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  1. Angiographic studies of quinton—scribner arteriovenous cannulae

    PubMed Central

    Dathan, J. R.; Thompson, J. M. A.; Worthington, B. S.

    1969-01-01

    An analysis of 86 angiographic studies of Quinton–Scribner shunts has shown that these may be very useful in determining the cause and helping in the management of poorly functioning cannulae in patients on regular haemodialysis treatment. ImagesFig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5822081

  2. Presidential Address: The Woman in the Case Jane Todd Crawford, 1763-1842

    PubMed Central

    Sparkman, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    The 1978 Presidential Address of the Southern Surgical Association is dedicated to the wives of the members, past and present, in acknowledgment and appreciation of the enduring contribution that they have made to the quality and character of this association. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20. PMID:375854

  3. Urinary Tract Refunctionalization After Prior Diversion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, W. Hardy

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-two children who had undergone previous urinary diversion were operated upon to refunctionalize the bladder. In 24 the diversion had been considered permanent, and in eight, temporary. Success in these procedures suggests that many young patients deserve a second look for possible “undiversion.” ImagesFig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17a.Fig. 17b.Fig. 18. PMID:4416811

  4. The respiratory epithelium of the lung in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.).

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, S E; Purton, M

    1984-01-01

    The chelonian lung exhibits reptilian, mammalian and avian features. The respiratory epithelium is typically vertebrate, i.e. pseudostratified columnar with cilia; gaseous exchange areas appear at all levels from the respiratory bronchi down to the alveoli. The latter are invested with a capillary network and both type I and type II cells are present. The possible functional significance of the distribution of collagen, elastic tissue, cartilage and smooth muscle is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:6490523

  5. A Mini-Atlas of Ear-drum Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, Michael; Kwok, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The authors provide a number of ear-drum pictures and identify and discuss diseases affecting the external ear canal, the tympanic membrane and middle ear. They also deal with the removal of foreign bodies from the external canal, perforation of the tympanic membrane, and the use of an artificial ventilation tube. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:21263886

  6. The endocrine polypeptide cells of the human stomach, duodenum, and jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, A. G. E.; Coulling, I.; Weavers, B.; Friesen, S.

    1970-01-01

    Thirty specimens of stomach, duodenum, and jejunum, removed at operation, were examined by optical microscopical, cytochemical, and electron microscopical techniques. The overall distribution of four types of endocrine polypeptide cell in the stomach, and three in the intestine, was determined. The seven cell types are described by names and letters belonging to a scheme for nomenclature agreed upon at the 1969 Wiesbaden conference on gastrointestinal hormones. The gastrin-secreting G cell was the only cell for which firm identification with a known hormone was possible. Although there was wide variation in the distribution of the various cells, from one case to another, striking differences were nevertheless observable, with respect to the G cell, between antra from carcinoma and from ulcer cases. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:4919258

  7. Intermediate hosts of Schistosoma

    PubMed Central

    Mandahl-Barth, G.

    1957-01-01

    This study is an attempt to classify all described species of African Bulinus. It is based upon the author's examination of a great number of specimens collected from many parts of Africa. The variations attributable to age, environment and genetic factors which may be noted in the taxonomic characters are discussed, and some new species and subspecies are established. For each recognized species and subspecies the author states the distinguishing characters, indicates the geographical distribution, and gives a list of synonyms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 2(concluded)Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 5(continued)Fig. 5(concluded)Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 16(concluded)Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 22(concluded)Fig. 23 PMID:13479773

  8. Ultrastructure of Ebola virus particles in human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, D S; Simpson, I H; Francis, D P; Knobloch, J; Bowen, E T; Lolik, P; Deng, I M

    1978-01-01

    Electron microscopy of tissues from two necropsies carried out in the Sudan on patients with Ebola virus infection identified virus particles in lung and spleen, but the main concentrations of Ebola particles were seen in liver sections. Viral precursor proteins and cores were found in functional liver cells, often aligned in membrane-bound aggregations. Complete virions, usually found only extracellularly, were mainly seen as long tubular forms, some without cores. Many tubular forms had 'enlarged heads' or 'spores' and some branched and torus forms were identified. The size and structure of the Ebola virus forms appear to be virtually indistinguishable from those of Marburg virus. Images Figs 6, 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:641193

  9. The innervation of the adrenal gland. IV. Innervation of the rat adrenal medulla from birth to old age. A descriptive and quantitative morphometric and biochemical study of the innervation of chromaffin cells and adrenal medullary neurons in Wistar rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, A; Coupland, R E

    1990-01-01

    The innervation of the adrenal medulla has been investigated in normal Wistar rats from birth to old age and ultrastructural findings compared with biochemical markers of the cholinergic innervation of the adrenal gland and catecholamine storage. Morphological evidence of the immaturity of the innervation during the first postnatal week is provided and using quantitative morphometry the innervation of chromaffin cells is shown to reach a mean total of 5.4 synapses per chromaffin cell during the period 26 days to 12 weeks of age. The variation in contents of synaptic profiles is discussed in the light of recent work that demonstrates a major sensory as well as visceral efferent innervation of the gland. Adrenal medullary neurons usually occur in closely packed groups, intimately associated with Schwann cells. Axodendritic and axosomatic synapses on these neurons are described and the likely origin of axonal processes innervating the neurons discussed. In old age the density of innervation remains the same as in young adult animals even though the medulla shows evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of individual chromaffin cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:2384334

  10. The fine structure of the proximal growth plate of the avian tibia: vascular supply.

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, C R; Dickson, M; Sheridan, A K

    1984-01-01

    The vascular supply to the proximal tibial growth plate of the 7 weeks old chicken is described using various vascular markers. In addition the ultrastructure of metaphyseal and epiphyseal vessels as well as their supporting tissue is reported. The metaphyseal arterioles terminate in large calibre vessels which have occasional endothelial gaps and no basement membrane or supporting cells, and therefore could be classified as venous sinusoids. In contrast the epiphyseal arteriole terminates in a capillary-venule plexus lined by an attenuated and fenestrated but continuous endothelium. This paper definitively establishes that communication of epiphyseal and metaphyseal vessels across the avian growth plate does not occur. The eosinophilic streaks which often join these two vascular supplies have been described ultrastructurally and would appear to be remnants of the 'retreating' epiphyseal vessels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:6469851

  11. Meckel's cartilage in Xenopus laevis during metamorphosis: a light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, D A

    1986-01-01

    Meckel's cartilage, in Xenopus laevis prior to metamorphosis, is a tissue exhibiting very large lacunae, separated by thin rims of matrix, presenting a net-like appearance, similar to that of cartilage in invertebrates. The cells on the periphery of the tissue are rather more flattened, and more closely packed. On the lateral aspects of the cartilage distinct columns of apparently dividing cells are evident. During metamorphic climax, the amount of matrix separating the lacunae increases, with an associated decrease in lacunar size, and some of the deeper cells develop cilia, which are not seen either before or after climax. By the end of metamorphic climax there is a considerable increase in the amount of matrix present in the tissue, while many cells at all depths in the cartilage show the presence of lysosome-like structures, possibly associated with the changing shape of the cartilage. Intramembranous ossification is proceeding around Meckel's cartilage, but there is no evidence of endochondral ossification up to the end of metamorphosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:3693112

  12. Tumours of bones and joints

    PubMed Central

    Misdorp, W.; Van Der Heul, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of bones and joints are not infrequent in dogs but are rare in other domestic animals. In the dog, most bone tumours are malignant; osteosarcomas are by far the most frequently encountered tumours, especially in giant breeds and boxers. The following main categories of bone tumour are described: bone-forming, cartilage-forming, giant cell, marrow, vascular, miscellaneous, metastatic, unclassified, and tumour-like lesions. The tumours of joints and related structures are classified as synovial sarcomas, fibroxanthomas, and malignant giant cell tumour of soft tissues. ImagesFig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086157

  13. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract

    PubMed Central

    Head, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. ImagesFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:1086147

  14. Histopathology and Distribution of Viral Antigens in Hamsters Infected with Virulent and Benign Venezuelan Encephalitis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Jahrling, P. B.; Scherer, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    Lethalities and virulences of Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) viruses for hamsters were found to correlate with severity of histopathologic lesions in hematopoietic and brain tissues. Highly virulent strains (subtype I) destroyed marrow and lymphoid cells rapidly and produced intestinal wall damage; focal brain hemorrhages and destruction of Purkinje cells also occurred within the 4 to 5 days between subcutaneous inoculation and death. Like subtype I virus, a slightly less virulent strain (subtype II) also caused necrosis of bone marrow and brain lesions, but only minimal lymphoid cell damage occurred. The less virulent subtype III VE virus, which killed hamsters between 4 and 14 days after inoculation, usually caused no lesions in hematopoietic tissues, and deaths were related chiefly to hemorrhagic brain lesions and necrosis of Purkinje cells. Two VE viruses, benign for hamsters (the TC-83 attenuated vaccine strain and subtype IV), usually caused no necrosis of hematopoietic or brain tissues; focal extravasations of blood and swollen glial cells were found in brains of the rare hamsters that died. The degrees of necrosis seen in tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin correlated with the quantities of viral antigens detected by fluorescent antibody, except in pancreas and small intestinal smooth muscle and glands, where antigens of subtype I virus were present without morphologic damage. ImagesFig 5-6Fig 7-8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 1-4 PMID:4578265

  15. Variability of dermal elastin visualized ultrastructurally with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, S. S.; Brissie, R. M.; Thompson, N. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Verhoeff iron hematoxylin-lead citrate (VIH-LC) method demonstrated vertical elastic fibers that were often composed only of microfibrillar component extending into the epidermal basement membrane in human skin. These fibers connected with a network of trabeculae composed of microfibrils and elastin fibrils in varying proportions. The large elastic fibers in the deep two thirds of the dermis consited mainly of compact bundles of small elstin fibrils in infants and of solid elastin cores with a fimbriated periphery in adults; Dermis of a 6-month-old fetus contained very few small elastic fibrils except around blood vessels. Skin of an elderly subject revealed exteme proliferation of unusual reticulated elastic fibers in various areas and disclosed abnormal nodules of elastin or collagen fibrils in finely particulate matter. Small elastin fibrils, abundant microfibrils, and intermixed individual collagen fibrils comprised an adventitial collar between sweat glands and fibroblasts. Elastin fibrils were absent from this collar in the fetus and increased with the subject's age. A permanganate-high iron diamine sequence appeared to impart density to the microfibrillar component of elastic fibers. Images Figs 6-7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3-5 Fig 28 Fig 29 Fig 30 Fig 31 Fig 32 Fig 33 PMID:49149

  16. Electron Microscopy of the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, T. S.

    1965-01-01

    The use of the electron microscope has added much to our knowledge of the cell. The fine structure of the component parts of the nucleus and the cytoplasm is described, and their functions are indicated. The nature and structural modifications of the plasma membrane are illustrated with particular reference to function. To illustrate the interrelationships of the nucleus and cytoplasm, the theory of protein secretion is discussed, the secretion of a particular protein or polypeptide being determined by a particular nucleotide sequence in the desoxyribonucleic acid of a chromosome, that is, by a gene. This information is transferred from nucleus to cytoplasm. It is in the cytoplasm that the majority of the work is performed while the nucleus directs the work of the cell. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:5829410

  17. The prelymphatic pathways of the brain as revealed by cervical lymphatic obstruction and the passage of particles.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börsök, E.; Földi, M.

    1976-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy was used to examine portions of the brain, the circle of Willis, and the internal carotid arteries of normal cats and rabbits, of sham-operated ones, and of those whose cervical lymphatics had been ligated. Carbon was injected into the cerebral cortex of some lymphoedematous animals. It was found that lymphatic ligation produced oedema of the brain, and a dilatation of the prelymphatic spaces around the vessels. Carbon was traced in these from the injection site, around the minor and major vessels, in the adventitia of the internal carotid artery, entering lymphatics adjacent to it, and finally in the draining lymph nodes. The oedema and dilated spaces were not present in the control animals. This was taken to indicate that there is a continuous system of non-endothelialized spaces and potential spaces-the prelymphatics-draining the brain into the cervical lymphatics. The protein in these spaces appeared to be increased if the lymph-oedema had lasted three weeks as compared to 24 hours, indicating that one of the major roles of this system is the removal of protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:773400

  18. An analysis of implantation in Indian hipposiderid bats.

    PubMed Central

    Bhiwgade, D A

    1979-01-01

    The meagre information on the early developmental stages and the evolutionary and taxonomic position of hipposiderid bats has stimulated the present study. The cranial segment of the uterus forms a balloon-like enlargement at the time of implantation, and the antimesometrial part of its huminal slit expands into a spacious implantation chamber. Implantation is superficial and circumferential and the embryonic disc is orientated towards the side of the uterus which lies between the lateral and the antimesometrial sides. Reichert's membrane develops early, and the formation of a symplasma is described. A comparative account of implantation in the four species of hipposiderid bats of the family Hipposideridae is given, and the taxonomic position of this family is discussed on the basis of the present observations and earlier work on the embryology of Chiroptera. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 PMID:438094

  19. On the ovarian bursa of the golden hamster. II. Intercellular connections in the bursal epithelium and passage of ferritin from the cavity into lymphatics.

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, T; Shinohara, H; Matsuda, T

    1986-01-01

    Cell abutments in the ovarian bursal epithelium of the golden hamster included tight junctions, desmosome-like junctions, gap junctions and zonulae adhaerentes. The plasma membranes of adjacent epithelial cells were often closely apposed forming a zonula adherens at the apex of the intercellular space, but these did not fuse along the entire length of the intercellular space. Gap junctions and other intercellular junctions did not allow diffusion of ferritin into the junctional areas, but failed to prevent ferritin from filling the intercellular space basal to the junction. This suggested that these junctions were not continuous around the entire circumference of the cell. In general, intercellular connections in the bursal epithelium may be labile and this lability, as well as periodic distention of the bursa, may give rise to separation of epithelial cells. Ferritin injected into the bursal cavity reached lymphatics via three routes: (1) via stomata; (2) via gaps and pores; (3) via intercellular spaces. Transcellular transport did not make a major contribution to permeation of ferritin across the bursal epithelium, and ferritin particles did not enter fenestrated blood vessels within 30 minutes after injection. The variety of routes may facilitate rapid and complete drainage of fluid and cellular components from the bursal cavity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Figs. 17-18 PMID:3693080

  20. The fine structure of the human fetal urinary bladder. Development and maturation. A light, transmission and scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, J; Antonakopoulos, G N

    1989-01-01

    The urinary bladders of 27 human fetuses, aged 7 weeks to full term, were studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy to establish the sequence of events in the development and maturation of the organ during fetal life. In the early specimens, 7-12 weeks old, the urinary bladder was lined by a bilayered, cuboidal and glycogen-rich epithelium. During the 13-17th weeks the epithelium thickened, a third layer developed and by light microscopy it now resembled urothelium. By 21 weeks this had evolved into a 3-4 layer thick epithelium with typical ultrastructural urothelial characteristics. Smooth muscle cells emerged from the condensed mesenchyme of the bladder wall by the 12th week of gestation, initially in the cephalic part of the organ but spreading within a week into the caudal end. Our findings indicate that the human fetal bladder undergoes a series of vital developmental changes during 13-21 weeks of gestation finally acquiring the typical urothelial lining and a well-developed muscular coat. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:2621133

  1. Ultrastructural Localization of Peroxidase Activity in Human Platelets and Megakaryocytes

    PubMed Central

    Breton-Gorius, Janine; Guichard, Josette

    1972-01-01

    Normal human platelets and megakaryocytes were examined for peroxidase activity by the diaminobenzidine (DAB) cytochemical technic. When the fixation and the incubation were adequate, a strong reaction was present in the dense tubular system of platelets suspended in plasma or spread on carbon. The black reaction product was ascribed to enzyme activity, since the reaction was completely eliminated when H2O2 or DAB were omitted, or when H2O2 was in excess. In addition, the reaction was inhibited by aminotriazole, cyanide and azide. In the human megakaryocytes, the reaction was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum including the perinuclear envelope. The Golgi complex and the clear vacuolar system were negative for the reaction. After platelet release, the reaction was always seen in the perinuclear space. The nature and function of the enzyme, as well as its possible relationships with catalase, are discussed. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16 PMID:5009974

  2. Placental agenesis, embryonal hydraemia, embryolethality and acute hypervitaminosis A in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Love, A. M.; Vickers, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    Acute maternal hypervitaminosis A established on Day 9 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley-derived rats caused a dose-related increase in the resorption of implants. The median embryolethal dose was 189,000 i.u./kg. In addition to suppression of the allantois leading to placental agenesis, damaged embryos showed retarded somatic development and hydraemia, all apparent 24 h after treatment. At about Day 11 the hydraemia involved the visceral wall of the yolk sac causing death of the embryo soon after. The fluid in the vitelline vessels continued to collect until Day 13 when it absorbed following necrosis of the wall of the yolk sac. Two mechanisms are suggested for the embryonal hydraemia: either the excess fluid resulted from a permeability disorder induced by the vitamin A; or it was retained metabolic water or water specifically absorbed to inflate the allantois and, being unused for this purpose, it pooled in the blood vessels of the embryo. The yolk sac hydraemia is more likely to have followed injury to the proximal endoderm. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 PMID:999789

  3. Early Development of and Pathology Associated with Strongylus edentatus

    PubMed Central

    McCraw, B. M.; Slocombe, J. O. D.

    1974-01-01

    Pony foals inoculated with infective Strongylus edentatus larvae were monitored for clinical signs and selected blood changes and were examined at necropsy from two to 56 days postinfection. Larvae penetrated the intestine and reached the liver intravenously before 40 hours postinfection. Occasional thrombi and larval tracks associated with the intima of cecal and colic veins suggested aberrant paths. Larvae in the liver doubled in width between seven and 15 days postinfection and a sudden increment in circulating eosinophils occurred between 11 and 15 days. These changes were probably associated with the third molt. At 30 days fourth stage larvae were migrating in the liver; at 42 days they were present in the hepatorenal ligament. White foci were observed in the liver from two to 56 days. They contained mononuclear cells and eosinophils and later necrotic cores of eosinophils. By one month foci were overshadowed by tortuous tracks of migrating larvae. Aberrant larvae in the lungs were confined in granulomas. Massive granulomas in the wall of the cecum and colon contained small larvae which were probably inhibited by antibody associated with the third molt. Severe disruption of omental architecture and adhesions involving the intestine occurred several weeks after infection. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20.Fig. 21.Fig. 22.Fig. 23.Fig. 24. PMID:4274818

  4. The Nature of D-Serine-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ganote, Charles E.; Peterson, Darryl R.; Carone, Frank A.

    1974-01-01

    Renal structural changes were studied sequentially between 1 hour and 6 days in rats treated with D-serine. Extensive necrosis of proximal straight tubules was rapid in onset and was followed by complete tubular regeneration 6 days post-treatment. The apparent progression of cellular changes was initial shrinkage, followed either by swelling and loss of apical cytoplasm or immediate lysis of cytoplasmic and nuclear contents. Tubular damage left only the basement membrane as a barrier between interstitial and luminal fluids. In similarly treated rats, proteinuria and glucosuria developed at the onset of tubular necrosis and disappeared when the tubules were completely relined by epithelium suggesting that they are due to diffusion of protein and glucose from interstitium into tubular fluid across the denuded basement membranes and that epithelial cells, under normal conditions, act as a barrier to diffusion of certain substances between the interstitium and tubular fluid. ImagesFig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9 PMID:4447130

  5. The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S. Poole

    1939-01-01

    (1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991

  6. Laboratory Design for Microbiological Safety

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. Briggs; Runkle, Robert S.

    1967-01-01

    Of the large amount of funds spent each year in this country on construction and remodeling of biomedical research facilities, a significant portion is directed to laboratories handling infectious microorganisms. This paper is intended for the scientific administrators, architects, and engineers concerned with the design of new microbiological facilities. It develops and explains the concept of primary and secondary barriers for the containment of microorganisms. The basic objectives of a microbiological research laboratory, (i) protection of the experimenter and staff, (ii) protection of the surrounding community, and (iii) maintenance of experimental validity, are defined. In the design of a new infectious-disease research laboratory, early identification should be made of the five functional zones of the facility and their relation to each other. The following five zones and design criteria applicable to each are discussed: clean and transition, research area, animal holding and research area, laboratory support, engineering support. The magnitude of equipment and design criteria which are necessary to integrate these five zones into an efficient and safe facility are delineated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:4961771

  7. Ultrastructural Changes in Chick Cerebellum Induced by Polyinosinic Polycytidylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mang C.; Young, Paul A.; Yu, Wan-Hua Amy

    1971-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes in cerebellar encephalopathy induced by intravenous injection of poly I:C in young chickens were studied. The neuroglia and the small blood vessels showed the most severe injury. In the astroglia, initial alterations consisted of a mild cytoplasmic swelling whereas terminally, evagination of the outer nuclear membrane, formation of large vacuoles, and mitochondrial swelling occurred. In the cortex, oligodendroglial alterations consisted of dilatation of the nuclear membranes and of the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas in the white matter, the interfascicular oligodendroglia exhibited clumping and coagulation of the chromatin material. Some small blood vessels appeared normal, while others showed massive erosion of the endothelium resulting in aneurysm-like ballooning of the vascular wall. The granule cells displayed marked edema. The myelin of nerve fibers showed an accumulation of fluid initially, with splitting occurring in the terminal stages. These studies indicated a severe cytotoxic effect of poly I:C on the cerebella of young chickens. ImagesFig 16Fig 17Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:5142269

  8. Encrustation and Atherosclerosis: The Analogy Between Early in Vivo Lesions and Deposits Which Occur in Extracorporeal Circulations

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, E. A.; Rowsell, H. C.; Downie, H. G.; Robinson, G. A.; Mustard, J. F.

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the relation between the pattern and topography of thrombus formation in models of various vessel configurations coupled into extracorporeal shunts in swine and the development of atherosclerosis at corresponding sites on swine aortas. The pattern and distribution of deposits formed in the models were strikingly similar to the pattern and distribution of incipient atherosclerosis at comparable sites in the vascular tree. The earliest and only consistent component of the flow chamber deposits was the blood platelet. The platelet deposits would frequently stain with oil red O. The cholesterol level of washed human platelets was found to show a good correlation with that in the plasma. This evidence suggests that deposition of particulate matter (chiefly platelets), largely determined by the hydraulic factors, may be an important factor in the early, as well as later, stages of atherosclerosis. ImagesFigs. 10a and bFig. 13Fig. 21Fig. 1Fig. 3Figs. 4a and bFig. 5Fig. 6aFig. 6bFig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20 PMID:14477412

  9. Histopathology of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mesenchymal tumours of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Kunze, E.; Ruschitzka, F.; Schwalbe, K.

    1990-01-01

    The present study reports the induction, histopathology, immunocytochemistry, growth pattern and proliferative behaviour of mesenchymal tumours of the urinary bladder of rats induced by a single intravesical dose (5 mg/kg/body weight) of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). In 14 of 283 female Wistar rats (incidence: 4.9%). 16 non-epithelial tumours had developed after an experimental period of 14 months. The most common histological type induced was of fibrohistiocytic origin (eight benign-appearing and three malignant fibrous histiocytomas). Furthermore, two pure histiocytomas (one benign and one malignant) and three capillary and cavernous haemangiomas were produced. Since no metastases occurred and no clear-cut distinction between a merely expansive and a truly invasive growth was possible, the diagnosis of malignancy was based on the degree of cellular atypia and the mitotic activity. The benign-appearing fibrous histiocytomas showed a mean mitotic index of 0.06% and the malignant fibrous histiocytomas of 0.34%. The mitotic activity of the malignant histiocytoma was threefold (0.78%) as high as in the benign-appearing histiocytoma (0.25%). There exist close morphological similarities between the induced mesenchymal tumours in the rat and those occurring in the human bladder. Although the spectrum of histological types of mesenchymal tumours seen in the rat bladder was narrower than that encountered in man, MNU seems suitable for further studying the histogenesis, histopathology and biology of experimentally induced non-epithelial bladder neoplasms to gain information for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of human disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:2164825

  10. WHO Co-operative studies on a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav

    1963-01-01

    Tuberculosis surveys are in progress in many countries that do not have adequate laboratory facilities for carrying out complicated bacteriological procedures. As part of a WHO co-operative research programme, studies have been undertaken with a view to developing a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria that does not require elaborate equipment. This paper is the first report on these co-operative studies. Storage and transport are known to affect adversely the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pathological specimens, thus giving rise to poor culture results and indicating the advisability of culturing such specimens on the spot. The preparation of the efficient and widely used Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture medium, however, requires materials and facilities that are not easy available in developing countries. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty, the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague has developed a semi-synthetic liquid medium that can be prepared in bulk, concentrated and lyophilized, and sent even to distant laboratories. The present paper describes in detail the preparation of this lyophilized medium, which can be stored at room temperature for at least 6-12 months and is easy to reconstitute, and discusses the growth characteristics of mycobacteria multiplied in it. Experience in Czechoslovakia, where between 1953 and 1962 nearly 21 million cultures have been made with the medium, has shown that it is quite satisfactory and even slightly superior to L-J medium in certain respects. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 & 4FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15FIG. 16 PMID:14102036

  11. Haemopoietic phagocytes in the early differentiating avian retina.

    PubMed Central

    Cuadros, M A; García-Martín, M; Martin, C; Ríos, A

    1991-01-01

    The existence of specialised phagocytic cells is described in regions of the retinal neuroepithelium undergoing intense cell death during early differentiation of the avian embryo retina (2.5-5 days of incubation). These results were obtained using routine techniques for light microscopy, acid phosphatase histochemistry and immunocytochemical staining with antibodies MB-1 and QH-1, both specific for quail endothelial cells and all blood cells except mature erythrocytes. Specialised phagocytes were distinguishable from neuroepithelial cells on the basis of morphological criteria: in the former, the nucleus was not oval in shape and was not oriented perpendicular to basement membrane neuroepithelium. The cytoplasm of the specialised phagocytes was often filled with dead cell fragments. In contrast to neuroepithelial cells, the specialised phagocytes showed acid phosphatase activity and were labelled with both MB-1 and QH-1 antibodies in normal quail embryos and chick----quail yolk sac chimeras. Moreover, some acid phosphatase positive and MB-1/QH-1 positive cells also appeared in the presumptive vitreous body, at the edges of the optic cup and in the surrounding mesenchyme. As the vitreal cells and the specialised phagocytes of the neural retina were immunolabelled in chick----quail yolk sac chimeras, we conclude that they are derived from haemopoietic cells in the yolk sac. Some images suggest that these cells enter the vitreous body from the surrounding mesenchyme and traverse the basement membrane of the neuroepithelium in the optic disc region to give rise to the specialised phagocytes of the retinal neuroepithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:1769889

  12. The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, H S; McGadey, J; Thompson, G G; Moore, M R; Payne, A P

    1983-01-01

    The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content were examined in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). The gland consisted of tubules lined by a single layer of epithelial cells and a myoepithelial network. The tubule cells were often binucleate and possessed lipid vacuoles in the apical half of the cell, a corona of granular endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the nucleus, and cytoplasmic 'slashes'. The latter are probably derived from dense membranous couplets and may be precursors of the lipid vacuoles. Holocrine and merocrine secretion was observed. Interstitial cells included plasma cells, mast cells and (predominantly) melanocytes which render the gland black. The gland was surrounded by a collagen capsule and an outer layer of highly attenuated (possibly endothelioid) cells. Within the gland, the secretory duct was lined by a single layer of normal tubule cells. Outside the gland, the duct enlarged to form an ampulla, from which clefts led off to deep crypts. The ampulla and clefts were lined by cells with small dense apical granules and stubby microvilli; some possessed lipid vacuoles. The crypts were lined by serous cells with active Golgi regions. At the duct opening, ampullary cells became squamous and goblet cells occurred. Geometric crystalloid deposits (with a layered structure of 7.6 nm periodicity) occurred at cleft-crypt junctions. Islets of extra-glandular ductal tissue were occasionally found within the gland. Porphyrins were detectable both by chemical assay and fluorescence microscopy. There was a trend for female glands to have a higher content than males. Solid intraluminal accretions of porphyrin and/or lipid were present. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:6654750

  13. Comparative effects of cortisone, dianabol and enovid on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in arteriosclerotic vs nonarteriosclerotic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, B. C.

    1976-01-01

    Male and female nonarteriosclerotic (virgin) and arteriosclerotic (breeder) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to acute myocardial infarction with isoprenaline. When myocardial necrosis was most intense, animals were given cortisone (high and low doses), Dianabol, or Enovid. Animals receiving large doses of cortisone manifested the best survival rate during the early stages of myocardial infarction. Although their serum enzyme levels were least elevated and their hearts showed tha least amount of damage, these animals had undergone the most intense body weight loss and began to die suddenly during the later stages of the experiment. These animals also manifested hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, septicaemia, severe disuse atrophy of their adrenal glands, and reduced Cmpd. B production. Animals treated with low doses of cortisone or with the anabolic and androgenic steroid, Dianabol, manifested none of the myocardial pretective effects of the larger dose of cortisone. These animals displayed a high incidence of left ventricular aneurysm formation concomitant with extensive cartilaginous metaplasia within the aneurysmal sites. Treatment with the contraceptive drug, Enovid, caused body weight loss, hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, gonadal atrophy and reduction of Cmpd. B production. Although the high dose of cortisone exercised definite salutary effects during early myocardial infarction, chronic treatment led to adrenal disuse atrophy and hypoadrenocorticism associated with sudden death during the later stages of myocardial repair. These findings indicate that proper adjustment of the dose and chronicity of corticosteroids used for treating the crisis of acute myocardial infarction must be made in order to provide effective protection against untoward pathophysiological conditions, acceleration of myocardial repair, but without suppression of adrenal function. Images Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:1008997

  14. Experimental Induction of Atheroarteriosclerosis by the Synergy of Allergic injury to Arteries and Lipid-Rich Diet

    PubMed Central

    Minick, C. Richard; Murphy, George E.

    1973-01-01

    Rabbits fed a lipid-rich, cholesterol-poor diet and given concomitant injections of foreign protein, over a period as long as 17 months, developed in their coronary arteries both a) proliferative fibromuscular intimal thickening closely resembling the diffuse intimal thickening that commonly occurs in coronary arteries of man, and b) fatty-proliferative fibromuscular intimal thickening that closely resembles coronary atherosclerosis in man. In contrast, rabbits of another group that were concurrently fed the same diet for as long as 22 months without injections of foreign protein developed changes in arteries of their hearts that resemble neither coronary atherosclerosis nor diffuse intimal thickening in man. Fatty-proliferative changes in aortas of the first group of rabbits are strikingly greater and more closely resemble human aortic atherosclerosis than those in the latter group. In the course of the experiments, the average serum cholesterol was not significantly different in the two groups of rabbits. It was approximately 200 to 250 mg%, which is the average serum cholesterol in adult humans in the United States. These experiments support the hypothesis that the synergy of arterial injury, in particular immunologic injury, and a diet rich in lipid can lead to atherosclerosis in man. ImagesFig 24Fig 25Fig 26,27Fig 28Fig 29Fig 30Fig 31Fig 32Fig 33Fig 34Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 35Fig 36Fig 37Fig 38Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17Fig 18Fig 19Fig 20Fig 21Fig 22Fig 23 PMID:4758786

  15. Age changes in the triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist joint.

    PubMed Central

    Mikić, Z D

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a study of 180 wrist joints from 100 fresh cadavers of individuals ranging in age from fetuses to 94 years, it is concluded that the triangular fibro-cartilage is very liable to degenerative alterations associated with ageing. Degeneration begins in the third decade and progressively increases in frequency and severity in subsequent decades. The changes comprise reduced cellularity, loss of elastic fibres, mucoid degeneration of the ground substance, exposure of collagen fibres, fibrillation, erosion, ulceration, abnormal thinning, and, ultimately, disc perforation. The changes are more frequent and more intense on the ulnar surface, and they are always situated in the central part of the disc. It appears that disc perforation is degenerative and age-related: thus there were no perforations in the first two decades of life; in the third there were 7.6%, in the fourth 18.1%, in the fifth 40.0%, in the sixth 42.8%, and in the over sixties 53.1%. There was an associated pattern of degenerative changes in the wrist joint as a whole. The structures adjacent to the articular disc (discal surface of the ulnar head, discal part of the lunate) were much more often involved, and the changes were much more advanced, than on non-discal surfaces. It is argued that this is because of more intensive biomechanical forces, particularly rotational forces, in the disc compartment of the joint. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 (cont.) Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:670069

  16. Structural changes in fluorosed dental enamel of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) from a region with severe environmental pollution by fluorides.

    PubMed Central

    Kierdorf, U; Kierdorf, H; Sedlacek, F; Fejerskov, O

    1996-01-01

    A macroscopic, microradiographic and scanning electron microscope study was performed on the structure of fluorosed dental enamel in red deer from a fluoride polluted region (North Bohemia, Czech Republic). As was revealed by analysis of mandibular bone fluoride content, the rate of skeletal fluoride accumulation in the fluorotic deer was about 6 times that in controls taken from a region not exposed to excessive fluoride deposition. In all fluorosed mandibles, the 1st molar was consistently less fluorotic than the other permanent teeth. This was related to the fact that crown formation in the M1 takes place prenatally and during the lactation period. Fluorosed teeth exhibited opaque and posteruptively stained enamel, reduction or loss of enamel ridges, moderately to grossly increased wear and, in more severe cases, also enamel surface lesions of partly posteruptive, partly developmental origin. Microradiographically, fluorosed enamel was characterised by subsurface hypomineralisation, interpreted as a result of fluoride interference with the process of enamel maturation. In addition, an accentuation of the incremental pattern due to the occurrence of alternating bands with highly varying mineral content was observed in severely fluorosed teeth, denoting fluoride disturbance during the secretory stage of amelogenesis. A corresponding enhancement of the incremental pattern was also seen in the dentine. The enamel along the more pronounced hypoplasias consisted of stacked, thin layers of crystals arranged in parallel, indicating that the ameloblasts in these locations had lost the distal (prism-forming) portions of their Tomes processes. The findings of the present study indicate that red deer are highly sensitive bioindicators of environmental pollution by fluorides. Images Figs 2-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 PMID:8655406

  17. Surgical management of Menetrier's disease with protein-losing gastropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, H W; Shull, H J; Law, D H; Burko, H; Page, D L

    1975-01-01

    Three patients with Menetrier's disease and protein-losing gastropathy who were studied during a 12 year period have been presented. The characteristic findings which differentiate them from patients with hypertrophic hypersecretory gastropathy, including the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, are: 1) hypertrophy of gastric mucosa with giant rugal folds involving the fundus, cardia and body of the stomach but sparing the antrum; 2) muscosal hypertrophy consisting of gastric mjcus-secreting cells while parietal cells and chief cells are diminished in number and may be absent from many microscopic sections; 3) gastric secretion of large volume containing excess mucus, low to absent hydrochloric acid and protein concentration 5 or 6 times normal (1.7 mg/ml); 4) hypoalbuminemia and hypoglobulinemia due to loss of serum proteins fron gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen; 5) rare association with gastric ulcer. Unlike the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome none of our patients had duodenal ucler or multiple endocrine adenomatosis or a family history of these conditions. We have found no authenticated reports in the literature which document a relationship of Menetrier's disease ( as defined above) with multiple endocrine adenomatosis. Menetrier's disease with protein-losing gastropathy is a potentially lethal disorder of unknown cause with no specific treatment. Resection of the site of gastric protein losses as first done by Waugh is logical and effective. One of our three patients died in hospital before gastrectomy was done. Two others have done well for 11 months and 12 years, respectively, after total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy and Hunt-Lawrence jejunal pouch. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6A. Fig. 6B. Fig. 7. Fig. 8A. Fig. 8B. Fig. 9A. Fig. 9B. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:1130890

  18. Pathological changes in the brains of mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii: a histological, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. J.; Graham, D. I.; Hutchison, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The pathological changes in the brains of mice infected with T. gondii were studied at various intervals between 7 days and 22 months post-infection using histology, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Initially, a few single parasites were observed (day 7) but necrotic lesions and microglial and inflammatory nodules rapidly appeared (9-I4 days). The majority of the lesions between days 9 and I4 contained proliferating toxoplasma and early cyst formation but from 2I days onwards the vast majority of nodules contained neither parasites nor Toxoplasma antigen. Intact intracellular cysts persisted throughout the period of study eliciting no host response. A generalized meningoencephalitis developed by day II and persisted with varying degrees of severity throughout the 22 months studied. At first, the inflammatory cells consisted of lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages but during the chronic phase plasma cells predominated. In chronic infections, the number of microglial/inflammatory nodules was relatively constant with only a few containing toxoplasmic material resulting from recent cyst rupture. A few brains contained small nodules of dystrophic calcification. This study shows that in these asymptomatic animals, the major feature is perivascular cuffing by mononuclear cells and localized microglial/inflammatory nodules. After the development of the chronic state, there is no obvious increase or decrease in the severity of the pathological changes with time. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs. 8-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:1883744

  19. Regression of atherosclerosis by the intravenous infusion of specific biochemical nutrient substrates in animals and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Dudrick, S J

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary studies in 400 New Zealand albino rabbits produced a reliable animal model of nutrient-induced atherosclerosis that simulated that observed in humans. Atherosclerosis was then induced in an additional 1600 rabbits in sets of 40 animals each, maintaining plasma cholesterol concentrations between 1000 and 2000 mg/dL for 6-20 weeks. In each set, 10 control rabbits were killed to document baseline atherosclerosis, and the other 30 rabbits were assigned randomly to one of three groups of 10 rabbits. Groups of 10 rabbits were either continued on the atherogenic diet (group I), given standard laboratory rabbit pellets (group II), or infused continuously with specially formulated anticholesterol solutions via central venous catheters (group III) for 6 weeks. At autopsy, atherosclerotic lesions consistently involved 85-95% of the aorta in group I. In group II, atherosclerosis was comparable with the baseline control group with no regression. In group III, regression of atherosclerosis by 90-95% was consistently documented. Correlations between plasma amino acids and plasma cholesterol concentrations were established in four humans with severe atherosclerosis to maximize the cholesterol reduction capacity of the amino acid formulation. Infusion of the modified total parenteral nutrition solution induced prompt reduction in plasma cholesterol levels by 40-60% regardless of the initial level and was accompanied by evidence of regression of atherosclerosis after a 90-day infusion therapy period. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. PMID:3115205

  20. Prolonged administration of antithymocyte serum in mice. II. Histopathological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth; Nehlsen, Sandra L.

    1971-01-01

    Prolonged administration of ATS to mice resulted in depletion of small lymphocytes in the thymus-dependent (paracortical) areas of lymph nodes in all mice. Small lymphocyte depletion of the thymus-dependent periarteriolar region of the spleen was present in most mice, although this feature was masked by plasmacytosis in this region in some. Depletion of small lymphocytes in the thymus-dependent areas of Peyer's patches was evident in some of the younger mice. None of these changes in lymphoid organs were seen in control mice, untreated or given NRS. The thymus was unaffected except in some ATS- or NRS-treated mice which were sick and/or old, in which the narrowing of the thymic cortex was attributed to non-specific stress. Plasmacytosis was seen in the medullae of lymph nodes of both ATS- and NRS-treated mice, although it was more intense in the latter. In non-lymphoid organs the most striking changes were seen in the kidneys of mice treated both with ATS and NRS. Complex-type nephritis followed by amyloidosis was seen in a large proportion of mice over 6 months old in both these groups and in these mice amyloid was seen frequently in other organs, including spleen and liver. Tumours occurred in fifty-four ATS-treated mice, but in no other group. Fifty-two of these tumours were attributable to polyoma virus; two other were lymphoblastomas. Reticulum cell hyperplasia was seen in two further mice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:4326920

  1. Cell death during the postnatal morphogenesis of the normal rabbit kidney and in experimental renal polycystosis.

    PubMed Central

    García-Porrero, J A; Ojeda, J L; Hurlé, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have studied, by means of optic and electron microscopy, the normal and abnormal cell death that takes place during the postnatal morphogenesis of rabbit kidney, and in the experimental renal polycystosis produced by methylprednisolone acetate. In the normal kidney intertubular cell death can be observed during the first 20 days of the postnatal development. However, cell death in the normal metanephric blastema is a very rare event. In the polycystic kidney numerous dead cells can be seen between the third and forty eighth days after injection. The topography and morphology of the dead cells depend on the stage in the evolution of the disease. In the 'stage of renal immaturity', dying and dead cells are present in the nephrogenic tissue, in the dilating collecting tubules and in the intertubular spaces. In this stage the cellular pathology is essentially nuclear. In the stage of tubular cysts, the dead cells are mostly located in the walls of cysts, with some dead cells, but mostly cellular debris in their lumina. At this stage the cellular pathology is basically cytoplasmic. The dead cells are eventually digested by what appear to be phagocytes of tubular epithelial origin. It is suggested that cell death is an important factor in the evolution of the lesions of renal polycystosis induced by corticosteroids, and probably in the initiation of the pathological process as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:670065

  2. Cytochemical localisation and characterisation of proteoglycans (glycosaminoglycans) in the epithelial-stromal interface of the seminal vesicle of the guinea pig.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, L; Wong, Y C

    1992-01-01

    The proteoglycans (PGs) in the guinea pig seminal vesicle were demonstrated ultrastructurally by both cuprolinic blue (CB) and ruthenium red (RR) staining. The PGs appeared as electron-dense granules with RR, but were filamentous following CB staining using the critical electrolyte concentration method. Three major types of PGs (T1, T2, T3) have been described according to their different locations and sizes. T1 filaments were short and were found mostly on both sides of the lamina densa of the basal lamina of the glandular epithelium (40-60 nm long) and also on the basal laminae of smooth muscle cells and capillary endothelial cells (20-30 nm long). In the epithelial basal lamina they were regularly spaced at an interval of 40-60 nm. T1 filaments in the lamina densa were smaller and more randomly distributed. Cytochemical characterisation of these PGs by various GAG degrading enzymes showed that T1 PGs are rich in heparan sulphate. T2 filaments were 30-40 nm long and closely associated with the collagen fibrils. They were arranged perpendicular to the long axis of collagen fibrils, also at intervals of about 60 nm. T2 filaments were removed by chondroitinase (Ch)-ABC, Ch-ABC plus Streptomyces (S)-hyaluronidase and pronase, but resistant to nitrous acid, heparitinase, heparinase, neuraminidase and S-hyaluronidase. These show that T2 filaments are rich in dermatan sulphate. T3 filaments (60-100 nm) were widely distributed in the stroma at sites such as the interstitial spaces of the lamina propria, the reticular layer below the basal lamina, around individual collagen fibrils or bundles of such fibres, and on the cell surfaces of fibroblasts. The T3 filaments were removed by Ch-ABC, Ch-AC and pronase but were resistant to heparitinase, heparinase, S-hyaluronidase, neuraminidase and nitrous acid. They are therefore rich in chondroitin sulphate. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig

  3. An Experimental Investigation of the Lymphatic System of the Teeth and Jaws

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Alexander

    1936-01-01

    are given, and the lines on which further experiments are being continued are indicated. Finally, the application of the results to the pathology of infection in this region, particularly paradontal disease, is given, and also their application to the phenomena of injection anæsthesia. ImagesFig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:19990818

  4. Endemic syphilis in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J. F.; Merriweather, A. M.; Freedman, M. L.

    1956-01-01

    A form of endemic syphilis exists in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate known by the local name of “dichuchwa”. It is similar to bejel, njovera and the endemic syphilis reported elsewhere in the world. The Government of the Protectorate, with the assistance of WHO and UNICEF, began in November 1953 a mass campaign in the Reserve to control this disease and, at the same time, to study its epidemiological, clinical, social and therapeutic aspects. The seropositivity rate in the Reserve was found to be 37%. Dichuchwa is a childhood and family disease, usually spread non-venereally. The early lesions are similar to secondary lesions of sporadic venereal syphilis, and are often followed by tertiary lesions affecting mainly the skin, nasopharynx and long bones. Primary lesions are rare but may occur under certain epidemiological conditions if the inoculum is sufficiently large; thus a mother may develop primary sores on the nipples through suckling an infected infant. Lesions of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and congenital syphilis are also rare. Superinfection of an already infected and allergic host is probably the chief reason for the frequency of the tertiary lesions. Treatment of the disease with penicillin is very effective, and the authors believe that mass treatment of cases and contacts combined with an improvement in the standards of hygiene could eradicate the disease. ImagesFig. 61Fig. 62Fig. 63Fig. 64Fig. 74Fig. 75Fig. 76Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 45Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 49Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 57Fig. 58Fig. 59Fig. 60Fig. 65Fig. 66Fig. 67Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 68Fig. 69Fig. 70Fig. 71Fig. 72Fig. 73Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 40Fig. 41Fig. 42 PMID:13404470

  5. The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, A P

    1994-01-01

    The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The chief product(s) of the gland varies between different groups of vertebrates, and epithelial cells possess granules or vacuoles whose contents may be mucous, serous or lipid. In rodents, the gland synthesises lipids, porphyrins and indoles. In the case of lipid vacuoles, the gland is unusual in releasing these by an exocytotic mechanism. It is unclear whether the gland can act both as an exocrine and endocrine organ. There is control of gland structure and synthesis through a variety of humoral agents, including gonadal, thyroid and pituitary hormones; in addition there is a rich autonomic innervation and many neuropeptides have been identified. The proposed functions of the gland are remarkably diverse and include the gland being (1) a source of 'saliva', (2) a site of immune response, (3) a photoprotective organ, (4) part of a retinal-pineal axis, (5) a source of pheromones, (6) a source of thermoregulatory lipids, (7) a site of osmoregulation, and (8) a source of growth factors. The gland is discussed in terms of its embryology and phylogeny, and in relation to ecological variables. Several goals of future research are identified. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 40 PMID:7559104

  6. Light and Electron Microscopic Studies of the Rat Kidney After Administration of Inhibitors of the Citric Acid Cycle In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Elizabeth M.

    1972-01-01

    2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17Fig 18Fig 19 PMID:4258508

  7. Pacesetters of the American image or (a case for a pleasant diversion).

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    Regardless of how you resolve the morality of our history, the fact is that Currier and Ives documented in their own special and often biased way the iconography of the growth and development of the United States of America (Fig. 88) in some of the most eventful years of its history from about 1840 through 1895. Now, as we near our 500th anniversary commemoration of Columbus' voyage to the Americas, it seems especially appropriate to review--to think about all of this. I think you have sensed, as we have gone along, that learning about Currier and his colleagues--these pacesetters of the American Image--has meant, as Osler predicted, a pleasant diversion for me. These activities have carried me into new areas of interest, expanding my perspective of the American Image--of people, of medicine, of life in general, and aiding in the identification of values, my own, as well as those of others. All along, my knowledge has been enhanced, especially of the history of this wonderful complex country of ours. Furthermore, and of considerable importance, this endeavor has sharpened my power of observation. I have, like a good doctor should do, learned to look better! Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 19 Fig. 18 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 23 Fig. 25 Fig. 27 Fig. 26 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Fig. 45 Fig. 46 Fig. 47 Fig. 48 Fig. 49 Fig. 50 Fig. 51 Fig. 52 Fig. 53 Fig. 54 Fig. 55 Fig. 56 Fig. 57 Fig. 58 Fig. 59 Fig. 60 Fig. 61 Fig. 62 Fig. 63 Fig. 64 Fig. 65 Fig. 66 Fig. 68 Fig. 67 Fig. 69 Fig. 70 Fig. 71 Fig. 72 Fig. 73 Fig. 74 Fig. 75 Fig. 76 Fig. 77 Fig. 78 Fig. 79 Fig. 80 Fig. 82 Fig. 81 Fig. 83 Fig. 84 Fig. 85 Fig. 86 Fig. 87 Fig. 88 PMID:1413369

  8. Mast Cell Hyperplasia and Eosinophilia Induced by Ascaris Body Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Archer, G. T.; Binet, J.-L.

    1971-01-01

    Daily i.p. injections of dilute Ascaris body fluid into rats induced peritoneal eosinophilia and the formation of pin-point follicles in the omentum. The follicles comprised plasma cells, macrophages and fibroblasts together with large numbers of eosinophils and mast cells. Electron microscopy of eosinophils in the follicles revealed loss of cytoplasmic granules and numerous vesicular and tubular structures in the cytoplasm. The mast cells showed clear areas round the granules, suggesting dissolution of granule components. ImagesFigs. 4-6Figs. 7-8Figs. 13-14Figs. 9-10Figs. 1-3Figs. 11-12 PMID:5135540

  9. Metalliding as an Electrochemical Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    melt at 560’C and LiF/KF melt at 610 C ....... 13 Fig. 4 Comparison of (a) impedance and (b) phase angle spectra for Pt (1), A (2), A polarized as in...Fig. 5 (5) and A after 15 h electrolysis at 0.25 V vs ECe+3/O (4) ............................. 14 Fig. 5 Controlled potential polarization curve in a...Galvanostatic polarization of steel in a 3.5 mole% BF4- in molten LiF/KF at 866 0 C converts the surface to a boride, which is 10 times harder than the

  10. Functional Plyometric Exercises for the Throwing Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Pezzullo, David J.; Karas, Steven; Irrgang, James J

    1995-01-01

    In this article we provide athletic health care professionals with a variety of functional strengthening exercises to use in improving the muscular strength of the throwing athlete's shoulder. Upper extremity functional plyometric exercise in sport-specific patterns can be an important component of a throwing athlete's rehabilitation. We discuss several plyometric exercises, using the Inertial Exercise System, the Plyo-ball, and the Theraband. Proper use of these exercises can facilitate a safe and progressive rehabilitation program for the injured, throwing athlete. After the athlete has successfully completed the functional plyometric exercises, a throwing progression can be initiated. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.Fig 9.Fig 10.Fig 11.Fig 12.Fig 13.Fig 14.Fig 15. PMID:16558304

  11. British surgical aid to Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, N. A.; Barry, N. A.; Davies, A. K.

    1971-01-01

    The surgical commitment of No. 2 Field Hospital, R.A.M.C., during its stay in Jordan is presented. The majority of patients that were admitted had sustained war wounds, many of which were infected due to the delay in treatment. The difficulties encountered in their subsequent management are discussed. Special reference is made to the use of ketamine (Ketalar) and mafenide acetate (Sulphamylon) in the treatment of those burns cases under our care. It is the first time for many years that a British field hospital has been employed in an active rôle. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 8Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:5114910

  12. The susceptibility of rodents to schistosome infection, with special reference to Schistosoma haematobium

    PubMed Central

    Gear, J. H. S.; Davis, D. H. S.; Pitchford, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    In this investigation the susceptibility of several species of rodents—Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis, Saccostomus campestris, Arvicanthus niloticus, Aethomys chrysophilus, Tatera brantsi and the white mouse (SAIMR 200 strain)—to Schistosoma haematobium was determined and the pathology studied. From the results it is clear that these rodents are susceptible to infection with Schistosoma haematobium. For various reasons, notably adaptability to laboratory conditions, the most suitable as laboratory animals for the study of bilharziasis are Saccostomus campestris, Arvicanthus niloticus and Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis. These three species breed readily in the laboratory and show a high susceptibility to S. haematobium, with characteristic lesions involving several organs, including the lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas and intestine. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 16FIG. 17FIG. 18FIG. 19FIG. 20FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15 PMID:5297005

  13. Cell death during the development of the truncus and conus of the chick embryo heart.

    PubMed Central

    Hurle, J M; Ojeda, J L

    1979-01-01

    The presence of cell death in the walls of the truncus and conus of the developing chick heart was investigated by a variety of light and electron microscopic techniques. Necrotic areas were observed in the myocardial layer of the truncus and conus and within the mesenchymal cells of the truncoconal ridges and aortopulmonary septum. These necrotic zones appeared first at Stage 25-26 and reached their maximum extent at Stages 29-32 undergoing later progressive disappearance. The morphological changes of the degenerating cells detectable under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy are also reported. The possible role of cell death in the morphogenesis of the truncus and conus is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:500497

  14. Orthotics in Sports Shoes

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1983-01-01

    We are all born with a varying assortment of biomechanical discrepancies. Ordinarily these may be of no consequence, but to those who try to achieve excellence in a certain sport these discrepancies can spell the difference between success and failure. Some athletes may have to accept the fact that biomechanically the odds are against them ever becoming excellent and that intensive training may in fact be detrimental to their wellbeing. However, the majority can be helped with advice on proper shoe wear and orthotic correction. This article highlights the role of foot orthotics as indicated for various biomechanically-related problems commonly encountered in athletes. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23 PMID:21283401

  15. The Reflexes of the Fundus Oculi

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, A. J.

    1940-01-01

    fragmented” surface reflexes, or as evidence of the presence of some highly refractile substance, such as cholesterin or calcium carbonate, in a retinal exudate or other lesion. It is characteristic of the pathological reflexes that they come and go and change their character according to the progress of the pathological condition. The linear reflexes in particular may change from one from to another, and may be finally transformed into surface reflexes of physiological character. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:19992307

  16. The ventricular system of the pigeon brain: a scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Mestres, P; Rascher, K

    1994-01-01

    The fine structural features and regional differences of the ependyma in adult pigeons have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Pigeons of either sex were fixed with buffered glutaraldehyde (3%) and formaldehyde (0.5%) by intravascular perfusion. The brain was dissected using section planes adequate to expose each part of the ventricular system. The specimens were then dehydrated, critical point dried and sputtered with gold. Depending upon the distribution of cilia, microvilli and single cilia, different areas were recognised in the 4 ventricles. The topographic locations of these areas were determined using the atlas of Karten & Hodos (1967). The medial surfaces of the 1st and 2nd lateral ventricles are more densely ciliated than the lateral surfaces. In the floor of the 4th ventricle the medial part is less ciliated than the lateral parts. The circumventricular organs (subseptal organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, infundibulum, choroid plexus, subcommissural organ, area postrema) show very characteristic surfaces and are surrounded by a transitional zone with the nonspecialized ependyma. In contrast, in the paraventricular organ the transition to the nonspecialized ependyma is rather abrupt. The ependyma covering the trochlear nucleus appears densely ciliated, differing from that of the classic circumventricular organs. Finally, the existence of openings in the caudal medullary velum, which represent direct communications between the ventricles and the subarachnoid space, was demonstrated. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:8157492

  17. The interaction of antigen and antibody in agglutination

    PubMed Central

    Elek, S. D.; Smith, B. V. Kingsley; Highman, Wilma

    1964-01-01

    Flagellar fragments are thin cylinders that are particularly suitable for the study of agglutination by electron microscopy. Their shape leads to a characteristic pattern of agglutination and thus the early stages can be studied. Measurement of interflagellar distances under conditions of negative staining, suggest that the minimum length of the rabbit antibody molecules is about 180 Å. The molecules carry the specific sites at the ends of the long axis, and become attached radially to the surface of the flagella, resembling the bristles of a bottle-brush. To explain this orientation it is postulated that the antibody is inserted into the surface of the flagellum in such a manner that surrounding molecules give it a fixed direction. Geometrically this hypothesis corresponds to an insertion into pits. Pepsin-treated (5S) rabbit antibody behaves in a like manner, but the molecule appears to be shorter. No information could be obtained about the thickness and actual shape of antibody molecules by the techniques employed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 9FIG. 11FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15 PMID:14210767

  18. Chronic Actinic Keratopathy—A Condition Associated with Conjunctival Elastosis (Pingueculae) and Typified by Characteristic Extracellular Concretions

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1972-01-01

    Morphologic observations on a peculiar type of corneal reaction with a predisposition for the superficial stroma of the interpalpebral portion of the cornea are reviewed. Histochemical evidence is provided which indicates that the corneal concretions, though not homogenous, are proteinaceous in nature and contain amino acids not normally detectable in the cornea. The corneal concretions were associated with conjunctival elastosis (pingueculae) in all 22 instances in which the eyes were sectioned in the horizontal plane. Identical concretions were identified within these associated pingueculae, as well as in a large percentage of other pingueculae and cutaneous lesions with actinic elastosis. The findings suggest that the abnormal material arises in the pericorneal conjunctival connective tissue from whence it diffuses into, and deposits in, the superficial corneal stroma. The data also raise the possibility that the concretions may be derived, at least in part, from altered elastic tissue. Morphologic and epidemiologic observations on the condition taken together strongly suggest that this unique reaction is a sequel to the cumulative effect of chronic actinic irradiation. Further observations on this keratopathy are needed to establish whether this unique response can be provoked by other noxious stimuli. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15 PMID:5021106

  19. Selenium toxicity and porcine focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia: description of a field outbreak and experimental reproduction.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T M; Scholz, R W; Drake, T R

    1983-01-01

    An acute afebrile paretic condition was diagnosed in 18 of 225 feeder pigs between eight to ten weeks of age. Nine pigs died acutely, seven pigs were euthanatized and two appeared to recover. Macroscopic lesions in the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements consisted of focal, bilateral, depressed areas. Histopathologically, the lesion consisted of endothelial proliferation, glial cell reaction and microcavitation. Similar lesions were observed in some brain stem motor nuclei. High selenium levels were detected in the pig feed and in pig tissues and blood. Two of five experimental pigs fed a commercial grower ration and supplemented with 52 ppm selenium as sodium selenite developed paresis and paralysis after a 29 day feeding trial. Histopathological lesions of focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia confined to the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements, and identical to those in the field cases, were produced. Select brain stem motor nuclei were also affected. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:6667430

  20. The cellular changes during osteogenesis in bone and bone marrow composite autografts.

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, P V; Gray, J C

    1975-01-01

    Osteogenesis in and around autografts has been studied in the hope of identifying the osteoblast precursor. Fresh autografts of cortical bone with its constituent bone marrow were implanted into intramuscular sites in rats. The grafts were removed at intervals over a four week period and examined by light and electron microscopy. A chronological sequence of degenerative, reparative and differentiative events was found and described. The relative contributions of the host and graft components to post-grafting osteogenesis are discussed and the problem of the origin of the osteoblast cells is examined, taking into account present views about the interrelationships between skeletal connective tissue cells and their precursors. It is concluded that, in the investigation described, the presence of host granulation tissue was necessary for osteogenesis and it is postulated that osteoblast progenitor cells can arise from this granulation tissue, their differentiation along the osteogenic line being stimulated in some way by the presence of the graft bone. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:1102503

  1. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of peripheral T cell lymphomas: a proposal for their classification.

    PubMed Central

    Suchi, T; Lennert, K; Tu, L Y; Kikuchi, M; Sato, E; Stansfeld, A G; Feller, A C

    1987-01-01

    Based on the results of histological and immunohistochemical observations of a large number of peripheral T cell lymphomas from China, England, Germany and Japan, histological and cytological morphology were correlated with immunophenotype, aetiological association with HTLV-1, and clinical behaviour to produce a working classification of the T cell lymphomas. This classification, based mainly on cytological criteria, divides the peripheral T cell lymphomas into tumours of low grade and high grade malignancy. Adult T cell lymphoma/leukaemia (ATLL) is caused by HTLV-1 and belongs chiefly to the high grade category. Some tumours are characterised by an admixture of other cells (epithelioid cells, follicular dendritic cells, etc) and structures (high endothelial venules, follicles), which may indicate the secretion of lymphokines by the tumour cells. Clear cells seem to be specific for T cell lymphomas and may occur in various types of peripheral T cell lymphoma. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 PMID:3312308

  2. The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

    1966-01-01

    The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

  3. Grading atherosclerosis in aorta and coronary arteries obtained at autopsy

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Kazuo; Sternby, Nils; Vaněček, Rudolf; Vihert, Anatoli; Kagan, Aubrey

    1964-01-01

    A method of assessing “atherosclerosis”, if used according to certain rules, was shown in an earlier study to be capable of discriminating between groups of aortas or coronary arteries according to the quantity of certain defined lesions. It would not measure absolute amounts, but would show whether one group of specimens had more or less of the factor assessed than another and would indicate the statistical significance of this finding according to the number of specimens in each group. The method has now been applied to a study of material from six communities in three countries. This paper outlines how the rules of procedure were applied. Intra-observer and inter-observer calibration tests carried out in a routine manner during four “grading sessions” and inter-sessional tests are described. The discriminatory power in comparing groups of specimens from nearly 3000 subjects is calculated and shown according to artery (thoracic aorta, descending aorta, right coronary, left anterior descending coronary, left circumflex coronary) and type of lesion (“total amount of atherosclerosis”, “fatty streak”, “fibrous plaque”, “complicated lesion” and “calcification”). Observations on “coronary stenosis” were also made. The discriminatory power of the method was calculated for this factor and, contrary to many expectations, was found to be of practical value. Definitions and general procedure are described in annexes. ImagesFIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15PLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:14267740

  4. Studies on Schistosoma japonicum infection in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Pesigan, T. P.; Farooq, M.; Hairston, N. G.; Jauregui, J. J.; Garcia, E. G.; Santos, A. T.; Santos, B. C.; Besa, A. A.

    1958-01-01

    The geographical location and physical features of the island of Leyte in the Philippines, where bilharziasis is endemic and where the studies reported here were conducted, are described in the first part of this paper. An account is also given of the climate, soils, vegetation, population and rural structure, and public health of the island. The second part opens with a brief historical review of bilharziasis japonica in the Philippines up to 1953, when a control project was started. The objectives of this project, the areas selected, the census data and sampling used, and the techniques adopted are described. There follows a discussion of the prevalence of bilharziasis and its relationship to age, sex, occupation and environment; the prevalence of other common helminthic infections is also considered. In a section on the natural history and public health significance of bilharziasis, an approach to quantitative assessment of disease and disability and a method for evaluating the economic burden of bilharziasis are suggested. The incidence of disease in children of 5-9 years is reviewed in the same section. An analysis is made of possible strain differences of S. japonicum in Leyte, and the relative role of human and other animal hosts is assessed. The last section deals with the egg-laying habits of S. japonicum. ImagesFIG. 9FIG. 13FIG. 15FIG. 28 PMID:13536797

  5. Experimental Toxoplasmic Lymphadenopathy in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Henry, L.; Beverley, J. K. A.; Shortland, J. R.; Coup, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The pathogenesis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy was studied in rabbits. Sixteen were infected with a high virulence strain of Toxoplasma gondii and 32 with one of low virulence. The former group were killed and examined at intervals up to 9 days and the latter up to 129 days. The high virulence strain quickly caused paracortical hyperplasia but only moderate follicular reaction. Later, lymphoid depletion occurred. The low virulence strain caused follicular reaction so that at 16 days germinal centres had developed with evidence of cellular phagocytosis. Histiocytes were present and plasma cells were found in the medullary cords. These appearances were seen up to 51 days. At 86 days the follicular reaction was no longer present but had returned at 129 days. These results were supplemented by serological, parasitological, immunofluorescence and electron microscopic data. The histological changes seen in the low virulence infections up to 51 days are unlike those caused by the high virulence strain but closely parallel those found in acquired infections in man, which are usually caused by strains of the low virulence type. These findings may help to elucidate the nature of the complex immune responses and the pathogenesis of toxoplasma infections. ImagesFigs. 14-15Figs. 16, 18 and 19Figs. 12-13Figs. 7-11Figs. 1-6 PMID:4577945

  6. Morphometric study on the development of magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus utilising immunohistochemical methods.

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano, M A; Bentura, M L; Toledano, A

    1990-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)- and oxytocin (OXY)-producing neurons, components of the rat supraoptic nucleus, have been located with immunohistochemical methods, with the purpose of studying their morphofunctional characteristics during different phases of life (embryonic, juvenile, adult and senile). To carry out this study, an IBAS I (Kontron) computerised image analyser has been utilised. The hormone VP is first detected in the neuronal cytoplasm of 21 days old rat embryos and the hormone OXY appears in the neuronal cytoplasm later, in the newborn phase. The neuronal area with a positive reaction for the two neurohormones has been evaluated and it has been found that the quantity of reaction substance is proportional to the age. In the adult period, VP neurons possess a reaction area (198 microns 2) greater than that of OXY neurons (153 microns 2). In the SON, there are two neuronal shapes, fusiform and round; these shapes coexist in both hormonal types of neurons. Until Day 15 of postnatal development, the SON neurons are intermixed in the interior of the nucleus but in this period a neuronal redistribution is initiated. In the adult phase, OXY neurons are situated preferentially in the anterior, posterior and dorsal parts and VP neurons in the ventral and posterior parts, with both neurons being present in the intermediate part of the SON. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:2182586

  7. The orbital glands of the chelonians Pseudemys scripta and Testudo graeca: comparative histological, histochemical and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed Central

    Chieffi Baccari, G; DiMatteo, L; Minucci, S

    1992-01-01

    The orbital glands of the chelonians Pseudemys scripta and Testudo graeca were investigated at the histological, histochemical and ultrastructural levels. Four acinar cell types were seen in the harderian gland of P. scripta on the basis of histochemical reactions and ultrastructure. Secretory granules were of 2 types, one showing moderate electron density with an electronlucent core, the other being smaller and more osmiophilic with an electron-dense core. In the harderian gland of T. graeca only 2 glandular cell types were found; one type contained secretory granules with a dense core surrounded by a wide zone of lower density. Acinar cells of the anterior lacrimal gland in both species were of 2 types, one being of mucous type. In the harderian gland and in the lacrimal gland of both species, one cell type appeared not to be involved in the secretion of organic material. These cells contained numerous tightly packed mitochondria among which were abundant clumps of glycogen; the cell membrane was specialised at both edges. This cell type was similar ultrastructurally to the 'salt cells' described in the salt-secreting glands of various marine vertebrates, i.e. of the cells involved in transport processes. These combined histological, histochemical and ultrastructural studies have allowed us to distinguish orbital glands. In the past, the harderian and lacrimal glands in chelonians have often been mistaken for one another. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:1452463

  8. Alloxan diabetes in spontaneously hypertensive rats: gravimetric, metabolic and histopathological alterations.

    PubMed Central

    Iams, S. G.; Wexler, B. C.

    1977-01-01

    In order to investigate the combined effects of diabetes and hypertension on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, adult male and female SHR rats which develop hypertension spontaneously were given a single, 10 mg or 15 mg/100 g body wt. injection of alloxan s.c. to induce moderate or severe diabetes. Insulin was deliberately withheld. Animals were examined by autopsy daily for 7 days post-alloxan and after 4 and 8 weeks. Mortality was high--only 52% of the males survived as against 80% of the females. Most deaths occurred on Day 5 and were associated with adrenal haemorrhage and hyperplasia, thymus galnd involution, fatty liver and marked hypotension despite elevated aldosterone levels. During the first week, corticosterone levels increased significantly in the male; in females they showed little change. After 4 weeks, the severly diabetic animals became emaciated and moribund; corticosterone and aldosterone levels fell to very low levels despite adrenal hyperplasia. The beta cells of the moderately diabetic animals eventually lost their ability to secrete insulin and these animals too became cachetic and moribund with concomitant elevation of lipid, glucose and BUN levels, as well as myocardial infarction, fatty liver, and generalized hyalin arteriolo-, arterio-, and nephrosclerosis. It is suggested that the combined hormonal and metabolic alterations of diabetes and hypertension reinforced one another in these spontaneously hypertensive rats, leading to intense stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system, the exacerbation of those cardiovascular degenerative changes known to be associated with uncontrolled diabetes or hypertension, eventual impaired adrenocortical steroidogenesis, hypotension and death. Images Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:861167

  9. Animal models of primary myocardial diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S. K.; Tilley, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Feline and canine cardiomyopathies (primary myocardial diseases) were reviewed and divided into three groups based on the clinical, hemodynamic, angiocardiographic, and pathologic findings: (1) feline and canine hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, (2) feline and canine congestive (dilated) cardiomyopathy, and (3) feline restrictive cardiomyopathy. All three groups consisted predominantly of mature adult male cats and dogs. Cardiomyopathy in the hamster and turkey was also reviewed. The most common presenting signs were dyspnea and/or thromboembolism in the cat, systolic murmurs with gallop rhythms on auscultation, cardiomegaly with (groups 1 and 3) or without (group 2) pulmonary edema, abnormal electrocardiograms, elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressures, and angiocardiographic evidence of mitral regurgitation with left ventricular concentric hypertrophy (group 1), left ventricular dilatation (group 2), or midventricular stenosis (group 3). Some cats in groups 1 and 3 also had evidence of left ventricular outflow obstruction. The principal pathologic findings in all of the cats and dogs were left atrial dilation, hypertrophy, increased septal:left ventricular free wall thickness ratio with disorganization of cardiac muscle cells (group 1); dilatation of the four chambers with degeneration of cardiac muscle cells (group 2); and extensive endocardial fibrosis and adhesion of the left ventricle (group 3). Aortic thromboembolism was commonly observed in the cats of all three groups. These clinical and pathologic findings indicate that cardiomyopathy in the cat or dog is similar to the three forms of cardiomyopathy in humans (hypertrophic, congestive, and restrictive). Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 FIG. 15 FIG. 16 FIG. 17 FIG. 20 FIG. 21 FIG. 22 FIG. 24 FIG. 25 PMID:6447412

  10. A Comparison of Two Sites for the Purpose of Satellite Laser Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-27

    M alabar configuration ....................................................................................... 13 Fig. 6 Gain vs Pointing Accuracy, 0...Altitude on Minimum Detectable LRCS using the NRL / M alabar configuration

  11. The morphology of the lung of the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis (Reptilia: Ophidia: Elapidae). A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1989-01-01

    evolution of the lungs of the air-breathing vertebrates from lower through to higher vertebrates. The gross and ultrastructural heterogeneity of the organisation of the ophidian lung is illustrated and the dearth of pulmonary morphological data in this taxon is pointed out. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2630539

  12. From Osler to Olafson. The evolution of veterinary pathology in North America.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, L Z

    1987-01-01

    of instruction. However, by 1884, Osler had already left his indelible imprint on the students (both medical and veterinary) he had taught in Montreal, one of whom took over the teaching of pathology in the veterinary college. Another, who followed Osler's example and also studied in Berlin with Virchow, wrote the first book in the English language on veterinary post mortem technique in 1889.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:3552167

  13. Structure of the Thylakoids and Envelope Membranes of the Cyanelles of Cyanophora paradoxa1

    PubMed Central

    Giddings, Thomas H.; Wasmann, Cathy; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    1983-01-01

    isolated cyanelles exhibits two additional layers: (a) a 5- to 7-nanometer-thick layer that lies adjacent to the inner membrane and which seems to correspond to the peptidoglycan layer of cyanobacteria; and (b) a layer external to the purported peptidoglycan layer that exhibits fracture faces similar to those of the lipopolysaccharide layer of gram negative bacteria. Our findings indicate that the supramolecular architecture of cyanelles differs only slightly from free-living cyanobacteria to which they are presumably related. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:16662839

  14. Evaluation criteria and test methods for electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W. ); Lampert, C.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Report summarizes the test methods used for evaluating electrochromic (EC) windows, and summarizes what is known about degradation of their performance, and recommends methods and procedures for advancing EC windows for buildings applications. 77 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Hyperpolarizable compounds and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Therien, M.J.; DiMagno, S.G.

    1998-07-21

    Substituted compounds having relatively large molecular first order hyperpolarizabilities are provided, along with devices and materials containing them. In general, the compounds bear electron-donating and electron-withdrawing chemical substituents on a polyheterocyclic core. 13 figs.

  16. Method and apparatus for producing co-current fluid contact

    DOEpatents

    Trutna, W.R.

    1997-12-09

    An improved packing system and method are disclosed wherein a packing section includes a liquid distributor and a separator placed above the distributor so that gas rising through the liquid distributor contacts liquid in the distributor, forming a gas-liquid combination which rises in co-current flow to the separator. Liquid is collected in the separator, from which gas rises. 13 figs.

  17. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.; Kimmel, M.W.; Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-10

    A system for detecting objects in a turbid media utilizes an optical parametric amplifier as an amplifying gate for received light from the media. An optical gating pulse from a second parametric amplifier permits the system to respond to and amplify only ballistic photons from the object in the media. 13 figs.

  18. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    DOEpatents

    O`Brien, D.W.; Druce, R.L.; Johnson, G.W.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-03-24

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques. 13 figs.

  19. All-weather model for sky luminance distribution - preliminary configuration and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, R.; Seals, R.; Michalsky, J. )

    1993-03-01

    This article reports the development and evaluation of a new model for describing, from routine irradiance measurements, the mean instantaneous sky luminance angular distribution patterns for all sky conditions from overcast to clear, through partly cloudy, skies. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Two coupled particle-finite volume methods using Delaunay-Voronoie meshes for the approximation of Vlasov-Poisson and Vlasov-Maxwell equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hermeline, F. )

    1993-05-01

    This paper deals with the approximation of Vlasov-Poisson and Vlasov-Maxwell equations. We present two coupled particle-finite volume methods which use the properties of Delaunay-Voronoi meshes. These methods are applied to benchmark calculations and engineering problems such as simulation of electron injector devices. 42 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to cyclodiene insecticides and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, L.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-08-02

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples. 13 figs.

  2. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  3. Transmission Lines: An Overview of Electrical Properties and Environmental Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Biological Studies Task Team.

    1982-03-01

    A brief overview is provided of environmental and biological effects of high-voltage power transmission lines. Paragraph length descriptions of electric fields, induced voltage and currents, biological effects, magnetic fields, corona, radio and television interference, and ozone are given. 13 figs.

  4. X, Y, Z positioner

    DOEpatents

    Goers, G.F.

    1987-11-10

    A three-axis control for precisely and conveniently adjusting items such as mirrors and lenses is disclosed. The adjuster apparatus includes a vertical stack of three rotatable adjusters. Rotation of the first effects vertical translation, whereas the second and third are eccentric assemblies which interact to effect movement along two angled axes perpendicular to the vertical axis. 13 figs.

  5. Change in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Accuracy with Age of Input Data from the Global Forecast System (GFS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    temperature (K), and density (gm–3) ................................12 Fig. 3 Graphs showing the 36-h statistics for differences in vector wind speed...kn), virtual temperature (K), and density (gm–3) ................................12 Fig. 4 Graphs showing the 60-h statistics for differences in...vector wind speed (kn), virtual temperature (K), and density (gm–3) ................................13 Fig. 5 Graphs showing the 84-h statistics for

  6. Beginner's guide to SPICE

    SciTech Connect

    Geisik, C.; Schilling, L.

    1988-07-01

    This work is intended to help a beginner learn the fundamentals of the circuit simulation program SPICE using a series of increasingly complex examples. These examples take the beginner from the most elementary circuits on up to an operational amplifier model. This work serves as a supplement to the existing SPICE documentation SPICE User's Guide. 13 figs.

  7. Blast furnace lining and cooling technology: experiences at Corus IJmuiden

    SciTech Connect

    Stokman, R.; van Stein Cellenfels, E.; van Laar, R.

    2004-11-01

    This article describes the blast furnace lining and cooling concept as originally developed and applied by Hoogovens (Corus IJmuiden). The technology has also been applied by Danieli Corus in all its blast furnace projects executed in the last 25 years. The technology has helped Corus increase its PCI rate to over 200 kg/thm. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Graphoepitaxy by encapsulation

    DOEpatents

    Geis, M.W.; Smith, H.I.; Antoniadis, D.A.; Flanders, D.C.

    1986-01-21

    Improvements on the graphoepitaxial process for obtaining epitaxial or preferred orientation films are described wherein a cap of material is formed over the film to be oriented, artificial surface-relief structure may be present in the substrate, the cap, or both, and the film may be heated by irradiation with electromagnetic radiation. 13 figs.

  9. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, R.D.; Deis, G.A.

    1992-03-24

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles. 14 figs.

  10. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schalles, J.F. ); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. )

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, E.

    1993-02-01

    Object was to understand factors controlling the activity of O{sub 2} reduction and generation electrocatalysts, in order to attain higher activity and longer-term stability. Two broad classes of catalysts were developed: transition metal macrocycles in monomeric and polymeric forms, and transition metal oxides including perovskites and pyrochlores. 20 refs., 14 figs.

  12. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, M.J.; Weaver, V.M.

    1998-12-08

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying {beta}{sub 1} integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive. 14 figs.

  13. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1997-02-04

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition. 14 figs.

  14. Three-dimensional rf structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.K.; Browman, M.J.; Weiland, T.

    1988-01-01

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  15. Frequency agile optical parametric oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Velsko, S.P.

    1998-11-24

    The frequency agile OPO device converts a fixed wavelength pump laser beam to arbitrary wavelengths within a specified range with pulse to pulse agility, at a rate limited only by the repetition rate of the pump laser. Uses of this invention include Laser radar, LIDAR, active remote sensing of effluents/pollutants, environmental monitoring, antisensor lasers, and spectroscopy. 14 figs.

  16. Multiple DC, single AC converter with a switched DC transformer

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, M.K.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    1997-05-20

    The invention is an improvement of the PASC inverter, wherein the improvements include the reduction from two shorting gates per transformer to one shorting gate per transformer and replacement of active control of the shorting gate with passive control of the shorting gate. Further advantages are obtained through the use of anti-parallel gate sets. 14 figs.

  17. Tandem warhead considerations for electronic safety and arming devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dell, D.; Medina, A.

    1990-01-01

    There are four issues that an ESA designer must address when designing a tandem system: (1) warhead detonation shock, (2) warhead detonation ion cloud, (3) warhead detonation electromagnetic pulse, and (4) slapper/sparkgap electromagnetic pulse. Each of these hazards can upset the ESA time delay circuitry which would then either dud the munition or prematurely detonate the main charge. 14 figs.

  18. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  19. WhiteStar user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Ezell, T.F.

    1990-08-01

    The WhiteStar project provides design engineers with needed part design data. WhiteStar encourages the use of preferred parts by providing a user-convenient parts database. This report shows selections the user makes in order to obtain information on a particular part. 15 figs.

  20. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1996-03-05

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 15 figs.

  1. Magnetically excited flexural plate wave apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Butler, M.A.; Frye, G.C.; Smith, J.H.

    1998-11-17

    A non-piezoelectric flexural plate wave apparatus having meander-line transducers mounted on a non-piezoelectric membrane is disclosed. A static magnetic field is directed perpendicularly to the conductive legs of the transducers in the plane of the membrane. Single-port, two-port, resonant, non-resonant, eigenmode, and delay-line modes may be employed. 15 figs.

  2. Low-loss, high-speed, high-{Tc} superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Uherka, K.L.

    1996-07-30

    A flywheel energy storage device is disclosed including an iron structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet. The stationary permanent magnet levitates the iron structure while the superconductor structure can stabilize and levitate the rotating iron structure. 15 figs.

  3. Low-loss, high-speed, high-{Tc} superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Uherka, K.L.

    1997-06-24

    A flywheel energy storage device is disclosed including an iron structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet. The stationary permanent magnet levitates the iron structure while the superconductor structure can stabilize the rotating iron structure. 15 figs.

  4. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  5. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  6. Gamma-spectrometry with Compton suppressed detectors arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Schueck, C.; Hannachi, F.; Chapman, R.; Lisle, J.C.; Mo, J.N.; Paul, E.; Love, D.J.G.; Nolan, P.J.; Nelson, A.H.; Walker, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results of experiments performed with two different Compton-suppressed detectors arrays in Daresbury and Berkeley (/sup 163,164/Yb and /sup 154/Er, respectively), are presented together with a brief description of the national French array presently under construction in Strasbourg. 25 refs., 15 figs.

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  8. TWOPOT: a computer model of the two-pot extractive distillation concept for nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.; Holland, W.D.; Counce, R.M.; Beckwith, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    A mathematical model, TWOPOT, of the ''two-pot'' extractive distillation concept for nitric acid concentration has been developed. Prediction from a computer simulation using this model shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. This model is recommended for use in the design of large-scale, similar-purpose equipment. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Composite hydrogen separation element and module

    DOEpatents

    Edlund, D.J.

    1996-03-12

    There are disclosed improvements in multicomponent composite metal membranes useful for the separation of hydrogen, the improvements comprising the provision of a flexible porous intermediate layer between a support layer and a nonporous hydrogen-permeable coating metal layer, and the provision of a textured coating metal layer. 15 figs.

  10. Small-scale hydroelectric demonstration project: Reactivation of the Elk Rapids Hydroelectric Facility: Final operation and maintenance report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.

    1987-03-01

    Information related to the reactivation of the Elk River Hydroelectric Power facility is reported. This report includes a history of the power plant, pertinent cost data, emergency action plans, inspections and testing, warranty work, operating problems, project data, monthly production data, and monthly operating and maintenance costs. 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1997-03-18

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

  12. Research and development in the 1980s: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Briskin, D.; Feher, J.S.

    1990-06-01

    An overview of Research and Development for utility executives and other professionals. Encompasses US and international R D as well as collaborative and electric utility R D. Discusses the benefits and challenges of R D activities; supports earlier findings that R D spending improves productivity. Includes factual information, trend descriptions and analyses, brief contextual explanations, and suggested readings. Some previously unpublished information on electric utility R D. 36 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Portable mass spectrometer with one or more mechanically adjustable electrostatic sectors and a mechanically adjustable magnetic sector all mounted in a vacuum chamber

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Martin, W.H.; Myers, D.W.; Keville, R.F.

    1992-10-06

    A portable mass spectrometer is described having one or more electrostatic focusing sectors and a magnetic focusing sector, all of which are positioned inside a vacuum chamber, and all of which may be adjusted via adjustment means accessible from outside the vacuum chamber. Mounting of the magnetic sector entirely within the vacuum chamber permits smaller magnets to be used, thus permitting reductions in both weight and bulk. 13 figs.

  14. The (. gamma. ,K) program: A new CEBAF initiative for the study of nuclear strangeness

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.; Hungerford, E.V.

    1987-06-01

    This paper is a summary of the CEBAF working group discussions on electromagnetic production of strangeness in nuclear systems. A review of the recent BNL results in (..pi..,K) is presented as representative of the physics questions that could be addressed with the CEBAF facility. Recommendations of the working group concerning the necessary experimental apparatus for a (e,e',K) program are presented. 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Rf power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  17. Quantum Information Processing with Trapped 43Ca+ Ions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-18

    state 11 Fig.3: Deterministic quantum teleportation protocol 12 Fig.4: Density matrix of an entangled eight-ion state 13 Fig.5: Quantum process...4.3.4 Deterministic quantum teleportation Teleportation of a quantum state encompasses the complete transfer of information from one particle to...allow quantum -state teleportation to be performed. We succeeded in demonstrating deterministic quantum -state teleportation between a pair of trapped

  18. Scattering by Resistive Plates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    are equivalent to those of Franz. By applying Stokes’ theorem and Maxwell’s equation VAR -ikYi to r v’[HG] -n dS’ it is found that (ibid) VV n’.H G...13- Fig. 2.1 Local Coordinate System Attached to the Edge. -14- The p and, components of Maxwell’s equation v x H = -ikYE are: "-A H -ikYE (2.10

  19. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  20. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  1. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.

    1998-10-27

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver > 4kW/cm{sup 2} of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources. 13 figs.

  2. Beyond the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J.

    1988-10-21

    A variety of TeV scale Higgs and flavor sectors are discussed. Key questions are addressed: how can we tell if there is a light Higgs boson or if the Higgs sector is strongly interacting. What new signatures can be used to search for supersymmetry. Can flavor physics be described at a TeV without Yukawa couplings. Ideas are reviewed and some new developments mentioned. 51 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington (US)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    This appendix responds to the issues raised by Federal, State, and local governments, affected Indian Tribes, private citizens, and other organizations on the draft environmental assessment (EA) that was prepared pursuant to Section 112 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. In addition to presenting the issues raised in the comments and the responses, it describes where changes were made in the final EA. 535 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. On the HEMP (high-altitude electromagnetic pulse) environment for protective relays

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.E.; Wiggins, C.M.; Salas, T.M. ); Barnes, P.R. )

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the transient environment for protective relays produced by high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) events is presented in this paper. Several mechanisms for coupling of HEMP to relay terminals are used to develop estimates of possible HEMP threats to relays. These predicted relay responses to HEMP events are compared to measured data on a solid state based relay's impulse strength. 12 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Solid source MOCVD system

    DOEpatents

    Hubert, B.N.; Wu, X.D.

    1998-10-13

    A system for MOCVD fabrication of superconducting and non-superconducting oxide films provides a delivery system for the feeding of metallorganic precursors for multi-component chemical vapor deposition. The delivery system can include multiple cartridges containing tightly packed precursor materials. The contents of each cartridge can be ground at a desired rate and fed together with precursor materials from other cartridges to a vaporization zone and then to a reaction zone within a deposition chamber for thin film deposition. 13 figs.

  6. (Electronic structure and reactivities of transition metal clusters)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following are reported: theoretical calculations (configuration interaction, relativistic effective core potentials, polyatomics, CASSCF); proposed theoretical studies (clusters of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Os, Ru; transition metal cluster ions; transition metal carbide clusters; bimetallic mixed transition metal clusters); reactivity studies on transition metal clusters (reactivity with H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, hydrocarbons; NO and CO chemisorption on surfaces). Computer facilities and codes to be used, are described. 192 refs, 13 figs.

  7. Spectrometer capillary vessel and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Linehan, J.C.; Yonker, C.R.; Zemanian, T.S.; Franz, J.A.

    1995-11-21

    The present invention is an arrangement of a glass capillary tube for use in spectroscopy. In particular, the invention is a capillary arranged in a manner permitting a plurality or multiplicity of passes of a sample material through a spectroscopic measurement zone. In a preferred embodiment, the multi-pass capillary is insertable within a standard NMR sample tube. The present invention further includes a method of making the multi-pass capillary tube and an apparatus for spinning the tube. 13 figs.

  8. Controlled release of molecular components of dendrimer/bioactive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Segalman, D.J.; Wallace, J.S.

    1998-08-18

    A method for releasing molecules (guest molecules) from the matrix formed by the structure of another molecule (host molecule) in a controllable manner has been invented. This method has many applications in science and industry. In addition, applications based on such molecular systems may revolutionize significant areas of medicine, in particular the treatment of cancer and of viral infection. Similar effects can also be obtained by controlled fragmentation of a source molecule, where the molecular fragments form the active principle. 13 figs.

  9. Optimization of a Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna for Two Frequency Bands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    allows the designer to improve the S11 and radiation pattern—a peak broadside polar radiation plot is anticipated for optimum performance. Using a high...13 Fig. 14 Radiation plot at 9.35 GHz for optimal axial ratio. Boresight pattern with a 6.19-dB gain...optimal axial ratio of 1.61 dB .........................................................19 Fig. 20 Rogers 6010 radiation plot at 2.83 GHz for optimal

  10. Fuel performance annual report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J. ); Wu, S. . Div. of Engineering and Systems Technology)

    1990-03-01

    This annual report, the eleventh in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1988 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included. 414 refs., 13 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. Component and system simulation models for High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sozer, A.

    1989-08-01

    Component models for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) have been developed. The models are HFIR core, heat exchangers, pressurizer pumps, circulation pumps, letdown valves, primary head tank, generic transport delay (pipes), system pressure, loop pressure-flow balance, and decay heat. The models were written in FORTRAN and can be run on different computers, including IBM PCs, as they do not use any specific simulation languages such as ACSL or CSMP. 14 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-10-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Experimental Bacterial Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Durack, David T.; Beeson, Paul B.

    1972-01-01

    A method has been developed for assessing metabolic activity of bacteria in the vegetations of bacterial endocarditis using a labelled metabolite and autoradiography. Evidence provided by this technique suggests that there are different degrees of activity between superficial and more deeply placed bacterial colonies, and that variations in activity also exist within a single group of organisms. The possible relevance of these findings to the antibiotic therapy of endocarditis is discussed. ImagesFigs. 1-3Figs. 4-5 PMID:4111329

  14. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  15. Fuel performance: Annual report for 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Wu, S.

    1989-03-01

    This annual report, the tenth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1987 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulator Commission evaluations are included. 384 refs., 13 figs., 33 tabs.

  16. Polyorganometallosiloxane-2- or -4-pyridine coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-12-30

    A new family of polyorganometallosiloxane-2- or -4-pyridine compounds are provided for corrosion resistant coatings on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. The novel compounds contain backbones modified by metal alkoxides, metallocenes and metallophthalocyanates where the metal is Zr, Ti, Mo, V, Hf, Nb, Si, B and combinations thereof. Methods of making the new compounds are also provided. 13 figs.

  17. Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    and Band Wah, B. "Systolic Arrays - From Concept to Implementation." Computer Magazine. July 1987. [8] Grinberg , J., et al. "A Cellular VLS I...PERFRI𔃻NCE EIE PEIN1TUN PROE UR lEONE EOFGRTU INU 4 FUCO LTH E D CUNFI URNTION HO ON ~ ~ ~ ~ Fg 8OFRILT HC 7-17 -il - LN:.. Fig. 1h I 1.3 Fig. 11

  18. Description and operating instructions: TEMPO high-voltage microwave driver, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1988-06-01

    This manual describes the TEMPO high-voltage (HV) microwave driver and provides operating procedures and general maintenance requirements. It is intended as a guide for experienced personnel familiar with operating HV pulsed power equipment and not as a detailed instruction for inexperienced operators. For safety reasons, inexperienced personnel should never attempt to charge and fire HV pulsed power equipment. Serious personnel injury and damage to the machine can result from improper operation. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1996-11-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  20. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 18, Number 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    the dynamic response of the beam resting on the Wiunkler foundation. OFF-SHORE ST’ UCFUJRES POWER PLAWII A Finke Element Method fmr the &Sadcs of 8...111 (7), pp 1449-1459 motions of multilayer beams composed of stiff (July 1985) 14 figs, 3 tables, 12 ref s layers and soft cores is derived from...incremental variational equation governing Fatigue tests the nonlinear motions of multilayer beams is described. Various problems of forced nonlinear

  1. Distribution of sup 137 Cs, sup 90 Sr, sup 238 Pu, sup 239 Pu, sup 241 Am and sup 244 Cm in Pond B, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W. ); Pinder, J.E. III; Bowling, J.W. ); Alberts, J.J. . Marine Inst.); Brisbin, I.L. Jr. )

    1989-05-01

    The gradual senescence of present-day operating nuclear facilities, and resultant contamination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, emphasize the importance of understanding the behavior of radionuclides in the environment. Observations and deductions concerning mechanisms of radionuclide transport can contribute significantly to knowledge of fundamental ecological processes. This study emphasized the ecosystem-level distribution of several long-lived radionuclides in an abandoned reactor cooling impoundment after a twenty year period of chemical and biological equilibration. 90 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R. A.; Allen, C. R.; Powell, J. A.

    1988-05-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to describe the progress in developing, testing, applying and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the second quarter of FY 1987 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling. 23 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Industrial applications of neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Felcher, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron diffraction (or, to be more general, neutron scattering) is a most versatile and universal tool, which has been widely employed to probe the structure, the dynamics and the magnetism of condensed matter. Traditionally used for fundamental research in solid state physics, this technique more recently has been applied to problems of immediate industrial interest, as illustrated in examples covering the main fields of endeavour. 14 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Water Budget Managers Report to Northwest Power Planning Council, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Water Budget Managers

    1984-11-01

    The report contains a summary of the 1984 flow conditions, Water Budget management, and flow shaping to meet the needs of the smolt outmigration. In addition, a summary of activities conducted under the Smolt Monitoring Program is provided, as is preliminary data on the timing and duration of the smolt outmigration as required by Section 304(C)(3)(B). 6 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Targeted Approach to Overcoming Treatment Resistance in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    stirring, rt 74hr Pd(OAe),l tri-o-tolylphosphin e TEA CB3CN/ 90•c Sealed tubt l 48hr 9 ~ .. R, Fig.S. Synthetic procedures for the preparation...rescinnamine derivatives 12 and 13. 15 Pd(OAc): 0 \\ TEA /CH3CN Sealed tube 9o•c1 48br Pd(OAe)1 TEA /CH3CN Sealed tube 90°C/ 48br 14 Fig. 7

  6. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Lipshutz, R.J.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  7. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1999-01-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  8. Over-winter ecology of Oncorhynchus nerka in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhart, G.B.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    1996-05-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of winter limnological conditions and kokanee growth characteristics from 1993 to 1995. The winter is usually a very harsh period for animals, and little is know about the over-winter ecology os sockeye salmon. They are active a temperatures below 4 F. The chapter discusses methods and results. 14 figs, 4 tabs.

  9. On the North Atlantic circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, W.J. Jr.; McCartney, M.S. )

    1993-02-01

    A summary for North Atlantic circulation is proposed to replace the circulation scheme hypothesized by Worthington in 1976. Divergences from the previous model are in thermohaline circulation, cross-equatorical transport and Florida Current sources, flow in the eastern Atlantic, circulation in the Newfoundland Basin, slope water currents, and flow pattern near the Bahamas. The circulation patterns presented here are consistent with the majority of of published accounts of flow components. 77 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Studies of QCD at the Tevatron with the D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, R.W.; D0 Collaboration

    1996-12-01

    QCD studies at Fermilab`s Tevatron encompass a rich variety of topics. We present some of the latest results from the D0 experiment including probes of the standard model given by the inclusive jet cross section, the dijet invariant mass spectrum and several studies with direct photons. To complement these probes, we also present new results from precision examinations of the color interactions including studies of color coherence and jet azimuthal decorrelation. 22 refs., 14 figs.

  11. Planar triode pulser socket

    DOEpatents

    Booth, R.

    1994-10-25

    A planar triode is mounted in a PC board orifice by means of a U-shaped capacitor housing and anode contact yoke removably attached to cathode leg extensions passing through and soldered to the cathode side of the PC board by means of a PC cathode pad. A pliant/flexible contact attached to the orifice make triode grid contact with a grid pad on the grid side of the PC board, permitting quick and easy replacement of bad triodes. 14 figs.

  12. The status of the US VAWT program

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, H.M.; Berg, D.E.; Ashwill, T.D.; Sutherland, H.J.; Schluter, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) technology in the United States started in the early 1970s directly from the original work in Canada. The close, and very productive relationships among laboratories, universities and industry have continued since that time. This paper briefly discusses the significant technical progress and rather dramatic programmatic changes that have occurred in the past 18 to 24 months on the US side of the border. 20 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Experimental data confronts nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The physical content of experimental data for a variety of excitation energies and angular momenta is summarized. The specific nuclear structure questions which these data address are considered. The specific regions discussed are: low-spin data near the particle separation thresholds; low-spin data at intermediate excitation energies; high-spin, near-yrast data and high-spin data at larger excitation energies. 63 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Testing Continuum and Non-Continuum Descriptions in High Speed Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-13

    fundamentally different in the two solution approaches. In the continuum approach the Navier-Stokes equations consist of source terms of reaction...model match those obtained from the direct solution of the Boltzmann equation [14]. For the case of the Mach 1.2 Argon shock structure, (figure not...study provides excellent match with the DSMC and direct solutions of the Boltzmann equation [14]. Fig. 2 shows the effect of the variation of the

  15. Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, L.; Kalsi, M.S.

    1999-02-23

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. 14 figs.

  16. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figs.

  17. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  18. Low-density hydrocarbon foams for laser fusion targets: Progress report, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Cook, R.C.; Haendler, B.L.; Hair, L.M.; Kong, F.M.; Letts, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    We describe progress made during 1986 in the development of direct-drive hydrocarbon foam targets for laser fusion. The foam materials are polystyrene and resorcinolformaldehyde. The processes for making the foams, their properties, characterization techniques, and the relationships of their properties to target specifications are presented. In the final section, we discuss statistical experimental design techniques that are being used to optimize the foams. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Assessment of the theory and hypotheses of the acidification of watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, E.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report documents and critically assesses the evolution and status of the scientific understanding of the effects of acidic deposition on surface waters. The main conclusion is that the dominant theory of surface-water acidification fails to adequately incorporate many important factors and processes that influence surface water acidity. Some of these factors and processes are not well researched or recognized as being important by most scientists in the aquatic effects research area. 258 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating

    DOEpatents

    Casada, D.A.

    1996-01-16

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization. 14 figs.

  1. Laser damage database at 1064 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.; Gonzales, R.P.; Morgan, A.J.

    1990-03-01

    In conjunction with our diversification of laser damage testing capabilities, we have expanded upon a database of threshold measurements and parameter variations at 1064 nm. This includes all tests at low pulse-repetition frequencies (PRF) ranging from single shots to 120 Hz. These tests were conducted on the Reptile laser facility since 1987 and the Variable Pulse Laser (VPL) facility since 1988. Pulse durations ranged from 1 to 16 ns. 10 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Notes on the Design of Microstrip and Stripline Bandpass Filters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    9177 gold ink on 0.635mm, Coors ADS 945, alumina substrates. The conductor patteins were printed through 325 mesh, stainless steel screens. A firing...I4. ITI 0𔃺 0 Sf14 FIg.4 Frequency f f a ’Cf o 0 £ L 0 U c - Afa L Fm Fig. 4 Typical Butterworth maximally - flat response Flg.S5 I Frequency

  3. Metallurgical analysis of fractured F-27 aircraft landing gear

    SciTech Connect

    Witherell, C.E.

    1987-12-15

    The Materials Division of LLNL's Chemistry and Materials Science Department was asked to conduct a study of a fractured component of the main (starboard) landing gear on the F-27 aircraft (N768RL). The purpose of the study was to determine from metallurgical evidence the probable failure mode, its cause, and contribution to the recent landing incident at Livermore. 21 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Radiochemistry of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, T.J.; Dombsky, M.; D'Auria, J.M.; Ward, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    This monograph is a review of the literature through 1987 and covers the methods of producing the radioisotopes of astatine and the inorganic, nuclear, and organic chemistry of astatine. The discussion is limited to chemical and physical chemical properties of astatine. The monograph, after the introduction, is divided into chapters titled: production methods, nuclear spectroscopy, chemistry of astatine, separation and isolation (dry and wet), and selected procedures. 209 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs. (DLC)

  5. Chaotic dynamics of loosely supported tubes in crossflow

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.

    1991-07-01

    By means of the unsteady-flow theory and a bilinear mathematical model, a theoretical study was conducted of the chaotic dynamics associated with the fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes. Calculations were performed for the RMS of tube displacement, bifurcation diagram, phase portrait, power spectral density, and Poincare map. Analytical results show the existence of chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic regions when flow velocity exceeds a threshold value. 38 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1998-01-13

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.

  7. Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, G.

    1990-05-01

    A method and means are disclosed for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived. 15 figs.

  8. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K.

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  9. Mechanisms By Which Humidity Alters Ductility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    ductility$ of thesurfa ?Za’dlouvalt1 -rates of crack initiation, early growth and the relaxation op residual surface stresses dur~fati gue are all sensitive...15 Fig. 4 Ratio of closure stress to maximum tensile stress increases with increased distance (L) of crack tip to the next grain boundary. Here...orientations. Tmax is the maximum applied surface shear stress ........................ 23 Fiq. 8 Duration of incubation AN = N - N increases for cracks

  10. Tests of quantum chromodynamics in exclusive e sup + e sup minus and. gamma. gamma. processes

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1989-09-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: Factorization theorem for exclusive processes; Electromagnetic form factors of baryons; Suppression of final state interactions; The {gamma}{pi}{sub 0} Transition form factor; Exclusive charmonium decays; The {pi}-{rho} puzzle; Time-like compton processes; Multi-hadron production; Heavy Quark exclusive states and form factor zeros in QCD; Exclusive {gamma}{gamma} reactions; Higher twist effects; and Tauonium and threshold {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup {minus}} production. 41 refs., 15 figs. (LSP)

  11. High performance H modes in JET

    SciTech Connect

    Tanga, A.

    1990-01-01

    In JET the scientific properties and technical basis of good confinement regimes have been evaluated in the light of the potential extrapolation of such regimes to reactor requirements. In this paper the main experimental H-mode results are discussed highlighting global confinement scaling, low q regimes, the role of the target plate material, the density limit, and finally sawtooth suppression and hot-ion mode. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Application of microwave energy for in-drum solidification of simulated precipitation sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.; Swanson, S.D.; Thomas, R.L.

    1987-08-17

    The application of microwave energy for in-container solidification of simulated transuranic contaminated precipitation sludges has been tested. Results indicate volume reductions to 83% are achievable by the continuous feeding of pre-dried sludge into a waste container while applying microwave energy. An economic evaluation was completed showing achievable volume and weight reductions to 87% compared with a current immobilization process for wet sludge. 7 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Physical properties of contaminated trichloroethylene and 1,1,1- trichloroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.D.

    1990-10-01

    The specific gravity, volume change, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, boiling point, and nonvolatile residue carryover during distillation was measured for various contamination levels of rosin in trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Solvent stabilizers and the vapor pressure of solvents were examined. The effects of unknown contamination in solvents from manufacturing departments were measured. The theoretical effects of oil contamination on the boiling point are discussed. 18 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Numerical modeling of a large deformation thermoforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Schrank, M.G.

    1988-04-01

    A numerical solution, using finite element methods, is presented for the simulation of a blow-molding process used to form a thermoplastic polymer (polyethylene terephthalate). The constitutive relationship employed in the analysis is a modification of the creep power law, allowing both strain hardening and strain rate hardening of the material. Analytical results compare well with experimental data for both rate of deformation during the forming process and strain distribution in the final formed configuration. 15 figs.

  15. Exponential-time constitutive law for Palo Duro Unit 4 Salt from the J. Friemel No. 1 Well

    SciTech Connect

    Senseny, P.E.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1986-07-01

    Values for the nine parameters in the exponential-time constitutive law are presented for Palo Duro Unit 4 salt. The values given for the thermal expansion and two elastic parameters are taken from previous laboratory studies. The six remaining constitutive parameters are evaluated by analyzing data from 12 triaxial compression creep tests. The specimens tested in this study are from the J. Friemel No. 1 well in Deaf County, Texas. 15 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. The influence of thermal energy exchange on the activity and energetics of yellow-bellied marmots

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The energetics of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris), large hibernating ground squirrels were investigated. Marmots typically inhabit montane regions with short growing seasons. Minimization of energy expenditure by hibernation is essential for overwinter survival, whereas maximization of energy intake is important during the active season. Marmots near the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory in southwestern Colorado are active for only 4 to 5 months each year. During this time they must reproduce, grow, and store enough fat to survive hibernation. 64 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. New materials for thick-film electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1990-08-01

    Certain ceramic compounds such as rare-earth perovskites and transition-metal diborides that exhibit metallic conductivity are readily available or can be easily synthesized. Some are stable in air firing temperatures typical of hybrid-circuit processing. The work described is part of an exploratory program to determine whether these materials can be used as low-cost alternatives to precious metals for thick-film conductor and low-resistor inks or as substitutes for copper in nitrogen-fireable compositions. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1989-11-28

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences there between. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  19. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  20. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Electrochemical method of controlling thiolate coverage on a conductive substrate such as gold

    DOEpatents

    Porter, M.D.; Weisshaar, D.E.

    1998-10-27

    An electrochemical method is described for forming a partial monomolecular layer of a predetermined extent of coverage of a thiolate of the formula, XRS-, therein R can be a linear or branched chain hydrocarbon or an aromatic or the like and X can be any compatible end group, e.g., OH, COOH, CH{sub 3} or the like, upon a substrate such as gold, which involves applying in an electrochemical system a constant voltage preselected to yield the desired predetermined extent of coverage. 13 figs.

  2. Southern Great Basin seismological data report for 1980 and preliminary data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, A.M.; Harmsen, S.C.; Carr, W.J.

    1981-12-31

    Earthquake data for the calendar year 1980 are presented for earthquakes occurring within and adjacent to the southern Nevada seismograph network. Locations, magnitudes, and selected focal mechanisms for these events and events from prior years of network operation are presented and discussed in relation to the geologic framework of the region. The principal results are that (1) earthquakes concentrate in fault zones having a northeast orientation, (2) fault zones having a northwest orientation are quiescent or nearly so, and (3) no earthquakes have been detected closer that 12 km to the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository study area. 12 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, February 1, 1988--April 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1988-06-01

    During this quarter, work continued on testing and development of initial prototype components; it was found that the entire furnace system, including the combustor, peristaltic pump, Y-jet atomizer, and heat exchanger, performed reliably. The IRIS (Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation) achieved a carbon conversion efficiency of > 97%. Work also continued on fabrication and assembly of a second- generation, Proof-of-Concept system. This new unit incorporates a water-cooled combustor in please of the air-cooled one. Also, a heat exchanger with larger gas passages was built. 13 figs, 1 table.

  4. Savannah River Aquatic Ecology Program. Volume I. Adult fish. Annual report, November 1983-August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.; Osteen, D.V.

    1985-05-01

    A multipurpose study on the fish community of the Savannah River near the Savannah River Plant was conducted between September 1983 and August 1984. The major portion of this study examined the abundance and distribution of fishes near the Savannah River Plant in relation to the thermal discharges into the river, creeks and the floodplain swamp. Another portion of the study examined the rates of impingement of juvenile and adult fishes onto the river water intake screens in order to assess the potential influence of this plant operation on the fish community. 24 refs., 13 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. BWRSAR (Boiling Water Reactor Severe Accident Response) calculations of reactor vessel debris pours for Peach Bottom short-term station blackout

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.; Ott, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes recent analyses performed by the BWR Severe Accident Technology (BWRSAT) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to estimate the release of debris from the reactor vessel for the unmitigated short-term station blackout accident sequence. Calculations were performed with the BWR Severe Accident Response (BWRSAR) code and are based upon consideration of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The modeling strategies employed within BWRSAR for debris relocation within the reactor vessel are briefly discussed and the calculated events of the accident sequence, including details of the calculated debris pours, are presented. 4 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Severtsen, R.H.

    1999-01-12

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system is disclosed including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image. 13 figs.

  7. Structure and dynamics of liquid ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, L.; Padro, J.A.; Guardia, E.

    1997-01-02

    Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid ethanol at four thermodynamic states ranging from T = 173 K to T = 348 K were carried out using the transferable OPLS potential model of W.L. Jorgensen. Both static and dynamic properties are analyzed. The resulting properties show an overall agreement with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to the hydrogen bonds and to their influence on the molecular behavior. Results for liquid ethanol are compared with those for methanol in earlier computer simulation studies. 30 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, R.G.

    1987-03-23

    Apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom. Differential phase measurements on scattered light from particles are possible using the two-frequency Zeeman effect laser which emits two frequencies of radiation 250 kHz apart. Excellent discrimination and reproducibility for various pure pollen and bacterial samples in suspension have been observed with a single polarization element. Additionally, a 250 kHz beat frequency was recorded from an individual particle traversing the focused output from the laser in a flow cytometer. 13 figs.

  9. Proposal for a new tomographic device providing information on the chemical properties of a body section

    SciTech Connect

    Gatti, E.; Rehak, P.; Kemmer, J.

    1986-02-27

    A system to analyze the chemical properties of a region of tissue located deep inside the human body without having to access it is proposed. The method is based on a high precision detection of x-rays or ..gamma..-rays (photons) from an external source Compton scattered from the tissue under inspection. The method provides chemical information of plane regions lying not too deep inside the body (<6 cm). The amount of radiation absorbed by the body is about the same as needed for a standard x-ray tomography. The exposure time is estimated to be shorter than 10 minutes. 37 refs., 13 figs.

  10. On the infiltration of a liquid front in an unsaturated, fractured porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Nitao, J.; Buscheck, T.

    1989-08-01

    The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is currently under scientific investigation as a proposed site for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. A deeper understanding of fracture-matrix interaction needed for the prediction of water movement around an in the repository. We show that the liquid front movement can be classified into physically interpretable, distinctive flow regimes. Asymptotic solutions for the front movement are given for each flow period and comparisons with numerical solutions are made. In addition to applications in nuclear waste storage, the results of our study is relevant to hazardous waste disposal, petroleum recovery, and flow in soil macropores. 17 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Micropower RF transponder with superregenerative receiver and RF receiver with sampling mixer

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-05-13

    A micropower RF transponder employs a novel adaptation of the superregenerative receiver wherein the quench oscillator is external to the regenerative transistor. The quench oscillator applies an exponentially decaying waveform rather than the usual sinewave to achieve high sensitivity at microampere current levels. Further improvements include circuit simplifications for antenna coupling, extraction of the detected signal, and a low-voltage bias configuration that allows operation with less than a 1-volt rail voltage. The inventive transponder is expected to operate as long as the battery shelf life. 13 figs.

  12. Magnetic switch coupling to synchronize magnetic modulators

    DOEpatents

    Reed, K.W.; Kiekel, P.

    1999-04-27

    Apparatus for synchronizing the output pulses from a pair of magnetic switches is disclosed. An electrically conductive loop is provided between the pair of switches with the loop having windings about the core of each of the magnetic switches. The magnetic coupling created by the loop removes voltage and timing variations between the outputs of the two magnetic switches caused by any of a variety of factors. The only remaining variation is a very small fixed timing offset caused by the geometry and length of the loop itself. 13 figs.

  13. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Montague, S.; Smith, J.H.; Sniegowski, J.J.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1998-08-25

    A method is disclosed for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry. The method comprises the steps of forming each MEM device within a cavity below a device surface of the substrate; encapsulating the MEM device prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate; and releasing the MEM device for operation after fabrication of the electronic circuitry. Planarization of the encapsulated MEM device prior to formation of the electronic circuitry allows the use of standard processing steps for fabrication of the electronic circuitry. 13 figs.

  14. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, W.J.

    1981-11-10

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components. 13 figs.

  15. Noise-induced intermittency in the quasiperiodic regime of Rayleigh-Benard convection

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, R.E.; Haucke, H.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal measurements on a convecting dilute /sup 3/He-superfluid /sup 4/He solution in the quasiperiodic regime show a transition from a mode-locked periodic state to chaotic time dependence via intermittency. In a region just below the onset of intermittency, injection of external multiplicative noise with noise amplitude above a certain threshold level induces the chaotic state. This noise-induced transition can be understood to be due to perturbation of a system with a barely stable attractor; the noise causing the system to escape the weakly attracting periodic points. We present numerical simulations and experimental data which support this picture. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Portable data collection device with self identifying probe

    DOEpatents

    French, P.D.

    1998-11-17

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of time. The sensor may also store a unique sensor identifier. 13 figs.

  17. Intraocular lens fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  18. Accelerators for research and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    The newest particle accelerators are almost always built for extending the frontiers of research, at the cutting edge of science and technology. Once these machines are operating and these technologies mature, new applications are always found, many of which touch our lives in profound ways. The evolution of accelerator technologies will be discussed, with descriptions of accelerator types and characteristics. The wide range of applications of accelerators will be discussed, in fields such as nuclear science, medicine, astrophysics and space-sciences, power generation, airport security, materials processing and microcircuit fabrication. 13 figs.

  19. Highly ordered nanocomposites via a monomer self-assembly in situ condensation approach

    DOEpatents

    Gin, D.L.; Fischer, W.M.; Gray, D.H.; Smith, R.C.

    1998-12-15

    A method for synthesizing composites with architectural control on the nanometer scale is described. A polymerizable lyotropic liquid-crystalline monomer is used to form an inverse hexagonal phase in the presence of a second polymer precursor solution. The monomer system acts as an organic template, providing the underlying matrix and order of the composite system. Polymerization of the template in the presence of an optional cross-linking agent with retention of the liquid-crystalline order is carried out followed by a second polymerization of the second polymer precursor within the channels of the polymer template to provide an ordered nanocomposite material. 13 figs.

  20. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume II: introduction and site description, Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effecs of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. This report presents the results from the first year of the two year study and also summarizes results from previous studies on aquatic ecosystems of the Savannah River Plant. Five major program elements are addressed: water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands ecology, aquatic ecology, and endangered species. 63 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  2. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, P.; Yan, Hui; Banerjee, S.

    1997-10-01

    This progress report summarizes three accomplishments in a study of low volatile organic compound (VOC) drying of lumber and wood panel products. A mathematical model for predicting moisture emissions from particle was constructed and is being extended to VOCs. VOCs emissions from drying boards show that VOCs appear to be evenly released from all surfaces. Preliminary results from monthly analyses of loblolly pines indicate that resin acids appear to decrease between March to August, and that no consistent trends are apparent for terpenes. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Population of high spin states in very heavy ion transfer reactions. The experimental evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Guidry, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer reactions have been studied for some time with light heavy ions such as oxygen. Although states of spin I approx.10 h are sometimes populated in such reactions, it is assumed that collective excitation is small, and the transferred particles are responsible for the angular momentum transfer. In this paper we will discuss a qualitatively different kind of transfer reaction using very heavy ions (A greater than or equal to 40). In these reactions the collective excitation in both the entrance and exit channels is strong, and there may be appreciable angular momentum transfer associated with inelastic excitation. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  4. SCAP - a Shaped Charge Analysis Program: user's manual for SCAP 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A.C.

    1985-04-01

    The basic modeling and format for a shaped charge analysis program, SCAP, is described. The code models the motion of liner elements due to explosive loading, jet formation, jet breakup and target penetration through application of a series of analytical approximations. The structure of the code is intended to provide flexibility in shaped charge device and target configurations and in modeling techniques. The code is designed for interactive use and produces both printed and plotted output. Examples of code output are given and compared with experimental data. 19 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-07-27

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A[prime], B and B[prime] to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation. 13 figs.

  7. Radionuclide deposition and exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, I.; Haubelt, R.; Neumann, P.; Fields, D.E. . Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-11-01

    Analyses of air, water, and foodstuff samples, together with in situ gamma spectrometric measurements in the Federal Republic of Germany, have documented the deposition and exposure consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In some cases, exposure values are significantly higher than background levels. Data compiled for the period from the initial identification of excess atmospheric radioactivity to the present, represent a unique resource for testing and validating models of environmental transport and human exposure. These data will serve as the bases for future studies of organism response, both somatic and genetic, to nuclear radiation. They will also prove useful in suggesting modifications to environmental sampling and monitoring systems. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. ORMEC: a three-dimensional MHD spectral inverse equilibrium code

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshman, S.P.; Hogan, J.T.

    1986-02-01

    The Oak Ridge Moments Equilibrium Code (ORMEC) is an efficient computer code that has been developed to calculate three-dimensional MHD equilibria using the inverse spectral method. The fixed boundary formulation, which is based on a variational principle for the spectral coefficients (moments) of the cylindrical coordinates R and Z, is described and compared with the finite difference code BETA developed by Bauer, Betancourt, and Garabedian. Calculations for the Heliotron, Wendelstein VIIA, and Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) configurations are performed to establish the accuracy and mesh convergence properties for the spectral method. 16 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Design information for the 4/3 SNOS test chip TA716

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    The TA716 is a 4/3 SNOS test chip, and a redesign of the SA2999 test chip. This redesign was for the purpose of adding large area capacitors to address the gate oxide rupture problem. Modules 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 13 from the old test chip were retained and relocated to the upper middle section of the TA716. The remaining modules were deleted and additional test structures were added. This increased the size of the test chip to 244 /times/ 227. 13 figs.

  10. Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.D.

    1986-11-01

    By combining picosecond optical experiments and detailed statistical mechanics theory we continue to increase our understanding of the complex interplay of structure and dynamics in important energy transfer situations. A number of different types of problems will be focused on experimentally and theoretically. They are excitation transport among chromophores attached to finite size polymer coils; excitation transport among chromophores in monolayers, bilayers, and finite and infinite stacks of layers; excitation transport in large vesicle systems; and photoinduced electron transfer in glasses and liquids, focusing particularly on the back transfer of the electron from the photogenerated radical anion to the radical cation. 33 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Subsystem fragility: Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Hardy, G.; Banon, H.

    1981-10-01

    Seismic fragility levels of safety related equipment are developed for use in a seismic oriented Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) being conducted as part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The Zion Nuclear Power Plant is being utilized as a reference plant and fragility descriptions are developed for specific and generic safety related equipment groups in Zion. Both equipment fragilities and equipment responses are defined in probabilistic terms to be used as input to the SSMRP event tree/fault tree models of the Zion systems. 65 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Superconducting linacs: some recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper is a review of superconducting linacs that are of interest for heavy-ion acceleration. Most of the paper is concerned with energy boosters for projectiles from tandem electrostatic accelerators, the only application for which superconducting linacs are now used for heavy-ion acceleration. There is also a brief discussion of the concept of a superconducting injector linac being developed as a replacement of the tandem in a multi-stage acceleration system. Throughout, the emphasis is on the technology of the superconducting linac, including some attention to the relationships between resonator design parameters and accelerator performance characteristics. 21 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of a new, macroporous polyvinylpyridine resin for processing plutonium using nitrate anion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.

    1989-04-01

    Anion exchange in nitric acid is the major aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium from impure scrap materials. Most strong-base anion exchange resins incorporate a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. A newly available, macroporous anion exchange resin based on a copolymer of 1-methyl-4-vinylpyridine and divinylbenzene has been evaluated. Comparative data for Pu(IV) sorption kinetics and capacity are presented for this new resin and two other commonly used anion exchange resins. The new resin offers high capacity and rapid sorption kinetics for Pu(IV) from nitric acid, as well as greatly stability to chemical and radiolytic degradation. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  14. A theory of sequential fragmentation and its astronomical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.K.

    1988-11-01

    This report presents a theory of sequential fragmentation that describes a cascade of fragmentation and refragmentation, i.e., continued comminution. The theory reproduces one of the two major empirical descriptors that have traditionally been used to describe the mass distributions from fragmentation experiments. Additional experimental evidence, including explosive aerosolization, grinding in a ball mill, and simulated volcanic action, further validates the theory. The report also presents some astronomical applications of the theory, including infalling extraterrestrial material, siderophile concentrations in black magnetic spherules of possible meteoritic origin, the asteroids, the distribution of galactic masses, and the initial mass function of stars. 49 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Lambda network having 2{sup m{minus}1} nodes in each of m stages with each node coupled to four other nodes for bidirectional routing of data packets between nodes

    DOEpatents

    Napolitano, L.M. Jr.

    1995-11-28

    The Lambda network is a single stage, packet-switched interprocessor communication network for a distributed memory, parallel processor computer. Its design arises from the desired network characteristics of minimizing mean and maximum packet transfer time, local routing, expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. The network is based on fixed degree nodes and has mean and maximum packet transfer distances where n is the number of processors. The routing method is detailed, as are methods for expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. 14 figs.

  16. Quasi-electric processes at low energies and their influence on other reaction modes

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Quasi-elastic reactions induced by medium-weight projectiles (A=28-80) were measured with good particle resolution using an Enge Split Pole Magnetic Spectrograph. The cross sections for these processes are considerably larger than the ones observed in similar light-ion-induced reactions. The influence of quasi-elastic processes on other reaction modes is discussed. It is found that strong correlations between the various types of reaction exist, requiring a consistent coupled-channels treatment of all reaction modes involved. 46 refs., 14 figs.

  17. Apparatus for attaching a cleaning tool to a robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Killian, M.A.; Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-09-22

    An apparatus is described for connecting a cleaning tool to a robotic manipulator so that the tool can be used in contaminated areas on horizontal, vertical and sloped surfaces. The apparatus comprises a frame and a handle, with casters on the frame to facilitate movement. The handle is pivotally and releasibly attached to the frame at a preselected position of a plurality of attachment positions. The apparatus is specifically configured for the Kelly Vacuum System but can be modified for use with any standard mobile robot and cleaning tool. 14 figs.

  18. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  19. The development of an international standard problem set for thermal code evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    During a preparatory meeting in Paris on June 21--22, 1979, interest was expressed by most Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) member countries in exchanging information and experience on various aspects of spent fuel transportation. The result of this meeting was the establishment of working groups under the auspices of the Committee on Reactor Physics (CRP) in the areas of heat transfer, criticality, and shielding. The heat transfer group was established to define a set of cask-like thermal problems and to provide solutions. The problems set and its solutions are available to benchmark computer codes. 14 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Modal testing of a very flexible 110 m wind turbine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.; Benjannet, Hassine

    1988-01-01

    Modal Testing of immense and very flexible structures poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of these stuctures can be quite low. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. In this paper, results are presented from a modal test of the 110 m tall EOLE wind turbine which had four modal frequencies below 1.0 Hz. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Modal testing the EOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Modal testing an immense and flexible wind turbine poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of this type of structure are quite low. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. In this paper, the results of the modal test of the 110 m tall EOLE wind turbine are presented which had a number of modal frequencies below 1.0 Hz. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A method for three-dimensional structural analysis of reinforced concrete containment

    SciTech Connect

    Kulak, R.F.; Fiala, C.

    1989-01-01

    A finite element method designed to assist reactor safety analysts in the three-dimensional numerical simulation of reinforced concrete containments to normal and off-normal mechanical loadings is presented. The development of a lined reinforced concrete plate element is described in detail, and the implementation of an empirical transverse shear failure criteria is discussed. The method is applied to the analysis of a 1/6th scale reinforced concrete containment model subjected to static internal pressurization. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  3. SWAAM-code development and verification and application to steam generator designs

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.W.; Valentin, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the family of SWAAM codes which were developed by Argonne National Laboratory to analyze the effects of sodium-water reactions on LMR steam generators. The SWAAM codes were developed as design tools for analyzing various phenomena related to steam generator leaks and the resulting thermal and hydraulic effects on the steam generator and the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS). The paper discusses the theoretical foundations and numerical treatments on which the codes are based, followed by a description of code capabilities and limitations, verification of the codes and applications to steam generator and IHTS designs. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1989-07-18

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

  5. Method and composition for improving flux pinning and critical current in superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1995-07-04

    Superconducting materials and methods of forming superconducting materials are disclosed. Highly oxidized superconductors are heated at a relatively high temperature so as to release oxygen, which migrates out of the material, and form a non-superconducting phase which does not diffuse out of grains of the material. The material is then reoxidized at a lower temperature, leaving the non-superconducting inclusions inside a superconducting phase. The non-superconducting inclusions act as pinning centers in the superconductor, increasing the critical current thereof. 14 figs.

  6. Fuel from farms: A guide to small-scale ethanol production: Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This guide presents the current status of on-farm fermentation ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors. Tools such as decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in exploring whether or not to go into ethanol production are given. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Recommendation of any particular process is deliberately avoided because the choice must be tailored to the needs and resources of each individual producer. The emphasis is on providing the facts necessary to make informed judgments. 98 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Fast repetition rate (FRR) fluorometer and method for measuring fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1995-06-20

    A fast repetition rate fluorometer device and method for measuring in vivo fluorescence of phytoplankton or higher plants chlorophyll and photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton or higher plants is revealed. The phytoplankton or higher plants are illuminated with a series of fast repetition rate excitation flashes effective to bring about and measure resultant changes in fluorescence yield of their Photosystem II. The series of fast repetition rate excitation flashes has a predetermined energy per flash and a rate greater than 10,000 Hz. Also, disclosed is a flasher circuit for producing the series of fast repetition rate flashes. 14 figs.

  8. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  9. Erbium-based magnetic refrigerant (regenerator) for passive cryocooler

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    1996-07-23

    A two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler is disclosed having a low temperature stage for reaching approximately 10K, wherein the low temperature stage includes a passive magnetic heat regenerator selected from the group consisting of Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Sn, Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Pb, Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}(Sn{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}), and Er{sub 9}Ni{sub 3}Sn comprising a mixture of Er{sub 3}Ni and Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Sn in the microstructure. 14 figs.

  10. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  11. Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1994-06-07

    The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds. 14 figs.

  12. Apparatus and process for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles

    DOEpatents

    Yoon, R.H.; Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-12-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal and minerals, so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators. 14 figs.

  13. Gas phase migration of C-14 through barrier materials applicable for use in a high-level nuclear waste repository located in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L.R.

    1988-12-01

    A study of the movement of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} through proposed barrier media has been conducted. Diffusion coefficients for crushed tuff, bentonite and a 90:10% by wt. mixture of crushed tuff and bentonite were measured for two diffusion lengths. The ability of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to penetrate a microsilica-containing portland cement mortar proposed for repository use was also examined. The specimens were subjected to uniaxially-applied compressive loads prior to the diffusion tests to simulate the onset of environmentally-induced microcracks. 91 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  15. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-06

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs.

  16. High temperature geophysical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1988-06-01

    The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  17. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  19. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Two-dimensional temperature mapping using thermographic phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W. ); Turley, W.D. ); Cates, M.R.; Tobin, K.W. )

    1990-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of extending a point-temperature measurement method to two-dimensional mapping of temperature distributions on surfaces. The point-measurement method used the temperature-dependant characteristics of sharp emission lines from thermographic phosphors to measure temperature. The two-dimensional extrusion uses an ultraviolet light source to illuminate the phosphor-coated surface and a high-grain video camera filtered to select the desired emission line. By changing filters, we acquire video data that are over-laid and analyzed by a video processor, then displayed in contour or pseudocolor maps of the temperature distribution. 13 refs., 14 figs., 1 tabs.

  1. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Spear, J.D.

    1999-03-09

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments. 14 figs.

  2. Picosecond Optoelectronic AND-GATE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    SOTA. The bias, gate. and 13 ground probes make contact to their respective bond pads. Fig. 12 Temporal response of the SOTA. 14 Fig. 13 Sheet resistance for...post-annealed, lattice matched LT-GaAs, LT- 18 In0.35GaO. 65 As, LT-In0.53Ga0 .4 7As. The sheet resistance for polycrystalline LT-In0 .35Ga0...65As is also shown. The minimum acceptable values for sheet resistance for detector areas of 50x50 ptm 2 and 8x8 4tm 2 are shown and correspond to a dark

  3. Apparatus and process for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles

    DOEpatents

    Yoon, R.H.; Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1998-09-29

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal and minerals, so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators. 14 figs.

  4. Apparatus for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles

    DOEpatents

    Yoon, R.H.; Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1995-03-14

    An apparatus is disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal, and minerals so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators. 14 figs.

  5. Investigation into air flow characteristics through inlet valve of directed ports

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.; Xiao, F.; Guan, L.; Liu, X.

    1994-09-01

    The velocity and turbulence intensity profiles at exit of intake valve from typical SI engine intake ports (horizontal and sloping directed ports) were measured by hot wire anemometry (HWA) in a steady flow rig. The characteristics of velocity and turbulence intensity distribution under different valve lifts and at distances along valve axis were analysed and compared between above two intake ports. Results showed that velocity and turbulence intensity profiles are strongly dependent on intake port form, valve lift and surrounding geometry. They vary not only around the valve head periphery but also along the valve axis. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  6. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  7. J/. psi. and. Upsilon. production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of J/{psi} and {Upsilon} produced at the Tevatron and detected in the dimuon channel at CDF are reviewed. The masses of the J/{psi} and {Upsilon} are measured to be 3.096 {plus minus} 0.001 GeV/c{sup 2} and 9.469 {plus minus} 0.010 GeV/c{sup 2} respectively. These mass measurements are used to determine the systematic uncertainty on the momentum scale in the central tracking chamber. 2 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Time-dependent ionization balance model for non-LTE plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.T.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Bailey, D.S.; Dickson, D.; Kim, D.

    1986-05-07

    We have developed a detailed configuration-accounting kinetic model for calculating time-dependent ionization-balance and ion-level populations in non-local thermal-equilibrium (non-LTE) plasmas. We use these population estimates in computing spectral line intensities, line ratios, and synthetic spectra, and in fitting these calculated values to experimental measurements. The model is also used to design laboratory x-ray laser experiments. For this purpose, it is self-consistently coupled to the hydrodynamics code LASNEX. 20 refs., 14 figs.

  9. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, A.

    1992-01-01

    New high temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Emphasis was placed on atmospheric pressure He inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements; simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources with potential for use in spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high temperature plasmas, particularly He ICP discharges; and development of new, low-cost sample introduction systems, and examination of techniques for probing the aerosols over a wide range. Refs., 14 figs. (DLC)

  10. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry. Progress report, January 1, 1990--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, A.

    1992-09-01

    New high temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Emphasis was placed on atmospheric pressure He inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements; simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources with potential for use in spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high temperature plasmas, particularly He ICP discharges; and development of new, low-cost sample introduction systems, and examination of techniques for probing the aerosols over a wide range. Refs., 14 figs. (DLC)

  11. A model for transient analysis of a multiple-medium confinement filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.; Ellison, P.G. ); Leonard, M.T.; Louie, D.L.Y.; Donbroski, E.L.; Wagner, K.C. )

    1990-01-01

    A computational model is described that calculates the transient behavior of aerosol and vapor (adsorption) filter compartments such as those used in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor confinement system. The principal application of the model is in the analysis of confinement response to hypothetical severe (core melt) accidents. Under these conditions, aerosol and radio-iodine deposition on filter compartments may be substantial. Attendant filter degradation mechanisms are modeled. Sample calculations are included to illustrate model performance. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fatigue life prediction of solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.B.

    1991-09-10

    The current status of lifetime prediction under conditions of thermomechanical creep/fatigue is reviewed. Each method is summarized and the results of the application to solder joints is shown. While each method has been applied with some success, a predictive, phenomenological approach has not been developed and validated. A method which captures the response of a crack to steady-state and cycling environments appears to hold most the most promise to provide a useful design tool. 42 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Current position on software for the automatic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the current concepts for software to control the operation of the Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) proposed for the Deaf Smith County, Texas, Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF). The purpose of this report is to provide conceptual details of how the ADAS software will execute the data acquisition function, and how the software will make collected information available to the test personnel, the Data Management Group (DMG), and other authorized users. It is not intended that this report describe all of the ADAS functions in exact detail, but the concepts included herein will form the basis for the formal ADAS functional requirements definition document. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  14. CO sub 2 sources for microalgae-based liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, D.; Karpuk, M.

    1990-08-01

    Researchers in the Aquatic Species Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute are developing species of microalgae that have high percentages of lipids, or oils. These lipids can be extracted and converted to diesel fuel substitutes. Because microalgae need carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a nutrient, optimal microalgae growth occurs in CO{sub 2}-saturated solutions. For this reason, the authors of this study sought to identify possible large-scale sources of CO{sub 2} for microalgae-based liquid fuels production. The authors concluded that several such promising sources exist. 42 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Efficient alternatives for electric drives

    SciTech Connect

    Comnes, G.A.; Barnes, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    This analysis of industrial electric motors describes the current motor stock, its energy use and operating characteristics, and innovations that could change current use patterns. It provides calculations characterizing the economic attractiveness of several existing and potential options. One attractive option given particular attention is the adjustable-speed drive which can replace throttles or valves for many pumping operations. A major conclusion is that, throughout industry, options that are both energy-saving and economically attractive appear to penetrate markets more slowly than would be socially optimal. The final section examines characteristics of industry that may contribute to slow market penetration. 29 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. New O(6) region near A = 130 and the interplay of triaxiality and gamma-softness in the IBA

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    A simple approach to the IBA is described, which exploits the consistent Q-formalism to describe both symmetries and transition regions with a minimum of parameters. Some results with this approach are discussed and compared with the data for deformed and transitional nuclei. Following this introduction, a new region of O(6) symmetry is presented and compared with the Pt region with which it is found to share many similarities. Discrepancies with the strict limiting symmetry are described in terms of symmetry breaking via a small triaxial potential. 28 refs., 15 figs.

  17. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1999-08-24

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system is described. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO{sub 3} enables lower temperature fuel cell operation. 15 figs.

  18. Heat flow and geothermal studies in the state of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, D.D.; Steele, J.L.; Kelley, S.A.

    1985-08-01

    Existing geothermal gradient and heat flow data for the state of Washington are summarized. In addition, information on mean-annual ground surface temperatures is included. The data consist of accurate, detailed temperature-depth measurements in selected available holes throughout the state of Washington made between 1979 and 1982. Measurements of thermal conductivity on selected rock samples from these drill holes and ancillary information required to assess the significance of the data and calculate heat flow values were obtained as well. Information is presented on the mean-annual ground-surface temperatures throughout the state of Washington. 32 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. A CP violation and rare kaon decay experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, Taku

    1989-02-01

    The E731 collaboration at Fermilab has collected enough K ..-->.. 2..pi.. events to give a statistical error of approx.0.5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/3/ on the CP violation parameter epsilon'/epsilon. Improvements have been made to reduce the systematic error. The experiment is also sensitive to many rare decays, and it set a new limit on the branching ratio of K/sub L/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/e/sup +/e/sup /minus//, < 4.2 /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/ (90% CL). 10 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Baker, J.D.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1997-09-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes. 15 figs.

  1. Special Course on V/STOL Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    the past, so they will not deal exclusively with the latest tri• phs of science or technology. Since we can afford only a limited number of lecturers...CONCEPTS LIFT ENGINE+*LIFT CRUISE FC TLIF NCELL SE (R SZ"/ LIF VECTOR ED THRUT/RJS VECTDILUTE THETT H EJECTR ALIMENTO W"CLCJE 5-15 FIG. 8 TWO POSTER...114,495; 114,496; and 114,497, 1974. 71. Poisson-Quinton, Ph ., and Christophe, J., "Special Ground Testing Facilities and Testing Techniques for STOL

  2. Linear accelerators for TeV colliders. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1985-10-01

    The basic scaling relations for important linear collider design parameters are introduced. Some of the basic concepts concerning the design of accelerating structures are presented, and breakdown limitations are discussed. Rf power sources are considered. Some of the key concepts of wakefield accelerators are discussed, and some examples of wake fields for typical linac structures are presented. Some general concepts concerning emittance, and the limitations on the emittance that can be obtained from linac guns and damping rings are discussed. 49 refs., 15 figs. (LEW)

  3. Results from heavy-ion bombardments of sup 254 Es

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1989-09-26

    We report our experimental work and offer our most recent data on the decay properties for five new isotopes of Md, No, Lr, and for {sup 258m}Md. In addition to these successful experiments, we have also conducted searches for {sup 263}(105), {sup 264}(105), {sup 272}(109), and superheavy elements. Finally, we summarize our conclusions based on what we have learned so far and what we believe are the most critical directions that should now be taken. 19 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semiconductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Vella, M.C.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a ``cold plasma`` which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place. 15 figs.

  5. Quality and Behavior of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary and Nearshore Ocean and Effects of the Ocean Environment on the Survival of Columbia River Juvenile Salmonids, 1989-1994 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.C.; Schiewe, Michael H.; Fisher, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    In response to this limited understanding of the factors responsible for the continuing decline of spring chinook salmon in the Columbia River, this research plan was developed. The overall goal of the proposed research is to investigate and identify relationships among smolt quality (measured in the hatchery and after recovery in the estuary and nearshore ocean), environmental conditions in the estuary and nearshore ocean during smolt migration, and long-term survival (as measured by adult returns to the hatchery of origin and contributions to the recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries). 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Apparatus and method for identification and recognition of an item with ultrasonic patterns from item subsurface micro-features

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, R.W.; Fuller, J.L.; Doctor, S.R.; Good, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Skorpik, J.R.; Hansen, N.H.

    1995-09-26

    The present invention is a means and method for identification and recognition of an item by ultrasonic imaging of material microfeatures and/or macrofeatures within the bulk volume of a material. The invention is based upon ultrasonic interrogation and imaging of material microfeatures within the body of material by accepting only reflected ultrasonic energy from a preselected plane or volume within the material. An initial interrogation produces an identification reference. Subsequent new scans are statistically compared to the identification reference for making a match/non-match decision. 15 figs.

  7. Multiple-electron processes in fast ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1989-03-01

    Research in atomic physics at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Super-HILAC and Bevalac accelerators on multiple-electron processes in fast ion-atom collisions is described. Experiments have studied various aspects of the charge-transfer, ionization, and excitation processes. Examples of processes in which electron correlation plays a role are resonant transfer and excitation and Auger-electron emission. Processes in which electron behavior can generally be described as uncorrelated include ionization and charge transfer in high-energy ion-atom collisions. A variety of experiments and results for energies from 1 MeV/u to 420 MeV/u are presented. 20 refs., 15 figs.

  8. Qualitative validation of pollutant transport components of an unsaturated soil zone model (SESOIL)

    SciTech Connect

    Hetrick, D.M.; Travis, C.C.; Leonard, S.K.; Kinerson, R.S.

    1989-03-01

    Model predictions of a revised version of the soil compartment model SESOIL are compared with empirical measurements of pollutant transport in soil. A description of SESOIL is given, and modifications to the model are presented. Comparisons are performed using data from a laboratory soil column study involving six chemicals (dicamba, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, atrazine, diazinon, pentachlorophenol, and lindane) and data from three field studies involving the transport of aldicarb and atrazine. Model performance and limitations are discussed. 32 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  10. Progress in The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Wright, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30--50{percent} through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April, 1990--March, 1991. 4 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Experimental determination of the shipboard fire environment for simulated radioactive material packages

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M.

    1997-03-01

    A series of eight fire tests with simulated radioactive material shipping containers aboard the test ship Mayo Lykes, a break-bulk freighter, is described. The tests simulate three basic types of fires: engine room fires, cargo fires and open pool fires. Detailed results from the tests include temperatures, heat fluxes and air flows measured during the fires. The first examination of the results indicates that shipboard fires are not significantly different from fires encountered in land transport. 13 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Polarization at SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

    1983-07-26

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

  14. Optimized achromatic phase-matching system and method

    DOEpatents

    Trebino, R.; DeLong, K.; Hayden, C.

    1997-07-15

    An optical system for efficiently directing a large bandwidth light (e.g., a femtosecond laser pulse) onto a nonlinear optical medium includes a plurality of optical elements for directing an input light pulse onto a nonlinear optical medium arranged such that the angle {theta}{sub in} which the light pulse directed onto the nonlinear optical medium is substantially independent of a position x of the light beam entering the optical system. The optical system is also constructed such that the group velocity dispersion of light pulses passing through the system can be tuned to a desired value including negative group velocity dispersion. 15 figs.

  15. Update of national ozone study: Where are we now?

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. It addresses the issue of national ozone research in focusing on the regional task force, Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG). The overall objectives of the OTAG initiatives are reported. These include development of a comprehensive regional emissions inventory, selection of research models and protocols, identification of criteria for selecting emissions control strategies, and development of a framework for a NO{sub x} trading system. Findings from preliminary modeling runs and analyses are presented. 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

    1998-12-15

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

  17. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  18. Analysis of radiofrequency discharges in plasma

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, D.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1992-08-04

    Separation of laser optogalvanic signals in plasma into two components: (1) an ionization rate change component, and (2) a photoacoustic mediated component. This separation of components may be performed even when the two components overlap in time, by measuring time-resolved laser optogalvanic signals in an rf discharge plasma as the rf frequency is varied near the electrical resonance peak of the plasma and associated driving/detecting circuits. A novel spectrometer may be constructed to make these measurements. Such a spectrometer would be useful in better understanding and controlling such processes as plasma etching and plasma deposition. 15 figs.

  19. Surfactant loss: Effects of temperature, salinity, and wettability

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, L.A.; Gall, B.L.; Crocker, M.E.; Olsen, D.K.

    1989-05-01

    Adsorption of sodium dodecylsulfate, Triton X-100, decyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactants onto silica gel and Berea sandstone mineral surfaces has been studied as a function of temperature, solution salt concentration, and mineral surface wettability. Adsorption studies using a flow calorimeter were conducted using pure surfactants and minerals. The studies were then extended to the adsorption of one type of commercial surfactant onto both consolidated and crushed Berea sandstone using column techniques. This has allowed the comparison of different methods to evaluate surfactant losses from flowing rather than static surfactant solutions. 20 refs., 15 figs., 37 tabs.

  20. Ultra-wideband radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-11-01

    A motion sensor is based on ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. UWB radar range is determined by a pulse-echo interval. For motion detection, the sensors operate by staring at a fixed range and then sensing any change in the averaged radar reflectivity at that range. A sampling gate is opened at a fixed delay after the emission of a transmit pulse. The resultant sampling gate output is averaged over repeated pulses. Changes in the averaged sampling gate output represent changes in the radar reflectivity at a particular range, and thus motion. 15 figs.

  1. Application of nonlinear time series models to driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, N.F. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In our laboratory we have been engaged in an effort to model nonlinear systems using time series methods. Our objectives have been, first, to understand how the time series response of a nonlinear system unfolds as a function of the underlying state variables, second, to model the evolution of the state variables, and finally, to predict nonlinear system responses. We hope to address the relationship between model parameters and system parameters in the near future. Control of nonlinear systems based on experimentally derived parameters is also a planned topic of future research. 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Recent results in high E{sub T} jet production

    SciTech Connect

    Lamoureux, J.; CDF Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    We present results on high E{sub T} jet measurements from CDF and D0. First we show the inclusive jet cross section and compare it to NLO QCD predictions. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section are also shown. In order to place limits on the amount of quark compositeness the data can tolerate, we show the dijet angular distributions. Finally, we discuss the inclusive jet cross section measurement at {radical}s = 0.63 TeV and tests of scaling. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  3. Technical procedures for implementation of acoustics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The purpose and scope of the technical procedure for processing data from the tethered meteorological system are covered. Definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs are also addressed. This technical procedure describes how to control, organize, verify, and archive tethered meteorological system data. These data will be received at the processing location from the field measurement location and are part of the characterization of the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas for the salt repository program. These measurements will be made in support of the sound propagation study and are a result of environmental data requirements for acoustics. 6 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Methods for operating parallel computing systems employing sequenced communications

    DOEpatents

    Benner, R.E.; Gustafson, J.L.; Montry, G.R.

    1999-08-10

    A parallel computing system and method are disclosed having improved performance where a program is concurrently run on a plurality of nodes for reducing total processing time, each node having a processor, a memory, and a predetermined number of communication channels connected to the node and independently connected directly to other nodes. The present invention improves performance of the parallel computing system by providing a system which can provide efficient communication between the processors and between the system and input and output devices. A method is also disclosed which can locate defective nodes with the computing system. 15 figs.

  5. Histopathogenesis of carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix*

    PubMed Central

    Wahi, P. N.; Kehar, Usha; Mali, S.; Misra, G. D.

    1962-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix is amenable to treatment provided it is diagnosed at the preinvasive stage, and it is therefore imperative to be able to identify cases of symptomless cervical cancer, which invariably presents no visible alteration in the appearance of the mucous membrane. Fortunately, this is possible by study of vaginal smears for exfoliated cells. In view of the ease with which carcinoma of the uterine cervix can be induced in mice and of its similarity to analogous lesions in women, it was thought that study of early cytological and morphological changes in cervical carcinoma of the mouse—especially at the in situ stage—might prove valuable for biological and therapeutic studies of human cervical carcinoma. This paper reports on study of the progressive epithelial changes in the mouse cervix by means of exfoliated cells in vaginal smears and histological examination of the cervical epithelium after intravaginal painting with 3,4-benzpyrene. The authors consider that basal cell hyperplasia and the early grades of dysplasia are reversible if the carcinogenic agent is withdrawn, but that the lesion is likely to be invasive and progressive once the presence of large numbers of squamoid cells indicates that the dysplastic changes involve the superficial layers. ImagesFIG. 1-5FIG. 6-10FIG. 11-15FIG. 16-20FIG. 21-25 PMID:14004393

  6. Semiconductor technology for reducing emissions and increasing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Duffin, B.; Frank, R.

    1997-12-31

    The cooperation and support of all industries are required to significantly impact a worldwide reduction in gaseous emissions that may contribute to climate change. Each industry also is striving to more efficiently utilize the resources that it consumes since this is both conservation for good citizenship and an intelligent approach to business. The semiconductor industry is also extremely concerned with these issues. However, semiconductor manufacturer`s products provide solutions for reduced emissions and increased efficiency in their industry, other industries and areas that can realize significant improvements through control technology. This paper will focus on semiconductor technologies of digital control, power switching and sensing to improve efficiency and reduce emissions in automotive, industrial, and office/home applications. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Apparatus for simultaneously disreefing a centrally reefed clustered parachute system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, D.W.

    1988-06-21

    A single multi-line cutter is connected to each of a cluster of parachutes by a separate short tether line that holds the parachutes, initially reefed by closed loop reefing lines, close to one another. The closed loop reefing lines and tether lines, one from each parachute, are disposed within the cutter to be simultaneously cut by its actuation when a central line attached between the payload and the cutter is stretched upon deployment of the cluster. A pyrotechnic or electronic time delay may be included in the cutter to delay the actual simultaneous cutting of all lines until the clustered parachutes attain a measure of stability prior to being disreefed. A second set of reefing lines and second tether lines may be provided for each parachute, to enable a two-stage, separately timed, step-by-step disreefing. 13 figs.

  8. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, B.E.

    1998-10-13

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol. 13 figs.

  9. Demonstration projects for coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas: Final report. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Verrips, A.M.; Gustavson, J.B.

    1987-04-01

    In 1979, the US Department of Energy provided the American Public Gas Association (APGA) with a grant to demonstrate the feasibility of bringing unconventional gas such as methane produced from coalbeds or Devonian Shale directly into publicly owned utility system distribution lines. In conjunction with this grant, a seven-year program was initiated where a total of sixteen wells were drilled for the purpose of providing this untapped resource to communities who distribute natural gas. While coalbed degasification ahead of coal mining was already a reality in several parts of the country, the APGA demonstration program was aimed at actual consumer use of the gas. Emphasis was therefore placed on degasification of coals with high methane gas content and on utilization of conventional oil field techniques. 13 figs.

  10. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, L.P.; Carder, B.M.; Gagnon, W.L.

    1981-03-17

    Disclosed are an apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse. 13 figs.

  11. Characterization of low-level liquid wastes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.; Clark, B.R.; Scott, C.B.; Berry, J.B.

    1986-12-01

    This report compiles and evaluates existing data on samples taken from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Low-Level Liquid Waste (LLW) system. Although the primary focus is on the contents of the eight 50,000-gal Melton Valley Storage Tanks, data on raw LLW from the source facilities, Evaporator Service Tanks, and past operations involving the Gunite Storage Tanks are also included. A brief overview of the ORNL LLW system is provided. Methods of sample collection and analytical procedures are described. Data from each set of samples are reported and evaluated against criteria for classification of wastes. The quality and self-consistency of the data set are also discussed. Issues ranging from classifying as transuranic or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste to providing input for dose-rate calculations and evaluations of chemical compatibility with potential processing options are discussed. Remaining data voids are identified, and activities for filling those voids are recommended. 13 figs., 41 tabs.

  12. Predicting the environmental distribution of compounds with unknown physicochemical properties from known pesticide properties

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines how pesticide characteristics such as water solubility, molecular weight, bioconcentration, volatility, and soil absorption affect soil-to-water mobility, water-to-air dissipation, and water-to-biota accumulation when present in the environmental medium of preferred residence. The study concludes that chemicals that have low water solubilities tend to adsorb to soil, those that have low vapor pressures tend to dissipate slowly from water, and those that have relatively high octanol-to-water partition coefficients or low water solubility have a high potential for bioconcentration. Based on these findings, researchers should be able to predict the mobility of pesticides belonging to a particular category or family of compounds with unknown physicochemical properties and recommend ways to restore the environment. 13 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  14. Is there anything of practical value hidden amongst the composite toughening theories : A Jim Mueller prospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gac, F.D.

    1990-01-01

    Numerous theories have been developed over the last three decades for explaining the toughening behavior of discontinuous fiber reinforced brittle matrix composites. The issue is the practical engineering utility of these theories. Upon compiling a table of fiber parameters that are identified in the predominant toughening mechanisms, a number of important features become evident for achieving high toughnesses. First, all of the mechanisms indicate that a high fiber volume fraction is desirable. Second, residual stresses appear to influence all of the composite toughening mechanisms. Third, the highest fiber tensile strength is preferred. Finally, fiber diameter and fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength are also important, but both are composite system and toughening mechanism specific. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Glueballs of QCD and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    There are two methods discussed by which glueballs might be found. In the first, an OZI suppressed channel with variable mass is used, such as the reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. phi phi n. The breakdown of the OZI suppression is the glueball signal. The OZI suppression is a filter letting glueballs pass while strongly rejecting conventional hadronic states. The other method is to look in a channel enriched in gluons such as the radiative decay of the J/psi and search for new phenomena, such as the iota(1440), the theta(1640), and the zeta(2220). It is anticipated that the next step in nested gauge-gauge groups might be some new strong color interaction conceptually similar to hypercolor, technicolor, or extended technicolor. 43 refs., 13 figs. (LEW)

  16. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-02-09

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner`s operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs.

  17. Energy conservation study on Simplot potato processing plant, Heyburn, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an energy study done at the Simplot potato processing plant in Heyburn, Idaho. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant but does not address specific modifications to process equipment. The plant receives raw potatoes and produces a mixture of pre-fried and frozen potato products including french fries and pre-formed patties, a dehydrated frozen product, starch, and processes and ships raw potatoes. The plant also contains a box line that makes cardboard cartons for all Simplot plants. The plant contains all necessary equipment and processes to produce a finished product and has long-term cold storage. 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Method for fabricating transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1997-09-02

    A method for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed. 13 figs.

  19. Force reconstruction using the inverse of the mode-shape matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Bateman, V.I.; Dohrman, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Force reconstruction is a process in which response signals from a dynamic event are used to infer what the applied force must have been to produce these responses. Force reconstruction is of interest when the input force cannot be directly measured, while the response signals are easily obtained using transducers such as accelerometers or strain gages. In many evaluation tests of a structure, the dynamic response is not sufficient information; one may really need a description of the input force. A new technique for force reconstruction is developed. To estimate the externally applied force, this technique sums the weight-scaled acceleration signals, and is referred to as the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). To obtain the scalar weights the inverse of the mode shape matrix is used. Application of this technique is illustrated with both numerical calculations using a mass-spring model and experimental data from a structure impacting a rigid barrier. 16 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  1. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  2. Effects of long-term thermal aging on the tensile and creep properties of commercially heat-treated alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    Alloy 718 is a structure material widely used in elevated-temperature applications. In particular, it was extensively used in the design of the upper internal system and control rod drive line of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Its popularity is due to several excellent behavioral features, including high creep and creep-rupture strength, good oxidation resistance, and exceptional high-cycle fatigue strength. However, alloy 718 is extremely complex, and its microstructure can be significantly modified by thermal treatment. The stability of the alloy in long-term elevated-temperature service is therefore a substantial concern in any such application. This report presents tensile and creep data obtained on three heats of alloy 718 after thermal aging for up to 27,000 h from 593 to 76{degree}C. Implications of these results in terms of long-term stability of the alloy are discussed. 5 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Creep and creep-rupture behavior of Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, C.R.; Booker, M.K.; Ding, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Data obtained from creep and creep-rupture tests conducted on 18 heats of Alloy 718 were used to formulate models for predicting high temperature time dependent behavior of this alloy. Creep tests were conducted on specimens taken from a number of commercial product forms including plate, bar, and forgoing material that had been procured and heat treated in accordance with ASTM specifications B-670 or B-637. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 427 to 760{degree}C ad at test times to about 87,000 h. Comparisons are given between experimental data and the analytical models. The analytical models for creep-rupture included one based on lot-centering regression analysis and two based on the Minimum Commitment Method. A master'' curve approach was used to develop and equation for estimating creep deformation up to the onset of tertiary creep. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Beneficiation of oil shales by froth flotation and heavy media separation: Volume 1, Summary and main report: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.

    1987-08-01

    An experimental program was conducted to determine the feasibility of upgrading US oil shales by froth flotation and heavy media separation (HMS) techniques. The results of the experiments along with other available information were used to analyze technical and economic aspects of a process scheme in which a mined shale will be beneficiated and then retorted. The experimental program and economic analysis indicate that whereas beneficiation processes do not offer any clear incentive at the current time, these processes may become essential when lean deposits are to be exploited. Froth flotation process appears to be significantly superior than the HMS process. The significant deterrents to developing a beneficiation process based on froth flotation are grinding costs and lack of suitable retorts. 15 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  6. Linear optimal control of tokamak fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C.E.; Firestone, M.A.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-05-01

    The control of plasma position, shape and current in a tokamak fusion reactor is examined using linear optimal control. These advanced tokamaks are characterized by non up-down symmetric coils and structure, thick structure surrounding the plasma, eddy currents, shaped plasmas, superconducting coils, vertically unstable plasmas, and hybrid function coils providing ohmic heating, vertical field, radial field, and shaping field. Models of the electromagnetic environment in a tokamak are derived and used to construct control gains that are tested in nonlinear simulations with initial perturbations. The issues of applying linear optimal control to advanced tokamaks are addressed, including complex equilibrium control, choice of cost functional weights, the coil voltage limit, discrete control, and order reduction. Results indicate that the linear optimal control is a feasible technique for controlling advanced tokamaks where the more common classical control will be severely strained or will not work. 28 refs., 13 figs.

  7. The optical properties of beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, E.T. ); Callcott, T.A.; Chang, Yun-ching Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-02-01

    We review the published data on the optical properties of beryllium for the spectral region from 0.03 to 300 eV. In the visible and infrared spectral regions, where published data from various authors show very large variations, we have performed experiments that identify the most probable sources of error, and use this information to select the best data from published sources. The effects of surface oxide overlayers have also been studied. In the far infrared spectral region, where only normal incidence reflectance data are available, and in the extreme ultraviolet, where only transmission data are available, there is insufficient information to fully determine the optical properties at each photon energy. Between 0.06 and 26 eV, however, a normal incidence reflectance curve is fully determined. This curve has been used for a Kramers{endash}Kronig analysis to determine the optical properties in this spectral range. 10 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. DOE West Coast Basin program, California Basin Study: Progress report 4, (July 1986-June 1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Small, L.F.; Huh, Chih-An

    1987-06-01

    The overall objective of our research is to understand the transport pathways and mass balances of selected metabolically active and inactive chemical species in the Santa Monica/San Pedro Basins. One focus is to examine the role of zooplankton and micronekton in the cycling and remineralization of chemical materials in the Southern California Bight, with particular reference to C, N and certain radionuclides and trace metals. A second focus is to examine these same radionuclides and trace metals in other reservoirs besides the zooplankton (i.e., in seawater, sediment trap material and bottom sediments). Knowledge of the rates, routes and reservoirs of these nuclides and metals should lead to a cogent model for these elements in Santa Monica/San Pedro Basins. 28 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Experimental studies of U-Pu-Zr fast reactor fuel pins in EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Lahm, C.E.; Hofman, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a generic reactor concept under development by Argonne National Laboratory. Much of the technology for the IFR is being demonstrated at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) on the Department of Energy site near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The IFR concept relies on four technical features to achieve breakthroughs in nuclear power economics and safety: (1) a pool-type reactor configuration, (2) liquid sodium cooling, (3) metallic fuel, and (4) an integral fuel cycle with on-site reprocessing. The purpose of this paper will be to summarize our latest results of irradiation testing uranium-plutonium-zirconium (U-Pu-Zr) fuel in the EBR-II. 10 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Distribution, habitat and habits of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in the eastern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Esque, T.C.; Bury, R.B. ); Medica, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The desert tortoise is widely distributed across most of southern Nevada below 1500 meters elevation and then ranges northeast into the Arizona Strip and southwestern Utah. There are several large populations, but also many isolated groups of desert tortoises due to the rugged topography and, possibly, unsuitable soils. We suggest that the greatest threats to tortoises in the eastern Mojave Desert are with peripheral populations. Tortoises in the eastern Mojave Desert occupy a wide variety of habitats from flats and bajadas in lower elevation to rocky slopes bordering on blackbrush and juniper woodland. In winter they use shallow burrows near Las Vegas but frequent deep caves in the northeast edge of their range. Tortoises in all areas may occur in steep, rocky habitats. Climatic extremes are frequent in this region and rainfall can be spotty due to several major mountain ranges that cause rain shadows. Forage is highly variable and this species can be an opportunistic herbivore. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Performance evaluation of PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1987-10-01

    An investigation of collective effects has been undertaken to assess the possibilities for using the low emittance operating mode of the PEP storage ring as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation. Beam current limitations associated with longitudinal and transverse instabilities, and the expected emittance growth due to intrabeam scattering have been studied as a function of beam energy. Calculations of the beam lifetime due to Touschek and gas scattering are presented, and the growth times of coupled-bunch instabilities are estimated. In general, the results are encouraging, and no fundamental problems have been uncovered. It appears that beam currents up to about 10 mA per bunch should be achievable, and that the emittance growth is not a severe problem at an energy of about 8 GeV. A feedback system to deal with coupled-bunch instabilities is likely to be required. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2b: Earth-mounded concrete bunkers

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. An EMCB is generally described as a reinforced concrete vault placed below grade, underneath a tumulus, surrounded by filter-blanket and drainage zones. The tumulus is covered over with a low permeability cover layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the EMCB structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for each of the eight major categories. 63 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Contracts for dispatchable power

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P.; Stoft, S.; Marnay, C.; Berman, D.

    1990-10-01

    Competitive bidding for electric power is maturing. Increasing numbers of utilities are soliciting proposals from private suppliers. The amount of capacity being sought is increasing, and potential suppliers appear to be abundant. Analysis of these developments still remains limited. Evidence on the behavior of this market is scarce and sketchy. The underlying economic principles that are shaping the market have not clearly been articulated. In this report we examine the economics of competitive bidding both empirically and analytically. Previous study of this market has focused on the evaluation criteria specified in Requests for Proposals (RFPs), and highly aggregated summary statistics on participation and results. We continue the examination of RFPs, but also survey the details of long term contracts that have emerged from competitive bidding. Contracts provide a new level of specific detail that has not been previously available. 68 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. Seismically-induced soil amplification at the DOE Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Sykora, D.W.; Haynes, M.E. . Geotechnical Lab.); Brock, W.R.; Hunt, R.J.; Shaffer, K.E. )

    1991-01-01

    A site-specific earthquake site response (soil amplification) study is being conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This study is pursuant to an upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report in accordance with requirements specified by DOE. The seismic hazard at PGDP is dominated by the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Site-specific synthetic earthquake records developed by others were applied independently to four soil columns with heights above baserock of about 325 ft. The results for the 1000-year earthquake event indicate that the site period is between 1.0 and 1.5 sec. Incident shear waves are amplified at periods of motion greater than 0.15 sec. The peak free-field horizontal acceleration, occurring at very low periods, is 0.28 g. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Rapid method to detect duplex formation in sequencing by hybridization methods

    DOEpatents

    Mirzabekov, A.D.; Timofeev, E.N.; Florentiev, V.L.; Kirillov, E.V.

    1999-01-19

    A method for determining the existence of duplexes of oligonucleotide complementary molecules is provided. A plurality of immobilized oligonucleotide molecules, each of a specific length and each having a specific base sequence, is contacted with complementary, single stranded oligonucleotide molecules to form a duplex. Each duplex facilitates intercalation of a fluorescent dye between the base planes of the duplex. The invention also provides for a method for constructing oligonucleotide matrices comprising confining light sensitive fluid to a surface and exposing the light-sensitive fluid to a light pattern. This causes the fluid exposed to the light to coalesce into discrete units and adhere to the surface. This places each of the units in contact with a set of different oligonucleotide molecules so as to allow the molecules to disperse into the units. 13 figs.

  16. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing using multiple electrodes and with resistances being defined between the electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III

    1996-10-29

    Methods of operation are disclosed for different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information related to the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from inside the cased well. The multiple electrode apparatus have a minimum of three spaced-apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage the interior of the cased well. Measurement information is obtained related to current which is caused to flow from the cased well into the adjacent geological formation. First compensation information is obtained related to a first casing resistance between a first pair of the spaced-apart voltage measurement electrodes. Second compensation information is obtained related to a second casing resistance between a second pair of the spaced-apart voltage measurement electrodes. The measurement information, and first and second compensation information are used to determine a magnitude related to the adjacent formation resistivity. 13 figs.

  17. The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System: Volume 3, The GROUPR, GAMINR, and MODER modules

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, R E; Muir, D W

    1987-10-01

    The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System is a comprehensive computer code package for producing pointwise and multigroup cross sections and related quantities from ENDF/B-IV, V, or VI evaluated nuclear data. A concise description of the code system and references to the ancestors of NJOY are given in Vol. 1 of this report. This volume describes the GROUPR module, which produces multigroup neutron interaction cross sections and group-to-group production cross sections for neutrons and photons; the GAMINR module, which produces multigroup photon-interaction cross sections and group-to-group matrices; and the MODER module, which converts ENDF/B and NJOY interface files back and forth between formatted (i.e., BCD, ASCII) and binary modes and performs several associated editing functions. 34 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Tubular lap joints for wind turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Guess, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A combined analytical/experimental study of the strength of thick- walled, adhesively bonded PMMA-to-aluminum and E-glass/epoxy composite-to-aluminum tubular lap joints under axial load has been conducted. Test results include strength and failure mode data. Moreover, strain gages placed along the length of the outer tubular adherend characterize load transfer from one adherend to the other. The strain gage data indicate that load transfer is nonuniform and that the relatively compliant PMMA has the shorter load transfer length. Strains determined by a finite element analysis of the tested joints are in excellent agreement with those measured. Calculated bond stresses are highest in the region of observed failure, and extensive bond yielding is predicted in the E- glass/epoxy composite-to-aluminum joint prior to joint failure. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  20. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.; McKay, T.A.

    1998-04-21

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD. 13 figs.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This is the 1989 Site Environmental Report (SER) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a government owned and contractor-operated facility. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. This report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at the WIPP during calendar year 1989. The WIPP facility will not receive waste until all concerns affecting opening the WIPP are addressed to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Energy. Therefore, this report describes the status of the preoperational activities of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance (RES) program, which are outlined in the Radiological Baseline Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTSD-TME-057). 72 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Prompt processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-12-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann Master Equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons partition the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho and from reactions of /sup 40/Ar or /sup 40/Ca. We point out ambiguities in deducing angle-integrated energy spectra from double differential spectra. With no additional free parameters, our model successfully reproduces a large body of high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra by assuming an incoherent n-p-bremsstrahlung mechanism. 45 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Shielded helix traveling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    DOEpatents

    Norris, N.J.; Hudson, C.L.

    1992-12-15

    Various embodiments of a helical coil deflection structure of a CRT are described and illustrated which provide shielding between adjacent turns of the coil on either three or four sides of each turn in the coil. Threaded members formed with either male or female threads and having the same pitch as the deflection coil are utilized for shielding the deflection coil with each turn of the helical coil placed between adjacent threads which act to shield each coil turn from adjacent turns and to confine the field generated by the coil to prevent or inhibit cross-coupling between adjacent turns of the coil to thereby prevent generation of fast fields which might otherwise deflect the beam out of time synchronization with the electron beam pulse. 13 figs.

  4. Numerical forecasting of radiation fog. Part I: Numerical model and sensitivity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bergot, T.; Guedalia, D. )

    1994-06-01

    To improve the forecast of dense radiative fogs, a method has been developed using a one-dimensional model of the nocturnal boundary layer forced by the mesoscale fields provided by a 3D limited-area operational model. The 1D model involves a treatment of soil-atmosphere exchanges and a parameterization of turbulence in stable layers in order to correctly simulate the nocturnal atmospheric cooling. Various sensitivity tests have been carried out to evaluate the influence of the main input parameters of the model (geostrophic wind, horizontal advections, cloud cover, soil moisture, etc.) on the predicted fog characteristics. The principal result concerns the difficulty of obtaining accurate forecasts in the case of fog appearing in the middle or at the end of the night, when the local atmospheric cooling is weak. 33 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Noise suppressing capillary separation system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Xue, Y.

    1996-07-30

    A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans. 13 figs.

  6. Self-locking threaded fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.

    1996-01-16

    A threaded fastener with a shape memory alloy (SMA) coatings on its threads is disclosed. The fastener has special usefulness in high temperature applications where high reliability is important. The SMA coated fastener is threaded into or onto a mating threaded part at room temperature to produce a fastened object. The SMA coating is distorted during the assembly. At elevated temperatures the coating tries to recover its original shape and thereby exerts locking forces on the threads. When the fastened object is returned to room temperature the locking forces dissipate. Consequently the threaded fasteners can be readily disassembled at room temperature but remains securely fastened at high temperatures. A spray technique is disclosed as a particularly useful method of coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. 13 figs.

  7. US Department of Energy Portsmouth Site annual environmental report summary for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, C.M.

    1996-03-01

    This pamphlet contains summaries of the environmental programs at the Portsmouth site, including environmental monitoring and results and the impact of plant operations on the environment and the public for 1994. More detailed information on the material summarized in this pamphlet is available in the {ital Portsmouth Site Annual Environmental Report for 1994}. The data used to compile the site annual environment report and this summary pamphlet are published in the {ital Portsmouth Site Annual Environmental Data for 1994}, which is a collection of tables containing effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and dose calculation data for 1994. To obtain copies of any of these documents, contact: Environmental Management, P.O. Box 628, Building X7725, MS-7556, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, OH 45661 (Telephone: 614-897-3603). 13 figs.

  8. Thermodynamics of natural and industrial waters

    SciTech Connect

    Pitzer, K.S.

    1991-08-01

    The most effective general formulations of thermodynamic equations for multicomponent aqueous solutions are discussed with respect to various ranges of temperature, pressure and composition with emphasis on solutes important in natural or industrial waters. A familiar equation in molality and in excess Gibbs energy is very successful up to 300{degree}C and ionic strength 6 mol{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}, and can often be extended to 350{degree}C or above at high pressure and in favorable cases to ionic strength 12 or even 20. Alternate methods valid to higher solute compositions, even to pure fused salts, are described. A more difficult situation arises near the critical point of water where the compressibility becomes infinite and a Helmholtz energy basis must be adopted. Existing equations for this range and still higher temperatures and pressures are considered and possible improvements discussed. 85 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. High-temperature corrosion-resistant iron-aluminide (FeAl) alloys exhibiting improved weldability

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, P.J.; Goodwin, G.M.; Liu, C.T.

    1996-08-13

    This invention relates to improved corrosion-resistant iron-aluminide intermetallic alloys. The alloys of this invention comprise, in atomic percent, from about 30% to about 40% aluminum alloyed with from about 0.1% to about 0.5% carbon, no more than about 0.04% boron such that the atomic weight ratio of boron to carbon in the alloy is in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.08:1, from about 0.01 to about 3.5% of one or more transition metals selected from Group IVB, VB, and VIB elements and the balance iron wherein the alloy exhibits improved resistance to hot cracking during welding. 13 figs.

  10. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-10-04

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  11. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  12. Spinalis capitis, or an accessory paraspinous muscle?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, A

    1994-01-01

    A unilateral muscle, the location and dimensions of which do not exactly conform to existing descriptions, was found during dissection of the suboccipital region. The muscle in question extended from the spine and transverse process of the 6th cervical vertebra to the base of the skull. At its rostral attachment it blended with the insertion of the left rectus capitis posterior minor muscle on the inferior nuchal line. The caudal attachment arched over the semispinalis cervicis, separated from that muscle by an extensive venous complex. Medially, along the length of the muscle, weak fascial attachments to the ligamentum nuchae were present. Arterial branches from the occipital artery entered the muscle near its rostral end and nerve fibres and vascular channels from the lower cervical region entered the deep surface of the muscle. Images Figs 1-3 Fig. 4 PMID:7559114

  13. Reference site selection report for the advanced liquid metal reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sivill, R.L.

    1990-03-01

    This Reference Site Selection Report was prepared by EG G, Idaho Inc., for General Electric (GE) to provide information for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) in selecting a Safety Test Site for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. Similar Evaluation studies are planned to be conducted at other potential DOE sites. The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) Concept was developed for ALMR by GE. A ALMR Safety Test is planned to be performed on a DOE site to demonstrate features and meet Nuclear Regulatory Commission Requirements. This study considered possible locations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory that met the ALMR Prototype Site Selection Methodology and Criteria. Four sites were identified, after further evaluation one site was eliminated. Each of the remaining three sites satisfied the criteria and was graded. The results were relatively close. Thus concluding that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a suitable location for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Test. 23 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Silicon position sensitive detectors for the HELIOS (NA34) experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Beuttenmuller, R.; Bisi, V.; Chesi, E.; Di Nardo, R.P.; Esten, M.J.; Giubellino, P.; Kraner, H.W.; Ludlam, T.W.; Meddi, F.; Piuz, F.

    1986-03-01

    Silicon detectors having both ''pad'' and strip position sensitive configurations have been fabricated for the HELIOS experiment which requires an elaborate pulse height-dependent trigger as well as one dimensional silicon strip position sensing. The trigger detector is a 400 element, 30 mm diameter detector with readout connections from a ceramic overlay board. Tests with full prototype detectors have shown essentially 100% detection efficiency and excellent pulse height resolution well capable of delineating 0, 1 or 2 hits per pad. Strip detectors with 25 ..mu..m pitch and a varying readout pitch have been tested, which utilize both capacitive and resistive charge division. Techniques for realization of required interstrip resistors will be discussed and results which may compare these readout methods will be reported. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Application of Fenton's reagent as a pretreatment step in biological degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, R.L.; Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1990-01-01

    Fenton's reagent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup ++}) has been used for chemical oxidation of numerous organic compounds in water treatment schemes. In this study, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) applied Fenton's treatment to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-contaminated soils. Fenton's treatment was very reactive with PAHs, causing rapid modification of the parental compounds to oxidized products and complete degradation to CO{sub 2}. This treatment was more effective on chemically reactive PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene and phenanthrene. Important parameters and conditions for Fenton's treatment of PAHs in solution and soil matrices have been identified. As much as 99% of the PAHs on soil matrices can be removed by treatment with Fenton's reagent. 28 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Effect of coolant chemistry on PWR radiation transport processes. Progress report on reactor loop studies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.J.; Flynn, G.; Haynes, J.W.; Kitt, G.P.; Large, N.R.; Lawson, D.; Mead, A.P.; Nichols, J.L.; Woodwark, D.R.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of various PWR-type coolant chemistry regimes on the behavior of corrosion products has been studied in the DIDO Water Loop at Harwell. There are strong indications that the in-core deposition behavior of corrosion product species is not fully accounted for by the solubility model based on nickel ferrite; boric acid plays a role apart from its influence on pH, and corrosion products are adsorbed to some extent in the zirconium oxide film on the fuel cladding. In DWL, soluble species appear to be dominant in deposition processes. A most important factor governing deposition behavior is surface condition; the influence of weld regions and the effect of varying pretreatment conditions have both been demonstrated. 13 figs.

  17. Remotely controlled sensor apparatus for use in dig-face characterization system

    DOEpatents

    Josten, N.E.; Svoboda, J.M.

    1999-05-25

    A remotely controlled sensor platform apparatus useful in a dig-face characterization system is deployed from a mobile delivery device such as standard heavy construction equipment. The sensor apparatus is designed to stabilize sensors against extraneous motions induced by heavy equipment manipulations or other outside influences, and includes a terrain sensing and sensor elevation control system to maintain the sensors in close ground proximity. The deployed sensor apparatus is particularly useful in collecting data in work environments where human access is difficult due to the presence of hazardous conditions, rough terrain, or other circumstances that prevent efficient data collection by conventional methods. Such work environments include hazardous waste sites, unexploded ordnance sites, or construction sites. Data collection in these environments by utilizing the deployed sensor apparatus is desirable in order to protect human health and safety, or to assist in planning daily operations to increase efficiency. 13 figs.

  18. Nonlinear modeling of chaotic time series: Theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Casdagli, M.; Eubank, S.; Farmer, J.D.; Gibson, J. Santa Fe Inst., NM ); Des Jardins, D.; Hunter, N.; Theiler, J. )

    1990-01-01

    We review recent developments in the modeling and prediction of nonlinear time series. In some cases apparent randomness in time series may be due to chaotic behavior of a nonlinear but deterministic system. In such cases it is possible to exploit the determinism to make short term forecasts that are much more accurate than one could make from a linear stochastic model. This is done by first reconstructing a state space, and then using nonlinear function approximation methods to create a dynamical model. Nonlinear models are valuable not only as short term forecasters, but also as diagnostic tools for identifying and quantifying low-dimensional chaotic behavior. During the past few years methods for nonlinear modeling have developed rapidly, and have already led to several applications where nonlinear models motivated by chaotic dynamics provide superior predictions to linear models. These applications include prediction of fluid flows, sunspots, mechanical vibrations, ice ages, measles epidemics and human speech. 162 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Development of real time detector for fluorescent particles

    SciTech Connect

    Prevost, C.; Vendel, J.; Seigneur, A.

    1997-08-01

    Aerosols tagged by a fluorescent dye are a worthwhile tool within the framework of ventilation and filtration studies. The detection in real time of a specific particulate tracer allows characterization of ventilation behaviour such as air change rate, the determination of a good or bad mixing zone and transfer coefficient, or the determination of the decontamination factor for High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. Generally, these tests require specific aerosols in order to get rid of the atmospheric aerosol background. Until now the principle of fluorescent aerosol concentration measuring has only allowed an integral response with a time lag by means of sampling on filters and a fluorimetric analysis after specific conditioning of these filters. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Status of fission yield data

    SciTech Connect

    England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Computer controlled fluorometer device and method of operating same

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1990-07-17

    A computer controlled fluorometer device and method of operating same, said device being made to include a pump flash source and a probe flash source and one or more sample chambers in combination with a light condenser lens system and associated filters and reflectors and collimators, as well as signal conditioning and monitoring means and a programmable computer means and a software programmable source of background irradiance that is operable according to the method of the invention to rapidly, efficiently and accurately measure photosynthetic activity by precisely monitoring and recording changes in fluorescence yield produced by a controlled series of predetermined cycles of probe and pump flashes from the respective probe and pump sources that are controlled by the computer means. 13 figs.

  2. Vibrational energy flow in highly excited molecules: Role of intramolecular vibrational redistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, D.J. |; Field, R.W.

    1996-08-01

    A pedagogical overview of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) phenomena in vibrationally excited molecules is presented. In the interest of focus and simplicity, the topics covered deal primarily with IVR in the ground electronic state, relying on examples from the literature to illustrate key points. The experimental topics discussed attempt to sample systematically three different energy regimes on the full potential surface corresponding to (i) `low`, e.g., moderate- to high-resolution vibrational spectroscopies, (ii) `intermediate`, e.g., stimulated emission pumping and high overtone spectroscopies, and (iii) `high`, e.g., photofragment/predissociation dynamical spectroscopies. The interplay between experiment and theory is highlighted here because it has facilitated enormous advances in the field over the past decade. 183 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Thermoacoustic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Moss, W.C.

    1997-10-07

    A thermoacoustic device is described having a thermal stack made from a piece of porous material which provides a desirable ratio of thermoacoustic area to viscous area, which has a low resistance to flow, which minimizes acoustic streaming and which has a high specific heat and low thermal conductivity. The thermal stack is easy and cheap to form and it can be formed in small sizes. Specifically, in one embodiment, a thermal stack which is formed by the natural structure of a porous material such as reticulated vitreous carbon is disclosed. The thermal stack is formed by machining a block of reticulated vitreous carbon into the required shape of the thermal stack. In a second embodiment, a micro-thermoacoustic device is disclosed which includes a thermal stack made of a piece of porous material such as reticulated vitreous carbon. In another embodiment, a heat exchanger is disclosed which is formed of a block of heat conductive open cell foam material. 13 figs.

  4. Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing

    DOEpatents

    Warpinski, N.R.; Steinfort, T.D.; Branagan, P.T.; Wilmer, R.H.

    1999-08-10

    An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture. 13 figs.

  5. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  7. Advanced two-phase flow instrumentation program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Turnage, K.G.; Davis, C.E.; Anderson, R.L.; Miller, G.N.

    1980-09-01

    Work performed to develop reliable liquid level sensors for in-vessel use in pressurized water reactors is described. During this period, an improved heated thermocouple level sensor was fabricated and techniques for separating thermocouple output signals from superimposed ac voltages were developed. Experiments that were performed with a thermal-type level sensor in natural convection to saturated water and steam are described. Pressures in those tests ranged from 0.1 to 10 MPa (15 to 1500 psia). Acoustic techniques using pulse transit times along a waveguide were studied. A single waveguide was used to obtain accurate measurements of liquid level at room temperature and to compensate for temperature variations over a 10/sup 0/C temperature range. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Structure and yarn sensor for fabric

    DOEpatents

    Mee, D.K.; Allgood, G.O.; Mooney, L.R.; Duncan, M.G.; Turner, J.C.; Treece, D.A.

    1998-10-20

    A structure and yarn sensor for fabric directly determines pick density in a fabric thereby allowing fabric length and velocity to be calculated from a count of the picks made by the sensor over known time intervals. The structure and yarn sensor is also capable of detecting full length woven defects and fabric. As a result, an inexpensive on-line pick (or course) density measurement can be performed which allows a loom or knitting machine to be adjusted by either manual or automatic means to maintain closer fiber density tolerances. Such a sensor apparatus dramatically reduces fabric production costs and significantly improves fabric consistency and quality for woven or knitted fabric. 13 figs.

  9. Method and system for evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a mating surface of a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Telschow, K.L.; Siu, B.K.

    1996-07-09

    A method of evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a substrate includes: (a) impinging a plurality of light sources onto a substrate; (b) detecting optical reflective signatures emanating from the substrate from the impinged light; (c) determining location of a selected conductor bond on the substrate from the detected reflective signatures; (d) determining a target site on the selected conductor bond from the detected reflective signatures; (e) optically imparting an elastic wave at the target site through the selected conductor bond and into the substrate; (f) optically detecting an elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate resulting from the optically imparting step; and (g) determining integrity of adherence of the selected conductor bond to the substrate from the detected elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate. A system is disclosed which is capable of conducting the method. 13 figs.

  10. A biosystem for removal of metal ions from water

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of heavy metal ions in ground and surface waters constitutes a potential health risk and is an environmental concern. Moreover, processes for the recovery of valuable metal ions are of interest. Bioaccumulation or biosorption is not only a factor in assessing the environmental risk posed by metal ions; it can also be used as a means of decontamination. A biological system for the removal and recovery of metal ions from contaminated water is reported here. Exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms, including a methanotrophic culture, are demonstrated to have superior metal binding ability, compared with other microbial cultures. This paper describes a biosorption process in which dried biomass obtained from exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms is encapsulated in porous plastic beads and is used for metal ion binding and recovery. 22 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Laboratory testing of chloride 3ET205 6 volt traction battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, J.E.

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the testing performed on the Chloride 3ET205 6 volt traction batery by the INEL Battery Laboratory, to present the results and conclusions of this testing, and to make appropriate recommendations. The Chloride 3ET205 is a tubular plate lead-acid battery made in England by the Chloride Battery Company and imported into the US. The traction battery division of Chloride has been sold, although Chloride assured its customers that the 3ET205 would continue to be available for their consumption. The new owners of the factory are Tudor and Fulman of France. The joint venture company name is C. E. Ac. It is our understanding that all orders are to be sent to the factory at Salford Rd., Bolton, Lancashire, England BL5 1DD. 5 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Synaptic endfeet in the 'acoustic nerve nucleus' of the rat. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Bolado, G; Merchán, J

    1988-01-01

    The medial portion of the cochlear nerve of the rat contains astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. These neurons form what has been called the 'acoustic nerve nucleus'. This nucleus has been studied here at the electron microscopic level. Its neurons are large and round, showing an eccentric nucleus, fibrillary bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum which is not arranged in stacks. The somata and dendrites receive synaptic endfeet which can be classified into three groups according to vesicle size and shape. In general, the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are similar to those of bushy cells as reported by other authors. The 'acoustic nerve nucleus' can be considered to be the most peripheral part of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3248967

  13. Heating of solid earthen material, measuring moisture and resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Heath, W.O.; Richardson, R.L.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-07-19

    The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile contaminants. Six electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a substantially equilateral hexagonal arrangement. Six phases of voltages are applied to corresponding electrodes. The voltages are adjusted within a first range of voltages to create multiple current paths between pairs of the electrodes. The current paths are evenly distributed throughout the region defined by the electrodes and therefore uniformly heat the region. The region of earthen material is heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants by promoting microbial action. This temperature is less than a melting temperature of the earthen material. 13 figs.

  14. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1995--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the overall program status of the General Electric Advanced Gas Turbine Development program, and reports progress on three main task areas. The program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70-MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology, utilizing a new air cooling methodology; and (2) a 200-MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy-duty machine, utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. The emphasis for the industrial system is placed on cycle design and low emission combustion. For the utility system, the focus is on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling while achieving low emission combustion. The three tasks included in this progress report are on: conversion to a coal-fueled advanced turbine system, integrated program plan, and design and test of critical components. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Method for testing the strength and structural integrity of nuclear fuel particles

    DOEpatents

    Lessing, P.A.

    1995-10-17

    An accurate method for testing the strength of nuclear fuel particles is disclosed. Each particle includes an upper and lower portion, and is placed within a testing apparatus having upper and lower compression members. The upper compression member includes a depression therein which is circular and sized to receive only part of the upper portion of the particle. The lower compression member also includes a similar depression. The compression members are parallel to each other with the depressions therein being axially aligned. The fuel particle is then placed between the compression members and engaged within the depressions. The particle is then compressed between the compression members until it fractures. The amount of force needed to fracture the particle is thereafter recorded. This technique allows a broader distribution of forces and provides more accurate results compared with systems which distribute forces at singular points on the particle. 13 figs.

  16. Temperature dependent steady state and picosecond kinetic fluorescence measurements of a photosystem I preparation from spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerji, I.; Sauer, K.

    1988-08-01

    The fluorescence properties of a photosystem I (PSI) preparation from spinach containing approximately 200 chlorophyll (Chl) per reaction center were investigated. The preparation, characterized both spectroscopically and biochemically, contained the peripheral light harvesting antenna associated with PSI. In this study steady state fluorescence measurements were performed as a function of temperature. An emission maximum at 690 nm and a long wavelength shoulder from 710 to 740 nm were observed. The fluorescence yield at 690 nm is temperature independent, while the yield of the long wavelength shoulder increases dramatically with decreasing temperature. Additionally, kinetic measurements using the technique of single photon counting were done at room temperature and 77K. At 295K a four component fit was needed to describe the fluorescence decay; whereas at 77K, an additional 40-50 ps rise component indicative of fluorescence induction was necessary. 28 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, W.C.; Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    In this report, a short review of electron beam particle precharging using a pulsed electric field is presented in Section B-1. Section B-2 details the design and installation of a remote focusing gear train which will allow much greater control over the particle charge measurement capability of the charge vs. radius apparatus. Under Section B-3, progress on the electrical shielding of the rotating spark gap power supply using a large Faraday cage is described. Efforts to prevent RFI interference from adversely affecting the Climet particle counter and the MicroMac current measurement device using a variety of techniques are also presented in this section. The basic effort is to optimize the removal efficiency for fly ash particles. 13 figs.

  18. Focused ion beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  19. Normal forms for linear mode conversion and Landau-Zener transitions in one dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, W.G.; Littlejohn, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Standard eikonal methods for the asymptotic analysis of coupled linear wave equations may fail when two eigenvalues of a matrix (the dispersion matrix) associated with the wave operator are both small in the same region of wave phase space. In this region the two eikonal modes associated with the two small eigenvalues are coupled, leading to a process called linear mode conversion or Landau-Zener coupling. A theory of linear mode conversion is presented in which geometric structure is emphasized. This theory is then used to identify the most generic type of mode conversion which occurs in one dimension. Finally, a general solution for this generic mode conversion problem is derived by transforming an arbitrary equation exhibiting generic mode conversion into an easily solvable normal form. This solution is given as a connection rule, with which one may continue standard eikonal wave solutions through mode conversion regions. 51 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Expanded beam non-imaging fiber optic connector

    DOEpatents

    Jannson, T.; Jannson, J.; Yeung, P.

    1990-02-06

    There is disclosed an expanded beam fiber to fiber connector, based on non-imaging optic principles for coupling light beams from one optical fiber to another. The system consists of two identical connector parts, referred to herein as a collimating part and a concentrating part, each having a preferred partially curved reflective boundary surface for minimizing power loss and surrounding either a hollow space or a space filled with a uniform transparent medium. In one embodiment the boundary is metallic while in a second embodiment the boundary is in the form of an interface allowing total internal reflection. In both the hollow and filled case a lens may be located at the expanded end of both the collimator part and the concentrator part forming the connector. The connector is preferably located in a housing in order to protect and preserve the mechanical stability of the coupler. 13 figs.

  1. Transport numbers in the surface layers of asymmetric membranes from initial time measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Compan, V.; Lopez, M.L. ); Sorensen, T.S. ); Garrido, J. )

    1994-09-08

    The initial time asymmetry potentials of two ultra filtration membranes (cellulose acetate and polysulfone membranes) were measured in electrochemical cells using Ag/AgCl electrodes and NaCl solutions. The concentration in the two electrode chambers differed slightly by a fixed concentration difference. Either the membranes were brought to equilibrium with the left-hand solution and subsequently exposed to the right-hand solution at the right-hand face, or the procedure was reversed. From such measurements it is possible to evaluate the transport numbers corresponding to each of the two surface layers of the membrane under conditions such that the effects of autoprotolysis of water and of foreign ions may be neglected. These measurements permit a description of each of the surface layers of the membranes and make possible an electrochemical characterization of the asymmetry of ultrafiltration membranes. The asymmetry is given by the difference between surface layer transport numbers. 31 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  3. Phenomenological models

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, L.A.

    1990-09-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-05-09

    A method is disclosed for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed. 13 figs.

  5. Compact self-contained electrical-to-optical converter/transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Seligmann, D.A.; Moss, W.C.; Valk, T.C.; Conder, A.D.

    1995-11-21

    A first optical receiver and a second optical receiver are provided for receiving a calibrate command and a power switching signal, respectively, from a remote processor. A third receiver is provided for receiving an analog electrical signal from a transducer. A calibrator generates a reference signal in response to the calibrate command. A combiner mixes the electrical signal with the reference signal to form a calibrated signal. A converter converts the calibrated signal to an optical signal. A transmitter transmits the optical signal to the remote processor. A primary battery supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter. An optically-activated switch supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter in response to the power switching signal. An auxiliary battery supplies power continuously to the switch. 13 figs.

  6. Measurements of ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) loading with a ridged waveguide coupler on PLT

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.J.; Wilson, J.R.; Colestock, P.L.; Fortgang, C.M.; Hosea, J.C.; Hwang, D.Q.; Nagy, A.

    1987-11-01

    An ICRF ridged waveguide coupler has been installed on PLT for measurements of plasma loading. The coupler was partially filled with TiO/sub 2/ dielectric in order to sufficiently lower the cutoff frequency and utilized a tapered ridge for improved matching. Vacuum field measurements indicated a single propagating mode in the coupler and emphasized the importance of considering the fringing fields at the mouth of the waveguide. Low power experiments were carried out at 72.6 and 95.0 MHz without any external impedance matching network. Plasma loading increased rapidly as the face of the coupler approached the plasma, and, at fixed position, increased with line-averaged plasma density. At the lower frequency, the reflection coefficient exhibited a minimum (<8%) at a particular coupler position. At both frequencies, measurements indicated efficient power coupling to the plasma. Magnetic probe signals showed evidence of dense eigenmodes suggesting excitation of the fast wave. 24 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Root lengths of plants on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, G.D.; Foxx, T.S.

    1987-01-01

    Maximum root lengths of 22 plant species occurring on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands were measured. An average of two longest roots from each species were dug up and their lengths, typical shapes, and qualitative morphologics were noted along with the overstory dimensions of the plant individual with which the roots were associated. Maximum root lengths were compared with overstory (height times width) dimensions. Among the life forms studied, the shrubs tend to show the longest roots in relation to overstory size. Forbs show the shortest roots in relation to overstory size. Measurements of tree roots suggest only that immature trees on the Pajarito Plateau may have root-length to overstory-size ratios near one. 30 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Long-term need for new generating capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Merrill, E.T.

    1987-03-01

    Electricity demand should continue to grow at about the same rate as GNP, creating a need for large amounts of new generating capacity by the year 2000. Only coal and nuclear at this time have the abundant domestic resources and assured technology to meet this need. However, large increase in both coal and nuclear usage will not be acceptable to society without solutions to many of the problems that now deter their increased usage. For coal, the problems center around the safety and environmental impacts of increased coal mining and coal combustion. For nuclear the problems center around reactor safety, radioactive waste disposal, financial risk, and nuclear materials safeguards. The fuel requirements and waste generation for coal plants are orders of magnitude greater than for nuclear. Technology improvements and waste management practices must be pursued to mitigate environmental and safety impacts from electricity generation. 26 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. Resonant snubber inverter

    DOEpatents

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Chen, D.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P.; McKeever, J.W.

    1997-06-24

    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 14 figs.

  10. Evaluation of filter media for clarification of partially dissolved residues containing plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, E.S.

    1989-10-09

    A common process in the chemical industry employs the leaching of a desirable component from an insoluble substrate, followed by filtration to produce a clarified solution of the desirable component and a discardable residue. The work described here involved evaluating sintered metal filter media for separating dissolved plutonium from undissolved residues generated at various locations owned by the Department of Energy throughout the United States. The work was performed during a six-week assignment at the Savannah River Laboratory as part of a high school science enrichment program conducted in the summer of 1989. The leach step used included dissolving the plutonium-containing solids in a solution of nitric-hydrofluoric acid. To simulate the partial solubility of the actual plutonium-containing residues, a non-radioactive power plant flyash was used. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

  12. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  13. Scattering from an arbitrary cylinder in the presence of a planar media interface using the bymoment method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.; Cangellaris, A.C. . Electromagnetics Lab.)

    1989-11-01

    We apply the bymoment method to the problem of electromagnetic scattering from a cylinder in the presence of two semi-infinite half-spaces. The finite-element method is used to generate the solution over the region occupied by the cylinder, using a grid which is truncated at a small distance from the scatterer by a surface that conforms to the cross-section of the cylinder. We then couple the properties of the region exterior to the finite-element mesh to the interior solution by using Green's theorem in conjunction with a set of linearly independent functions which satisfy the boundary conditions along the interface and at infinity. Numerical results are obtained and compared to those in the literature. 18 refs., 14 figs.

  14. A nonvariational code for calculating three-dimensional MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Greenside, H.S.; Reiman, A.H.; Salas, A.

    1987-09-01

    Details are presented of the PIES code, which uses a nonvariational algorithm for calculating fully three-dimensional MHD equilibria. The MHD equilibrium equations are directly iterated in special coordinates to find self-consistent currents and magnetic fields for given pressure and current profiles and for a given outermost magnetic surface. Three important advantages of this approach over previous methods are the ease with which net current profiles can be imposed, the explicit treatment of resonances, and the ability to handle magnetic islands and stochastic field lines. The convergence properties of the code are studied for several axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric finite-..beta.. equilibria that have magnetic surfaces. 36 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Preconstruction schedules, costs, and permit requirements for electric power generating resources in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Smith, S.A.; Thurman, A.G.; Watts, R.L.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-07-01

    This report was prepared for the Generation Programs Branch, Office of Energy Resources, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The principal objective of the report is to assemble in one document preconstruction cost, schedule, and permit information for twelve specific generating resources. The report is one of many documents that provide background information for BPA's Resource Program, which is designed to identify the type and amount of new resources that BPA may have to add over the next twenty years to maintain an adequate and reliable electric power supply in the Pacific Northwest. A predecessor to this report is a 1982 report prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Northwest Power Planning Council (the Council''). The 1982 report had a similar, but not identical, content and format. 306 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. The A0 abort system for the Tevatron upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.

    1989-03-01

    The installation of electrostatic separator modules at B48 and C17 in the Tevatron necessitates changes to the Tevatron abort system. There will no longer be room for either the proton or antiproton kicker magnets used in the present system. The kickers at C17 will be permanently removed. The kickers at B48 will be temporarily removed for collider operation and will be replaced for fixed target operation. The existing proton abort system will remain unchanged during fixed target operation. This note describes a proposed abort system for operation in the collider mode for 22 on 22 bunches and provides details of specifications for the required components. In certain cases, for example in the case of the pulsers for the magnets and the absorber assembly, system components are designed with the option of upgrading to 44 on 44 bunch operation in mind. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  17. (Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates)

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.

    1989-03-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. The test facility is being modified to include combined electric and magnetic field capability. This will be accomplished by the installation of a magnetic field exposure system and modification of the electric field exposure equipment. The purpose of this document is to provide information on the design. 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-05-05

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs.

  19. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-10

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. Initial tests on in situ vitrification using electrode feeding techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Oma, K.H.; Bigelow, C.E.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of an engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test conducted to demonstrate the potential for electrode feeding in soils with a high concentration of metals. The engineering-scale test was part of a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) program to assist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in conducting treatability studies of the potential for applying ISV to the mixed transuranic waste buried at the INEL subsurface disposal area. The purpose of this test was to evaluate the effectiveness of both gravity fed and operator-controlled electrode feeding in reducing or eliminating many of the potential problems associated with fixed-electrode processing of soils with high concentrations of metal. Actual site soils from INEL were mixed with representative concentrations of carbon steel and stainless steel for this engineering-scale test. 18 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Apparatus and method of determining molecular weight of large molecules

    DOEpatents

    Fuerstenau, S.; Benner, W.H.; Madden, N.M.; Searles, W.

    1998-06-23

    A mass spectrometer determines the mass of multiply charged high molecular weight molecules. This spectrometer utilizes an ion detector which is capable of simultaneously measuring the charge z and transit time of a single ion as it passes through the detector. From this transit time, the velocity of the single ion may then be derived, thus providing the mass-to-charge ratio m/z for a single ion which has been accelerated through a known potential. Given z and m/z, the mass m of the single ion can then be calculated. Electrospray ions with masses in excess of 1 MDa and charge numbers greater than 425 e{sup {minus}} are readily detected. The on-axis single ion detection configuration enables a duty cycle of nearly 100% and extends the practical application of electrospray mass spectrometry to the analysis of very large molecules with relatively inexpensive instrumentation. 14 figs.

  2. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  3. Using memory in the Cedar system

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, R.E.; Emrath, P.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the virtual memory system for the Cedar multiprocessor under construction at the University of Illinois is discussed. The Cedar architecture features a hierarchy of memory, some shared by all processors, and some shared by subsets of processors. The Xylem operating system is based on Alliant Computer Systems CONCENTRIX(TM) operating system, which is based on 4.2BSD UNIX(TM). Xylem supports multi-tasking and demand paging of parts of the memory hierarchy into a linear virtual address space. Memory may be private to a task or shared between all the tasks. The locality and attributes of a page may be modified during the execution of a program. Examples of how these mechanisms can be used are discussed. 14 figs.

  4. Conversion of forest residues to a methane-rich gas: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, H.G.; Paisley, M.A.; Appelbaum, H.R.

    1986-03-01

    A process is being developed that produces a fuel gas with a heating value of 500 Btu/SCF from diverse forms of biomass, including shredded bark, wood chips, and sawdust. The system uses a high throughput, non-oxygen gasifier that employs sand circulation to supply process heat. Results obtained with a 10-inch I.D. gasifier are presented and compared with those in a 6-inch I.D. reactor. Feed rates up to 12 tons/day (dry) have been achieved corresponding to a specific wood throughput of 2000 lbs/ft/sup 2/-hr. Gas compositions in the two reactors are in excellent agreement and performance in the larger reactor, as measured by carbon conversion, is significantly improved. Cost projections comparing this process with direct combustion are presented that indicate gasification technology should have very significant cost advantages for both generation of plant steam and cogeneration of electricity. 5 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. First observations of Trimpi events at Durban (L = 1. 69) using an OMSKI receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Friedel, R.H.W.; Hughes, A.R.W. ); Dowden, R.L.; Adams, C.D.D. )

    1993-02-01

    We report observations of transient ionospheric disturbances at VLF reflection heights, manifested as perturbations on sub-ionospherically propagating VLF transmitter signals: Trimpi events. Four VLF transmitter signals were monitored at Durban using an OM- SKI receiver. Both traditional Trimpi events and a new dome shaped event were observed at Durban. Occurrence of Trimpis at low L values can be interpreted as the precipitation of very high energy electrons which are capable of producing events during daylight, or as evidence of the fast Trimpi mechanism which could dominate at low L. The average winter event rate observed at Durban was quite low (7 per day on four transmitter signals) but during one very active period on the NAA-Durban signal 88 Trimpi events were observed in 2 hours. This activity was linked to an isolated thunderstorm occurring over the signal path over South Africa. 26 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Preferential solvation of polyvinylacetate (PVA) in water-ethanol mixtures and its effect on the permeability properties of PVA-membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Neidlinger, H.H.

    1985-05-01

    The preferential interaction of polyvinylacetate (PVA) with one of the solvent components in water-ethanol mixtures has been investigated by the method of equilibrium dialysis, evaluated by differential refractometry. It has been found that at a 1:1 molar ratio of water-ethanol there occurs an inversion point of preferential solvation. The overall solvation was determined from intrinsic viscosity and equilibrium swelling measurements. Its plot versus the composition of the binary solvent has a maximum that practically coincides with the inversion point of the preferential solvation. These results are compared with those obtained from pervaporation studies carried out on PVA-membranes in the same solvent system, and they are discussed in terms of the existence of special interaction phenomena due to hydrogen bonding effects. It can be concluded that for the system investigated preferential solvation parameters help to understand, but do not necessarily predict, membrane permselectivity. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-12-27

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

  8. Suggested techniques, equipment, and standards for the testing of hand insecticide-spraying equipment

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Lawrence B.

    1955-01-01

    The new demands placed upon application equipment by the introduction of modern insecticides have revealed the deficiencies of this equipment when required for continuous use on a large scale. If adequate equipment is to be produced, specifications must be based not only on basic materials tests but also on “use” tests, in which the conditions of field use are simulated. The author outlines suggested techniques to be followed and standards to be adopted in testing the performance of compression sprayers and allied equipment, with reference to the following features: compression-sprayer tank fatigue; tank impact; pump resistance to bursting; pump resistance to collapse; pump friction; cut-off valve durability; constant-pressure valves; cut-off valve actuation; hose flexure; hose tension and bursting-pressure; hose friction; gaskets, valve faces, and similar non-metallic parts; nozzle-orifice erosion; and nozzle pattern. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 14FIG. 20 PMID:14364189

  9. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  10. Polarization-independent optical wavelength filter for channel dropping applications

    DOEpatents

    Deri, R.J.; Patterson, F.

    1996-05-07

    The polarization dependence of optical wavelength filters is eliminated by using waveguide directional couplers. Material birefringence is used to compensate for the waveguide (electromagnetic) birefringence which is the original cause of the polarization dependence. Material birefringence is introduced in a controllable fashion by replacing bulk waveguide layers by finely layered composites, such as multiple quantum wells using III-V semiconductor materials. The filter has use in wavelength-division multiplexed fiber optic communication systems. This filter has broad application for wavelength-tunable receivers in fiber optic communication links, which may be used for telecommunications, optical computer interconnect links, or fiber optic sensor systems. Since multiple-wavelength systems are increasingly being used for all of these applications, the filter is useable whenever a rapidly tunable, wavelength-filtering receiver is required. 14 figs.

  11. Self-adjustable supplemental support system for a cylindrical container in a housing

    DOEpatents

    Blaushild, R.M.

    1987-01-30

    A self-adjustable supplementary support system for a cylindrical container coaxially disposed in a cylindrical housing by upper flanged supports has a plurality of outwardly extending bracket units on the external surface of the container which coact with inwardly extending resiliently outwardly extending bracket units on the inner wall of the cylindrical housing. The bracket units have flanges which form a concave surface that seats on support bars, attached by links to torsion bars that are secured to ring segments annularly spaced about the inner wall of the cylindrical housing and the bracket units and support bars coact with each other to radially position and support the container in the housing during movement of the two components from a vertical to a horizontal position, and during transportation of the same. 14 figs.

  12. First results from electron-photon damage equivalence studies on a generic ethylene-propylene rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Buckalew, W.H.

    1986-04-01

    As part of a simulator adequacy assessment program, the relative effectiveness of electrons and photons to produce damage in a generic ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) has been investigated. The investigation was limited in extent in that a single EPR material, in three thickness, was exposed to Cobalt-60 photons and three electron beam energies. Basing material damage on changes in the EPR mechanical properties elongation and tensile strength, we observed that EPR damage was a smoothly varying function of absorbed energy and independent of irradiating particle type. EPR damage tracked equally well as a function of both incident particle energy and material front surface dose. Based on these preliminary data, we tentatively concluded that a correlation between particle, particle energy, and material damage (as measured by changes in material elongation and/or tensile strength) has been demonstrated. 14 figs.

  13. Benchmarking the RELAP5/MOD2. 5 r-. Theta. model of an SRS (Savannah River Site) reactor to the 1989 L-Reactor tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, J.S. ); Davis, C.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Benchmarking calculations utilizing RELAP5/MOD2.5 with a detailed multi-dimensional r-{theta} model of the SRS L-Reactor will be presented. This benchmarking effort has provided much insight into the two-component two-phase behavior of the reactor under isothermal conditions with large quantities of air ingested from the moderator tank to the external loops. Initial benchmarking results have illuminated several model weaknesses which will be discussed in conjunction with proposed modeling changes. The benchmarking work is being performed to provide a fully qualified RELAP5 model for use in computing the system response to a double ended large break LOCA. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  14. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10/sup 12/ watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10/sup 9/ watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/. Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs.

  15. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho and surrounding area, June--July 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.A.

    1987-02-01

    Three aerial radiological surveys were conducted during the period 16 June through 15 July 1986 over the towns of Pocatello, Soda Springs, and Fort Hall, Idaho and the surrounding areas. The surveys were performed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), utilizing the Aerial Measuring System (AMS). This work was completed in cooperation with a study by the EPA to conduct a dose assessment of human radiation exposure for industrial sources in Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. The aerial surveys were performed to document the natural terrestrial radiological environment of the three localities and to map the spatial extent and degree of contamination due to phosphate milling operations. The results of these surveys will be used for planning ground-based measurements in addition to being incorporated into the dose assessment document. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOEpatents

    Lu, W.Y.; Min, S.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc. 14 figs.

  18. DANIEL: A computer code for high-speed dusty gas flows with multiple particle sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, M.

    1989-05-01

    This report describes a calculational model for nonreacting high-speed gas-particle flow dynamics. Differential equations are derived for a compressible, polytropic dusty gas with suspended larger particles. Dust is described as rigid particles small enough to maintain temperature and velocity equilibrium with the clean gas. The larger particles are rigid, noncolliding spheres of various sizes having velocities and temperatures significantly different from those of the gas. Exchange terms are included in the differential equations to account for momentum and energy transfer between the dusty gas and the particles. An explicit, Eulerian numerical algorithm approximates the solution of the differential equations. This algorithm is used to simulate volcanic pyroclastic fountaining. The numerical technique produces plausible volcanic eruption models. These results support the appropriateness of further code development, including adaptation to low flow speeds, turbulence transport and diffusion, and swirl. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Fingerprinting hydrocarbons in the biological resources of the Exxon Valdez spill area

    SciTech Connect

    Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    A procedure has been developed that discriminates Exxon Valdez crude from other sources of hydrocarbons found in Prince Williams Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. The procedure uses polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to fingerprint sample extracts. The relative abundances of alkylated phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes, and chrysenes are used to differentiate Exxon Valdez crude and its weathering products from other hydrocarbons. Saturate fraction distributions are used to confirm the PAH identification whenever possible. The procedure has been applied to the more than 1,500 PAH analyses of tissues reported by the Oil Spill Health Task Force, formed after the spill to assess subsistence food safety, and nearly 4,700 PAH analyses of biological samples in PWSOIL, the government`s damage-assessment chemistry database. These two datasets constitute the largest collection of hydrocarbon analyses of biological samples form the spill-impact zone. 70 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density. 14 figs.

  1. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  2. Slow-mode shocks in the earth's magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    The locations and structure of slow-mode shocks in the earth's magnetosphere are reviewed. To date, such shocks have only been identified along the high latitude portions of the lobe-plasma sheet boundary of the geomagnetic tail. Although their intrinsic thickness is of the order of the upstream ion inertial length, they affect the internal state of a relatively much larger volume of surrounding plasma. In particular, they support a well-developed foreshock very similar to that observed upstream of the earth's bow shock, and a turbulent, strongly convecting downstream flow. They also figure importantly in the energy budget of geomagnetic substorms and produce effects which are closely analogous to much of the phenomenology known from solar observations to be associated with two-ribbon flares. 74 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Sensitivity of Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) calculated air pollutant concentrations to the vertical diffusion parameterization during convective meteorological situations

    SciTech Connect

    Nowacki, P.; Samson, P.J.; Sillman, S.

    1996-10-01

    It is shown that Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) calculated air pollutant concentrations during photochemical smog episodes in Atlanta, Georgia, depend strongly on the numerical parameterization of the daytime vertical diffusivity. Results found suggest that vertical mixing is overestimated by the UAM-IV during unstable daytime conditions, as calculated vertical diffusivity values exceed measured and comparable literature values. Although deviations between measured and UAM-IV calculated air pollutant concentrations may only in part be due the UAM-IV diffusivity parameterization, results indicate the large error potential in vertical diffusivity parameterization. Easily implemented enhancements to UAM-IV algorithms are proposed, thus improving UAM-IV modeling performance during unstable stratification. 38 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Application of continuous substrate feeding to the ABE fermentation: Relief of product inhibition using extraction, perstraction, stripping, and pervaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, N.; Maddox, I.S.; Friedl, A.

    1992-09-01

    The technique of continuous substrate feeding has been applied to the batch fermentation process using freely suspended cells, for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production. To avoid the product inhibition which normally restricts ABE production to less than 20 g/L and sugar utilization to 60 g/L, a product removal technique has been integrated into the fermentation process. The techniques investigated were liquid-liquid extraction, perstraction, gas-stripping, and pervaporation. By using a substrate of whey permeate, the reactor productivity has been improved over that observed in a traditional batch fermentation, while equivalent lactose utilization and ABE production values of 180 g and 69 g, respectively, have been achieved in a 1-L culture volume. 17 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. The earth-coupled heat pump: Utilizing innovative technology in single family rehabilitation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    The study examines the feasibility of incorporating the use of earth-coupled heat pump technology in single-family housing rehabilitation projects, based on energy conservation attributes and financial considerations. Following evaluation of a theoretical model which indicated that installations of the heat pumps were feasible, the heat pumps were tested under actual conditions in five single family housing units which were part of the Urban Homesteading Program, and were matched with comparable units which did not receive special treatment. Energy consumption information was collected for all units for twelve months. Variables were identified, and the data was analyzed for individual housing units and compared with the results predicted by the theoretical model to determine the practicality of incorporating such technology in large scale rehabilitation projects. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Index structures for selective dissemination of information under the Boolean model

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.W.; Garcia-Molina, H.

    1994-06-01

    The number, size, and user population of bibliographic and full-text document databases are rapidly growing. With a high document arrival rate, it becomes essential for users of such databases to have access to the very latest documents; yet the high document arrival rate also makes it difficult for users to keep themselves updated. It is desirable to allow users to submit profiles, i.e., queries that are constantly evaluated, so that they will be automatically informed of new additions that may be of interest. Such service is traditionally called Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI). The high document arrival rate, the huge number of users, and the timeliness requirement of the service pose a challenge in achieving efficient SDI. In this article, we propose several index structures for indexing profiles and algorithms that efficiently match documents against large number of profiles. We also present analysis and simulation results to compare their performance under different scenarios. 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Sphericity determination using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, R.D.; Migliori, A.; Visscher, W.M.

    1994-10-18

    A method is provided for grading production quantities of spherical objects, such as roller balls for bearings. A resonant ultrasound spectrum (RUS) is generated for each spherical object and a set of degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies is identified. From the degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies and known relationships between degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies and Poisson's ratio, a Poisson's ratio can be determined, along with a 'best' spherical diameter, to form spherical parameters for the sphere. From the RUS, fine-structure resonant frequency spectra are identified for each degenerate sphere-resonance frequency previously selected. From each fine-structure spectrum and associated sphere parameter values an asphericity value is determined. The asphericity value can then be compared with predetermined values to provide a measure for accepting or rejecting the sphere. 14 figs.

  8. Spectroscopy of the UPSILON(2S) with the Crystal Ball

    SciTech Connect

    Irion, J.

    1985-04-01

    The Crystal Ball experiment has been taking data at the DORIS II storage ring at DESY/Hamburg on the UPSILON(2S) and UPSILON(1S) resonances since summer 1982. Results on the hadronic transitions between the UPSILON(2S) and the UPSILON(1S) are presented as well as measurements of the radiative decays of the UPSILON(2S) to the chi/sub b/ states in inclusive and exclusive channels. The exclusive UPSILON(2S) ..-->.. ..gamma..chi/sub b/ ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..UPSILON(1S) ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..l/sup +/l/sup -/ sample allows a study of the spins of the chi/sub b/ states. Also discussed is the present status of the zeta(8.3) in the radiative decays of the UPSILON(1S). 22 refs., 14 figs.

  9. Space propulsion by fusion in a magnetic dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Glass, A.J.; Fowler, T.K. ); Hasegawa, A. ); Santarius, J.F. . Fusion Technology Inst.)

    1991-04-12

    A conceptual design is discussed for a fusion rocket propulsion system based on the magnetic dipole configuration. The dipole is found to have features well suited to space applications. Example parameters are presented for a system producing a specific power of 1 kW/kg, capable of interplanetary flights to Mars in 90 days and to Jupiter in a year, and of extra-solar-system flights to 1000 astronomical units (the Tau mission) in 20 years. This is about 10 times better specific power toward 10 kW/kg are discussed, as in an approach to implementing the concept through proof-testing on the moon. 21 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Space propulsion by fusion in a magnetic dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Glass, A.J.; Fowler, T.K. ); Hasegawa, A. ); Santarius, J.F. . Fusion Technology Inst.)

    1991-07-15

    The unique advantages of fusion rocket propulsion systems for distant missions are explored using the magnetic dipole configurations as an example. The dipole is found to have features well suited to space applications. Parameters are presented for a system producing a specific power of kW/kg, capable of interplanetary flights to Mars in 90 days and to Jupiter in a year, and of extra-solar-system flights to 1000 astronomical units (the Tau mission) in 20 years. This is about 10 times better specific power performance than nuclear electric fission systems. Possibilities to further increase the specific power toward 10 kW/kg are discussed, as is an approach to implementing the concept through proof-testing on the moon. 20 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Engine testing of thermographic phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.; Cates, M.R.; Beshears, D.L.; Muhs, J.D.; Capps, G.J.; Smith, D.B. ); Turley, W.D.; Lewis, W. . Energy Measurements Group); Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M. ); O'Brian, W.F.; Roby, R.J.; Anderson, T.T. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-05-01

    A thermographic phosphor technique is being developed for nonintrusive high temperature analysis of the hostile environments associated with turbomachinery. This unique noncontact measurement system will eventually be applied to high-speed, rotating surfaces whose direct analysis has been unobtainable with current temperature-sensing devices and systems. Two experiments are reported which involve static surface temperature measurements in a Pratt Whitney PW2037 turbine engine, and dynamic surface temperature measurements in a Pratt Whitney JT15D turbofan jet engine. The thermographic phosphor materials applied to these engine environments were europium-doped yttrium oxide (T{sub 2}O{sub 3}:E{sub u}) and europium-doped yttrium vanadate (YVO{sub 4}:E{sub u}). The excitation energy was supplied by a tripled neodymium YAG (Nd:YAG) laser at 355 nm. 11 refs., 14 figs.

  12. Systems and methods for optically measuring properties of hydrocarbon fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.; Gersh, M.E.; Goldstein, N.

    1998-10-13

    A system and method for optical interrogation and measurement of a hydrocarbon fuel gas includes a light source generating light at near-visible wavelengths. A cell containing the gas is optically coupled to the light source which is in turn partially transmitted by the sample. A spectrometer disperses the transmitted light and captures an image thereof. The image is captured by a low-cost silicon-based two-dimensional CCD array. The captured spectral image is processed by electronics for determining energy or BTU content and composition of the gas. The innovative optical approach provides a relatively inexpensive, durable, maintenance-free sensor and method which is reliable in the field and relatively simple to calibrate. In view of the above, accurate monitoring is possible at a plurality of locations along the distribution chain leading to more efficient distribution. 14 figs.

  13. Shock-wave equation-of-state studies at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    A history of the shock-wave equation-of-state (EOS) studies at Los Alamos is given. Particular emphasis is placed on the pioneering research in the 1950s where many of the experimental techniques and methods of analysis were developed, which we now take for granted. A brief review of shock-wave physics is given, which illustrates important hydrodynamic and thermodynamic concepts. Recent studies on the EOS of Ti are presented with emphasis on the {alpha}-to-{omega} phase transition. VISAR wave profiles on polycrystalline Ni and single-crystal Ni are presented to determine the strengths of these materials at pressure. Low-density polystyrene foam Hugoniot experiments are described and results analyzed. 21 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Fiscal year 1989 annual report for the Sensors Development Program: Inert Electrodes Program

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Koski, O.H.; Stice, N.D.; Morgan, L.G. ); Nikias, C.L. )

    1990-04-01

    The Sensors Development Program is conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Programs (OIP). The work is being performed in conjunction with the Inert Electrodes Program at PNL. The objectives of the Sensors Development Program are to (1) investigate and develop methods of process monitoring/control for operating electrolytic cells and (2) determine safe operating conditions for the inert anodes. The majority of work in FY 1989 involved (1) evaluating Digital Signal Analysis (DSA) methods to monitor inert anode operation and to determine alumina concentration in both PNL bench-scale laboratory cells and the Prototype Inert Anode Test and (2) developing the reference anode against which inert anode voltage signals could be measured by the DSA-based or other methods. 3 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Color removal from textile effluents by electrochemical destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Oeguetveren, U.B.; Koparal, S. )

    1994-01-01

    In this work, aqueous solutions of three azo dyes and a waste water sample taking from a local textile plant have been studied. Effect of several factors such as color, pH, presence of NaCl, applied potential, initial dye concentration and solution flow rate on the removal rate has been investigated. Energy consumption values have been calculated for different initial dye concentrations and flow rates, and shown as the function of applied potential. Removal rates of 98%, 86% and 85% have been achieved with energy consumption values of 0.044 kWhg[sup [minus]1], 0.106 kWhg[sup [minus]1] and 0.044 kWhg[sup [minus]1] for Ostazin Rod H3B, Ostazin Black HN and Ostazin Olive HG respectively. Removal rate of 82% with energy consumption value of 2 kWhm[sup [minus]3] has been observed for textile effluent. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  17. Preliminary results from the dynamic response testing of the Howden 330-kw HAWT (horizontal-axis wind turbine)

    SciTech Connect

    Hock, S M; Hausfeld, T E; Hampson, G; Thresher, R W

    1987-10-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Field Test Program, Southern California Edison (SCE) and the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) performed a comprehensive dynamic response test on the 330-kW, horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) manufactured by the James Howden Company. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of some data from the test. The data were analyzed using different statistical approaches. First, the mean turbine operating conditions were analyzed using the method of bins. In addition, azimuth averaging was used to separate the deterministic responses from the stochastic responses. The results presented include comparisons of mean power and load versus wind speed. Deterministic rotor-bending loads are plotted as a function of blade azimuth position. Auto-spectral density plots are also computed for the stochastic portion of the rotor blade root-bending moments to determine their dynamic responses to turbulent wind inputs. 2 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Apparatus for the field determination of concentration of radioactive constituents in a medium

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, R.W.; Schilk, A.J.; Warner, R.A.; Wogman, N.A.

    1995-08-15

    The instant invention is an apparatus for determining the concentration of radioactive constituents in a test sample; such as surface soils, via rapid real-time analyses, and direct readout on location utilizing a probe made up of multiple layers of detection material used in combination with an analyzer and real-time readout unit. This is accomplished by comparing the signal received from the probe, which can discriminate between types of radiation and energies with stored patterns that are based upon experimental results. This comparison can be used in the calibration of a readout display that reads out in real-time the concentrations of constituents per given volume. For example, the concentration of constituents such as Cs-137, Sr-90, U-238 in the soil, and noble gas radionuclides such as Kr-85 in the atmosphere, can be measured in real-time, on location, without the need for laboratory analysis of samples. 14 figs.

  19. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Expert system for identification of simultaneous and sequential reactor fuel failures with gas tagging

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1994-07-26

    Failure of a fuel element in a nuclear reactor core is determined by a gas tagging failure detection system and method. Failures are catalogued and characterized after the event so that samples of the reactor's cover gas are taken at regular intervals and analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Employing a first set of systematic heuristic rules which are applied in a transformed node space allows the number of node combinations which must be processed within a barycentric algorithm to be substantially reduced. A second set of heuristic rules treats the tag nodes of the most recent one or two leakers as background'' gases, further reducing the number of trial node combinations. Lastly, a fuzzy'' set theory formalism minimizes experimental uncertainties in the identification of the most likely volumes of tag gases. This approach allows for the identification of virtually any number of sequential leaks and up to five simultaneous gas leaks from fuel elements. 14 figs.

  1. Microvalve

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.; Trevino, J.C.

    1998-10-13

    Micromachined thin film cantilever actuators having means for individually controlling the deflection of the cantilevers, valve members, and rudders for steering same through blood vessels, or positioning same within a blood vessel, for example. Such cantilever actuators include tactile sensor arrays mounted on a catheter or guide wire tip for navigation and tissues identification, shape-memory alloy film based catheter/guide wire steering mechanisms, and rudder-based steering devices that allow the selective actuation of rudders that use the flowing blood itself to help direct the catheter direction through the blood vessel. While particularly adapted for medical applications, these cantilever actuators can be used for steering through piping and tubing systems. 14 figs.

  2. Micromachined actuators/sensors for intratubular positioning/steering

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.; Trevino, J.C.

    1998-06-30

    Micromachined thin film cantilever actuators having means for individually controlling the deflection of the cantilevers, valve members, and rudders for steering same through blood vessels, or positioning same within a blood vessel, for example. Such cantilever actuators include tactile sensor arrays mounted on a catheter or guide wire tip for navigation and tissues identification, shape-memory alloy film based catheter/guide wire steering mechanisms, and rudder-based steering devices that allow the selective actuation of rudders that use the flowing blood itself to help direct the catheter direction through the blood vessel. While particularly adapted for medical applications, these cantilever actuators can be used for steering through piping and tubing systems. 14 figs.

  3. Automated operator procedure prompting for startup of Experimental Breeder Reactor-2

    SciTech Connect

    Renshaw, A.W.; Ball, S.J.; Ford, C.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the development of an operator procedure prompting aid for startup of a nuclear reactor. This operator aid is a preliminary design for a similar aid that eventually will be used with the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) presently in the design stage. Two approaches were used to develop this operator procedure prompting aid. One method uses an expert system software shell, and the other method uses database software. The preliminary requirements strongly pointed toward features traditionally associated with both database and expert systems software. Database software usually provides data manipulation flexibility and user interface tools, and expert systems tools offer sophisticated data representation and reasoning capabilities. Both methods, including software and associated hardware, are described in this report. Proposals for future enhancements to improve the expert system approach to procedure prompting and for developing other operator aids are also offered. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Hanford Site waste management and environmental restoration integration plan

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, D.L.

    1990-04-30

    The Hanford Site Waste Management and Environmental Restoration Integration Plan'' describes major actions leading to waste disposal and site remediation. The primary purpose of this document is to provide a management tool for use by executives who need to quickly comprehend the waste management and environmental restoration programs. The Waste Management and Environmental Restoration Programs have been divided into missions. Waste Management consists of five missions: double-shell tank (DST) wastes; single-shell tank (SST) wastes (surveillance and interim storage, stabilization, and isolation); encapsulated cesium and strontium; solid wastes; and liquid effluents. Environmental Restoration consists of two missions: past practice units (PPU) (including characterization and assessment of SST wastes) and surplus facilities. For convenience, both aspects of SST wastes are discussed in one place. A general category of supporting activities is also included. 20 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  6. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Small Angle Physics at CDF: A Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Paoletti, Riccardo

    1989-12-16

    In 1989 CDF collected data in special high beta runs with a trigger selecting elastic and inelastic events in order to measure the total cross section ({sigma}{sub tot}) and the differential elastic cross section (d{sigma}{sub el}/dt). Data were taken at cms energies of 300, 540, 1000 and 1800 GeV. A double arm magnetic spectrometer located along the beam pipe tags the particles scattered at very small angles and tracking detectors surrounding the interaction point reveal particles produced at larger angles. We discuss the status of the analysis of elastic and inelastic events with emphasis on the event selection and the background subtraction. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z. ); Church, E.L. . Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Method and apparatus for automatically detecting patterns in digital point-ordered signals

    DOEpatents

    Brudnoy, D.M.

    1998-10-20

    The present invention is a method and system for detecting a physical feature of a test piece by detecting a pattern in a signal representing data from inspection of the test piece. The pattern is detected by automated additive decomposition of a digital point-ordered signal which represents the data. The present invention can properly handle a non-periodic signal. A physical parameter of the test piece is measured. A digital point-ordered signal representative of the measured physical parameter is generated. The digital point-ordered signal is decomposed into a baseline signal, a background noise signal, and a peaks/troughs signal. The peaks/troughs from the peaks/troughs signal are located and peaks/troughs information indicating the physical feature of the test piece is output. 14 figs.

  10. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2a, Below-ground vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and the US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the below-ground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. A BGV is a reinforced concrete vault (floor, walls, and roof) placed underground below the frost line, and above the water table, surrounded by filter blanket and drainage zones and covered with a low permeability earth layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the BGV structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for seven of the eight major categories. 59 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect

    Olesik, S.

    1990-01-01

    The work completed this past quarter has centered around the further study and characterization of the selective desulfurization of coal through the oxidative interaction of aqueous copper chloride. The reaction of the CuCl{sub 2} with the particular model compounds is conducted at a series of reaction times and reaction temperatures. The reaction times studied were 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours. The reaction temperatures studied were 50, 130, 210, and 295{degree}C. After the reaction, the organic compounds were extracted with methylene chloride. These products were then analyzed via GC/IRD/MS and SFC/SCD (sulfur chemiluminescence detector). Model Coal Compounds reacted include: tetrahydrothiophene, methyl p-tolyl sulfide, cyclohexyl mercaptan, and thiophenol. At 130{degree}C, in addition to these compounds reacting, reactions were also detected for phenyl sulfide and benzo(b)thiophene. 14 figs.

  12. Strengthening mechanisms of tungsten powder reinforced uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.K.; Hill, M.A.; Rollett, A.D.; Dunn, P.S.; Mortensen, A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA )

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten powder reinforced uranium exhibits a three-fold increase in yield strength due to precipitation hardening. The tungsten-rich interphase precipitates form at moving phase boundaries during slow cooling. Further increases in yield strength, attained with increasing tungsten content, are due to composite strengthening; this is verified by increasing elastic modulus with increasing tungsten content. Age hardening behavior is observed, with strengthening occurring at aging temperatures low in the alpha phase. Aging higher in alpha gives initial strengthening followed by rapid overaging. Beta phase aging results in a very soft structure with precipitates visible optically. Wrought material exhibits significant strain hardening as well as composite strengthening due to elongation of the tungsten particles. 7 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Detoxification and generation of useful products from coal combustion wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-21

    Electric utilities are on the brink of a new era in waste disposal problems. This research project addresses the issue of how to effectively dispose of flyash, bottom ash, desulfurization sludge through the generation of chemically-hardened material that could potentially be used as a cement or as a synthetic aggregate. The specific goals of this study were: (1) to study the hardness of mixtures of flyash, bottom ash, and DSG treated with lime and other hardening agents; (2) to determine the optimum solids content, setting time, moisture content, and post setting treatments that will yield the greatest strength and hardness out of these mixtures; and (3) to determine the leachability of the synthetic material as a measure of its ability to retain absorbed and/or entrained toxic metals. 50 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOEpatents

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1995-12-19

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances. 15 figs.

  15. Diagenesis and fluid evolution of deeply buried Permian (Rotliegende) gas reservoirs, Northwest Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Gaupp, R. ); Matter, A.; Ramseyer, K.; Platt, J. ); Walzebuck, J. )

    1993-07-01

    Depositional environment and tectonic setting were important in the diagenesis and evolution of reservoir properties in the Rotliegende sequence of the North German Basin. Facies belts paralleling the edge of a central saline lake controlled the distribution of early and shallow burial cements. Lake shoreline sands with radial chlorite cement show the best reservoir properties in the study area. Juxtaposition of Rotliegende deposits against either Carboniferous Coal Measures or Late Permian (Zechstein) evaporites by faulting resulted in cross-formational fluid exchange. The introduction of fluids from Carboniferous Coal Measures into Rotliegende reservoirs produced intense clay cementation, significantly reducing rock permeabilities. Influx of Zechstein fluids favored precipitation of late carbonate and anhydrite cements. Cross-formational and fault-related fluid flow was enhanced during periods of fault activity. 50 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Comparison of shock severity measures

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to clarify the issues associated with quantifying shock severity, this paper compares the merits of two measures of shock severity. The first measure is the widely used absolute acceleration shock response spectrum (SAA). The second measure of shock severity is relatively new and is known as the shock intensity spectrum (SIS). Overall information content of SAA and SIS spectra are compared and discussed in the context of two shock excitations having known amplitude, duration, and frequency content. The first is a burst of band-limited white noise and the second is a classical haversine pulse. After describing both the SAA and SIS shock measures, numerous examples are described which emphasize the strengths and limitations of each shock characterization method. This discussion reveals how the use of different shock measures may alter an engineer's conclusions about relative shock severity between two shock environments. 8 refs., 15 figs.

  18. Genes and gene expression: Localization, damage and control -- A multilevel and inter-disciplinary study

    SciTech Connect

    Ts'o, P.O.P.

    1990-09-01

    All projects are working toward a goal for describing the three dimensional nuclear topography in terms of relative spatial relationships among genes (specific DNA sequence). Methods are now being perfected to detect these genes, quantitatively and spatially, to perturb these genes specifically, and to measure the perturbation in order to assure specificity. We are developing methods to assay, after perturbation of the target DNA within living cells, whether or not only the target sequence are attacked while other sequences remain unharmed. We are now at the stage to do chemical gene modification or masking within living cells in a strictly sequence-specific manner. Soon, we will be able to study the function and the physical location of each gene in living cells with exquisite specificity. 25 refs., 15 figs.

  19. Geothermal demonstration: Zunil food dehydration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, O. ); Altseimer, J.; Thayer, G.R. ); Cooper, L. ); Caicedo, A. . Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1991-08-01

    A food dehydration facility was constructed near the town of Zunil, Guatemala, to demonstrate the use of geothermal energy for industrial applications. The facility, with some modifications to the design, was found to work quite satisfactorily. Tests using five different products were completed during the time geothermal energy was used in the plant. During the time the plant was not able to use geothermal energy, a temporary diesel-fueled boiler provided the energy to test dehydration on seven other crops available in this area. The system demonstrates that geothermal heat can be used successfully for dehydrating food products. Many other industrial applications of geothermal energy could be considered for Zunil since a considerable amount of moderate-temperature heat will become available when the planned geothermal electrical facility is constructed there. 6 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Workshops and problems for benchmarking eddy current codes

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Davey, K.; Ida, N.; Rodger, D.; Kameari, A.; Bossavit, A.; Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-08-01

    A series of six workshops was held in 1986 and 1987 to compare eddy current codes, using six benchmark problems. The problems included transient and steady-state ac magnetic fields, close and far boundary conditions, magnetic and non-magnetic materials. All the problems were based either on experiments or on geometries that can be solved analytically. The workshops and solutions to the problems are described. Results show that many different methods and formulations give satisfactory solutions, and that in many cases reduced dimensionality or coarse discretization can give acceptable results while reducing the computer time required. A second two-year series of TEAM (Testing Electromagnetic Analysis Methods) workshops, using six more problems, is underway. 12 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. An assessment of the risk significance of human errors in selected PSAs and operating events

    SciTech Connect

    Palla, R.L. Jr.; El-Bassioni, A. . Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation); Higgins, J. )

    1991-01-01

    Sensitivity studies based on Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) for a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor are described. In each case human errors modeled in the PSAs were categorized according to such factors as error type, location, timing, and plant personnel involved. Sensitivity studies were then conducted by varying the error rates in each category and evaluating the corresponding change in total core damage frequency and accident sequence frequency. Insights obtained are discussed and reasons for differences in risk sensitivity between plants are explored. A separate investigation into the role of human error in risk-important operating events is also described. This investigation involved the analysis of data from the USNRC Accident Sequence Precursor program to determine the effect of operator-initiated events on accident precursor trends, and to determine whether improved training can be correlated to current trends. The findings of this study are also presented. 5 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Time-dependent simulations of a Compact Ignition Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Stotler, D.P.; Bateman, G.

    1988-05-01

    Detailed simulations of the Compact Ignition Tokamak are carried out using a 1-1/2-D transport code. The calculations include time-varying densities, fields, and plasma shape. It is shown that ignition can be achieved in this device if somewhat better than L-mode energy confinement time scaling is possible. We also conclude that the performance of such a compact, short-pulse device can depend greatly on how the plasma is evolved to its flat-top parameters. Furthermore, in cases such as the ones discussed here, where there is not a great deal of ignition margin and the electron density is held constant, ignition ends if the helium ash is not removed. In general, control of the deuterium--tritium density is equivalent to burn control. 48 refs., 15 figs.

  3. Mechanical properties of Alloy 718 in a gas-cooled reactor environment

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, H.E.

    1987-10-01

    A brief program was run to evaluate Alloy 718 for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) applications. The testing included short-term tensile tests, impact tests, and creep tests. Samples were aged to 30,000 h at 593 and 649{degree}C in HTGR-He before testing. Short-term tensile tests showed that aging at 593{degree}C resulted in further hardening; aging at 649{degree}C resulted in some softening. The impact energy decreased with aging at both temperatures, with a slight recovery of the loss after very long aging times. Creep results obtained in HTGR-He agreed with data from other sources in which tests had been run in air. Thus, there is no detectable effect of the HTGR-He environment on creep behavior. Carbon analyses of test specimens did not reveal any evidence of carburization at 593 or 649{degree}C. 5 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. What can HELIOS tell us on phase transition of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    En'yo, H.

    1987-01-01

    Transverse energy (E/sub t/) distributions and P/sub t/ spectra of negative particles and photons measured by the HELIOS experiment in 200 GeVN and 60 GeVN oxygen-nucleus reactions are presented. The E/sub t/ distributions are compared to a geometrical parametrization and a Montereverse arrowCarlo calculation, particle spectra to the proton-nucleus reaction case. The comparisons show that yet the results can be understood without assuming quark-gluon plasma formation. A discussion is made based on these comparisons together with an estimate of the energy density of the reaction, attempting to know how close we are to the detection of a phase transition of nuclear matter. 21 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Neutron collar calibration and evaluation for assay of LWR fuel assemblies containing burnable neutron absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, P.W.; Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.; Qiao, S.Z.; Wenz, T.R. ); Verrecchia, G.P.D. . Safeguards Directorate)

    1990-11-01

    The neutron coincidence collar is used to verify the uranium content in light water reactor fuel assemblies. An AmLi neutron source actively interrogates the fuel assembly to measure the {sup 235}U content and the {sup 238}U content can be verified from a passive neutron coincidence measurement. This report gives the collar calibration data for pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies both with and without cadmium liners. Calibration curves and correction factors are presented for neutron absorbers (burnable poisons) and various fuel assembly sizes. The data were collected using the Los Alamos BWR and PWR test assemblies as well as fuel assemblies from several fuel fabrication facilities. 11 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. An overview of BWR Mark-1 containment venting risk implications: An evaluation of potential Mark-1 containment improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, K.C.; Dallman, R.J.; Galyean, W.J.

    1989-06-01

    This report supplements containment venting risk evaluations performed for the Mark-I Containment Performance Improvement (CPI) Program. Quantitative evaluations using simplified containment event trees for station blackout sequences were performed to evaluate potential risk reduction offered by containment venting, and improved automatic depressurization system with a dedicated power source, and an additional supply of water to either the containment sprays or the vessel with a dedicated power source. The risk calculations were based on the Draft NUREG-1150 results for Peach Bottom with selected enhancements. Several sensitivity studies were performed to investigate phenomenological, operational, and equipment performance uncertainties. Qualitative risk evaluations were provided for loss of long-term containment heat removal and anticipated transients without scram for the same set of improvements. A limited discussion is provided on the generic applicability of these results to other plants with Mark-I containments. 23 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Preconceptual design of the new production reactor circulator test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.

    1990-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study of a new circulator test facility for the New Production Reactor Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. The report addresses the preconceptual design of a stand-alone test facility with all the required equipment to test the Main Circulator/shutoff valve and Shutdown Cooling Circulator/shutoff valve. Each type of circulator will be tested in its own full flow, full power helium test loop. Testing will cover the entire operating range of each unit. The loop will include a test vessel, in which the circulator/valve will be mounted, and external piping. The external flow piping will include a throttle valve, flowmeter, and heat exchanger. Subsystems will include helium handling, helium purification, and cooling water. A computer-based data acquisition and control system will be provided. The estimated costs for the design and construction of this facility are included. 2 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

    1989-07-18

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

  10. Superconducting magnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Aized, D.; Schwall, R.E.

    1999-06-22

    A superconducting magnetic coil includes a plurality of sections positioned axially along the longitudinal axis of the coil, each section being formed of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor material wound about a longitudinal axis of the coil and having an associated critical current value that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field of the coil. The cross section of the superconductor, or the type of superconductor material, at sections along the axial and radial axes of the coil are changed to provide an increased critical current at those regions where the magnetic field is oriented more perpendicularly to the conductor plane, to thereby increase the critical current at these regions and to maintain an overall higher critical current of the coil. 15 figs.

  11. Recent developments in neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    I shall attempt to summarize recent developments in the experimental situation in neutrino physics. The paper will deal with recent results, drawing on either published work or research that has been presented in preprint form, as there is an adequate supply of interesting and controversial data restricting oneself to these generally more reliable sources. The discussion of the theoretical implication of these experimental results will be presented in the following paper by Boris Kayser. The topics to be covered in this presentation are: direct measurements of {bar {nu}}{sub e} mass via beta endpoint studies; status of solar neutrino observations; status of 17-keV neutrino'' reports; and the use of {nu}p elastic scattering to determine the strange quark'' content of the proton. 2 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Test and analysis results for two Synergy Power Corp. wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.; Hansen, C.

    1996-12-31

    The testing and modeling of small (rotor diameter 10.3 m and 12.8 m) wind turbines is the subject of this paper. The paper focuses primarily on the ADAMS computer model for dynamic analysis. The code calculates design loads, optimizes tilt configuration, and helps to interpret test results. A comparison of some of the modeling predictions is made to test data for validation purposes. The ADAMS model was found to accurately predict performance characteristics and loads for free-tilting turbines. ADAMS was found to be relatively successful in modeling the free tilt and variable rotors. The model also showed that tilting behavior is dependent on the restoring moment from the rotor aerodynamics as well as on surface aerodynamics. The effects of changes in air density on the power curve, load predictions, and analysis of emergency stops were also performed satisfactorily with the model. 15 figs.

  13. ASP (AntiSubmarine Penetrator) base plate redesign and explosive bolt test

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.K.; Wolfe, W.P.

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the results of a post-flight investigation of the Rocket Antisubmarine Penetrator (RAP) tests of the AntiSubmarine Penetrator (ASP). It focuses on the cause for the premature deployment of the on-board recovery system and the failure of the base pressure transducers. As a result of the investigation, the base plate of the ASP vehicle was modified to increase its structural stiffness. Also, an instrumented test was conducted to assess the environment that is created when the three explosive bolts are activated to separate the vehicle from the interstage adapter and the rocket booster. The results of this test are presented and discussed. 5 refs., 15 figs.

  14. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Annual 1997, Volume 2 contains annual summary statistics at national, regional, and state levels for the electric power industry, including information on both electric utilities and nonutility power producers. Included are data for electric utility retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; power transactions; and demand-side management. Also included are data for US nonutility power producers on installed capacity; gross generation; emissions; and supply and disposition of energy. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. 15 figs., 62 tabs.

  15. Preliminary design for a pierce wiggler beamstick and addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkle, D.

    1988-05-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing a fast tunable microwave source for operation at 250 GHz and 10kW peak output power. This report presents the preliminary design of a Pierce gun and solenoid magnet that will be compatible with a Pierce-wiggler electron beam formation system (beamstick). The beamstick will be an appropriate power source for a tunable gyro-BWO at 250 GHz. Figure 1 presents the major components of the Pierce-wiggler beamstick: the electron gun, solenoid, beam tunnel, wiggler, and vacuum valve. Figure 2 shows an artistic conception of how the beamstick will interface with the interaction magnet, modulator and gyro-BWO circuit at MIT. 15 figs.

  16. Surface treatment of ceramic articles

    DOEpatents

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, C.S.

    1998-12-22

    A process is disclosed for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article. 15 figs.

  17. Measurement of two-phase flow momentum with force transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.; Smith, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two strain-gage-based drag transducers were developed to measure two-phase flow in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) test facilities. One transducer, a drag body (DB), was designed to measure the bidirectional average momentum flux passing through an end box. The second drag sensor, a break through detector (BTD), was designed to sense liquid downflow from the upper plenum to the core region. After prototype sensors passed numerous acceptance tests, transducers were fabricated and installed in two experimental test facilities, one in Japan and one in West Germany. High-quality data were extracted from both the DBs and BTDs for a variety of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. The information collected from these sensors has added to the understanding of the thermohydraulic phenomena that occur during the refill/reflood stage of a LOCA in a PWR. 9 refs., 15 figs.

  18. Initial size distributions and hygroscopicity of indoor combustion aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Hopke, P.K.

    1993-10-01

    Cigarette smoke, incense smoke, natural gas flames, propane fuel flames, and candle flames are contributors of indoor aerosol particles. To provide a quantitative basis for the modeling of inhaled aerosol deposition pattern, the hygroscopic growth of particles from these five sources as well as the source size distributions were measured. Because the experiments were performed on the bases of particles of single size, it provided not only the averaged particle`s hygroscopic growth of each source, but also the detailed size change for particles of different sizes within the whole size spectrum. The source particle size distribution measurements found that cigarette smoke and incense smoke contained particles in the size range of 100-700 nm, while the natural gas, propane, and candle flames generated particles between 10 and 100 nm. The hygroscopic growth experiments showed that these combustion aerosol particles could grow 10% to 120%, depending on the particle sizes and origins. 18 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Flexture plate motion-transfer mechanism, beam-splitter assembly, and interferometer incorporating the same

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, R.M.; Dettori, M.D.; Grigely, L.J.; Murray, T.C.; Solomon, P.R.; Dine, C.P. Van; Wright, D.D.

    1996-01-23

    A multiplicity of one-piece flexure plates are assembled in pairs to provide a support system on which a retroreflector may be mounted for reciprocal motion. Combined with balance bodies, the flexure plates provide a support system having portions that are dynamically and statically balanced with one another, irrespective of orientation, so as to thereby immunize the unit against extraneous forces. The motion transfer assembly is especially adapted for use to support a moving retroreflector in a two-arm interferometer that may further include a beamsplitter assembly constructed from a one-piece, integrally formed body, the body having convergent, optically flat planar surfaces of specular reflectance, and means for adjustably mounting a beamsplitter therein. The spectrometer is of modular construction, and employs an integrated clocking sub-assembly as well as a light-weight voice-coil motor. 15 figs.

  20. User's guide to a data base of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Defferding, J.; Chapman, E.G.; Bettinson, M.D.; Glantz, C.S.

    1987-11-01

    This document describes how to use a data base of current transboundary region environmental monitoring projects. The data base was prepared from data provided by Glantz et al. (1986) and Concord Scientific Corporation (1985), and contains information on 226 projects with monitoring stations located within 400 km (250 mi) of the US-Canadian border. The data base is designed for use with the dBASE III PLUS data management systems on IBM-compatible personal computers. Data-base searches are best accomplished using an accompanying command file called RETRIEVE or the dBASE command LIST. The user must carefully select the substrings on which the search is to be based. Example search requests and subsequent output are presented to illustrate substring selections and applications of the data base. 4 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in the John Day Pool. 1982 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Gerard A.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1984-03-01

    This study was initiated to determine the extent of predation by resident populations of native and introduced fish on juvenile salmonids in main stem Columbia River Reservoirs. The John Day Reservoir and tailrace was selected as the study area. First year objectives were: (1) determine whether native and introduced predators preyed on juvenile salmonids; (2) determine which species were major predators; and (3) locate areas where predation was most intense. Results indicated that juvenile salmonids were consumed by all four predatory fish species studied: northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, degree of predation varied among predators as a function of spatial distribution, apparent abundance, size, and temporal feeding behavior. 15 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Interactions of structurally modified surfactants with reservoir minerals: Calorimetric, spectroscopic and electrokinetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.; Sivakumar, A.; Xu, Q.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of this project is to elucidate mechanisms of adsorption of structurally modified surfactants on reservoir minerals and to develop a full understanding of the effect of the surfactant structure on the nature of the adsorbed layers at the molecular level. An additional aim is to study the adsorption of surfactant mixtures on simple well-characterized minerals and on complex minerals representing real conditions. The practical goal of these studies is the identification of the optimum surfactant structures and their combinations for micellar flooding. In this work, the experiments on adsorption were focussed on the position of sulfonate and methyl groups on the aromatic ring of alkyl xylene sulfonates. A multi-pronged approach consisting of calorimetry, electrokinetics, wettability and spectroscopy is planned to elucidate the adsorption mechanism of surfactants and their mixtures on minerals such as alumina and kaolinite. 32 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. The air quality monitoring program for the 1100-EM-1 remedial investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Laws, G.L.

    1990-09-01

    Air quality monitoring for the remedial investigation of the Hanford Site's 1100-EM-1 operable unit was conducted in the spring and fall of 1989 and during January 1990. The monitoring program was divided into two phases. The first phase examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions at three of the operable unit's waste sites before the beginning of intrusive remedial investigation activities. The second phase of monitoring examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions from two of the operable unit's waste sites during intrusive remedial investigation activities. Each phase of the program consisted of a series of monitoring events that measured pollutant concentrations at key locations upwind and downwind of individual waste sites. During each monitoring event, sampling was conducted to determine the air concentrations of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds and semivolatile organic compounds. Monitoring for heavy metals and asbestos was also conducted during some monitoring events. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. First tests with fully depleted PN-CCD's

    SciTech Connect

    Strueder, L.; Lutz, G.; Sterzik, M.; Holl, P.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.; Rehak, P.

    1987-01-01

    We have fabricated 280 ..mu..m thick fully depletable pn CCD's on high resistivity silicon ()rho) approx. 2.5 k..cap omega..cm). Its operation is based on the semiconductor drift chamber principle proposed by Gatti and Rheak. They are designed as energy and position sensitive radiation detector for (minimum) ionizing particles and X-ray imaging. Two dimensional semiconductor device modeling demonstrates the basic charge transer mechanisms. Prototypes of the detectors have been tested in static and dynamic conditions. A preliminary charge transfer inefficiency was determined to 6 x 10)sup)minus)3). The charge loss during the transfer is discussed and as a consequence we have developed an improved design for a second fabrication iteration which is now being produced. 4 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Simulation of Z boson production at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Ascher, D.

    1990-05-14

    This thesis presents the results of some of the author's work in the High Energy Physics Group at Brown University, work done within the framework of the D0 collaboration at the Fermilab National particle accelerator. To allow a broader audience an easier understanding of the experimental data presented, a brief review of the relevant areas of Particle Physics precedes the description of the experimental setup and results. Monte Carlo simulations of Z boson production at the D0 experiment were made to allow for precise predictions of expected data at the accelerator when construction reaches completion. The specific work that was executed is presented in detail, from the point of view of experimental high energy research, followed by comments on the results obtained and on possible future directions. 4 refs., 15 figs.

  6. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N ); Rollstin, J.A. ); Helton, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  7. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOEpatents

    Cliff, P.L. Jr.

    1996-07-09

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The device comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a hinged cover plate attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate, the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position. 15 figs.

  8. Process for recovering pertechnetate ions from an aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1997-02-18

    A solid/liquid process for the separation and recovery of TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}1} ions from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid support comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups; whereas the aqueous solution from which the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}1} ions are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved salt. A solid/liquid phase admixture of separation particles containing bound TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}1} ions in such an aqueous solution that is free from MoO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} ions is also contemplated, as is a chromatography apparatus containing that solid/liquid phase admixture. 15 figs.

  9. Numerical modeling of gas migration at a proposed repository for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes at Oberbauenstock, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1990-03-01

    Hydrologic impacts of corrosive gas release from a hypothetical L/ILW nuclear waste repository at Oberbauenstock are explored by means of numerical simulation. A schematic two dimensional vertical section through the mountain is modeled with the simulator TOUGH, which describes two-phase flow of water and gas in porous and fractured media. Two reference cases are considered which represent the formations as a porous and as a fractured-porous (dual permeability) medium, respectively. Both cases predict similar and rather modest pressure increases, from ambient 10 bars to near 25 bars at the repository level. These results are to be considered preliminary because important parameters affecting two-phase flow, such as relative permeabilities of a fractured medium, are not well known at present. 24 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Device and method for producing a containment barrier underneath and around in-situ buried waste

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, B.M.; Smith, A.M.; Hanson, R.W.; Hodges, R.T.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably on which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment. 15 figs.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs.

  12. Influence of the microstructure of ceramic materials on their wear behavior in mechanical seals

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, R.

    1994-10-01

    Ceramic materials such as aluminium oxide and silicon carbide are regularly used as one of the counterfaces to oppose carbon graphite in a mechanical seal. Under nominally identical test conditions, the same carbon graphite face can show high wear rates against a material from one supplier but a significantly lower wear rate on a similar material from another. The general descriptions of aluminium oxide and silicon carbide can cover significant differences in properties between materials from various suppliers. Ceramic counterfaces from several manufacturers have been examined, after testing under similar conditions, in order to understand the microstructural factors that influence the wear of the carbon graphite and hence the lift of the mechanical seal. There is evidence to suggest that the wear resistance of the system depends on the grain size distribution, the integrity of the grain bonding and the presence of additional phases. 13 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Method and apparatus for determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, J.B.; Honeycutt, T.K.; Hubbell, J.M.

    1996-05-28

    An earthen material hydraulic conductivity determining apparatus includes: (a) a semipermeable membrane having a fore earthen material bearing surface and an opposing rear liquid receiving surface; (b) a pump in fluid communication with the semipermeable membrane rear surface, the pump being capable of delivering liquid to the membrane rear surface at a plurality of selected variable flow rates or at a plurality of selected variable pressures; (c) a liquid reservoir in fluid communication with the pump, the liquid reservoir retaining a liquid for pumping to the membrane rear surface; and (d) a pressure sensor in fluid communication with the membrane rear surface to measure pressure of liquid delivered to the membrane by the pump. Preferably, the pump comprises a pair of longitudinally opposed and aligned syringes which are operable to simultaneously fill one syringe while emptying the other. Methods of determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material are also disclosed. 15 figs.

  14. Apparatus for in situ heating and vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Buelt, J.L.; Oma, K.H.; Eschbach, E.A.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus for decontaminating ground areas where toxic chemicals are buried includes a plurality of spaced electrodes located in the ground and to which a voltage is applied for bringing about current flow. Power delivered to the ground volatilizes the chemicals that are then collected and directed to a gas treatment system. A preferred form of the invention employs high voltage arc discharge between the electrodes for heating a ground region to relatively high temperatures at relatively low power levels. Electrodes according to the present invention are provided with preferentially active lower portions between which current flows for the purpose of soil heating or for soil melting and vitrification. Promoting current flow below ground level avoids predominantly superficial treatment and increases electrode life. 15 figs.

  15. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, W.C.; Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Florida State University is investigating the concept of pulsed electron beams for fly ash precipitation. This report describes the results and data on three of the subtasks of this project and preliminary work only on the remaining five subtasks. Described are the modification of precharger for pulsed and DC energization of anode; installation of the Q/A measurement system; and modification and installation of pulsed power supply to provide both pulsed and DC energization of the anode. The other tasks include: measurement of the removal efficiency for monodisperse simulated fly ash particles; measurement of particle charge; optimization of pulse energization schedule for maximum removal efficiency; practical assessment of results; and measurement of the removal efficiency for polydisperse test particles. 15 figs., 1 tab. (CK)

  16. Indications of mineral zoning in a fossil hydrothermal system at the Meager Creek geothermal prospect, British Columbia, Canada, from induced polarization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, S.H.; Zhao, J.X.; Groenwald, J.; Moore, J.N.

    1985-05-01

    By measuring the induced-polarization parameters m (chargeability) and tau (time-constant) we have found evidence that the center of a presumed fossil hydrothermal system at Meager Creek, British Columbia, lies south of the main manifestation of the present-day convective hydrothermal system. What implication this finding has for development of the present-day system is unknown. However, some of the fractures formed during the development of the fossil hydrothermal system may serve as conduits for fluids of the present-day system. The analysis is limited by the lack of availability of a good subsurface distribution of core samples. Nevertheless, a surface induced-polarization survey is expected to yield information about the geometry of the fossil system. Such knowledge would have implications not only for Meager Creek but for other hydrothermal systems of Cascades volcano type. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Disruption, beamstrahlung, and beamstrahlung pair creation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1988-12-01

    The two major effects from the interaction of e/sup /minus//e/sup +/ beams---beamstrahlung and disruption---are reviewed, with emphasis on flat beam collisions. For the disruption effects we discuss the luminosity enhancement factor, the maximum and rms disruption angles, and the ''kink instability''. All the results are obtained from computer simulations, and scaling laws based on these are deduced whenever possible. For the beamstrahlung effects, we concentrate only on the final electron energy spectrum and the deflection angle associated with low energy particles. In addition to the generic studies on the beam-beam effects, we also list the relevant beam-beam parameters obtained from simulations on two sample designs: the TLC and the ILC. As an addendum, the newly discovered phenomenon of coherent beamstrahlung pair creation, together with the incoherent process, are discussed. 18 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Fuel consolidation demonstration program: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    EPRI, Northeast Utilities, Baltimore Gas and Electric, the US Department of Energy and Combustion Engineering are engaged in a program to develop a system for consolidating spent fuel and a method of storing the consolidated fuel in the spent fuel storage pool which is licensable by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Fuel consolidation offers a means of substantially increasing the capacity of spent fuel storage pools. This is a final report of the Fuel Consolidation Demonstration Program. It provides a review of the overall program, a summary of the results obtained, the lessons learned, and an assessment of the present status of the consolidation system developed in the program. 7 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. The EGS4 Code System: Solution of Gamma-ray and Electron Transport Problems

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Nelson, W. R.; Namito, Yoshihito

    1990-03-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the EGS4 Code System -- a general purpose package for the Monte Carlo simulation of the transport of electrons and photons. During the last 10-15 years EGS has been widely used to design accelerators and detectors for high-energy physics. More recently the code has been found to be of tremendous use in medical radiation physics and dosimetry. The problem-solving capabilities of EGS4 will be demonstrated by means of a variety of practical examples. To facilitate this review, we will take advantage of a new add-on package, called SHOWGRAF, to display particle trajectories in complicated geometries. These are shown as 2-D laser pictures in the written paper and as photographic slides of a 3-D high-resolution color monitor during the oral presentation. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Method for curing polymers using variable-frequency microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1998-02-24

    A method for curing polymers incorporating a variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity is disclosed. By varying the frequency of the microwave signal, non-uniformities within the cavity are minimized, thereby achieving a more uniform cure throughout the workpiece. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. The furnace cavity may be adapted to be used to cure materials defining a continuous sheet or which require compressive forces during curing. 15 figs.

  1. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Fix, J.J.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Leonowich, J.A.; Palmer, H.E.; Sula, M.J.

    1989-06-01

    The report documents the performance of certain radiological protection sitewide services during calendar year (CY) 1988 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and contractor activities on the Hanford Site. The routine program for each service is discussed along with any significant program changes and tasks, investigations, and studies performed in support of each program. Other related activities such as publications, presentations, and memberships on standard or industry committees are also listed. The programs covered provide services in the areas of (1) internal dosimetry, (2) in vivo measurements, (3) external dosimetry, (4) instrument calibration and evaluation, (5) calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (formerly the National Bureau of Standards), and (6) radiological records. 23 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  3. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O`Neill, M.A.; Pellerin, P.J.M.; Warrenfeltz, D.; Vidal, S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations. 15 figs.

  4. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

    1995-08-29

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

  5. Investigation on the continued production of the Naval Petroleum Reserves beyond April 5, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The authority to produce the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPRs) is due to expire in April 1991, unless extended by Presidential finding. As provided in the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258), the President may continue production of the NPRs for a period of up to three years following the submission to Congress, at least 180 days prior to the expiration of the current production period, of a report that determines that continued production of the NPRs is necessary and a finding by the President that continued production is in the national interest. This report assesses the need to continue production of the NPRs, including analyzing the benefits and costs of extending production or returning to the shut-in status that existed prior to 1976. This continued production study considers strategic, economic, and energy issues at the local, regional, and national levels. 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Rock support system development test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Patricio, J.G. . Rockwell Hanford Operations)

    1984-03-30

    The Test Plan has been prepared to support design activities for the development of a rock support system for a Nuclear Waste Repository in Basalt (NWRB). The rock support system is assumed to consist of a combination of shotcrete and rock bolts. The seven testing activities include mix development and physical testing of shotcrete, durability testing of shotcrete, durability testing of rock bolt grouts, field tests on rock bolts, field testing of shotcrete, and heated room test. The objective of the Test Plan is to develop required data through combined laboratory, field, and office studies for design and design validation of the rock support system. The overall Test Plan is developed to provide a logical progression from laboratory tests performed to characterize fundamental thermomechanical properties of shotcrete and grouts, to field tests on rock bolts and shotcrete, and in situ performance tests. 21 refs., 15 figs., 33 tabs.

  7. Graphite for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Fuller, E.L.; Romanoski, G.R.; Strizak, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite finds applications in both fission and fusion reactors. Fission reactors harness the energy liberated when heavy elements, such as uranium or plutonium, fragment or fission''. Reactors of this type have existed for nearly 50 years. The first nuclear fission reactor, Chicago Pile No. 1, was constructed of graphite under a football stand at Stagg Field, University of Chicago. Fusion energy devices will produce power by utilizing the energy produced when isotopes of the element hydrogen are fused together to form helium, the same reaction that powers our sun. The role of graphite is very different in these two reactor systems. Here we summarize the function of the graphite in fission and fusion reactors, detailing the reasons for their selection and discussing some of the challenges associated with their application in nuclear fission and fusion reactors. 10 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Evaluation of waste treatment technologies by LLWDDD (Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration) Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kennerly, J.M.; Williams, L.C.; Dole, L.R.; Genung, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Waste treatments are divided into four categories: (1) volume reduction; (2) conditioning to improve waste form performance; (3) segregation to achieve waste reduction; and (4) separation to remove radioactive (or hazardous) constituents. Two waste treatment demonstrations are described. In the first, volume reduction by mechanical means was achieved during the supercompaction of 300 55-gal drums of solid waste at ORNL. In the second demonstration, conditioning of waste through immobilization and packaging to improve the performance of the waste form is being evaluated. The final section of this paper describes potential scenarios for the management of uranium-contaminated wastes at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge and emphasizes where demonstrations of treatment technology will be needed to implement the scenarios. Separation and thermal treatment are identified as the principal means for treating these wastes. 15 figs.

  9. Some results of long-term investigation population exposed as a result of release of radioactive wastes into the Techa River in Southern Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vorobiova, M.I.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes results of a long-term investigation of a population exposed to radioactive waste release in 1949-1956 into the Techa River in the Southern Urals. Systematic measurements of radionuclide concentration in the river waters, sediments, and floodplain soils and measurements of exposure gamma dose rates as well as studies of the radionuclide composition in the contaminated areas began in the summer of 1951. As a result of the contamination, 124,000 residents were exposed to radiation and 28,100 received significant doses in terms of health effect potential. Covered results include the following: estimation of external radiation doses; content of strontium-90 in humans and estimation of radionuclide ingestion rates; age-dependent model of strontium metabolism in the human body; evaluation of doses of internal irradiation; distribution of exposed population according to accumulated doses. 11 refs; 15 figs.

  10. ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan: Program overview and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, L.D.; Berry, J.B.; Butterworth, G.E.; du Mont, S.P. III; Easterday, C.A.; Geisler, A.H.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Pudelek, R.E.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.; Youngblood, E.L.

    1987-12-01

    The primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirments. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implenent the current plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a realistic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and relects the efforts preceived to be necesary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. Beyond the immediate time frame, the document reflects the strategy and the project and funding estimates as a snapshot at the time of publication. 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Separation of glycols from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with boronic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Randel, L.A.; King, C.J.

    1991-07-01

    This work examines methods of separating low molecular weight glycols from dilute aqueous solution. Extraction into conventional solvents is generally not economical, since, in the literature reviewed, distribution ratios for the two- to four-carbon glycols are all less than one. Distribution ratios can be increased, however, by incorporating into the organic phase an extracting agent that will complex with the solute of interest. The extracting agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA). NPBA, a boric acid derivative, reversibly complexes with many glycols. The literature on complexation of borate and related compounds with glycols, including mechanistic data, measurement techniques, and applications to separation processes, provides information valuable for designing experiments with NPBA and is reviewed herein. 88 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. PLUS family: a set of computer programs to evaluate analytical solutions of the diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Montan, D.N.

    1986-02-01

    This report is intended to describe, document and provide instructions for the use of a set of computer programs commonly referred to as the PLUS family. These programs were designed to numerically evaluate simple analytic solutions of the diffusion equation. The original member of the family, a program called PLUS, was written to provide calculational support for a study of the storage of nuclear waste in geological media. Originally, PLUS computed temperture changes at points in space and time due to a finite length line source. The need to handle arrays of sources led to modifications. To this end, PLUS was changed to subroutine status and new programs were written: CELERY, to control the I/O chores; STALKS, with storage space for an arbitrary array of sources; MIDNITE, to produce thermal contours in and/or about the array. The newest members of the family, TWIGS, and DAYLITE were created to do some of the things (uniform arrays of identical sources) that STALKS and MIDNITE could do but without the need for additional storage space. The original design of these programs was for thermal calculations, however, diffusion equation is used in the study of a number of other field, for example, fluid flow in porous media (hydrology, petroleum reservoirs), and the PLUS family may find other possible homes. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Hard error generation by neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J.S.; Gover, J.E.; Wrobel, T.F.; Hass, K.J.; Nasby, R.D.; Simpson, R.L.; Posey, L.D.; Boos, R.E.; Block, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    We have observed that neutron-induced fission of uranium contaminants present in alumina ceramic package lids results in the release of fission fragments that can cause hard errors in metal nitride-oxidenonvolatile RAMs (MNOS NVRAMs). Hard error generation requires the simultaneous presence of (1) a fission fragment with a linear energy transfer (LET) greater than 20 MeV/mg/cm/sup 2/ moving at an angle of 30/sup 0/ or less from the electric field in the high-field, gate region of the memory transistor and (2) a WRITE or ERASE voltage on the oxide-nitride transistor gate. In reactor experiments, we observe these hard errors when a ceramic lid is used on both MNOS NVRAMs and polysilicon-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (SNOS) capacitors, but hard errors are not observed when a gold-plated kovar lid is used on the package containing these die. We have mapped the tracks of the fission fragments released from the ceramic lids with a mica track detector and used a Monte Carlo model of fission fragment transport through the ceramic lid to measure the concentration of uranium present in the lids. Our concentration measurements are in excellent agreement with others' measurements of uranium concentration in ceramic lids. Our Monte Carlo analyses also agree closely with our measurements of hard error probability in MNOS NVRAMs. 15 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Magnetospheric convection on the presence of interplanetary magnetic gield B{sub y}: A conceptual model and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Khurana, K.K.; Walker, R.J.; Ogino, Tatsuki

    1996-03-01

    Existing observations from ISEE 3 and new observations from Galileo show that when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has a B{sub y} component, a B{sub y} component also develops in the Earth`s magnetotail, but only in those quadrants in which the addition of the newly opened magnetic flux tubes occurs. The presence of B{sub y} on the closed field lines (which is in the same direction as the IMF B{sub y}) is also seen. The authors suggest that for a positive IMF B{sub y}, the magnetopause is open only in the north dawn and south dusk quadrants of the magnetotail. The continuity of magnetic field across the open boundary then requires that a B{sub y} component be present in the magnetosphere in these quadrants but not in the other two quadrants. They present a model of the magnetospheric convection that postulates cross-tail flows in the mantle/lobe system and the plasma sheet. They suggest that shear flows between the northern and southern halves of the plasma sheet generate a B{sub y} component on the closed magnetic field lines. The model is consistent with the two cell ionospheric convection models constructed from electric field observations by Heppner and Maynard. Results from global MHD simulations confirm the main features of the proposed model. 34 refs., 13 fig.

  15. Swelling and tensile properties of EBR-II-irradiated tantalum alloys for space reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The tantalum alloys T-111, ASTAR-811C, Ta-10 W, and unalloyed tantalum were examined following EBR-II irradiation to a fluence of 1.7 x 10/sup 26/ neutrons/m/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV) at temperatures from 650 to 950 K. Swelling was found to be negligible for all alloys; only tantalum was found to exhibit swelling, 0.36%. Tensile testing revealed that irradiated T-111 and Ta-10 W are susceptible to plastic instability, but ASTAR-811C and tantalum were not. The tensile properties of ASTAR-811C appeared adequate for current SP-100 space nuclear reactor designs. Irradiated, oxygen-doped T-111 exhibited no plastic deformation, and the abrupt failure was intergranular in nature. The absence of plastic instability in ASTAR-811C is encouraging for alloys containing carbide precipitates. These fine precipitates might prevent dislocation channeling, which leads to plastic instability in many bcc metals after irradiation. 10 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Structural provinces of the northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. )

    1990-07-01

    The dominant Cenozoic structures of the northeastern Brooks Range are anticlinoria with cores of sub-Mississippian rocks, reflecting a regional north-vergent duplex with a floor thrust in the sub-Mississippian sequence and a roof thrust in the Mississippian Kayak Shale. The number of horses forming each anticlinorium and the structural style of the overlying Mississippian and younger cover sequence varies regionally, providing a basis for dividing the northeastern Brooks Range into structural provinces. In the western province, each anticlinorium contains a single horse, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated mainly by detachment folds. To the north in the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Kayak Shale is depositionally discontinuous and rocks elsewhere separated by this detachment deformed together. In the eastern province, each anticlinorium contains multiple horses, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated largely by thrust duplication of Mississippian through Triassic rocks. In the narrow central province, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was detached from its roots, internally shortened along shear zones and by penetrative strain, and transported northward. Because the Kayak Shale is locally absent, the Mississippian and younger cover sequence deformed in part penetratively along with the batholith. 13 figs.

  17. The IWG (Interagency Working Group) model for the heterosexual spread of HIV and the demographic impact of the AIDS epidemic

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, E.A. ); Seitz, S.T. ); Way, P.O.; Johnson, P.D. ); Curry, T.F. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the State Department's Interagency Working Group (IWG) model for the spread of HIV. The model is fully operational for Pattern 2 (heterosexual blood transmission) and Pattern 3 (heterosexual, homosexual, and IV drug transmission) countries. This model was developed for various uses, including technical research, policy analysis, and support for decision making. Research uses include studying patterns of HIV spread, assessing the relative effect of different processes on the spread of HIV, examining the demographic impact of HIV infections, and comparing the potential impact of behavioral versus medical intervention strategies. The model will be used in workshops where policy makers and health officials can do hands-on scenario analyses, gain qualitative insights into the possible long-term-epidemiological and demographic impact of HIV, gauge the uncertainties in predictions for the future, and study the impact of HIV, gauge the uncertainties in predictions for the future, and study the impact that intervention strategies are likely to have. The computational model uses a deterministic system of differential equations and runs on a 286- or a 386-based IBM-compatible machine under Microsoft Windows. The program requires an input ASCII (text) file to run; all parameters used by the model are input through this file and, therefore, are user-accessible. The software is user-friendly, mouse-driven, and allows for interactive manipulation of input data and visualization and processing of model outputs. 15 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Protocol for laboratory research on degradation, interaction, and fate of wastes disposed by deep-well injection: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, A.G.; Crocker, M.E.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this research investigation was to develop a laboratory protocol for use in determining degradation, interaction, and fate of organic wastes disposed in deep subsurface reservoirs via disposal wells. Knowledge of the ultimate fate of deep-well disposed wastes is important because provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) require that by August 1988, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must show that the disposal of specified wastes by deep-well injection is safe to human health and the environment, or the practice must be stopped. The National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) developed this protocol primarily by transferring some of its expertise and knowledge of laboratory protocol relevant to improved recovery of petroleum. Phenol, because it is injected into deep, subsurface reservoirs for disposal, was selected for study by the EPA. Phenol is one waste product that has been injected into the Frio formation; therefore, a decision was made to use phenol and sedimentary rock from the Frio formation for a series of laboratory experiments to demonstrate the protocol. This study investigates the adsorption properties of a specific reservoir rock which is representative of porous sedimentary geologic formations used as repositories for hazardous organic wastes. The developed protocol can be used to evaluate mobility, adsorption, and degradation of an organic hazardous waste under simulated subsurface reservoir conditions. 22 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Fracture morphologies of carbon-black-loaded SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber) subjected to low-cycle, high-stress fatigue. [Styrene-butadiene rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A.; Lesuer, D.R.; Patt, J.

    1988-02-01

    Experimental results, together with an analytical model, related to the loss in tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) loaded with carbon black (CB) that had been subjected to low-cycle, high-stress fatigue tests were presented in a prior paper. The drop in tensile strength relative to that of a virgin sample was considered to be a measure of damage induced during the fatigue test. The present paper is a continuation of this study dealing with the morphological interpretations of the fractured surfaces, whereby the cyclic-tearing behavior, resulting in the damage, is related to the test and material parameters. It was found that failure is almost always initiated in the bulk of a sample at a material flaw. The size and definition of a flaw increase with an increase in carbon-black loading. Initiation flaw sites are enveloped by fan-shaped or penny-shaped regions which develop during cycling. The size and morphology of a fatigue-tear region appears to be independent of the fatigue load or the extent of the damage (strength loss). By contrast, either an increase in cycling load or an increase in damage at constant load increases the definition of the fatigue-region morphology for all formulations of carbon-black. On the finest scale, the morphology can be described in terms of tearing of individual groups of rubber strands, collapsing to form a cell-like structure. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator. 13 figs.