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Sample records for 13fig 14fig 15fig

  1. Presidential Address: The Woman in the Case Jane Todd Crawford, 1763-1842

    PubMed Central

    Sparkman, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    The 1978 Presidential Address of the Southern Surgical Association is dedicated to the wives of the members, past and present, in acknowledgment and appreciation of the enduring contribution that they have made to the quality and character of this association. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20. PMID:375854

  2. The respiratory epithelium of the lung in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.).

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, S E; Purton, M

    1984-01-01

    The chelonian lung exhibits reptilian, mammalian and avian features. The respiratory epithelium is typically vertebrate, i.e. pseudostratified columnar with cilia; gaseous exchange areas appear at all levels from the respiratory bronchi down to the alveoli. The latter are invested with a capillary network and both type I and type II cells are present. The possible functional significance of the distribution of collagen, elastic tissue, cartilage and smooth muscle is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:6490523

  3. Ultrastructure of free-ending nerve fibres in oesophageal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Chillida, E M; Rodrigo, J; Mayo, I; Arnedo, A; Gómez, A

    1981-01-01

    For the first time, at the ultrastructural level, the existence of free-ending, intraepithelial nerve fibres has been demonstrated in the oesophagus wall of adult cats and monkeys. Their form, the way they penetrate the epithelium, their location within the epithelium and their relationships with neighbouring cells have been established. A sensory function is suggested for this type of ending. Images Figs. 1-4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-15 Figs. 16-17 PMID:7333951

  4. Urinary Tract Refunctionalization After Prior Diversion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, W. Hardy

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-two children who had undergone previous urinary diversion were operated upon to refunctionalize the bladder. In 24 the diversion had been considered permanent, and in eight, temporary. Success in these procedures suggests that many young patients deserve a second look for possible “undiversion.” ImagesFig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17a.Fig. 17b.Fig. 18. PMID:4416811

  5. Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses*

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Frederick A.; Whitfield, Sylvia G.

    1975-01-01

    Arenaviruses have unique structural characteristics; they are pleomorphic, have a mean diameter of 110-130 nm, and consist of a membranous envelope with surface projections surrounding an interior containing ribosomes and filaments. Virus particles bud from plasma membranes of infected cells and in many cases large intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies are formed. These characteristics allow generic identification, but not differentiation of individual viruses. Ultrastructural identification of virus particles and pathological processes in infected tissues of man and experimental animals is important in understanding the nature of arenaviral pathogenesis Such identification also contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms of viral shedding and transmission in reservoir host species. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:182396

  6. An ultrastructural study of the cere of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed Central

    Purton, M D

    1988-01-01

    The relative scarcity of primary and secondary skin infections in birds depends, at least in part, on the functional morphological barrier presented by the avian integument. Both transmission and scanning electron microscopical techniques were used to study the ultrastructural morphology of the epidermal barrier in the cere of the domestic racing pigeon. The epidermis is composed of sebokeratocytes which are responsible for producing not only the keratin proteins of the keratinized stratum corneum, but also the lipid emulsion forming the surface lipid layer and filling the intercellular spaces. The possible importance and role of these components in the defensive barrier presented by the skin is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:3198483

  7. Objectivity in the classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, L.; Hyams, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of tumours derived from each of the four cell types of nasal epithelium is presented. Criticism is levelled at the adoption of additional terms for tissue types such as lympho-epithelium and transitional cell epithelium and tumours said to be derived from them. Electron microscopy is of assistance in classification particularly in the detection of evidence of keratin synthesis. The proposed classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium is: (1) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium: (a) papillary adenoma, (b) papillary carcinoma. (2) Squamous epithelium: (a) everted squamous papilloma, (b) inverted papilloma, (c) squamous carcinoma of any grade of differentiation from well differentiated to undifferentiated. (3) Melanocyte: malignant melanoma. (4) Olfactory neuroepithelium: olfactory neuroblastoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 21Fig. 20 PMID:1197175

  8. Intersexes in swine: a problem in descriptive anatomy.

    PubMed Central

    Halina, W G; Barrales, D W; Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R

    1984-01-01

    Accurate anatomical descriptions of ten intersex pigs were compiled through dissection and histological examination in order to identify specific groups of reproductive anomalies. Six different anatomical phenotypes were identified: four varieties of male pseudohermaphrodite, one type of female pseudohermaphrodite and one type of true hermaphrodite. The intersex phenomenon is complicated by the number of distinct anatomical phenotypes represented broadly by the term hermaphrodite. Therefore, accurate anatomical descriptions and precise terminology are prerequisites to defining the etiology of hermaphroditism and defining the modes of inheritance. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:6478301

  9. Genesis of cilia and microvilli of rat nasal epithelia during prenatal development. III. Respiratory epithelium surface, including a comparison with the surface of the olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Menco, B P; Farbman, A I

    1987-01-01

    During prenatal development the respiratory epithelium surface of the rat's nasal septum underwent the following changes. At intra-uterine day E14 there was a transformation from State I, cells with primary cilia only, to cells which also had microvilli (Stage II). Anterior parts of the nasal septum retained microvilli throughout further development. Posteriorly, centriole multiplication (Stage III) and formation of shafts of secondary cilia (Stage IV) occurred from around E16 and E18 onwards, respectively. From E18 to E20 numbers of cells with cilia increased at an overall rate of about 6 X 10(6) cells/cm2/day. Respiratory cilia and microvilli grew, on average, by about 0.3 micron/day and 0.1 micron/day, respectively. At Stage V, beginning around E19, the cilia became aligned within cells and, at Stage VI, beginning around E21, became synchronised between cells. Respiratory ciliogenesis in the nose is most precocious near the olfactory epithelium. The formation of respiratory cilia starts after that of olfactory cilia. However, unlike olfactory epithelium surfaces those of ciliated respiratory epithelia resembled those of adults around birth. Images Figs. 1-4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:3654366

  10. Electron Microscopy of the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, T. S.

    1965-01-01

    The use of the electron microscope has added much to our knowledge of the cell. The fine structure of the component parts of the nucleus and the cytoplasm is described, and their functions are indicated. The nature and structural modifications of the plasma membrane are illustrated with particular reference to function. To illustrate the interrelationships of the nucleus and cytoplasm, the theory of protein secretion is discussed, the secretion of a particular protein or polypeptide being determined by a particular nucleotide sequence in the desoxyribonucleic acid of a chromosome, that is, by a gene. This information is transferred from nucleus to cytoplasm. It is in the cytoplasm that the majority of the work is performed while the nucleus directs the work of the cell. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:5829410

  11. Synaptic transmission in the superior cervical ganglion of the cat after reinnervation by vagus fibres

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, B.; Clementi, F.; Mantegazza, P.

    1971-01-01

    1. A vagus-sympathetic anastomosis was performed in the cat by connecting end to end the cranial trunk of the vagus to the cranial end of the cervical sympathetic trunk, both severed under the ganglia. 2. Forty to sixty days after the anastomosis, the ocular signs of sympathetic paralysis (such as myosis and prolapse of the nictitating membrane) which had developed shortly after the operation, had completely disappeared, thus suggesting the recovery of synaptic transmission in the ganglion. In case of plain preganglionic denervation after the same period the ocular signs of cervical sympathetic paralysis were still present. 3. Contraction of the nictitating membrane could be induced by electrical stimulation of both the vagus preanastomotic and the sympathetic postanastomotic—preganglionic trunks. Ganglionic blocking agents induced the blockade of the `new' ganglionic synaptic function, while nicotine and pilocarpine provoked a marked contraction of the nictitating membrane. 4. Electron microscopy showed that the preganglionic regeneration of vagus fibers resulted in the formation of new synapses, mainly of axodendritic type, identical to normal ganglionic synapses. Moreover, after cutting the preanastomotic trunk of the vagus, these new ganglionic presynaptic profiles degenerated, thus proving their vagal origin. 5. During restoration of the synaptic contacts readjustment of dendritic tips occurred. ImagesText-fig. 2Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4326851

  12. The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S. Poole

    1939-01-01

    (1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991

  13. Conservative surgical treatment of reflux esophagitis and esophageal stricture.

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, J L; Wright, R S; Edwards, W H; Sawyers, J L

    1975-01-01

    During a recent 3-year period, 17 consecutive patients were seen with advanced fibrotic esophageal strictures secondary to alkaline-acid-pepsin reflux. From detailed preoperative evaluations alone it was impossible to determine whether therapy should consist of excisional surgery, esophagogastroplasty or intra-operative dilatation with correction of reflux. Only at operation could the length, extent, degree and severity of the stricture be fully determined. Each of the 17 patients was treated by controlled dilatation, coupled with an antireflux procedure. This simplified approach proved successful on strictures thought preoperatively to be undilatable. It appears that this conservative approach is applicable to many advanced strictures and excisional and plastic procedures should be reserved for those cases that prove unyielding to intraoperative dilatation. The true appraisal of a reflux stricture and the choice of surgical procedure is best determined at the operating table. Images Fig. 5A. Fig. 5B. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. PMID:1130874

  14. The fine structure of proliferating cartilage cells: structural changes in an experimental model.

    PubMed Central

    Scheck, M; Parker, J; Sakovich, L

    1975-01-01

    Extensive development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and comparatively less developed Golgi membranes were seen in the cells of chondrocyte clusters which had formed in the vicinity of cartilage defects produced by intra-articular papain and cortisone injections. These cells frequently showed myelin-like membranous figures. These figures were seen either close to the cell membrane, or between cells, or connected to the nuclear envelope or the endoplasmic reticulum. The hypothesis is advanced that the myelin figures are made from redundant material which was not used for membrane formation. Cortisone, which is known to interfere with mitochondrial function and general metabolic processes, could have been responsible for the deficiency in membrane differentiation and transfer. This investigation was supported by grants from the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and from the Research Evaluation and Allocation Committee of the School of Medicine, Univeristy of California, San Francisco. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7, 8 and 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Figs. 16 and 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 PMID:1141047

  15. Cryoscanning electron microscopic study of the surface amorphous layer of articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, S; Yonekubo, S; Kurogouchi, Y

    1995-01-01

    In order to elucidate the structure near the articular surface, frozen unfixed hydrated articular cartilage with subchondral bone from the pig knee was examined using a cryoscanning electron microscope (cryo-SEM). This method is considered to reduce the introduction of artefacts due to fixation and drying. An amorphous layer, without a collagen-fibril network or chondrocytes, covered most of the surface of the cartilage. This layer was termed the surface amorphous layer. It showed various appearances, which were classified into 4 groups. The average thickness of the layer did not differ among the 8 anatomical regions from which the specimens were taken. The thickness of the layer was found to correlate with the type of appearance of the layer. The 4 appearances associated with thicknesses in descending order are: 'streaked', 'foliate', 'spotted', and 'vestigial'. The surface layer observed in the cryo-SEM was thicker than that observed by a conventional SEM. This difference may be attributable to dehydration of the specimen used in specimen preparation for the latter technique. The layer was also observed in articular cartilage taken from human and rabbit knees. The layer was found to be unstable and to have very variable features. Its thickness and appearance may be influenced by various factors such as dehydration, fluid absorption or mechanical stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:7592006

  16. Non-myelinated nerve fibres and their terminals in the sub-odontoblastic plexus of the feline dental pulp.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, G R

    1980-01-01

    Serial thin sections of the coronal dental pulp of the cat's canine tooth were cut. Parts of the sub-odontoblastic neural plexus were photographed from 100 of the sections. The plexus consists of many slender, predominantly unmyelinated nerve fibres. Many axons are incompletely sheathed by their Schwann cell. Some axons leave the Schwann cell sheath and either end in the extracellar space or return to the Schwann cell after traveling a short distance. Several axons are often seen in close contact within a single invagination of the Schwann cell. They remain in contact for up to 7 micrometer.l Both Schwann cells and axons are see to branch in this region. These features may be characteristic of nerve fibres and terminals which respond to noxious stimuli. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7-8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:7410190

  17. The fine structure of the human fetal urinary bladder. Development and maturation. A light, transmission and scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, J; Antonakopoulos, G N

    1989-01-01

    The urinary bladders of 27 human fetuses, aged 7 weeks to full term, were studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy to establish the sequence of events in the development and maturation of the organ during fetal life. In the early specimens, 7-12 weeks old, the urinary bladder was lined by a bilayered, cuboidal and glycogen-rich epithelium. During the 13-17th weeks the epithelium thickened, a third layer developed and by light microscopy it now resembled urothelium. By 21 weeks this had evolved into a 3-4 layer thick epithelium with typical ultrastructural urothelial characteristics. Smooth muscle cells emerged from the condensed mesenchyme of the bladder wall by the 12th week of gestation, initially in the cephalic part of the organ but spreading within a week into the caudal end. Our findings indicate that the human fetal bladder undergoes a series of vital developmental changes during 13-21 weeks of gestation finally acquiring the typical urothelial lining and a well-developed muscular coat. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:2621133

  18. Laboratory Design for Microbiological Safety

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. Briggs; Runkle, Robert S.

    1967-01-01

    Of the large amount of funds spent each year in this country on construction and remodeling of biomedical research facilities, a significant portion is directed to laboratories handling infectious microorganisms. This paper is intended for the scientific administrators, architects, and engineers concerned with the design of new microbiological facilities. It develops and explains the concept of primary and secondary barriers for the containment of microorganisms. The basic objectives of a microbiological research laboratory, (i) protection of the experimenter and staff, (ii) protection of the surrounding community, and (iii) maintenance of experimental validity, are defined. In the design of a new infectious-disease research laboratory, early identification should be made of the five functional zones of the facility and their relation to each other. The following five zones and design criteria applicable to each are discussed: clean and transition, research area, animal holding and research area, laboratory support, engineering support. The magnitude of equipment and design criteria which are necessary to integrate these five zones into an efficient and safe facility are delineated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:4961771

  19. New surgical concepts resulting from cranio-orbito-facial surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Edgerton, M T; Jane, J A; Berry, F A; Marshall, K A

    1975-01-01

    The authors have defined the subspecialty of craniofacial surgery and described the organization of the multi-disciplinary team required to care for such patients. Common features of the craniofacial patient have been summarized and three major categories of patients have been proposed. These are: I. Syndromes associated with hypertelorism; II. Syndromes associated with premature synostoses or growth arrests; III. Syndromes associated with primarily mid- and lower face anomalies. Growing out of an experience with 242 operations on 106 patients, the authors have listed 9 relatively new surgical "principles." Each has led to a current surgical approach that is now being employed by the craniofacial team at The University of Virginia. A number of examples are given to show ways in which the lessons learned from the craniofacial patients are now being applied, with improved results, to patients with neoplasms, traumatic injuries, or other conditions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. Fig. 22. PMID:1099994

  20. Nonhepatic Thioacetamide Injury

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Edward A.; Smuckler, Edward A.

    1974-01-01

    Thioacetamide given orally to rats produces centrolobular hepatic necrosis and also causes death of the cells in the terminal portion of the proximal renal tubule. The morphologic changes observed during the course of the renal toxicity include the early and transient appearance of apical dense bodies, which appear to fuse to form large lysosomes, and the appearance of nucleolar hypertrophy, reminiscent of the same change seen in the hepatocytes. In addition a variety of changes described in lethally injured tubular cells in other toxicities appear. A diuresis, which lasts for 5 days, coincides with the appearance of tubular cell destruction. The mechanism of cell injury due to thioacetamide is not identified, but the temporal sequence of morphologic and physiologic change is consistent with both a relative concentration of the thioacetamide in the proximal tubule and its potential conversion to a putative proximate toxin. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16 PMID:4814902

  1. Myocardial infarction in spontaneously hypertensive rats with superimposed adrenal-regeneration hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    The elevated blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was further exacerbated by subjecting these animals to surgically induced adrenal-regeneration hypertension (ARH). When chronic abnormally high blood pressure had been in effect for 12 weeks, the animals were subjected to an acute and massive myocardial infarction with isoprenaline. Hypertensive but intact SHR survived better than ARH-treated animals. Circulating enzyme (CPK, SGOT, SGPT and LDH), lipid and glucose levels and BUN manifested much greater excursions commensurate with more extensive myocardial infarction in ARH-treated than in intact SHR. ARH-treated SHR displayed a high incidence of atrial and ventricular thrombi associated with frequent left ventricular aneurysm formation. It is suggested that the more extensive myocardial connective tissue and ground-substance degeneration in ARH-treated SHR is due to the impoverished steroidogenic capacity of their regenerated adrenal glands. Images Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:508586

  2. An electron microscopical study of chronic ulcers of the colon in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Chronic colonic ulcers in the rat were produced by the administration of a hydrogen peroxide enema. Lesions of up to 10 months' duration were obtained by this method and a selection was examined ultrastructurally. It was hoped that the study would reveal causes for the chronicity of the lesions. From previous work it appeared that there was no failure of epithelial migration from the edge of the wound. The majority of cells at the ulcer margins demonstrated features of regeneration similar to those seen in other tissues, and that there were no specific changes concomitant with chronic ulceration. The majority of epithelial cells at the ulcer edge showed features of differentiation which indicated that there was no obvious fault in this process so essential to the basic requirements of tissue repair. It is possible that chronicity is produced by a failure of the epithelio-mesenchymal interaction mechanisms which, potentiated by an ischaemia resulting from submucosal vascular damage, results in the consequential death of migrating epithelial cells. This hypothesis is supported by the appearance of a squamous metaplasia in the healing lesions, a process which is commonly attributed to a chronic inflammatory response which may be induced by a relative vascular insufficiency. Images Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:836769

  3. Colour thresholding in video imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Fermin, C D; Degraw, S

    1995-01-01

    The basic aspects of video imaging are reviewed as they relate to measurements of histological and anatomical features, with particular emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of colour and black-and-white imaging modes. In black-and-white imaging, calculations are based on the manipulation of picture elements (pixels) that contain 0-255 levels of information. Black is represented by the absence of light (0) and white by 255 grades of light. In colour imaging, the pixels contain variation of hues for the primary (red, green and blue) and secondary (magenta, yellow, cyan, pink) colours. Manipulation of pixels with colour information is more computer intense than that for black-and-white pixels, because there are over 16 million possible combinations of colour in a system with a 24-bit resolution. The narrow 128 possible grades of separation in black and white often makes distinction between pixels with overlapping intensities difficult. Such difficulty is greatly reduced by colour thresholding of systems that base the representation of colour on a combination of hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) format. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:7559121

  4. Encrustation and Atherosclerosis: The Analogy Between Early in Vivo Lesions and Deposits Which Occur in Extracorporeal Circulations

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, E. A.; Rowsell, H. C.; Downie, H. G.; Robinson, G. A.; Mustard, J. F.

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the relation between the pattern and topography of thrombus formation in models of various vessel configurations coupled into extracorporeal shunts in swine and the development of atherosclerosis at corresponding sites on swine aortas. The pattern and distribution of deposits formed in the models were strikingly similar to the pattern and distribution of incipient atherosclerosis at comparable sites in the vascular tree. The earliest and only consistent component of the flow chamber deposits was the blood platelet. The platelet deposits would frequently stain with oil red O. The cholesterol level of washed human platelets was found to show a good correlation with that in the plasma. This evidence suggests that deposition of particulate matter (chiefly platelets), largely determined by the hydraulic factors, may be an important factor in the early, as well as later, stages of atherosclerosis. ImagesFigs. 10a and bFig. 13Fig. 21Fig. 1Fig. 3Figs. 4a and bFig. 5Fig. 6aFig. 6bFig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20 PMID:14477412

  5. Ultrastructural Changes in Chick Cerebellum Induced by Polyinosinic Polycytidylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mang C.; Young, Paul A.; Yu, Wan-Hua Amy

    1971-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes in cerebellar encephalopathy induced by intravenous injection of poly I:C in young chickens were studied. The neuroglia and the small blood vessels showed the most severe injury. In the astroglia, initial alterations consisted of a mild cytoplasmic swelling whereas terminally, evagination of the outer nuclear membrane, formation of large vacuoles, and mitochondrial swelling occurred. In the cortex, oligodendroglial alterations consisted of dilatation of the nuclear membranes and of the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas in the white matter, the interfascicular oligodendroglia exhibited clumping and coagulation of the chromatin material. Some small blood vessels appeared normal, while others showed massive erosion of the endothelium resulting in aneurysm-like ballooning of the vascular wall. The granule cells displayed marked edema. The myelin of nerve fibers showed an accumulation of fluid initially, with splitting occurring in the terminal stages. These studies indicated a severe cytotoxic effect of poly I:C on the cerebella of young chickens. ImagesFig 16Fig 17Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:5142269

  6. Sequence of cellular responses in rabbit aortas following one and two injuries with a balloon catheter.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, L.; Grøthe, A. G.; Groves, H. M.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R. L.; Richardson, M.; Mustard, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to further elucidate the pathogenesis of intimal proliferation and increased thrombogenesis following repeated arterial injuries we studied the sequence of the cellular changes following two injuries of rabbit aortas with a balloon catheter. Following the first injury, the de-endothelialized surface was covered by a platelet monolayer. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes adhered to the inner surface of this monolayer and did not appear to penetrate the vessel wall. By 4 to 7 days, areas of neointima had formed. Within seconds after the reinjury at 7 days after the de-endothelialization small platelet aggregates formed on injured neointimal smooth muscle cells. Within I min platelet thrombi and fibrin strands formed. At 30 min most of the platelet thrombi had become fibrin-rich. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes had accumulated and many had begun to penetrate into the neointimal tissue. The number and extent of penetration of leucocytes into the inner parts of the arterial wall increased with time. Four days after the injury the neointimal cushions were restored and thickened. Both following the first and second injury the formation of neointimal cushions was accompanied by a change in the polarity of the inner layers of medial smooth muscle cells, some of which appeared to have migrated into the neointima. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:3179197

  7. Variability of dermal elastin visualized ultrastructurally with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, S. S.; Brissie, R. M.; Thompson, N. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Verhoeff iron hematoxylin-lead citrate (VIH-LC) method demonstrated vertical elastic fibers that were often composed only of microfibrillar component extending into the epidermal basement membrane in human skin. These fibers connected with a network of trabeculae composed of microfibrils and elastin fibrils in varying proportions. The large elastic fibers in the deep two thirds of the dermis consited mainly of compact bundles of small elstin fibrils in infants and of solid elastin cores with a fimbriated periphery in adults; Dermis of a 6-month-old fetus contained very few small elastic fibrils except around blood vessels. Skin of an elderly subject revealed exteme proliferation of unusual reticulated elastic fibers in various areas and disclosed abnormal nodules of elastin or collagen fibrils in finely particulate matter. Small elastin fibrils, abundant microfibrils, and intermixed individual collagen fibrils comprised an adventitial collar between sweat glands and fibroblasts. Elastin fibrils were absent from this collar in the fetus and increased with the subject's age. A permanganate-high iron diamine sequence appeared to impart density to the microfibrillar component of elastic fibers. Images Figs 6-7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3-5 Fig 28 Fig 29 Fig 30 Fig 31 Fig 32 Fig 33 PMID:49149

  8. Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Graeme B.; Grobéty, Jocelyne; Majno, Guido

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental model of peritoneal adhesions, in the rat, based on two relatively minor accidents that may occur during abdominal surgery in man: drying of the serosa, and bleeding. Drying alone had little effect; drying plus bleeding consistently produced adhesions to the dried area. Fresh blood alone produced adhesions between the three membranous structures [omentum and pelvic fat bodies (PFBs)]. The formation of persistent adhesions required whole blood. Preformed clots above a critical size induced adhesions even without previous serosal injury; they were usually captured by the omentum and PFBs. If all three membranous structures were excised, the clots caused visceral adhesions. The protective role of the omentum, its structure, and the mechanism of omental adhesions, are discussed. These findings are relevant to the pathogenesis of post-operative adhesions in man. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 14Fig 15Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:5315369

  9. Pediatric osteomyelitis and septic arthritis: the pathology of neonatal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The morphologic and histologic examination of over fifty-five foci of metaphyseal/epiphyseal osteomyelitis and eleven septic joints from five cases of neonatal osteomyelitis and joint sepsis are described in detail. The severity of the bone and joint involvement varied considerably, allowing a better understanding of the pathophysiologic sequence of events in the disease in the neonatal time period. Of particular importance were (1) the multifocal nature of the disease, (2) the highly variable destruction of the growth plate (physis) by several discrete mechanisms, and (3) the invasion of the chondroepiphysis through the cartilage canal systems. Two of the cases died from respiratory complications several months following presumed successful treatment of their skeletal infections. S&pecimens showed significant growth plate damage continuing beyond the neonatal period. These findings support the need for rapid diagnosis and drainage, whenever feasible, to prevent long-term skeletal growth damage. The severity of involvement also should emphasize that this disease, especially in the neonate, is not an innocuous condition, as a recent review suggested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 FIG. 14 FIG. 15 FIG. 16 FIG. 17 FIG. 18 FIG. 19 FIG. 20 PMID:524924

  10. The fine structure of initial mineralisation during tooth development in the gummy shark, Mustelus manazo, Elasmobranchia.

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, I

    1989-01-01

    In the enameloid matrix a large number of tubular vesicles appeared around the odontoblast processes at the stage of enameloid matrix formation. The tubular vesicles were limited by unit membrane and the membrane often seemed to connect with that of the odontoblast processes. The tubular vesicles probably originated from the odontoblasts. Electron-dense granules were observed in the tubular vesicles before the appearance of crystals and then, in the stage of mineralisation, initial enameloid crystals appeared in each tubular vesicle. Parts of the odontoblast process surrounded small aggregations of tubular vesicles in the unmineralised dentine matrix. There were many multivesicular bodies and lysosomes in the odontoblasts forming the dentine. The odontoblasts probably absorb and break down the tubular vesicles after the beginning of dentinogenesis. Only in the predentine, during the enameloid maturation stage, did a few matrix vesicles appear, but no crystals were found in them. Hence, the initial mineralisation in tooth germs of the shark can be said to be different from that in teleosts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:2606790

  11. Structural changes in fluorosed dental enamel of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) from a region with severe environmental pollution by fluorides.

    PubMed Central

    Kierdorf, U; Kierdorf, H; Sedlacek, F; Fejerskov, O

    1996-01-01

    A macroscopic, microradiographic and scanning electron microscope study was performed on the structure of fluorosed dental enamel in red deer from a fluoride polluted region (North Bohemia, Czech Republic). As was revealed by analysis of mandibular bone fluoride content, the rate of skeletal fluoride accumulation in the fluorotic deer was about 6 times that in controls taken from a region not exposed to excessive fluoride deposition. In all fluorosed mandibles, the 1st molar was consistently less fluorotic than the other permanent teeth. This was related to the fact that crown formation in the M1 takes place prenatally and during the lactation period. Fluorosed teeth exhibited opaque and posteruptively stained enamel, reduction or loss of enamel ridges, moderately to grossly increased wear and, in more severe cases, also enamel surface lesions of partly posteruptive, partly developmental origin. Microradiographically, fluorosed enamel was characterised by subsurface hypomineralisation, interpreted as a result of fluoride interference with the process of enamel maturation. In addition, an accentuation of the incremental pattern due to the occurrence of alternating bands with highly varying mineral content was observed in severely fluorosed teeth, denoting fluoride disturbance during the secretory stage of amelogenesis. A corresponding enhancement of the incremental pattern was also seen in the dentine. The enamel along the more pronounced hypoplasias consisted of stacked, thin layers of crystals arranged in parallel, indicating that the ameloblasts in these locations had lost the distal (prism-forming) portions of their Tomes processes. The findings of the present study indicate that red deer are highly sensitive bioindicators of environmental pollution by fluorides. Images Figs 2-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 PMID:8655406

  12. WHO Co-operative studies on a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav

    1963-01-01

    Tuberculosis surveys are in progress in many countries that do not have adequate laboratory facilities for carrying out complicated bacteriological procedures. As part of a WHO co-operative research programme, studies have been undertaken with a view to developing a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria that does not require elaborate equipment. This paper is the first report on these co-operative studies. Storage and transport are known to affect adversely the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pathological specimens, thus giving rise to poor culture results and indicating the advisability of culturing such specimens on the spot. The preparation of the efficient and widely used Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture medium, however, requires materials and facilities that are not easy available in developing countries. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty, the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague has developed a semi-synthetic liquid medium that can be prepared in bulk, concentrated and lyophilized, and sent even to distant laboratories. The present paper describes in detail the preparation of this lyophilized medium, which can be stored at room temperature for at least 6-12 months and is easy to reconstitute, and discusses the growth characteristics of mycobacteria multiplied in it. Experience in Czechoslovakia, where between 1953 and 1962 nearly 21 million cultures have been made with the medium, has shown that it is quite satisfactory and even slightly superior to L-J medium in certain respects. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 & 4FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15FIG. 16 PMID:14102036

  13. Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine articular and epiphyseal cartilage: light ane electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, R; Christian, R G; Nakano, T; Aherne, F X; Thompson, J R

    1981-01-01

    Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine were studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy in articular cartilage and light microscopy and epiphyseal cartilage of swine from three days to 30 weeks of age. Thickness, cellularity and vascularity of both the epiphyseal and articular cartilage, decreased as the swine aged. Osteochondrotic changes included formation of "plugs" of cartilage indicating localized failure of ossification and separation and space formation in epiphyseal cartilage. Eosinophilic streaks and space formation in epiphyseal cartilage was observed in relation to epiphyseal separation. Electron microscopy showed a continuous fibrillar layer on the surface of the cartilage corresponding to the lamina splendens of light microscopy. This layer increased in the thickness and showed accumulation of amorphous material between the fibrils with aging. In the matrix, the orientation and distribution of the collagen fibers changed with growth and thicker fibers with clear sub banding were more common in older age groups. Also, necrotic cells, glycogen containing bodies and cellular debris were noticed in the matrix of normal cartilage in old animals. Chondrocytes in the younger cartilage showed accumulation of organelles responsible for protein synthesis; while Golgi bodies, vesicles, lysosomes, well developed foot processes and other inclusions were noticed in older cartilage. Cartilage erosions had a clumped and disrupted lamina splendens on the surface and electron lucent patches in the ground substances of the matrix and chondrocyte cytoplasm. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2 and 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10 and 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. PMID:7260732

  14. Cell death during the postnatal morphogenesis of the normal rabbit kidney and in experimental renal polycystosis.

    PubMed Central

    García-Porrero, J A; Ojeda, J L; Hurlé, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have studied, by means of optic and electron microscopy, the normal and abnormal cell death that takes place during the postnatal morphogenesis of rabbit kidney, and in the experimental renal polycystosis produced by methylprednisolone acetate. In the normal kidney intertubular cell death can be observed during the first 20 days of the postnatal development. However, cell death in the normal metanephric blastema is a very rare event. In the polycystic kidney numerous dead cells can be seen between the third and forty eighth days after injection. The topography and morphology of the dead cells depend on the stage in the evolution of the disease. In the 'stage of renal immaturity', dying and dead cells are present in the nephrogenic tissue, in the dilating collecting tubules and in the intertubular spaces. In this stage the cellular pathology is essentially nuclear. In the stage of tubular cysts, the dead cells are mostly located in the walls of cysts, with some dead cells, but mostly cellular debris in their lumina. At this stage the cellular pathology is basically cytoplasmic. The dead cells are eventually digested by what appear to be phagocytes of tubular epithelial origin. It is suggested that cell death is an important factor in the evolution of the lesions of renal polycystosis induced by corticosteroids, and probably in the initiation of the pathological process as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:670065

  15. Haemopoietic phagocytes in the early differentiating avian retina.

    PubMed Central

    Cuadros, M A; García-Martín, M; Martin, C; Ríos, A

    1991-01-01

    The existence of specialised phagocytic cells is described in regions of the retinal neuroepithelium undergoing intense cell death during early differentiation of the avian embryo retina (2.5-5 days of incubation). These results were obtained using routine techniques for light microscopy, acid phosphatase histochemistry and immunocytochemical staining with antibodies MB-1 and QH-1, both specific for quail endothelial cells and all blood cells except mature erythrocytes. Specialised phagocytes were distinguishable from neuroepithelial cells on the basis of morphological criteria: in the former, the nucleus was not oval in shape and was not oriented perpendicular to basement membrane neuroepithelium. The cytoplasm of the specialised phagocytes was often filled with dead cell fragments. In contrast to neuroepithelial cells, the specialised phagocytes showed acid phosphatase activity and were labelled with both MB-1 and QH-1 antibodies in normal quail embryos and chick----quail yolk sac chimeras. Moreover, some acid phosphatase positive and MB-1/QH-1 positive cells also appeared in the presumptive vitreous body, at the edges of the optic cup and in the surrounding mesenchyme. As the vitreal cells and the specialised phagocytes of the neural retina were immunolabelled in chick----quail yolk sac chimeras, we conclude that they are derived from haemopoietic cells in the yolk sac. Some images suggest that these cells enter the vitreous body from the surrounding mesenchyme and traverse the basement membrane of the neuroepithelium in the optic disc region to give rise to the specialised phagocytes of the retinal neuroepithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:1769889

  16. A light and electron microscopic quantitative analysis of the innervation of axillary lymph nodes in juvenile and old rats.

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, G E; Schöttelndreier, A; Heuer, T

    1993-01-01

    The innervation of axillary lymph nodes from 20 juvenile rats (aged < 6 wk) was compared with that of 20 old rats (aged > 2 y). One half of each group was investigated by light microscopy on silver-impregnated paraffin sections, the other half by electron microscopy. The lymph nodes of the old animals were larger than those of juvenile animals, as derived from the volumes analysed by light microscopy. By both light and electron microscopy, the nerves were found to be confined almost exclusively to the medulla and were frequently associated with groups of plasma cells. Nerves identified as cortical in location were consistently found only in cortical areas adjacent to the medulla. In the old animals the nerves were thicker and more prominent in the light microscopic preparations. No such differences were noted at the ultrastructural level. Myelinated nerves were found in all lymph nodes, except in a single old animal. Quantitative analysis of the nerves revealed a significant increase in the density of innervation of the medulla in the old animals both by light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy there also appeared to be a significant increase in the innervation density of the cortex, but these nerves were considered to be mislocalized because of difficulty in precise localisation at this level of magnification. On light microscopy, a significant increase in the incidence of nerve branching was found in the nodes of the old animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:8270476

  17. An investigation of the migratory potential of mouse oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, S; Smith, R A; Haig, T

    1992-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the potential of mouse oocytes for migratory activity using bisected ovaries in vitro. Bisection allowed larger medullary oocytes to be brought nearer to the surface; in this way the migratory potential of all oocytes could be studied. Observations were made following 48 h culture to allow for recovery from any initial traumatic effects resulting from bisection. Ovaries were explanted from fetuses at d 15 postcoitum and from neonatal and postnatal mice (d 1-7, 11, 12 and 14 of life) and examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Oocytes were extruded from the surface and a sequence of events was inferred. Cells superficial to the oocyte sloughed off, exposing the oocytes which showed the migratory phenotype as they emerged onto the surface. Here each oocyte became rounder and was finally extruded, leaving a 'crater'. Scanning electron microscopy of the explant surface allowed counts to be made of emergent oocytes. The number of explants showing emergent oocytes was at a maximum when ovaries were removed at the end of the first week postnatum; the mean number of oocytes emerging from each also peaked at this time. Numbers of migratory oocytes declined in ovaries aged 11 d at explantation and by d 14 only 66% of explants showed oocytes at the surface. The distribution of oocytes of various sizes at the surface suggests that both small cortical oocytes and larger medullary oocytes can express the migratory phenotype. Transmission electron microscopy verified structural integrity of the emerging oocytes and revealed their relationship to underlying cells. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:1304582

  18. An ultrastructural study of the stellate ganglion of the pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed Central

    Leong, S K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    The stellate ganglia of Macaca nemestrina were studied with the electron microscope, using the conventional and chromate-dichromate methods of aldehyde fixation. The principal neurons are multipolar and mostly mononucleated. They measure between 10 and 50 microns in their average somal diameters. The organelles of the perikaryon are arranged in perinuclear, intermediate and peripheral zones. Unusual organelles consisting of stacks of closely apposed paired membranes, with or without dense bodies studded on their surfaces, are encountered. Nuclear eccentricity is a regular feature of the neuron and the nuclear membrane shows a varying degree of invagination. All parts of the neurons are surrounded by satellite or Schwann cells though dendritic surfaces in direct contact with the basal lamina associated with the satellite cells are not uncommonly seen. Features peculiar to dendrites have been described. Structures resembling dendritic growth cones are present in abundance. Most synapses are axodendritic; axosomatic synapses are much less frequently encountered. While most synapses are of the simple type, complex types are also present. Desmosome-like junctional complexes exist between dendrites, dendrites and somata and axons and dendrites. Differences between Schwann cells of myelinated axons and those of myelinated axons and satellite cells have been noted. In addition to an abundance of macrophages, other connective tissue cells such as mast cells, fibroblasts and plasma cells are also present. Degenerative profiles observed include neuronal cell bodies and cell processes, especially dendrites. They are phagocytosed by the satellite cells and macrophages. The presence of degenerative profiles, chromatolytic neurons and structures resembling dendritic growth cones in the normal stellate ganglion has been discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Figs. 19

  19. The harderian gland of desert rodents: a histological and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Djeridane, Y

    1992-01-01

    . Mast cells, plasma cells, macrophages, fenestrated capillaries and unmyelinated nerve endings with clear or dense-cored vesicles are present in the connective tissue. Melanocytes are very numerous in the interstices of the Gerbillidae harderian gland. The gland is surrounded by a collagenous capsule and an outer layer of endothelial cells derived from the orbital venous sinus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 PMID:1487439

  20. Surgical management of chronic pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, W R; Lyerly, H K; Sabiston, D C

    1985-01-01

    another was massively obese with severe congestive heart failure and expired in the hospital a week later. In this group of 11 patients, three succumbed and most of the others are currently totally debilitated at rest (NYHA Class IV). Long-term follow-up of the surgically managed patients (1 to 15 years) shows that ten patients improved from NYHA functional Class IV to either I or II, another patient from Class III to Class I, and a final patient was only minimally improved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIG. 1. FIG. 1. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 10. FIG. 13. FIG. 14. FIG. 15. FIG. 16. FIG. 17. FIG. 18. FIG. 19. FIG. 20. FIG. 21. FIG. 22. FIG. 23. PMID:3966827

  1. The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, A P

    1994-01-01

    The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The chief product(s) of the gland varies between different groups of vertebrates, and epithelial cells possess granules or vacuoles whose contents may be mucous, serous or lipid. In rodents, the gland synthesises lipids, porphyrins and indoles. In the case of lipid vacuoles, the gland is unusual in releasing these by an exocytotic mechanism. It is unclear whether the gland can act both as an exocrine and endocrine organ. There is control of gland structure and synthesis through a variety of humoral agents, including gonadal, thyroid and pituitary hormones; in addition there is a rich autonomic innervation and many neuropeptides have been identified. The proposed functions of the gland are remarkably diverse and include the gland being (1) a source of 'saliva', (2) a site of immune response, (3) a photoprotective organ, (4) part of a retinal-pineal axis, (5) a source of pheromones, (6) a source of thermoregulatory lipids, (7) a site of osmoregulation, and (8) a source of growth factors. The gland is discussed in terms of its embryology and phylogeny, and in relation to ecological variables. Several goals of future research are identified. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 40 PMID:7559104

  2. Morphological and functional interrelationships of articular cartilage matrices.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, C A; Flint, M H; Beaumont, B W

    1984-01-01

    synergistically to produce an integrated, biological, hydro-elastic suspension system capable of resisting physiological compression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 PMID:6706831

  3. Endemic syphilis in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J. F.; Merriweather, A. M.; Freedman, M. L.

    1956-01-01

    A form of endemic syphilis exists in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate known by the local name of “dichuchwa”. It is similar to bejel, njovera and the endemic syphilis reported elsewhere in the world. The Government of the Protectorate, with the assistance of WHO and UNICEF, began in November 1953 a mass campaign in the Reserve to control this disease and, at the same time, to study its epidemiological, clinical, social and therapeutic aspects. The seropositivity rate in the Reserve was found to be 37%. Dichuchwa is a childhood and family disease, usually spread non-venereally. The early lesions are similar to secondary lesions of sporadic venereal syphilis, and are often followed by tertiary lesions affecting mainly the skin, nasopharynx and long bones. Primary lesions are rare but may occur under certain epidemiological conditions if the inoculum is sufficiently large; thus a mother may develop primary sores on the nipples through suckling an infected infant. Lesions of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and congenital syphilis are also rare. Superinfection of an already infected and allergic host is probably the chief reason for the frequency of the tertiary lesions. Treatment of the disease with penicillin is very effective, and the authors believe that mass treatment of cases and contacts combined with an improvement in the standards of hygiene could eradicate the disease. ImagesFig. 61Fig. 62Fig. 63Fig. 64Fig. 74Fig. 75Fig. 76Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 45Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 49Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 57Fig. 58Fig. 59Fig. 60Fig. 65Fig. 66Fig. 67Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 68Fig. 69Fig. 70Fig. 71Fig. 72Fig. 73Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 40Fig. 41Fig. 42 PMID:13404470

  4. Pacesetters of the American image or (a case for a pleasant diversion).

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    Regardless of how you resolve the morality of our history, the fact is that Currier and Ives documented in their own special and often biased way the iconography of the growth and development of the United States of America (Fig. 88) in some of the most eventful years of its history from about 1840 through 1895. Now, as we near our 500th anniversary commemoration of Columbus' voyage to the Americas, it seems especially appropriate to review--to think about all of this. I think you have sensed, as we have gone along, that learning about Currier and his colleagues--these pacesetters of the American Image--has meant, as Osler predicted, a pleasant diversion for me. These activities have carried me into new areas of interest, expanding my perspective of the American Image--of people, of medicine, of life in general, and aiding in the identification of values, my own, as well as those of others. All along, my knowledge has been enhanced, especially of the history of this wonderful complex country of ours. Furthermore, and of considerable importance, this endeavor has sharpened my power of observation. I have, like a good doctor should do, learned to look better! Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 19 Fig. 18 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 23 Fig. 25 Fig. 27 Fig. 26 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Fig. 45 Fig. 46 Fig. 47 Fig. 48 Fig. 49 Fig. 50 Fig. 51 Fig. 52 Fig. 53 Fig. 54 Fig. 55 Fig. 56 Fig. 57 Fig. 58 Fig. 59 Fig. 60 Fig. 61 Fig. 62 Fig. 63 Fig. 64 Fig. 65 Fig. 66 Fig. 68 Fig. 67 Fig. 69 Fig. 70 Fig. 71 Fig. 72 Fig. 73 Fig. 74 Fig. 75 Fig. 76 Fig. 77 Fig. 78 Fig. 79 Fig. 80 Fig. 82 Fig. 81 Fig. 83 Fig. 84 Fig. 85 Fig. 86 Fig. 87 Fig. 88 PMID:1413369

  5. An Experimental Investigation of the Lymphatic System of the Teeth and Jaws

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Alexander

    1936-01-01

    are given, and the lines on which further experiments are being continued are indicated. Finally, the application of the results to the pathology of infection in this region, particularly paradontal disease, is given, and also their application to the phenomena of injection anæsthesia. ImagesFig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:19990818

  6. Cell death during the development of the truncus and conus of the chick embryo heart.

    PubMed Central

    Hurle, J M; Ojeda, J L

    1979-01-01

    The presence of cell death in the walls of the truncus and conus of the developing chick heart was investigated by a variety of light and electron microscopic techniques. Necrotic areas were observed in the myocardial layer of the truncus and conus and within the mesenchymal cells of the truncoconal ridges and aortopulmonary septum. These necrotic zones appeared first at Stage 25-26 and reached their maximum extent at Stages 29-32 undergoing later progressive disappearance. The morphological changes of the degenerating cells detectable under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy are also reported. The possible role of cell death in the morphogenesis of the truncus and conus is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:500497

  7. The Reflexes of the Fundus Oculi

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, A. J.

    1940-01-01

    fragmented” surface reflexes, or as evidence of the presence of some highly refractile substance, such as cholesterin or calcium carbonate, in a retinal exudate or other lesion. It is characteristic of the pathological reflexes that they come and go and change their character according to the progress of the pathological condition. The linear reflexes in particular may change from one from to another, and may be finally transformed into surface reflexes of physiological character. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:19992307

  8. Chronic Actinic Keratopathy—A Condition Associated with Conjunctival Elastosis (Pingueculae) and Typified by Characteristic Extracellular Concretions

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1972-01-01

    Morphologic observations on a peculiar type of corneal reaction with a predisposition for the superficial stroma of the interpalpebral portion of the cornea are reviewed. Histochemical evidence is provided which indicates that the corneal concretions, though not homogenous, are proteinaceous in nature and contain amino acids not normally detectable in the cornea. The corneal concretions were associated with conjunctival elastosis (pingueculae) in all 22 instances in which the eyes were sectioned in the horizontal plane. Identical concretions were identified within these associated pingueculae, as well as in a large percentage of other pingueculae and cutaneous lesions with actinic elastosis. The findings suggest that the abnormal material arises in the pericorneal conjunctival connective tissue from whence it diffuses into, and deposits in, the superficial corneal stroma. The data also raise the possibility that the concretions may be derived, at least in part, from altered elastic tissue. Morphologic and epidemiologic observations on the condition taken together strongly suggest that this unique reaction is a sequel to the cumulative effect of chronic actinic irradiation. Further observations on this keratopathy are needed to establish whether this unique response can be provoked by other noxious stimuli. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15 PMID:5021106

  9. The Possible Role of Hypnosis in Homograft Retention

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Sydney; Knight, Charles R.

    1965-01-01

    Hypnosis was used to alter body image in an attempt to enable a woman to retain a skin homograft from an unrelated male donor. The man also acted as a nonhypnotized control by receiving a homograft from the hypnotized woman. Oneinch square full-thickness skin homografts were exchanged between the upper arms of the two volunteers. The homograft on the arm of the woman is still viable after eight months; the homograft on the man was rejected within two weeks. A second experiment in which the same subject was told under hypnosis to reject the homograft failed to produce rejection. Definite conclusions are not yet justified. Among factors to be considered in the present case are an unusual compatibility, schizophrenia as an inhibitor of the rejection mechanism, hypnotically induced irreversible acceptance, or other unknown mechanisms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:14339293

  10. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  11. The orbital glands of the terrapin Pseudemys scripta in response to osmotic stress: a light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Baccari, G C; Minucci, S; Di Matteo, L

    1993-01-01

    The histochemical and ultrastructural features of both orbital glands--the anterior lacrimal and harderian glands--were compared in the terrapin Pseudemys scripta following adaptation either to distilled water or to seawater. Seawater adaptation activated the harderian gland and caused a major structural reorganisation. Type I cells increased in number, whereas type II cells became smaller and less numerous. The most striking change was shown by the type IV cells which display the features of a salt-secreting cell. This cell type increased in number and changed from a unicellular form to multicellular complexes. Transfer from fresh water to distilled water caused a decrease in alcianophilia in type I and type III glandular cells and degenerative phenomena were often seen in type I and type IV cells. The anterior lacrimal gland showed only minor changes either in distilled or seawater adapted terrapins. Transfer to distilled water also caused degenerative phenomena in the lacrimal gland. These results establish for the first time the involvement of the harderian gland of a terrapin in osmoregulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:8270473

  12. The extent of the odontoblast process in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, G R

    1976-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that in the dentine of cats perfused with aldehyde fixatives for short periods the odontoblast process seems to be limited to inner dentine. This could possibly have been an artefact due either to inadequate penetration of the fixative or shrinkage of the cells. Experiments prolonging the duration of the fixation and raising the concentration of the fixatives, examining dentine from regions and species where it is narrow and more accessible to fixatives, and looking at dentine fixed by immersion both in situ and after excision, all showed the process to be limited to inner dentine. Measruing glutaraldehyde penetration through model dentine and also through dentine in the perfused animal showed that this fixative penetrates the dentine well. Variations in fixative osmotic pressure, while having a profound effect on cells and processes in vitro and causing changes in cell shape in the intact animal, do not neasurably alter the extent of the odontoblast process. The conclusion is that the odontoblast process in the cat is limited to the pulpal half of the dentine. As a consequence, no cellular mechanism can be involved in the transmission of stimuli across the outer dentine. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 PMID:815232

  13. A morphological study of experimental rabbit staphylococcal endocarditis and aortitis. I. Formation and effect of infected and uninfected vegetations on the aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. J.; McColm, A. A.; Savage, T. J.; Ryan, D. M.; Acred, P.

    1986-01-01

    In this study the development of sterile thrombic vegetations on the aorta resulting from catheterization and the effect of subsequent infection with Staphylococcus aureus were examined by light and electron microscopy. Thrombi of various sizes, comprising fibrin, platelets and a few leucocytes and erythrocytes, develop on the damaged surface of the aorta with minimal changes in the underlying aortic wall. After intravenous inoculation of Staph. aureus most vegetations become infected, as shown by the presence of bacterial colonies, and the underlying aortic wall is markedly inflamed. The inflammatory cells invade the wall from the base of the aorta and cause swelling plus disruption of the elastic laminae with ulceration of the luminal surface in some cases. This structural damage appears to be a direct result of the bacterial infection of the lesions on the luminal surface. Images Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3790427

  14. Studies on Schistosoma japonicum infection in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Pesigan, T. P.; Farooq, M.; Hairston, N. G.; Jauregui, J. J.; Garcia, E. G.; Santos, A. T.; Santos, B. C.; Besa, A. A.

    1958-01-01

    The geographical location and physical features of the island of Leyte in the Philippines, where bilharziasis is endemic and where the studies reported here were conducted, are described in the first part of this paper. An account is also given of the climate, soils, vegetation, population and rural structure, and public health of the island. The second part opens with a brief historical review of bilharziasis japonica in the Philippines up to 1953, when a control project was started. The objectives of this project, the areas selected, the census data and sampling used, and the techniques adopted are described. There follows a discussion of the prevalence of bilharziasis and its relationship to age, sex, occupation and environment; the prevalence of other common helminthic infections is also considered. In a section on the natural history and public health significance of bilharziasis, an approach to quantitative assessment of disease and disability and a method for evaluating the economic burden of bilharziasis are suggested. The incidence of disease in children of 5-9 years is reviewed in the same section. An analysis is made of possible strain differences of S. japonicum in Leyte, and the relative role of human and other animal hosts is assessed. The last section deals with the egg-laying habits of S. japonicum. ImagesFIG. 9FIG. 13FIG. 15FIG. 28 PMID:13536797

  15. Role of actin and myosin in the control of paracellular permeability in pig, rat and human vascular endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Schnittler, H J; Wilke, A; Gress, T; Suttorp, N; Drenckhahn, D

    1990-01-01

    1. We have investigated the endothelial actomyosin system with particular emphasis on its possible role in actively opening a paracellular route for permeability. 2. Actin and myosin comprised 16% of total endothelial protein with a molar actin/myosin ratio of 16.2 which is close to the actin/myosin ratio of muscle (studies on freshly isolated pig pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, PAEC). 3. By immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels the bulk of actin and myosin was colocalized in close vicinity to the intercellular clefts of both micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells in situ and in vitro. 4. Calcium-ionophore-induced rise in permeability of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) and PAEC monolayers grown on filters in a two-chamber permeability system was caused by opening of intercellular gaps. Gap formation depended on the rise in intracellular Ca2+ and could be blocked by the calmodulin-binding drugs trifluperazine (TFP) and W7. 5. In skinned monolayers of cultured PAEC and in isolated sheets of HUVEC gap formation was shown to require ATP and occurred only when free myosin binding sites were available on endothelial actin filaments (experiments with myosin subfragment 1 modified by N-ethylmaleimide, S1-NEM). 6. These experiments suggest that actin and myosin in endothelial cells play a central role in regulating the width of the intercellular clefts, thereby controlling the paracellular pathway of vascular permeability. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2100310

  16. Periosteal structure and development in a rat caudal vertebra.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G; Feik, S A; Carach, B J

    1988-01-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats from birth to 300 days were used to study the bone/soft tissue interrelationships of the 14th caudal vertebra with particular emphasis on the periosteum throughout growth, development and maturation. The growth of the rats follows a sigmoid curve with three phases, a developmental, a rapid growth and a maturation phase. The width/length ratio of the bone and the thickness of the periosteum are closely concurrent, with a rapid decrease during the developmental phase and a levelling off during the rapid growth phase. SEM studies established that the caudal vertebra has symmetrical lateral sides and a pronounced concavity on the ventral surface where the main vascular plexus is located. Morphological changes in the periosteum cna be described as occurring in three layers and reflect the stages seen in general somatic growth. The inner cambial layer initially contains elongated but functional osteoblasts; these become cuboidal during the rapid growth phase and ultimately are flattened and quiescent. The mid-zone with its vessels, undifferentiated and mononuclear phagocytic cells also attains its maximum development in the rapid growth period and then gradually involutes. The fibrous periosteum consists of a syncytial arrangement of fibroblasts in a collagenous matrix which becomes increasingly dense although reduced in width. Sharpey fibre bundles connect the bone with the fibrous periosteum and these become thicker with age. The mid-zone of the periosteum has not been described previously. Besides having a nutritive role and providing progenitor cells it is thought to act as a buffer modulating the interaction between bone and the covering soft tissues. With age and the deletion of the mid-zone a less sensitive periosteal response to stress can be expected. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:3225221

  17. Mapping of human and macaque sensorimotor areas by integrating architectonic, transmitter receptor, MRI and PET data.

    PubMed Central

    Zilles, K; Schlaug, G; Matelli, M; Luppino, G; Schleicher, A; Qü, M; Dabringhaus, A; Seitz, R; Roland, P E

    1995-01-01

    . 10 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:8586553

  18. The morphology of the lung of the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis (Reptilia: Ophidia: Elapidae). A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1989-01-01

    evolution of the lungs of the air-breathing vertebrates from lower through to higher vertebrates. The gross and ultrastructural heterogeneity of the organisation of the ophidian lung is illustrated and the dearth of pulmonary morphological data in this taxon is pointed out. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2630539

  19. From Osler to Olafson. The evolution of veterinary pathology in North America.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, L Z

    1987-01-01

    of instruction. However, by 1884, Osler had already left his indelible imprint on the students (both medical and veterinary) he had taught in Montreal, one of whom took over the teaching of pathology in the veterinary college. Another, who followed Osler's example and also studied in Berlin with Virchow, wrote the first book in the English language on veterinary post mortem technique in 1889.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:3552167

  20. Upregulation and induction of surface antigens with special reference to MHC class II expression in microglia in postnatal rat brain following intravenous or intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Ling, E A

    1994-01-01

    positive cells, it is suggested that the OX-6 positive cells would have the potentiality to function in antigen presentation in the postnatal rat brain when challenged by the endotoxin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs 4,5 Figs 6,7 Figs 8,9 Figs 10,11 Figs 12,13 Figs 14,15 Figs 16,17 Figs 18,19 Figs 20,21 PMID:8014120

  1. Evaluation criteria and test methods for electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W. ); Lampert, C.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Report summarizes the test methods used for evaluating electrochromic (EC) windows, and summarizes what is known about degradation of their performance, and recommends methods and procedures for advancing EC windows for buildings applications. 77 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Hyperpolarizable compounds and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Therien, M.J.; DiMagno, S.G.

    1998-07-21

    Substituted compounds having relatively large molecular first order hyperpolarizabilities are provided, along with devices and materials containing them. In general, the compounds bear electron-donating and electron-withdrawing chemical substituents on a polyheterocyclic core. 13 figs.

  3. The giant cardiac membrane patch method: stimulation of outward Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current by MgATP.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, A; Somlyo, A V; Hilgemann, D W

    1992-01-01

    exchange current was 3 mM or greater. When decay was rapid, the steady-state dependence of exchange current on MgATP also had a Kd of 3 mM or greater. 8. Stimulation of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current by MgATP occurred in the absence of cytoplasmic calcium with 9 mM-EGTA. 9. The stimulatory effect of 2 mM-MgATP was not inhibited by up to 200 microM of the protein kinase inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinoline sulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), or by peptide inhibitors of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C and calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:1335502

  4. Innervation of the human gastric wall.

    PubMed Central

    Kyösola, K; Rechardt, L; Veijola, L; Waris, T; Penttilä, O

    1980-01-01

    separated from the gastric glands (and the parietal cells, chief cells and endocrine cells of their epithelial lining) by a considerable gap so that it seems unlikely that the gastric glands, parietal cells, chief cells and endocrine cells receive a direct innervation in the sense of synaptic neurotransmission; the transmitter substance must diffuse across a wide gap. In contrast, the endocrine cells were in close contact with the parietal cells and chief cells, and occasional membrane specialization (desmosomes) reinforce the assumption that (also) direct local humoral interaction may be possible. In addition, a large number of mast cells was observed in the lamina propria, many lying as close to glandular cells (parietal cells, chief cells and endocrine cells) as were the nearest nerve terminals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs. 4-6 Figs. 7(a) and 7(b) Figs. 8-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Figs. 18-19 Figs. 20-21 PMID:7216913

  5. Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, E.

    1993-02-01

    Object was to understand factors controlling the activity of O{sub 2} reduction and generation electrocatalysts, in order to attain higher activity and longer-term stability. Two broad classes of catalysts were developed: transition metal macrocycles in monomeric and polymeric forms, and transition metal oxides including perovskites and pyrochlores. 20 refs., 14 figs.

  6. Tandem warhead considerations for electronic safety and arming devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dell, D.; Medina, A.

    1990-01-01

    There are four issues that an ESA designer must address when designing a tandem system: (1) warhead detonation shock, (2) warhead detonation ion cloud, (3) warhead detonation electromagnetic pulse, and (4) slapper/sparkgap electromagnetic pulse. Each of these hazards can upset the ESA time delay circuitry which would then either dud the munition or prematurely detonate the main charge. 14 figs.

  7. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1997-02-04

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition. 14 figs.

  8. Multiple DC, single AC converter with a switched DC transformer

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, M.K.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    1997-05-20

    The invention is an improvement of the PASC inverter, wherein the improvements include the reduction from two shorting gates per transformer to one shorting gate per transformer and replacement of active control of the shorting gate with passive control of the shorting gate. Further advantages are obtained through the use of anti-parallel gate sets. 14 figs.

  9. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schalles, J.F. ); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. )

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. On the utility and ubiquity of atomic collision physics

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts. In the introduction, we discuss the history and makeup of ICPEAC. In the second part, we discuss the extent of applicability of atomic collision physics. In the third part, we chose one subject (dielectronic excitation) to show the interrelationship of various sub-branches of atomic collision physics. 28 refs., 14 figs.

  11. Magnetic field annihilation in the magnetosphere and some geotechnical applications: Progress report for the period 1/1/83 through 2/28/84

    SciTech Connect

    Akasofu, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    The contract had two objectives. The first was to learn about magnetized plasmas under a variety of magnetospheric, solar, interplanetary and astrophysical conditions in collaborating closely with fusion research physicists. The second was to study energy-related geophysical problems in the arctic environment. Particular interest has been shown for auroral effects on power transmission lines and oil/gas pipelines. 14 figs.

  12. Frequency agile optical parametric oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Velsko, S.P.

    1998-11-24

    The frequency agile OPO device converts a fixed wavelength pump laser beam to arbitrary wavelengths within a specified range with pulse to pulse agility, at a rate limited only by the repetition rate of the pump laser. Uses of this invention include Laser radar, LIDAR, active remote sensing of effluents/pollutants, environmental monitoring, antisensor lasers, and spectroscopy. 14 figs.

  13. Three-dimensional rf structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.K.; Browman, M.J.; Weiland, T.

    1988-01-01

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Triggering and data acquisition aspects of SSC tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.G.; Niczyporuk, B.B.; Palounek, A.P.T.

    1989-04-01

    Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems which meet the requirements for radiation damage and rates in the SSC environment are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. Implications for data acquisition and triggering are examined. 15 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Recent hypernuclear research at the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent AGS experiments contributing to our knowledge of hypernuclei are reviewed. These experiments have suggested new areas of research on hypernuclei. With the proper beam line facilities, the AGS will be able to perform experiments in these areas and provide a transition to the future era of ''kaon factories''. 20 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, R.D.; Deis, G.A.

    1992-03-24

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles. 14 figs.

  17. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, M.J.; Weaver, V.M.

    1998-12-08

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying {beta}{sub 1} integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive. 14 figs.

  18. Beginner's guide to SPICE

    SciTech Connect

    Geisik, C.; Schilling, L.

    1988-07-01

    This work is intended to help a beginner learn the fundamentals of the circuit simulation program SPICE using a series of increasingly complex examples. These examples take the beginner from the most elementary circuits on up to an operational amplifier model. This work serves as a supplement to the existing SPICE documentation SPICE User's Guide. 13 figs.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies to cyclodiene insecticides and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, L.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-08-02

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples. 13 figs.

  20. Transmission Lines: An Overview of Electrical Properties and Environmental Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Biological Studies Task Team.

    1982-03-01

    A brief overview is provided of environmental and biological effects of high-voltage power transmission lines. Paragraph length descriptions of electric fields, induced voltage and currents, biological effects, magnetic fields, corona, radio and television interference, and ozone are given. 13 figs.

  1. Blast furnace lining and cooling technology: experiences at Corus IJmuiden

    SciTech Connect

    Stokman, R.; van Stein Cellenfels, E.; van Laar, R.

    2004-11-01

    This article describes the blast furnace lining and cooling concept as originally developed and applied by Hoogovens (Corus IJmuiden). The technology has also been applied by Danieli Corus in all its blast furnace projects executed in the last 25 years. The technology has helped Corus increase its PCI rate to over 200 kg/thm. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Graphoepitaxy by encapsulation

    DOEpatents

    Geis, M.W.; Smith, H.I.; Antoniadis, D.A.; Flanders, D.C.

    1986-01-21

    Improvements on the graphoepitaxial process for obtaining epitaxial or preferred orientation films are described wherein a cap of material is formed over the film to be oriented, artificial surface-relief structure may be present in the substrate, the cap, or both, and the film may be heated by irradiation with electromagnetic radiation. 13 figs.

  3. X, Y, Z positioner

    DOEpatents

    Goers, G.F.

    1987-11-10

    A three-axis control for precisely and conveniently adjusting items such as mirrors and lenses is disclosed. The adjuster apparatus includes a vertical stack of three rotatable adjusters. Rotation of the first effects vertical translation, whereas the second and third are eccentric assemblies which interact to effect movement along two angled axes perpendicular to the vertical axis. 13 figs.

  4. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    DOEpatents

    O`Brien, D.W.; Druce, R.L.; Johnson, G.W.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-03-24

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques. 13 figs.

  5. Electromagnetic structure of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, R.G.

    1986-07-01

    A brief review is given of selected topics in the electromagnetic structure of nucleons and nuclei, including nucleon form factors from both quantum chromodynamics and electron scattering data, measurements of the deuteron and triton form factors, quasi-elastic scattering, and the EMC effect. 47 refs., 13 figs. (LEW)

  6. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.; Kimmel, M.W.; Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-10

    A system for detecting objects in a turbid media utilizes an optical parametric amplifier as an amplifying gate for received light from the media. An optical gating pulse from a second parametric amplifier permits the system to respond to and amplify only ballistic photons from the object in the media. 13 figs.

  7. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  8. Mechanism of current modulation by optic phonon emission in heterojunction tunneling experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, C.B.; Hellman, E.S.; Laughlin, R.B.

    1985-08-27

    We explain recent observations by Hickmott et al. of sequential longitudinal optic phonon emission in tunneling currents of GaAs-Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As heterojunctions in terms of inhomogeneous tunneling and a magnetopolaronic mass correction. 16 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1986-02-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems conducted for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 15 figs.

  10. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  11. Methods for preparation of deuterated amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pshenichnikova, A.B.; Karnaukhova, E.N.; Zvonkova, E.N.

    1995-03-01

    The current state and prospects for the use of amino acids labeled with stable isotopes are considered. Methods for the preparation of deuterated amino acids, including synthetic, chemicoenzymatic, and biosynthetic ones, and deuterium exchange reactions are summarized. Problems in the preparation of optically pure amino acids are discussed. 120 refs., 15 figs.

  12. TWOPOT: a computer model of the two-pot extractive distillation concept for nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.; Holland, W.D.; Counce, R.M.; Beckwith, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    A mathematical model, TWOPOT, of the ''two-pot'' extractive distillation concept for nitric acid concentration has been developed. Prediction from a computer simulation using this model shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. This model is recommended for use in the design of large-scale, similar-purpose equipment. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Small-scale hydroelectric demonstration project: Reactivation of the Elk Rapids Hydroelectric Facility: Final operation and maintenance report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.

    1987-03-01

    Information related to the reactivation of the Elk River Hydroelectric Power facility is reported. This report includes a history of the power plant, pertinent cost data, emergency action plans, inspections and testing, warranty work, operating problems, project data, monthly production data, and monthly operating and maintenance costs. 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Magnetically excited flexural plate wave apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Butler, M.A.; Frye, G.C.; Smith, J.H.

    1998-11-17

    A non-piezoelectric flexural plate wave apparatus having meander-line transducers mounted on a non-piezoelectric membrane is disclosed. A static magnetic field is directed perpendicularly to the conductive legs of the transducers in the plane of the membrane. Single-port, two-port, resonant, non-resonant, eigenmode, and delay-line modes may be employed. 15 figs.

  15. Numerical simulation of the decay of swirling flow in a constant volume engine simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1986-05-01

    The KIVA and COYOTE computer programs were used to simulate the decay of turbulent swirling flow in a constant-volume combustion bomb. The results are in satisfactory agreement with the measurement of both swirl velocity and temperature. Predictions of secondary flows and suggestions for future research also are presented. 14 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Composite hydrogen separation element and module

    DOEpatents

    Edlund, D.J.

    1996-03-12

    There are disclosed improvements in multicomponent composite metal membranes useful for the separation of hydrogen, the improvements comprising the provision of a flexible porous intermediate layer between a support layer and a nonporous hydrogen-permeable coating metal layer, and the provision of a textured coating metal layer. 15 figs.

  17. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1988-11-15

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

  18. Gamma-spectrometry with Compton suppressed detectors arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Schueck, C.; Hannachi, F.; Chapman, R.; Lisle, J.C.; Mo, J.N.; Paul, E.; Love, D.J.G.; Nolan, P.J.; Nelson, A.H.; Walker, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results of experiments performed with two different Compton-suppressed detectors arrays in Daresbury and Berkeley (/sup 163,164/Yb and /sup 154/Er, respectively), are presented together with a brief description of the national French array presently under construction in Strasbourg. 25 refs., 15 figs.

  19. Low-loss, high-speed, high-{Tc} superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Uherka, K.L.

    1997-06-24

    A flywheel energy storage device is disclosed including an iron structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet. The stationary permanent magnet levitates the iron structure while the superconductor structure can stabilize the rotating iron structure. 15 figs.

  20. Low-loss, high-speed, high-{Tc} superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Uherka, K.L.

    1996-07-30

    A flywheel energy storage device is disclosed including an iron structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet. The stationary permanent magnet levitates the iron structure while the superconductor structure can stabilize and levitate the rotating iron structure. 15 figs.

  1. [New process modeling, design and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality and improved productivity in the process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Highlights are reported of work to date on: resilient design and control of chemical reactors (polymerization, packed bed), operation of complex processing systems (compensators for multivariable systems with delays and Right Half Plane zeroes, process identification and controller design for multivariable systems, nonlinear systems control, distributed parameter systems), and computer-aided design software (CONSYD, POLYRED, expert systems). 15 figs, 54 refs. (DLC)

  2. (New process modeling, design and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality and improved productivity in the process industries)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Highlights are reported of work to date on: resilient design and control of chemical reactors (polymerization, packed bed), operation of complex processing systems (compensators for multivariable systems with delays and Right Half Plane zeroes, process identification and controller design for multivariable systems, nonlinear systems control, distributed parameter systems), and computer-aided design software (CONSYD, POLYRED, expert systems). 15 figs, 54 refs. (DLC)

  3. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1997-03-18

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

  4. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  5. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1996-03-05

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 15 figs.

  6. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  7. Low-density hydrocarbon foams for laser fusion targets: Progress report, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Cook, R.C.; Haendler, B.L.; Hair, L.M.; Kong, F.M.; Letts, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    We describe progress made during 1986 in the development of direct-drive hydrocarbon foam targets for laser fusion. The foam materials are polystyrene and resorcinolformaldehyde. The processes for making the foams, their properties, characterization techniques, and the relationships of their properties to target specifications are presented. In the final section, we discuss statistical experimental design techniques that are being used to optimize the foams. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, L.; Kalsi, M.S.

    1999-02-23

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. 14 figs.

  9. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figs.

  10. On the North Atlantic circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, W.J. Jr.; McCartney, M.S. )

    1993-02-01

    A summary for North Atlantic circulation is proposed to replace the circulation scheme hypothesized by Worthington in 1976. Divergences from the previous model are in thermohaline circulation, cross-equatorical transport and Florida Current sources, flow in the eastern Atlantic, circulation in the Newfoundland Basin, slope water currents, and flow pattern near the Bahamas. The circulation patterns presented here are consistent with the majority of of published accounts of flow components. 77 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating

    DOEpatents

    Casada, D.A.

    1996-01-16

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization. 14 figs.

  12. Over-winter ecology of Oncorhynchus nerka in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhart, G.B.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    1996-05-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of winter limnological conditions and kokanee growth characteristics from 1993 to 1995. The winter is usually a very harsh period for animals, and little is know about the over-winter ecology os sockeye salmon. They are active a temperatures below 4 F. The chapter discusses methods and results. 14 figs, 4 tabs.

  13. Industrial applications of neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Felcher, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron diffraction (or, to be more general, neutron scattering) is a most versatile and universal tool, which has been widely employed to probe the structure, the dynamics and the magnetism of condensed matter. Traditionally used for fundamental research in solid state physics, this technique more recently has been applied to problems of immediate industrial interest, as illustrated in examples covering the main fields of endeavour. 14 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1999-01-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  15. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1996-11-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  16. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Lipshutz, R.J.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  17. The status of the US VAWT program

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, H.M.; Berg, D.E.; Ashwill, T.D.; Sutherland, H.J.; Schluter, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) technology in the United States started in the early 1970s directly from the original work in Canada. The close, and very productive relationships among laboratories, universities and industry have continued since that time. This paper briefly discusses the significant technical progress and rather dramatic programmatic changes that have occurred in the past 18 to 24 months on the US side of the border. 20 refs., 14 figs.

  18. Manipulation of nonclassical field states in a cavity by atom interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Haroche, S.; Raimond, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Two new domains in quantum optics have emerged in recent years. Manipulation of atomic systems by electromagnetic fields has been developed in refined light cooling and trapping experiments. The atomic external degrees of freedom can now be controlled with great precision, and atoms can be cooled down to low temperatures corresponding to very large de Broglie wavelengths, making atomic interferometry practical and opening the way to many applications in fundamental Physics. 40 refs., 14 figs.

  19. Electronic excitations in fast ion-solid collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Burgdoerfer, J. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1990-01-01

    We review recent developments in the study of electronic excitation of projectiles in fast ion-solid collisions. Our focus will be primarily on theory but experimental advances will also be discussed. Topics include the evidence for velocity-dependent thresholds for the existence of bound states, wake-field effects on excited states, the electronic excitation of channeled projectiles, transport phenomena, and the interaction of highly charged ions with surfaces. 44 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Distribution of sup 137 Cs, sup 90 Sr, sup 238 Pu, sup 239 Pu, sup 241 Am and sup 244 Cm in Pond B, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W. ); Pinder, J.E. III; Bowling, J.W. ); Alberts, J.J. . Marine Inst.); Brisbin, I.L. Jr. )

    1989-05-01

    The gradual senescence of present-day operating nuclear facilities, and resultant contamination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, emphasize the importance of understanding the behavior of radionuclides in the environment. Observations and deductions concerning mechanisms of radionuclide transport can contribute significantly to knowledge of fundamental ecological processes. This study emphasized the ecosystem-level distribution of several long-lived radionuclides in an abandoned reactor cooling impoundment after a twenty year period of chemical and biological equilibration. 90 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Assessment of the theory and hypotheses of the acidification of watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, E.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report documents and critically assesses the evolution and status of the scientific understanding of the effects of acidic deposition on surface waters. The main conclusion is that the dominant theory of surface-water acidification fails to adequately incorporate many important factors and processes that influence surface water acidity. Some of these factors and processes are not well researched or recognized as being important by most scientists in the aquatic effects research area. 258 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Laser damage database at 1064 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.; Gonzales, R.P.; Morgan, A.J.

    1990-03-01

    In conjunction with our diversification of laser damage testing capabilities, we have expanded upon a database of threshold measurements and parameter variations at 1064 nm. This includes all tests at low pulse-repetition frequencies (PRF) ranging from single shots to 120 Hz. These tests were conducted on the Reptile laser facility since 1987 and the Variable Pulse Laser (VPL) facility since 1988. Pulse durations ranged from 1 to 16 ns. 10 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Modeling of geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    During the last decade the use of numerical modeling for geothermal resource evaluation has grown significantly, and new modeling approaches have been developed. In this paper we present a summary of the present status in numerical modeling of geothermal systems, emphasizing recent developments. Different modeling approaches are described and their applicability discussed. The various modeling tasks, including natural-state, exploitation, injection, multi-component and subsidence modeling, are illustrated with geothermal field examples. 99 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Planar triode pulser socket

    DOEpatents

    Booth, R.

    1994-10-25

    A planar triode is mounted in a PC board orifice by means of a U-shaped capacitor housing and anode contact yoke removably attached to cathode leg extensions passing through and soldered to the cathode side of the PC board by means of a PC cathode pad. A pliant/flexible contact attached to the orifice make triode grid contact with a grid pad on the grid side of the PC board, permitting quick and easy replacement of bad triodes. 14 figs.

  5. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R. A.; Allen, C. R.; Powell, J. A.

    1988-05-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to describe the progress in developing, testing, applying and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the second quarter of FY 1987 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling. 23 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. The performance of 3500 MWth homogeneous and heterogeneous metal fueled core designs

    SciTech Connect

    Turski, R.; Yang, Shi-tien

    1987-11-01

    Performance parameters are calculated for a representative 3500 MWth homogeneous and a heterogeneous metal fueled reactor design. The equilibrium cycle neutronic characteristics, safety coefficients, control system requirements, and control rod worths are evaluated. The thermal-hydraulic characteristics for both configurations are also compared. The heavy metal fuel loading requirements and neutronic performance characteristics are also evaluated for the uranium startup option. 14 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  8. Experimental data confronts nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The physical content of experimental data for a variety of excitation energies and angular momenta is summarized. The specific nuclear structure questions which these data address are considered. The specific regions discussed are: low-spin data near the particle separation thresholds; low-spin data at intermediate excitation energies; high-spin, near-yrast data and high-spin data at larger excitation energies. 63 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-10-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  11. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOEpatents

    Freitas, B.L.

    1998-10-27

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver > 4kW/cm{sup 2} of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources. 13 figs.

  12. Pharmacodynamic analysis of hematologic profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, G.L.; Mueller, P.

    1994-12-01

    We discuss the analysis of the myelosuppressive effects of chemotherapy. Such analyses examine hematologic data that arise by monitoring patients after treatment with high doses of chemotherapy. We propose a flexible approach for modeling such information and, using data collected as part of a Phase I study of an anticancer agent, show some interesting aspects of the data that become available after fitting models this way. 29 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Portable mass spectrometer with one or more mechanically adjustable electrostatic sectors and a mechanically adjustable magnetic sector all mounted in a vacuum chamber

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Martin, W.H.; Myers, D.W.; Keville, R.F.

    1992-10-06

    A portable mass spectrometer is described having one or more electrostatic focusing sectors and a magnetic focusing sector, all of which are positioned inside a vacuum chamber, and all of which may be adjusted via adjustment means accessible from outside the vacuum chamber. Mounting of the magnetic sector entirely within the vacuum chamber permits smaller magnets to be used, thus permitting reductions in both weight and bulk. 13 figs.

  14. Solid source MOCVD system

    DOEpatents

    Hubert, B.N.; Wu, X.D.

    1998-10-13

    A system for MOCVD fabrication of superconducting and non-superconducting oxide films provides a delivery system for the feeding of metallorganic precursors for multi-component chemical vapor deposition. The delivery system can include multiple cartridges containing tightly packed precursor materials. The contents of each cartridge can be ground at a desired rate and fed together with precursor materials from other cartridges to a vaporization zone and then to a reaction zone within a deposition chamber for thin film deposition. 13 figs.

  15. Immunological and biochemical effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.; Cohen, H.D.

    1990-01-30

    Public concern is growing about the possible health risks of exposure to the electric and magnetic fields generated by power distribution systems. This research program is evaluating whether field exposure results in specific and replicable effects on measures of human performance, physiology, biochemistry, and subjective state. The studies reported here were performed under controlled laboratory conditions in the Human Exposure Test Facility at Midwest Research Institute (MRI). 80 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. The response of a Fermilab-designed ion chamber in pulsed photon fields

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.S.; Hartman, B.; Krueger, F.; Larson, J.

    1988-01-26

    This note reports measurements of the response of a Fermilab-designed area monitor ionization chamber used in Chipmunk and Scarecrow detectors to pulsed photon fields of various intensities and durations. The measurements were made to better define the operating limits of the instruments and to understand the possible effects of recombination and space charge on the dose measured by the instruments in pulsed fields. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOEpatents

    Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.

    1996-04-23

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed. 13 figs.

  18. Description and operating instructions: TEMPO high-voltage microwave driver, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1988-06-01

    This manual describes the TEMPO high-voltage (HV) microwave driver and provides operating procedures and general maintenance requirements. It is intended as a guide for experienced personnel familiar with operating HV pulsed power equipment and not as a detailed instruction for inexperienced operators. For safety reasons, inexperienced personnel should never attempt to charge and fire HV pulsed power equipment. Serious personnel injury and damage to the machine can result from improper operation. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  20. Polyorganometallosiloxane-2- or -4-pyridine coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-12-30

    A new family of polyorganometallosiloxane-2- or -4-pyridine compounds are provided for corrosion resistant coatings on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. The novel compounds contain backbones modified by metal alkoxides, metallocenes and metallophthalocyanates where the metal is Zr, Ti, Mo, V, Hf, Nb, Si, B and combinations thereof. Methods of making the new compounds are also provided. 13 figs.

  1. Advanced composite materials and processes for the manufacture of SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) and RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) superconducting magnets used at cryogenic temperatures in a high radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Sondericker, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Presently, BNL work on superconducting magnets centers mainly on the development of 17 meter length dipoles for the Superconducting Super Collider Project, approved for construction at Waxahatchie, Texas and 9.7 meter dipoles and quadrupoles for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, a BNL project to start construction next year. This paper will discuss the role of composites in the manufacture of magnets, their operational requirements in cryogenic and radiation environments, and the benefits derived from their use. 13 figs.

  2. (Electronic structure and reactivities of transition metal clusters)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following are reported: theoretical calculations (configuration interaction, relativistic effective core potentials, polyatomics, CASSCF); proposed theoretical studies (clusters of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Os, Ru; transition metal cluster ions; transition metal carbide clusters; bimetallic mixed transition metal clusters); reactivity studies on transition metal clusters (reactivity with H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, hydrocarbons; NO and CO chemisorption on surfaces). Computer facilities and codes to be used, are described. 192 refs, 13 figs.

  3. Operations manual for reading VAK-3 ultrasonic seals using a data acquisition box

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.E.

    1990-05-01

    As part of a Department of Energy/Commission of European Communities (DOE/CEC) cooperative program, Sandia National Laboratories was asked to develop a portable ultrasonic seal pattern reading system. The system consists of a data acquisition box (DAB), a mechanical reading head, and a portable IBM-compatible PC linked to the DAB by a serial RS-232C communication link. This manual focuses on the DAB subsystem. 8 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Rf power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Spectrometer capillary vessel and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Linehan, J.C.; Yonker, C.R.; Zemanian, T.S.; Franz, J.A.

    1995-11-21

    The present invention is an arrangement of a glass capillary tube for use in spectroscopy. In particular, the invention is a capillary arranged in a manner permitting a plurality or multiplicity of passes of a sample material through a spectroscopic measurement zone. In a preferred embodiment, the multi-pass capillary is insertable within a standard NMR sample tube. The present invention further includes a method of making the multi-pass capillary tube and an apparatus for spinning the tube. 13 figs.

  6. Controlled release of molecular components of dendrimer/bioactive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Segalman, D.J.; Wallace, J.S.

    1998-08-18

    A method for releasing molecules (guest molecules) from the matrix formed by the structure of another molecule (host molecule) in a controllable manner has been invented. This method has many applications in science and industry. In addition, applications based on such molecular systems may revolutionize significant areas of medicine, in particular the treatment of cancer and of viral infection. Similar effects can also be obtained by controlled fragmentation of a source molecule, where the molecular fragments form the active principle. 13 figs.

  7. On the HEMP (high-altitude electromagnetic pulse) environment for protective relays

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.E.; Wiggins, C.M.; Salas, T.M. ); Barnes, P.R. )

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the transient environment for protective relays produced by high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) events is presented in this paper. Several mechanisms for coupling of HEMP to relay terminals are used to develop estimates of possible HEMP threats to relays. These predicted relay responses to HEMP events are compared to measured data on a solid state based relay's impulse strength. 12 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  9. Beyond the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J.

    1988-10-21

    A variety of TeV scale Higgs and flavor sectors are discussed. Key questions are addressed: how can we tell if there is a light Higgs boson or if the Higgs sector is strongly interacting. What new signatures can be used to search for supersymmetry. Can flavor physics be described at a TeV without Yukawa couplings. Ideas are reviewed and some new developments mentioned. 51 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Computer simulation of a few common process control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, M.P.

    1986-06-01

    This paper shows how to simulate five common process control systems on an IBM PC with a commercially available software package named TUTSIM. All steps involved in producing and checking each simulation are described as clearly as possible. Complete computer listings and output line plots are included to fully document each simulation. Sufficient information is provided so that readers of this paper can duplicate each simulation if they desire to do so. 10 refs., 13 figs., 11 tbls.

  11. The (. gamma. ,K) program: A new CEBAF initiative for the study of nuclear strangeness

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.; Hungerford, E.V.

    1987-06-01

    This paper is a summary of the CEBAF working group discussions on electromagnetic production of strangeness in nuclear systems. A review of the recent BNL results in (..pi..,K) is presented as representative of the physics questions that could be addressed with the CEBAF facility. Recommendations of the working group concerning the necessary experimental apparatus for a (e,e',K) program are presented. 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Fuel performance annual report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J. ); Wu, S. . Div. of Engineering and Systems Technology)

    1990-03-01

    This annual report, the eleventh in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1988 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included. 414 refs., 13 figs., 32 tabs.

  13. Fuel performance: Annual report for 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Wu, S.

    1989-03-01

    This annual report, the tenth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1987 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulator Commission evaluations are included. 384 refs., 13 figs., 33 tabs.

  14. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington (US)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    This appendix responds to the issues raised by Federal, State, and local governments, affected Indian Tribes, private citizens, and other organizations on the draft environmental assessment (EA) that was prepared pursuant to Section 112 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. In addition to presenting the issues raised in the comments and the responses, it describes where changes were made in the final EA. 535 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Characterization and significance of natural fractures in Mesaverde reservoirs at the Multiwell Experiment site

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, S.J.; Lorenz, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Natural fractures dominate the permeability of tight gas reservoirs in the Mesaverde Formation of the Piceance Creek Basin, northwestern Colorado. Roughly 450 natural fractures have been detected in reservoir sandstones and siltstones in 4200 ft of core from the US Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Sixty percent of the fractures are calcite-mineralized, vertical extension fractures that are probably the greatest contributors to reservoir permeability. However, the contribution of the other mineralized fractures should not be discounted. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Physical properties of contaminated trichloroethylene and 1,1,1- trichloroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.D.

    1990-10-01

    The specific gravity, volume change, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, boiling point, and nonvolatile residue carryover during distillation was measured for various contamination levels of rosin in trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Solvent stabilizers and the vapor pressure of solvents were examined. The effects of unknown contamination in solvents from manufacturing departments were measured. The theoretical effects of oil contamination on the boiling point are discussed. 18 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1998-01-13

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.

  19. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K.

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  20. Formal system specifications: A case study of three diverse representations

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, G.H. ); Smith, B.T. New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM . Dept. of Computer Science); Wojcik, A.S. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1990-12-01

    The only effective way to raise the confidence level of a program significantly is to give a convincing proof of its correctness. But one should not first make the program and then prove its correctness, because then the requirement of providing the proof would only increase the poor programmer's burden. On the contrary: the programmer should let correctness proof and program grow hand in hand. 21 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews cold moderators in pulsed neutron sources and provides details of the performance of different cold moderator materials and configurations. Analytical forms are presented which describe wavelength spectra and emission time distributions. Several types of cooling arrangements used in pulsed source moderators are described. Choices of materials are surveyed. The author examines some of the radiation damage effects in cold moderators, including the phenomenon of burping'' in irradiated cold solid methane. 9 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Metallurgical analysis of fractured F-27 aircraft landing gear

    SciTech Connect

    Witherell, C.E.

    1987-12-15

    The Materials Division of LLNL's Chemistry and Materials Science Department was asked to conduct a study of a fractured component of the main (starboard) landing gear on the F-27 aircraft (N768RL). The purpose of the study was to determine from metallurgical evidence the probable failure mode, its cause, and contribution to the recent landing incident at Livermore. 21 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Tests of quantum chromodynamics in exclusive e sup + e sup minus and. gamma. gamma. processes

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1989-09-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: Factorization theorem for exclusive processes; Electromagnetic form factors of baryons; Suppression of final state interactions; The {gamma}{pi}{sub 0} Transition form factor; Exclusive charmonium decays; The {pi}-{rho} puzzle; Time-like compton processes; Multi-hadron production; Heavy Quark exclusive states and form factor zeros in QCD; Exclusive {gamma}{gamma} reactions; Higher twist effects; and Tauonium and threshold {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup {minus}} production. 41 refs., 15 figs. (LSP)

  4. FORIG: a computer code for calculating radionuclide generation and depletion in fusion and fission reactors. User's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    In this manual we describe the use of the FORIG computer code to solve isotope-generation and depletion problems in fusion and fission reactors. FORIG runs on a Cray-1 computer and accepts more extensive activation cross sections than ORIGEN2 from which it was adapted. This report is an updated and a combined version of the previous ORIGEN2 and FORIG manuals. 7 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Exponential-time constitutive law for Palo Duro Unit 4 Salt from the J. Friemel No. 1 Well

    SciTech Connect

    Senseny, P.E.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1986-07-01

    Values for the nine parameters in the exponential-time constitutive law are presented for Palo Duro Unit 4 salt. The values given for the thermal expansion and two elastic parameters are taken from previous laboratory studies. The six remaining constitutive parameters are evaluated by analyzing data from 12 triaxial compression creep tests. The specimens tested in this study are from the J. Friemel No. 1 well in Deaf County, Texas. 15 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, G.

    1990-05-01

    A method and means are disclosed for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived. 15 figs.

  7. Radiochemistry of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, T.J.; Dombsky, M.; D'Auria, J.M.; Ward, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    This monograph is a review of the literature through 1987 and covers the methods of producing the radioisotopes of astatine and the inorganic, nuclear, and organic chemistry of astatine. The discussion is limited to chemical and physical chemical properties of astatine. The monograph, after the introduction, is divided into chapters titled: production methods, nuclear spectroscopy, chemistry of astatine, separation and isolation (dry and wet), and selected procedures. 209 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs. (DLC)

  8. Surface footprint from initial Chernobyl release as indicated by the meso-alpha MLAM (Multi-Layer Air Mass) model

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Olsen, A.R.; Didier, B.T.; Tucker, P.E.; Damschen, D.W.

    1989-12-01

    This document reports the results of dose calculations from the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. The calculations were completed in 1987. The results are now being published to disseminate the information to an audience of potential users. This study's objective was to model the transport path of materials released during April 26 and 27, the first 48 hours of the accident. 5 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Application of microwave energy for in-drum solidification of simulated precipitation sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.; Swanson, S.D.; Thomas, R.L.

    1987-08-17

    The application of microwave energy for in-container solidification of simulated transuranic contaminated precipitation sludges has been tested. Results indicate volume reductions to 83% are achievable by the continuous feeding of pre-dried sludge into a waste container while applying microwave energy. An economic evaluation was completed showing achievable volume and weight reductions to 87% compared with a current immobilization process for wet sludge. 7 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. High performance H modes in JET

    SciTech Connect

    Tanga, A.

    1990-01-01

    In JET the scientific properties and technical basis of good confinement regimes have been evaluated in the light of the potential extrapolation of such regimes to reactor requirements. In this paper the main experimental H-mode results are discussed highlighting global confinement scaling, low q regimes, the role of the target plate material, the density limit, and finally sawtooth suppression and hot-ion mode. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  11. Clonal Evolution in Two Patients with Autoimmune Disease and Lymphoreticular Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Adam, M.; Thorburn, Marigold J.; Gibbs, W. N.; Brooks, S. E. H.; Hanchard, B.

    1970-01-01

    Two cases are described, one with proven lymphosarcoma and doubtful autoimmune disease, and the second with the reverse situation, in which circulating abnormal mononuclear cells showed PHA responsiveness and an abnormal chromosomal constitution (clonal evolution). These findings are discussed in the light of previous cytogenetic studies of lymphoreticular neoplasia and autoimmune disease and the relationship between these two conditions. ImagesFigs. 2-3Fig. 9Fig. 4Figs. 6-7Figs. 1,5Fig. 8 PMID:4393772

  12. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. CO sub 2 sources for microalgae-based liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, D.; Karpuk, M.

    1990-08-01

    Researchers in the Aquatic Species Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute are developing species of microalgae that have high percentages of lipids, or oils. These lipids can be extracted and converted to diesel fuel substitutes. Because microalgae need carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a nutrient, optimal microalgae growth occurs in CO{sub 2}-saturated solutions. For this reason, the authors of this study sought to identify possible large-scale sources of CO{sub 2} for microalgae-based liquid fuels production. The authors concluded that several such promising sources exist. 42 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Reaction synthesis of heat-resistant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1995-12-31

    Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides can be utilized to obtain aluminides of transition metals. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain dense intermetallics and their composites. Composites were analyzed by X- ray diffraction and microscopy techniques, and tensile properties were measured on button-head and sheet specimens of intermetallics and their composites. Mechanical properties of intermetallics obtained by reaction synthesis and densification compare well with conventionally processed materials. Reaction-synthesis principles were also extended to weld overlays. Possible approaches to obtaining dense products by reaction synthesis and densification are summarized in a schematic illustration. 19 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Mechanisms of interaction of radiation with matter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This progress report is a summary and update of the research performed under DOE grant FG-02086-ER60405 from September 1, 1989 to August 31, 1990. Part I deals with mechanisms of photoemission from organic particulates, theoretical studied of the photoemission of electrons into atmospheres containing scavenger molecules, and theoretical studies of the possible existence of excitonic ions. Part II deals with the mechanisms of electrolytic reactions which occur at solid anthracene/aqueous electrolyte interfaces. Part III describes our most recent results on the physico-chemical interactions of mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) derivatives with nucleic acids. 3 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Fuel from farms: A guide to small-scale ethanol production: Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This guide presents the current status of on-farm fermentation ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors. Tools such as decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in exploring whether or not to go into ethanol production are given. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Recommendation of any particular process is deliberately avoided because the choice must be tailored to the needs and resources of each individual producer. The emphasis is on providing the facts necessary to make informed judgments. 98 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Brazing of ceramic and graphite to metal in the fabrication of ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) antenna and feedthrough components

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.E.; Sluss, F.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Fabrication of some of the more critical components of ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antenna and feedthrough assemblies has involved the brazing of alumina ceramic and graphite to various metals. Copper end pieces have been successfully brazed to alumina cylinders for use in feedthroughs for TEXTOR and in feedthroughs and capacitors for a Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) antenna. Copper-plated Inconel rods and tubes have been armored with graphite for construction of Faraday shields on antennas for Doublet III-D and TFTR. Details of brazing procedures and test results, including rf performance, mechanical strength, and thermal capabilities, are presented. 14 figs.

  18. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1989-07-18

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

  19. Time-dependent ionization balance model for non-LTE plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.T.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Bailey, D.S.; Dickson, D.; Kim, D.

    1986-05-07

    We have developed a detailed configuration-accounting kinetic model for calculating time-dependent ionization-balance and ion-level populations in non-local thermal-equilibrium (non-LTE) plasmas. We use these population estimates in computing spectral line intensities, line ratios, and synthetic spectra, and in fitting these calculated values to experimental measurements. The model is also used to design laboratory x-ray laser experiments. For this purpose, it is self-consistently coupled to the hydrodynamics code LASNEX. 20 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Fast repetition rate (FRR) fluorometer and method for measuring fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1995-06-20

    A fast repetition rate fluorometer device and method for measuring in vivo fluorescence of phytoplankton or higher plants chlorophyll and photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton or higher plants is revealed. The phytoplankton or higher plants are illuminated with a series of fast repetition rate excitation flashes effective to bring about and measure resultant changes in fluorescence yield of their Photosystem II. The series of fast repetition rate excitation flashes has a predetermined energy per flash and a rate greater than 10,000 Hz. Also, disclosed is a flasher circuit for producing the series of fast repetition rate flashes. 14 figs.

  1. Treaty verification with an uncertain partner

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenberger, S.

    1991-01-01

    A simple model is used to analyze the performance of a system for verifying compliance with an arms control treaty. Blue and Red are partners in to a treaty. Blue prefers to comply, but is uncertain whether Red similarly prefers compliance (in the absence of threatened violation detection). Blue's uncertainty is modeled as a probability distribution over three different Red types: Violators, Compilers, and Deterrables. Criteria are derived to determine the level at which Blue should set his detection threshold, and when it is best for Blue not to verify at all. The results involve both game-theoretic and Bayes solutions. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Apparatus for attaching a cleaning tool to a robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Killian, M.A.; Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-09-22

    An apparatus is described for connecting a cleaning tool to a robotic manipulator so that the tool can be used in contaminated areas on horizontal, vertical and sloped surfaces. The apparatus comprises a frame and a handle, with casters on the frame to facilitate movement. The handle is pivotally and releasibly attached to the frame at a preselected position of a plurality of attachment positions. The apparatus is specifically configured for the Kelly Vacuum System but can be modified for use with any standard mobile robot and cleaning tool. 14 figs.

  3. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-06

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs.

  4. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, A.

    1992-01-01

    New high temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Emphasis was placed on atmospheric pressure He inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements; simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources with potential for use in spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high temperature plasmas, particularly He ICP discharges; and development of new, low-cost sample introduction systems, and examination of techniques for probing the aerosols over a wide range. Refs., 14 figs. (DLC)

  5. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry. Progress report, January 1, 1990--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, A.

    1992-09-01

    New high temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Emphasis was placed on atmospheric pressure He inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements; simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources with potential for use in spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high temperature plasmas, particularly He ICP discharges; and development of new, low-cost sample introduction systems, and examination of techniques for probing the aerosols over a wide range. Refs., 14 figs. (DLC)

  6. Ion irradiation studies of oxide ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the initial results of an investigation of the depth-dependent microstructures of three oxide ceramics following ion implantation to moderate doses. The implantations were performed using ion species that occur as cations in the target material; for example, Mg/sup +/ ions were used for MgO and MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/ (spinel) irradiations. This minimized chemical effects associated with the implantation and allowed a more direct evaluation to be made of the effects of implanted ions on the microstructure. 11 refs., 14 figs.

  7. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  8. Subsystem fragility: Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Hardy, G.; Banon, H.

    1981-10-01

    Seismic fragility levels of safety related equipment are developed for use in a seismic oriented Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) being conducted as part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The Zion Nuclear Power Plant is being utilized as a reference plant and fragility descriptions are developed for specific and generic safety related equipment groups in Zion. Both equipment fragilities and equipment responses are defined in probabilistic terms to be used as input to the SSMRP event tree/fault tree models of the Zion systems. 65 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Method and composition for improving flux pinning and critical current in superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1995-07-04

    Superconducting materials and methods of forming superconducting materials are disclosed. Highly oxidized superconductors are heated at a relatively high temperature so as to release oxygen, which migrates out of the material, and form a non-superconducting phase which does not diffuse out of grains of the material. The material is then reoxidized at a lower temperature, leaving the non-superconducting inclusions inside a superconducting phase. The non-superconducting inclusions act as pinning centers in the superconductor, increasing the critical current thereof. 14 figs.

  10. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Modal testing the EOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Modal testing an immense and flexible wind turbine poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of this type of structure are quite low. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. In this paper, the results of the modal test of the 110 m tall EOLE wind turbine are presented which had a number of modal frequencies below 1.0 Hz. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Efficient alternatives for electric drives

    SciTech Connect

    Comnes, G.A.; Barnes, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    This analysis of industrial electric motors describes the current motor stock, its energy use and operating characteristics, and innovations that could change current use patterns. It provides calculations characterizing the economic attractiveness of several existing and potential options. One attractive option given particular attention is the adjustable-speed drive which can replace throttles or valves for many pumping operations. A major conclusion is that, throughout industry, options that are both energy-saving and economically attractive appear to penetrate markets more slowly than would be socially optimal. The final section examines characteristics of industry that may contribute to slow market penetration. 29 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  14. Low-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Goyette, M.L.; Dolak, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides technical support information for use in analyzing environmental impacts associated with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management alternatives in the Waste-Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Waste loads treated and disposed of for each of the LLW alternatives considered in the DOE WM PEIS are presented. Waste loads are presented for DOE Waste Management (WM) wastes, which are generated from routine operations. Radioactivity concentrations and waste quantities for treatment and disposal under the different LLW alternatives are described for WM waste. 76 refs., 14 figs., 42 tabs.

  15. Apparatus and process for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles

    DOEpatents

    Yoon, R.H.; Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1998-09-29

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal and minerals, so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators. 14 figs.

  16. El Nino-southern oscillation related fluctuations of the marine carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Winguth, A.M.E.; Heimann, M.; Kurz, K.D.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Segschneider, J. )

    1994-03-01

    The yearly increase in global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is not constant, fluctuating around a mean growth rate. Some previous work has been done looking at the relationship of CO2 fluctuations with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in the Pacific. This paper describes the response of the three-dimensional ocean circulation model (Hamburg LSG) coupled on-line with a oceanic carbon cycle model (HAMOCC-3) to realistic wind and air temperature field anomalies. The focus is the marine carbon cycle and the interannual variations of carbon fluxes between ocean and atmosphere during the strong El Nino of 1982/83. 53 refs., 14 figs.

  17. High temperature geophysical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1988-06-01

    The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  18. Current position on software for the automatic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the current concepts for software to control the operation of the Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) proposed for the Deaf Smith County, Texas, Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF). The purpose of this report is to provide conceptual details of how the ADAS software will execute the data acquisition function, and how the software will make collected information available to the test personnel, the Data Management Group (DMG), and other authorized users. It is not intended that this report describe all of the ADAS functions in exact detail, but the concepts included herein will form the basis for the formal ADAS functional requirements definition document. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  19. Polyol esters as HFC-134a compressor lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsuzaki, S.; Homma, Y.; Itoh, Y.

    1994-10-01

    A polyol ester-based lubricant has been applied to HFC-134a household refrigerator compressors, because of its good miscibility with HFC-134a refrigerant, and there is a possibility that it will be applied to automobile air conditions. For better performance, further improvements are needed regarding miscibility, lubricity and chemical stability of the lubricant, because such systems are often used under extreme conditions. This report discusses the required properties and ways to improve performance of polyol esters as HFC-134a compressor lubricants. 7 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  1. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  2. Internal voltages and currents in well-shielded cylindrical objects due to stimulated direct-strike lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.J.; Warne, L.K.; Kostas, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of cylindrical tests objects of generic interest were tested to simulated severe direct-strike lightning with the intent of bounding possible internal voltages due to joint leakage and currents through low-impedance loads due to diffusion. All the test objects would normally be considered to be high-quality Faraday shields. The highest voltage recorded was 21 V, which was developed across a flange-and-collar joint in a steel cylinder driven longitudinally by a test current of /approximately/160 kA peak. A simple circuit model of the symmetric diffusion process, valid over the frequency range of lightning, is given. 4 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Apparatus for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles

    DOEpatents

    Yoon, R.H.; Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1995-03-14

    An apparatus is disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal, and minerals so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators. 14 figs.

  4. Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1994-06-07

    The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds. 14 figs.

  5. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  6. Apparatus and process for the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles using microbubble column flotation together with a process and apparatus for generation of microbubbles

    DOEpatents

    Yoon, R.H.; Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-12-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microbubble flotation separation of very fine and coarse particles, especially coal and minerals, so as to produce high purity and high recovery efficiency. This is accomplished through the use of a flotation column, microbubbles, recycling of the flotation pulp, and countercurrent wash water to gently wash the froth. Also disclosed are unique processes and apparatus for generating microbubbles for flotation in a highly efficient and inexpensive manner using either a porous tube or in-line static generators. 14 figs.

  7. Erbium-based magnetic refrigerant (regenerator) for passive cryocooler

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    1996-07-23

    A two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler is disclosed having a low temperature stage for reaching approximately 10K, wherein the low temperature stage includes a passive magnetic heat regenerator selected from the group consisting of Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Sn, Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Pb, Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}(Sn{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}), and Er{sub 9}Ni{sub 3}Sn comprising a mixture of Er{sub 3}Ni and Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Sn in the microstructure. 14 figs.

  8. On greenhouse gas signal detection strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, M.E.; Barnett, T.P.

    1989-02-24

    The indisputable detection of a greenhouse gas signal in the global climate system will be a true decision point for mankind. Yet, at this stage of knowledge, the details of an appropriate detection strategy are only beginning to be developed. Two key elements in the eventual strategy are the subject of this report: (1) what variables should be monitored in a detection program, and (2) the comparison of the equilibrium versus transient climate system response. Subsequent sections consider these items in turn while a final section summarizes the main conclusion of the study. 10 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of a new, macroporous polyvinylpyridine resin for processing plutonium using nitrate anion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.

    1989-04-01

    Anion exchange in nitric acid is the major aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium from impure scrap materials. Most strong-base anion exchange resins incorporate a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. A newly available, macroporous anion exchange resin based on a copolymer of 1-methyl-4-vinylpyridine and divinylbenzene has been evaluated. Comparative data for Pu(IV) sorption kinetics and capacity are presented for this new resin and two other commonly used anion exchange resins. The new resin offers high capacity and rapid sorption kinetics for Pu(IV) from nitric acid, as well as greatly stability to chemical and radiolytic degradation. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R.

    2008-09-15

    River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

  11. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Spear, J.D.

    1999-03-09

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments. 14 figs.

  12. Lambda network having 2{sup m{minus}1} nodes in each of m stages with each node coupled to four other nodes for bidirectional routing of data packets between nodes

    DOEpatents

    Napolitano, L.M. Jr.

    1995-11-28

    The Lambda network is a single stage, packet-switched interprocessor communication network for a distributed memory, parallel processor computer. Its design arises from the desired network characteristics of minimizing mean and maximum packet transfer time, local routing, expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. The network is based on fixed degree nodes and has mean and maximum packet transfer distances where n is the number of processors. The routing method is detailed, as are methods for expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. 14 figs.

  13. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  14. Modal testing of a very flexible 110 m wind turbine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.; Benjannet, Hassine

    1988-01-01

    Modal Testing of immense and very flexible structures poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of these stuctures can be quite low. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. In this paper, results are presented from a modal test of the 110 m tall EOLE wind turbine which had four modal frequencies below 1.0 Hz. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Highly ordered nanocomposites via a monomer self-assembly in situ condensation approach

    DOEpatents

    Gin, D.L.; Fischer, W.M.; Gray, D.H.; Smith, R.C.

    1998-12-15

    A method for synthesizing composites with architectural control on the nanometer scale is described. A polymerizable lyotropic liquid-crystalline monomer is used to form an inverse hexagonal phase in the presence of a second polymer precursor solution. The monomer system acts as an organic template, providing the underlying matrix and order of the composite system. Polymerization of the template in the presence of an optional cross-linking agent with retention of the liquid-crystalline order is carried out followed by a second polymerization of the second polymer precursor within the channels of the polymer template to provide an ordered nanocomposite material. 13 figs.

  16. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Correlation between the liquid fuel properties: Density, viscosity and surface tension and the drop sizes produced by an SI engine pintle-type port fuel injector

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.; Beckwith, P.

    1994-10-01

    Droplet size measurements were performed on the spray from a pintle-type gasoline injector. These quantified the influence of the fuel properties, relative fuel/air velocity and manifold air density upon the droplet sizes. Dimensional analysis and knowledge of the atomization process were used to derive equations predicting mean droplet diameters. Constants and exponents used in these equations were evaluated by correlation with the measured data. The equations were used to predict the individual or combined influence of the above variables. It is concluded that the influence of variations in properties between production gasolines on atomization is likely to be small. 13 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Improvement of direct contact condensation model of RELAP/MOD3.1 for passive high-pressure injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Il; No, Hee Cheon

    1997-12-01

    A simple set of the transition criterion of the condensation regimes and the heat transfer coefficients on the direct contact condensation in the core makeup tank was developed, and implemented in RELAP5/MOD3.1. The condensation regimes were divided into two ones: supply limit and condensation limit. In modeling the transition criterion between two regimes, a large-eddy model developed by Theofanous was used. The modified code better predicted the experiments on the core makeup tank using small scale test facility than the original code did. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  19. The influence of thermal energy exchange on the activity and energetics of yellow-bellied marmots

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The energetics of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris), large hibernating ground squirrels were investigated. Marmots typically inhabit montane regions with short growing seasons. Minimization of energy expenditure by hibernation is essential for overwinter survival, whereas maximization of energy intake is important during the active season. Marmots near the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory in southwestern Colorado are active for only 4 to 5 months each year. During this time they must reproduce, grow, and store enough fat to survive hibernation. 64 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Projectile stopping system

    DOEpatents

    Karr, T.J.; Pittenger, L.C.

    1996-11-26

    A projectile interceptor launches a projectile catcher into the path of a projectile. In one embodiment, signals indicative of the path of a projectile are received by the projectile interceptor. A flinger mechanism has a projectile catcher releasably attached thereto, such that the projectile catcher can be released and launched from the flinger mechanism. A controller connected to the flinger mechanism uses the signals indicative of the path of the projectile to determine the launch parameters of the projectile catcher. The controller directs the flinger mechanism to release the projectile catcher such that the projectile catcher is launched into the path of the projectile and intercepts the projectile. 13 figs.

  1. An electrochemical and surface analysis study of the influence of phosphorus on the corrosion of iron in calcium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Baer, D.R.; Jones, R.H.; Engelhard, M.H.

    1990-10-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of metallic alloys including iron is strongly influenced by the presence of grain boundary impurities such as phosphorus. In this study to determine how phosphorus affects the corrosion of iron, electrochemical polarization methods were used in conjunction with surface analyses employing ultra-high vacuum transfer. Specifically, these methods were used to examine the corrosion of iron, iron/phosphorus alloys, and iron implanted with phosphorus in deaerated 55 wt % Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solutions at 60{degree}C. 18 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The development of a shield machine requiring no reception shaft: A pipejacking method enabling shield withdrawl and retrieval at the starting shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Uno, Hideki; Takemoto, A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a pipe-roof construction method, known as an auxiliary method to temporarily prevent ground from collapsing during underground construction. A shield machine developed for this technique, problems encountered, and experimental and project records are also detailed. The pipe-roof construction method uses a pipejacking method performed by a tunnelling machine. Thrust data analysis, experiments on the inside diameter of steel pipes, and experiments on the cutting of shear pin were performed to determine the inside diameter of the steel pipes in order to develop a retrievable shield machine. The results of the construction project indicated areas for further development. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, R.G.

    1987-03-23

    Apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom. Differential phase measurements on scattered light from particles are possible using the two-frequency Zeeman effect laser which emits two frequencies of radiation 250 kHz apart. Excellent discrimination and reproducibility for various pure pollen and bacterial samples in suspension have been observed with a single polarization element. Additionally, a 250 kHz beat frequency was recorded from an individual particle traversing the focused output from the laser in a flow cytometer. 13 figs.

  4. Intraocular lens fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  5. MRI of the glenoid labrum with gross anatomic correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, C.; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the magnetic resonance image (MRI) appearance of the glenoid labrum and the perilabral structures with and without instillation of intraarticular contrast material. Ten cadaveric shoulder specimens underwent axial MRI using various MR pulse sequences. The shoulders then were transversely sectioned, and tile gross morphology of the labrum and perilabral structures was evaluated and correlated with the MR images. The contrast-enhanced sequences allowed for improved anatomic visualization of the structures evaluated. 23 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Population of high spin states in very heavy ion transfer reactions. The experimental evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Guidry, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer reactions have been studied for some time with light heavy ions such as oxygen. Although states of spin I approx.10 h are sometimes populated in such reactions, it is assumed that collective excitation is small, and the transferred particles are responsible for the angular momentum transfer. In this paper we will discuss a qualitatively different kind of transfer reaction using very heavy ions (A greater than or equal to 40). In these reactions the collective excitation in both the entrance and exit channels is strong, and there may be appreciable angular momentum transfer associated with inelastic excitation. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Radionuclide deposition and exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, I.; Haubelt, R.; Neumann, P.; Fields, D.E. . Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-11-01

    Analyses of air, water, and foodstuff samples, together with in situ gamma spectrometric measurements in the Federal Republic of Germany, have documented the deposition and exposure consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In some cases, exposure values are significantly higher than background levels. Data compiled for the period from the initial identification of excess atmospheric radioactivity to the present, represent a unique resource for testing and validating models of environmental transport and human exposure. These data will serve as the bases for future studies of organism response, both somatic and genetic, to nuclear radiation. They will also prove useful in suggesting modifications to environmental sampling and monitoring systems. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-07-27

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A[prime], B and B[prime] to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation. 13 figs.

  9. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Montague, S.; Smith, J.H.; Sniegowski, J.J.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1998-08-25

    A method is disclosed for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry. The method comprises the steps of forming each MEM device within a cavity below a device surface of the substrate; encapsulating the MEM device prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate; and releasing the MEM device for operation after fabrication of the electronic circuitry. Planarization of the encapsulated MEM device prior to formation of the electronic circuitry allows the use of standard processing steps for fabrication of the electronic circuitry. 13 figs.

  10. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  11. On the infiltration of a liquid front in an unsaturated, fractured porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Nitao, J.; Buscheck, T.

    1989-08-01

    The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is currently under scientific investigation as a proposed site for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. A deeper understanding of fracture-matrix interaction needed for the prediction of water movement around an in the repository. We show that the liquid front movement can be classified into physically interpretable, distinctive flow regimes. Asymptotic solutions for the front movement are given for each flow period and comparisons with numerical solutions are made. In addition to applications in nuclear waste storage, the results of our study is relevant to hazardous waste disposal, petroleum recovery, and flow in soil macropores. 17 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Micropower RF transponder with superregenerative receiver and RF receiver with sampling mixer

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-05-13

    A micropower RF transponder employs a novel adaptation of the superregenerative receiver wherein the quench oscillator is external to the regenerative transistor. The quench oscillator applies an exponentially decaying waveform rather than the usual sinewave to achieve high sensitivity at microampere current levels. Further improvements include circuit simplifications for antenna coupling, extraction of the detected signal, and a low-voltage bias configuration that allows operation with less than a 1-volt rail voltage. The inventive transponder is expected to operate as long as the battery shelf life. 13 figs.

  13. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Proposal for a new tomographic device providing information on the chemical properties of a body section

    SciTech Connect

    Gatti, E.; Rehak, P.; Kemmer, J.

    1986-02-27

    A system to analyze the chemical properties of a region of tissue located deep inside the human body without having to access it is proposed. The method is based on a high precision detection of x-rays or ..gamma..-rays (photons) from an external source Compton scattered from the tissue under inspection. The method provides chemical information of plane regions lying not too deep inside the body (<6 cm). The amount of radiation absorbed by the body is about the same as needed for a standard x-ray tomography. The exposure time is estimated to be shorter than 10 minutes. 37 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Electrochemical method of controlling thiolate coverage on a conductive substrate such as gold

    DOEpatents

    Porter, M.D.; Weisshaar, D.E.

    1998-10-27

    An electrochemical method is described for forming a partial monomolecular layer of a predetermined extent of coverage of a thiolate of the formula, XRS-, therein R can be a linear or branched chain hydrocarbon or an aromatic or the like and X can be any compatible end group, e.g., OH, COOH, CH{sub 3} or the like, upon a substrate such as gold, which involves applying in an electrochemical system a constant voltage preselected to yield the desired predetermined extent of coverage. 13 figs.

  16. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Premerlani, W.J.

    1981-11-10

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components. 13 figs.

  17. A description of the SNL (Sandia National Laboratories) clutter model developed for the SRIM (Simulated Radar IMage) code version 2. 2s

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.E.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes the clutter model developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the SRIM code version 2.2s. The SNL clutter model is a fully polarimetric model that includes both coherent and incoherent scattering effects. The input parameters to the SNL clutter model are chosen so that an acceptable match is obtained between the model predicted data and the appropriate experimental data. These input parameters are then used in the SRIM code to simulated the desired clutter type. 12 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  19. Accelerators for research and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    The newest particle accelerators are almost always built for extending the frontiers of research, at the cutting edge of science and technology. Once these machines are operating and these technologies mature, new applications are always found, many of which touch our lives in profound ways. The evolution of accelerator technologies will be discussed, with descriptions of accelerator types and characteristics. The wide range of applications of accelerators will be discussed, in fields such as nuclear science, medicine, astrophysics and space-sciences, power generation, airport security, materials processing and microcircuit fabrication. 13 figs.

  20. Portable data collection device with self identifying probe

    DOEpatents

    French, P.D.

    1998-11-17

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of time. The sensor may also store a unique sensor identifier. 13 figs.

  1. BWRSAR (Boiling Water Reactor Severe Accident Response) calculations of reactor vessel debris pours for Peach Bottom short-term station blackout

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.; Ott, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes recent analyses performed by the BWR Severe Accident Technology (BWRSAT) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to estimate the release of debris from the reactor vessel for the unmitigated short-term station blackout accident sequence. Calculations were performed with the BWR Severe Accident Response (BWRSAR) code and are based upon consideration of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The modeling strategies employed within BWRSAR for debris relocation within the reactor vessel are briefly discussed and the calculated events of the accident sequence, including details of the calculated debris pours, are presented. 4 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, P.; Yan, Hui; Banerjee, S.

    1997-10-01

    This progress report summarizes three accomplishments in a study of low volatile organic compound (VOC) drying of lumber and wood panel products. A mathematical model for predicting moisture emissions from particle was constructed and is being extended to VOCs. VOCs emissions from drying boards show that VOCs appear to be evenly released from all surfaces. Preliminary results from monthly analyses of loblolly pines indicate that resin acids appear to decrease between March to August, and that no consistent trends are apparent for terpenes. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Tensile behavior of tungsten/niobium composites at 1300--1600 K

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Hee Mann ); Titran, R.H. . Lewis Research Center)

    1989-01-01

    The tensile behavior of continuous-tungsten-fiber-reinforced niobium composites (W/Nb), fabricated by an arc-spray process, was studied in the 1300 to 1600 K temperature range. The tensile properties of the fiber and matrix components as well as the composites were measured and were compared to rule of mixtures (ROM) predictions. The deviation from the ROM was found to depend upon the chemistry of the tungsten alloy fibers, with positive deviations for ST300/Nb (i.e., stronger composite strength than the ROM) and negative or zero deviations for 218/Nb. 16 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Local carbon diffusion coefficient measurement in the S-1 spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, R.M.; Levinton, F.M.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Chu, T.K.; Paul, S.F.; Yamada, M.

    1988-10-01

    The local carbon diffusion coefficient was measured in the S - 1 spheromak by detecting the radial spread of injected carbon impurity. The radial impurity density profile is determined by the balance of ionization and diffusion. Using measured local electron temperature T/sub e/ and density n/sub e/, the ionization rate is determined from which the particle diffusion coefficient is inferred. The results found in this work are consistent with Bohm diffusion. The absolute magnitude of D/sub /perpendicular// was determined to be (4/approximately/6) /times/ D/sub Bohm/. 25 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.D.

    1986-11-01

    By combining picosecond optical experiments and detailed statistical mechanics theory we continue to increase our understanding of the complex interplay of structure and dynamics in important energy transfer situations. A number of different types of problems will be focused on experimentally and theoretically. They are excitation transport among chromophores attached to finite size polymer coils; excitation transport among chromophores in monolayers, bilayers, and finite and infinite stacks of layers; excitation transport in large vesicle systems; and photoinduced electron transfer in glasses and liquids, focusing particularly on the back transfer of the electron from the photogenerated radical anion to the radical cation. 33 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Beam dynamics verification in linacs of linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The SLAC two-mile linac has been upgraded to accelerate high current, low emittance electron and positron beams to be used in the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). After the upgrade was completed, extensive beam studies were made to verify that the design criteria have been met. These tests involved the measurement of emittance, beam phase space orientation, energy dispersion, trajectory oscillations, bunch length, energy spectrum and wakefields. The methods, the systems and the data cross checks are compared for the various measurements. Implications for the next linear collider are discussed. 12 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1989-11-28

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences there between. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  8. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Severtsen, R.H.

    1999-01-12

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system is disclosed including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image. 13 figs.

  9. Cost analysis of power plant cooling using aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Drost, M.K.

    1989-05-01

    Most utilities in the US experience their peak demand for electric power during periods with high ambient temperature. Unfortunately, the performance of many power plants decreases with high ambient temperature. The use of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for seasonal storage of chill can be an alternative method for heat rejection. Cold water produced during the previous winter is stored in the aquifer and can be used to provide augmented cooling during peak demand periods increasing the output of many Rankine cycle power plants. This report documents an investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of using aquifer thermal energy storage for peak cooling of power plants. 9 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semiconductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Vella, M.C.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a ``cold plasma`` which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place. 15 figs.

  11. Recent results in high E{sub T} jet production

    SciTech Connect

    Lamoureux, J.; CDF Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    We present results on high E{sub T} jet measurements from CDF and D0. First we show the inclusive jet cross section and compare it to NLO QCD predictions. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section are also shown. In order to place limits on the amount of quark compositeness the data can tolerate, we show the dijet angular distributions. Finally, we discuss the inclusive jet cross section measurement at {radical}s = 0.63 TeV and tests of scaling. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  12. An idealized transient model for melt dispersal from reactor cavities during pressurized melt ejection accident scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Tutu, N.K.

    1991-06-01

    The direct Containment Heating (DCH) calculations require that the transient rate at which the melt is ejected from the reactor cavity during hypothetical pressurized melt ejection accident scenarios be calculated. However, at present no models, that are able to predict the available melt dispersal data from small scale reactor cavity models, are available. In this report, a simple idealized model of the melt dispersal process within a reactor cavity during a pressurized melt ejection accident scenario is presented. The predictions from the model agree reasonably well with the integral data obtained from the melt dispersal experiments using a small scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Frequency doubled operation of a ground state depleted laser using the Nd sup 3+ sup 4 F sub 3/2 - sup 4 I sub 9/2 transition in Y sub 2 SiO sub 5

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Mitchell, S.; Comaskey, B.; Solarz, R.; Krupke, W. ); Brandle, C.; Berkstresser, G. )

    1990-01-01

    A ground state depleted (GSD) laser has been demonstrated at 912 nm in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating on the Nd{sup 3+}{sup 4}F{sub 3/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 9/2} transition in Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}. Samarium scandium gallium garnet has been demonstrated effective at selectively suppressing the competing and much stronger {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} lasing transition. Efficient harmonic generation has been demonstrated using non-critically phase matched KNbO{sub 3}. 15 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. An experimental investigation of decelerating flow about two-dimensional cambered plates

    SciTech Connect

    Sarpkaya, T.

    1987-10-30

    Impulsively-started uniform flow, decelerating at specified rates, about two-dimensional cambered plates with included angles of 120, 180, and 240 degrees has been investigated experimentally in a vertical water tunnel. The forces acting on the plates have been determined as a function of the relative displacement of the fluid at subcritical Reynolds numbers. The evolution of the vortices was visualized by means of various dyes and polystyrene beads. The variation of the drag coefficient with time is interpreted in terms of the formation, growth, and motion of vortices. 15 figs.

  15. A vortex panel analysis of circular-arc bluff-bodies in unsteady flow

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    A method which is capable of calculating the unsteady flow field around circular-arc bluff bodies of zero thickness is presented. This method utilizes linear vortex panels to model the body surface and a portion of the wake surfaces. Discrete vortices are used to model the remainder of the wake surfaces. Separation is assumed to occur at the sharp edges of the bodies. Numerical results for circular-arc bodies with included angles of less than 180/degree/ are compared with experimental data and found to be in good agreement. 31 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Baker, J.D.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1997-09-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes. 15 figs.

  17. Apparatus and method for identification and recognition of an item with ultrasonic patterns from item subsurface micro-features

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, R.W.; Fuller, J.L.; Doctor, S.R.; Good, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Skorpik, J.R.; Hansen, N.H.

    1995-09-26

    The present invention is a means and method for identification and recognition of an item by ultrasonic imaging of material microfeatures and/or macrofeatures within the bulk volume of a material. The invention is based upon ultrasonic interrogation and imaging of material microfeatures within the body of material by accepting only reflected ultrasonic energy from a preselected plane or volume within the material. An initial interrogation produces an identification reference. Subsequent new scans are statistically compared to the identification reference for making a match/non-match decision. 15 figs.

  18. Ultra-wideband radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-11-01

    A motion sensor is based on ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. UWB radar range is determined by a pulse-echo interval. For motion detection, the sensors operate by staring at a fixed range and then sensing any change in the averaged radar reflectivity at that range. A sampling gate is opened at a fixed delay after the emission of a transmit pulse. The resultant sampling gate output is averaged over repeated pulses. Changes in the averaged sampling gate output represent changes in the radar reflectivity at a particular range, and thus motion. 15 figs.

  19. Optical data transmission at the superconducting super collider

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1989-02-01

    Digital and analog data transmissions via fiber optics for the Superconducting Super Collider have been investigated. The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides, receivers and associated electronics components are reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the radiation environment on the performance of an optical data transmission system components. Also, the performance of candidate components of the wide band digital and analog transmission systems intended for deployment of the Superconducting Super Collider Detector is discussed. 27 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Application of nonlinear time series models to driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, N.F. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In our laboratory we have been engaged in an effort to model nonlinear systems using time series methods. Our objectives have been, first, to understand how the time series response of a nonlinear system unfolds as a function of the underlying state variables, second, to model the evolution of the state variables, and finally, to predict nonlinear system responses. We hope to address the relationship between model parameters and system parameters in the near future. Control of nonlinear systems based on experimentally derived parameters is also a planned topic of future research. 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. New O(6) region near A = 130 and the interplay of triaxiality and gamma-softness in the IBA

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    A simple approach to the IBA is described, which exploits the consistent Q-formalism to describe both symmetries and transition regions with a minimum of parameters. Some results with this approach are discussed and compared with the data for deformed and transitional nuclei. Following this introduction, a new region of O(6) symmetry is presented and compared with the Pt region with which it is found to share many similarities. Discrepancies with the strict limiting symmetry are described in terms of symmetry breaking via a small triaxial potential. 28 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Symmetries in heavy nuclei and the proton-neutron interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) nuclear structure model can be expressed in terms of the U(6) group, and thereby leads to three dynamical symmetries (or group chains) corresponding to different nuclear coupling schemes and geometrical shapes. The status of the empirical evidence for these three symmetries is reviewed, along with brief comments on the possible existence of supersymmetries in nuclei. The relationships between these symmetries, the nuclear phase transitional regions linking them, and the residual proton-neutron interaction are discussed in terms of a particularly simple scheme for parameterizing the effects of that interaction. 34 refs., 15 figs.

  3. Analysis of radiofrequency discharges in plasma

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, D.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1992-08-04

    Separation of laser optogalvanic signals in plasma into two components: (1) an ionization rate change component, and (2) a photoacoustic mediated component. This separation of components may be performed even when the two components overlap in time, by measuring time-resolved laser optogalvanic signals in an rf discharge plasma as the rf frequency is varied near the electrical resonance peak of the plasma and associated driving/detecting circuits. A novel spectrometer may be constructed to make these measurements. Such a spectrometer would be useful in better understanding and controlling such processes as plasma etching and plasma deposition. 15 figs.

  4. Results from heavy-ion bombardments of sup 254 Es

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1989-09-26

    We report our experimental work and offer our most recent data on the decay properties for five new isotopes of Md, No, Lr, and for {sup 258m}Md. In addition to these successful experiments, we have also conducted searches for {sup 263}(105), {sup 264}(105), {sup 272}(109), and superheavy elements. Finally, we summarize our conclusions based on what we have learned so far and what we believe are the most critical directions that should now be taken. 19 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Quality and Behavior of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary and Nearshore Ocean and Effects of the Ocean Environment on the Survival of Columbia River Juvenile Salmonids, 1989-1994 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.C.; Schiewe, Michael H.; Fisher, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    In response to this limited understanding of the factors responsible for the continuing decline of spring chinook salmon in the Columbia River, this research plan was developed. The overall goal of the proposed research is to investigate and identify relationships among smolt quality (measured in the hatchery and after recovery in the estuary and nearshore ocean), environmental conditions in the estuary and nearshore ocean during smolt migration, and long-term survival (as measured by adult returns to the hatchery of origin and contributions to the recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries). 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Update of national ozone study: Where are we now?

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. It addresses the issue of national ozone research in focusing on the regional task force, Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG). The overall objectives of the OTAG initiatives are reported. These include development of a comprehensive regional emissions inventory, selection of research models and protocols, identification of criteria for selecting emissions control strategies, and development of a framework for a NO{sub x} trading system. Findings from preliminary modeling runs and analyses are presented. 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

    1983-07-26

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

  8. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1999-08-24

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system is described. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO{sub 3} enables lower temperature fuel cell operation. 15 figs.

  9. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  10. On the movement of a liquid front in an unsaturated, fractured porous medium, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nitao, J.J.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to present approximate analytical solutions of the fracture flow which gives the position of the liquid fracture front as a function of time. These solutions demonstrate that the liquid movement in the fracture can be classified into distinctive time periods, or flow regimes. It is also shown that when plotted versus time using a log-log scale, the liquid fracture front position asymptotically approaches a series of line segments. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were run utilizing input data applicable to the densely welded, fractured tuff found at Yucca Mountain in order to confirm these observations. 19 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. A study of steady-state steam-water counterflow in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Satik, C.; Parlar, M.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1990-02-01

    Vapor-liquid counterflow in porous media arises in processes such as heat pipes, oil recovery and geothermal systems. Previous studies analysed these phenomena in separate contexts. This paper presents a unified description from which previous models result as limiting cases. The analysis includes capillarity, heat conduction, and Kelvin effects. The importance of each term to various processes is examined. Significantly, it is found that the critical heat flux is not constant but increases with decreasing permeability. A threshold permeability is identified below which steady states may not exist. Analogous conclusions are reached regarding liquid-dominated geothermal systems. 24 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Polarization at SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Surfactant loss: Effects of temperature, salinity, and wettability

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, L.A.; Gall, B.L.; Crocker, M.E.; Olsen, D.K.

    1989-05-01

    Adsorption of sodium dodecylsulfate, Triton X-100, decyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactants onto silica gel and Berea sandstone mineral surfaces has been studied as a function of temperature, solution salt concentration, and mineral surface wettability. Adsorption studies using a flow calorimeter were conducted using pure surfactants and minerals. The studies were then extended to the adsorption of one type of commercial surfactant onto both consolidated and crushed Berea sandstone using column techniques. This has allowed the comparison of different methods to evaluate surfactant losses from flowing rather than static surfactant solutions. 20 refs., 15 figs., 37 tabs.

  14. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

    1998-12-15

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

  15. Technical procedures for implementation of acoustics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The purpose and scope of the technical procedure for processing data from the tethered meteorological system are covered. Definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs are also addressed. This technical procedure describes how to control, organize, verify, and archive tethered meteorological system data. These data will be received at the processing location from the field measurement location and are part of the characterization of the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas for the salt repository program. These measurements will be made in support of the sound propagation study and are a result of environmental data requirements for acoustics. 6 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. The MELTSPREAD-1 computer code for the analysis of transient spreading in containments

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional, multicell, Eulerian finite difference computer code (MELTSPREAD-1) has been developed to provide an improved prediction of the gravity driven spreading and thermal interactions of molten corium flowing over a concrete or steel surface. In this paper, the modeling incorporated into the code is described and the spreading models are benchmarked against a simple dam break'' problem as well as water simulant spreading data obtained in a scaled apparatus of the Mk I containment. Results are also presented for a scoping calculation of the spreading behavior and shell thermal response in the full scale Mk I system following vessel meltthrough. 24 refs., 15 figs.

  17. Integration of heat pumps into industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, R.N. ); Priebe, S.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Energy and others have funded studies to assess the potential for energy savings using industrial heat pumps. The studies included classifications of heat pumps, economic evaluations, and placement of heat pumps in industrial processes. Pinch technology was used in the placement studies to determine the placement, size, and type of heat pumps for a given applications. There appears to be considerable scope for heat pumping in several industries, but, where maximum process energy savings are desired, it is important to consider heat pumping in the context of overall process integration. 19 refs., 15 figs.

  18. Space charge effects: tune shifts and resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1986-08-01

    The effects of space charge and beam-beam interactions on single particle motion in the transverse degree of freedom are considered. The space charge force and the resulting incoherent tune shift are described, and examples are given from the AGS and CERN's PSB. Equations of motion are given for resonances in the presence of the space charge force, and particle behavior is examined under resonance and space charge conditions. Resonance phase space structure is described with and without space charge. Uniform and bunched beams are compared. Beam-beam forces and resonances and beam-beam detuning are described. 18 refs., 15 figs. (LEW)

  19. Qualitative validation of pollutant transport components of an unsaturated soil zone model (SESOIL)

    SciTech Connect

    Hetrick, D.M.; Travis, C.C.; Leonard, S.K.; Kinerson, R.S.

    1989-03-01

    Model predictions of a revised version of the soil compartment model SESOIL are compared with empirical measurements of pollutant transport in soil. A description of SESOIL is given, and modifications to the model are presented. Comparisons are performed using data from a laboratory soil column study involving six chemicals (dicamba, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, atrazine, diazinon, pentachlorophenol, and lindane) and data from three field studies involving the transport of aldicarb and atrazine. Model performance and limitations are discussed. 32 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Optimized achromatic phase-matching system and method

    DOEpatents

    Trebino, R.; DeLong, K.; Hayden, C.

    1997-07-15

    An optical system for efficiently directing a large bandwidth light (e.g., a femtosecond laser pulse) onto a nonlinear optical medium includes a plurality of optical elements for directing an input light pulse onto a nonlinear optical medium arranged such that the angle {theta}{sub in} which the light pulse directed onto the nonlinear optical medium is substantially independent of a position x of the light beam entering the optical system. The optical system is also constructed such that the group velocity dispersion of light pulses passing through the system can be tuned to a desired value including negative group velocity dispersion. 15 figs.

  1. Laser-induced shock waves effects in materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dingus, R.S.; Shafer, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the effects of pressure pulses on materials is presented with an orientation toward laser-induced shock wave effects in biological tissue. The behavior is first discussed for small amplitudes, namely sound waves, since many important features in this region are also applicable at large amplitudes. The generation of pressure pulses by lasers is discussed along with amplitudes. The origin and characteristic properties of shock waves are discussed along with the different types of effects they can produce. The hydrodynamic code techniques required for shock wave calculations are discussed along with the necessary empirical data base and methods for generating that data base. 7 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Methods for operating parallel computing systems employing sequenced communications

    DOEpatents

    Benner, R.E.; Gustafson, J.L.; Montry, G.R.

    1999-08-10

    A parallel computing system and method are disclosed having improved performance where a program is concurrently run on a plurality of nodes for reducing total processing time, each node having a processor, a memory, and a predetermined number of communication channels connected to the node and independently connected directly to other nodes. The present invention improves performance of the parallel computing system by providing a system which can provide efficient communication between the processors and between the system and input and output devices. A method is also disclosed which can locate defective nodes with the computing system. 15 figs.

  3. Progress in The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Wright, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30--50{percent} through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April, 1990--March, 1991. 4 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Multiple Mechanisms are Responsible for Transactivation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rodland, Karin D.; Bollinger, Nikki; Ippolito, Danielle L.; Opresko, Lee; Coffey, Robert J.; Zangar, Richard C.; Wiley, H. S.

    2008-11-14

    REVIEW ENTIRE DOCUMENT AT: https://pnlweb.pnl.gov/projects/bsd/ERICA%20Manuscripts%20for%20Review/KD%20Rodland%20D7E80/HMEC_transactivation_ms01_15+Figs.pdf ABSTRACT: Using a single nontransformed strain of human mammary epithelial cells, we found that the ability of multiple growth factors and cytokines to induce ERK phosphorylation was dependent on EGFR activity. These included lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), uridine triphosphate, growth hormone, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and tumor necrosis factoralpha. In contrast, hepatocyte growth factor could stimulate ERK phosphorylation independent of EGFR activity...

  5. Uncertainties in global ocean surface flux climatologies derived from ship observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, P.J.; Weare, B.C.

    1997-11-01

    A methodology to define uncertainties associated with ocean surface heat flux calculations has been developed and applied to a global climatology that utilizes a summary of the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set surface observations. Systematic and random uncertainties in the net oceanic heat flux and each of its four components at individual grid points and for zonal averages have been estimated for each calendar month and for the annual mean. The most important uncertainties of the 2{degrees} x 2{degrees} grid cell values of each of the heat fluxes are described. 61 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Merlin 2 - A computer program to transfer solution data betwwen finite element meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D.K.

    1991-07-01

    The MERLIN 2 program is designed to transfer data between finite element meshes of arbitrary geometry. The program is structured to accurately interpolate previously computed solutions onto a given mesh and format the resulting data for immediate use in another analysis program. Data from either two-dimensional or three-dimensional meshes may be considered. The theoretical basis and computational algorithms used in the program are described and complete user instructions are presented. Several example problems are included to demonstrate program usage. 13 refs. 15 figs.

  7. The Landes experiment: Biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of ozone and aerosol particles above a pine forest

    SciTech Connect

    Lamaud, E.; Labatut, A.; Lopez, A.; Fontan, J.; Druilhet, A.; Brunet, Y.

    1994-08-20

    An experiment to measure the transfer of trace gases in the lower atmosphere was performed in the forested area of {open_quotes} Les Landes {close_quotes} in southwestern France. This region is one of the largest remaining forests in western Europe, and consists predominantly of resinous trees (maritime pines). This experiment involved emission measurements of chemically reactive species, measurement methodologies, mechanisms for flux and the influence of these emissions on boundary layer chemistry. This paper presents preliminary results on the dry deposition of ozone and aerosol particles in the boundary layer. 28 refs., 15 figs.

  8. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  9. Linear accelerators for TeV colliders. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1985-10-01

    The basic scaling relations for important linear collider design parameters are introduced. Some of the basic concepts concerning the design of accelerating structures are presented, and breakdown limitations are discussed. Rf power sources are considered. Some of the key concepts of wakefield accelerators are discussed, and some examples of wake fields for typical linac structures are presented. Some general concepts concerning emittance, and the limitations on the emittance that can be obtained from linac guns and damping rings are discussed. 49 refs., 15 figs. (LEW)

  10. Experimental determination of the shipboard fire environment for simulated radioactive material packages

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M.

    1997-03-01

    A series of eight fire tests with simulated radioactive material shipping containers aboard the test ship Mayo Lykes, a break-bulk freighter, is described. The tests simulate three basic types of fires: engine room fires, cargo fires and open pool fires. Detailed results from the tests include temperatures, heat fluxes and air flows measured during the fires. The first examination of the results indicates that shipboard fires are not significantly different from fires encountered in land transport. 13 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  12. Prediction of transient exhaust soot for a turbocharged diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoping, B.; Shu, H.

    1995-12-31

    A generalized computer model for prediction of transient exhaust soot and response of turbocharged diesel engines is developed. It includes detailed thermodynamic and dynamic processes. This model utilizes a multi-zone combustion submodel that emphasizes simple and economical calculations for combustion behavior and zonal soot, so overall transient exhaust soot can be predicted. This model is applied to a turbocharged diesel engine. The steady state exhaust soot and performance are calculated and validated, and on the basis, the exhaust soot and response under three classes of transient operating conditions are predicted. The parametric study is carried out by using this model. The effects of valve overlap period, exhaust manifold volume, turbocharger inertia and ambient pressure are predicted. Applications of this model have proved that it is a convenient analytical tool in the study for turbocharged diesel engines. 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Polarization-independent optical wavelength filter for channel dropping applications

    DOEpatents

    Deri, R.J.; Patterson, F.

    1996-05-07

    The polarization dependence of optical wavelength filters is eliminated by using waveguide directional couplers. Material birefringence is used to compensate for the waveguide (electromagnetic) birefringence which is the original cause of the polarization dependence. Material birefringence is introduced in a controllable fashion by replacing bulk waveguide layers by finely layered composites, such as multiple quantum wells using III-V semiconductor materials. The filter has use in wavelength-division multiplexed fiber optic communication systems. This filter has broad application for wavelength-tunable receivers in fiber optic communication links, which may be used for telecommunications, optical computer interconnect links, or fiber optic sensor systems. Since multiple-wavelength systems are increasingly being used for all of these applications, the filter is useable whenever a rapidly tunable, wavelength-filtering receiver is required. 14 figs.

  14. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  15. Expert system for identification of simultaneous and sequential reactor fuel failures with gas tagging

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1994-07-26

    Failure of a fuel element in a nuclear reactor core is determined by a gas tagging failure detection system and method. Failures are catalogued and characterized after the event so that samples of the reactor's cover gas are taken at regular intervals and analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Employing a first set of systematic heuristic rules which are applied in a transformed node space allows the number of node combinations which must be processed within a barycentric algorithm to be substantially reduced. A second set of heuristic rules treats the tag nodes of the most recent one or two leakers as background'' gases, further reducing the number of trial node combinations. Lastly, a fuzzy'' set theory formalism minimizes experimental uncertainties in the identification of the most likely volumes of tag gases. This approach allows for the identification of virtually any number of sequential leaks and up to five simultaneous gas leaks from fuel elements. 14 figs.

  16. ASIC design at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Yarema, R.

    1991-06-01

    In the past few years, ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) design has become important at Fermilab. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the in-house ASIC design activity which has taken place. This design effort has added much value to the high energy physics program and physics capability at Fermilab. The two approaches to ASIC development being pursued at Fermilab are examined by looking at some of the types of projects where ASICs are being used or contemplated. To help estimate the cost of future designs, a cost comparison is given to show the relative development and production expenses for these two ASIC approaches. 5 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Using memory in the Cedar system

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, R.E.; Emrath, P.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the virtual memory system for the Cedar multiprocessor under construction at the University of Illinois is discussed. The Cedar architecture features a hierarchy of memory, some shared by all processors, and some shared by subsets of processors. The Xylem operating system is based on Alliant Computer Systems CONCENTRIX(TM) operating system, which is based on 4.2BSD UNIX(TM). Xylem supports multi-tasking and demand paging of parts of the memory hierarchy into a linear virtual address space. Memory may be private to a task or shared between all the tasks. The locality and attributes of a page may be modified during the execution of a program. Examples of how these mechanisms can be used are discussed. 14 figs.

  18. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Apparatus and method of determining molecular weight of large molecules

    DOEpatents

    Fuerstenau, S.; Benner, W.H.; Madden, N.M.; Searles, W.

    1998-06-23

    A mass spectrometer determines the mass of multiply charged high molecular weight molecules. This spectrometer utilizes an ion detector which is capable of simultaneously measuring the charge z and transit time of a single ion as it passes through the detector. From this transit time, the velocity of the single ion may then be derived, thus providing the mass-to-charge ratio m/z for a single ion which has been accelerated through a known potential. Given z and m/z, the mass m of the single ion can then be calculated. Electrospray ions with masses in excess of 1 MDa and charge numbers greater than 425 e{sup {minus}} are readily detected. The on-axis single ion detection configuration enables a duty cycle of nearly 100% and extends the practical application of electrospray mass spectrometry to the analysis of very large molecules with relatively inexpensive instrumentation. 14 figs.

  20. Measurement of physical characteristics of materials by ultrasonic methods

    DOEpatents

    Lu, W.Y.; Min, S.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for determining and evaluating physical characteristics of a material. In particular, the present invention provides for determining and evaluating the anisotropic characteristics of materials, especially those resulting from such manufacturing processes as rolling, forming, extruding, drawing, forging, etc. In operation, a complex ultrasonic wave is created in the material of interest by any method. The wave form may be any combination of wave types and modes and is not limited to fundamental plate modes. The velocity of propagation of selected components which make up the complex ultrasonic wave are measured and evaluated to determine the physical characteristics of the material including, texture, strain/stress, grain size, crystal structure, etc. 14 figs.

  1. Systems and methods for optically measuring properties of hydrocarbon fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.; Gersh, M.E.; Goldstein, N.

    1998-10-13

    A system and method for optical interrogation and measurement of a hydrocarbon fuel gas includes a light source generating light at near-visible wavelengths. A cell containing the gas is optically coupled to the light source which is in turn partially transmitted by the sample. A spectrometer disperses the transmitted light and captures an image thereof. The image is captured by a low-cost silicon-based two-dimensional CCD array. The captured spectral image is processed by electronics for determining energy or BTU content and composition of the gas. The innovative optical approach provides a relatively inexpensive, durable, maintenance-free sensor and method which is reliable in the field and relatively simple to calibrate. In view of the above, accurate monitoring is possible at a plurality of locations along the distribution chain leading to more efficient distribution. 14 figs.

  2. Detection of surface glow related to spacecraft glow phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, W.D.; Cohen, S.A.; Manos, D.M.; Motley, R.W.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Roberts, D.; Selberg, H.

    1986-02-01

    We have developed a high flux source of low energy neutral beams to study the spacecraft glow phenomena by using a biased limiter to neutralize plasma in ACT-1. Beams of nitrogen and nitrogen-oxygen mixtures with energies of 1 to 15 eV and fluxes greater than or equal to 10/sup 14//cm/sup 2//s were directed on target surfaces consisting of Z-302 and Z-306 paints. With the nitrogen beams we successfully detected a glow due to beam-surface interactions. In addition, we discovered a volume glow effect due to beam-gas interactions which may also play a role in spacecraft glow. 11 refs., 14 figs.

  3. A nonvariational code for calculating three-dimensional MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Greenside, H.S.; Reiman, A.H.; Salas, A.

    1987-09-01

    Details are presented of the PIES code, which uses a nonvariational algorithm for calculating fully three-dimensional MHD equilibria. The MHD equilibrium equations are directly iterated in special coordinates to find self-consistent currents and magnetic fields for given pressure and current profiles and for a given outermost magnetic surface. Three important advantages of this approach over previous methods are the ease with which net current profiles can be imposed, the explicit treatment of resonances, and the ability to handle magnetic islands and stochastic field lines. The convergence properties of the code are studied for several axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric finite-..beta.. equilibria that have magnetic surfaces. 36 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  5. Space propulsion by fusion in a magnetic dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Glass, A.J.; Fowler, T.K. ); Hasegawa, A. ); Santarius, J.F. . Fusion Technology Inst.)

    1991-07-15

    The unique advantages of fusion rocket propulsion systems for distant missions are explored using the magnetic dipole configurations as an example. The dipole is found to have features well suited to space applications. Parameters are presented for a system producing a specific power of kW/kg, capable of interplanetary flights to Mars in 90 days and to Jupiter in a year, and of extra-solar-system flights to 1000 astronomical units (the Tau mission) in 20 years. This is about 10 times better specific power performance than nuclear electric fission systems. Possibilities to further increase the specific power toward 10 kW/kg are discussed, as is an approach to implementing the concept through proof-testing on the moon. 20 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Space propulsion by fusion in a magnetic dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Glass, A.J.; Fowler, T.K. ); Hasegawa, A. ); Santarius, J.F. . Fusion Technology Inst.)

    1991-04-12

    A conceptual design is discussed for a fusion rocket propulsion system based on the magnetic dipole configuration. The dipole is found to have features well suited to space applications. Example parameters are presented for a system producing a specific power of 1 kW/kg, capable of interplanetary flights to Mars in 90 days and to Jupiter in a year, and of extra-solar-system flights to 1000 astronomical units (the Tau mission) in 20 years. This is about 10 times better specific power toward 10 kW/kg are discussed, as in an approach to implementing the concept through proof-testing on the moon. 21 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Comparison of the second-moment statistics of climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kwang-Y.; North, G.R.; Hegerl, G.C.

    1996-09-01

    In this study the magnitude and the temporal and spatial correlation scales of background fluctuations generated by three models, two different coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models and one energy balance model, were examined. These second-moment statistics of the models were compared with each other and with those of the conservation data in several frequency bands. This exercise shows some discordance between the models and the observations and also significant discrepancy among different numerical models. The authors also calculated the empirical orthogonal functions and eigenvalues because these are important ingredients for formulating estimation and detection algorithms. These are significant model to model variations both in the shape of eigenfunctions and in the spectrum of eigenvalues. Also, consistency between the modeled eigenfunctions and eigenvalues and those of the observations are rather poor, especially in the low-frequency bands. 39 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Microvalve

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.; Trevino, J.C.

    1998-10-13

    Micromachined thin film cantilever actuators having means for individually controlling the deflection of the cantilevers, valve members, and rudders for steering same through blood vessels, or positioning same within a blood vessel, for example. Such cantilever actuators include tactile sensor arrays mounted on a catheter or guide wire tip for navigation and tissues identification, shape-memory alloy film based catheter/guide wire steering mechanisms, and rudder-based steering devices that allow the selective actuation of rudders that use the flowing blood itself to help direct the catheter direction through the blood vessel. While particularly adapted for medical applications, these cantilever actuators can be used for steering through piping and tubing systems. 14 figs.

  9. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density. 14 figs.

  10. Reduction of radon daughter concentrations in structures. [UMTRA project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    A structure was identified in Salt Lake City wherein uranium mill tailings had been used in the construction and where unusually high levels of radon daughter concentrations (RDC's) existed. The physical and radiological characteristics of the structure were assessed. Ventilation techniques were investigated to assess their effectiveness in reducing RDC's. A preferred set of equipment was identified, installed in the structure and operated to reduce RDC's. Parametric studies were conducted to determine if supplying fresh air or recirculating air through electrostatic precipitators is more effective in reducing RDC's. Fresh air was found to be more effective in reducing RDC's. RDC's have been reduced to levels at or near the target of 0.03 working level under optimal ventilation conditions. Natural gas consumption with the new equipment is about 39% higher than with the original equipment. Electrical energy usage and electrical demand are respectively 50 and 44% higher with the new equipment than with the original equipment. 16 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. The theory and practice of high resolution scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.C. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in instrumentation have produced the first commercial examples of what can justifiably be called High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopes. The key components of such instruments are a cold field emission gun, a small-gap immersion probe-forming lens, and a clean dry-pumped vacuum. The performance of these microscopes is characterized by several major features including a spatial resolution, in secondary electron mode on solid specimens, which can exceed 1nm on a routine basis; an incident probe current density of the order of 10{sup 6} amps/cm{sup 2}; and the ability to maintain these levels of performance over an accelerating voltage range of from 1 to 30keV. This combination of high resolution, high probe current, low contamination and flexible electron-optical conditions provides many new opportunitites for the application of the SEM to materials science, physics, and the life sciences. 27 refs., 14 figs.

  12. Sphericity determination using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, R.D.; Migliori, A.; Visscher, W.M.

    1994-10-18

    A method is provided for grading production quantities of spherical objects, such as roller balls for bearings. A resonant ultrasound spectrum (RUS) is generated for each spherical object and a set of degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies is identified. From the degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies and known relationships between degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies and Poisson's ratio, a Poisson's ratio can be determined, along with a 'best' spherical diameter, to form spherical parameters for the sphere. From the RUS, fine-structure resonant frequency spectra are identified for each degenerate sphere-resonance frequency previously selected. From each fine-structure spectrum and associated sphere parameter values an asphericity value is determined. The asphericity value can then be compared with predetermined values to provide a measure for accepting or rejecting the sphere. 14 figs.

  13. Suggested techniques, equipment, and standards for the testing of hand insecticide-spraying equipment

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Lawrence B.

    1955-01-01

    The new demands placed upon application equipment by the introduction of modern insecticides have revealed the deficiencies of this equipment when required for continuous use on a large scale. If adequate equipment is to be produced, specifications must be based not only on basic materials tests but also on “use” tests, in which the conditions of field use are simulated. The author outlines suggested techniques to be followed and standards to be adopted in testing the performance of compression sprayers and allied equipment, with reference to the following features: compression-sprayer tank fatigue; tank impact; pump resistance to bursting; pump resistance to collapse; pump friction; cut-off valve durability; constant-pressure valves; cut-off valve actuation; hose flexure; hose tension and bursting-pressure; hose friction; gaskets, valve faces, and similar non-metallic parts; nozzle-orifice erosion; and nozzle pattern. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 14FIG. 20 PMID:14364189

  14. Self-adjustable supplemental support system for a cylindrical container in a housing

    DOEpatents

    Blaushild, R.M.

    1987-01-30

    A self-adjustable supplementary support system for a cylindrical container coaxially disposed in a cylindrical housing by upper flanged supports has a plurality of outwardly extending bracket units on the external surface of the container which coact with inwardly extending resiliently outwardly extending bracket units on the inner wall of the cylindrical housing. The bracket units have flanges which form a concave surface that seats on support bars, attached by links to torsion bars that are secured to ring segments annularly spaced about the inner wall of the cylindrical housing and the bracket units and support bars coact with each other to radially position and support the container in the housing during movement of the two components from a vertical to a horizontal position, and during transportation of the same. 14 figs.

  15. Root lengths of plants on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, G.D.; Foxx, T.S.

    1987-01-01

    Maximum root lengths of 22 plant species occurring on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands were measured. An average of two longest roots from each species were dug up and their lengths, typical shapes, and qualitative morphologics were noted along with the overstory dimensions of the plant individual with which the roots were associated. Maximum root lengths were compared with overstory (height times width) dimensions. Among the life forms studied, the shrubs tend to show the longest roots in relation to overstory size. Forbs show the shortest roots in relation to overstory size. Measurements of tree roots suggest only that immature trees on the Pajarito Plateau may have root-length to overstory-size ratios near one. 30 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Contractor-style tunnel cost estimating

    SciTech Connect

    Scapuzzi, D. )

    1990-06-01

    Keeping pace with recent advances in construction technology is a challenge for the cost estimating engineer. Using an estimating style that simulates the actual construction process and is similar in style to the contractor's estimate will give a realistic view of underground construction costs. For a contractor-style estimate, a mining method is chosen; labor crews, plant and equipment are selected, and advance rates are calculated for the various phases of work which are used to determine the length of time necessary to complete each phase of work. The durations are multiplied by the cost or labor and equipment per unit of time and, along with the costs for materials and supplies, combine to complete the estimate. Variations in advance rates, ground support, labor crew size, or other areas are more easily analyzed for their overall effect on the cost and schedule of a project. 14 figs.

  17. Application of continuous substrate feeding to the ABE fermentation: Relief of product inhibition using extraction, perstraction, stripping, and pervaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, N.; Maddox, I.S.; Friedl, A.

    1992-09-01

    The technique of continuous substrate feeding has been applied to the batch fermentation process using freely suspended cells, for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production. To avoid the product inhibition which normally restricts ABE production to less than 20 g/L and sugar utilization to 60 g/L, a product removal technique has been integrated into the fermentation process. The techniques investigated were liquid-liquid extraction, perstraction, gas-stripping, and pervaporation. By using a substrate of whey permeate, the reactor productivity has been improved over that observed in a traditional batch fermentation, while equivalent lactose utilization and ABE production values of 180 g and 69 g, respectively, have been achieved in a 1-L culture volume. 17 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-05-05

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs.

  19. Evaluation of filter media for clarification of partially dissolved residues containing plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, E.S.

    1989-10-09

    A common process in the chemical industry employs the leaching of a desirable component from an insoluble substrate, followed by filtration to produce a clarified solution of the desirable component and a discardable residue. The work described here involved evaluating sintered metal filter media for separating dissolved plutonium from undissolved residues generated at various locations owned by the Department of Energy throughout the United States. The work was performed during a six-week assignment at the Savannah River Laboratory as part of a high school science enrichment program conducted in the summer of 1989. The leach step used included dissolving the plutonium-containing solids in a solution of nitric-hydrofluoric acid. To simulate the partial solubility of the actual plutonium-containing residues, a non-radioactive power plant flyash was used. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

  1. Search for exotic baryon states with the SPHINX detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kurshetsov, V.F.; Landsberg, L.G.

    1994-11-01

    A number of diffractive processes involving the production of baryon states are studied in a series of experiments using the SPHINX detector and the E{sub p} = 70 GeV proton beam of the IHEP accelerator. These include p + N {yields} [pK{sup +}K{sup {minus}}] + N, p + N {yields} [p{phi}] + N, p + N {yields} [{Lambda}(1520)K{sup +}] + N, p + N {yields} [{Sigma}(1385){sup 0}K{sup +}] + N, p + N {yields} [{Sigma}(1385){sup 0}K{sup +}] + N + (neutrals), p + N {yields} [{Sigma}{sup 0}K{sup +}] + N, and a number of other transitions. Searches for narrow heavy baryons, which are candidates for cryptoexotic hadron states with hidden strangeness, are reported. The first results on meson production in the deep fragmentation region are presented. 21 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-10

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. The A0 abort system for the Tevatron upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.

    1989-03-01

    The installation of electrostatic separator modules at B48 and C17 in the Tevatron necessitates changes to the Tevatron abort system. There will no longer be room for either the proton or antiproton kicker magnets used in the present system. The kickers at C17 will be permanently removed. The kickers at B48 will be temporarily removed for collider operation and will be replaced for fixed target operation. The existing proton abort system will remain unchanged during fixed target operation. This note describes a proposed abort system for operation in the collider mode for 22 on 22 bunches and provides details of specifications for the required components. In certain cases, for example in the case of the pulsers for the magnets and the absorber assembly, system components are designed with the option of upgrading to 44 on 44 bunch operation in mind. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Cation effects in the oxidative coupling of methane on silica-supported binary alkali and alkaline earths

    SciTech Connect

    Voyatzis, R.; Moffat, J.B. )

    1993-07-01

    The oxidative coupling of methane has been investigated with a series of silica-supported binary oxide catalysts containing alkali or alkaline earths or combinations of the former and latter. The conversion of methane and the stability of the silica-supported binary alkali metal oxides were found to increase with decreasing cation mobility, while the selectivities and conversions observed with the binary alkaline earths increase with cation size. The selectivities and conversions of binary alkali/alkaline earths appear to depend upon the size of the alkali and alkaline earth cations, respectively. With small quantities of TCM (CCl[sub 4]) added continuously to the feedstream, catalysts containing small alkali and large alkaline earth cations produced the largest selectivities and conversions. 23 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10/sup 12/ watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10/sup 9/ watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/. Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  7. Sensitivity of Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) calculated air pollutant concentrations to the vertical diffusion parameterization during convective meteorological situations

    SciTech Connect

    Nowacki, P.; Samson, P.J.; Sillman, S.

    1996-10-01

    It is shown that Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) calculated air pollutant concentrations during photochemical smog episodes in Atlanta, Georgia, depend strongly on the numerical parameterization of the daytime vertical diffusivity. Results found suggest that vertical mixing is overestimated by the UAM-IV during unstable daytime conditions, as calculated vertical diffusivity values exceed measured and comparable literature values. Although deviations between measured and UAM-IV calculated air pollutant concentrations may only in part be due the UAM-IV diffusivity parameterization, results indicate the large error potential in vertical diffusivity parameterization. Easily implemented enhancements to UAM-IV algorithms are proposed, thus improving UAM-IV modeling performance during unstable stratification. 38 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Micromachined actuators/sensors for intratubular positioning/steering

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.; Trevino, J.C.

    1998-06-30

    Micromachined thin film cantilever actuators having means for individually controlling the deflection of the cantilevers, valve members, and rudders for steering same through blood vessels, or positioning same within a blood vessel, for example. Such cantilever actuators include tactile sensor arrays mounted on a catheter or guide wire tip for navigation and tissues identification, shape-memory alloy film based catheter/guide wire steering mechanisms, and rudder-based steering devices that allow the selective actuation of rudders that use the flowing blood itself to help direct the catheter direction through the blood vessel. While particularly adapted for medical applications, these cantilever actuators can be used for steering through piping and tubing systems. 14 figs.

  9. Monitored retrievable storage submission to Congress: Volume 3, Monitored retrievable storage program plan. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    1987-03-01

    This document presents the current DOE program objectives and the strategy for implementing the proposed program for the integral MRS facility. If the MRS proposal is approved by Congress, any needed revisions to the Program Plan will be made available to the Congress, the State of Tennessee, affected Indian tribes, local governments, other federal agencies, and the public. The proposal for constructing an MRS facility must include: the establishment of a federal program for the siting, development, construction, and operation of MRS facilities; a plan for funding the construction and operation of MRS facilities; site-specific designs, specifications, and cost estimates for the first such facility; a plan for integrating MRS facilities with other storage and disposal facilities authorized by the NWPA. 32 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Corrosion behavior of materials for MHD steam bottoming plant

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

    1989-04-01

    Test data have been developed for the corrosion of several commercial ASME-coded alloys and their weldments by exposing internally cooled ring specimens to simulated MHD environments. The specimens, coated with a K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-rich deposit, were exposed for times up to 2000 h at metal temperatures of 762,593, and 567/degree/C to simulate intermediate-temperature air heater (ITAH), transition region and secondary superheater (SSH) conditions, respectively. This report discusses the observed corrosion scale morphologies of various exposed specimens. Data on scale thickness, depth of intergranular penetration, and metal recession are presented and the results are used to assess the corrosion behavior of various materials for application in the MHD steam bottoming plant. 9 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z. ); Church, E.L. . Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Machining of beryllium with the LLNL Precision Engineering Research Lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.J.

    1985-04-01

    In August 1984, six flat samples of beryllium, which were prepared by Brush-Wellmen Corp. using various pressing and sintering processes, were machined at LLNL on the recently completed Precision Engineering Research Lathe (PERL). The purpose of this study, which was conducted in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Corporation and partially funded by that organization, was to determine the optical properties of machined beryllium surfaces when prepared under highly controlled conditions using high quality machine tools and CBN (cubic boron nitrite) cutting tools. This report will summarize the materials properties, the machining conditions used on the PERL and a comparison of the completed samples using optical measuring techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mirror surface reflecting measurements in the IR region are to be made by the group at Hughes Aircraft and will be exchanged with LLNL as a part of this joint technical effort. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-12-27

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

  15. (Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates)

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.L.

    1989-03-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. The test facility is being modified to include combined electric and magnetic field capability. This will be accomplished by the installation of a magnetic field exposure system and modification of the electric field exposure equipment. The purpose of this document is to provide information on the design. 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Development of the ventral striatum in the lizard Gallotia galloti.

    PubMed Central

    Yanes, C; Perez-Batista, M A; Martin-Trujillo, J M; Monzon, M; Rodriguez, A

    1989-01-01

    The ventral striatum nucleus (VS) begins development at Stage 31 (E. 31) from the neuroblasts which proceed from the cellular proliferation of both the ventral and terminal sulci. The ultrastructural features of the neuroblasts of VS between E. 31 and E. 34 have the aspect of immature cells, but as from E. 38 neuronal maturity is gradual until hatching. At E. 34 cellular death occurs. The first degenerated cells belong to Type I (nuclear degeneration) of the pycnotic cells; as from E. 40 cytoplasmic degeneration appears. Vascularisation starts at E. 35 and from E. 38 the first synaptic contacts are observed, especially those of the axodendritic type. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Figs 1-4 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:2606798

  17. Hanford Site waste management and environmental restoration integration plan

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, D.L.

    1990-04-30

    The Hanford Site Waste Management and Environmental Restoration Integration Plan'' describes major actions leading to waste disposal and site remediation. The primary purpose of this document is to provide a management tool for use by executives who need to quickly comprehend the waste management and environmental restoration programs. The Waste Management and Environmental Restoration Programs have been divided into missions. Waste Management consists of five missions: double-shell tank (DST) wastes; single-shell tank (SST) wastes (surveillance and interim storage, stabilization, and isolation); encapsulated cesium and strontium; solid wastes; and liquid effluents. Environmental Restoration consists of two missions: past practice units (PPU) (including characterization and assessment of SST wastes) and surplus facilities. For convenience, both aspects of SST wastes are discussed in one place. A general category of supporting activities is also included. 20 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Motor vehicle fuel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1997-08-05

    A gas detecting system is described for classifying the type of liquid fuel in a container or tank. The system includes a plurality of semiconductor gas sensors, each of which differs from the other in its response to various organic vapors. The system includes a means of processing the responses of the plurality of sensors such that the responses to any particular organic substance or mixture is sufficiently distinctive to constitute a recognizable ``signature``. The signature of known substances are collected and divided into two classes based on some other known characteristic of the substances. A pattern recognition system classifies the signature of an unknown substance with reference to the two user-defined classes, thereby classifying the unknown substance with regard to the characteristic of interest, such as its suitability for a particular use. 14 figs.

  19. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  20. Scattering from an arbitrary cylinder in the presence of a planar media interface using the bymoment method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.; Cangellaris, A.C. . Electromagnetics Lab.)

    1989-11-01

    We apply the bymoment method to the problem of electromagnetic scattering from a cylinder in the presence of two semi-infinite half-spaces. The finite-element method is used to generate the solution over the region occupied by the cylinder, using a grid which is truncated at a small distance from the scatterer by a surface that conforms to the cross-section of the cylinder. We then couple the properties of the region exterior to the finite-element mesh to the interior solution by using Green's theorem in conjunction with a set of linearly independent functions which satisfy the boundary conditions along the interface and at infinity. Numerical results are obtained and compared to those in the literature. 18 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Automated operator procedure prompting for startup of Experimental Breeder Reactor-2

    SciTech Connect

    Renshaw, A.W.; Ball, S.J.; Ford, C.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the development of an operator procedure prompting aid for startup of a nuclear reactor. This operator aid is a preliminary design for a similar aid that eventually will be used with the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) presently in the design stage. Two approaches were used to develop this operator procedure prompting aid. One method uses an expert system software shell, and the other method uses database software. The preliminary requirements strongly pointed toward features traditionally associated with both database and expert systems software. Database software usually provides data manipulation flexibility and user interface tools, and expert systems tools offer sophisticated data representation and reasoning capabilities. Both methods, including software and associated hardware, are described in this report. Proposals for future enhancements to improve the expert system approach to procedure prompting and for developing other operator aids are also offered. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  2. A numerical analysis of pulverized coal combustion in a multiburner furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Nozomu Hashimoto; Ryoichi Kurose; Hirofumi Tsuji; Hiromi Shirai

    2007-08-15

    A three-dimensional numerical simulation is applied to a pulverized coal combustion field in a furnace equipped with three burners, and the trajectories of the coal particles with respect to each burner, which are hardly obtained experimentally, are also investigated in detail. Simulation results are compared with experimental results. The results show that the numerical and experimental results are consistent generally. Also, the examination of the particle trajectories shows that most of the unburned carbon originates from the upper-stage burner. This result suggests that the overall unburned fraction can be reduced by supplying coal with a low combustibility to lower- or middle-stage burners and supplying coal with a high combustibility to the upper-stage burner. 50 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Research on carbon content in fly ash from circulating fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Xianbin Xiao; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Junfu Lu; Guangxi Yue

    2005-08-01

    The carbon content in the fly ash from most Chinese circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is much higher than expected, which directly influences the combustion efficiency. In the present paper, carbon burnout was investigated in both field tests and laboratory experiments. The effect of coal property, operation condition, gas-solid mixing, char deactivation, residence time, and cyclone performance are analyzed seriatim based on a large amount of experimental results. A coal index is proposed to describe the coal rank, having a strong effect on the char burnout. Bad gas-solid mixing in the furnace is another important reason of the higher carbon content in the fly ash. Some chars in the fly ash are deactivated during combustion of large coal particles and have very low carbon reactivity. Several suggestions are made about design, operation, and modification to reduce the carbon content in the fly ash. 14 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Information for seasonal models of carbon fluxes in terrestrial biomes

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.W.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1985-06-01

    This report is a compilation of information that can be used in developing seasonal carbon flux models for several principal terrestrial biome types. The information includes flux data as well as models made either to simulate such data or to deduce fluxes not directly measurable. The report is divided into three sections that examine (1) photosynthetic production, (2) litterfall, and (3) decomposition during a year. The sections on photosynthetic production and decomposition discuss a large number of models that relate the processes to basic abiotic variables in each of several biome types. The information on litterfall, however, is largely empirical phenology data. A fourth section demonstrates the application of this compiled information to a compartment model of seasonal carbon flux in terrestrial biomes. 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.; Creutz, C.; Winkler, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force (''normal'' free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing ''intrinsic'' barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes. 39 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Slurry F-T reactor hydrodynamics and scale-up

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.N.; O'Dowd, W.; Ruether, J.A.; Stiegel, G.J.; Shah, Y.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbons by the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over a catalyst via the indirect liquefaction route has only been demonstrated on a commercial scale in fixed-bed and entrained-bed reactors. The slurry reactor has been found to offer important advantages, such as low H/sub 2//CO feed ratios and isothermal stability on the laboratory and pilot-plant scale. Recent findings concerning slurry bubble column hydrodynamics are presented, and their relevance to slurry F-T reactor design and scale-up are discussed. The need for optimization of a slurry F-T reactor is apparent owing in large part to the nonselective formation of products on the catalyst, and the influence of hydrodynamics on the overall conversion of reactants. In this regard, the important transport resistances in the formation of products, and the influence of reactor dimensions on reactor performance are discussed. 9 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Study and development of tunable, single mode AlGaAs/GaAs lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.K.L.; Liu, J.C. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1990-09-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy has been employed in this study to fabricate two-section wavelength tunable lasers. GaAs/AlGaAs and In GaAsP/InP material system have been used for fabricating the lasers. Both direct (butt) coupling and evanescent coupling approaches have been studied. The complications associated with the regrowth process have been responsible for poor laser performance. Some DBR gratings for three-section lasers have been made using the electron beam lithography at UCSD. A simple set up has been tested to measure the wavelength shift of GaAs/AlGaAs lasers. Also, a simple structure which avoids the regrowth process has been proposed for the two-section laser. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Fingerprinting hydrocarbons in the biological resources of the Exxon Valdez spill area

    SciTech Connect

    Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    A procedure has been developed that discriminates Exxon Valdez crude from other sources of hydrocarbons found in Prince Williams Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. The procedure uses polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to fingerprint sample extracts. The relative abundances of alkylated phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes, and chrysenes are used to differentiate Exxon Valdez crude and its weathering products from other hydrocarbons. Saturate fraction distributions are used to confirm the PAH identification whenever possible. The procedure has been applied to the more than 1,500 PAH analyses of tissues reported by the Oil Spill Health Task Force, formed after the spill to assess subsistence food safety, and nearly 4,700 PAH analyses of biological samples in PWSOIL, the government`s damage-assessment chemistry database. These two datasets constitute the largest collection of hydrocarbon analyses of biological samples form the spill-impact zone. 70 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. An experimental investigation of the properties of a non-reacting, supersonic shear layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wantuck, P.J.; Tennant, R.E.; Rothstein, A.D.; Watanabe, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    A shear layer formed by the merging of two different mass density and velocity, supersonic, inert gas streams (Ar and He) was investigated using both intrusive (probes) and non-intrusive (laser-based) techniques. Interpretations based upon mean pitot pressure surveys, namely shear layer growth rate and compressibility agree with established data. An aspirating probe in conjunction with a mass spectrometer comprised a gas sampling system for ultimately obtaining concentration profiles. Rapid scanning of such flows is possible with such a technique but additional efforts are required to make quantitative concentration assignments. The technique does, however, provide a means of qualitatively assessing mixing rates. Finally planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to establish spatially and temporally resolved images of the shear layer. Obtained images demonstrate the usefulness of PLIF to qualitatively monitor turbulent mixing phenomena in supersonic flows. 17 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Inclusion of nonlinear aerodynamics in the FLAP code

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, T

    1989-11-01

    Horizontal axis wind turbines usually operate with significant portions of the blade in deep stall. This contradicts the assumption in the FLAP code that a linear relation exists between the angle of attack and the lift coefficient. The objective of this paper is to determine the importance of nonlinear aerodynamics in the prediction of loads. The FLAP code has been modified to include the nonlinear relationships between the lift and drag coefficients with the angle of attack. The modification affects the calculation of the induced velocities and the aerodynamic loads. This requires an iterative procedure to determine the induced velocities instead of a closed form solution. A more advanced tower interference model has also been added that accounts for both upwind and downwind tower effects. 7 refs., 14 figs.

  11. Design and testing of space-domain minimum average correlation energy (SMACE) filters for 2-D acousto-optic correlators

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, J.M.; Vijaya Kumar, B.V.K. ); Molley, P.A.; Stalker, K.T.; Kast, B.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Two-dimensional Acousto-optic (AO) correlators differ from the frequency plane correlators in that multiplying, shifting, and adding, rather than Fourier transforming are used to obtain the correlations. Thus, many of the available composite filter design techniques are not aimed at designing filters for use in AO correlators since they yield frequency-domain functions. In this paper, a method is introduced for designing filter impulse responses of arbitrary extents for implementation on AO correlators. These filters are designed to yield sharp correlation peaks. Simulation results are included to illustrate the viability of the proposed approach. Also included are some initial results from the first successful use of grey-level composite filters on an AO correlator. 12 refs,. 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. The earth-coupled heat pump: Utilizing innovative technology in single family rehabilitation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    The study examines the feasibility of incorporating the use of earth-coupled heat pump technology in single-family housing rehabilitation projects, based on energy conservation attributes and financial considerations. Following evaluation of a theoretical model which indicated that installations of the heat pumps were feasible, the heat pumps were tested under actual conditions in five single family housing units which were part of the Urban Homesteading Program, and were matched with comparable units which did not receive special treatment. Energy consumption information was collected for all units for twelve months. Variables were identified, and the data was analyzed for individual housing units and compared with the results predicted by the theoretical model to determine the practicality of incorporating such technology in large scale rehabilitation projects. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Apparatus for the field determination of concentration of radioactive constituents in a medium

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, R.W.; Schilk, A.J.; Warner, R.A.; Wogman, N.A.

    1995-08-15

    The instant invention is an apparatus for determining the concentration of radioactive constituents in a test sample; such as surface soils, via rapid real-time analyses, and direct readout on location utilizing a probe made up of multiple layers of detection material used in combination with an analyzer and real-time readout unit. This is accomplished by comparing the signal received from the probe, which can discriminate between types of radiation and energies with stored patterns that are based upon experimental results. This comparison can be used in the calibration of a readout display that reads out in real-time the concentrations of constituents per given volume. For example, the concentration of constituents such as Cs-137, Sr-90, U-238 in the soil, and noble gas radionuclides such as Kr-85 in the atmosphere, can be measured in real-time, on location, without the need for laboratory analysis of samples. 14 figs.

  14. Intramolecular complex formation and triplet energy transfer in polynorbornenes incorporating benzophenone

    SciTech Connect

    Fossum, R.D.; Fox, M.A.

    1997-02-12

    The photophysical properties of homopolymers (2) and block copolymers (3) prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization of norbornenes substituted with benzophenone, naphthalene, and phenanthrene groups (1) have been investigated. When benzophenone is attached to this polynorbornene backbone, its excited state behavior differs from that observed for monomeric benzophenone. A new intramolecular excited state complex can be observed in the transient absorption and emission measurements of the benzophenone-substituted homopolymer. In copolymers bearing benzophenone and naphthalene or phenanthrene substituent blocks, triplet energy transfer from the sensitizer (benzophenone) to the arene is observed. This energy transfer dominates over the intramolecular complexation that characterizes group interactions in the homopolymer. 41 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Weak interactions from 1950-1960: a quantitative bibliometric study of the formation of a field

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Sullivan, D.

    1986-01-01

    A quantitative technique is illustrated which uses publication statistics from a bibliography of citations in the area of weak interactions to provide a view of trends and patterns in the development of the field during the period from 1950 to 1960. An overview is given of what the physicists working in weak interactions during this period were doing as indicated by an analysis of the subjects of their papers. The dominant problems and concerns are discussed. Focus is then turned to the events surrounding the emergence of the tau/theta particle puzzle, the discovery of parity nonconservation, and the resolution offered by the V-A theory. Displaying the data from the citation index in unusual ways highlights dominant issues of the period, especially the close relationship between theory and experiment in the latter half of the decade. 64 refs., 14 figs. (LEW)

  16. Fiscal year 1989 annual report for the Sensors Development Program: Inert Electrodes Program

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Koski, O.H.; Stice, N.D.; Morgan, L.G. ); Nikias, C.L. )

    1990-04-01

    The Sensors Development Program is conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Programs (OIP). The work is being performed in conjunction with the Inert Electrodes Program at PNL. The objectives of the Sensors Development Program are to (1) investigate and develop methods of process monitoring/control for operating electrolytic cells and (2) determine safe operating conditions for the inert anodes. The majority of work in FY 1989 involved (1) evaluating Digital Signal Analysis (DSA) methods to monitor inert anode operation and to determine alumina concentration in both PNL bench-scale laboratory cells and the Prototype Inert Anode Test and (2) developing the reference anode against which inert anode voltage signals could be measured by the DSA-based or other methods. 3 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2a, Below-ground vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and the US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the below-ground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. A BGV is a reinforced concrete vault (floor, walls, and roof) placed underground below the frost line, and above the water table, surrounded by filter blanket and drainage zones and covered with a low permeability earth layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the BGV structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for seven of the eight major categories. 59 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. MESA 3-D calculations of armor penetration by projectiles with combined obliquity and yaw

    SciTech Connect

    Cagliostro, D.J.; Mandell, D.A.; Schwalbe, L.A.; Adams, T.F.; Chapyak, E.J. )

    1989-01-01

    We introduce and briefly describe MESA, a new 3-D hydrodynamic code, developed specifically for simulations of armor and anti-armor systems. The code's current capabilities an its planned model improvements and additions are discussed. An Eulerian code using state-of-the-art numerical methods, MESA runs faster and is less affected by spurious numerical diffusion than older codes. It models hydrodynamic flow and the dynamic deformation of solid materials. It uses simple elastic-perfectly plastic material strength models as well as models with strain and strainrate hardening and thermal softening. Future versions will incorporate advanced fracture models. It treats detonations in explosives using a programmed burn. The code's current capabilities are illustrated with simulations of experiments on yawed rods obliquely impacting armor plates at 1.29 km/s. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  19. Comparative study of fracture planes computed from topography and lineaments from imagery with structures and mineralization in the magnetic belt of Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Eliason, J.R.; Eliason, V.L.

    1985-04-01

    Digitally computed fracture planes for the Magnesite Belt of Washington State were obtained using a technique developed for structural geologic analysis of topography. These planes and lineaments, interpreted from aerial and satellite data sets, have been compared to mapped structures and mineralization in the area. The Magnesite Belt of Stevens County, Washington, was selected for this study because detailed joint analysis studies had been conducted in this area. These studies included measurement and analysis of over 2000 joints in the area. Computed fracture planes were used to develop a structural model for fracturing in the region. These planes clearly indicate that the region is dominated by normal faulting. Lineaments mapped in the area show a dominant North 30/sup 0/ East trend which correlates with mineralization in the region and the dominant computed longitudinal fracture plane trends. These predicted longitudinal fracture planes show a strong spatial correlation with the major magnesite mineralization. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Long-term need for new generating capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Merrill, E.T.

    1987-03-01

    Electricity demand should continue to grow at about the same rate as GNP, creating a need for large amounts of new generating capacity by the year 2000. Only coal and nuclear at this time have the abundant domestic resources and assured technology to meet this need. However, large increase in both coal and nuclear usage will not be acceptable to society without solutions to many of the problems that now deter their increased usage. For coal, the problems center around the safety and environmental impacts of increased coal mining and coal combustion. For nuclear the problems center around reactor safety, radioactive waste disposal, financial risk, and nuclear materials safeguards. The fuel requirements and waste generation for coal plants are orders of magnitude greater than for nuclear. Technology improvements and waste management practices must be pursued to mitigate environmental and safety impacts from electricity generation. 26 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  2. Automatic lighting controls demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.; Verderber, R.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate, in a real building situation, the energy and peak demand reduction capabilities of an electronically ballasted lighting control system that can utilize all types of control strategies to efficiently manage lighting. The project has demonstrated that a state-of-the-art electronically ballasted dimmable lighting system can reduce energy and lighting demand by as least 50% using various combinations of control strategies. By reducing light levels over circulation areas (tuning) and reducing after hours light levels to accommodate the less stringent lighting demands of the cleaning crew (scheduling), lighting energy consumption on weekdays was reduced an average of 54% relative to the initial condition. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Variation of {sup 222}Rn in public drinking water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.K.; York, E.L.; Hightower, J.H. III; Watson, J.E. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed regulating {sup 222}Rn in public drinking water. When implemented, the regulation will require periodic sampling to demonstrate compliance. The work reported in this paper was conducted to evaluate how reliably grab samples can be used to characterize the average {sup 222}Rn concentration in a ground-water source. Periodic samples were collected from 14 wells over sampling periods ranging from 2 to 26 mo. Samples were collected using a {open_quotes}slow-flow{close_quotes} collection method. and samples were analyzed using liquid scintillation techniques. The results reveal variation in {sup 222}Rn concentration over the study period; however, for the 1,468 samples collected from the 14 wells, approximately 97% of the measurement results were within 30% of the mean value for the well. 11 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. First observations of Trimpi events at Durban (L = 1. 69) using an OMSKI receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Friedel, R.H.W.; Hughes, A.R.W. ); Dowden, R.L.; Adams, C.D.D. )

    1993-02-01

    We report observations of transient ionospheric disturbances at VLF reflection heights, manifested as perturbations on sub-ionospherically propagating VLF transmitter signals: Trimpi events. Four VLF transmitter signals were monitored at Durban using an OM- SKI receiver. Both traditional Trimpi events and a new dome shaped event were observed at Durban. Occurrence of Trimpis at low L values can be interpreted as the precipitation of very high energy electrons which are capable of producing events during daylight, or as evidence of the fast Trimpi mechanism which could dominate at low L. The average winter event rate observed at Durban was quite low (7 per day on four transmitter signals) but during one very active period on the NAA-Durban signal 88 Trimpi events were observed in 2 hours. This activity was linked to an isolated thunderstorm occurring over the signal path over South Africa. 26 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Method and apparatus for automatically detecting patterns in digital point-ordered signals

    DOEpatents

    Brudnoy, D.M.

    1998-10-20

    The present invention is a method and system for detecting a physical feature of a test piece by detecting a pattern in a signal representing data from inspection of the test piece. The pattern is detected by automated additive decomposition of a digital point-ordered signal which represents the data. The present invention can properly handle a non-periodic signal. A physical parameter of the test piece is measured. A digital point-ordered signal representative of the measured physical parameter is generated. The digital point-ordered signal is decomposed into a baseline signal, a background noise signal, and a peaks/troughs signal. The peaks/troughs from the peaks/troughs signal are located and peaks/troughs information indicating the physical feature of the test piece is output. 14 figs.

  6. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing using multiple electrodes and with resistances being defined between the electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III

    1996-10-29

    Methods of operation are disclosed for different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information related to the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from inside the cased well. The multiple electrode apparatus have a minimum of three spaced-apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage the interior of the cased well. Measurement information is obtained related to current which is caused to flow from the cased well into the adjacent geological formation. First compensation information is obtained related to a first casing resistance between a first pair of the spaced-apart voltage measurement electrodes. Second compensation information is obtained related to a second casing resistance between a second pair of the spaced-apart voltage measurement electrodes. The measurement information, and first and second compensation information are used to determine a magnitude related to the adjacent formation resistivity. 13 figs.

  7. Self-locking threaded fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.

    1996-01-16

    A threaded fastener with a shape memory alloy (SMA) coatings on its threads is disclosed. The fastener has special usefulness in high temperature applications where high reliability is important. The SMA coated fastener is threaded into or onto a mating threaded part at room temperature to produce a fastened object. The SMA coating is distorted during the assembly. At elevated temperatures the coating tries to recover its original shape and thereby exerts locking forces on the threads. When the fastened object is returned to room temperature the locking forces dissipate. Consequently the threaded fasteners can be readily disassembled at room temperature but remains securely fastened at high temperatures. A spray technique is disclosed as a particularly useful method of coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. 13 figs.

  8. Synchronous fluorescence/matrix isolation method for trace organic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pardue, H.L.

    1987-11-01

    The primary object involved the development and evaluation of two-dimensional imaging detectors for synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy with adaptation to determination of trace amounts of organics such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's). A secondary objective was adaptation of chromatographic and matrix-isolation methods to this detection mode. The general plan was to illuminate (excite) the sample with several different wavelengths along its vertical axis and to use a polychromator at 90/sup 0/ to the excitation axis to resolve the fluorescent radiation. A two-dimensional imaging detector was used to monitor the resulting two-dimensional pattern of resolved fluorescence spectra (horizontal axis) at each of several excitation wavelengths (vertical axis). Data along one or more diagonal axes of the two-dimensional pattern were used as the synchronous fluorescence spectra at one or more wavelength differences (..delta..lambda) between excitation and emission spectra. 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.; McKay, T.A.

    1998-04-21

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD. 13 figs.

  10. Pierce-Wiggler electron beam system for 250 GHz GYRO-BWO: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkle, D.R.; Alford, C.W.; Anderson, M.H.; Garcia, R.F.; Legarra, J.R.; Nordquist, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    This final report summarizes the design and performance of the VUW-8028 Pierce-Wiggler electron beam systems, which can be used to power high frequency gyro-BWO's. The operator's manual for this gyro-BWO beamstick is included as appendix A. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing a gyro-BWO with a center frequency of 250 GHz, 6% bandwidth, and 10 kV peak output power. The gyro-BWO will be used to drive a free electron laser amplifier at LLNL. The electron beam requirements of the gyro-BWO application are: Small beam size, .100 inch at 2500 gauss axial magnetic field; a large fraction of the electron energy in rotational velocity; ability to vary the electrons' axial velocity easily, for electronic tuning; and low velocity spread i.e. little variation in the axial velocities of the electrons in the interaction region. 1 ref., 13 figs.

  11. Tubular lap joints for wind turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Guess, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A combined analytical/experimental study of the strength of thick- walled, adhesively bonded PMMA-to-aluminum and E-glass/epoxy composite-to-aluminum tubular lap joints under axial load has been conducted. Test results include strength and failure mode data. Moreover, strain gages placed along the length of the outer tubular adherend characterize load transfer from one adherend to the other. The strain gage data indicate that load transfer is nonuniform and that the relatively compliant PMMA has the shorter load transfer length. Strains determined by a finite element analysis of the tested joints are in excellent agreement with those measured. Calculated bond stresses are highest in the region of observed failure, and extensive bond yielding is predicted in the E- glass/epoxy composite-to-aluminum joint prior to joint failure. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Rapid method to detect duplex formation in sequencing by hybridization methods

    DOEpatents

    Mirzabekov, A.D.; Timofeev, E.N.; Florentiev, V.L.; Kirillov, E.V.

    1999-01-19

    A method for determining the existence of duplexes of oligonucleotide complementary molecules is provided. A plurality of immobilized oligonucleotide molecules, each of a specific length and each having a specific base sequence, is contacted with complementary, single stranded oligonucleotide molecules to form a duplex. Each duplex facilitates intercalation of a fluorescent dye between the base planes of the duplex. The invention also provides for a method for constructing oligonucleotide matrices comprising confining light sensitive fluid to a surface and exposing the light-sensitive fluid to a light pattern. This causes the fluid exposed to the light to coalesce into discrete units and adhere to the surface. This places each of the units in contact with a set of different oligonucleotide molecules so as to allow the molecules to disperse into the units. 13 figs.

  13. Research study on horizontal well drilling and in-situ remediation: Final program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

    1988-02-22

    Vacuum extraction and air-stripping are new technologies that have broad applications at sites of volatile organic contaminated soils and groundwater. These types of sites are very common across the United States. A research study to test the combined effect of both technologies in an in-situ setting is planned. Vacuum extraction has been demonstrated as an effective technique to remediate the vadose zone both at SRP and at numerous sites across the country. Air stripping has also been demonstrated as an effective technique in an above-ground setting at SRP and across the country. However, to our knowledge it has not been tested as an in-situ method. The proposed research is on the leading edge of groundwater/vadose zone remediation technology and has great potential to impact available technology in this field. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Compact self-contained electrical-to-optical converter/transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Seligmann, D.A.; Moss, W.C.; Valk, T.C.; Conder, A.D.

    1995-11-21

    A first optical receiver and a second optical receiver are provided for receiving a calibrate command and a power switching signal, respectively, from a remote processor. A third receiver is provided for receiving an analog electrical signal from a transducer. A calibrator generates a reference signal in response to the calibrate command. A combiner mixes the electrical signal with the reference signal to form a calibrated signal. A converter converts the calibrated signal to an optical signal. A transmitter transmits the optical signal to the remote processor. A primary battery supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter. An optically-activated switch supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter in response to the power switching signal. An auxiliary battery supplies power continuously to the switch. 13 figs.

  15. Human Peripheral Lung Tumours: Light and Electron Microscopic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Mollo, Franco; Canese, Maria G.; Campobasso, Onofrio

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen human peripheral lung tumours have been studied in both light and electron microscopy. They were classified as epidermoid carcinoma, mucus-secreting cell adenocarcinoma, and alveolar cell adenocarcinoma, the latter made up of granular pneumocytes. Alveolar cell cancer, as defined by ultrastructural features, could assume different gross histological patterns in light microscopy, and therefore electron microscopy is required for its identification. Since neither squamous nor mucous metaplasia was observed in any alveolar cell tumour, it is tentatively suggested that all peripheral lung tumours which lack these features may be derived from granular pneumocytes, irrespective of whether they appear to be adenocarcinomata or large cell carcinomata when examined by light microscopy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:4348471

  16. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  17. Remotely controlled sensor apparatus for use in dig-face characterization system

    DOEpatents

    Josten, N.E.; Svoboda, J.M.

    1999-05-25

    A remotely controlled sensor platform apparatus useful in a dig-face characterization system is deployed from a mobile delivery device such as standard heavy construction equipment. The sensor apparatus is designed to stabilize sensors against extraneous motions induced by heavy equipment manipulations or other outside influences, and includes a terrain sensing and sensor elevation control system to maintain the sensors in close ground proximity. The deployed sensor apparatus is particularly useful in collecting data in work environments where human access is difficult due to the presence of hazardous conditions, rough terrain, or other circumstances that prevent efficient data collection by conventional methods. Such work environments include hazardous waste sites, unexploded ordnance sites, or construction sites. Data collection in these environments by utilizing the deployed sensor apparatus is desirable in order to protect human health and safety, or to assist in planning daily operations to increase efficiency. 13 figs.

  18. Selectivity to olefins of Fe/SiO{sub 2}-MgO catalysts in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, N.G.; Alvarez, A.M.; Cagnoli, M.V.; Bengoa, J.F.

    1996-06-01

    SiO{sub 2} covered with MgO has been used as support of iron catalysts in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Catalysts of 5% (w/w) iron concentration and 2, 4, and 8% (w/w) of MgO on SiO{sub 2} were prepared. Selective chemisorption of CO, volumetric oxidation, and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to characterize the type of iron species and the metallic crystal sizes. MgO covers the SiO{sub 2} surface and modifies the metallic crystal size. The activity to total hydrocarbons increases with the amount of MgO added. An optimal concentration of about 4% (w/w) was found to have the highest selectivity to olefins. 45 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Development of creep resistant austenitic stainless steels for advanced steam cycle superheater application. [Uses of radiation effects to guide alloy development

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The compositions of several 14Cr-16Ni austenitic stainless steels were modified with combinations of minor and residual alloying elements to produce excellent creep strength based on unique precipitate microstructures. These modifications produce fine MC and phosphide precipitates in the matrix for strength and various coarser carbide phases along the grain boundaries for ductility and rupture resistance. Creep-rupture resistance of these modified 14-16 steels is much better than that of type 316 or Inconel 800H and better than that of 17-14CuMo at 700C in the mill-annealed condition. Analysis of microstructure and correlation with creep properties suggests that precipitate effects are primarily responsible for the properties improvement. The ideas and insight for design of the novel precipitate microstructures stem from microcompositional information obtained using state-of-the-art analytical electron microscopy (AEM). 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) synthesis on H-Mordenite: Gas-phase kinetics and DRIFTS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, G.; Lotero, E.; Marquez, M.

    1995-12-01

    The ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) formation between 313 and 363 K over an H-mordenite catalyst was studied in a packed-bed flow catalytic reactor at atmospheric pressure. An activation energy of 82 kJ/mol and reaction orders in isobutene and ethanol of 0.8 and -0.8 were found. In situ diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to study the state of the catalyst under reaction conditions. The IR studies, coupled with the reaction kinetics information, are consistent with the idea that the stability of the H-mordenite catalyst requires the protective action of ethanol to prevent the occurrence of isobutene oligomerization products. The high ethanol concentrations found in the zeolite pores under the temperature and pressure conditions employed is also responsible for reaction inhibition. 27 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, L.P.; Carder, B.M.; Gagnon, W.L.

    1981-03-17

    Disclosed are an apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse. 13 figs.

  2. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  3. Demonstration projects for coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas: Final report. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Verrips, A.M.; Gustavson, J.B.

    1987-04-01

    In 1979, the US Department of Energy provided the American Public Gas Association (APGA) with a grant to demonstrate the feasibility of bringing unconventional gas such as methane produced from coalbeds or Devonian Shale directly into publicly owned utility system distribution lines. In conjunction with this grant, a seven-year program was initiated where a total of sixteen wells were drilled for the purpose of providing this untapped resource to communities who distribute natural gas. While coalbed degasification ahead of coal mining was already a reality in several parts of the country, the APGA demonstration program was aimed at actual consumer use of the gas. Emphasis was therefore placed on degasification of coals with high methane gas content and on utilization of conventional oil field techniques. 13 figs.

  4. Users manual for Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program six-degree-of-freedom reentry simulation (TMAGRA6C)

    SciTech Connect

    Sharbaugh, R.C.

    1990-02-01

    This report documents the updated six-degree-of-freedom reentry simulation TMAGRA6C used in the Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program, ANSP. The simulation provides for the inclusion of the effects of ablation on the aerodynamic stability and drag of reentry bodies, specifically the General Purpose Heat Source, GPHS. The existing six-degree-of-freedom reentry body simulations (TMAGRA6A and TMAGRA6B) used in the JHU/APL Nuclear Safety Program do not include aerodynamic effects resulting from geometric changes to the configuration due to ablation from reentry flights. A wind tunnel test was conducted in 1989 to obtain the effects of ablation on the hypersonic aerodynamics of the GPHS module. The analyzed data were used to form data sets which are included herein in tabular form. These are used as incremental aerodynamic inputs in the new TMAGRA6C six-degree-of-freedom reentry simulation. 20 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Measurements of ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) loading with a ridged waveguide coupler on PLT

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.J.; Wilson, J.R.; Colestock, P.L.; Fortgang, C.M.; Hosea, J.C.; Hwang, D.Q.; Nagy, A.

    1987-11-01

    An ICRF ridged waveguide coupler has been installed on PLT for measurements of plasma loading. The coupler was partially filled with TiO/sub 2/ dielectric in order to sufficiently lower the cutoff frequency and utilized a tapered ridge for improved matching. Vacuum field measurements indicated a single propagating mode in the coupler and emphasized the importance of considering the fringing fields at the mouth of the waveguide. Low power experiments were carried out at 72.6 and 95.0 MHz without any external impedance matching network. Plasma loading increased rapidly as the face of the coupler approached the plasma, and, at fixed position, increased with line-averaged plasma density. At the lower frequency, the reflection coefficient exhibited a minimum (<8%) at a particular coupler position. At both frequencies, measurements indicated efficient power coupling to the plasma. Magnetic probe signals showed evidence of dense eigenmodes suggesting excitation of the fast wave. 24 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Sampling and analysis of diesel engine exhaust and the motor pool workplace atmosphere: Final report, (August 1, 1984-February 28, 1988)

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Jenkins, R.A.; Tomkins, B.A.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Ilgner, R.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Higgins, C.E.; Guerin, M.R.

    1988-06-01

    Diesel engine exhaust and the motor pool workplace atmosphere at four garages in Fort Carson, CO, were sampled and analyzed for organic compounds to better define the fuel related workplace atmosphere contamination to which military personnel are exposed the most frequently and at the highest concentrations. Both time averaged and time resolved samples were collected. Major organic vapor phase compounds were determined using thermal-desorption GC. Major particulate phase organic compounds were analyzed by solvent extraction and GC. PAH were measured using HPLC/GCMS. The organic composition was very complex. Concentrations of individual compounds varied over ca. an order of magnitude from location to location or at the same location over time. Although diesel engine exhaust was a major contributor to workplace atmospheric contamination, it would not be a chemically accurate surrogate for the toxicological study of the latter. 37 refs., 13 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Pyrolysis kinetics applied to prediction of oil generation in the Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.; Talukdar, S.; Burnham, A.K.; Vallejos, C.; DGSI, The Woodlands, TX; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA; INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas )

    1989-09-01

    We use chemical kinetic parameters for oil generation derived from modified Rock-Eval and Pyromat instruments, coupled with thermal history models, to predict the timing and extent of oil generation in the Maracaibo Basin of Venezuela. The vitrinite reflectance model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is used to calibrate thermal history models with measured vitrinite reflectance profiles. We examine the way differences in the kinetic parameters affect predictions of oil maturation in several parts of the basin with different thermal histories. Maturity indicators, such as H/C atomic ratio and API gravity, are compared to the calculated extent of oil generation. We use the comparison to check the accuracy of the coupled oil generation and thermal history models. 20 refs., 13 figs.

  8. A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, in the North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Holligan, P.M.; Fernandez, E.; Aiken, J.; Burkill, P.H. ); Balch, W.M. ); Boyd, P. ); Finch, M. ); Groom, S.B. ); Malin, G. ); Muller, K. )

    1993-12-01

    Coccolithophores are a diverse group of marine phytoplankton that produce external plates, or coccoliths, of calcium carbonate. They are widely distributed in all oceans except polar waters, and are the major and often dominant component of calcite of marine sediments. Their ecology and physiology are poorly known. This paper reports on the first of two cruises to investigate the productivity and biogeochemical significance of Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic. This focused on optics and air-sea gas exchange and provides the general context for more detailed analyses of the observations on the CO2 system in surface waters and on the production of organic matter and calcium carbonate by coccolithophores. 74 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, B.E.

    1998-10-13

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol. 13 figs.

  10. Search for a QGP with a TPC spectrometer, and QGP signals predicted by new event generator

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1988-12-08

    The BNL/CCNY/Johns Hopkins/Rice Collaboration has developed and successfully tested a TPC Magnetic Spectrometer to search for OGP signals produced by ion beams at AGS. Test data with 14.5 GeV/c /times/ A Oxygen ions incident on a Pb target has been obtained. These include a 78-prong nuclear interaction in the MPS magnet which was pattern recognized with an efficiency approx.75%. A cascade and plasma event generator has also been developed, the predictions of which are used to illustrate how our technique can detect possible plasma signals at AGS and RHIC. A 4..pi.. tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer has been proposed for RHIC. The new event generator predicts striking central rapidity bump QGP signals at RHIC for p, /bar p/, ..pi../sup +-/, K/sup +-/, etc., produced by 100 GeV/c /times/ A Au on Au collisions and these are presented. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Application of Fenton's reagent as a pretreatment step in biological degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, R.L.; Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1990-01-01

    Fenton's reagent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup ++}) has been used for chemical oxidation of numerous organic compounds in water treatment schemes. In this study, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) applied Fenton's treatment to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-contaminated soils. Fenton's treatment was very reactive with PAHs, causing rapid modification of the parental compounds to oxidized products and complete degradation to CO{sub 2}. This treatment was more effective on chemically reactive PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene and phenanthrene. Important parameters and conditions for Fenton's treatment of PAHs in solution and soil matrices have been identified. As much as 99% of the PAHs on soil matrices can be removed by treatment with Fenton's reagent. 28 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Characterization of low-level liquid wastes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.; Clark, B.R.; Scott, C.B.; Berry, J.B.

    1986-12-01

    This report compiles and evaluates existing data on samples taken from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Low-Level Liquid Waste (LLW) system. Although the primary focus is on the contents of the eight 50,000-gal Melton Valley Storage Tanks, data on raw LLW from the source facilities, Evaporator Service Tanks, and past operations involving the Gunite Storage Tanks are also included. A brief overview of the ORNL LLW system is provided. Methods of sample collection and analytical procedures are described. Data from each set of samples are reported and evaluated against criteria for classification of wastes. The quality and self-consistency of the data set are also discussed. Issues ranging from classifying as transuranic or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste to providing input for dose-rate calculations and evaluations of chemical compatibility with potential processing options are discussed. Remaining data voids are identified, and activities for filling those voids are recommended. 13 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. Neutron-gamma hodoscope detection of fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1989-01-01

    The neutron-gamma hodoscope has been developed to make use of two aspects of the fission process that occur during severe safety testing of nuclear reactor fuel; fission-product heating that induces realistic effects in the fuel and penetrating radiation that enables the imaging of fuel behavior. During in-pile transient reactor experiments, the radiation which escapes from the test fuel, its surrounding coolant, and a thick-walled container is detected by a large collimated array that produced cineradiographic images. Phenomena observed in hundreds of destructive experiments have included pre-failure fuel motion, cladding breach, and post-failure fuel motion. On the basis of this successful 25-year experience, application of hodoscope techniques to arms control treaty verification is now being studied. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Method for fabricating transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1997-09-02

    A method for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed. 13 figs.

  15. Contracts for dispatchable power

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.P.; Stoft, S.; Marnay, C.; Berman, D.

    1990-10-01

    Competitive bidding for electric power is maturing. Increasing numbers of utilities are soliciting proposals from private suppliers. The amount of capacity being sought is increasing, and potential suppliers appear to be abundant. Analysis of these developments still remains limited. Evidence on the behavior of this market is scarce and sketchy. The underlying economic principles that are shaping the market have not clearly been articulated. In this report we examine the economics of competitive bidding both empirically and analytically. Previous study of this market has focused on the evaluation criteria specified in Requests for Proposals (RFPs), and highly aggregated summary statistics on participation and results. We continue the examination of RFPs, but also survey the details of long term contracts that have emerged from competitive bidding. Contracts provide a new level of specific detail that has not been previously available. 68 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. A biosystem for removal of metal ions from water

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of heavy metal ions in ground and surface waters constitutes a potential health risk and is an environmental concern. Moreover, processes for the recovery of valuable metal ions are of interest. Bioaccumulation or biosorption is not only a factor in assessing the environmental risk posed by metal ions; it can also be used as a means of decontamination. A biological system for the removal and recovery of metal ions from contaminated water is reported here. Exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms, including a methanotrophic culture, are demonstrated to have superior metal binding ability, compared with other microbial cultures. This paper describes a biosorption process in which dried biomass obtained from exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms is encapsulated in porous plastic beads and is used for metal ion binding and recovery. 22 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Histology and Ultrastructure of Metaplasia of Alveolar Epithelium Following Infection of Mice and Hamsters with Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Baskerville, A.; Thomas, G.; Wood, M.; Harris, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Mice and hamsters were infected with the NWS strain of influenza virus and metaplastic changes which developed in the lungs during the healing phase were studied by histology and electron microscopy. Transformation of alveolar epithelium occurred in many animals, producing alveolar epithelialization. This was due to replacement of the normal alveolar epithelium by ciliated columnar and cuboidal cells of bronchiolar type. Squamous changes also developed in healing lungs during the 11-22 day period after infection. Since these lesions regressed later and the cells did not metastasize they were considered to be metaplastic rather than neoplastic in nature. ImagesFigs. 4-7Figs. 1-3Figs. 8-9 PMID:4835801

  18. Distribution, habitat and habits of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in the eastern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Esque, T.C.; Bury, R.B. ); Medica, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The desert tortoise is widely distributed across most of southern Nevada below 1500 meters elevation and then ranges northeast into the Arizona Strip and southwestern Utah. There are several large populations, but also many isolated groups of desert tortoises due to the rugged topography and, possibly, unsuitable soils. We suggest that the greatest threats to tortoises in the eastern Mojave Desert are with peripheral populations. Tortoises in the eastern Mojave Desert occupy a wide variety of habitats from flats and bajadas in lower elevation to rocky slopes bordering on blackbrush and juniper woodland. In winter they use shallow burrows near Las Vegas but frequent deep caves in the northeast edge of their range. Tortoises in all areas may occur in steep, rocky habitats. Climatic extremes are frequent in this region and rainfall can be spotty due to several major mountain ranges that cause rain shadows. Forage is highly variable and this species can be an opportunistic herbivore. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Local entropy generation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; White, M.D.

    1991-02-01

    Second law analysis techniques have been widely used to evaluate the sources of irreversibility in components and systems of components but the evaluation of local sources of irreversibility in thermal processes has received little attention. While analytical procedures for evaluating local entropy generation have been developed, applications have been limited to fluid flows with analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature fields. The analysis of local entropy generation can be used to evaluate more complicated flows by including entropy generation calculations in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The research documented in this report consists of incorporating local entropy generation calculations in an existing CFD code and then using the code to evaluate the distribution of thermodynamic losses in two applications: an impinging jet and a magnetic heat pump. 22 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Prompt processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-12-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann Master Equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons partition the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho and from reactions of /sup 40/Ar or /sup 40/Ca. We point out ambiguities in deducing angle-integrated energy spectra from double differential spectra. With no additional free parameters, our model successfully reproduces a large body of high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra by assuming an incoherent n-p-bremsstrahlung mechanism. 45 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Ambient Test Rig (ATR) flow studies: A laminar flow, reduced entrainment electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    Results of flow testing on a Reduced Entrainment Precipitator Ambient Test Rig are presented. The Reduced Entrainment Precipitator concept involves drawing a portion of the main precipitator flow through hollow, porous collecting plates. The purposes of flow through porous collecting plates ( side flow'') are to provide a dust layer clamping force, and to reduce turbulence with the precipitator. Achievement of these goals should reduce re-entrainment, and result in increased precipitator efficiency. The increased efficiency should be especially evident at higher precipitator main flow velocities. Flow tests conducted included pilot tube velocity traverses, smoke (turbulence) visualization, and measurements of turbulence and velocity with a (fast-response) hot-wire anemometer. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Semiconductor technology for reducing emissions and increasing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Duffin, B.; Frank, R.

    1997-12-31

    The cooperation and support of all industries are required to significantly impact a worldwide reduction in gaseous emissions that may contribute to climate change. Each industry also is striving to more efficiently utilize the resources that it consumes since this is both conservation for good citizenship and an intelligent approach to business. The semiconductor industry is also extremely concerned with these issues. However, semiconductor manufacturer`s products provide solutions for reduced emissions and increased efficiency in their industry, other industries and areas that can realize significant improvements through control technology. This paper will focus on semiconductor technologies of digital control, power switching and sensing to improve efficiency and reduce emissions in automotive, industrial, and office/home applications. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing

    DOEpatents

    Warpinski, N.R.; Steinfort, T.D.; Branagan, P.T.; Wilmer, R.H.

    1999-08-10

    An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture. 13 figs.

  4. High-temperature corrosion-resistant iron-aluminide (FeAl) alloys exhibiting improved weldability

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, P.J.; Goodwin, G.M.; Liu, C.T.

    1996-08-13

    This invention relates to improved corrosion-resistant iron-aluminide intermetallic alloys. The alloys of this invention comprise, in atomic percent, from about 30% to about 40% aluminum alloyed with from about 0.1% to about 0.5% carbon, no more than about 0.04% boron such that the atomic weight ratio of boron to carbon in the alloy is in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.08:1, from about 0.01 to about 3.5% of one or more transition metals selected from Group IVB, VB, and VIB elements and the balance iron wherein the alloy exhibits improved resistance to hot cracking during welding. 13 figs.

  5. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  6. Nonliner analysis techniques for use in the assessment of high-level waste storage tank structures

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.J.; Julyk, L.J.; Fox, G.L. ); Dyrness, A.D. )

    1991-09-01

    Reinforced concrete in combination with a steel liner has had a wide application to structures containing hazardous material. The buried double-shell waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site use this construction method. The generation and potential ignition of combustible gases within the primary tank is postulated to develop beyond-design-basis internal pressure and possible impact loading. The scope of this paper includes the illustration of analysis techniques for the assessment of these beyond-design-basis loadings. The analysis techniques include the coupling of the gas dynamics with the structural response, the treatment of reinforced concrete in regimes of inelastic behavior, and the treatment of geometric nonlinearities. The techniques and software tools presented provide a powerful nonlinear analysis capability for storage tanks. 10 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  7. CHANGE: A numerical model for three-dimensional modelling of channelized flow in rock: Theory and design

    SciTech Connect

    Billaux, D.; Long, J.C.S.; Peterson, J.E. Jr.

    1990-03-01

    A model for channelized flow in three-dimensional, random networks of fractures has been developed. In this model, the fractures are disc-shaped discontinuities in an impermeable matrix. Within each fracture, flow occurs only in a network of random channels. The channels in each fracture can be generated independently with random distributions of length, conductivity, and orientation in the fracture plane. Boundary conditions are specified on the sides of a flow region,'' and at the intersections of the channels with interior holes'' specified by the user to simulate boreholes or drifts. This code is part of a set of programs used to generate two-dimensional or three-dimensional random fracture networks, plot them, compute flow through them and analyze the results. 8 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Decontamination and decommissioning of the initial engine test facility and the IET two-inch hot-waste line

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, F.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Initial Engine Test Decommissioning Project is described in this report. The Initial Engine Test facility was constructed and operated at the National Reactor Testing Station, now known as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, to support the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program and the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power Transient test program, circa 1950 through 1960s. Due to the severe nature of these nuclear test programs, a significant amount of radioactive contamination was deposited in various portions of the Initial Engine Test Facility. Characterizations, decision analyses, and plans for decontamination and decommissioning were prepared from 1982 through 1985. Decontamination and decommissioning activities were performed in such a way that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory remains. These decontamination and decommissioning activities began in 1985 and were completed in 1987. 13 figs.

  9. Apparatus for simultaneously disreefing a centrally reefed clustered parachute system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, D.W.

    1988-06-21

    A single multi-line cutter is connected to each of a cluster of parachutes by a separate short tether line that holds the parachutes, initially reefed by closed loop reefing lines, close to one another. The closed loop reefing lines and tether lines, one from each parachute, are disposed within the cutter to be simultaneously cut by its actuation when a central line attached between the payload and the cutter is stretched upon deployment of the cluster. A pyrotechnic or electronic time delay may be included in the cutter to delay the actual simultaneous cutting of all lines until the clustered parachutes attain a measure of stability prior to being disreefed. A second set of reefing lines and second tether lines may be provided for each parachute, to enable a two-stage, separately timed, step-by-step disreefing. 13 figs.

  10. The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System: Volume 3, The GROUPR, GAMINR, and MODER modules

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, R E; Muir, D W

    1987-10-01

    The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System is a comprehensive computer code package for producing pointwise and multigroup cross sections and related quantities from ENDF/B-IV, V, or VI evaluated nuclear data. A concise description of the code system and references to the ancestors of NJOY are given in Vol. 1 of this report. This volume describes the GROUPR module, which produces multigroup neutron interaction cross sections and group-to-group production cross sections for neutrons and photons; the GAMINR module, which produces multigroup photon-interaction cross sections and group-to-group matrices; and the MODER module, which converts ENDF/B and NJOY interface files back and forth between formatted (i.e., BCD, ASCII) and binary modes and performs several associated editing functions. 34 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This is the 1989 Site Environmental Report (SER) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a government owned and contractor-operated facility. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. This report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at the WIPP during calendar year 1989. The WIPP facility will not receive waste until all concerns affecting opening the WIPP are addressed to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Energy. Therefore, this report describes the status of the preoperational activities of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance (RES) program, which are outlined in the Radiological Baseline Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTSD-TME-057). 72 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Fatigue crack growth automated testing method

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, P.W.; VanDenAvyle, J.A.; Laing, J.

    1989-06-01

    A computer controlled servo-hydraulic mechanical test system has been configured to conduct automated fatigue crack growth testing. This provides two major benefits: it allows continuous cycling of specimens without operator attention over evenings and weekends; and complex load histories, including random loading and spectrum loading, can be applied to the specimens to simulate cyclic loading of engineering structures. The software is written in MTS Multi-User Basic to control test machine output and acquire data at predetermined intervals. Compact tension specimens are cycled according to ASTM specification E647-86. Fatigue crack growth is measured via specimen compliance during the test using a compliance/crack length calibration determined earlier by visual crack length measurements. This setup was used to measure crack growth rates in 6063 aluminum alloy for a variety of cyclic loadings, including spectrum loads. Data collected compared well with tests run manually. 13 figs.

  13. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Ten human carcinoma cell lines derived from squamous carcinomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Butler, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ten cell lines of human squamous carcinomas of the tongue and larynx have been established from surgical specimens removed from 36 unselected patients, in order to provide systems for investigating the invasive and tissue-destructive capacity of squamous carcinomas of the head and neck. The morphology, ultrastructure and growth characteristics of the 10 lines are described. Detailed cytogenetic analysis of the first 4 lines indicates that each is karyotypically unique, with no evidence of cross-contamination. Nine of the 10 cell lines secrete immunoreactive beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) in the culture medium. No correlation was demonstrated between the ability of the cell lines to secrete plasminogen activator and their capacity to grow in soft agar or as xenografts in immune-deficient mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7195729

  15. Gamma-ray decomposition of PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Arbon, R.E.; Murphy, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    This program is the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) component of a joint collaborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a viable process for breaking down hazardous halogenated organic wastes to simpler, non-hazardous wastes using high energy ionizing radiation. The INEL effort focuses on the use of spent reactor fuel gamma radiation sources to decompose complex wastes such as PCBs. At LLNL, halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are being studied using accelerator radiation sources. The INEL irradiation experiments concentrated on a single PCB congener so that a limited set of decomposition reactions could be studied. The congener 2, 2{prime}, 3, 3{prime}, 4, 5{prime}, 6, 6{prime}-octachlorobiphenyl was examined following exposure to various gamma doses at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) spent fuel pool. The decomposition rates and products in several solvents. are discussed. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Gamma-ray decomposition of PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Arbon, R.E.; Murphy, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This program is the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) component of a joint collaborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a viable process for breaking down hazardous halogenated organic wastes to simpler, non-hazardous wastes using high energy ionizing radiation. The INEL effort focuses on the use of spent reactor fuel gamma radiation sources to decompose complex wastes such as PCBs. At LLNL, halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are being studied using accelerator radiation sources. The INEL irradiation experiments concentrated on a single PCB congener so that a limited set of decomposition reactions could be studied. The congener 2, 2{prime}, 3, 3{prime}, 4, 5{prime}, 6, 6{prime}-octachlorobiphenyl was examined following exposure to various gamma doses at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) spent fuel pool. The decomposition rates and products in several solvents. are discussed. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  18. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Development of real time detector for fluorescent particles

    SciTech Connect

    Prevost, C.; Vendel, J.; Seigneur, A.

    1997-08-01

    Aerosols tagged by a fluorescent dye are a worthwhile tool within the framework of ventilation and filtration studies. The detection in real time of a specific particulate tracer allows characterization of ventilation behaviour such as air change rate, the determination of a good or bad mixing zone and transfer coefficient, or the determination of the decontamination factor for High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. Generally, these tests require specific aerosols in order to get rid of the atmospheric aerosol background. Until now the principle of fluorescent aerosol concentration measuring has only allowed an integral response with a time lag by means of sampling on filters and a fluorimetric analysis after specific conditioning of these filters. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-02-09

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner`s operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs.

  1. Below regulatory concern owners group: Individual and population impacts from BRC (below regulatory concern) waste treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.S.; Rogers, V.C.

    1989-08-01

    Using the IMPACTS-BRC and PRESTO-EPA-POP codes, researchers calculated potential individual and population doses for routine and unexpected radiation exposures resulting from the transportation and disposal of BRC nuclear power plant wastes. These calculations provided a basis for establishing annual curie and radionuclide concentration limits for BRC treatment and disposal. EPRI has initiated a program to develop a petition for rulemaking to NRC that would allow management of certain very low activity nuclear power plant waste types as below regulatory concern (BRC), thus exempting these wastes from requirements for burial at licensed low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The technical information required to support the BRC petition includes an assessment of radiologic impacts resulting from the proposed exemption, based on estimated individual and population doses that might result from BRC treatment and disposal of nuclear power plant wastes. 13 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. Additive effects on the toughening of unsaturated polyester resins

    SciTech Connect

    Suspene, L.; Yang, Y.S.; Pascault, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    An elastomer additive, carboxy-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer, was used for toughening in the free radical cross-linking copolymerization of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins. For molded parts, Charpy impact behavior was generally enhanced and the number of catastrophic failures was reduced. The miscibility and interfacial properties of additive and resin blends play important roles in the toughening process. Phase-diagram studies showed that the elastomer additive is immiscible with the UP resin and is phase-separated from the resin matrix during curing. This phase-separation phenomenon is similar to that in the low-profile mechanism of UP resins. Additive-resin system miscibility greatly influences curing morphology. Microvoids occurred in the additive phase of cured resin because of shrinkage stress. The intrinsic inhomogeneity of the polyester network and the existence of microvoids in the final product limit the toughening effect of additives on unsaturated polyester resins. 49 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Synaptic endfeet in the 'acoustic nerve nucleus' of the rat. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Bolado, G; Merchán, J

    1988-01-01

    The medial portion of the cochlear nerve of the rat contains astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. These neurons form what has been called the 'acoustic nerve nucleus'. This nucleus has been studied here at the electron microscopic level. Its neurons are large and round, showing an eccentric nucleus, fibrillary bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum which is not arranged in stacks. The somata and dendrites receive synaptic endfeet which can be classified into three groups according to vesicle size and shape. In general, the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are similar to those of bushy cells as reported by other authors. The 'acoustic nerve nucleus' can be considered to be the most peripheral part of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3248967

  4. Structure and yarn sensor for fabric

    DOEpatents

    Mee, D.K.; Allgood, G.O.; Mooney, L.R.; Duncan, M.G.; Turner, J.C.; Treece, D.A.

    1998-10-20

    A structure and yarn sensor for fabric directly determines pick density in a fabric thereby allowing fabric length and velocity to be calculated from a count of the picks made by the sensor over known time intervals. The structure and yarn sensor is also capable of detecting full length woven defects and fabric. As a result, an inexpensive on-line pick (or course) density measurement can be performed which allows a loom or knitting machine to be adjusted by either manual or automatic means to maintain closer fiber density tolerances. Such a sensor apparatus dramatically reduces fabric production costs and significantly improves fabric consistency and quality for woven or knitted fabric. 13 figs.

  5. Transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-05-09

    A method is disclosed for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed. 13 figs.

  6. Phenomenological models

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, L.A.

    1990-09-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  8. Method and system for evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a mating surface of a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Telschow, K.L.; Siu, B.K.

    1996-07-09

    A method of evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a substrate includes: (a) impinging a plurality of light sources onto a substrate; (b) detecting optical reflective signatures emanating from the substrate from the impinged light; (c) determining location of a selected conductor bond on the substrate from the detected reflective signatures; (d) determining a target site on the selected conductor bond from the detected reflective signatures; (e) optically imparting an elastic wave at the target site through the selected conductor bond and into the substrate; (f) optically detecting an elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate resulting from the optically imparting step; and (g) determining integrity of adherence of the selected conductor bond to the substrate from the detected elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate. A system is disclosed which is capable of conducting the method. 13 figs.

  9. Flow and cold heat-storage characteristics of phase-change emulsion in a coiled double-tube heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, H.; Morita, S.

    1995-05-01

    This paper dealt with the flow and cold heat-storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C{sub 14}H{sub 30}, freezing point 278.9 K)/water emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. A coiled double-tube heat exchanger was used for the cold heat storage experiment. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient, and the finishing time of cold heat storage in the coiled tube were measured as experimental parameters. It was understood that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid had an important role in the present cold heat storage. The useful nondimensional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient, and the cold heat storage time were derived in terms of modified Dean number and heat capacity ratio. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Influence of combustion conditions and coal properties on physical properties of fly ash generated from pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hiromi Shirai; Hirofumi Tsuji; Michitaka Ikeda; Toshinobu Kotsuji

    2009-07-15

    To develop combustion technology for upgrading the quality of fly ash, the influences of the coal properties, such as the size of pulverized coal particles and the two-stage combustion ratio during the combustion, on the fly ash properties were investigated using our test furnace. The particle size, density, specific surface area (obtained by the Blaine method), and shape of fly ash particles of seven types of coal were measured. It was confirmed that the size of pulverized coal particles affects the size of the ash particles. Regarding the coal properties, the fuel ratio affected the ash particle size distribution. The density and shape of the ash particles strongly depended on their ash size. Our results indicated that the shape of the ash particles and the concentration of unburned carbon affected the specific surface area. The influence of the two-stage combustion ratio was limited. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Transport numbers in the surface layers of asymmetric membranes from initial time measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Compan, V.; Lopez, M.L. ); Sorensen, T.S. ); Garrido, J. )

    1994-09-08

    The initial time asymmetry potentials of two ultra filtration membranes (cellulose acetate and polysulfone membranes) were measured in electrochemical cells using Ag/AgCl electrodes and NaCl solutions. The concentration in the two electrode chambers differed slightly by a fixed concentration difference. Either the membranes were brought to equilibrium with the left-hand solution and subsequently exposed to the right-hand solution at the right-hand face, or the procedure was reversed. From such measurements it is possible to evaluate the transport numbers corresponding to each of the two surface layers of the membrane under conditions such that the effects of autoprotolysis of water and of foreign ions may be neglected. These measurements permit a description of each of the surface layers of the membranes and make possible an electrochemical characterization of the asymmetry of ultrafiltration membranes. The asymmetry is given by the difference between surface layer transport numbers. 31 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Ab initio study of {sup 13}C NMR chemical shifts for the chromophores of rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin. 2. Comprehensive analysis of the {sup 13}C chemical shifts of protonated all-trans-retinylidene Schiff base

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Minoru; Wada, Mitsuhito; Inoue, Yoshio; Tamura, Yusuke; Watanabe, Yoichi

    1996-02-01

    Theoretical analysis was performed for the {sup 13}C chemical shifts of the retinal chromophore in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) by means of ab initio NMR shielding calculation, based on the localized orbital/ local origin method. In order to comprehensively investigate the correlation between the {sup 13}C chemical shieldings of the unsaturated carbons and physicochemical perturbations relating to the spectral tuning of bacteriorhodopsin, the following three factors are taken into account in the present calculation: (1) change in strength of the hydrogen bonding between protonated retinylidene Schiff base and its counterion, (2) conformational changes about single bonds of the conjugated chain, and (3) electrostatic interactions between the Schiff base and electric dipoles. On the basis of these calculations, we successfully find a molecular model for which the shielding calculation almost completely reproduces the observed chemical shift data for the chromophore of bR. 47 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Impact of new regulations on training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Copenhaver, E.D.

    1987-09-01

    Safety and health training is creating a complex and overlapping training environment for all DOE contractors. Requirements stem from a variety of Federal and state regulations such as those from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act (SARA, whose training requirements are carried out by OSHA), Hazard Communication Act, and several substance-specific laws. The training requirements of these regulations and the trends toward overlapping the requirements of several laws are reviewed. Environment, safety and health training is offered by the technical staff members in the relevant disciplines and by our multi-discipline training group at ORNL. We are increasing our coordination of all such efforts to develop a more orderly overall program. We identified a team to work toward coordination of required technical training in environment, safety, and health by listing key opportunities for technical training modules and cross-qualification. The strategy for developing the training matrix is outlined. 13 figs.

  14. Numerical forecasting of radiation fog. Part I: Numerical model and sensitivity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bergot, T.; Guedalia, D. )

    1994-06-01

    To improve the forecast of dense radiative fogs, a method has been developed using a one-dimensional model of the nocturnal boundary layer forced by the mesoscale fields provided by a 3D limited-area operational model. The 1D model involves a treatment of soil-atmosphere exchanges and a parameterization of turbulence in stable layers in order to correctly simulate the nocturnal atmospheric cooling. Various sensitivity tests have been carried out to evaluate the influence of the main input parameters of the model (geostrophic wind, horizontal advections, cloud cover, soil moisture, etc.) on the predicted fog characteristics. The principal result concerns the difficulty of obtaining accurate forecasts in the case of fog appearing in the middle or at the end of the night, when the local atmospheric cooling is weak. 33 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Effects of long-term thermal aging on the tensile and creep properties of commercially heat-treated alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    Alloy 718 is a structure material widely used in elevated-temperature applications. In particular, it was extensively used in the design of the upper internal system and control rod drive line of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Its popularity is due to several excellent behavioral features, including high creep and creep-rupture strength, good oxidation resistance, and exceptional high-cycle fatigue strength. However, alloy 718 is extremely complex, and its microstructure can be significantly modified by thermal treatment. The stability of the alloy in long-term elevated-temperature service is therefore a substantial concern in any such application. This report presents tensile and creep data obtained on three heats of alloy 718 after thermal aging for up to 27,000 h from 593 to 76{degree}C. Implications of these results in terms of long-term stability of the alloy are discussed. 5 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Creep and creep-rupture behavior of Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, C.R.; Booker, M.K.; Ding, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Data obtained from creep and creep-rupture tests conducted on 18 heats of Alloy 718 were used to formulate models for predicting high temperature time dependent behavior of this alloy. Creep tests were conducted on specimens taken from a number of commercial product forms including plate, bar, and forgoing material that had been procured and heat treated in accordance with ASTM specifications B-670 or B-637. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 427 to 760{degree}C ad at test times to about 87,000 h. Comparisons are given between experimental data and the analytical models. The analytical models for creep-rupture included one based on lot-centering regression analysis and two based on the Minimum Commitment Method. A master'' curve approach was used to develop and equation for estimating creep deformation up to the onset of tertiary creep. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Method for testing the strength and structural integrity of nuclear fuel particles

    DOEpatents

    Lessing, P.A.

    1995-10-17

    An accurate method for testing the strength of nuclear fuel particles is disclosed. Each particle includes an upper and lower portion, and is placed within a testing apparatus having upper and lower compression members. The upper compression member includes a depression therein which is circular and sized to receive only part of the upper portion of the particle. The lower compression member also includes a similar depression. The compression members are parallel to each other with the depressions therein being axially aligned. The fuel particle is then placed between the compression members and engaged within the depressions. The particle is then compressed between the compression members until it fractures. The amount of force needed to fracture the particle is thereafter recorded. This technique allows a broader distribution of forces and provides more accurate results compared with systems which distribute forces at singular points on the particle. 13 figs.

  18. Noise suppressing capillary separation system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Xue, Y.

    1996-07-30

    A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans. 13 figs.

  19. Selection of support structure materials for irradiation experiments in the HFIR (High Flux Isotope Reactor) at temperatures up to 500 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, K.; Longest, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    The key factor in the design of capsules for irradiation of test specimens in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at preselected temperatures up to 500{degree}C utilizing nuclear heating is a narrow gas-filled gap which surrounds the specimens and controls the transfer of heat from the specimens through the wall of a containment tube to the reactor cooling water. Maintenance of this gap to close tolerances is dependent on the characteristics of the materials used to support the specimens and isolate them from the water. These support structure materials must have low nuclear heating rates, high thermal conductivities, and good dimensional stabilities under irradiation. These conditions are satisfied by certain aluminum alloys. One of these alloys, a powder metallurgy product containing a fine dispersion of aluminum oxide, is no longer manufactured. A new alloys of this type, with the trade name DISPAL, is determined to be a suitable substitute. 23 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Using similarity theory to parameterize mesoscale heat fluxes generated by subgrid-scale landscape discontinuities in GCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, B.H.; Avissar, R.; Abramopoulos, F.

    1995-04-01

    Similarity theory was used to develop a parameterization of mesoscale heat fluxes induced by landscape discontinuities for large-scale atmospheric models (e.g., general circulation models). For this purpose, Buckingham Pi theory, a systematic method for performing dimensional analysis, was used to derive a set of dimensionless groups, which describes the large-scale atmospheric background conditions, the spatial variability of surface sensible heat flux, and the characteristic structure of the landscape. These dimensionless groups were used to calculate the coefficients of a fourth-order Chebyshev polynomial, which represents the vertical profiles of dimensionless mesoscale heat fluxes obtained for a broad range of large-scale atmospheric conditions and different landscapes. The numerous three-dimensional numerical experiments performed to evaluate this similarity relationship suggest that the parameterization is quite robust. 42 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Glueballs of QCD and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    There are two methods discussed by which glueballs might be found. In the first, an OZI suppressed channel with variable mass is used, such as the reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. phi phi n. The breakdown of the OZI suppression is the glueball signal. The OZI suppression is a filter letting glueballs pass while strongly rejecting conventional hadronic states. The other method is to look in a channel enriched in gluons such as the radiative decay of the J/psi and search for new phenomena, such as the iota(1440), the theta(1640), and the zeta(2220). It is anticipated that the next step in nested gauge-gauge groups might be some new strong color interaction conceptually similar to hypercolor, technicolor, or extended technicolor. 43 refs., 13 figs. (LEW)

  2. Heating of solid earthen material, measuring moisture and resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Heath, W.O.; Richardson, R.L.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-07-19

    The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile contaminants. Six electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a substantially equilateral hexagonal arrangement. Six phases of voltages are applied to corresponding electrodes. The voltages are adjusted within a first range of voltages to create multiple current paths between pairs of the electrodes. The current paths are evenly distributed throughout the region defined by the electrodes and therefore uniformly heat the region. The region of earthen material is heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants by promoting microbial action. This temperature is less than a melting temperature of the earthen material. 13 figs.

  3. Preparation and analyses of low-rank coals for combustion applications. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1985-March 31, 1985. [Physical and chemical cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Maas, D.J.

    1985-04-30

    This report covers the second quarter of activity on an 18-month project to prepare low-rank coal (LRC) fuel for research applications in DOE advanced combustion technologies programs. Coals from five mines were characterized by physical and chemical cleaning and hot water drying amenability tests. Subbituminous coal from the Eagle Butte Mine was selected from the five for future use as feed stock for production of bulk lots of low ash and low sodium LRC and LRC slurry fuels. The amenability tests indicated that a combination of physical and chemical cleaning would produce a fuel containing 1.36% ash, 8 ppM Na/sub 2/O and 18 ppM K/sub 2/O from the Eagle Butte coal on a dry basis. A micronized slurry loading of 57.5% coal was projected for the hot-water dried coal. 8 refs., 13 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. US Department of Energy Portsmouth Site annual environmental report summary for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, C.M.

    1996-03-01

    This pamphlet contains summaries of the environmental programs at the Portsmouth site, including environmental monitoring and results and the impact of plant operations on the environment and the public for 1994. More detailed information on the material summarized in this pamphlet is available in the {ital Portsmouth Site Annual Environmental Report for 1994}. The data used to compile the site annual environment report and this summary pamphlet are published in the {ital Portsmouth Site Annual Environmental Data for 1994}, which is a collection of tables containing effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and dose calculation data for 1994. To obtain copies of any of these documents, contact: Environmental Management, P.O. Box 628, Building X7725, MS-7556, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, OH 45661 (Telephone: 614-897-3603). 13 figs.

  5. Temperature dependent steady state and picosecond kinetic fluorescence measurements of a photosystem I preparation from spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerji, I.; Sauer, K.

    1988-08-01

    The fluorescence properties of a photosystem I (PSI) preparation from spinach containing approximately 200 chlorophyll (Chl) per reaction center were investigated. The preparation, characterized both spectroscopically and biochemically, contained the peripheral light harvesting antenna associated with PSI. In this study steady state fluorescence measurements were performed as a function of temperature. An emission maximum at 690 nm and a long wavelength shoulder from 710 to 740 nm were observed. The fluorescence yield at 690 nm is temperature independent, while the yield of the long wavelength shoulder increases dramatically with decreasing temperature. Additionally, kinetic measurements using the technique of single photon counting were done at room temperature and 77K. At 295K a four component fit was needed to describe the fluorescence decay; whereas at 77K, an additional 40-50 ps rise component indicative of fluorescence induction was necessary. 28 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  7. Trade studies of plasma elongation for next-step tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.D.; Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-09-01

    The effect of elongation on minimum-cost devices is investigated for elongations ranging from 2 to 3. The analysis, carried out with the TETRA tokamak systems code, includes the effects of elongation on both physics (plasma beta limit) and engineering (poloidal field coil currents) issues. When ignition is required, the minimum cost occurs for elongations from 2.3 to 2.9, depending on the plasma energy confinement scaling used. Scalings that include favorable plasma current dependence and/or degradation with fusion power tend to have minimum cost at higher elongation (2.5-2.9); scalings that depend primarily on size result in lower elongation (/approximately/2.3) for minimum cost. For design concepts that include steady-state current-driven operation, minimum cost occurs at an elongation of 2.3. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Thermodynamics of natural and industrial waters

    SciTech Connect

    Pitzer, K.S.

    1991-08-01

    The most effective general formulations of thermodynamic equations for multicomponent aqueous solutions are discussed with respect to various ranges of temperature, pressure and composition with emphasis on solutes important in natural or industrial waters. A familiar equation in molality and in excess Gibbs energy is very successful up to 300{degree}C and ionic strength 6 mol{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}, and can often be extended to 350{degree}C or above at high pressure and in favorable cases to ionic strength 12 or even 20. Alternate methods valid to higher solute compositions, even to pure fused salts, are described. A more difficult situation arises near the critical point of water where the compressibility becomes infinite and a Helmholtz energy basis must be adopted. Existing equations for this range and still higher temperatures and pressures are considered and possible improvements discussed. 85 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Nonlinear modeling of chaotic time series: Theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Casdagli, M.; Eubank, S.; Farmer, J.D.; Gibson, J. Santa Fe Inst., NM ); Des Jardins, D.; Hunter, N.; Theiler, J. )

    1990-01-01

    We review recent developments in the modeling and prediction of nonlinear time series. In some cases apparent randomness in time series may be due to chaotic behavior of a nonlinear but deterministic system. In such cases it is possible to exploit the determinism to make short term forecasts that are much more accurate than one could make from a linear stochastic model. This is done by first reconstructing a state space, and then using nonlinear function approximation methods to create a dynamical model. Nonlinear models are valuable not only as short term forecasters, but also as diagnostic tools for identifying and quantifying low-dimensional chaotic behavior. During the past few years methods for nonlinear modeling have developed rapidly, and have already led to several applications where nonlinear models motivated by chaotic dynamics provide superior predictions to linear models. These applications include prediction of fluid flows, sunspots, mechanical vibrations, ice ages, measles epidemics and human speech. 162 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Energy conservation study on Simplot potato processing plant, Heyburn, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an energy study done at the Simplot potato processing plant in Heyburn, Idaho. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant but does not address specific modifications to process equipment. The plant receives raw potatoes and produces a mixture of pre-fried and frozen potato products including french fries and pre-formed patties, a dehydrated frozen product, starch, and processes and ships raw potatoes. The plant also contains a box line that makes cardboard cartons for all Simplot plants. The plant contains all necessary equipment and processes to produce a finished product and has long-term cold storage. 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-10-04

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  12. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  13. Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program: Recent developments in crack initiation and arrest research

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Technology for the analysis of crack initiation and arrest is central to the reactor pressure vessel fracture-margin-assessment process. Regulatory procedures for nuclear plants utilize this technology to assure the retention of adequate fracture-prevention margins throughout the plant operating license period. As nuclear plants age and regulatory procedures dictate that fracture-margin assessments be performed, interest in the fracture-mechanics technology incorporated into those procedures has heightened. This has led to proposals from a number of sources for development and refinement of the underlying crack-initiation and arrest-analysis technology. This paper presents an overview of ongoing Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program research aimed at refining the fracture toughness data used in the analysis of fracture margins under pressurized-thermal-shock loading conditions. 33 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Development of pixel detectors for SSC vertex tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G. . Electro-Optical and Data Systems Group); Atlas, E.L.; Augustine, F.; Barken, O.; Collins, T.; Marking, W.L.; Worley, S.; Yacoub, G.Y. ) Shapiro, S.L. ); Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G. . Space Sciences Lab.); Nygren,

    1991-04-01

    A description of hybrid PIN diode arrays and a readout architecture for their use as a vertex detector in the SSC environment is presented. Test results obtained with arrays having 256 {times} 256 pixels, each 30 {mu}m square, are also presented. The development of a custom readout for the SSC will be discussed, which supports a mechanism for time stamping hit pixels, storing their xy coordinates, and storing the analog information within the pixel. The peripheral logic located on the array, permits the selection of those pixels containing interesting data and their coordinates to be selectively read out. This same logic also resolves ambiguous pixel ghost locations and controls the pixel neighbor read out necessary to achieve high spatial resolution. The thermal design of the vertex tracker and the proposed signal processing architecture will also be discussed. 5 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Computer controlled fluorometer device and method of operating same

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1990-07-17

    A computer controlled fluorometer device and method of operating same, said device being made to include a pump flash source and a probe flash source and one or more sample chambers in combination with a light condenser lens system and associated filters and reflectors and collimators, as well as signal conditioning and monitoring means and a programmable computer means and a software programmable source of background irradiance that is operable according to the method of the invention to rapidly, efficiently and accurately measure photosynthetic activity by precisely monitoring and recording changes in fluorescence yield produced by a controlled series of predetermined cycles of probe and pump flashes from the respective probe and pump sources that are controlled by the computer means. 13 figs.

  16. On the ultrastructure of the canine mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Sinowatz, S; Wrobel, K H; El Etreby, M F; Sinowatz, F

    1980-01-01

    During pregnancy and lactation marked changes are observed in the fine structure of the secretory cells in the Beagle mammary gland: especially pronounced are differences in cellular height, shape and size of the nuclei and distribution of mitochondria. In later stages of pregnancy a proceeding development of those cellular organelles involved in synthesis and extrusion of secretory material (i.e. rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus) can be observed. Myoepithelial cells which can be first discerned from secretory cells by ultrastructural features from day 40 on show only minor variations of their ultrastructure during pregnancy and lactation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-13 Fig. 14 PMID:7462099

  17. Thermoacoustic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Moss, W.C.

    1997-10-07

    A thermoacoustic device is described having a thermal stack made from a piece of porous material which provides a desirable ratio of thermoacoustic area to viscous area, which has a low resistance to flow, which minimizes acoustic streaming and which has a high specific heat and low thermal conductivity. The thermal stack is easy and cheap to form and it can be formed in small sizes. Specifically, in one embodiment, a thermal stack which is formed by the natural structure of a porous material such as reticulated vitreous carbon is disclosed. The thermal stack is formed by machining a block of reticulated vitreous carbon into the required shape of the thermal stack. In a second embodiment, a micro-thermoacoustic device is disclosed which includes a thermal stack made of a piece of porous material such as reticulated vitreous carbon. In another embodiment, a heat exchanger is disclosed which is formed of a block of heat conductive open cell foam material. 13 figs.

  18. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  19. Pathogenic regulation of running water macroinvertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, K.W.; Wilzbach, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The research during the second year focused on a large scale laboratory and field experiment on factors regulating growth and mortality of populations of the stream shredder caddisfly {ital Pycnopsyche guttifer}. This species, which is an obligate shredder feeding on leaf litter in woodland streams during its autumn-winter growth period, was selected because of the extensive pool of background data that are available, the ease with which its terrestrial eggs can be collected, and its suitability for laboratory culture and field observations. The species is univoltine and it is widely distributed in the eastern US, but did not occur naturally in the specific stream, Piney Run, MD, into which a population was introduced. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  20. LLUVIA: A program for one-dimensional, steady-state flow through partially saturated porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, P.L.; Eaton, R.R.

    1990-05-01

    LLUVIA is a program designed for the efficient solution of one- dimensional, steady flow through multiple layers of saturated or partially saturated, fractured, porous media. The original intent of the code was to provide initial pressure conditions to two- dimensional, finite element codes. LLUVIA's capabilities were expanded to meet the needs of analyses in the performance assessment of a proposed, high-level nuclear waste repository. The code is based on an adaptive solution method for Darcy's equation and is structured to accommodate user-defined models for hydraulic conductivity and saturation. Program structure, code input, and output are intended to facilitate the interfacing of LLUVIA with graphical and/or statistical software packages. This document describes the flow problem of interest, the solution procedure employed, and the content and content and format of all user-supplied information. A sample problem is also included. 8 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Force reconstruction using the inverse of the mode-shape matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Bateman, V.I.; Dohrman, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Force reconstruction is a process in which response signals from a dynamic event are used to infer what the applied force must have been to produce these responses. Force reconstruction is of interest when the input force cannot be directly measured, while the response signals are easily obtained using transducers such as accelerometers or strain gages. In many evaluation tests of a structure, the dynamic response is not sufficient information; one may really need a description of the input force. A new technique for force reconstruction is developed. To estimate the externally applied force, this technique sums the weight-scaled acceleration signals, and is referred to as the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). To obtain the scalar weights the inverse of the mode shape matrix is used. Application of this technique is illustrated with both numerical calculations using a mass-spring model and experimental data from a structure impacting a rigid barrier. 16 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Shielded helix traveling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    DOEpatents

    Norris, N.J.; Hudson, C.L.

    1992-12-15

    Various embodiments of a helical coil deflection structure of a CRT are described and illustrated which provide shielding between adjacent turns of the coil on either three or four sides of each turn in the coil. Threaded members formed with either male or female threads and having the same pitch as the deflection coil are utilized for shielding the deflection coil with each turn of the helical coil placed between adjacent threads which act to shield each coil turn from adjacent turns and to confine the field generated by the coil to prevent or inhibit cross-coupling between adjacent turns of the coil to thereby prevent generation of fast fields which might otherwise deflect the beam out of time synchronization with the electron beam pulse. 13 figs.

  3. Automatic volume calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, A.J.; Aaron, C.C.

    1985-05-06

    The Automatic Volume Calibration System presently consists of three independent volume-measurement subsystems and can possibly be expanded to five subsystems. When completed, the system will manually or automatically perform the sequence of valve-control and data-acquisition operations required to measure given volumes. An LSI-11 minicomputer controls the vacuum and pressure sources and controls solenoid control valves to open and close various volumes. The input data are obtained from numerous displacement, temperature, and pressure sensors read by the LSI-11. The LSI-11 calculates the unknown volume from the data acquired during the sequence of valve operations. The results, based on the Ideal Gas Law, also provide information for feedback and control. This paper describes the volume calibration system, its subsystems, and the integration of the various instrumentation used in the system's design and development. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Process for recovering pertechnetate ions from an aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1997-02-18

    A solid/liquid process for the separation and recovery of TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}1} ions from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid support comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups; whereas the aqueous solution from which the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}1} ions are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved salt. A solid/liquid phase admixture of separation particles containing bound TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}1} ions in such an aqueous solution that is free from MoO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} ions is also contemplated, as is a chromatography apparatus containing that solid/liquid phase admixture. 15 figs.

  5. Preconceptual design of the new production reactor circulator test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.

    1990-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study of a new circulator test facility for the New Production Reactor Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. The report addresses the preconceptual design of a stand-alone test facility with all the required equipment to test the Main Circulator/shutoff valve and Shutdown Cooling Circulator/shutoff valve. Each type of circulator will be tested in its own full flow, full power helium test loop. Testing will cover the entire operating range of each unit. The loop will include a test vessel, in which the circulator/valve will be mounted, and external piping. The external flow piping will include a throttle valve, flowmeter, and heat exchanger. Subsystems will include helium handling, helium purification, and cooling water. A computer-based data acquisition and control system will be provided. The estimated costs for the design and construction of this facility are included. 2 refs., 15 figs.

  6. Investigation on the continued production of the Naval Petroleum Reserves beyond April 5, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The authority to produce the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPRs) is due to expire in April 1991, unless extended by Presidential finding. As provided in the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258), the President may continue production of the NPRs for a period of up to three years following the submission to Congress, at least 180 days prior to the expiration of the current production period, of a report that determines that continued production of the NPRs is necessary and a finding by the President that continued production is in the national interest. This report assesses the need to continue production of the NPRs, including analyzing the benefits and costs of extending production or returning to the shut-in status that existed prior to 1976. This continued production study considers strategic, economic, and energy issues at the local, regional, and national levels. 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Surface treatment of ceramic articles

    DOEpatents

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, C.S.

    1998-12-22

    A process is disclosed for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article. 15 figs.

  8. Emulating multitasking system calls for a multicluster machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchinsky, A.

    1986-05-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe an implementation of an emulator which provides primitives for the creation and control of multiple tasks within a single program. The introduction reviews the Cedar architecture, and the notion of processor clusters, which this emulator is aimed at. Next, we describe the function of each primitive and give some examples of programs issuing calls to the emulator. Then we describe the implementation details of the emulator and give an outline of the compilation-link-emulation process. We also look at some algorithms for making the emulator generate timing and utilization statistics for the multiple cluster machine. Finally, we explain how the emulator's primitives interface with other library systems written for Fortran support. 15 refs., 15 figs.

  9. User's guide to a data base of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Defferding, J.; Chapman, E.G.; Bettinson, M.D.; Glantz, C.S.

    1987-11-01

    This document describes how to use a data base of current transboundary region environmental monitoring projects. The data base was prepared from data provided by Glantz et al. (1986) and Concord Scientific Corporation (1985), and contains information on 226 projects with monitoring stations located within 400 km (250 mi) of the US-Canadian border. The data base is designed for use with the dBASE III PLUS data management systems on IBM-compatible personal computers. Data-base searches are best accomplished using an accompanying command file called RETRIEVE or the dBASE command LIST. The user must carefully select the substrings on which the search is to be based. Example search requests and subsequent output are presented to illustrate substring selections and applications of the data base. 4 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, W.C.; Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Florida State University is investigating the concept of pulsed electron beams for fly ash precipitation. This report describes the results and data on three of the subtasks of this project and preliminary work only on the remaining five subtasks. Described are the modification of precharger for pulsed and DC energization of anode; installation of the Q/A measurement system; and modification and installation of pulsed power supply to provide both pulsed and DC energization of the anode. The other tasks include: measurement of the removal efficiency for monodisperse simulated fly ash particles; measurement of particle charge; optimization of pulse energization schedule for maximum removal efficiency; practical assessment of results; and measurement of the removal efficiency for polydisperse test particles. 15 figs., 1 tab. (CK)

  11. Apparatus for in situ heating and vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Buelt, J.L.; Oma, K.H.; Eschbach, E.A.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus for decontaminating ground areas where toxic chemicals are buried includes a plurality of spaced electrodes located in the ground and to which a voltage is applied for bringing about current flow. Power delivered to the ground volatilizes the chemicals that are then collected and directed to a gas treatment system. A preferred form of the invention employs high voltage arc discharge between the electrodes for heating a ground region to relatively high temperatures at relatively low power levels. Electrodes according to the present invention are provided with preferentially active lower portions between which current flows for the purpose of soil heating or for soil melting and vitrification. Promoting current flow below ground level avoids predominantly superficial treatment and increases electrode life. 15 figs.

  12. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

    1995-08-29

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

  13. Flexture plate motion-transfer mechanism, beam-splitter assembly, and interferometer incorporating the same

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, R.M.; Dettori, M.D.; Grigely, L.J.; Murray, T.C.; Solomon, P.R.; Dine, C.P. Van; Wright, D.D.

    1996-01-23

    A multiplicity of one-piece flexure plates are assembled in pairs to provide a support system on which a retroreflector may be mounted for reciprocal motion. Combined with balance bodies, the flexure plates provide a support system having portions that are dynamically and statically balanced with one another, irrespective of orientation, so as to thereby immunize the unit against extraneous forces. The motion transfer assembly is especially adapted for use to support a moving retroreflector in a two-arm interferometer that may further include a beamsplitter assembly constructed from a one-piece, integrally formed body, the body having convergent, optically flat planar surfaces of specular reflectance, and means for adjustably mounting a beamsplitter therein. The spectrometer is of modular construction, and employs an integrated clocking sub-assembly as well as a light-weight voice-coil motor. 15 figs.

  14. Fuel consolidation demonstration program: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    EPRI, Northeast Utilities, Baltimore Gas and Electric, the US Department of Energy and Combustion Engineering are engaged in a program to develop a system for consolidating spent fuel and a method of storing the consolidated fuel in the spent fuel storage pool which is licensable by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Fuel consolidation offers a means of substantially increasing the capacity of spent fuel storage pools. This is a final report of the Fuel Consolidation Demonstration Program. It provides a review of the overall program, a summary of the results obtained, the lessons learned, and an assessment of the present status of the consolidation system developed in the program. 7 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Graphite for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Fuller, E.L.; Romanoski, G.R.; Strizak, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite finds applications in both fission and fusion reactors. Fission reactors harness the energy liberated when heavy elements, such as uranium or plutonium, fragment or fission''. Reactors of this type have existed for nearly 50 years. The first nuclear fission reactor, Chicago Pile No. 1, was constructed of graphite under a football stand at Stagg Field, University of Chicago. Fusion energy devices will produce power by utilizing the energy produced when isotopes of the element hydrogen are fused together to form helium, the same reaction that powers our sun. The role of graphite is very different in these two reactor systems. Here we summarize the function of the graphite in fission and fusion reactors, detailing the reasons for their selection and discussing some of the challenges associated with their application in nuclear fission and fusion reactors. 10 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The EGS4 Code System: Solution of Gamma-ray and Electron Transport Problems

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Nelson, W. R.; Namito, Yoshihito

    1990-03-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the EGS4 Code System -- a general purpose package for the Monte Carlo simulation of the transport of electrons and photons. During the last 10-15 years EGS has been widely used to design accelerators and detectors for high-energy physics. More recently the code has been found to be of tremendous use in medical radiation physics and dosimetry. The problem-solving capabilities of EGS4 will be demonstrated by means of a variety of practical examples. To facilitate this review, we will take advantage of a new add-on package, called SHOWGRAF, to display particle trajectories in complicated geometries. These are shown as 2-D laser pictures in the written paper and as photographic slides of a 3-D high-resolution color monitor during the oral presentation. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  17. Diagenesis and fluid evolution of deeply buried Permian (Rotliegende) gas reservoirs, Northwest Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Gaupp, R. ); Matter, A.; Ramseyer, K.; Platt, J. ); Walzebuck, J. )

    1993-07-01

    Depositional environment and tectonic setting were important in the diagenesis and evolution of reservoir properties in the Rotliegende sequence of the North German Basin. Facies belts paralleling the edge of a central saline lake controlled the distribution of early and shallow burial cements. Lake shoreline sands with radial chlorite cement show the best reservoir properties in the study area. Juxtaposition of Rotliegende deposits against either Carboniferous Coal Measures or Late Permian (Zechstein) evaporites by faulting resulted in cross-formational fluid exchange. The introduction of fluids from Carboniferous Coal Measures into Rotliegende reservoirs produced intense clay cementation, significantly reducing rock permeabilities. Influx of Zechstein fluids favored precipitation of late carbonate and anhydrite cements. Cross-formational and fault-related fluid flow was enhanced during periods of fault activity. 50 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in the John Day Pool. 1982 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Gerard A.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1984-03-01

    This study was initiated to determine the extent of predation by resident populations of native and introduced fish on juvenile salmonids in main stem Columbia River Reservoirs. The John Day Reservoir and tailrace was selected as the study area. First year objectives were: (1) determine whether native and introduced predators preyed on juvenile salmonids; (2) determine which species were major predators; and (3) locate areas where predation was most intense. Results indicated that juvenile salmonids were consumed by all four predatory fish species studied: northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, degree of predation varied among predators as a function of spatial distribution, apparent abundance, size, and temporal feeding behavior. 15 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Silicon PIN diode hybrid arrays for charged particle detection: Building blocks for vertex detectors at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.; Gaalema, S.; Shapiro, S.L.; Dunwoodie, W.M.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.

    1989-05-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of solid state detectors have long been used in visible and infrared systems. Hybrid arrays with separately optimized detector and readout substrates have been extensively developed for infrared sensors. The characteristics and use of these infrared readout chips with silicon PIN diode arrays produced by MICRON SEMICONDUCTOR for detecting high-energy particles are reported. Some of these arrays have been produced in formats as large as 512 /times/ 512 pixels; others have been radiation hardened to total dose levels beyond 1 Mrad. Data generation rates of 380 megasamples/second have been achieved. Analog and digital signal transmission and processing techniques have also been developed to accept and reduce these high data rates. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Method and apparatus for determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, J.B.; Honeycutt, T.K.; Hubbell, J.M.

    1996-05-28

    An earthen material hydraulic conductivity determining apparatus includes: (a) a semipermeable membrane having a fore earthen material bearing surface and an opposing rear liquid receiving surface; (b) a pump in fluid communication with the semipermeable membrane rear surface, the pump being capable of delivering liquid to the membrane rear surface at a plurality of selected variable flow rates or at a plurality of selected variable pressures; (c) a liquid reservoir in fluid communication with the pump, the liquid reservoir retaining a liquid for pumping to the membrane rear surface; and (d) a pressure sensor in fluid communication with the membrane rear surface to measure pressure of liquid delivered to the membrane by the pump. Preferably, the pump comprises a pair of longitudinally opposed and aligned syringes which are operable to simultaneously fill one syringe while emptying the other. Methods of determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material are also disclosed. 15 figs.

  2. Commercial cool storage laboratory test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1990-06-01

    Many utilities have identified cool storage in commercial buildings as one of their most attractive load-management options. Widespread adoption of this technology can be enhanced by greater certainty about the performance of cool storage systems and the resolution of relevant technical issues. To address these issues, cool storage equipment manufacturers, architects, designers, and engineers experienced in cool storage implementation recommended a program of laboratory testing to identify design deficiencies, document performance, and provide improved cool storage installation and design guidelines. The Ice Storage Test Facility was designed to address these issues through a thorough testing program independent of the manufacturers. Test procedures presented in this document are aimed at answering all out-standing performance issues. 1 ref., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Fix, J.J.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Leonowich, J.A.; Palmer, H.E.; Sula, M.J.

    1989-06-01

    The report documents the performance of certain radiological protection sitewide services during calendar year (CY) 1988 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and contractor activities on the Hanford Site. The routine program for each service is discussed along with any significant program changes and tasks, investigations, and studies performed in support of each program. Other related activities such as publications, presentations, and memberships on standard or industry committees are also listed. The programs covered provide services in the areas of (1) internal dosimetry, (2) in vivo measurements, (3) external dosimetry, (4) instrument calibration and evaluation, (5) calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (formerly the National Bureau of Standards), and (6) radiological records. 23 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Simulation of Z boson production at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Ascher, D.

    1990-05-14

    This thesis presents the results of some of the author's work in the High Energy Physics Group at Brown University, work done within the framework of the D0 collaboration at the Fermilab National particle accelerator. To allow a broader audience an easier understanding of the experimental data presented, a brief review of the relevant areas of Particle Physics precedes the description of the experimental setup and results. Monte Carlo simulations of Z boson production at the D0 experiment were made to allow for precise predictions of expected data at the accelerator when construction reaches completion. The specific work that was executed is presented in detail, from the point of view of experimental high energy research, followed by comments on the results obtained and on possible future directions. 4 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Particle bed reactor propulsion vehicle performance and characteristics as an orbital transfer rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Lazareth, O.W.

    1986-01-01

    The particle bed reactor designed for 100 to 300 MW power output using hydrogen as a coolant is capable of specific impulses up to 1000 seconds as a nuclear rocket. A single space shuttle compatible vehicle can perform extensive missions from LEO to 3 times GEO and return with multi-ton payloads. The use of hydrogen to directly cool particulate reactor fuel results in a compact, lightweight rocket vehicle, whose duration of usefulness is dependent only upon hydrogen resupply availability. The LEO to GEO mission had a payload capability of 15.4 metric tons with 3.4 meters of shuttle bay. To increase the volume limitation of the shuttle bay, the use of ammonia in the initial boost phase from LEO is used to give greater payload volume with a small decrease in payload mass, 8.7 meters and 12.7 m-tons. 5 refs., 15 figs.

  6. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOEpatents

    Cliff, P.L. Jr.

    1996-07-09

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The device comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a hinged cover plate attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate, the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position. 15 figs.

  7. Workshops and problems for benchmarking eddy current codes

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Davey, K.; Ida, N.; Rodger, D.; Kameari, A.; Bossavit, A.; Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-08-01

    A series of six workshops was held in 1986 and 1987 to compare eddy current codes, using six benchmark problems. The problems included transient and steady-state ac magnetic fields, close and far boundary conditions, magnetic and non-magnetic materials. All the problems were based either on experiments or on geometries that can be solved analytically. The workshops and solutions to the problems are described. Results show that many different methods and formulations give satisfactory solutions, and that in many cases reduced dimensionality or coarse discretization can give acceptable results while reducing the computer time required. A second two-year series of TEAM (Testing Electromagnetic Analysis Methods) workshops, using six more problems, is underway. 12 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The EGS4 Code System: Solution of gamma-ray and electron transport problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Namito, Yoshihito.

    1990-02-09

    In this paper we present an overview of the EGS4 Code System -- a general purpose package for the Monte Carlo simulation of the transport of electrons and photons. During the last 10-15 years EGS has been widely used to design accelerators and detectors for high-energy physics. More recently the code has been found to be of tremendous use in medical radiation physics and dosimetry. The problem-solving capabilities of EGS4 will be demonstrated by means of a variety of practical examples. To facilitate this review, we will take advantage of a new add-on package, called SHOWGRAF, to display particle trajectories in complicated geometries. These are shown as 2-D laser pictures in the written paper and as photographic slides of a 3-D high-resolution color monitor during the oral presentation. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs.

  10. Device and method for producing a containment barrier underneath and around in-situ buried waste

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, B.M.; Smith, A.M.; Hanson, R.W.; Hodges, R.T.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably on which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment. 15 figs.

  11. Development of a non-intrusive particle tracing technique for granular chute flows

    SciTech Connect

    Rosato, A.D.; Dave, R.N.; Fischer, I.S.; Carr, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a non-intrusive particle tracking system to follow the trajectory of an individual particle in three dimensions within a mass of particles is necessary to experimentally validate developing theories of inclined chute granular flows in conjunction with particle dynamics models. An understanding of the exact nature of such flows is of critical importance to a variety of industries concerned with solids handling, as well as in natural geological events. The tracking system, based on the principle of radiosonde'' transmitters coupled to receiving antennae by magnetic induction, is being developed. The radiosonde consists of one or more, orthogonally placed miniature circuits with integral loop antennas, mounted into a sphere of approximately 3/4 in. in diameter. The radiosonde sphere position can be traced during the flow down a chute by analyzing the induced voltage signals in the three or more external orthogonal receiving loop antennas due to the transmitter chips. 22 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Development of a non-intrusive particle tracing technique for granular chute flows. Progress report for second quarter, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rosato, A.D.; Dave, R.N.; Fischer, I.S.; Carr, W.N.

    1992-07-01

    The development of a non-intrusive particle tracking system to follow the trajectory of an individual particle in three dimensions within a mass of particles is necessary to experimentally validate developing theories of inclined chute granular flows in conjunction with particle dynamics models. An understanding of the exact nature of such flows is of critical importance to a variety of industries concerned with solids handling, as well as in natural geological events. The tracking system, based on the principle of ``radiosonde`` transmitters coupled to receiving antennae by magnetic induction, is being developed. The radiosonde consists of one or more, orthogonally placed miniature circuits with integral loop antennas, mounted into a sphere of approximately 3/4 in. in diameter. The radiosonde sphere position can be traced during the flow down a chute by analyzing the induced voltage signals in the three or more external orthogonal receiving loop antennas due to the transmitter chips. 22 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O`Neill, M.A.; Pellerin, P.J.M.; Warrenfeltz, D.; Vidal, S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations. 15 figs.

  15. Geothermal demonstration: Zunil food dehydration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, O. ); Altseimer, J.; Thayer, G.R. ); Cooper, L. ); Caicedo, A. . Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1991-08-01

    A food dehydration facility was constructed near the town of Zunil, Guatemala, to demonstrate the use of geothermal energy for industrial applications. The facility, with some modifications to the design, was found to work quite satisfactorily. Tests using five different products were completed during the time geothermal energy was used in the plant. During the time the plant was not able to use geothermal energy, a temporary diesel-fueled boiler provided the energy to test dehydration on seven other crops available in this area. The system demonstrates that geothermal heat can be used successfully for dehydrating food products. Many other industrial applications of geothermal energy could be considered for Zunil since a considerable amount of moderate-temperature heat will become available when the planned geothermal electrical facility is constructed there. 6 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Test and analysis results for two Synergy Power Corp. wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.; Hansen, C.

    1996-12-31

    The testing and modeling of small (rotor diameter 10.3 m and 12.8 m) wind turbines is the subject of this paper. The paper focuses primarily on the ADAMS computer model for dynamic analysis. The code calculates design loads, optimizes tilt configuration, and helps to interpret test results. A comparison of some of the modeling predictions is made to test data for validation purposes. The ADAMS model was found to accurately predict performance characteristics and loads for free-tilting turbines. ADAMS was found to be relatively successful in modeling the free tilt and variable rotors. The model also showed that tilting behavior is dependent on the restoring moment from the rotor aerodynamics as well as on surface aerodynamics. The effects of changes in air density on the power curve, load predictions, and analysis of emergency stops were also performed satisfactorily with the model. 15 figs.

  17. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Annual 1997, Volume 2 contains annual summary statistics at national, regional, and state levels for the electric power industry, including information on both electric utilities and nonutility power producers. Included are data for electric utility retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; power transactions; and demand-side management. Also included are data for US nonutility power producers on installed capacity; gross generation; emissions; and supply and disposition of energy. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. 15 figs., 62 tabs.

  18. Strengthening mechanisms of tungsten powder reinforced uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.K.; Hill, M.A.; Rollett, A.D.; Dunn, P.S.; Mortensen, A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA )

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten powder reinforced uranium exhibits a three-fold increase in yield strength due to precipitation hardening. The tungsten-rich interphase precipitates form at moving phase boundaries during slow cooling. Further increases in yield strength, attained with increasing tungsten content, are due to composite strengthening; this is verified by increasing elastic modulus with increasing tungsten content. Age hardening behavior is observed, with strengthening occurring at aging temperatures low in the alpha phase. Aging higher in alpha gives initial strengthening followed by rapid overaging. Beta phase aging results in a very soft structure with precipitates visible optically. Wrought material exhibits significant strain hardening as well as composite strengthening due to elongation of the tungsten particles. 7 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

    1989-07-18

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

  20. Interactions of structurally modified surfactants with reservoir minerals: Calorimetric, spectroscopic and electrokinetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.; Sivakumar, A.; Xu, Q.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of this project is to elucidate mechanisms of adsorption of structurally modified surfactants on reservoir minerals and to develop a full understanding of the effect of the surfactant structure on the nature of the adsorbed layers at the molecular level. An additional aim is to study the adsorption of surfactant mixtures on simple well-characterized minerals and on complex minerals representing real conditions. The practical goal of these studies is the identification of the optimum surfactant structures and their combinations for micellar flooding. In this work, the experiments on adsorption were focussed on the position of sulfonate and methyl groups on the aromatic ring of alkyl xylene sulfonates. A multi-pronged approach consisting of calorimetry, electrokinetics, wettability and spectroscopy is planned to elucidate the adsorption mechanism of surfactants and their mixtures on minerals such as alumina and kaolinite. 32 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.