in the United States and Europe.

  20. Methodological aspects of clinical trials in tinnitus: A proposal for an international standard

    PubMed Central

    Landgrebe, Michael; Azevedo, Andréia; Baguley, David; Bauer, Carol; Cacace, Anthony; Coelho, Claudia; Dornhoffer, John; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Flor, Herta; Hajak, Goeran; van de Heyning, Paul; Hiller, Wolfgang; Khedr, Eman; Kleinjung, Tobias; Koller, Michael; Lainez, Jose Miguel; Londero, Alain; Martin, William H.; Mennemeier, Mark; Piccirillo, Jay; De Ridder, Dirk; Rupprecht, Rainer; Searchfield, Grant; Vanneste, Sven; Zeman, Florian; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a common condition with a high burden of disease. While many different treatments are used in clinical practice, the evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is low and the variance of treatment response between individuals is high. This is most likely due to the great heterogeneity of tinnitus with respect to clinical features as well as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a clear need to find effective treatment options in tinnitus, however, clinical trials differ substantially with respect to methodological quality and design. Consequently, the conclusions that can be derived from these studies are limited and jeopardize comparison between studies. Here, we discuss our view of the most important aspects of trial design in clinical studies in tinnitus and make suggestions for an international methodological standard in tinnitus trials. We hope that the proposed methodological standard will stimulate scientific discussion and will help to improve the quality of trials in tinnitus. PMID:22789414

  1. The current state of the international standard for exchange of optical data in electronic form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormell, Prudence M. J. H.

    2006-06-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is developing a standard for the exchange of optical data in electronic form between different design programs. In order that the data be completely unambiguous an on-line Properties Dictionary is also being established, when finished this should be available to subscribers to ISO and will enable optical designers and manufacturing industry to access information accurately and transfer this information without manual intervention, across many boundaries. The Neutral Optical Data Interchange Format (NODIF) will use this dictionary to define the optical data that can be passed between to any CAD programs that are STEP compliant. NODIF is of concern to software developers, the Properties Dictionary is of concern to manufacturers.

  2. [Simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in malt by isotope internal standard-UPLC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua

    2016-01-01

    A suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 11 mycotoxins with isotope internal standard in malt. The mycotoxins in malt were extracted and purified by one-step ultrasonic extraction procedure using acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80 : 19 : 1), and then detected and confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS, and quantified by isotope labeled AFB1 ([13C17]-AFB1) and ZEN ([13C18]-ZEN) internal standards. Rapid separation of the 11 mycotoxins was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) with gradient elution using the mobile phase of methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate in water. Simultaneous acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. The established method provided a good linearity for the 11 mycotoxins within their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients all higher than 0.999 1. The average recoveries ranged from 75.0% to 117.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.1%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 30 μg x kg(-1) and 0.15 to 87.5 μg x kg(-1), respectively, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union. Twenty malt samples were analyzed and nine samples were detected with mycotoxins, which were confirmed according to the same fragment ions found in positive samples and the standards at the same retention time. This study has demonstrated that the one-step extraction procedure of mycotoxins from complex matrices coupled to UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, quick, accurate and sensitive for quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple mycotoxins in malt.

  3. International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry Cell Sorter Biosafety Standards

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Kevin L.; Fontes, Benjamin; Hogarth, Philip; Konz, Richard; Monard, Simon; Pletcher, Charles H.; Wadley, Robert B.; Schmid, Ingrid; Perfetto, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometric cell sorting of biological specimens has become prevalent in basic and clinical research laboratories. These specimens may contain known or unknown infectious agents, necessitating precautions to protect instrument operators and the environment from biohazards arising from the use of sorters. To this end the International Society of Analytical Cytology (ISAC) was proactive in establishing biosafety guidelines in 1997 (Schmid et al., Cytometry 1997;28:99–117) and subsequently published revised biosafety standards for cell sorting of unfixed samples in 2007 (Schmid et al., Cytometry Part A J Int Soc Anal Cytol 2007;71A:414–437). Since their publication, these documents have become recognized worldwide as the standard of practice and safety precautions for laboratories performing cell sorting experiments. However, the field of cytometry has progressed since 2007, and the document requires an update. The new Standards provides guidance: (1) for laboratory design for cell sorter laboratories; (2) for the creation of laboratory or instrument specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOP); and (3) on procedures for the safe operation of cell sorters, including personal protective equipment (PPE) and validation of aerosol containment. PMID:24634405

  4. Using monoclonal antibodies as an international standard for the measurement of anti-adalimumab antibodies.

    PubMed

    van Schouwenburg, Pauline A; Kruithof, Simone; Wolbink, Gertjan; Wouters, Diana; Rispens, Theo

    2016-02-20

    Comparing studies investigating anti-drug antibody (ADA) formation is hampered by the lack of comparability between study protocols, assay formats, and standardized reference materials. In this respect, the use of an international standard would mean a major step forward. Here we compared 11 fully human monoclonal antibodies against adalimumab in two assays commonly used for ADA measurement; the bridging ELISA and the antigen binding test (ABT). Our results show non-parallel titration of the monoclonal antibodies in both assays, which we also find for polyclonal ADA sources. Moreover, we observed that the output of the bridging ELISA depends to a large degree on the affinity of the monoclonal antibody. For the ABT, results reflect a combination of affinity and avidity. This suggests that rather than reporting ADA values in nanogram per milliliter, arbitrary units may be more appropriate. Together our data highlight the difficulty of ADA standardization by identifying several pitfalls that should be taken into account when selecting a standard for ADA testing.

  5. Quantification of sialic acids in red meat by UPLC-FLD using indoxylsialosides as internal standards.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong L; Conway, Louis P; Wang, Mao M; Huang, Kun; Liu, Li; Voglmeir, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Herein we describe a UPLC-FLD-based method for the quantification of the sialic acid content of red meat, using a synthetic neuraminic acid derivative as an internal standard. X-Gal-α-2,6-N-propionylneuraminic acid was synthesized via a chemoenzymatic pathway and its hydrolytic stability was characterized. Known quantities of this compound were incubated with samples of red meat under sialic acid-releasing conditions. The released sialic acids were derivatized, analyzed by UPLC-FLD, and the Neu5Ac/Neu5Gc content of the meat sample was determined by comparison with the internal standard. A number of red meats were analyzed by this method with the following results (Neu5Ac μg/g tissue, Neu5Gc μg/g tissue ± s.d.): pork (68 ± 3, 15.2 ± 0.7), beef (69 ± 8, 36 ± 5), lamb (46 ± 2, 33 ± 1), rabbit (59 ± 2, 0.4 ± 0.4), and hare (50 ± 4, 1 ± 1). We envisage that this methodology will find application in investigating the health effects of dietary Neu5Gc. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  6. Improving chip-to-chip precision in disposable microchip capillary electrophoresis devices with internal standards.

    PubMed

    Bidulock, Allison C E; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C T

    2015-03-01

    To realize portable systems for routine measurements in point-of-care settings, MCE methods are required to be robust across many single-use chips. While it is well-known internal standards (ISTDs) improve run-to-run precision, a systematic investigation is necessary to determine the significance of chip-to-chip imprecision in MCE and how ISTDs account for it. This paper addresses this question by exploring the reproducibility of Na quantification across six basic, in-house fabricated microchips. A dataset of 900 electrophoerograms was collected from analyzing five concentrations of NaCl with two ISTDs (CsCl and LiCl). While both improved the peak area reproducibility, the Na/Cs ratio was superior to the Na/Li ratio (improving the RSD by a factor of 2-4, depending on the Na concentration). We attribute this to the significant variation in microchannel surface properties, which was accounted for by cesium but not lithium. Microchip dimension and detector variations were only a few percent, and could be improved through commercial fabrication over in-house made microchips. These results demonstrate that ISTDs not only correct for intrachip imprecision, but are also a viable means to correct for chip-to-chip imprecision inherent in disposable, point-of-care MCE devices. However, as expected, the internal standard must be carefully chosen.

  7. Establishment of the World Health Organization 2(nd) International Standard for Factor XI, Plasma, Human.

    PubMed

    Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The 1(st) International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1(st) IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2(nd) IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2(nd) IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1(st) IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2(nd) IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp.

  8. Establishment of the World Health Organization 2nd International Standard for Factor XI, Plasma, Human

    PubMed Central

    Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The 1st International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1st IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2nd IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2nd IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1st IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2nd IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp. PMID:28373973

  9. Overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS) and the International Docking System Standard (IDSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parma, George F.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA/JSC Engineering Directorate has been developing the technology for a Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) for many years. LIDS had been chosen to be the Constellation Program baseline. In February 2009, the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral control Board (MCB) began an initiative to develop an International Docking System Standard (IDSS) to facilitate greater international cooperation in space and enable emergency crew rescue missions. Discussions as to whether the LIDS could be made compatible with the IDSS were under way. With the cancellation of the Constellation Program, NASA made a policy decision to convert both of the docking ports on the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) to IDSS ports and NASA moved the LIDS project under the ISS Program. LIDS was redesigned to become the NASA implementation of the emerging IDSS, and its name was changed to the NASA Docking System (NDS). The NDS design will be certified as a gblack box h which can be integrated onto vehicles planning to dock to the ISS IDSS ports. This presentation will discuss the evolution of the IDSS from both the LIDS and the Androgynous Peripheral Assembly System (APAS) and outline the interface requirements which are given in the IDSS Interface Definition Document (IDD). It also will give an overview of the current NDS design, and touch on ISS plans for converting its docking ports to be IDSS compliant.

  10. Dose limits to the lens of the eye: International Basic Safety Standards and related guidance.

    PubMed

    Boal, T J; Pinak, M

    2015-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety requirements: 'General Safety Requirements Part 3--Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International Basic Safety Standards' (BSS) was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors at its meeting in September 2011, and was issued as General Safety Requirements Part 3 in July 2014. The equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations was reduced from 150 mSv year(-1) to 20 mSv year(-1), averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no annual dose in a single year exceeding 50 mSv. This reduction in the dose limit for the lens of the eye followed the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its statement on tissue reactions of 21 April 2011. IAEA has developed guidance on the implications of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye. This paper summarises the process that led to the inclusion of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye in the BSS, and the implications of the new dose limit.

  11. Standardization of size, shape and internal structure of spinal cord images: comparison of three transformation methods.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Yasuhisa; Yokota, Shigefumi; Okada, Yasumasa; Oku, Yoshitaka; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Ishiguro, Makio; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu

    2013-01-01

    Functional fluorescence imaging has been widely applied to analyze spatio-temporal patterns of cellular dynamics in the brain and spinal cord. However, it is difficult to integrate spatial information obtained from imaging data in specific regions of interest across multiple samples, due to large variability in the size, shape and internal structure of samples. To solve this problem, we attempted to standardize transversely sectioned spinal cord images focusing on the laminar structure in the gray matter. We employed three standardization methods, the affine transformation (AT), the angle-dependent transformation (ADT) and the combination of these two methods (AT+ADT). The ADT is a novel non-linear transformation method developed in this study to adjust an individual image onto the template image in the polar coordinate system. We next compared the accuracy of these three standardization methods. We evaluated two indices, i.e., the spatial distribution of pixels that are not categorized to any layer and the error ratio by the leave-one-out cross validation method. In this study, we used neuron-specific marker (NeuN)-stained histological images of transversely sectioned cervical spinal cord slices (21 images obtained from 4 rats) to create the standard atlas and also to serve for benchmark tests. We found that the AT+ADT outperformed other two methods, though the accuracy of each method varied depending on the layer. This novel image standardization technique would be applicable to optical recording such as voltage-sensitive dye imaging, and will enable statistical evaluations of neural activation across multiple samples.

  12. Stable isotope coded derivatizing reagents as internal standards in metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Bruheim, Per; Kvitvang, Hans Fredrik Nyvold; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2013-06-28

    Gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometric (MS) detection have become the two main techniques for the analysis of metabolite pools (i.e. Metabolomics). These technologies are especially suited for Metabolite Profiling analysis of various metabolite groups due to high separation capabilities of the chromatographs and high sensitivity of the mass analysers. The trend in quantitative Metabolite Profiling is to add more metabolites and metabolite groups in a single method. This should not be done by compromising the analytical precision. Mass spectrometric detection comes with certain limitations, especially in the quantitative aspects as standards are needed for conversion of ion abundance to concentration and ionization efficiencies are directly dependent on eluent conditions. This calls for novel strategies to counteract all variables that can influence the quantitative precision. Usually, internal standards are used to correct any technical variation. For quantitation of single or just a few analytes this can be executed with spiking isotopically labeled standards. However, for more comprehensive analytical tasks, e.g. profiling tens or hundreds of analytes simultaneously, this strategy becomes expensive and in many cases isotopically labeled standards are not available. An alternative is to introduce a derivatizing step where the sample is derivatized with naturally labeled reagent, while a standard solution is separately derivatized with isotopically labeled reagent and spiked into the sample solution prior to analysis. This strategy, named isotope coded derivatization - ICD, is attractive in the emerging field of quantitative Metabolite Profiling where current protocols can easily comprise over hundred metabolites. This review provides an overview of isotopically labeled derivatizing reagents that have been developed for important metabolite groups with the aim to improve analytical performance and precision.

  13. Standardization of Negative Controls in Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry: Recommendations From the International Ad Hoc Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Torlakovic, Emina E.; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Søren; Petcu, Eugen B.; Swanson, Paul E.; Taylor, Clive R.; Vyberg, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide “best practice recommendations” for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on “fit-for-use” principles. PMID:24714041

  14. International water and steam quality standards on thermal power plants at all-volatile treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, T. I.; Orlov, K. A.; Dooley, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    One of the methods for the improvement of reliability and efficiency of the equipment at heat power plants is the decrease in the rate of corrosion of structural materials and sedimentation in water/steam circuit. These processes can be reduced to minimum by using the water with low impurity content and coolant treatment. For many years, water and steam quality standards were developed in various countries (United States, Germany, Japan, etc.) for specific types of equipment. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), which brings together specialists from 21 countries, developed the water and steam quality standards for various types of power equipment based on theoretical studies and long-term operating experience of power equipment. Recently, various water-chemistry conditions are applied on heatpower equipment including conventional boilers and HRSGs with combined cycle power plants (Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP)). In paper, the maintenance conditions of water chemistry with ammonia or volatile amine dosing are described: reducing AVT(R), oxidizing AVT(O), and oxygen OT. Each of them is provided by the water and steam quality standards and recommendations are given on their maintenance under various operation conditions. It is noted that the quality control of heat carrier must be carried out with a particular care on the HPPs with combined cycle gas turbine units, where frequent starts and halts are performed.

  15. Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Søren; Petcu, Eugen B; Swanson, Paul E; Taylor, Clive R; Vyberg, Mogens

    2014-04-01

    Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles.

  16. Development of a new methanethiol quantification method using ethanethiol as an internal standard.

    PubMed

    Lei, Q; Boatright, W L

    2001-08-01

    Development of a new method to quantify methanethiol in which ethanethiol was employed as an internal standard is reported. Recovery yields for methanethiol from an aqueous model system and a soy protein concentrate (SPC) aqueous slurry determined with this method ranged from 97 to 107% and from 103 to 121%, respectively. The methanethiol content of two commercial SPCs and two commercial soy protein isolate (SPI) samples, on a dry basis, ranged from 835 to 1190 times greater than the odor threshold for methanethiol. Relative standard deviations for quantifying methanethiol with the method from these samples were <5%, indicating its good reproducibility in quantifying methanethiol from soy protein products. Also investigated in the current study was the feasibility of using 5',5-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB, Ellman's reagent) to determine the concentration of methanethiol in the aqueous solutions used to prepare the standard curve for quantifying methanethiol from soy protein products. The concentrations of methanethiol obtained from Ellman's reagent method were comparable with those from a weighing method and theoretical calculation.

  17. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.11 What are the minimum internal control... percentage of the handle. (b) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate.... In case of computer failure between the pari-mutuel book and the hub, no tickets shall be...

  18. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method

  19. Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    development of a monitoring system to track compliance with standards and labeling, CLASP, with support from Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), has expanded its ongoing collaboration with the China National Institute of Standards (CNIS) to include enforcement and monitoring. CNIS has already begun working on the issue of compliance. CNIS has conducted modest sample testing in 2006 for refrigerators, freezers and room air-conditioners, and repeated the same task in 2007 with a similar sample size for three products (refrigerators, freezers, air-conditioners and clothes washers). And, CNIS, with technical support from LBNL, has analyzed the data collected through testing. At the same time, parallel effort has also been paid to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. In conjunction with CNIS, CLASP technical experts reviewed the standards development timeline of the four products currently subject to the mandatory energy information label. CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing: technical input to the process; comment and advice on particular technical issues; as well as evaluation of the results. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. This short report summarizes the status of Standards and Labeling program, current enforcement and monitoring mechanism in China, and states the importance of international collaborations.

  20. Establishment of the first WHO International Standard for etanercept, a TNF receptor II Fc fusion protein: Report of an international collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Meenu; Bird, Chris; Dilger, Paula; Rigsby, Peter; Jia, Haiyan; Gross, Marie Emmanuelle Behr

    2017-03-10

    Etanercept, a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor Fc fusion protein is an effective treatment option in adults with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis or plaque psoriasis and paediatrics with juvenile idiotypic arthritis and plaque psoriasis. Patent expiration in Europe and intense development of various etanercept products worldwide triggered a need for an international reference standard to facilitate determination of biological activity. Therefore, three candidate preparations of etanercept were lyophilized and evaluated in a multi-centre collaborative study comprising twenty eight laboratories from 15 countries for their suitability to serve as an international standard for the bioactivity of TNF receptor II Fc fusion proteins (international nonproprietary name, Etanercept). The preparations were tested for neutralization activity against the third TNF-α international standard (IS) in different in vitro cell-based assays, e.g., cytotoxicity, apoptosis and reporter gene methods. Regardless of the assay and the amount of TNF-α IS used, potency estimates for the different preparations were very similar. An indication of the inhibitory activity of etanercept in terms of the biological activity of the TNF-α IS based on ED50 data derived from a limited number of laboratories using a cytotoxicity assay was also derived. Results indicated that the candidate preparation coded 13/204 was stable and suitable to serve as an international standard for the biological activity of etanercept. Therefore, the preparation coded 13/204 was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2015 as the WHO first International Standard for TNF receptor II Fc fusion protein (INN, etanercept) with an assigned in vitro bioactivity of 10,000IU per ampoule. It should be noted that this first-in-class international standard for a Fc fusion protein, available from the National Institute for Biological

  1. Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report. Appendix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    This appendix accompanies the report "Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report," a study conducted by Achieve to compare the science standards of 10 countries. This appendix includes the following: (1) PISA and TIMSS Assessment Rankings; (2) Courses and…

  2. Accurate determination of arsenic in arsenobetaine standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a by neutron activation analysis coupled with internal standard method.

    PubMed

    Miura, Tsutomu; Chiba, Koichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Matsue, Hideaki

    2010-09-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) coupled with an internal standard method was applied for the determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of arsenobetaine (AB) standard solutions to verify their certified values. Gold was used as an internal standard to compensate for the difference of the neutron exposure in an irradiation capsule and to improve the sample-to-sample repeatability. Application of the internal standard method significantly improved linearity of the calibration curve up to 1 microg of As, too. The analytical reliability of the proposed method was evaluated by k(0)-standardization NAA. The analytical results of As in AB standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a were (499+/-55)mgkg(-1) (k=2) and (10.16+/-0.15)mgkg(-1) (k=2), respectively. These values were found to be 15-20% higher than the certified values. The between-bottle variation of BCR-626 was much larger than the expanded uncertainty of the certified value, although that of NMIJ CRM 7901-a was almost negligible.

  3. Implementation of the new international standards in Swiss legislation on radon protection in dwellings.

    PubMed

    Palacios Gruson, Martha; Barazza, Fabio; Murith, Christophe; Ryf, Salome

    2015-04-01

    The current revision of the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance aims to bring Swiss legislation in line with new international standards. In future, the control of radon exposure in dwellings will be based on a reference level of 300 Bq m(-3). Since this value is exceeded in >10 % of the buildings so far investigated nationwide, the new strategy requires the development of efficient measures to reduce radon-related health risks at an acceptable cost. The minimisation of radon concentrations in new buildings is therefore of great importance. This can be achieved, for example, through the enforcement of building regulations and the education of construction professionals. With regard to radon mitigation in existing buildings, synergies with the ongoing renewal of the building stock should be exploited. In addition, the dissemination of knowledge about radon and its risks needs to be focused on specific target groups, e.g. notaries, who play an important information role in real estate transactions.

  4. Towards a Universal Clinical Genomics Database: the 2012 International Standards for Cytogenomic Arrays Consortium Meeting.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Erin Rooney; Wain, Karen E; Riethmaier, Darlene; Savage, Melissa; Smith-Packard, Bethanny; Kaminsky, Erin B; Rehm, Heidi L; Martin, Christa Lese; Ledbetter, David H; Faucett, W Andrew

    2013-06-01

    The 2012 International Standards for Cytogenomic Arrays (ISCA) Consortium Meeting, "Towards a Universal Clinical Genomic Database," was held in Bethesda, Maryland, May 21-22, 2012, and was attended by over 200 individuals from around the world representing clinical genetic testing laboratories, clinicians, academia, industry, research, and regulatory agencies. The scientific program centered on expanding the current focus of the ISCA Consortium to include the collection and curation of both structural and sequence-level variation into a unified clinical genomics database, available to the public through resources such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information's ClinVar database. Here, we provide an overview of the conference, with summaries of the topics presented for discussion by over 25 different speakers. Presentations are available online at www.iscaconsortium.org.

  5. Reliable Quantitative SERS Analysis Facilitated by Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Embedded Internal Standards.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Lin, Xuan; Jiang, Chaoyang; Li, Chaoyu; Lin, Haixin; Huang, Jingtao; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Guokun; Yan, Xiaomei; Zhong, Qiling; Ren, Bin

    2015-06-15

    Quantitative analysis is a great challenge in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Core-molecule-shell nanoparticles with two components in the molecular layer, a framework molecule to form the shell, and a probe molecule as a Raman internal standard, were rationally designed for quantitative SERS analysis. The signal of the embedded Raman probe provides effective feedback to correct the fluctuation of samples and measuring conditions. Meanwhile, target molecules with different affinities can be adsorbed onto the shell. The quantitative analysis of target molecules over a large concentration range has been demonstrated with a linear response of the relative SERS intensity versus the surface coverage, which has not been achieved by conventional SERS methods.

  6. Posttest analysis of international standard problem 10 using RELAP4/MOD7. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, M.; Davis, C.B.; Peterson, A.C. Jr.; Behling, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    RELAP4/MOD7, a best estimate computer code for the calculation of thermal and hydraulic phenomena in a nuclear reactor or related system, is the latest version in the RELAP4 code development series. This paper evaluates the capability of RELAP4/MOD7 to calculate refill/reflood phenomena. This evaluation uses the data of International Standard Problem 10, which is based on West Germany's KWU PKL refill/reflood experiment K9A. The PKL test facility represents a typical West German four-loop, 1300 MW pressurized water reactor (PWR) in reduced scale while maintaining prototypical volume-to-power ratio. The PKL facility was designed to specifically simulate the refill/reflood phase of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA).

  7. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturers must meet the emission standards as required in §§...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 Section 60.4203... standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines manufactured by stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturers must meet the emission standards as required in §§...

  9. Large-Scale Targeted Proteomics Using Internal Standard Triggered-Parallel Reaction Monitoring (IS-PRM).

    PubMed

    Gallien, Sebastien; Kim, Sang Yoon; Domon, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Targeted high-resolution and accurate mass analyses performed on fast sequencing mass spectrometers have opened new avenues for quantitative proteomics. More specifically, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) implemented on quadrupole-orbitrap instruments exhibits exquisite selectivity to discriminate interferences from analytes. Furthermore, the instrument trapping capability enhances the sensitivity of the measurements. The PRM technique, applied to the analysis of limited peptide sets (typically 50 peptides or less) in a complex matrix, resulted in an improved detection and quantification performance as compared with the reference method of selected reaction monitoring performed on triple quadrupole instruments. However, the implementation of PRM for the analysis of large peptide numbers requires the adjustment of mass spectrometry acquisition parameters, which affects dramatically the quality of the generated data, and thus the overall output of an experiment. A newly designed data acquisition scheme enabled the analysis of moderate-to-large peptide numbers while retaining a high performance level. This new method, called internal standard triggered-parallel reaction monitoring (IS-PRM), relies on added internal standards and the on-the-fly adjustment of acquisition parameters to drive in real-time measurement of endogenous peptides. The acquisition time management was designed to maximize the effective time devoted to measure the analytes in a time-scheduled targeted experiment. The data acquisition scheme alternates between two PRM modes: a fast low-resolution "watch mode" and a "quantitative mode" using optimized parameters ensuring data quality. The IS-PRM method exhibited a highly effective use of the instrument time. Applied to the analysis of large peptide sets (up to 600) in complex samples, the method showed an unprecedented combination of scale and analytical performance, with limits of quantification in the low amol range. The successful analysis of

  10. Large-Scale Targeted Proteomics Using Internal Standard Triggered-Parallel Reaction Monitoring (IS-PRM)*

    PubMed Central

    Gallien, Sebastien; Kim, Sang Yoon; Domon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Targeted high-resolution and accurate mass analyses performed on fast sequencing mass spectrometers have opened new avenues for quantitative proteomics. More specifically, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) implemented on quadrupole-orbitrap instruments exhibits exquisite selectivity to discriminate interferences from analytes. Furthermore, the instrument trapping capability enhances the sensitivity of the measurements. The PRM technique, applied to the analysis of limited peptide sets (typically 50 peptides or less) in a complex matrix, resulted in an improved detection and quantification performance as compared with the reference method of selected reaction monitoring performed on triple quadrupole instruments. However, the implementation of PRM for the analysis of large peptide numbers requires the adjustment of mass spectrometry acquisition parameters, which affects dramatically the quality of the generated data, and thus the overall output of an experiment. A newly designed data acquisition scheme enabled the analysis of moderate-to-large peptide numbers while retaining a high performance level. This new method, called internal standard triggered-parallel reaction monitoring (IS-PRM), relies on added internal standards and the on-the-fly adjustment of acquisition parameters to drive in real-time measurement of endogenous peptides. The acquisition time management was designed to maximize the effective time devoted to measure the analytes in a time-scheduled targeted experiment. The data acquisition scheme alternates between two PRM modes: a fast low-resolution “watch mode” and a “quantitative mode” using optimized parameters ensuring data quality. The IS-PRM method exhibited a highly effective use of the instrument time. Applied to the analysis of large peptide sets (up to 600) in complex samples, the method showed an unprecedented combination of scale and analytical performance, with limits of quantification in the low amol range. The successful

  11. Requirements relating to radon in the International Basic Safety Standards: information, measurement and national strategies.

    PubMed

    Colgan, P A; Boal, T; Czarwinski, R

    2013-03-01

    The fifth edition of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) has recently been established as Part 3 of the General Safety Requirements of the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The BSS applies to all exposure situations and to all categories of exposure. As such, the BSS addresses both occupational exposure due to radon in workplaces and public exposure due to radon in dwellings. In workplaces, exposure due to radon is treated either as a planned exposure situation or as an existing exposure situation, depending on the circumstances. With regard to exposure due to radon in dwellings, the BSS requires that general information on radon, including information on health risks and the synergy with smoking, be made available to the public and other interested parties. Countries are also required to determine whether an action plan for controlling exposure due to radon indoors is necessary, and, if so, to establish and implement such an action plan. Guidance material, covering the establishment of reference levels, national and regional radon surveys, identification of radon prone areas, building codes for new buildings, corrective actions for existing buildings, information campaigns and programme evaluation and effectiveness is currently being developed.

  12. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  13. Establishment of replacement International Standard 13/132 for human antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Rijpkema, Sjoerd; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Guy, Edward C

    2016-09-01

    Sixteen laboratories carried out a collaborative study to validate 13/132 as a replacement International Standard (IS) for TOXM (3rd IS for anti-Toxoplasma Serum, Human, 1000 IU). 13/132 is a freeze dried preparation of pooled human plasma from six donors who experienced a recent Toxoplasma gondii infection. The potency of 13/132 was compared to TOXM and 01/600 (1st IS for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, Human, 20 IU). Samples were tested for IgA, IgG, IgG avidity and IgM in agglutination assays; enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), enzyme linked fluorescent assays, immunoblots, immunofluorescence assays and the Sabin-Feldman dye test for Ig. 13/132 was strongly positive for Ig, IgA, IgG and IgM and the reproducibility was very good. 13/132 contains high levels of anti-Toxoplasma Ig, IgG and IgM and its potency falls between TOXM and 01/600. The avidity of IgG was found to be low, similar to the avidity of IgG from TOXM. 13/132 was established by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization as the 4th IS for Antibodies, Human, to T. gondii with an assigned unitage of 160 IU per ampoule for Ig by dye test and 263 U per ampoule for IgG by ELISA.

  14. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  15. Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards

    SciTech Connect

    De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, G. A.; Olmstead, R.; Goble, W.; Kumar, V.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

  16. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... ignition stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the Administrator received two... internal generation, combustion engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and...

  17. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... internal combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This action proposes to amend... internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and...

  18. Multicenter Comparison of Laboratory Performance in Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Load Testing using International Standards

    PubMed Central

    Rychert, Jenna; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Storch, Gregory; Buller, Richard; Sweet, Stewart C.; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Cheeseman, Jennifer A.; Heeger, Peter; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Fishman, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) remain important in solid organ transplantation. Quantitative viral nucleic acid testing is a major advance to patient management. These assays are limited by a lack of standardization, resulting in viral load measurements that differ among clinical laboratories. The variability in viral load measurements makes interpretation of multicenter clinical trials data difficult. This study compares the current practices in CMV and EBV viral load testing at four large transplant centers participating in multicenter Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation (CTOT/CTOTC). Methods Viral load testing was performed on well-defined viral preparations according to standard operating procedures at each site. Results Among centers, CMV viral load testing was accurate compared to WHO International Standards and within acceptable variation for this testing method. EBV viral load data were more variable and less accurate despite the use of international standards. Conclusions These data suggest that comparison of CMV, but not EBV, viral load measurements at these sites is possible using current assays and control standards. Standardization of these assays is facilitated by using the WHO International Standards and will allow comparison of viral load results among transplant centers. Assay standardization must be performed prior to initiation of multicenter trials. PMID:25303316

  19. Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaitis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the

  20. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... but not limited to, bingo card control, payout procedures, and cash reconciliation process; (ii) Pull... general ledger; (ix) Information technology functions, including review for compliance with information technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including but not limited to, procedures...

  1. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... but not limited to, bingo card control, payout procedures, and cash reconciliation process; (ii) Pull... general ledger; (ix) Information technology functions, including review for compliance with information technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including but not limited to, procedures...

  2. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reconciliation process; (ii) Pull tabs, including but not limited to, statistical records, winner verification... accountability shall be reconciled to the general ledger; (ix) Information technology functions, including review for compliance with information technology standards; (x) Complimentary service or item, including...

  3. Establishment of the 1st World Health Organization international standards for human papillomavirus type 16 DNA and type 18 DNA.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dianna E; Baylis, Sally A; Padley, David; Heath, Alan B; Ferguson, Morag; Pagliusi, Sonia R; Quint, Wim G; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2010-06-15

    A World Health Organization collaborative study was conducted to evaluate candidate international standards for human papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16 DNA (NIBSC code 06/202) and HPV Type 18 DNA (NIBSC code 06/206) for use in the amplification and detection steps of nucleic acid-based assays. The freeze-dried candidate international standards were prepared from bulk preparations of cloned plasmid containing full-length HPV-16 or HPV-18 genomic DNA. Nineteen laboratories from 13 countries participated in the study using a variety of commercial and in-house quantitative and qualitative assays. The data presented here indicate that, upon freeze-drying, there is no significant loss in potency for the candidate HPV-18 DNA and a slight loss in potency for the candidate HPV-16 DNA; although this is likely not scientifically relevant when assay precision is considered. In general, the individual laboratory mean estimates for each study sample were grouped +/- approximately 2 log(10) around the theoretical HPV DNA concentration of the reconstituted ampoule (1 x 10(7) HPV genome equivalents/mL). The agreement between laboratories is improved when potencies are made relative to the candidate international standards, demonstrating their utility in harmonizing amplification and detection steps of HPV-16 and -18 DNA assays. Degradation studies indicate that the candidate international standards are extremely stable and suitable for long-term use. Based on these findings, the candidate standards were established as the 1st WHO international standards for HPV-16 DNA and HPV-18 DNA, each with a potency of 5 x 10(6) international units (IU) per ampoule or 1 x 10(7) IU mL(-1) when reconstituted as directed.

  4. Using the CEN/ISO standard for categorial structure to harmonise the development of WHO international terminologies.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jean M; Kumar, Anand; Bousquet, Cédric; Trombert, Béatrice

    2009-01-01

    Semantic interoperability (SIOp) is a major issue for health care systems having to share information across professionals, teams, legacies, countries, languages and citizens. The World Health Organisation (WHO) develops and updates a family of health care terminologies (ICD, ICF, ICHI and ICPS) and has embarked on an open web-based cooperation to revise ICD 11 using ontology driven tools. The International Health Terminology Standard Development Organisation (IHTSDO) updates, translates and maps SNOMED CT to ICD 10. We present the application of the CEN/ISO standard on categorial structure to bind terminologies and ontologies to harmonise and to map between these international terminologies.

  5. International organization for standardization (ISO) 9000 and chemical agent standard analytical reference material (SASARM) quality system development and implementation. Phase 1. Final report, April 1993-June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, S.D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is in the process of developing an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 quality assurance (QA) system and a Chemical Agent Standard Analytical Reference Material (CASARM) QA program. Phase I of this process consisted of analyzing the current DPG QA system, defining the structure of the new QA system, determine how the ISO 9000 and the CASARM systems will interact, develop the new QA system and implementation plan, and develop the CASARM program and begin implementation. The initial phases of the system design and synthesis met the objectives established for Phase I of this methodology project. Phase II will complete the functional analysis, system design, and prototype implementation. The prototype will be analyzed for weaknesses in operation, personnel and equipment requirements, software, and cost effectiveness. The system will be modified, if needed, and implemented across the Materiel Test Directorate. The final stage of this methodology will be to achieve ISO 9000 registration. International Organization for Standardization(ISO) 9000, Chemical Agent Standard Analytical Reference Material(CASARM), Standardized Quality Assurance(QA), QA/Quality Control(QC).

  6. Integrating Internal Standards into Disposable Capillary Electrophoresis Devices To Improve Quantification

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    To improve point-of-care quantification using microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE), the chip-to-chip variabilities inherent in disposable, single-use devices must be addressed. This work proposes to integrate an internal standard (ISTD) into the microchip by adding it to the background electrolyte (BGE) instead of the sample—thus eliminating the need for additional sample manipulation, microchip redesigns, and/or system expansions required for traditional ISTD usage. Cs and Li ions were added as integrated ISTDs to the BGE, and their effects on the reproducibility of Na quantification were explored. Results were then compared to the conclusions of our previous publication which used Cs and Li as traditional ISTDs. The in-house fabricated microchips, electrophoretic protocols, and solution matrixes were kept constant, allowing the proposed method to be reliably compared to the traditional method. Using the integrated ISTDs, both Cs and Li improved the Na peak area reproducibility approximately 2-fold, to final RSD values of 2.2–4.7% (n = 900). In contrast (to previous work), Cs as a traditional ISTD resulted in final RSDs of 2.5–8.8%, while the traditional Li ISTD performed poorly with RSDs of 6.3–14.2%. These findings suggest integrated ISTDs are a viable method to improve the precision of disposable MCE devices—giving matched or superior results to the traditional method in this study while neither increasing system cost nor complexity. PMID:28192985

  7. Development and use of an internal standard for oyster herpesvirus 1 detection by PCR.

    PubMed

    Renault, T; Arzul, I; Lipart, C

    2004-10-01

    Oyster samples were examined using a competitive PCR method in order to detect and quantify oyster herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) DNA. Quantitation of viral DNA by competitive PCR assay was based on co-amplification of OsHV-1 DNA and a competitor where a known amount of competitor DNA was present in the same reaction mixture. The competitor was engineered so that it differs in length (deletion of 76 base pairs) from the viral DNA. The assay allowed the detection of 1 fg of viral DNA among 0.5 mg of oyster tissues. The method was used to demonstrate the absence of PCR inhibitors in oyster spat ground tissues. PCR inhibition was observed in adult oyster samples when the same tissue preparation procedure was used. On the contrary, classical phenol/chloroform DNA extraction from adult oyster tissues allowed co-amplification of the internal standard competitor and the viral DNA. The method was successfully used to demonstrate the presence of viral DNA in asymptomatic adult oysters. Quantitation of OsHV-1 DNA in infected spat and asymptomatic adult oysters was also carried out. Viral DNA (1.5-325 pg) were detectable in 0.5 mg of oyster tissues in adults. The amounts of viral DNA in infected oyster spat varied from 750 pg to 35 ng per 0.5 mg of ground tissues.

  8. Quantitative 2D HSQC NMR determination of polymer structures by selecting suitable internal standard references.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liming; Gellerstedt, Göran

    2007-01-01

    A new analytical method based on the 2D HSQC NMR sequence is presented, which can be applied for quantitative structural determination of complicated polymers. The influence of T1 and T2 relaxations, off-resonance effects, coupling constants and homonuclear couplings are discussed. It was found that the T2 values measured on polymeric samples with the conventional HSQC-CPMG sequence could not be used to correct the errors caused by T2 relaxations during the polarization transfer delay. A unique way of selecting the proper internal standard reference signal(s) is therefore proposed to eliminate the major errors caused by T2 relaxations, resonance offsets, coupling constant deviations and homonuclear couplings. Two polymer samples, a cellulose triacetate and an acetylated lignin, have been used to illustrate the principles. The methodology developed in this work is robust to instrument miss-setting and it can find wide-spread applications in areas where a quantitative analysis of structurally complicated polymers is necessary.

  9. United States Government Regulations and International Standards Related to Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Knowledge of government regulations relevant to the chemical analysis of foods is extremely important to persons working in the food industry. Federal laws and regulations reinforce the efforts of the food industry to provide wholesome foods, to inform consumers about the nutritional composition of foods, and to eliminate economic frauds. In some cases, they dictate what ingredients a food must contain, what must be tested, and the procedures used to analyze foods for safety factors and quality attributes. This chapter describes the US federal regulations related to the composition of foods. The reader is referred to references (1-4) for comprehensive coverage of US food laws and regulations. Many of the regulations referred to in this chapter are published in the various titles of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (5). This chapter also includes information about food standards and safety practices established by international organizations. Internet addresses are given at the end of this chapter for many of the government agencies, organizations, and documents discussed.

  10. Mental health legislation in Lebanon: Nonconformity to international standards and clinical dilemmas in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Kerbage, Hala; El Chammay, Rabih; Richa, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Mental health legislation represents an important mean of protecting the rights of persons with mental disabilities by preventing human rights violations and discrimination and by legally reinforcing the objectives of a mental health policy. The last decade has seen significant changes in the laws relating to psychiatric practice all over the world, especially with the implementation of the Convention for the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD). In this paper, we review the existing legislation in Lebanon concerning the following areas in mental health: treatment and legal protection of persons with mental disabilities, criminal laws in relation to offenders with mental disorders, and laws regulating incapacity. We will discuss these texts in comparison with international recommendations and standards on the rights of persons with disabilities, showing the recurrent contradiction between them. Throughout our article, we will address the clinical dilemmas that Lebanese psychiatrists encounter in practice, in the absence of a clear legislation that can orient their decisions and protect their patients from abuse.

  11. Quantification of amyloid precursor protein isoforms using quantification concatamer internal standard.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junjun; Wang, Meiyao; Turko, Illarion V

    2013-01-02

    It is likely that expression and/or post-translational generation of various protein isoforms can be indicative of initial pathological changes or pathology development. However, selective quantification of individual protein isoforms remains a challenge, because they simultaneously possess common and unique amino acid sequences. Quantification concatamer (QconCAT) internal standards were originally designed for a large-scale proteome quantification and are artificial proteins that are concatamers of tryptic peptides for several proteins. We developed a QconCAT for quantification of various isoforms of amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP-QconCAT includes tryptic peptides that are common for all isoforms of APP concatenated with those tryptic peptides that are unique for specific APP isoforms. Isotope-labeled APP-QconCAT was expressed, purified, characterized, and further used for quantification of total APP, APP695, and amyloid-β (Aβ) in the human frontal cortex from control and severe Alzheimer's disease donors. Potential biological implications of our quantitative measurements are discussed. It is also expected that using APP-QconCAT(s) will advance our understanding of biological mechanism by which various APP isoforms involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. The regulation of protein content and quality in national and international food standards.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Janine L

    2012-08-01

    Food regulation aims to protect public health through a safe and nutritious food supply produced by a compliant food industry. Food standards of developed countries generally do not regulate protein content or protein quality because the risk of dietary protein inadequacy in their national populations is very low. Protein is nevertheless regulated for reasons of product quality or protein labelling or to minimise assessed health risks associated with consumption of certain animal- and vegetable-protein foods; analogue products that extend or simulate commonly available animal-protein foods; and special purpose foods such as infant formula and foods, supplementary and medical foods, and foods for weight loss. The extent and approach to protein regulation varies greatly among jurisdictions but where it occurs, it is applied through minimum and sometimes maximum limits on protein content or quality measures or both using an inter-related approach. Protein quality measures range from amino acid profiles and digestibility corrected scores to protein rating, a rat bioassay and reference proteins not further described. Regulatory methods for protein quality determination are referenced to the published scientific literature or developed nationally. Internationally, the Codex Alimentarius regulates the protein content and quality of some foods. The Codex approach varies according to the food but is similar to the approaches used in national and regional food regulation. This paper provides a comparison of the regulation of protein in foods using examples from the food regulations of Australia New Zealand, Canada, the European Union, the United States of America and the Codex Alimentarius.

  13. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Triple Bottom Line Reports Using International Standards on Reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested.

  14. Development of an evaluation methodology for triple bottom line reports using international standards on reporting.

    PubMed

    Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested.

  15. Physiological Employment Standards III: physiological challenges and consequences encountered during international military deployments.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Castellani, John W; Warr, Bradley J; Sharp, Marilyn A; Henning, Paul C; Spiering, Barry A; Scofield, Dennis E

    2013-11-01

    Modern international military deployments in austere environments (i.e., Iraq and Afghanistan) place considerable physiological demands on soldiers. Significant physiological challenges exist: maintenance of physical fitness and body composition, rigors of external load carriage, environmental extremes (heat, cold, and altitude), medical illnesses, musculoskeletal injuries, traumatic brain injuries, post-traumatic stress disorder, and environmental exposure hazards (i.e., burn pits, vehicle exhaust, etc.). To date there is very little published research and no comprehensive reviews on the physiological effects of deployments. The purpose of this paper is to overview what is currently known from the literature related mainly to current military conflicts with regard to the challenges and consequences from deployments. Summary findings include: (1) aerobic capacity declines while muscle strength, power and muscular endurance appear to be maintained, (2) load carriage continues to tax the physical capacities of the Soldier, (3) musculoskeletal injuries comprise the highest proportion of all injury categories, (4) environmental insults occur from both terrestrial extremes and pollutant exposure, and (5) post-deployment concerns linger for traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder. A full understanding of these responses will assist in identifying the most effective risk mitigation strategies to ensure deployment readiness and to assist in establishment of military employment standards.

  16. Electronic book format EPUB and Japanese typography : Mainstream people in Japan are unlikely to win international standardization battles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Makoto

    EPUB3 is an electronic book format based on Web technologies such as HTML and CSS. EPUB3 is internationalized; in particular, it supports Japanese typography. Features such as vertical writing were introduced by first creating CSS Writing Modes and CSS Text at W3C and then creating EPUB3 at IDPF on top of them. On the basis of this standardization experience, common pitfalls for Japanese in international standardization are pointed out and a promising approach is suggested.

  17. Structural studies on an internal loop from a hairpin ribozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Z.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Tinoco, I. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    Ribozymes, RNA enzymes, catalyze site-specific RNA cleavage and ligation reactions. We are studying the three-dimensional structure of a hairpin ribozyme derived from the minus strand of tobacco ring spot virus satellite RNA ((-)sTRSV), which has been engineering to specifically cleave the HIV-1 RNA. The minimum structure for the catalytic reaction involves a 50-nucleotide ribozyme and a 14-nucleotide substrate. The proposed secondary structure of the ribozyme-substrate complex consists of four short helices separated by two internal loops. The relatively large size (64-nucleotide) of the ribozyme-substrate complex presents formidable problems in solving the structure using NMR. Therefore we are studying smaller structural subunits of the complex. We are determining the high resolution structure of the symmetric internal loop involving the cleavage site and the flanking helices. One strand of the internal loop was selectively {sup 13}C-labeled at C8 of each purine and C6 of each pyrimidine. By using {sup 13}C-edited two-dimensional NMR, the proton NOESY spectrum was greatly simplified. This allowed unambiguous sequential proton resonance assignments along each strand. Three-dimensional {sup 1}-{sup 13}C HMQC-NOESY was used to further facilitate resonance assignments. We are also enzymatically synthesizing the entire 50-nucleotide ribozyme and will combine it with the {sup 13}C-labeled substrate. Through comparison of the NOE connectivities of the labeled nucleotides from the internal loop alone with those from the entire complex, the differences between the two structures can be elucidated.

  18. Application of co-eluting structural analog internal standards for expanded linear dynamic range in liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guoen

    2003-01-01

    Non-linear standard calibration curves occur frequently in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS), necessitating the use of non-linear regression curve fitting or a reduction in assay dynamic range. Non-linearity can be minimized by the use of stable isotope internal standards, if the cause of curve bending is ionization saturation. Unfortunately, stable isotope internal standards can be difficult or expensive to synthesize. Structural analog internal standards, if sufficiently close to analytes both in chemical structures and HPLC retention times, may mimic the effect of stable isotope internal standards. Tentative experimental evidence supporting this concept is presented in this paper.

  19. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4201 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4201 Section... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4201 What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  9. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public comment on one... the limitations on operation of emergency stationary engines to allow emergency engines to operate...

  10. External and internal standards in the single-isotope derivative (radioenzymatic) measurement of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.D.; Clutter, W.E.; Cryer, P.E.

    1985-12-01

    In plasma from normal humans (n = 9, 35 samples) and from patients with diabetes mellitus (n = 12, 24 samples) single-isotope derivative (radioenzymatic) plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations calculated from external standard curves constructed in a normal plasma pool were identical to those calculated from internal standards added to an aliquot of each plasma sample. In plasma from patients with end-stage renal failure receiving long-term dialysis (n = 34, 109 samples), competitive catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitory activity resulted in a systematic error when external standards in a normal plasma pool were used, as reported previously; values so calculated averaged 21% (+/- 12%, SD) lower than those calculated from internal standards. However, when external standard curves were constructed in plasma from a given patient with renal failure and used to calculate that patient's values, or in a renal failure plasma pool and used to calculate all renal failure values, norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations were not significantly different from those calculated from internal standards. We conclude: (1) External standard curves constructed in plasma from a given patient with renal failure can be used to measure norepinephrine and epinephrine in plasma from that patient; further, external standards in a renal failure plasma pool can be used for assays in patients with end-stage renal failure receiving long-term dialysis. (2) Major COMT inhibitory activity is not present commonly if samples from patients with renal failure are excluded. Thus, it would appear that external standard curves constructed in normal plasma can be used to measure norepinephrine and epinephrine precisely in samples from persons who do not have renal failure.

  11. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  12. 75 FR 6070 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Atomic Energy Agency Basic Safety Standards Version...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... was published in 1996 ( http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/ss-115-web/Pub996_web-1a.pdf... draft (DS379) is available for viewing and downloading on the Internet at: http://www-ns.iaea.org/standards/documents/draft-ms-posted.asp . Several other International Organizations, including the...

  13. 78 FR 23940 - Use of International Standard ISO-10993, “Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Use of International Standard ISO-10993, ``Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing''; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  14. 25 CFR 543.20 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology and information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... information technology and information technology data? 543.20 Section 543.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... § 543.20 What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology and information... prevent the concealment of fraud. (4) Information technology agents having access to Class II...

  15. 25 CFR 543.20 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology and information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... information technology and information technology data? 543.20 Section 543.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... § 543.20 What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology and information... prevent the concealment of fraud. (4) Information technology agents having access to Class II...

  16. Standard Setting for Next Generation TOEFL Academic Speaking Test (TAST): Reflections on the ETS Panel of International Teaching Assistant Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papajohn, Dean

    2006-01-01

    While many institutions have utilized TOEFL scores for international admissions for many years, a speaking section has never before been a required part of TOEFL until the development of the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL. So institutions will need to determine how to set standards for the speaking section of TOEFL, also known as TOEFL Academic…

  17. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING... individual accountability. All variances must be documented and investigated. (4) The gaming operation...

  18. 25 CFR 543.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... patron deposit accounts and cashless systems? 543.14 Section 543.14 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING...) The patron must appear at the gaming operation in person, at a designated area of accountability,...

  19. 25 CFR 543.13 - What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... complimentary services or items? 543.13 Section 543.13 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.13 What are... all complimentary items and services equal to or exceeding an amount established by the...

  20. 25 CFR 543.13 - What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... complimentary services or items? 543.13 Section 543.13 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.13 What are... all complimentary items and services equal to or exceeding an amount established by the...

  1. 25 CFR 543.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... patron deposit accounts and cashless systems? 543.14 Section 543.14 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING...) The patron must appear at the gaming operation in person, at a designated area of accountability,...

  2. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING... individual accountability. All variances must be documented and investigated. (4) The gaming operation...

  3. Selected Lessons Learned through the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews selected lessons that were learned during the design, development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. The critical importance of standards and common interfaces is emphasized to create a common operation environment that can lead to flexibility and adaptability.

  4. Deconstructing Institutionalisation of the European Standards for Quality Assurance: From Instrument Mixes to Quality Cultures and Implications for International Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The paper enquires into the implementation of the European Standards and Guidelines for Internal Quality Assurance of Higher Education Institutions (ESG 1). The enquiry uses data from universities in the Czech Republic and compares them against those obtained in the relevant pan-European survey. The aims are to empirically deconstruct ESG 1…

  5. Manual for the Collection of Adult Education Statistics. Within the Framework of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Statistics on Education.

    The first 15 pages of the manual provide: (1) background information on the importance of adult education, the need for adult education statistics, the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), and the scope of the term adult education; (2) the application of ISCED to adult education and the ISCED classifications (levels, fields,…

  6. Intended use of reference products & WHO International Standards/Reference Reagents in the development of similar biological products (biosimilars).

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Robin; Wadhwa, Meenu

    2011-09-01

    Reference Products and WHO International Standards/Reference Reagents have roles to play in the development and characterization of similar biological products (SBPs). However, these roles are distinct and non-interchangeable. The uses of these materials and their limitations are considered in this paper.

  7. Study of Current and Potential Uses of International Standard Book Number in United States Libraries. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmierer, Helen F.; Pasternack, Howard

    Summarizing a literature review and three questionnaire surveys, this study reports on the amount and types of both current and potential use of the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) by United States Libraries. It is divided into five parts: (1) literature survey and analysis, including the library use of ISBN in cataloging, circulation,…

  8. Results of international standard problem No. 36 severe fuel damage experiment of a VVER fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Firnhaber, M.; Yegorova, L.; Brockmeier, U.

    1995-09-01

    International Standard Problems (ISP) organized by the OECD are defined as comparative exercises in which predictions with different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other and with a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. In addition, it enables the code user to gain experience and to improve his competence. This paper presents the results and assessment of ISP No. 36, which deals with the early core degradation phase during an unmitigated severe LWR accident in a Russian type VVER. Representatives of 17 organizations participated in the ISP using the codes ATHLET-CD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR, SCDAP/RELAP5 and RAPTA. Some participants performed several calculations with different codes. As experimental basis the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2 was selected. The main phenomena investigated are thermal behavior of fuel rods, onset of temperature escalation, material behavior and hydrogen generation. In general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results for the thermal behavior, the hydrogen generation and, partly, for the material behavior. However, some calculations deviate in important quantities - e.g. some material behavior data - showing remarkable discrepancies between each other and from the experiments. The temperature history of the bundle up to the beginning of significant oxidation was calculated quite well. Deviations seem to be related to the overall heat balance. Since the material behavior of the bundle is to a great extent influenced by the cladding failure criteria a more realistic cladding failure model should be developed at least for the detailed, mechanistic codes. Regarding the material behavior and flow blockage some models for the material interaction as well as for relocation and refreezing requires further improvement.

  9. Organizational leadership: A study on the affects of certification to International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowart, Jewel S.

    Compliance to requirements of ISO is an important leadership problem for the International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG) and the Aviation, Space and Defense (AS&D) companies. Furthermore, the IAQG seeks to understand the valuation of ISO/AS9100 requirements (2009), audit practices, management functions, business performance, customer satisfaction, and potential future concepts for the standard to assure quality. Since the release of the AS9100C total certification growth surpassed 1,100,000 organizations in 2010 with ISO 9001 series adoption and implementation governing business operations (ASQ, 2012b; ISO, 2011; Bernardo, Llach, & Marimon, 2011). Historians such as Crosby, Juran, Deming, and others established the foundation for quality assurance. Several researchers explored the issues which complicate overall benefits of ISO certification (Iwaro & Mwasha, 2012; Karthi et al., 2012; Sampaio et al., 2009). This study examined the effects on AS&D industries from ISO compliance to identify the implications (of ever-changing requirements) through an online survey of 15,000 practitioners. The research illuminated how ISO affects AS&D industries with current and future requirements for certification. The data showed that 75% of survey respondents report implementation of the AS9100C requirements still has benefits that outweigh the cost. Findings suggest that AS&D industries perceive significant value in the AS9100C document as part of the overall ISO 9000 series. In general, the comments from the survey can provide insight into the affects of ISO certification. The study concludes by recommending continued research to learn of further impacts from ISO certification within AS&D industries to improve the AS9100 document requirements for quality management systems.

  10. Complete equation for the measurement of organic molecules using stable isotope labeled internal standards, exact matching, and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burke, Daniel G; Mackay, Lindsey G

    2008-07-01

    Highly accurate measurements of the amount of substance of organic molecules in a test material can be obtained using exactly matched calibration solutions and internal standards that are labeled with stable isotope atoms by measuring the amount ratio of analyte to internal standard using mass spectrometry. Estimating the uncertainty of quantitative measurements of organic molecules is a means of evaluating accuracy and of establishing traceability to the International System of Units (SI) and requires a measurement function that fully describes the measuring system. This paper presents the derivation of the equation (measurement function) that describes this complete measurement after the internal standard has equilibrated with the test material matrix. It is similar to the equation for inorganic measurements using isotope dilution techniques, but potential biases during chemical processing arising from whole organic molecule analysis compared to inorganic atomic analysis required greater investigation of the yield factors that occur during organic molecule measurements. In the new equation, a series of ratios of proportionality factors are used to relate the amount of substance in a test material to chromatographic peak area ratios corresponding to mass spectrometer ion current ratios. All the proportionality factors are grouped together to define a measuring system factor F(X), the value of which is determined by the fundamental chemical processes affecting the yields of analyte, internal standard, and reference standard of the analyte in the measurement process. Any factors in the measurement process that affect the mole ratio of analyte to internal standard in the calibration solution differently from the test solution will result in a nonunity value for F(X) and a proportional bias to the measurement, and in this way F(X) represents the concept of recovery of the amount ratio of analyte to internal standard. Thus highly accurate measurements require F(X) or

  11. Selenium determination in biscuits and pasta: development of chronopotentiometric stripping determination by using a sulphide as an internal standard.

    PubMed

    Svarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Stojanović, Zorica

    2013-10-15

    Being common in chromatographic techniques internal standard method is rarely applied in electrochemical stripping determinations. One of the reasons for such rare use of this elegant quantification method is because optimal conditions of accumulation at the electrode for individual compounds producing a reproducible signal may vary significantly. These criteria are much stricter when selenium is in question due to very complex mechanism of its accumulation at mercury electrodes which implies simultaneous cathodic mercury dissolution and chemical reaction. Elements that are in the analytical step stripped cathodically from mercury electrodes are rare, further limiting the application of the internal standard method when electrochemical selenium determination is in question. In this work the possibility of using sulphide for selenium quantification by chronopotentiometric stripping analysis was investigated. Optimal experimental parameters were defined in two-component systems. Dimensionless factors defining the ratio of proportionality constants of the two elements were calculated for different selenium concentration ranges at different sulphide contents. Sulphide content that was chosen as adequate for selenium concentrations reasonably to be expected in food samples was 500 µg/dm(3). Determined detection limit of chronopotentiometric stripping determination of selenium by using a sulphide as an internal standard was 0.04 µg/dm(3) (RSD=7.6%; n=5). Defined quantification method was confirmed by analysing spiked standard solutions and standard reference material. The method was used for selenium determination in biscuit and pasta samples. Calculated contents were statistically compared with those obtained by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  12. Anthropometric protocols for the construction of new international fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, L Cheikh; Knight, HE; Bhutta, Z; Chumlea, WC

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes, in detail, the selection of anthropometric personnel, equipment, and measurement and calibration protocols used to construct the new standards. Implementing these protocols at each study site ensures that the anthropometric data are of the highest quality to construct the international standards. PMID:23841804

  13. Field Test Protocol. Standard Internal Load Generation for Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  14. Field Test Protocol: Standard Internal Load Generation in Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  15. 75 FR 63534 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Agency (IAEA). Global harmonization of transport of dangerous goods regulations. Guiding principles for... enhance harmonization for international transport of hazardous materials. PHMSA has finalized a...

  16. 76 FR 62961 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    .... Protection of Children J. Indian Tribal Governments K. Energy Effects L. International Trade Impacts M... Protection Agency FRP Fiber Reinforced Plastic GSA General Services Administration IMO International Maritime... operating characteristics and a new requirement to use corrosion- resistant materials for certain...

  17. Evaluation of the saccharide content and stability of the first WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae b capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Bolgiano, Barbara; Rigsby, Peter; Crane, Dennis; Belgrave, Danielle; Corbel, Michael J

    2007-10-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccines (Hib) are almost entirely evaluated by physico-chemical methods to ensure the consistency of manufacture of batches. As different assays are employed for the quantification of Hib capsular polysaccharide PRP (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-D-ribitol-(1-->1)-beta-D-ribose-3-phosphate) in final formulations and bulk components, there was deemed a need for an International Standard of Hib PRP polysaccharide to be made available. Ten laboratories from 8 different countries participated in a collaborative study to determine the PRP content and assess the suitability of a candidate International Standard PRP preparation (02/208). The results illustrate that a reduction in between-laboratory variability could be achieved by use of a common reference preparation and data analysis showed no significant differences in the values obtained by the different assays: ribose, phosphorus, and high performance anion exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), suggesting the suitability of the proposed reference for use across these assays for quantification of PRP content in Hib vaccines. On the basis of the results of this study, the First International Standard for PRP, NIBSC Code 02/208, has been established by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation, with a content of 4.933+/-0.267mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 7 of the participating laboratories.

  18. Developing safety standards for electromagnetic energy: the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael R; Petersen, Ronald C

    2006-01-01

    ICES develops (1) standards for the safe use of electromagnetic energy in the range of 0 Hz to 300 GHz relative to the potential hazards of exposure to humans, volatile materials, and explosive devices, (2) standards for products that emit electromagnetic energy by design or as a by-product of their operation, and (3) standards for environmental limits. ICES history, goals, organization, leadership, and products are described.

  19. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... major developments in the accountability and financial management profession and emphasize specific considerations applicable to the government environment. The draft of the proposed changes to Standards...

  20. Prediction of internal standards in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. II. Selectivity optimization and internal standard prediction for the quantitation of estradiol and levonorgestrel in a transdermal drug delivery formulation based on the linear solvation energy relationships.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianwei; Shah, Dimple S

    2002-04-19

    This paper describes the results of selectivity optimization and internal standard prediction for the quantitation of estradiol and levonorgestrel in transdermal patches by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) based on the linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). The patch samples are prepared by swelling with acetonitrile (ACN) and the separation is performed by Zorbax Eclipse XDB ODS columns. A proper retention range is first determined with a binary mobile phase of ACN and water based on the general resolution equation. The interference to estradiol from a levonorgestrel impurity is then eliminated by a ternary mobile phase of acetonitrile-methanol-water with a composition predicted by LSERs. When the resolution is optimized and the "open window" in the chromatogram for an internal standard is selected, LSERs are used to predict the candidate compounds to be evaluated as the internal standard. The approach described in this study can be used, in general, to considerably improve the efficiency of RPLC method development, particularly for neutral samples. Finally, the LSER approach for the selectivity optimization is compared with a statistical response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD) in terms of the effectiveness and number of experiments. It is concluded that, although the predicted mobile phase composition to achieve the desired selectivity is about the same, the LSER approach is more efficient and fewer experiments are required.

  1. 18O-Labeled Proteome Reference as Global Internal Standards for Targeted Quantification by Selected Reaction Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Seo; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Liu, Tao; Robinson, Errol W.; Hossain, Mahmud; Champion, Boyd L.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2011-10-11

    Selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) is an emerging technology for high throughput targeted protein quantification and verification in biological and biomarker discovery studies; however, the cost associated with the use of stable isotope labeled synthetic peptides as internal standards is prohibitive for quantitatively screening large numbers of candidate proteins as often required in the pre-verification phase of biomarker discovery. Herein we present the proof-of-concept experiments of using an 18O-labeled 'universal' reference as comprehensive internal standards for quantitative SRM-MS analysis. With an 18O-labeled whole proteome sample as reference, every peptide of interest will have its own corresponding heavy isotope labeled internal standard, thus providing an ideal approach for quantitative screening of a large number of candidates using SRM-MS. Our results showed that the 18O incorporation efficiency using a recently improved protocol was >99.5% for most peptides investigated, a level comparable to 13C/15N labeled synthetic peptides in terms of heavy isotope incorporation. The accuracy, reproducibility, and linear dynamic range of quantification were further assessed based on known ratios of standard proteins spiked into mouse plasma with an 18O-labeled mouse plasma reference. A dynamic range of four orders of magnitude in relative concentration was obtained with high reproducibility (i.e., coefficient of variance <10%) based on the 16O/18O peak area ratios. Absolute and relative quantification of C-reactive protein and prostate-specific antigen were demonstrated by coupling an 18O-labeled reference with standard additions of protein standards. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the use of 18O-labeled reference provides a convenient and effective strategy for quantitative SRM screening of large number of candidate proteins.

  2. Quantitative analysis of soil calcium by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using addition and addition-internal standardizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani-Mahdavi, Hamidreza; Shafiee, Parisa

    2016-12-01

    Matrix mismatching in the quantitative analysis of materials through calibration-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a serious problem. In this paper, to overcome the matrix mismatching, two distinct approaches named addition standardization (AS) and addition-internal combinatorial standardization (A-ICS) are demonstrated for LIBS experiments. Furthermore, in order to examine the efficiency of these methods, the concentration of calcium in ordinary garden soil without any fertilizer is individually measured by each of the two procedures. To achieve this purpose, ten standard samples with different concentrations of calcium (as the analyte) and copper (as the internal standard) are prepared in the form of cylindrical tablets, so that the soil plays the role of the matrix in all of them. The measurements indicate that the relative error of concentration compared to a certified value derived by induced coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy is 3.97% and 2.23% for AS and A-ICS methods, respectively. Furthermore, calculations related to standard deviation indicates that A-ICS method may be more accurate than AS one.

  3. Quantitation of Viral DNA by Real-Time PCR Applying Duplex Amplification, Internal Standardization, and Two-Color Fluorescence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Franz; Falkner, Falko G.; Dorner, Friedrich; Hämmerle, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A real-time PCR method was developed to quantitate viral DNA that includes duplex amplification, internal standardization, and two-color fluorescence detection without the need to generate an external standardization curve. Applied to human parvovirus B19 DNA, the linear range was from 102 to at least 5 × 106 copies per ml of sample. The coefficient of variation was 0.29 using a run control of 2,876 copies per ml. The method reduces the risk of false-negative results, yields high precision, and is applicable for other DNA targets. PMID:11375203

  4. Fate of xylem-transported 11C- and 13C-labeled CO2 in leaves of poplar.

    PubMed

    Bloemen, Jasper; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; De Vos, Filip; Vanhove, Christian; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Boeckx, Pascal; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    In recent studies, assimilation of xylem-transported CO2 has gained considerable attention as a means of recycling respired CO2 in trees. However, we still lack a clear and detailed picture on the magnitude of xylem-transported CO2 assimilation, in particular within leaf tissues. To this end, detached poplar leaves (Populus × canadensis Moench 'Robusta') were allowed to take up a dissolved (13)CO2 label serving as a proxy of xylem-transported CO2 entering the leaf from the branch. The uptake rate of the (13)C was manipulated by altering the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) (0.84, 1.29 and 1.83 kPa). Highest tissue enrichments were observed under the highest VPD. Among tissues, highest enrichment was observed in the petiole and the veins, regardless of the VPD treatment. Analysis of non-labeled leaves showed that some (13)C diffused from the labeled leaves and was fixed in the mesophyll of the non-labeled leaves. However, (13)C leaf tissue enrichment analysis with elemental analysis coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry was limited in spatial resolution at the leaf tissue level. Therefore, (11)C-based CO2 labeling combined with positron autoradiography was used and showed a more detailed spatial distribution within a single tissue, in particular in secondary veins. Therefore, in addition to (13)C, (11) C-based autoradiography can be used to study the fate of xylem-transported CO2 at leaf level, allowing the acquisition of data at a yet unprecedented resolution.

  5. Bioconversion of (13)C-labeled microalgal phytosterols to cholesterol by the Northern Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians irradians.

    PubMed

    Giner, José-Luis; Zhao, Hui; Dixon, Mark S; Wikfors, Gary H

    2016-02-01

    Bivalve mollusks lack de novo cholesterol biosynthesis capabilities and therefore rely upon dietary sources of sterols for rapid growth. Microalgae that constitute the main source of nutrition for suspension-feeding bivalves contain a diverse array of phytosterols, in most cases lacking cholesterol. Rapid growth of bivalves on microalgal diets with no cholesterol implies that some phytosterols can satisfy the dietary requirement for cholesterol through metabolic conversion to cholesterol, but such metabolic pathways have not been rigorously demonstrated. In the present study, stable isotope-labeled phytosterols were used to supplement a unialgal diet of Rhodomonas sp. and their biological transformation to cholesterol within scallop tissues was determined using (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Scallops efficiently dealkylated ∆(5) C29 (24-ethyl) sterols to cholesterol, and the only C28 sterol that was dealkylated efficiently possessed the 24(28)-double bond. Non-metabolized dietary phytosterols accumulated in the soft tissues. Observed formation of ∆(5,7) sterols (provitamin D) from ∆(5) sterols may represent initiation of steroid hormone (possibly ecdysone) biosynthesis. These findings provide a key component necessary for formulation of nutritionally complete microalgal diets for hatchery production of seed for molluscan aquaculture.

  6. Vitamin K absorption and kinetics in human subjects after consumption of 13C-labelled phylloquinone from kale.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Janet A; Kurilich, Anne C; Britz, Steven J; Baer, David J; Clevidence, Beverly A

    2010-09-01

    The absorption and plasma disappearance of vitamin K were investigated by uniformly labelling phylloquinone in kale with carbon-13, and by feeding the kale to study subjects. Seven healthy volunteers ingested a single 400 g serving of kale with 30 g vegetable oil. The kale provided 156 nmol of phylloquinone. Serial plasma samples were collected and analysed for the appearance of 13C-phylloquinone by HPLC-MS. Six of the subjects showed significant amounts of labelled phylloquinone in plasma, though one subject's plasma was not consistently enriched above the detection limit, and this subject's baseline plasma phylloquinone level was the lowest in the group. After ingestion of the labelled kale, plasma 13C-phylloquinone concentration increased rapidly to a peak between 6 and 10 h, and then rapidly decreased. Average peak plasma concentration for the six subjects with detectable 13C-phylloquinone was 2.1 nmol/l. Plasma concentration-time data were analysed by compartmental modelling. Modelling results demonstrated a mean (n 6) bioavailability of phylloquinone from kale to be 4.7%. Plasma and tissue half-times for phylloquinone were found to be 8.8 and 215 h, respectively.

  7. Reduced mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase activity has a strong effect on photorespiratory metabolism as revealed by 13C labelling

    PubMed Central

    Lindén, Pernilla; Keech, Olivier; Stenlund, Hans; Gardeström, Per; Moritz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) catalyses the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate (OAA) in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Its activity is important for redox control of the mitochondrial matrix, through which it may participate in regulation of TCA cycle turnover. In Arabidopsis, there are two isoforms of mMDH. Here, we investigated to which extent the lack of the major isoform, mMDH1 accounting for about 60% of the activity, affected leaf metabolism. In air, rosettes of mmdh1 plants were only slightly smaller than wild type plants although the fresh weight was decreased by about 50%. In low CO2 the difference was much bigger, with mutant plants accumulating only 14% of fresh weight as compared to wild type. To investigate the metabolic background to the differences in growth, we developed a 13CO2 labelling method, using a custom-built chamber that enabled simultaneous treatment of sets of plants under controlled conditions. The metabolic profiles were analysed by gas- and liquid- chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to investigate the metabolic adjustments between wild type and mmdh1. The genotypes responded similarly to high CO2 treatment both with respect to metabolite pools and 13C incorporation during a 2-h treatment. However, under low CO2 several metabolites differed between the two genotypes and, interestingly most of these were closely associated with photorespiration. We found that while the glycine/serine ratio increased, a concomitant altered glutamine/glutamate/α-ketoglutarate relation occurred. Taken together, our results indicate that adequate mMDH activity is essential to shuttle reductants out from the mitochondria to support the photorespiratory flux, and strengthen the idea that photorespiration is tightly intertwined with peripheral metabolic reactions. PMID:26889011

  8. Absorption and Distribution Kinetics of the 13C-Labeled Tomato Carotenoid Phytoene in Healthy Adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Kenneth M; Rogers, Randy B; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Phytoene is a tomato carotenoid that may contribute to the apparent health benefits of tomato consumption. Although phytoene is a less prominent tomato carotenoid than lycopene, it is a major carotenoid in various human tissues. Phytoene distribution to plasma lipoproteins and tissues differs from lycopene, suggesting the kinetics of phytoene and lycopene differ. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the kinetic parameters of phytoene absorption, distribution, and excretion in adults, to better understand why biodistribution of phytoene differs from lycopene. Methods: Four adults (2 males, 2 females) maintained a controlled phytoene diet (1–5 mg/d) for 42 d. On day 14, each consumed 3.2 mg 13C-phytoene, produced using tomato cell suspension culture technology. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1–15, 17, 21, and 24 h and 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, and 28 d after 13C-phytoene consumption. Plasma-unlabeled and plasma-labeled phytoene concentrations were determined using ultra-HPLC–quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry, and data were fit to a 7-compartment carotenoid kinetic model using WinSAAM 3.0.7 software. Results: Subjects were compliant with a controlled phytoene diet, consuming a mean ± SE of 2.5 ± 0.6 mg/d, resulting in a plasma unlabeled phytoene concentration of 71 ± 14 nmol/L. A maximal plasma 13C-phytoene concentration of 55.6 ± 5.9 nM was achieved 19.8 ± 9.2 h after consumption, and the plasma half-life was 2.3 ± 0.2 d. Compared with previous results for lycopene, phytoene bioavailability was nearly double at 58% ± 19%, the clearance rate from chylomicrons was slower, and the rates of deposition into and utilization by the slow turnover tissue compartment were nearly 3 times greater. Conclusions: Although only differing from lycopene by 4 double bonds, phytoene exhibits markedly different kinetic characteristics in human plasma, providing insight into metabolic processes contributing to phytoene enrichment in plasma and tissues compared with lycopene. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01692340. PMID:26674763

  9. Metabolomic profiling of 13C-labelled cellulose digestion in a lower termite: insights into gut symbiont function

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Gaku; Tsuboi, Yuuri; Kihara, Kumiko; Saitou, Seikou; Moriya, Sigeharu; Lo, Nathan; Kikuchi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Termites consume an estimated 3–7 billion tonnes of lignocellulose annually, a role in nature which is unique for a single order of invertebrates. Their food is digested with the help of microbial symbionts, a relationship that has been recognized for 200 years and actively researched for at least a century. Although DNA- and RNA-based approaches have greatly refined the details of the process and the identities of the participants, the allocation of roles in space and time remains unclear. To resolve this issue, a pioneer study is reported using metabolomics to chart the in situ catabolism of 13C-cellulose fed to the dampwood species Hodotermopsis sjostedti. The results confirm that the secretion of endogenous cellulases by the host may be significant to the digestive process and indicate that a major contribution by hindgut bacteria is phosphorolysis of cellodextrins or cellobiose. This study provides evidence that essential amino acid acquisition by termites occurs following the lysis of microbial tissue obtained via proctodaeal trophallaxis. PMID:25009054

  10. Spatially tracking 13C labeled substrate (bicarbonate) accumulation in microbial communities using laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, James J.; Doll, Charles G.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Cory, Alexandra B.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2014-08-25

    This is a manuscript we would like to submit for publication in Environmental Microbiology Reports. This manuscript contains a description of a laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodology developed at PNNL and applied to a microbial system at a PNNL project location – Hot Lake, Washington. I will submit a word document containing the entire manuscript with this Erica input request form.

  11. Evidence of the photosynthetic origin of monoterpenes emitted by quercus ilex L. leaves by {sup 13}C labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Loreto, F.; Ciccioli, P.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E. |

    1996-04-01

    The carbon of the four main monoterpenes emitted by Quercus ilex L. leaves was completely labeled with {sup 13}C after a 20-min feeding with 99% {sup 13}CO{sub 2}. This labeling time course is comparable with the labeling time course of isoprene, the terpenoid emitted by other Quercus species and synthesized in leaf chloroplasts. It is also comparable with that of phosphoglyceric acid. Our experiment therefore provides evidence that monoterpenes emitted by Q. ilex are formed photosynthesis intermediates and may share the same synthetic pathway with isoprene. By analyzing the rate and the distribution of labeling in the different fragments, we looked for evidence of differential carbon labeling in the {alpha}-pinene emitted. However, the labeling pattern was quite uniform in the different fragments, suggesting that the carbon skeleton of the emitted monoterpenes comes from a unique carbon source. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Structure of uniaxially aligned 13C labeled silk fibroin fibers with solid state 13C-NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demura, Makoto; Yamazaki, Yasunobu; Asakura, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Katsuaki

    1998-01-01

    Carbon-13 isotopic labeling of B. mori silk fibroin was achieved biosynthetically with [1- 13C] glycine in order to determine the carbonyl bond orientation angle of glycine sites with the silk fibroin. Angular dependence of 13C solid state NMR spectra of uniaxially oriented silk fibroin fiber block sample due to the carbonyl 13C chemical shift anisotropy was simulated according to the chemical shift transformation with Euler angles, αF and βF, from principal axis system (PAS) to fiber axis system (FAS). The another Euler angles, αDCO and βDCO, for transformation from PAS to the molecular symmetry axis were determined from the [1- 13C] glycine sequence model compounds for the silk fibroin. By the combination of these Euler angles, the carbonyl bond orientation angle with respect to FAS of the [1- 13C] glycine sites of the silk fibroin was determined to be 90 ± 5°. This value is in agreement with the X-ray diffraction and our previous solid state NMR data of B. mori silk fibroin fiber (a typical β-pleated sheet) within experimental error.

  13. Monitoring CO[subscript 2] Fixation Using GC-MS Detection of a [superscript 13]C-Label

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Daniel G.; Bridgham, April; Reichert, Kara; Magers, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Much of our understanding of metabolic pathways has resulted from the use of chemical and isotopic labels. In this experiment, a heavy isotope of carbon, [superscript 13]C, is used to label the product of the well-known RuBisCO enzymatic reaction. This is a key reaction in photosynthesis that converts inorganic carbon to organic carbon; a process…

  14. Quantification of peptide m/z distributions from 13C-labeled cultures with high resolution mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the introduction of orbital trap mass spectrometers molecular masses can be determined with great precision and accuracy. In addition, orbital trap spectrometers (Orbitraps) are sensitive and possess a linear dynamic range of multiple orders of magnitude. These qualities make the Orbitrap well-...

  15. Vitamin K absorption and kinetics in human subjects after consumption of 13C-labeled phylloquinone from kale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The absorption and plasma elimination of vitamin K was investigated by uniformly labeling phylloquinone in kale with carbon-13 and feeding the kale to study subjects. Seven healthy volunteers ingested a single 400 g serving of kale with 30 g vegetable oil. The kale provided 156 nmol of phylloquino...

  16. Selective {sup 2}H and {sup 13}C labeling in NMR analysis of solution protein structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    LeMaster, D.M.

    1994-12-01

    Preparation of samples bearing combined isotope enrichment patterns has played a central role in the recent advances in NMR analysis of proteins in solution. In particular, uniform {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N enrichment has made it possible to apply heteronuclear multidimensional correlation experiments for the mainchain assignments of proteins larger than 30 KDa. In contrast, selective labeling approaches can offer advantages in terms of the directedness of the information provided, such as chirality and residue type assignments, as well as through enhancements in resolution and sensitivity that result from editing the spectral complexity, the relaxation pathways and the scalar coupling networks. In addition, the combination of selective {sup 13}C and {sup 2}H enrichment can greatly facilitate the determination of heteronuclear relaxation behavior.

  17. Human lactation: oxidation and maternal transfer of dietary (13)C-labelled α-linolenic acid into human milk.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, Hans; Kuhn, Angelika; Dokoupil, Katharina; Hegele, Verena; Sauerwald, Thorsten; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-06-01

    The origin of fatty acids in milk has not been elucidated in detail. We investigated the contribution of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) to human milk fat, its oxidation and endogenous conversion to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Ten lactating women were given (13)C-ALA orally, and breath and milk samples were collected for a five-day period, while dietary intakes were assessed. 37.5 ± 2.7 % (M ± SE) of the tracer was recovered in breath-CO2, and 7.3 ± 1.1 % was directly transferred into milk. About 0.25 % of the tracer was found in milk long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Combining intake and milk data, we estimate that about 65 % of milk ALA is directly derived from maternal diet. Thus, the major portion of milk ALA is directly derived from the diet, but dietary ALA does not seem to contribute much as a precursor to milk n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids within the studied time period.

  18. Accurate determinations of one-bond 13C-13C couplings in 13C-labeled carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azurmendi, Hugo F.; Freedberg, Darón I.

    2013-03-01

    Carbon plays a central role in the molecular architecture of carbohydrates, yet the availability of accurate methods for 1DCC determination has not been sufficiently explored, despite the importance that such data could play in structural studies of oligo- and polysaccharides. Existing methods require fitting intensity ratios of cross- to diagonal-peaks as a function of the constant-time (CT) in CT-COSY experiments, while other methods utilize measurement of peak separation. The former strategies suffer from complications due to peak overlap, primarily in regions close to the diagonal, while the latter strategies are negatively impacted by the common occurrence of strong coupling in sugars, which requires a reliable assessment of their influence in the context of RDC determination. We detail a 13C-13C CT-COSY method that combines a variation in the CT processed with diagonal filtering to yield 1JCC and RDCs. The strategy, which relies solely on cross-peak intensity modulation, is inspired in the cross-peak nulling method used for JHH determinations, but adapted and extended to applications where, like in sugars, large one-bond 13C-13C couplings coexist with relatively small long-range couplings. Because diagonal peaks are not utilized, overlap problems are greatly alleviated. Thus, one-bond couplings can be determined from different cross-peaks as either active or passive coupling. This results in increased accuracy when more than one determination is available, and in more opportunities to measure a specific coupling in the presence of severe overlap. In addition, we evaluate the influence of strong couplings on the determination of RDCs by computer simulations. We show that individual scalar couplings are notably affected by the presence of strong couplings but, at least for the simple cases studied, the obtained RDC values for use in structural calculations were not, because the errors introduced by strong couplings for the isotropic and oriented phases are very similar and therefore cancel when calculating the difference to determine 1DCC values.

  19. Accurate determinations of one-bond 13C-13C couplings in 13C-labeled carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Azurmendi, Hugo F; Freedberg, Darón I

    2013-03-01

    Carbon plays a central role in the molecular architecture of carbohydrates, yet the availability of accurate methods for (1)D(CC) determination has not been sufficiently explored, despite the importance that such data could play in structural studies of oligo- and polysaccharides. Existing methods require fitting intensity ratios of cross- to diagonal-peaks as a function of the constant-time (CT) in CT-COSY experiments, while other methods utilize measurement of peak separation. The former strategies suffer from complications due to peak overlap, primarily in regions close to the diagonal, while the latter strategies are negatively impacted by the common occurrence of strong coupling in sugars, which requires a reliable assessment of their influence in the context of RDC determination. We detail a (13)C-(13)C CT-COSY method that combines a variation in the CT processed with diagonal filtering to yield (1)J(CC) and RDCs. The strategy, which relies solely on cross-peak intensity modulation, is inspired in the cross-peak nulling method used for J(HH) determinations, but adapted and extended to applications where, like in sugars, large one-bond (13)C-(13)C couplings coexist with relatively small long-range couplings. Because diagonal peaks are not utilized, overlap problems are greatly alleviated. Thus, one-bond couplings can be determined from different cross-peaks as either active or passive coupling. This results in increased accuracy when more than one determination is available, and in more opportunities to measure a specific coupling in the presence of severe overlap. In addition, we evaluate the influence of strong couplings on the determination of RDCs by computer simulations. We show that individual scalar couplings are notably affected by the presence of strong couplings but, at least for the simple cases studied, the obtained RDC values for use in structural calculations were not, because the errors introduced by strong couplings for the isotropic and oriented phases are very similar and therefore cancel when calculating the difference to determine (1)D(CC) values.

  20. Direct uptake of organically derived carbon by grass roots and allocation in leaves and phytoliths: 13C labeling evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, Anne; Balesdent, Jérôme; Cazevieille, Patrick; Chevassus-Rosset, Claire; Signoret, Patrick; Mazur, Jean-Charles; Harutyunyan, Araks; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle; Miche, Hélène; Santos, Guaciara M.

    2016-03-01

    In the rhizosphere, the uptake of low-molecular-weight carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) by plant roots has been well documented. While organic N uptake relative to total uptake is important, organic C uptake is supposed to be low relative to the plant's C budget. Recently, radiocarbon analyses demonstrated that a fraction of C from the soil was occluded in amorphous silica micrometric particles that precipitate in plant cells (phytoliths). Here, we investigated whether and to what extent organically derived C absorbed by grass roots can feed the C occluded in phytoliths. For this purpose we added 13C- and 15N-labeled amino acids (AAs) to the silicon-rich hydroponic solution of the grass Festuca arundinacea. The experiment was designed to prevent C leakage from the labeled nutritive solution to the chamber atmosphere. After 14 days of growth, the 13C and 15N enrichments (13C excess and 15N excess) in the roots, stems and leaves as well as phytoliths were measured relative to a control experiment in which no labeled AAs were added. Additionally, the 13C excess was measured at the molecular level, in AAs extracted from roots and stems and leaves. The net uptake of labeled AA-derived 13C reached 4.5 % of the total AA 13C supply. The amount of AA-derived 13C fixed in the plant was minor but not nil (0.28 and 0.10 % of total C in roots and stems/leaves, respectively). Phenylalanine and methionine that were supplied in high amounts to the nutritive solution were more 13C-enriched than other AAs in the plant. This strongly suggested that part of AA-derived 13C was absorbed and translocated into the plant in its original AA form. In phytoliths, AA-derived 13C was detected. Its concentration was on the same order of magnitude as in bulk stems and leaves (0.15 % of the phytolith C). This finding strengthens the body of evidences showing that part of organic compounds occluded in phytoliths can be fed by C entering the plant through the roots. Although this experiment was done in nutrient solution and its relevance for soil C uptake assessment is therefore limited, we discuss plausible forms of AA-derived 13C absorbed and translocated in the plant and eventually fixed in phytoliths, and implications of our results for our understanding of the C cycle at the soil-plant-atmosphere interface