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Sample records for 13j varying temperature

  1. Summary of the U.S. specimen matrix for the HFIR 13J varying temperature irradiation capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1998-03-01

    The US specimen matrix for the collaborative DOE/Monbusho HFIR 13J varying temperature irradiation capsule contains two ceramics and 29 different metals, including vanadium alloys, ferritic/martensitic steels, pure iron, austenitic stainless steels, nickel alloys, and copper alloys. This experiment is designed to provide fundamental information on the effects of brief low-temperature excursions on the tensile properties and microstructural evolution of a wide range of materials irradiated at nominal temperatures of 350 and 500 C to a dose of {approximately}5 dpa. A total of 340 miniature sheet tensile specimens and 274 TEM disks are included in the US-supplied matrix for the irradiation capsule.

  2. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-09-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.

  3. Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; McCoy, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species' metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size among diverse vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We find that, after controlling for body size, brain size increases exponentially with temperature in much the same way as metabolic rate. These results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in aerobic capacity, which have long been known to affect physical performance, similarly affect brain size. The observed temperature-dependence of brain size may explain observed gradients in brain size among both ectotherms and endotherms across broad spatial and temporal scales.

  4. Progress report on the varying temperature experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A.L.; Hurst, M.T.; Raby, D.G.

    1997-08-01

    A capsule has been designed that permits four specimen sets to be irradiated in an RB* location in the High Flux Isotope reactor (HFIR) with distinct temperature histories. During the reporting period critical component prototyping was completed. The results have lead to some design and operational changes from that previously reported. The primary design changes are (1) compression seals in the specimen holes of the beryllium holders, and (2) oxide-dispersion strengthened aluminum alloy (DISPAL) specimen sleeves in all holders. Details of the capsule design are presented in the previous issue of this publication. Four, axially displaced temperature zones are independently controlled. Holder temperatures are monitored by thermocouples and controlled by a combination of adjustable temperature control gas mixtures and auxiliary heaters. The high temperature holders are located in the center of the experimental region, which is centered on the reactor mid-plane, and the low temperature holders are located at the ends of the experimental region.

  5. Modeling maximum daily temperature using a varying coefficient regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Han; Deng, Xinwei; Kim, Dong-Yun; Smith, Eric P.

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between stream water and air temperatures are often modeled using linear or nonlinear regression methods. Despite a strong relationship between water and air temperatures and a variety of models that are effective for data summarized on a weekly basis, such models did not yield consistently good predictions for summaries such as daily maximum temperature. A good predictive model for daily maximum temperature is required because daily maximum temperature is an important measure for predicting survival of temperature sensitive fish. To appropriately model the strong relationship between water and air temperatures at a daily time step, it is important to incorporate information related to the time of the year into the modeling. In this work, a time-varying coefficient model is used to study the relationship between air temperature and water temperature. The time-varying coefficient model enables dynamic modeling of the relationship, and can be used to understand how the air-water temperature relationship varies over time. The proposed model is applied to 10 streams in Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia using daily maximum temperatures. It provides a better fit and better predictions than those produced by a simple linear regression model or a nonlinear logistic model.

  6. Optimal color temperature adjustment for mobile devices under varying illuminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungah; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    With the wide use of mobile devices, display color reproduction has become extremely important. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimal color temperature for mobile displays under varying illuminants. The effect of the color temperature and the illuminance of ambient lighting on user preferences were observed. For a visual examination, a total of 19 nuanced whites were examined under 20 illuminants. A total of 19 display stimuli with different color temperatures (2,500 K ~ 19,600 K) were presented on an iPad3 (New iPad). The ambient illuminants ranged in color temperature from 2,500 K to 19,800 K and from 0 lx to 3,000 lx in illuminance. Supporting previous studies of color reproduction, there was found to be a positive correlation between the color temperature of illuminants and that of optimal whites. However, the relationship was not linear. Based on assessments by 56 subjects, a regression equation was derived to predict the optimal color temperature adjustment under varying illuminants, as follows: [Display Tcp = 5138.93 log(Illuminant Tcp) - 11956.59, p<.001, R2=0.94]. Moreover, the influence of an illuminant was positively correlated with the illuminance level, confirming the findings of previous studies. It is expected that the findings of this study can be used as the theoretical basis when designing a color strategy for mobile display devices.

  7. Acoustic thermometric reconstruction of a time-varying temperature profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, A. A.; Kazanskii, A. S.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Sharakshane, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    The time-varying temperature profiles were reconstructed in an experiment using a thermal acoustic radiation receiving array containing 14 sensors. The temperature was recovered by performing similar experiments using plasticine, as well as in vivo with a human hand. Plasticine preliminarily heated up to 36.5°C and a human hand were placed into water for 50 s at a temperature of 20°C. The core temperature of the plasticine was independently measured using thermocouples. The spatial resolution of the reconstruction in the lateral direction was determined by the distance between neighboring sensors and was equal to10 mm; the averaging time was 10 s. The error in reconstructing the core temperature determined in the experiment with plasticine was 0.5 K. The core temperature of the hand changed with time (in 50 s it decreased from 35 to 34°C) and space (the mean square deviation was 1.5 K). The experiment with the hand revealed that multichannel detection of thermal acoustic radiation using a compact 45 × 36 mm array to reconstruct the temperature profile could be performed during medical procedures.

  8. Calving rates at tidewater glaciers vary strongly with ocean temperature

    PubMed Central

    Luckman, Adrian; Benn, Douglas I.; Cottier, Finlo; Bevan, Suzanne; Nilsen, Frank; Inall, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Rates of ice mass loss at the calving margins of tidewater glaciers (frontal ablation rates) are a key uncertainty in sea level rise projections. Measurements are difficult because mass lost is replaced by ice flow at variable rates, and frontal ablation incorporates sub-aerial calving, and submarine melt and calving. Here we derive frontal ablation rates for three dynamically contrasting glaciers in Svalbard from an unusually dense series of satellite images. We combine ocean data, ice-front position and terminus velocity to investigate controls on frontal ablation. We find that frontal ablation is not dependent on ice dynamics, nor reduced by glacier surface freeze-up, but varies strongly with sub-surface water temperature. We conclude that calving proceeds by melt undercutting and ice-front collapse, a process that may dominate frontal ablation where submarine melt can outpace ice flow. Our findings illustrate the potential for deriving simple models of tidewater glacier response to oceanographic forcing. PMID:26450063

  9. Thermoregulatory responses of rats to varying environmental temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, J. J.; Montgomery, L. D.; Williams, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    The peripheral (tail) circulatory responses of six male albino rats were measured at ambient temperatures between 5 and 40 C, using impedance plethysmography. Each animal was anesthetized, instrumented, and placed in a thermal environmental chamber to reach equilibrium. Tail blood flow, respiration rate, heart rate, core temperature, and tail skin temperature were then monitored at each ambient temperature. The mean tail blood flow was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) at 5 C than at 10 C. The mean blood flow increased significantly (p less than 0.01) at each of the temperatures above 10 C. Tail skin temperature and internal body (core) temperature increased significantly with increasing ambient temperature.

  10. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Xie, Xueying; Miller, David Scott; Ginestra, Jean Charles

    2011-07-26

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  11. Tundra carbon balance under varying temperature and moisture regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huemmrich, K. F.; Kinoshita, G.; Gamon, J. A.; Houston, S.; Kwon, H.; Oechel, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    To understand the effects of environmental change on tundra carbon balance, a manipulation experiment was performed in wet sedge tundra near Barrow, Alaska. Three replicates of six environmental treatments were made: control, heating, raising or lowering water table, and heating along with raising or lowering water table. Carbon fluxes were measured using a portable chamber for six days during the 2001 growing season. Spectral reflectance and meteorological measurements were also collected. Empirical models derived from flux measurements were developed for daily gross ecosystem production (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re). The amount of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plants was strongly correlated with GEP. This relationship was not affected by treatment or time during the growing season. Re was related to soil temperature with a different relationship for each water level treatment. Re in the lowered water table treatment had a strong response to temperature changes, while the raised water table treatment showed little temperature response. These models calculated daily net ecosystem exchange for all of the treatments over the growing season. Warming increased both the seasonal carbon gain and carbon loss. By the end of summer the lowered water table treatments, both heated and unheated, were net carbon sources while all other treatments were sinks. Warming and/or raising the water table increased the strength of the net sink. Over the timescale of this experiment, water table primarily determined whether the ecosystem was a source or sink, with temperature modifying the strength of the source or sink.

  12. Reproducing on Time When Temperature Varies: Shifts in the Timing of Courtship by Fiddler Crabs

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Kecia A.; Christy, John H.; Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Luque, Javier; Collin, Rachel; Guichard, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Many species reproduce when conditions are most favorable for the survival of young. Numerous intertidal fish and invertebrates release eggs or larvae during semilunar, large amplitude, nocturnal tides when these early life stages are best able to escape predation by fish that feed near the shore during the day. Remarkably, some species, including the fiddler crabs Uca terpsichores and Uca deichmanni, maintain this timing throughout the year as temperature, and thus the rate of embryonic development, vary. The mechanisms that allow such precision in the timing of the production of young are poorly known. A preliminary study suggested that when temperature decreases, U. terpsichores mate earlier in the tidal amplitude cycle such that larvae are released at the appropriate time. We tested this idea by studying the timing of courtship in U. terpsichores and U. deichmanni as temperature varied annually during two years, at 5 locations that differed in the temperature of the sediment where females incubate their eggs. Uca terpsichores courted earlier at locations where sediment temperature declined seasonally but not where sediment temperature remained elevated throughout the year. In contrast, clear shifts in courtship timing were not observed for U. deichmanni despite variation in sediment temperature. We discuss other mechanisms by which this species may maintain reproductive timing. These two species are likely to be affected differently by changes in the frequency and intensity of cold periods that are expected to accompany climate change. PMID:24832079

  13. Progress report on the design of a varying temperature irradiation experiment for operation in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A.L.; Muroga, T.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to determine effects of temperature variation during irradiation on microstructure and mechanical properties of potential fusion reactor structural materials. A varying temperature irradiation experiment is being performed under the framework of the Japan-USA Program of Irradiation Tests for fusion Research (JUPITER) to study the effects of temperature variation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of candidate fusion reactor structural materials. An irradiation capsule has been designed for operation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will allow four sets of metallurgical test specimens to be irradiated to exposure levels ranging from 5 to 10 dpa. Two sets of specimens will be irradiated at constant temperature of 500{degrees}C and 350{degrees}C. Matching specimen sets will be irradiated to similar exposure levels, with 10% of the exposure to occur at reduced temperatures of 300{degrees}C and 200{degrees}C.

  14. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa. PMID:24977219

  15. User-preferred color temperature adjustment for smartphone display under varying illuminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungah; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2014-06-01

    The study aims to investigate the user-preferred color temperature adjustment for smartphone displays by observing the effect of the illuminant's chromaticity and intensity on the optimal white points preferred by users. For visual examination, subjects evaluated 14 display stimuli presented on the Samsung Galaxy S3 under 19 ambient illuminants. The display stimuli were composed of 14 nuanced whites varying in color temperature from 2900 to 18,900 K. The illuminant conditions varied with combinations of color temperature (2600 to 20,100 K) and illuminance level (30 to 3100 lx) that simulated daily lighting experiences. The subjects were asked to assess the optimal level of the display color temperatures based on their mental representation of the ideal white point. The study observed a positive correlation between the illuminant color temperatures and the optimal display color temperatures (r=0.89, p<0.05). However, the range of the color temperature of the smartphone display was much narrower than that of the illuminants. Based on the assessments by 100 subjects, a regression formula was derived to predict the adjustment of user-preferred color temperature under changing illuminant chromaticity. The formula is as follows: [Display Tcp=6534.75 log (Illuminant Tcp)-16304.68 (R=0.87, p<0.05)]. Moreover, supporting previous studies on color reproduction, the effect of illuminant chromaticity was relatively weaker under lower illuminance. The results of this experiment could be used as a theoretical basis for designers and manufacturers to adjust user-preferred color temperature for smartphone displays under various illuminant conditions.

  16. Changes of the time-varying percentiles of daily extreme temperature in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Chen, Fang; Xu, Feng; Wang, Xinrui

    2016-09-01

    Identifying the air temperature frequency distributions and evaluating the trends in time-varying percentiles are very important for climate change studies. In order to get a better understanding of the recent temporal and spatial pattern of the temperature changes in China, we have calculated the trends in temporal-varying percentiles of the daily extreme air temperature firstly. Then we divide all the stations to get the spatial patterns for the percentile trends using the average linkage cluster analysis method. To make a comparison, the shifts of trends percentile frequency distribution from 1961-1985 to 1986-2010 are also examined. Important results in three aspects have been achieved: (1) In terms of the trends in temporal-varying percentiles of the daily extreme air temperature, the most intense warming for daily maximum air temperature (Tmax) was detected in the upper percentiles with a significant increasing tendency magnitude (>2.5 °C/50year), and the greatest warming for daily minimum air temperature (Tmin) occurred with very strong trends exceeding 4 °C/50year. (2) The relative coherent spatial patterns for the percentile trends were found, and stations for the whole country had been divided into three clusters. The three primary clusters were distributed regularly to some extent from north to south, indicating the possible large influence of the latitude. (3) The most significant shifts of trends percentile frequency distribution from 1961-1985 to 1986-2010 was found in Tmax. More than half part of the frequency distribution show negative trends less than -0.5 °C/50year in 1961-1985, while showing trends less than 2.5 °C/50year in 1986-2010.

  17. Ultrasonic liquid-level detector for varying temperature and pressure environments

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.L.; Miller, G.N.

    1981-10-26

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use in varying temperature and pressure environments, such as a pressurized water nuclear reactor vessel, is provided. The detector employs ultrasonic extensional and torsional waves launched in a multiplexed alternating sequence into a common sensor. The sensor is a rectangular cross section stainless steel rod which extends into the liquid medium whose level is to be detected. The sensor temperature derived from the extensional wave velocity measurements is used to compensate for the temperature dependence of the torsional wave velocity measurements which are also level dependent. The torsional wave velocity measurements of a multiple reflection sensor then provide a measurement of liquid level over a range of several meters with a small uncertainty over a temperature range of 20 to 250/sup 0/C and pressures up to 15 MPa.

  18. Simulation of temperature field for temperature-controlled radio frequency ablation using a hyperbolic bioheat equation and temperature-varied voltage calibration: a liver-mimicking phantom study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Lin, Lan; Gao, Hongjian; Feng, Yusheng

    2015-12-21

    This study aims at improving the accuracy of temperature simulation for temperature-controlled radio frequency ablation (RFA). We proposed a new voltage-calibration method in the simulation and investigated the feasibility of a hyperbolic bioheat equation (HBE) in the RFA simulation with longer durations and higher power. A total of 40 RFA experiments was conducted in a liver-mimicking phantom. Four mathematical models with multipolar electrodes were developed by the finite element method in COMSOL software: HBE with/without voltage calibration, and the Pennes bioheat equation (PBE) with/without voltage calibration. The temperature-varied voltage calibration used in the simulation was calculated from an experimental power output and temperature-dependent resistance of liver tissue. We employed the HBE in simulation by considering the delay time τ of 16 s. First, for simulations by each kind of bioheat equation (PBE or HBE), we compared the differences between the temperature-varied voltage-calibration and the fixed-voltage values used in the simulations. Then, the comparisons were conducted between the PBE and the HBE in the simulations with temperature-varied voltage calibration. We verified the simulation results by experimental temperature measurements on nine specific points of the tissue phantom. The results showed that: (1) the proposed voltage-calibration method improved the simulation accuracy of temperature-controlled RFA for both the PBE and the HBE, and (2) for temperature-controlled RFA simulation with the temperature-varied voltage calibration, the HBE method was 0.55 °C more accurate than the PBE method. The proposed temperature-varied voltage calibration may be useful in temperature field simulations of temperature-controlled RFA. Besides, the HBE may be used as an alternative in the simulation of long-duration high-power RFA. PMID:26583919

  19. Simulation of temperature field for temperature-controlled radio frequency ablation using a hyperbolic bioheat equation and temperature-varied voltage calibration: a liver-mimicking phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Lin, Lan; Gao, Hongjian; Feng, Yusheng

    2015-12-01

    This study aims at improving the accuracy of temperature simulation for temperature-controlled radio frequency ablation (RFA). We proposed a new voltage-calibration method in the simulation and investigated the feasibility of a hyperbolic bioheat equation (HBE) in the RFA simulation with longer durations and higher power. A total of 40 RFA experiments was conducted in a liver-mimicking phantom. Four mathematical models with multipolar electrodes were developed by the finite element method in COMSOL software: HBE with/without voltage calibration, and the Pennes bioheat equation (PBE) with/without voltage calibration. The temperature-varied voltage calibration used in the simulation was calculated from an experimental power output and temperature-dependent resistance of liver tissue. We employed the HBE in simulation by considering the delay time τ of 16 s. First, for simulations by each kind of bioheat equation (PBE or HBE), we compared the differences between the temperature-varied voltage-calibration and the fixed-voltage values used in the simulations. Then, the comparisons were conducted between the PBE and the HBE in the simulations with temperature-varied voltage calibration. We verified the simulation results by experimental temperature measurements on nine specific points of the tissue phantom. The results showed that: (1) the proposed voltage-calibration method improved the simulation accuracy of temperature-controlled RFA for both the PBE and the HBE, and (2) for temperature-controlled RFA simulation with the temperature-varied voltage calibration, the HBE method was 0.55 °C more accurate than the PBE method. The proposed temperature-varied voltage calibration may be useful in temperature field simulations of temperature-controlled RFA. Besides, the HBE may be used as an alternative in the simulation of long-duration high-power RFA.

  20. Light sensitometry of mammography films at varying development temperatures and times

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reena; Sharma, Sunil Dutt; Mayya, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Kodak MinR-2000 mammography film is widely used for mammography imaging. The sensitometric indices like base plus fog level (B + F), maximum optical density (ODmax), average gradient (AG) and speed of this film at varying development temperatures and times were evaluated using a light sensitometer. Totally 33 film strips were cut from a single Kodak MinR-2000 mammography film box and exposed in a light sensitometer operated in the green light spectrum to produce a 21-step sensitometric strip. These exposed film strips were processed at temperatures in the range of 32°C–37°C in the step of 1°C and at processing times in the range of 1–6 minutes in the step of 1 minute. The results of the present study show that the measured base plus fog level of the mammography film was not affected much, whereas significant changes were seen in the ODmax, AG and speed with varying development temperatures and times. The ODmax values of the film were found in the range of 3.67–3.76, AG values were in the range of 2.48–3.4 and speed values were in the range of 0.015–0.0236 when the processing temperature was varied from 32°C to 37°C. With processing time variation from 1 to 6 minutes, the observed changes in ODmax values were in the range of 3.54-3.71, changes in AG were in the range of 2.66–3.27 and changes in speed were in the range of 0.011–0.025. Based on these observations, recommendations for optimum processing parameters to be used for this film are made. PMID:22363111

  1. High speed Infrared imaging method for observation of the fast varying temperature phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Reza; Alavi, Kambiz; Yuan, Baohong

    With new improvements in high-end commercial R&D camera technologies many challenges have been overcome for exploring the high-speed IR camera imaging. The core benefits of this technology is the ability to capture fast varying phenomena without image blur, acquire enough data to properly characterize dynamic energy, and increase the dynamic range without compromising the number of frames per second. This study presents a noninvasive method for determining the intensity field of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Device (HIFU) beam using Infrared imaging. High speed Infrared camera was placed above the tissue-mimicking material that was heated by HIFU with no other sensors present in the HIFU axial beam. A MATLAB simulation code used to perform a finite-element solution to the pressure wave propagation and heat equations within the phantom and temperature rise to the phantom was computed. Three different power levels of HIFU transducers were tested and the predicted temperature increase values were within about 25% of IR measurements. The fundamental theory and methods developed in this research can be used to detect fast varying temperature phenomena in combination with the infrared filters.

  2. Ecosystem carbon storage does not vary with mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests.

    PubMed

    Selmants, Paul C; Litton, Creighton M; Giardina, Christian P; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-09-01

    Theory and experiment agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The effect of this increased exchange on terrestrial carbon storage is less predictable, with important implications for potential feedbacks to the climate system. We quantified how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects ecosystem carbon storage in above- and belowground live biomass and detritus across a well-constrained 5.2 °C MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. This gradient does not systematically vary in biotic or abiotic factors other than MAT (i.e. dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil water balance, and disturbance history), allowing us to isolate the impact of MAT on ecosystem carbon storage. Live biomass carbon did not vary predictably as a function of MAT, while detrital carbon declined by ~14 Mg of carbon ha(-1) for each 1 °C rise in temperature - a trend driven entirely by coarse woody debris and litter. The largest detrital pool, soil organic carbon, was the most stable with MAT and averaged 48% of total ecosystem carbon across the MAT gradient. Total ecosystem carbon did not vary significantly with MAT, and the distribution of ecosystem carbon between live biomass and detritus remained relatively constant across the MAT gradient at ~44% and ~56%, respectively. These findings suggest that in the absence of alterations to precipitation or disturbance regimes, the size and distribution of carbon pools in tropical montane wet forests will be less sensitive to rising MAT than predicted by ecosystem models. This article also provides needed detail on how individual carbon pools and ecosystem-level carbon storage will respond to future warming.

  3. Comparison of modeled diurnally varying sea surface temperatures to satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, R. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    A subset of modeled, global diurnally varying sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is created using a physically based, one-dimensional, upper ocean heating model, POSH or Profiles in Oceanic Surface Heating. The model is forced with a nighttime minimum temperature approximated by the Reynolds OI daily AVHRR-only and reanalysis data from NASA's MERRA dataset. To assess the model's ability to replicate the diurnal cycle of SSTs, the model output is compared to satellite-retrieved data for the entire cycle. SEVIRI hourly 5-km SST swath data are used for the comparison and regridded to the 25-km model grid. In the analysis of SST differences between the two products, difference plots at each time step are not sufficient to determine the quality of POSH's representation of the diurnal cycle. The differences in SST can be a combination of a nighttime offset and a shift in the onset of the heating cycle. Furthermore, the caveats associated with gap filling by the interpolation technique can deteriorate the quality of the comparison, especially when the satellite data are not continuous over time. To establish quality criteria, a 2D histogram is computed to determine the percent of coverage per 0.25-degree grid cell. This is a combined measure of the density (how many satellite grid points lie within the 0.25-degree cell) and the continuity (how often, in hours, the grid cell is sampled over the day). In a best-case scenario approach for the comparison, a total of 89 grid locations are selected at which time series of SSTs are extracted from the satellite and model data. The results in Figure 1 indicate that the Reynolds product estimates the nighttime minimum temperature reasonably well, while the model consistently overestimates the peak of the diurnal cycle compared to the satellite data. Moreover, the diurnal heating in the satellite data persists approximately 3 hours longer than the diurnal heating produced by the model. Since the difference averaged over all hours of

  4. Fabricating amorphous silicon solar cells by varying the temperature _of the substrate during deposition of the amorphous silicon layer

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for fabricating amorphous silicon solar cells in which the temperature of the substrate is varied during the deposition of the amorphous silicon layer is described. Solar cells manufactured in accordance with this process are shown to have increased efficiencies and fill factors when compared to solar cells manufactured with a constant substrate temperature during deposition of the amorphous silicon layer.

  5. Correlation between the energy level structure of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and luminescent behavior at varying temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhen; Liu, Xiaolang; He, Lizhu; Liu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    Luminescent spectra of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet are measured at varying temperatures. It is found that the two excitation peaks demonstrate a reverse trend as the temperature rises, and the breadth of the high-energy emission peak experiences an abrupt widening. These effects could be directly linked to the energy level scheme of Ce3+ under the crystal field of local symmetry. Moreover, an alternative fitting function is provided which could effectively resolve the emission curve.

  6. Physiology and Thermal Imaging of Poplar Hybrids with Varying Temperature Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibsen, P.; Van Leeuwen, W. J. D.; McCorkel, J.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Moore, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    : Plants growing in high temperatures may suffer from reduced photosynthetic efficiency, increased water demand and thermal damage to tissue. Leaves may mitigate heat stress through physiological or physical strategies which include minimizing heat load, maximizing evaporative cooling or biochemical stabilization. In this study, leaf temperature of wild-type and genetically modified (GM) poplar trees was monitored using a thermal infrared camera and fine wire thermocouples. The GM trees did not have the capacity to produce the compound isoprene, hypothesized to biochemically protect plants against heat stress. One genotype had GM process applied, but retained isoprene making capacity (empty-vector). Temperature of ambient air and of an artificial leaf of similar size/color were also monitored. Photosynthesis and transpiration were measured using an infra-red gas analyzer. Leaf reflectance in an integrating sphere was determined using a spectrometer. Leaf temperature was maintained close to or below air temperature and was always lower than the fake (non-transpiring leaf). Different genetic lines maintained different leaf temperatures, especially during peak temperature in the mid afternoon. The variance in leaf temperature is explored in relation to its effects on transpiration, photosynthesis and growth across isoprene and non-isoprene emitting trees.

  7. Effects of varying local temperature on the optical properties of cells in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Rehman, Abdul; Khan, Junaid A; Rafi, Muhammad; Khurshid, Ahmat; Nisar, Hasan; Zaidi, S S Z; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-09-01

    Increase in local temperature during light exposure of biological tissues plays an important role in determining the fate of most therapeutic modalities. Variations in the optical properties (absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, anisotropy factor, optical depth etc.) of two cancer cell lines "Rhobdomyosarcoma and Cervical carcinoma" due to gradual increase in temperature were determine quantitatively with a double integrating sphere system. It was observed that all three coefficients showed decreasing tendency as the temperature increases for both the cell lines except for scattering coefficient of HeLa which remain constant within error limit. Anisotropy factor for both cell lines increased indicating temperature dependent subcellular density variations. Temperature dependent optical properties information may lead to precise dosimetry and could help clinicians for predicting the therapeutic modality outcome. PMID:26073913

  8. Effects of Varying CDS Levels and Drying and Cooling Temperatures on Flowability Properties of DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for alternative fuels and the need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, have triggered the growth of corn-based ethanol production, and this is expected to rise in future years. Transportation of the co-product distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from this industry occurs under vari...

  9. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistant starch (RS) has properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking me...

  10. A Method for Determining Autoignition Temperatures Resulting from Varying Rapid Rise Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, Michael; McCardle, Kenneth; McDougle, Stephen; Saulsberry, Regor; Sipes, William

    2007-01-01

    Pyrotechnic and explosive devices are widely used in the aerospace industry to provide reliable, lightweight initiation components in ignition systems, cartridge actuated devices, escape and ejection systems, and many other applications. There are two major mechanisms for initiation of the pyrotechnic powders: heat and shock. Of powders initiated by heat, we have little information on the temperature required for ignition in the normal functioning time (milliseconds) of the device. The known autoignition temperatures obtained from standard tests provide data from days down to minutes with temperatures increasing as heating time decreases. In order to better understand this relationship, and to make computer models, improved data are needed.

  11. Lethal body residues for pentachlorophenol in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) under varying conditions of temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Fisher, S W; Hwang, H; Atanasoff, M; Landrum, P F

    1999-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) toxicity was measured in the zebra mussel under varying conditions of pH (6.5, 7.5, or 8.5) and temperature (10, 17, or 25 degrees C). Toxicity decreased significantly with increasing pH at all temperatures. At a given pH level, toxicity increased significantly with increasing temperature. PCP was most toxic at pH 6.5, 25 degrees C and least toxic at pH 8.5, 10 degrees C. Toxicokinetic parameters were determined at trace PCP concentrations under each combination of pH and temperature. Increasing temperature generally increased the PCP uptake clearance (ku) although elimination rate constants (kd) were unaffected. The effect of pH on toxicokinetic parameters was inconsistent but ku tended to decrease as pH and ionization of PCP increased. Lethal body residues (LR50s), estimated from kinetic parameters determined at trace PCP concentrations and the LC50 values, varied by a factor of 122 as a function of environmental conditions while LC50s varied by a factor of 381. LR50s were also estimated from the measured PCP tissue concentrations and varied by a factor of 8 across conditions. Calculated LR50s were always higher than measured LR50s, determined under identical conditions, by at least a factor of five. However, when LR50 values were recalculated using ku values measured at the LC25 concentration, the resulting adjusted LR50s varied only by a factor of 2.5 across the range of conditions studied and were more consistent with measured LR50 values. Thus, variance in the PCP concentration required to produce toxicity is reduced when LR50s are used in place of LC50s. Further, the method by which lethal residues (LR50 values) are determined can significantly affect the results and their interpretation.

  12. Toxin and Growth Responses of the Neurotoxic Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum to Varying Temperature and Salinity.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Eric; Muguet, Alexia; Berteaux, Tom; Chomérat, Nicolas; Hess, Philipp; Roque D'OrbCastel, Emmanuelle; Masseret, Estelle; Laabir, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Vulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described species, produces pinnatoxins. The IFR-VRU-01 strain, isolated from a French Mediterranean lagoon in 2010 and identified as the causative dinoflagellate contaminating mussels in the Ingril Lagoon (French Mediterranean) with pinnatoxin-G, was grown in an enriched natural seawater medium. We tested the effect of temperature and salinity on growth, pinnatoxin-G production and chlorophyll a levels of this dinoflagellate. These factors were tested in combinations of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) and five salinities (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40) at an irradiance of 100 µmol photon m(-2) s(-1). V. rugosum can grow at temperatures and salinities ranging from 20 °C to 30 °C and 20 to 40, respectively. The optimal combination for growth (0.39 ± 0.11 d(-1)) was a temperature of 25 °C and a salinity of 40. Results suggest that V. rugosum is euryhaline and thermophile which could explain why this dinoflagellate develops in situ only from June to September. V. rugosum growth rate and pinnatoxin-G production were highest at temperatures ranging between 25 and 30 °C. This suggests that the dinoflagellate may give rise to extensive blooms in the coming decades caused by the climate change-related increases in temperature expected in the Mediterranean coasts. PMID:27164144

  13. Toxin and Growth Responses of the Neurotoxic Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum to Varying Temperature and Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Abadie, Eric; Muguet, Alexia; Berteaux, Tom; Chomérat, Nicolas; Hess, Philipp; Roque D’OrbCastel, Emmanuelle; Masseret, Estelle; Laabir, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Vulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described species, produces pinnatoxins. The IFR-VRU-01 strain, isolated from a French Mediterranean lagoon in 2010 and identified as the causative dinoflagellate contaminating mussels in the Ingril Lagoon (French Mediterranean) with pinnatoxin-G, was grown in an enriched natural seawater medium. We tested the effect of temperature and salinity on growth, pinnatoxin-G production and chlorophyll a levels of this dinoflagellate. These factors were tested in combinations of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) and five salinities (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40) at an irradiance of 100 µmol photon m−2 s−1. V. rugosum can grow at temperatures and salinities ranging from 20 °C to 30 °C and 20 to 40, respectively. The optimal combination for growth (0.39 ± 0.11 d−1) was a temperature of 25 °C and a salinity of 40. Results suggest that V. rugosum is euryhaline and thermophile which could explain why this dinoflagellate develops in situ only from June to September. V. rugosum growth rate and pinnatoxin-G production were highest at temperatures ranging between 25 and 30 °C. This suggests that the dinoflagellate may give rise to extensive blooms in the coming decades caused by the climate change-related increases in temperature expected in the Mediterranean coasts. PMID:27164144

  14. The influence of temperature on ozone production under varying NOx conditions - a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Jane; Mar, Kathleen A.; Ojha, Narendra; Butler, Tim M.

    2016-09-01

    Surface ozone is a secondary air pollutant produced during the atmospheric photochemical degradation of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Temperature directly influences ozone production through speeding up the rates of chemical reactions and increasing the emissions of VOCs, such as isoprene, from vegetation. In this study, we used an idealised box model with different chemical mechanisms (Master Chemical Mechanism, MCMv3.2; Common Representative Intermediates, CRIv2; Model for OZone and Related Chemical Tracers, MOZART-4; Regional Acid Deposition Model, RADM2; Carbon Bond Mechanism, CB05) to examine the non-linear relationship between ozone, NOx and temperature, and we compared this to previous observational studies. Under high-NOx conditions, an increase in ozone from 20 to 40 °C of up to 20 ppbv was due to faster reaction rates, while increased isoprene emissions added up to a further 11 ppbv of ozone. The largest inter-mechanism differences were obtained at high temperatures and high-NOx emissions. CB05 and RADM2 simulated more NOx-sensitive chemistry than MCMv3.2, CRIv2 and MOZART-4, which could lead to different mitigation strategies being proposed depending on the chemical mechanism. The increased oxidation rate of emitted VOC with temperature controlled the rate of Ox production; the net influence of peroxy nitrates increased net Ox production per molecule of emitted VOC oxidised. The rate of increase in ozone mixing ratios with temperature from our box model simulations was about half the rate of increase in ozone with temperature observed over central Europe or simulated by a regional chemistry transport model. Modifying the box model set-up to approximate stagnant meteorological conditions increased the rate of increase of ozone with temperature as the accumulation of oxidants enhanced ozone production through the increased production of peroxy radicals from the secondary degradation of

  15. Resistance of superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces to varied temperature applications on 316L SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Hamza; Basit, Kanza; Saleem, Sajid; Siddiqui, Bilal A.

    316L SS also called Marine Stainless Steel is an important material for structural and marine applications. When superhydrophobic and oleophobic coatings are applied on 316L SS it shows significant resistance to wear and corrosion. This paper aims to validate the coatings manufacturer's information on optimal temperature range and test the viability of coating against multiple oil based cleaning agents. 316L SS was coated with multiple superhydrophic and oleohobic coatings and observed under SEM for validity of adhesion and thickness and then scanned under FFM to validate the tribological information. The samples were then dipped into multiple cleaning agents maintained at the range of operating temperatures specified by the manufacturer. Coating was observed for deterioration over a fixed time intervals through SEM and FFM. A comparison was drawn to validate the most critical cleaning agent and the most critical temperature at which the coating fails to leave the base substrate exposed to the environment.

  16. Stability study of propoxur (Baygon) in whole blood and urine stored at varying temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramagiri, Suma; Kosanam, Hari; Sai Prakash, P K

    2006-06-01

    A stability study has been initiated for propoxur (Baygon) in whole blood and urine samples stored over a period of 60 days at four different temperature conditions (room temperature, 4 degrees C, -20 degrees C, and -80 degrees C). Stability data was established on day 0, 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, and 60. Sample purification was done by solid-phase extraction using a weak cation exchange cartridge (Isolute CBA), and quantitation was carried out by a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method with a photodiode-array UV detector. Propoxur was spiked at two different concentration levels in both blood and urine samples [low concentration (10 microg/L) and high concentration (100 microg/L)]. Isopropoxy phenol was observed as the major degradation product in blood and urine samples and confirmed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. At room temperature, a substantial decrease in concentration of about 95% was observed at the end of the stability study in both blood and urine samples. However, at 4 degrees C, the concentration of propoxur observed after 60 days was around 60% in both samples. A decrease in temperature reduced the degradation, and finally propoxur was found to be stable at -80 degrees C and -20 degrees C for the whole observation period (60 days). The data collected suggests that knowledge about time-dependent decrease of propoxur in urine and blood samples is of considerable significance in forensic toxicology, and, therefore, forensic cases should be interpreted with caution.

  17. Temperature sensitivity of organic substrate decay varies with pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.; Lehmeier, C.; Ballantyne, F.; Billings, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer in soils and globally ubiquitous. It serves as a primary carbon source for myriad microbes able to release cellulases which cleave the cellulose into smaller molecules. For example, β-glucosidase, one type of cellulase, breaks down a terminal β-glycosidic bond of cellulose. The carbon of the liberated glucose becomes available for microbial uptake, after which it can then be mineralized and returned to the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration. Thus, exoenzymes play an important role in the global cycling of carbon. Numerous studies suggest that global warming potentially increases the rate at which β-glucosidase breaks down cellulose, but it is not known how pH of the soil solution influences the effect of temperature on cellulose decomposition rates; this is important given the globally wide range of soil pH. Using fluorescence enzyme assay techniques, we studied the effect of temperature and pH on the reaction rate at which purified β-Glucosidase decays β-D-cellobioside (a compound often employed to simulate cellulose). We evaluated the temperature sensitivity of this reaction at five temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) and six pH values (3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.5)encompassing the naturally occurring range in soils, in a full-factorial design. First, we determined Vmax at 25°C and pH 6.5, standard conditions for measuring enzyme activities in many studies. The Vmax was 858.65 μmol h-1mg-1and was achieved at substrate concentration of 270 μM. At all pH values, the reaction rate slowed down at lower temperatures; at a pH of 3.5, no enzymatic activity was detected. The enzyme activity was significantly different between pH 4.5 and higher pHs. For example, enzyme reactivity at pH 4.5 was significantly lower than that at 7.5 at 20 and 25°C (Bonferroni-corrected P =0.0006, 0.0004, respectively), but not at lower temperatures. Similarly, enzyme reactivity at pH 4.5 was lower than that at pH 8.5 at 10, 15

  18. Organic particulate material levels in the atmosphere: conditions favoring sensitivity to varying relative humidity and temperature.

    PubMed

    Pankow, James F

    2010-04-13

    This study examines the sensitivity in predicted levels of atmospheric organic particulate matter (M(o), microg m(-3)) as those levels may potentially be affected by changes in relative humidity and temperature. In a given system, for each partitioning compound, f(g) and f(p) represent the gaseous and particulate fractions (f(g) + f(p) = 1). Sensitivity in the M(o) levels becomes dampened as the compounds contributing significantly to M(o) are increasingly found in the particle phase (f(p) --> 1). Thus, although local maxima in sensitivity can be encountered as M(o) levels increase, because as M(o) increases each f(p) --> 1, then increasing M(o) levels generally tend to reduce sensitivity in M(o) levels to changes in relative humidity and temperature. Experiments designed to elucidate the potential magnitudes of the effects of relative humidity and temperature on M(o) levels must be carried out at M(o) levels that are relevant for the ambient atmosphere: The f(p) values for the important partitioning compounds must not be elevated above ambient-relevant values. Systems in which M(o) levels are low (e.g., 1-2 microg m(-3)) and/or composed of unaged secondary organic aerosol are the ones most likely to show sensitivity to changing relative humidity and temperature. Results from two published chamber studies are examined in the above regard: [Warren B, et al. (2009) Atmos Environ 43:1789-1795] and [Prisle NL, et al. (2010) Geophys Res Lett 37:L01802].

  19. Temperature effects on seaweed-sustaining top-down control vary with season.

    PubMed

    Werner, Franziska J; Graiff, Angelika; Matthiessen, Birte

    2016-03-01

    Rising seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations (ocean acidification) represent two of the most influential factors impacting marine ecosystems in the face of global climate change. In ecological climate change research, full-factorial experiments performed across seasons in multispecies, cross-trophic-level settings are essential as they permit a more realistic estimation of direct and indirect effects as well as the relative importance of the effects of both major environmental stressors on ecosystems. In benthic mesocosm experiments, we tested the responses of coastal Baltic Sea Fucus vesiculosus communities to elevated seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations across four seasons of one year. While increasing [CO2] levels had only minor effects, warming had strong and persistent effects on grazers, and the resulting effects on the Fucus community were found to be season dependent. In late summer, a temperature-driven collapse of grazers caused a cascading effect from the consumers to the foundation species, resulting in overgrowth of Fucus thalli by epiphytes. In fall/winter (outside the growing season of epiphytes), intensified grazing under warming resulted in a significant reduction in Fucus biomass. Thus, we were able to confirm the prediction that future increases in water temperatures will influence marine food-web processes by altering top-down control, but we were also able to show that specific consequences for food-web structure depend on the season. Since F. vesiculosus is the dominant habitat-forming brown algal system in the Baltic Sea, its potential decline under global warming implies a loss of key functions and services such as provision of nutrient storage, substrate, food, shelter, and nursery grounds for a diverse community of marine invertebrates and fish in Baltic Sea coastal waters.

  20. Temperature effects on seaweed-sustaining top-down control vary with season.

    PubMed

    Werner, Franziska J; Graiff, Angelika; Matthiessen, Birte

    2016-03-01

    Rising seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations (ocean acidification) represent two of the most influential factors impacting marine ecosystems in the face of global climate change. In ecological climate change research, full-factorial experiments performed across seasons in multispecies, cross-trophic-level settings are essential as they permit a more realistic estimation of direct and indirect effects as well as the relative importance of the effects of both major environmental stressors on ecosystems. In benthic mesocosm experiments, we tested the responses of coastal Baltic Sea Fucus vesiculosus communities to elevated seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations across four seasons of one year. While increasing [CO2] levels had only minor effects, warming had strong and persistent effects on grazers, and the resulting effects on the Fucus community were found to be season dependent. In late summer, a temperature-driven collapse of grazers caused a cascading effect from the consumers to the foundation species, resulting in overgrowth of Fucus thalli by epiphytes. In fall/winter (outside the growing season of epiphytes), intensified grazing under warming resulted in a significant reduction in Fucus biomass. Thus, we were able to confirm the prediction that future increases in water temperatures will influence marine food-web processes by altering top-down control, but we were also able to show that specific consequences for food-web structure depend on the season. Since F. vesiculosus is the dominant habitat-forming brown algal system in the Baltic Sea, its potential decline under global warming implies a loss of key functions and services such as provision of nutrient storage, substrate, food, shelter, and nursery grounds for a diverse community of marine invertebrates and fish in Baltic Sea coastal waters. PMID:26566809

  1. Characterization of VOC Emission from Materials in Vehicular Environment at Varied Temperatures: Correlation Development and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jianyin; Yang, Tao; Tan, Jianwei; Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan

    2015-01-01

    The steady state VOC concentration in automobile cabin is taken as a good indicator to characterize the material emission behaviors and evaluate the vehicular air quality. Most studies in this field focus on experimental investigation while theoretical analysis is lacking. In this paper we firstly develop a simplified physical model to describe the VOC emission from automobile materials, and then derive a theoretical correlation between the steady state cabin VOC concentration (Ca) and temperature (T), which indicates that the logarithm of Ca/T0.75 is in a linear relationship with 1/T. Experiments of chemical emissions in three car cabins at different temperatures (24°C, 29°C, 35°C) were conducted. Eight VOCs specified in the Chinese National Standard GB/T 27630–2011 were taken for analysis. The good agreement between the correlation and experimental results from our tests, as well as the data taken from literature demonstrates the effectiveness of the derived correlation. Further study indicates that the slope and intercept of the correlation follows linear association. With the derived correlation, the steady state cabin VOC concentration different from the test conditions can be conveniently obtained. This study should be helpful for analyzing temperature-dependent emission phenomena in automobiles and predicting associated health risks. PMID:26452146

  2. Characterization of VOC Emission from Materials in Vehicular Environment at Varied Temperatures: Correlation Development and Validation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jianyin; Yang, Tao; Tan, Jianwei; Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan

    2015-01-01

    The steady state VOC concentration in automobile cabin is taken as a good indicator to characterize the material emission behaviors and evaluate the vehicular air quality. Most studies in this field focus on experimental investigation while theoretical analysis is lacking. In this paper we firstly develop a simplified physical model to describe the VOC emission from automobile materials, and then derive a theoretical correlation between the steady state cabin VOC concentration (Ca) and temperature (T), which indicates that the logarithm of Ca/T0.75 is in a linear relationship with 1/T. Experiments of chemical emissions in three car cabins at different temperatures (24°C, 29°C, 35°C) were conducted. Eight VOCs specified in the Chinese National Standard GB/T 27630-2011 were taken for analysis. The good agreement between the correlation and experimental results from our tests, as well as the data taken from literature demonstrates the effectiveness of the derived correlation. Further study indicates that the slope and intercept of the correlation follows linear association. With the derived correlation, the steady state cabin VOC concentration different from the test conditions can be conveniently obtained. This study should be helpful for analyzing temperature-dependent emission phenomena in automobiles and predicting associated health risks. PMID:26452146

  3. Computational modeling of oxygen isotope effects on metal-mediated O2 activation at varying temperatures.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Valeriy V; Lanci, Michael P; Roth, Justine P

    2009-03-12

    Oxygen equilibrium isotope effects ((18)O EIEs) upon the formation of metal superoxide and peroxide structures from natural abundance O(2) are reported. The (18)O EIEs determined over a range of temperatures are compared to those calculated on the basis of vibrational frequencies. Considering all vibrational modes in a "full frequency model" is found to reproduce the empirical results better than "cut-off" models which consider only the most isotopically sensitive modes. Theoretically, the full frequency model predicts that (18)O EIEs arise from competing enthalpic and entropic influences resulting in nonlinear variations with temperature. Experimental evidence is provided for an increase in the magnitude of the EIE, in some instances implicating a change from inverse to normal values, as the temperature is raised. This finding is not easily reconciled with the common intuition that (18)O EIEs arise from a reduction of the O-O force constant and attendant changes in zero point energy level splitting. Instead a dominant entropic effect, as described here, is expected to characterize isotope effects upon reversible binding of small molecules to metal centers in enzymes and inorganic compounds.

  4. Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Interface Resistance of Pentacene Thin Films with Varying Morphology.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jillian; Ong, Wee-Liat; Bettinger, Christopher J; Malen, Jonathan A

    2016-07-27

    Temperature dependent thermal conductivities and thermal interface resistances of pentacene (Pn) thin films deposited on silicon substrates and self-assembled monolayer-modified [octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES)] silicon substrates were measured using frequency domain thermoreflectance. Atomic force microscopy images were used to derive an effective film thickness for thermal transport that accounts for surface roughness. Data taken over a temperature range of 77-300 K for various morphologies and film thicknesses show that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing Pn grain size. The sum of the substrate-Pn and Pn-gold thermal interface resistances was isolated from the intrinsic thermal resistance of the Pn films and found to be independent of surface chemistry. Corresponding Kapitza lengths of approximately 150 nm are larger than the physical thicknesses of typical Pn thin films and indicate that the interfaces play a dominant role in the total thermal resistance. This study has implications for increasing the performance and effective thermal management of small molecule electronic and energy conversion devices.

  5. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Idso, Laura; Johnson, LuAnn K; Jackson, Matthew I; Combs, Gerald F

    2016-10-01

    Resistant starch (RS) has unique digestive and absorptive properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking method and service temperature. Potatoes of three common commercial varieties (Yukon Gold, Dark Red Norland, and Russet Burbank) were subjected to two methods of cooking (baking or boiling) and three service temperatures: hot (65°C), chilled (4°C) and reheated (4°C for 6d; reheated to 65°C) and analyzed the starch content by modification of a commercially available assay. Results showed that RS content (g/100g) varied by cooking method and service temperature but not variety. Baked potatoes had higher RS contents than boiled; chilled potatoes had more RS than either hot or reheated. These results may assist in dietary choices for reducing chronic disease risk. PMID:27132853

  6. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Idso, Laura; Johnson, LuAnn K; Jackson, Matthew I; Combs, Gerald F

    2016-10-01

    Resistant starch (RS) has unique digestive and absorptive properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking method and service temperature. Potatoes of three common commercial varieties (Yukon Gold, Dark Red Norland, and Russet Burbank) were subjected to two methods of cooking (baking or boiling) and three service temperatures: hot (65°C), chilled (4°C) and reheated (4°C for 6d; reheated to 65°C) and analyzed the starch content by modification of a commercially available assay. Results showed that RS content (g/100g) varied by cooking method and service temperature but not variety. Baked potatoes had higher RS contents than boiled; chilled potatoes had more RS than either hot or reheated. These results may assist in dietary choices for reducing chronic disease risk.

  7. Reliability study of a MEMS array under varying temperature and humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Ranganathan, Ranjith; Gale, Richard; Dallas, Tim

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we quantify and analyze the rate of accrual of stiction and mechanical fatigue in a MEMS micro-mirror device to understand its reliability under a set of controlled temperature and humidity splits. An accelerated aging system was employed by using a non-standard actuation procedure to more rapidly induce failure of the micro-mirrors. The array is hermetically packaged with a low surface energy self-assembled-monolayer (SAM) based anti-stiction coating, along with an encapsulated source of this anti-stiction coating that serves as a reservoir. Exposure of the micro-mirror array to the environmental conditions was made possible by drilling two 1 mm holes in the hermetic package. This enabled the retention of the encapsulated SAM source in the package which was vital to understanding the effects of SAM re-deposition on the surface in the operating environment. The fastest accrual of stiction was seen in the 90°C, 80% RH split with approximately 80% of the micro-mirrors failing within 4.4 × 109 cycles (10 hours) with 2.7×10-14 Joules of Stiction Equivalent Energy while the 60°C, 20% RH showed the least stiction accrual rate with less than 2% failure for 2.26×1012 cycles (1500 hours). The failure data obtained from the experiments were used to do a reliability analysis by utilizing the Weibull distribution.

  8. The CO-12 and CO-13 J=2-1 and J=1-0 observations of hot and cold galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Shuding; Schloerb, F. Peter; Young, Judith

    1990-01-01

    Researchers observed the nuclear regions of the galaxies NGC 2146 and IC 342 in CO-12 and CO-13 J=1-0 and J=2-1 lines using the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) 14m telescope. NGC 2146 is a peculiar Sab spiral galaxy. Its complex optical morphology and strong nuclear radio continuum emission suggest that it is experiencing a phase of violent activity and could have a polar ring which may have resulted from an interaction. IC 342 is a nearby luminous Scd spiral galaxy. Strong CO, infrared and radio continuum emission from the nuclear region of IC 342 indicate enhanced star-forming activity, and interferometric CO-12 J=1-0 observations reveal a bar-like structure centered on the nucleus, along the dark lane in the NS direction. These two galaxies are selected based on their different dust temperatures and star formation efficiencies (SFE) as derived from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) S sub 60 mu/S sub 100 mu flux density ratio and L sub IR/M(H2), respectively, with a relatively high SFE and dust temperature of 45 K in NGC 2146 and a relatively low SFE and dust temperature of 35 K in IC 342. The data from the different CO-12 and CO-13 lines are used to study the physical conditions in the molecular clouds in the galaxies. Researchers also consider the radiative transfer to determine whether a warm and optically thin gas component exists in these galaxies, as has been suggested in the case of M82 (Knapp et al. 1980), and whether the warm gas is related to the dust properties. Since optically thin CO-12 gas is rarely detected in our own Galaxy (except in outflow sources), to confirm its existence in external galaxies is very important in understanding the molecular content of external galaxies and its relationship to star formation activity. The present CO-12 J=2-1 and CO-13 J=2-1 and J=1-0 data for NGC 2146 are the first detections of this galaxy to our knowledge. The CO-12 J=1-0 distribution in NGC 2146 has been measured as part of the FCRAO

  9. Effects of varying dilutions, pH, temperature and cations on spermatozoa motility in fish Larimichthys polyactis.

    PubMed

    Le Minh, Hoang; Lim, Han Kyu; Min, Byung Hwa; Park, Mi Seon; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Lee, Jung Uie; Chang, Young Jin

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this present study were to assess the effects of varying dilutions, pH, temperature and cations on spermatozoa motile parameters (SMPs) in fish Larimichthys polyactis. Optimal SMPs were observed when emen was diluted in artificial seawater (ASW) at a ratio of 1 to 100, with temperature of 10 degreesC and pH 8.0. The spermatozoa of L. polyactis were immotile in distilled water and motile in solution containing different cations. Maximum SMPs were obtained in each solution containing 0.4 mol NaCI, 0.4 mol KCI, 0.2 mol CaCI2 and 0.2 mol MgCl2. This study provides baseline knowledge of L. polyactis spermatozoa sensitivity of pH, temperature and cationic effects.

  10. Structural damage detection based on stochastic subspace identification and statistical pattern recognition: II. Experimental validation under varying temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. Q.; Ren, W. X.; Fang, S. E.

    2011-11-01

    Although most vibration-based damage detection methods can acquire satisfactory verification on analytical or numerical structures, most of them may encounter problems when applied to real-world structures under varying environments. The damage detection methods that directly extract damage features from the periodically sampled dynamic time history response measurements are desirable but relevant research and field application verification are still lacking. In this second part of a two-part paper, the robustness and performance of the statistics-based damage index using the forward innovation model by stochastic subspace identification of a vibrating structure proposed in the first part have been investigated against two prestressed reinforced concrete (RC) beams tested in the laboratory and a full-scale RC arch bridge tested in the field under varying environments. Experimental verification is focused on temperature effects. It is demonstrated that the proposed statistics-based damage index is insensitive to temperature variations but sensitive to the structural deterioration or state alteration. This makes it possible to detect the structural damage for the real-scale structures experiencing ambient excitations and varying environmental conditions.

  11. Cost-effective two-stage varying-temperature rapid crystallization of zeolite T and SAPO-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaoyan; Chu, Naibo; Lu, Xuewei; Li, Zhongfang; Guo, Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, zeolite T and SAPO-34 have been synthesized by two-stage varying temperature crystallization method (TVTC method). The feature of this method is dividing the hydrothermal process into two steps. The first step is lower temperature treatment which is favorable for the crystals nucleation and the second step is higher temperature treatment which is helpful to the crystals growth. The advantage of this method is that it greatly reduces the crystallization time and particle size compared to conventional constant temperature crystallization method (CCTC method). The influences of different initial and final temperatures on the zeolite crystallinity, morphology and particle size have been investigated in detail. Ultimately, the optimal crystallization conditions of zeolite T and SAPO-34 using this method have been summarized. The samples prepared with TVTC method and CCTC method also have been contrasted. With TVTC method, the synthesis time of zeolite T crystals is reduced from 7 days to 4 days and the synthesis time of SAPO-34 crystals is reduced from 48 h to 16 h. Furthermore, the sample prepared by TVTC method has higher crystallinity compared with the sample prepared by CCTC method. The particle size distributions of samples prepared by two methods have strongly confirmed that TVTC method is beneficial to form uniform and small zeolite particles. This paper provides an efficient and economical route to the industrial preparation of zeolite T and SAPO-34.

  12. Multiscale Assembly of Grape-Like Ferroferric Oxide and Carbon Nanotubes: A Smart Absorber Prototype Varying Temperature to Tune Intensities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Ming; Cao, Mao-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Hua; Cao, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Jia; Shi, Hong-Long; Zhang, De-Qing; Wang, Wen-Zhong; Yuan, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Ideal electromagnetic attenuation material should not only shield the electromagnetic interference but also need strong absorption. Lightweight microwave absorber with thermal stability and high efficiency is a highly sought-after goal of researchers. Tuning microwave absorption to meet the harsh requirements of thermal environments has been a great challenge. Here, grape-like Fe3O4-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized, which have unique multiscale-assembled morphology, relatively uniform size, good crystallinity, high magnetization, and favorable superparamagnetism. The Fe3O4-MWCNTs is proven to be a smart microwave-absorber prototype with tunable high intensities in double belts in the temperature range of 323-473 K and X band. Maximum absorption in two absorbing belts can be simultaneously tuned from ∼-10 to ∼-15 dB and from ∼-16 to ∼-25 dB by varying temperature, respectively. The belt for reflection loss ≤-20 dB can almost cover the X band at 323 K. The tunable microwave absorption is attributed to effective impedance matching, benefiting from abundant interfacial polarizations and increased magnetic loss resulting from the grape-like Fe3O4 nanocrystals. Temperature adjusts the impedance matching by changing both the dielectric and magnetic loss. The special assembly of MWCNTs and magnetic loss nanocrystals provides an effective pathway to realize excellent absorbers at elevated temperature.

  13. Critical body residues for pentachlorophenol in the zebra mussel under varying conditions of pH and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Hwang, H.; Atanasoff, M.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP), an ionizable phenol, is strongly dependent on environmental pH and temperature. Using the invertebrate species, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), the authors tested whether CBRs could be used to resolve the differences in toxicity under varying conditions. The authors simultaneously measured acute toxicity and tissue concentrations of PCP under 9 different combinations of pH and temperature. CBRs were determined from tissue residues as LD{sub 50}, values and were also calculated from LC{sub 50}s in conjunction with toxicokinetic parameters determined under each set of conditions. The data show that when toxicity is based on aqueous concentrations of PCP needed to cause mortality (LC{sub 50}s), that the resulting LC{sub 50}s varied by a factor of 372 X across the range of conditions tested. However, when LD{sub 50}s were calculated from tissue residues in the mussel, the latter varied only by a factor of 12.7 across the range of conditions examined. When CBRs were determined toxicokinetically, instead of from direct measurement of tissue concentrations, these CBRs were both higher than the measured LD{sub 50}s and more variable. The authors believe this is a result of the animals having a higher filtering rate and a greater tolerance for PCP in the short-term exposures from which the toxicokinetic values were obtained. Their data generally support the utility of CBRs in minimizing variation attributable to environmental variables but also demonstrate that the method of determining a CBR will be critical.

  14. Soil carbon sensitivity to temperature and carbon use efficiency compared across microbial-ecosystem models of varying complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianwei; Wang, Gangsheng; Allison, Steven D.; Mayes, Melanie; Luo, Yiqi

    2014-01-01

    Global ecosystem models may require microbial components to accurately predict feedbacks between climate warming and soil decomposition, but it is unclear what parameters and levels of complexity are ideal for scaling up to the globe. Here we conducted a model comparison using a conventional model with first-order decay and three microbial models of increasing complexity that simulate short- to long-term soil carbon dynamics. We focused on soil carbon responses to microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE) and temperature. Three scenarios were implemented in all models: constant CUE (held at 0.31), varied CUE ( 0.016 C 1), and 50 % acclimated CUE ( 0.008 C 1). Whereas the conventional model always showed soil carbon losses with increasing temperature, the microbial models each predicted a temperature threshold above which warming led to soil carbon gain. The location of this threshold depended on CUE scenario, with higher temperature thresholds under the acclimated and constant scenarios. This result suggests that the temperature sensitivity of CUE and the structure of the soil carbon model together regulate the long-term soil carbon response to warming. Equilibrium soil carbon stocks predicted by the microbial models were much less sensitive to changing inputs compared to the conventional model. Although many soil carbon dynamics were similar across microbial models, the most complex model showed less pronounced oscillations. Thus, adding model complexity (i.e. including enzyme pools) could improve the mechanistic representation of soil carbon dynamics during the transient phase in certain ecosystems. This study suggests that model structure and CUE parameterization should be carefully evaluated when scaling up microbial models to ecosystems and the globe.

  15. Frequency of open windows in motor vehicles under varying temperature conditions: a videotape survey in Central North Carolina during 2001.

    PubMed

    Long, Tom; Johnson, Ted; Ollison, Will

    2004-07-01

    Air pollution exposures in the motor vehicle cabin are significantly affected by air exchange rate, a function of vehicle speed, window position, vent status, fan speed, and air conditioning use. A pilot study conducted in Houston, Texas, during September 2000 demonstrated that useful information concerning the position of windows, sunroofs, and convertible tops as a function of temperature and vehicle speed could be obtained through the use of video recorders. To obtain similar data representing a wide range of temperature and traffic conditions, a follow-up study was conducted in and around Chapel Hill, North Carolina at five sites representing a central business district, an arterial road, a low-income commercial district, an interstate highway, and a rural road. Each site permitted an elevated view of vehicles as they proceeded through a turn, thereby exposing all windows to the stationary camcorder. A total of 32 videotaping sessions were conducted between February and October 2001, in which temperature varied from 41 degrees F to 93 degrees F and average vehicle speed varied from 21 to 77 mph. The resulting video tapes were processed to create a vehicle-specific database that included site location, date, time, vehicle type, vehicle color, vehicle age, window configuration, number of windows in each of three position categories (fully open, partially open, and closed), meteorological factors, and vehicle speed. Of the 4715 vehicles included in the database, 1905 (40.4%) were labeled as "open," indicating a window, sunroof, or convertible top was fully or partially open. Stepwise linear regression analyses indicated that "open" window status was affected by wind speed, relative humidity, vehicle speed, cloud cover, apparent temperature, day of week, time of day, vehicle type, vehicle age, vehicle color, number of windows, sunroofs, location, and air quality season. Open windows tended to occur less frequently when relative humidity was high, apparent

  16. Frequency of open windows in motor vehicles under varying temperature conditions: a videotape survey in Central North Carolina during 2001.

    PubMed

    Long, Tom; Johnson, Ted; Ollison, Will

    2004-07-01

    Air pollution exposures in the motor vehicle cabin are significantly affected by air exchange rate, a function of vehicle speed, window position, vent status, fan speed, and air conditioning use. A pilot study conducted in Houston, Texas, during September 2000 demonstrated that useful information concerning the position of windows, sunroofs, and convertible tops as a function of temperature and vehicle speed could be obtained through the use of video recorders. To obtain similar data representing a wide range of temperature and traffic conditions, a follow-up study was conducted in and around Chapel Hill, North Carolina at five sites representing a central business district, an arterial road, a low-income commercial district, an interstate highway, and a rural road. Each site permitted an elevated view of vehicles as they proceeded through a turn, thereby exposing all windows to the stationary camcorder. A total of 32 videotaping sessions were conducted between February and October 2001, in which temperature varied from 41 degrees F to 93 degrees F and average vehicle speed varied from 21 to 77 mph. The resulting video tapes were processed to create a vehicle-specific database that included site location, date, time, vehicle type, vehicle color, vehicle age, window configuration, number of windows in each of three position categories (fully open, partially open, and closed), meteorological factors, and vehicle speed. Of the 4715 vehicles included in the database, 1905 (40.4%) were labeled as "open," indicating a window, sunroof, or convertible top was fully or partially open. Stepwise linear regression analyses indicated that "open" window status was affected by wind speed, relative humidity, vehicle speed, cloud cover, apparent temperature, day of week, time of day, vehicle type, vehicle age, vehicle color, number of windows, sunroofs, location, and air quality season. Open windows tended to occur less frequently when relative humidity was high, apparent

  17. Degradation of Kresoxim-Methyl in Water: Impact of Varying pH, Temperature, Light and Atmospheric CO2 Level.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Ashish; Gupta, Suman; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Varghese, Eldho

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, persistence of kresoxim-methyl (a broad spectrum strobilurin fungicide) was studied in water. Results revealed that kresoxim-methyl readily form acid metabolite. Therefore, residues of kresoxim-methyl were quantified on the basis of parent molecule alone and sum total of kresoxim-methyl and its acid metabolite. In water, influence of various abiotic factors like pH, temperature, light and atmospheric carbon dioxide level on dissipation of kresoxim-methyl was studied. The half life value for kresoxim-methyl and total residue varied from 1 to 26.1 and 6.1 to 94.0 days under different conditions. Statistical analysis revealed the significant effect of abiotic factors on the dissipation of kresoxim-methyl from water.

  18. Degradation of metaflumizone in soil: impact of varying moisture, light, temperature, atmospheric CO2 level, soil type and soil sterilization.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Gupta, Suman; Varghese, Eldho

    2013-01-01

    Soil is a major sink for the bulk of globally used pesticides. Hence, fate of pesticides in soil under the influence of various biotic and abiotic factors becomes important for evaluation of stability and safety. This paper presents the impact of varying moisture, light, temperature, atmospheric CO(2) level, soil type and soil sterilization on degradation of metaflumizone, a newly registered insecticide in India. Degradation of metaflumizone in soil followed the first order reaction kinetics and its half life values varied from ~20 to 150 d. Under anaerobic condition, degradation of metaflumizone was faster (t(½) 33.4 d) compared to aerobic condition (t(½) 50.1 d) and dry soil (t(½) 150.4 d). Under different light exposures, degradation was the fastest under UV light (t(½) 27.3 d) followed by Xenon light (t(½) 43 d) and dark condition (t(½) 50.1 d). Degradation rate of metaflumizone increased with temperature and its half life values ranged from 30.1 to 100.3d. Elevated atmospheric CO(2) level increased the degradation in soil (t(½) 20.1-50.1 d). However, overall degradation rate was the fastest at 550 ppm atmospheric CO(2) level, followed by 750 ppm and ambient level (375 ppm). Degradation of metaflumizone was faster in Oxisol (pH 5.2, Total Organic Carbon 1.2%) compared to Inceptisol (pH 8.15, TOC 0.36%). In sterile soil, only 5% dissipation of initial concentration was observed after 90 d of sampling. Under various conditions, 4-cyanobenzoic acid (0.22-1.86 mg kg(-1)) and 4-trifluoromethoxy aniline (0.21-1.23 mg kg(-1)) were detected as major degradation products.

  19. Evaluation of Varying Ductile Fracture Criteria for 42CrMo Steel by Compressions at Different Temperatures and Strain Rates

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Guo-zheng; Luo, Gui-chang; Mao, An; Liang, Jian-ting; Wu, Dong-sen

    2014-01-01

    Fracturing by ductile damage occurs quite naturally in metal forming processes, and ductile fracture of strain-softening alloy, here 42CrMo steel, cannot be evaluated through simple procedures such as tension testing. Under these circumstances, it is very significant and economical to find a way to evaluate the ductile fracture criteria (DFC) and identify the relationships between damage evolution and deformation conditions. Under the guidance of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criteria, an innovative approach involving hot compression tests, numerical simulations, and mathematic computations provides mutual support to evaluate ductile damage cumulating process and DFC diagram along with deformation conditions, which has not been expounded by Cockcroft and Latham. The results show that the maximum damage value appears in the region of upsetting drum, while the minimal value appears in the middle region. Furthermore, DFC of 42CrMo steel at temperature range of 1123~1348 K and strain rate of 0.01~10 s−1 are not constant but change in a range of 0.160~0.226; thus, they have been defined as varying ductile fracture criteria (VDFC) and characterized by a function of temperature and strain rate. In bulk forming operations, VDFC help technicians to choose suitable process parameters and avoid the occurrence of fracture. PMID:24592175

  20. Evaluation of varying ductile fracture criteria for 42CrMo steel by compressions at different temperatures and strain rates.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo-zheng; Luo, Gui-chang; Mao, An; Liang, Jian-ting; Wu, Dong-sen

    2014-01-01

    Fracturing by ductile damage occurs quite naturally in metal forming processes, and ductile fracture of strain-softening alloy, here 42CrMo steel, cannot be evaluated through simple procedures such as tension testing. Under these circumstances, it is very significant and economical to find a way to evaluate the ductile fracture criteria (DFC) and identify the relationships between damage evolution and deformation conditions. Under the guidance of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criteria, an innovative approach involving hot compression tests, numerical simulations, and mathematic computations provides mutual support to evaluate ductile damage cumulating process and DFC diagram along with deformation conditions, which has not been expounded by Cockcroft and Latham. The results show that the maximum damage value appears in the region of upsetting drum, while the minimal value appears in the middle region. Furthermore, DFC of 42CrMo steel at temperature range of 1123~1348 K and strain rate of 0.01~10 s(-1) are not constant but change in a range of 0.160~0.226; thus, they have been defined as varying ductile fracture criteria (VDFC) and characterized by a function of temperature and strain rate. In bulk forming operations, VDFC help technicians to choose suitable process parameters and avoid the occurrence of fracture. PMID:24592175

  1. Evaluation of varying ductile fracture criteria for 42CrMo steel by compressions at different temperatures and strain rates.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo-zheng; Luo, Gui-chang; Mao, An; Liang, Jian-ting; Wu, Dong-sen

    2014-01-01

    Fracturing by ductile damage occurs quite naturally in metal forming processes, and ductile fracture of strain-softening alloy, here 42CrMo steel, cannot be evaluated through simple procedures such as tension testing. Under these circumstances, it is very significant and economical to find a way to evaluate the ductile fracture criteria (DFC) and identify the relationships between damage evolution and deformation conditions. Under the guidance of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criteria, an innovative approach involving hot compression tests, numerical simulations, and mathematic computations provides mutual support to evaluate ductile damage cumulating process and DFC diagram along with deformation conditions, which has not been expounded by Cockcroft and Latham. The results show that the maximum damage value appears in the region of upsetting drum, while the minimal value appears in the middle region. Furthermore, DFC of 42CrMo steel at temperature range of 1123~1348 K and strain rate of 0.01~10 s(-1) are not constant but change in a range of 0.160~0.226; thus, they have been defined as varying ductile fracture criteria (VDFC) and characterized by a function of temperature and strain rate. In bulk forming operations, VDFC help technicians to choose suitable process parameters and avoid the occurrence of fracture.

  2. Calculation procedure for transient heat transfer to a cooled plate in a heated stream whose temperature varies arbitrarily with time. [turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sucec, J.

    1975-01-01

    Solutions for the surface temperature and surface heat flux are found for laminar, constant property, slug flow over a plate convectively cooled from below, when the temperature of the fluid over the plate varies arbitrarily with time at the plate leading edge. A simple technique is presented for handling arbitrary fluid temperature variation with time by approximating it by a sequence of ramps or steps for which exact analytical solutions are available.

  3. Response of soil microbial respiration to varying temperature and moisture in three soils from the Siberian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, S.; Bunn, A. G.; Schade, J. D.; Polaris Project

    2011-12-01

    The climate of the Arctic is warming at a disproportionately higher rate as compared to the lower latitudes. Temperature and, by association, soil moisture are two of the most important variables that affect the respiration of soil microbial communities. The long-term storage of carbon in terrestrial systems relies upon low rates of soil microbial respiration at high latitudes, and an increase in temperature is thought to increase these rates. However, different ecosystems should respond uniquely to changes in temperature and moisture because of their historic microbial communities. Using mason jars in the laboratory, I experimentally manipulated the temperature and moisture of soils from three distinct arctic ecosystem types (tundra, taiga, and grazed floodplain). The goal of this experimental manipulation was to see if there are differences between these systems in their response to changes in their environment. I found that temperature significantly impacts microbial respiration (μg CO2 gOM-1 min-1) at all sites (p<0.001). In addition, there is a significant interaction between temperature and moisture at each site (p<0.001). However, the tundra site showed a stronger response in respiration with changes to temperature than the other two sites, as well as the strongest interaction between temperature and moisture (βtemperature= 1.5E10 -3; βinteraction= 1.9E10 -3). These findings are consistent with other observations that the soil microbial communities of the tundra grassland might be especially sensitive to warming.

  4. Influences of increased daily repeated upstream releases and varying meteorological conditions on temperature distributions in a river-reservoir system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Fang, X.

    2016-08-01

    Temperature distribution in a river-reservoir system was simulated using a calibrated three-dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code model under various hypothetical weather conditions and daily repeated large releases (DRLRs) from the upstream boundary. Both DRLRs and weather conditions affect and control the formation and spread of density currents and then affect the bottom-layer temperatures. The DRLRs with longer durations (e.g., 6 or 8 hours) can relatively quickly push cooler release water to the Gorgas upstream monitoring station (GOUS) and the river intake. With the air temperature drops in the first 6 days, simulated bottom temperatures at GOUS for 6- and 8-hr DRLRs are lower than one under 4-hr DRLR, but relatively larger bottom-layer temperature drops only primarily occur during the air-temperature drop and rise period. The release with larger flow rate can also maintain the cooler water temperature downstream. Releasing the same amounts of water, with different release durations and flow rates, has a very similar effect on the downstream water temperatures.

  5. ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance monitoring of the degradation of margarines of varied compositions when heated to high temperature.

    PubMed

    Ibargoitia, María L; Sopelana, P; Guillén, María D

    2014-12-15

    In this study, (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was used to monitor the evolution of three margarines of varied compositions when submitted to heating at 180°C in an oven with aeration. Heating causes degradation of polyunsaturated acyl groups and this depends not only on their unsaturation degree, but also on the concentration of the different acyl groups. The evolution of monounsaturated groups varies depending on the disappearance rate of the groups with higher unsaturation degree. Heat treatment also causes hydrolysis reactions that lead to a reduction in 1-monoglycerides and an increase in 1,2-diglycerides, especially in the margarines with higher water content, as well as degradation of some vegetable sterols. Different types of aldehydes and epoxides were identified and quantified, above all in the margarine with the highest proportion of polyunsaturated groups, especially linoleic; some of these are toxic, such as 4-hydroxy- and 4,5-epoxy-2-alkenals.

  6. CO2 and water vapour exchange in four alpine herbs at two altitudes and under varying light and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Rawat, A S; Purohit, A N

    1991-06-01

    CO2 and water vapour exchange rates of four alpine herbs namely: Rheum emodi, R. moorcroftianum, Megacarpaea polyandra and Rumex nepalensis were studied under field conditions at 3600 m (natural habitat) and 550 m altitudes. The effect of light and temperature on CO2 and water vapour exchange was studied in the plants grown at lower altitude. In R. moorcroftianum and R. nepalensis, the average photosynthesis rates were found to be about three times higher at 550 m as compared to that under their natural habitat. However, in M. polyandra, the CO2 exchange rates were two times higher at 3600 m than at 550 m but in R. emodi, there were virtually no differences at the two altitudes. These results indicate the variations in the CO2 exchange rates are species specific. The change in growth altitude does not affect this process uniformly.The transpiration rates in R. emodi and M. polyandra were found to be very high at 3600 m compared to 550 m and are attributed to overall higher stomatal conductance in plants of these species, grown at higher altitude. The mid-day closure of stomata and therefore, restriction of transpirational losses of water were observed in all the species at 550 m altitude. In addition to the effect of temperature and relative humidity, the data also indicate some endogenous rhythmic control of stomatal conductance.The temperature optima for photosynthesis was close to 30°C in M. polyandra and around 20°C in the rest of the three species. High temperature and high light intensity, as well as low temperature and high light intensity, adversely affect the net rate of photosynthesis in these species.Both light compensation point and dark respiration rate increased with increasing temperature.The effect of light was more prominent on photosynthesis than the effect of temperature, however, on transpiration the effect of temperature was more prominent than the effect of light intensity.No definite trends were found in stomatal conductance with respect to

  7. Plutella xylostella (L.) infestations at varying temperatures induce the emission of specific volatile blends by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Dieu-Hien; Delory, Benjamin M; Brostaux, Yves; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Delaplace, Pierre; Francis, Frédéric; Lognay, Georges

    2014-01-01

    The effect of combined abiotic and biotic factors on plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions is poorly understood. This study evaluated the VOC emissions produced by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Col-0 subjected to 3 temperature regimes (17, 22, and 27°C) in the presence and absence of Plutella xylostella larvae over 2 time intervals (0–4 and 4–8 h), in comparison to control plants. The analyses of VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis plants were made by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was found that certain volatile groups (e.g., alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes) are induced by both single factors (temperature or larval infestation) and combined factors (temperature and larvae interactions), whereas other volatile groups (e.g., isothiocyanates [ITCs] and nitrile) were specific to the experimental conditions. ITCs (mainly 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate) were emitted from plants subjected to larval infestation at 17 and 27°C after the 2 time intervals. The proportions of sulfides (mainly dimethyl disulfide) and 4-(methylthio) butanenitrile were significantly higher on herbivore-infested plants at 22°C compared to the other treatments. Overall, our findings indicate that changes in all experimental conditions caused significant changes to the VOC emissions of Arabidopsis plants. Therefore, the interaction between temperature and larval feeding may represent an important factor determining the variability of volatile emissions by plants subjected to multiple simultaneous factors. PMID:25482777

  8. Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Differential Sensitivity of Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) to Mesotrione at Varying Growth Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Godar, Amar S.; Varanasi, Vijaya K.; Nakka, Sridevi; Prasad, P. V. Vara; Thompson, Curtis R.; Mithila, J.

    2015-01-01

    Herbicide efficacy is known to be influenced by temperature, however, underlying mechanism(s) are poorly understood. A marked alteration in mesotrione [a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor] efficacy on Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) was observed when grown under low- (LT, 25/15°C, day/night temperatures) and high (HT, 40/30°C) temperature compared to optimum (OT, 32.5/22.5°C) temperature. Based on plant height, injury, and mortality, Palmer amaranth was more sensitive to mesotrione at LT and less sensitive at HT compared to OT (ED50 for mortality; 18.5, 52.3, and 63.7 g ai ha-1, respectively). Similar responses were observed for leaf chlorophyll index and photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). Furthermore, mesotrione translocation and metabolism, and HPPD expression data strongly supported such variation. Relatively more mesotrione was translocated to meristematic regions at LT or OT than at HT. Based on T50 values (time required to metabolize 50% of the 14C mesotrione), plants at HT metabolized mesotrione faster than those at LT or OT (T50; 13, 21, and 16.5 h, respectively). The relative HPPD:CPS (carbamoyl phosphate synthetase) or HPPD:β-tubulin expression in mesotrione-treated plants increased over time in all temperature regimes; however, at 48 HAT, the HPPD:β-tubulin expression was exceedingly higher at HT compared to LT or OT (18.4-, 3.1-, and 3.5-fold relative to untreated plants, respectively). These findings together with an integrated understanding of other interacting key environmental factors will have important implications for a predictable approach for effective weed management. PMID:25992558

  9. Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Differential Sensitivity of Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) to Mesotrione at Varying Growth Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Godar, Amar S; Varanasi, Vijaya K; Nakka, Sridevi; Prasad, P V Vara; Thompson, Curtis R; Mithila, J

    2015-01-01

    Herbicide efficacy is known to be influenced by temperature, however, underlying mechanism(s) are poorly understood. A marked alteration in mesotrione [a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor] efficacy on Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) was observed when grown under low- (LT, 25/15 °C, day/night temperatures) and high (HT, 40/30° C) temperature compared to optimum (OT, 32.5/22.5 °C) temperature. Based on plant height, injury, and mortality, Palmer amaranth was more sensitive to mesotrione at LT and less sensitive at HT compared to OT (ED50 for mortality; 18.5, 52.3, and 63.7 g ai ha-1, respectively). Similar responses were observed for leaf chlorophyll index and photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). Furthermore, mesotrione translocation and metabolism, and HPPD expression data strongly supported such variation. Relatively more mesotrione was translocated to meristematic regions at LT or OT than at HT. Based on T50 values (time required to metabolize 50% of the 14C mesotrione), plants at HT metabolized mesotrione faster than those at LT or OT (T50; 13, 21, and 16.5 h, respectively). The relative HPPD:CPS (carbamoyl phosphate synthetase) or HPPD:β-tubulin expression in mesotrione-treated plants increased over time in all temperature regimes; however, at 48 HAT, the HPPD:β-tubulin expression was exceedingly higher at HT compared to LT or OT (18.4-, 3.1-, and 3.5-fold relative to untreated plants, respectively). These findings together with an integrated understanding of other interacting key environmental factors will have important implications for a predictable approach for effective weed management. PMID:25992558

  10. A dynamic growth model of vegetative soya bean plants: model structure and behaviour under varying root temperature and nitrogen concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, J. T.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Gold, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation model of vegetative growth of the soya bean plant (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom') was developed to account for plant growth in a phytotron system under variation of root temperature and nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution. The model was tested by comparing model outputs with data from four different experiments. Model predictions agreed fairly well with measured plant performance over a wide range of root temperatures and over a range of nitrogen concentrations in nutrient solution between 0.5 and 10.0 mmol NO3- in the phytotron environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to changes in parameters relating to carbohydrate concentration in the plant and nitrogen uptake rate.

  11. Artificial primary marine aerosol production: a laboratory study with varying water temperature, salinity, and succinic acid concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zábori, J.; Matisāns, M.; Krejci, R.; Nilsson, E. D.; Ström, J.

    2012-11-01

    Primary marine aerosols are an important component of the climate system, especially in the remote marine environment. With diminishing sea-ice cover, better understanding of the role of sea spray aerosol on climate in the polar regions is required. As for Arctic Ocean water, laboratory experiments with NaCl water confirm that a few degrees change in the water temperature (Tw) gives a large change in the number of primary particles. Small particles with a dry diameter between 0.01 μm and 0.25 μm dominate the aerosol number density, but their relative dominance decreases with increasing water temperature from 0 °C where they represent 85-90% of the total aerosol number to 10 °C, where they represent 60-70% of the total aerosol number. This effect is most likely related to a change in physical properties and not to modification of sea water chemistry. A change of salinity between 15 g kg-1 and 35 g kg-1 did not influence the shape of a particle number size distribution. Although the magnitude of the size distribution for a water temperature change between 0 °C and 16 °C changed, the shape did not. An experiment where succinic acid was added to a NaCl water solution showed, that the number concentration of particles with 0.010 μm < Dp < 4.5 μm decreased on average by 10% when the succinic acid concentration in NaCl water at a water temperature of 0 °C was increased from 0 μmol L-1 to 94 μmol L-1. A shift to larger sizes in the particle number size distribution is observed from pure NaCl water to Arctic Ocean water. This is likely a consequence of organics and different inorganic salts present in Arctic Ocean water in addition to the NaCl.

  12. Responses of leaf respiration to temperature and leaf characteristics in three deciduous tree species vary with site water availability.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D; Tissue, D T; Schuster, W S; Brown, K J; Griffin, K L

    2001-06-01

    We measured responses of leaf respiration to temperature and leaf characteristics in three deciduous tree species (Quercus rubra L., Quercus prinus L. and Acer rubrum L.) at two sites differing in water availability within a single catchment in the Black Rock Forest, New York. The response of respiration to temperature differed significantly among the species. Acer rubrum displayed the smallest increase in respiration with increasing temperature. Corresponding Q(10) values ranged from 1.5 in A. rubrum to 2.1 in Q. prinus. Dark respiration at ambient air temperatures, expressed on a leaf area basis (Rarea), did not differ significantly between species, but it was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in trees at the wetter (lower) site than at the drier (upper) site (Q. rubra: 0.8 versus 1.1 micromol m(-2) s(-1); Q. prinus: 0.95 versus 1.2 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). In contrast, when expressed on a leaf mass basis (R(mass)), respiration rates were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in A. rubrum (12.5-14.6 micromol CO(2) kg(-1) s(-1)) than in Q. rubra (8.6-9.9 micromol CO(2) kg(-1) s(-1)) and Q. prinus (9.2-10.6 micromol CO(2) kg(-1) s(-1)) at both the lower and upper sites. Respiration on a nitrogen basis (R(N)) displayed a similar response to R(mass). The consistency in R(mass) and R(N) between sites indicates a strong coupling between factors influencing respiration and those affecting leaf characteristics. Finally, the relationships between dark respiration and A(max) differed between sites. Trees at the upper site had higher rates of leaf respiration and lower A(max) than trees at the lower site. This shift in the balance of carbon gain and loss clearly limits carbon acquisition by trees at sites of low water availability, particularly in the case of A. rubrum.

  13. Microsatellite frequencies vary with body mass and body temperature in mammals, suggesting correlated variation in mutation rate

    PubMed Central

    Filipe, Laura N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Substitution rate is often found to correlate with life history traits such as body mass, a predictor of population size and longevity, and body temperature. The underlying mechanism is unclear but most models invoke either natural selection or factors such as generation length that change the number of mutation opportunities per unit time. Here we use published genome sequences from 69 mammals to ask whether life history traits impact another form of genetic mutation, the high rates of predominantly neutral slippage in microsatellites. We find that the length-frequency distributions of three common dinucleotide motifs differ greatly between even closely related species. These frequency differences correlate with body mass and body temperature and can be used to predict the phenotype of an unknown species. Importantly, different length microsatellites show complicated patterns of excess and deficit that cannot be explained by a simple model where species with short generation lengths have experienced more mutations. Instead, the patterns probably require changes in mutation rate that impact alleles of different length to different extents. Body temperature plausibly influences mutation rate by modulating the propensity for slippage. Existing hypotheses struggle to account for a link between body mass and mutation rate. However, body mass correlates inversely with population size, which in turn predicts heterozygosity. We suggest that heterozygote instability, HI, the idea that heterozygous sites show increased mutability, could provide a plausible link between body mass and mutation rate. PMID:25392761

  14. Temperature varying photoconductivity of GeSn alloys grown by chemical vapor deposition with Sn concentrations from 4% to 11%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, John; Adam, Thomas; Kim, Yihwan; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Reznicek, Alexander; Hazbun, Ramsey; Gupta, Jay; Kolodzey, James

    2016-03-01

    Pseudomorphic GeSn layers with Sn atomic percentages between 4.5% and 11.3% were grown by chemical vapor deposition using digermane and SnCl4 precursors on Ge virtual substrates grown on Si. The layers were characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking curves and reciprocal space maps. Photoconductive devices were fabricated, and the dark current was found to increase with Sn concentration. The responsivity of the photoconductors was measured at a wavelength of 1.55 μm using calibrated laser illumination at room temperature and a maximum value of 2.7 mA/W was measured for a 4.5% Sn device. Moreover, the responsivity for higher Sn concentration was found to increase with decreasing temperature. Spectral photoconductivity was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photoconductive absorption edge continually increased in wavelength with increasing tin percentage, out to approximately 2.4 μm for an 11.3% Sn device. The direct band gap was extracted using Tauc plots and was fit to a bandgap model accounting for layer strain and Sn concentration. This direct bandgap was attributed to absorption from the heavy-hole band to the conduction band. Higher energy absorption was also observed, which was thought to be likely from absorption in the light-hole band. The band gaps for these alloys were plotted as a function of temperature. These experiments show the promise of GeSn alloys for CMOS compatible short wave infrared detectors.

  15. Growth and palmitoleic acid accumulation of filamentous oleaginous microalgae Tribonema minus at varying temperatures and light regimes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Gao, Lili; Zhou, Wenjun; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-10-01

    Palmitoleic acid (C16:1Δ9), contributes greatly to human health, industrial chemicals and biodiesel. The filamentous oleaginous microalgae Tribonema sp. has been identified as a highly efficient producer of palmitoleic acid. Temperature and light regime were adapted to regulate the palmitoleic acid content in this study. Strain T. minus was able to grow well at all the tested temperatures, even at 5 °C. The optimum temperature for palmitoleic acid accumulation (54.25 % of total fatty acid) was 25 °C. Moreover, both light intensity and photoperiod affect the growth, lipid content and fatty acid files of T. minus. The culture exposed to 240 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) with a photoperiod of 24:0 showed the highest biomass (6.87 g L(-1)) and biggest lipid content (61.27 % of dry weight), whereas the most amount of palmitoleic acid (50.47 % of total fatty acid) was detected at 120 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). These findings make tangible contributions to culture T. minus for commercial production of lipid or palmitoleic acid. PMID:27250652

  16. Growth and palmitoleic acid accumulation of filamentous oleaginous microalgae Tribonema minus at varying temperatures and light regimes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Gao, Lili; Zhou, Wenjun; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-10-01

    Palmitoleic acid (C16:1Δ9), contributes greatly to human health, industrial chemicals and biodiesel. The filamentous oleaginous microalgae Tribonema sp. has been identified as a highly efficient producer of palmitoleic acid. Temperature and light regime were adapted to regulate the palmitoleic acid content in this study. Strain T. minus was able to grow well at all the tested temperatures, even at 5 °C. The optimum temperature for palmitoleic acid accumulation (54.25 % of total fatty acid) was 25 °C. Moreover, both light intensity and photoperiod affect the growth, lipid content and fatty acid files of T. minus. The culture exposed to 240 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) with a photoperiod of 24:0 showed the highest biomass (6.87 g L(-1)) and biggest lipid content (61.27 % of dry weight), whereas the most amount of palmitoleic acid (50.47 % of total fatty acid) was detected at 120 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). These findings make tangible contributions to culture T. minus for commercial production of lipid or palmitoleic acid.

  17. Microsatellite frequencies vary with body mass and body temperature in mammals, suggesting correlated variation in mutation rate.

    PubMed

    Amos, William; Filipe, Laura N S

    2014-01-01

    Substitution rate is often found to correlate with life history traits such as body mass, a predictor of population size and longevity, and body temperature. The underlying mechanism is unclear but most models invoke either natural selection or factors such as generation length that change the number of mutation opportunities per unit time. Here we use published genome sequences from 69 mammals to ask whether life history traits impact another form of genetic mutation, the high rates of predominantly neutral slippage in microsatellites. We find that the length-frequency distributions of three common dinucleotide motifs differ greatly between even closely related species. These frequency differences correlate with body mass and body temperature and can be used to predict the phenotype of an unknown species. Importantly, different length microsatellites show complicated patterns of excess and deficit that cannot be explained by a simple model where species with short generation lengths have experienced more mutations. Instead, the patterns probably require changes in mutation rate that impact alleles of different length to different extents. Body temperature plausibly influences mutation rate by modulating the propensity for slippage. Existing hypotheses struggle to account for a link between body mass and mutation rate. However, body mass correlates inversely with population size, which in turn predicts heterozygosity. We suggest that heterozygote instability, HI, the idea that heterozygous sites show increased mutability, could provide a plausible link between body mass and mutation rate. PMID:25392761

  18. Influence of extruder temperature and screw speed on pretreatment of corn stover while varying enzymes and their ratios.

    PubMed

    Karunanithy, Chinnadurai; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2010-09-01

    Pretreatment is being the first and most expensive step, it has pervasive impacts on all other steps in overall conversion process. There are several pretreatment methods using physical, chemical, and biological principles which are under various stages of investigation. Extrusion can be used as one of the physical pretreatment methods towards biofuel production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of barrel temperature and screw speed on sugar recovery from corn stover, to select a suitable enzyme combination and its ratio. Corn stover was pretreated in a single screw extruder with five screw speeds (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 rpm) and five barrel temperatures (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 degrees C). In order to select a suitable enzyme combination and ratio, different levels of cellulase and beta-glucosidase, multienzyme complex and beta-glucosidase were used during saccharification of pretreated corn stover. From the statistical analysis, it was found that screw speed and temperature had a significant effect on sugar recovery from corn stover. Higher glucose, xylose, and combined sugar recovery of 75, 49, and 61%, respectively, were recorded at 75 rpm and 125 degrees C. This pretreatment condition resulted in 2.0, 1.7, and 2.0 times higher than the control sample using 1:4 cellulase and beta-glucosidase combination.

  19. Probabilistic reconstructions of local temperature and soil moisture from tree-ring data with potentially time-varying climatic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolwinski-Ward, S. E.; Tingley, M. P.; Evans, M. N.; Hughes, M. K.; Nychka, D. W.

    2015-02-01

    We explore a probabilistic, hierarchical Bayesian approach to the simultaneous reconstruction of local temperature and soil moisture from tree-ring width observations. The model explicitly allows for differing calibration and reconstruction interval responses of the ring-width series to climate due to slow changes in climatology coupled with the biological climate thresholds underlying tree-ring growth. A numerical experiment performed using synthetically generated data demonstrates that bimodality can occur in posterior estimates of past climate when the data do not contain enough information to determine whether temperature or moisture limitation controlled reconstruction-interval tree-ring variability. This manifestation of nonidentifiability is a result of the many-to-one mapping from bivariate climate to time series of tree-ring widths. The methodology is applied to reconstruct temperature and soil moisture conditions over the 1080-1129 C.E. interval at Methusalah Walk in the White Mountains of California, where co-located isotopic dendrochronologies suggest that observed moisture limitations on tree growth may have been alleviated. Our model allows for assimilation of both data sources, and computation of the probability of a change in the climatic controls on ring-width relative to those observed in the calibration period. While the probability of a change in control is sensitive to the choice of prior distribution, the inference that conditions were moist and cool at Methuselah Walk during the 1080-1129 C.E. interval is robust. Results also illustrate the power of combining multiple proxy data sets to reduce uncertainty in reconstructions of paleoclimate.

  20. Release of zinc and cadmium from sludge amended soil as influenced by varying levels of moisture and temperature.

    PubMed

    Golui, Debasis; Datta, S P; Rattan, R K; Dwivedi, B S; Meena, M C; Bandyopadhayay, K K

    2015-07-01

    Limited information is available related to the effect of moisture and temperature on release of metals from sludge treated soils. In an incubation experiment, effect of ten levels of sludge (0, 1.12, 2.24, 4.48, 8.96, 17.9, 35.8, 71.6, 142, 285 g kg(-1)), two levels of moisture (field capacity and 2.5 cm standing water) and two levels of temperature (20 and 35 degrees C) on the release of zinc and cadmium was evaluated in acid and alkaline soils. The results indicated that application of sludge was more effective in enhancing EDTA extractable Zn and Cd in acid soil than in alkaline soil. On an average, maximum increase in release of EDTA extractable Zn and Cd were 32.0 and 5.2 fold in sludge treated soil over control. There was decrease in EDTA extractable Zn and Cd by 37.7% and 25.4%, respectively under submergence as compared to that under field capacity. On an average, the amount of EDTA extractable Zn and Cd increased by 22.6% and 43.6%, respectively at 35 degrees C than that at 20 degrees C.

  1. Development of defoliating insects and their preferences for host plants under varying temperatures in a subtropical evergreen forest in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Jun; Xia, Lingdan; Li, Kai

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to understand the development of defoliating insects and their preferences for host plants under varying temperatures in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China. We measured the main developmental parameters of three typical defoliating insects (i.e., Ourapteryx ebuleata szechuana, Biston marginata, and Euproctis angulata) and their preferences for five host plants at temperatures from 16°C to 31°C at 3°C intervals in the Tiantong National Forest Research station in eastern China. The results showed the following. 1) An appropriate rise in temperature increases the survival rate with an increase in the number of offspring. The developmental durations for these three insects were shortened, and pupal weight increased with an increase in temperature. 2) A shift in the preference for host plants for these three insects was observedat elevated temperatures. They all preferred to feed on Schima superba and Castanopsis sclerophylla at elevated temperatures, showing an opposite response to the other three plants. The daily leaf consumption of the three insects was positively correlated with their feeding preference, with more leaves being consumed from the plants they preferred. 3) For O. ebuleata szechuana larvae, daily leaf consumption initially increased and then decreased with increasing temperatures. In contrast, Biston marginata and Euproctis angulata larvae consumed more leaves at elevated temperatures. The feeding preferences of O. ebuleata szechuana and Biston marginata were more sensitive to changing temperatures than that of Euproctis angulata laevae. We concluded that increased numbers of offspring and generations, pupal weights, and a shift in preference to two plants for these three defoliating insects might lead to severe damage to these two plants which would enhance the fragmentation and decrease the stability of the forest communities under changing temperatures. Meanwhile, the variations in the responses of

  2. Effect of Nanoconfinement on the Glass Transition Temperature and Small Molecule Diffusion in Polymers of Varying Backbone Stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hui; Mundra, Manish; Torkelson, John

    2010-03-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the glass transition temperature in ultrathin supported bisphenol-A polysulfone (BPAPS) and bisphenol-A polycarbonate (BPAPC) films and compared to previous results for ultrathin supported polystyrene (PS) films. BPAPC and BPAPS are more rigid than PS due to the presence of aromatic rings in their polymer backbones. A dramatic increase in Tg-reduction upon confinement was seen for polymers with increased backbone stiffness. A fluorescence-multilayer film technique was then used to determine the diffusion coefficient of a small molecule probe in ultrathin supported PS films. A decrease in the diffusion coefficient of the probe was observed upon confinement of the PS films. This procedure is also being applied to ultrathin supported BPAPC and BPAPS films to explore the impact of polymer backbone rigidity on small molecule diffusion in nanoconfined polymers.

  3. Substitution of heat from exercise and digestion by ducks diving for mussels at varying depths and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kaseloo, P A; Lovvorn, J R

    2006-03-01

    Diving birds can lose significant body heat to cold water, but costs can be reduced if heat from exercising muscles or the heat increment of feeding (HIF) can substitute for thermogenesis. Potential for substitution depends jointly on the rate of heat loss, the rate of heat produced by exercise, and the level of HIF. To explore these interactions, we measured oxygen consumption by lesser scaup ducks (Aythya affinis) diving to depths of 1.2 and 2 m at thermoneutral (23 degrees C) and sub-thermoneutral (18 and 8 degrees C) temperatures. Birds dove while fasted and when feeding on blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Substitution occurred if HIF or costs of diving above resting metabolic rate (RMR) were lower at 18 or 8 degrees C than at 23 degrees C, indicating reduction in the thermoregulatory part of RMR. For fasted scaup diving to 1.2 m, substitution from exercise heat was not apparent at either 18 or 8 degrees C. At 2 m depth, dive costs above RMR were reduced by 5% at 18 degrees C and by 40% at 8 degrees C, indicating substitution. At 1.2 m depth (with voluntary intake of only 14-17% of maintenance requirements), HIF did not differ between temperatures, indicating no substitution. However, at 2 m (intake 13-25% of maintenance), substitution from HIF was 23% of metabolizable energy intake at 18 degrees C and 22% at 8 degrees C. These results show that even with low HIF due to low intake rates, substitution from HIF can add to substitution from the heat of exercise. PMID:16341521

  4. Room temperature degradation of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductors in varying relative humidity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, M. W.; Wise, S. A.; Carlberg, I. A.; Stephens, R. M.; Simchick, R. T.; Farjami, A.

    1993-01-01

    An aging study was performed to determine the stability of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) ceramics in humid environments at 20 C. In this study, fired ceramic specimens were exposed to humidity levels ranging from 30.5 to 100 percent for 2-, 4-, and 6-week time intervals. After storage under these conditions, the specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrical resistance measurements. At every storage condition evaluated, the fired ceramics were found to interact with H2O present in the surrounding environment, resulting in the decomposition of the YBa2Cu3O(7-x) phase. XRD data showed that BaCO3, CuO, and Y2BaCuO5 were present after aging and that the peak intensities of these impurity phases increased both with increasing humidity level and with increasing time of exposure. Additionally, SEM analyses of the ceramic microstructures after aging revealed the development of needle-like crystallites along the surface of the test specimens after aging. Furthermore, the superconducting transition temperature T(sub c) was found to decrease both with increasing humidity level and with increasing time of exposure. All the specimens aged at 30.5, 66, and 81 percent relative humidity exhibited superconducting transitions above 80 K, although these values were reduced by the exposure to the test conditions. Conversely, the specimens stored in direct contact with water (100 percent relative humidity) exhibited no superconducting transitions.

  5. Electrical properties of InGaN thin films grown by RF sputtering at different temperatures, varying nitrogen and argon partial pressure ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakkala, Pratheesh; Kordesch, Martin E.

    2016-10-01

    Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) thin films of varying indium (In) and gallium (Ga) compositions have been fabricated on aluminosilicate glass and silicon (111) substrates using RF magnetron sputtering method at different growth temperatures, varied from 35 °C to 450 °C. Argon (Ar) and nitrogen (N2) are used as Inert and reactive gases respectively. Keeping the total pressure of gas mixture constant, partial pressures of N2 and Ar gases are varied. Ratio of Ar partial pressure to total pressure in the gas mixture is varied from 0 to 0.75. In this study, we present electrical properties of these InGaN thin films. Resistivity values of 2.6 × 10‑5 to 1.68 × 10‑2 Ω.cm, mobility values of 0.119 to 45.2 cm2/V.s, conductivity values of 0.595 × 103 to 37.3 × 103 mho/cm and bulk carrier concentration values ‑1020 to ‑1022/m3 are recorded that are measured through Hall-effect measurement technique.

  6. The effect of varying Co layer thickness on the time-temperature characteristics of Co/Sb semimetal embedded magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M. R.; Alshammary, T.; Grove, B.; Phillips, J.; Reaz, K.; Hensley, S.; Kenning, G. G.

    2015-03-14

    We report the effect of varying cobalt thickness on the temperature-dependent time decay of the electrical resistance of Co/Sb multilayer samples. We find that for a given temperature, a five fold change in the Co thickness produces a 100 fold change in the characteristic decay time of the resistance. We find that the characteristic decay time, as a function of temperature, follows an Arrhenius law. During deposition, the Co evolves single domain magnetic nanoparticles, on the Sb, in either a Volmer-Weber or Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. This metastable state is then encased in 2.5 nm of Sb producing an embedded nanoparticle system. Scanning tunneling microscopy measurements taken before sample aging (annealing at a given temperature for enough time to complete the resistance decay) and after aging show that these nanoparticles undergo morphological transformations during aging. These transformations lead to well defined time dependent decays in both the magnetization and the electrical resistance, making this material an excellent candidate for an electronic time-temperature sensor.

  7. Interactive effects of temperature and exo-enzyme age on substrate decay vary between C- and N-acquiring enzymes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, S. A.; Min, K.; Chen, Y.; Sellers, M.; Ballantyne, F.; Lehmeier, C.

    2013-12-01

    BGase differently. Rates of age-induced catalytic decline of NAGase increased with temperature. At 25°C, rates declined to ~40% of their initial levels after 1 d; at 5°C, ~1.5 d had elapsed before rates had declined to that same fraction of the lower, initial levels. During the first 3 d, BGase activity at 25°C declined linearly with age. Thereafter, BGase activity at 25°C remained constant at ~50% of the initial rate. At 5°C, BGase activity was lower than at 25°C and insensitive to EE age. Though warming temperatures increase reaction rates for EEs and their respective substrates, our data suggest that NAGase does not retain its initial catalytic rate as it ages in temperatures as cool as 5°C, and that BGase catalytic rates decline with age only at relatively warm temperatures. In turn, this suggests that the C:N flow ratio - the ratio of assimilable C to assimilable N - varies as a function of the interaction between time since EE production and temperature. Our work articulates some of the complexities of predicting microbial resource needs and availability of assimilable resources, particularly given the relatively lasting value of microbial investment in BGase production at cool temperatures compared to NAGase.

  8. Polynomial response of 2,4-D mineralization to temperature in soils at varying soil moisture contents, slope positions and depths.

    PubMed

    Shymko, Janna L; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Zvomuya, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The herbicide 2,4-D [2,4-(dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid] is a widely used broadleaf control agent in cereal production systems. Although 2,4-D soil-residual activity (half-lives) are typically less than 10 days, this herbicide also has as a short-term leaching potential due to its relatively weak retention by soil constituents. Herbicide residual effects and leaching are influenced by environmental variables such as soil moisture and temperature. The objective of this study was to determine impacts of these environmental variables on the magnitude and extent of 2,4-D mineralization in a cultivated undulating Manitoba prairie landscape. Microcosm incubation experiments were utilized to assess 2,4-D half-lives and total mineralization using a 4 × 4 × 3 × 2 factorial design (with soil temperature at 4 levels: 5, 10, 20 and 40°C; soil moisture at 4 levels: 60, 85, 110, 135 % of field capacity; slope position at 3 levels: upper-, mid- and lower-slopes; and soil depth at 2 levels: 0-5 cm and 5-15 cm). Half-lives (t(½)) varied from 3 days to 51 days with the total 2,4-D mineralization (M(T)) ranging from 5.8 to 50.9 %. The four-way interaction (temperature × moisture × slope × depth) significantly (p < 0.001) influenced both t(½) and M(T). Second-order polynomial equations best described the relations of temperature with t(½) and M(T) as was expected from a biological system. However, the interaction and variability of t(½) and M(T) among different temperatures, soil moistures, slope positions, and soil depth combinations indicates that the complex nature of these interacting factors should be considered when applying 2,4-D in agricultural fields and in utilizing these parameters in pesticide fate models. PMID:21500076

  9. Polynomial response of 2,4-D mineralization to temperature in soils at varying soil moisture contents, slope positions and depths.

    PubMed

    Shymko, Janna L; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Zvomuya, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The herbicide 2,4-D [2,4-(dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid] is a widely used broadleaf control agent in cereal production systems. Although 2,4-D soil-residual activity (half-lives) are typically less than 10 days, this herbicide also has as a short-term leaching potential due to its relatively weak retention by soil constituents. Herbicide residual effects and leaching are influenced by environmental variables such as soil moisture and temperature. The objective of this study was to determine impacts of these environmental variables on the magnitude and extent of 2,4-D mineralization in a cultivated undulating Manitoba prairie landscape. Microcosm incubation experiments were utilized to assess 2,4-D half-lives and total mineralization using a 4 × 4 × 3 × 2 factorial design (with soil temperature at 4 levels: 5, 10, 20 and 40°C; soil moisture at 4 levels: 60, 85, 110, 135 % of field capacity; slope position at 3 levels: upper-, mid- and lower-slopes; and soil depth at 2 levels: 0-5 cm and 5-15 cm). Half-lives (t(½)) varied from 3 days to 51 days with the total 2,4-D mineralization (M(T)) ranging from 5.8 to 50.9 %. The four-way interaction (temperature × moisture × slope × depth) significantly (p < 0.001) influenced both t(½) and M(T). Second-order polynomial equations best described the relations of temperature with t(½) and M(T) as was expected from a biological system. However, the interaction and variability of t(½) and M(T) among different temperatures, soil moistures, slope positions, and soil depth combinations indicates that the complex nature of these interacting factors should be considered when applying 2,4-D in agricultural fields and in utilizing these parameters in pesticide fate models.

  10. Histopathologic evaluation of postmortem autolytic changes in bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) and crappie (Pomoxis anularis) at varied time intervals and storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    George, Jami; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Michaels, Blayk B; Crain, Debbi; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Information is lacking on preserving fish carcasses to minimize postmortem autolysis artifacts when a necropsy cannot be performed immediately. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively identify and score histologic postmortem changes in two species of freshwater fish (bluegill-Lepomis macrochirus; crappie-Pomoxis annularis), at varied time intervals and storage temperatures, to assess the histologic quality of collected samples. A pooled sample of 36 mix sex individuals of healthy bluegill and crappie were euthanized, stored either at room temperature, refrigerated at 4 °C, or frozen at -20 °C, and then necropsied at 0, 4, 24, and 48 h intervals. Histologic specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. Data showed that immediate harvesting of fresh samples provides the best quality and refrigeration would be the preferred method of storage if sample collection had to be delayed for up to 24 h. When sample collection must be delayed more than 24 h, the preferred method of storage to minimize autolysis artifacts is freezing if evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is most important, or refrigeration if gill histology is most important. The gill arch, intestinal tract, followed by the liver and kidney were the most sensitive organs to autolysis. PMID:27114885

  11. Histopathologic evaluation of postmortem autolytic changes in bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) and crappie (Pomoxis anularis) at varied time intervals and storage temperatures

    PubMed Central

    George, Jami; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; Michaels, Blayk B.; Crain, Debbi

    2016-01-01

    Information is lacking on preserving fish carcasses to minimize postmortem autolysis artifacts when a necropsy cannot be performed immediately. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively identify and score histologic postmortem changes in two species of freshwater fish (bluegill—Lepomis macrochirus; crappie—Pomoxis annularis), at varied time intervals and storage temperatures, to assess the histologic quality of collected samples. A pooled sample of 36 mix sex individuals of healthy bluegill and crappie were euthanized, stored either at room temperature, refrigerated at 4 °C, or frozen at −20 °C, and then necropsied at 0, 4, 24, and 48 h intervals. Histologic specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. Data showed that immediate harvesting of fresh samples provides the best quality and refrigeration would be the preferred method of storage if sample collection had to be delayed for up to 24 h. When sample collection must be delayed more than 24 h, the preferred method of storage to minimize autolysis artifacts is freezing if evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is most important, or refrigeration if gill histology is most important. The gill arch, intestinal tract, followed by the liver and kidney were the most sensitive organs to autolysis. PMID:27114885

  12. Effects of Varied pH, Growth Rate and Temperature using Controlled fermentation and Batch culture on Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Whole Cell Protein Fingerprints.

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Hill, Eric A.; Mclean, Jeffrey S.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2005-09-01

    Rapid identification of microorganisms using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is a rapidly growing area of research due to the minimal sample preparation, speed of analysis and broad applicability of the technique. This approach relies on protein markers to identify microorganisms. Therefore, variations in culture conditions that affect protein expression may limit the ability of MALDI-MS to correctly identify an organism. We have expanded our efforts to investigate the effects of culture conditions on MALDI-MS protein signatures to examine the effects of pH, growth rate and temperature. Continuous cultures maintained in bioreactors were used to maintain specific growth rates and pH for E. coli HB 101. Despite measurable morphological differences between growth conditions, the MALDI-MS data associated each culture with the appropriate library entry (E. coli HB 101 generated using batch culture on a LB media), independent of pH or growth rate. The lone exception was for a biofilm sample collected from one of the reactors which had no appreciable degree of association with the correct library entry. Within the data set for planktonic organisms, variations in growth rate created the largest variation between fingerprints. The effect of varying growth temperature on Y. enterocolitica was also examined. While the anticipated effects on phenotype were observed, the MALDI-MS technique provided the proper identification.

  13. Tandem buildup of complexity of aromatic molecules through multiple successive electrophile generation in one pot, controlled by varying the reaction temperature.

    PubMed

    Sumita, Akinari; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko

    2016-02-01

    While some sequential electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, known as tandem/domino/cascade reactions, have been reported for the construction of aromatic single skeletons, one of the most interesting and challenging possibilities remains the one-pot build-up of a complex aromatic molecule from multiple starting components, i.e., ultimately multi-component electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. In this work, we show how tuning of the leaving group ability of phenolate derivatives from carbamates and esters provides a way to successively generate multiple unmasked electrophiles in a controlled manner in one pot, simply by varying the temperature. Here, we demonstrate the autonomous formation of up to three bonds in one pot and formation of two bonds arising from a three-component electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. This result provides a proof-of-concept of our strategy applicable for the self-directed construction of complex aromatic structures from multiple simple molecules, which can be a potential avenue to realize multi-component electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions.

  14. Effects of damage location and size on sparse representation of guided-waves for damage diagnosis of pipelines under varying temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eybpoosh, Matineh; Berges, Mario; Noh, Hae Young

    2015-04-01

    In spite of their many advantages, real-world application of guided-waves for structural health monitoring (SHM) of pipelines is still quite limited. The challenges can be discussed under three headings: (1) Multiple modes, (2) Multipath reflections, and (3) Sensitivity to environmental and operational conditions (EOCs). These challenges are reviewed in the authors' previous work. This paper is part of a study whose objective is to overcome these challenges for damage diagnosis of pipes, while addressing the limitations of the current approaches. That is, develop methods that simplify signal while retaining damage information, perform well as EOCs vary, and minimize the use of transducers. In this paper, a supervised method is proposed to extract a sparse subset of the ultrasonic guided-wave signals that contain optimal damage information for detection purposes. That is, a discriminant vector is calculated so that the projections of undamaged and damaged pipes on this vector is separated. In the training stage, data is recorded from intact pipe, and from a pipe with an artificial structural abnormality (to simulate any variation from intact condition). During the monitoring stage, test signals are projected on the discriminant vector, and these projections are used as damage-sensitive features for detection purposes. Being a supervised method, factors such as EOC variations, and difference in the characteristics of the structural abnormality in training and test data, may affect the detection performance. This paper reports the experiments investigating the extent to which the differences in damage size and damage location, as well as temperatures, can influence the discriminatory power of the extracted damage-sensitive features. The results suggest that, for practical ranges of monitoring and damage sizes of interest, the proposed method has low sensitivity to such training factors. High detection performances are obtained for temperature differences up to 14

  15. Survival and Hsp70 Gene Expression in Plutella xylostella and Its Larval Parasitoid Diadegma insulare Varied between Slowly Ramping and Abrupt Extreme Temperature Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Md Habibullah; Hegedus, Dwayne; Soroka, Juliana; Coutu, Cathy; Bekkaoui, Diana; Dosdall, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    Background In nature, insects have evolved behavioural and physiological adaptations to cope with short term exposure to extreme temperatures. Extreme heat events may increase as a result of climate change; this in turn will affect insect population dynamics. We examined the effect of abrupt and ecologically relevant gradual exposure to high temperatures on the survival and hsp70 gene expression in diamondback moth (DBM) adults and the parasitoid Diadegmainsulare, as well as in parasitized and non-parasitized DBM larvae. Principal Findings Tolerance to high temperatures in DBM adults was higher than in D. insulare adults. There was no difference in the survival of DBM adults between abrupt and ramped increases from 25 to 38°C; however, at 40°C survival was higher when the temperature increased gradually. In contrast, more D. insulare adults survived when the temperature was ramped rather than shifted abruptly to both 38 and 40°C. There was no heat stress effect of up to 40°C on the survival of either parasitized or non-parasitized DBM larvae. In adults of both species, more hsp70 expression was observed when temperatures increased abruptly to 38°C compared to ramping. In contrast, at 40°C significantly more expression was found in insects exposed to the ramping rather than the abrupt regime. Hsp70 expression level was in agreement with adult survival data and appears to be a good indicator of stress levels. In parasitized and non-parasitized larvae, hsp70 expression was significantly higher after abrupt shifts compared to ramping at both temperatures. Conclusions/Significance Hsp70 gene expression was responsive to extreme temperatures in both DBM and D. insulare, which may underlie the ability of these insects to survive in extreme temperatures. Survival and hsp70 expression upon abrupt changes are distinctly different from those after ramping indicating that experimental protocol must be considered before extrapolating laboratory results to natural field

  16. Physiological response to elevated temperature and pCO2 varies across four Pacific coral species: Understanding the unique host+symbiont response

    PubMed Central

    Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Pettay, D. Tye; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Melman, Todd F.; Schoepf, Verena; Hu, Xinping; Li, Qian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yongchen; Matsui, Yohei; Baumann, Justin H.; Warner, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The physiological response to individual and combined stressors of elevated temperature and pCO2 were measured over a 24-day period in four Pacific corals and their respective symbionts (Acropora millepora/Symbiodinium C21a, Pocillopora damicornis/Symbiodinium C1c-d-t, Montipora monasteriata/Symbiodinium C15, and Turbinaria reniformis/Symbiodinium trenchii). Multivariate analyses indicated that elevated temperature played a greater role in altering physiological response, with the greatest degree of change occurring within M. monasteriata and T. reniformis. Algal cellular volume, protein, and lipid content all increased for M. monasteriata. Likewise, S. trenchii volume and protein content in T. reniformis also increased with temperature. Despite decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency, few changes in biochemical composition (i.e. lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates) or cellular volume occurred at high temperature in the two thermally sensitive symbionts C21a and C1c-d-t. Intracellular carbonic anhydrase transcript abundance increased with temperature in A. millepora but not in P. damicornis, possibly reflecting differences in host mitigated carbon supply during thermal stress. Importantly, our results show that the host and symbiont response to climate change differs considerably across species and that greater physiological plasticity in response to elevated temperature may be an important strategy distinguishing thermally tolerant vs. thermally sensitive species. PMID:26670946

  17. Physiological response to elevated temperature and pCO2 varies across four Pacific coral species: Understanding the unique host+symbiont response.

    PubMed

    Hoadley, Kenneth D; Pettay, D Tye; Grottoli, Andréa G; Cai, Wei-Jun; Melman, Todd F; Schoepf, Verena; Hu, Xinping; Li, Qian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yongchen; Matsui, Yohei; Baumann, Justin H; Warner, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The physiological response to individual and combined stressors of elevated temperature and pCO2 were measured over a 24-day period in four Pacific corals and their respective symbionts (Acropora millepora/Symbiodinium C21a, Pocillopora damicornis/Symbiodinium C1c-d-t, Montipora monasteriata/Symbiodinium C15, and Turbinaria reniformis/Symbiodinium trenchii). Multivariate analyses indicated that elevated temperature played a greater role in altering physiological response, with the greatest degree of change occurring within M. monasteriata and T. reniformis. Algal cellular volume, protein, and lipid content all increased for M. monasteriata. Likewise, S. trenchii volume and protein content in T. reniformis also increased with temperature. Despite decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency, few changes in biochemical composition (i.e. lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates) or cellular volume occurred at high temperature in the two thermally sensitive symbionts C21a and C1c-d-t. Intracellular carbonic anhydrase transcript abundance increased with temperature in A. millepora but not in P. damicornis, possibly reflecting differences in host mitigated carbon supply during thermal stress. Importantly, our results show that the host and symbiont response to climate change differs considerably across species and that greater physiological plasticity in response to elevated temperature may be an important strategy distinguishing thermally tolerant vs. thermally sensitive species. PMID:26670946

  18. Physiological response to elevated temperature and pCO2 varies across four Pacific coral species: Understanding the unique host+symbiont response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Pettay, D. Tye; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Melman, Todd F.; Schoepf, Verena; Hu, Xinping; Li, Qian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yongchen; Matsui, Yohei; Baumann, Justin H.; Warner, Mark E.

    2015-12-01

    The physiological response to individual and combined stressors of elevated temperature and pCO2 were measured over a 24-day period in four Pacific corals and their respective symbionts (Acropora millepora/Symbiodinium C21a, Pocillopora damicornis/Symbiodinium C1c-d-t, Montipora monasteriata/Symbiodinium C15, and Turbinaria reniformis/Symbiodinium trenchii). Multivariate analyses indicated that elevated temperature played a greater role in altering physiological response, with the greatest degree of change occurring within M. monasteriata and T. reniformis. Algal cellular volume, protein, and lipid content all increased for M. monasteriata. Likewise, S. trenchii volume and protein content in T. reniformis also increased with temperature. Despite decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency, few changes in biochemical composition (i.e. lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates) or cellular volume occurred at high temperature in the two thermally sensitive symbionts C21a and C1c-d-t. Intracellular carbonic anhydrase transcript abundance increased with temperature in A. millepora but not in P. damicornis, possibly reflecting differences in host mitigated carbon supply during thermal stress. Importantly, our results show that the host and symbiont response to climate change differs considerably across species and that greater physiological plasticity in response to elevated temperature may be an important strategy distinguishing thermally tolerant vs. thermally sensitive species.

  19. Does the direct effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration on leaf respiration vary with temperature? Responses in two species of Plantago that differ in relative growth rate.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Atkin, Owen K.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the direct effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on leaf respiration in darkness (R) over a broad range of measurement temperatures. Our aim was to further elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) of the often-reported inhibition of leaf R by a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Experiments were conducted using two species of Plantago that differed in maximum relative growth rate (fast-growing Plantago lanceolata L. and the slow-growing P. euryphylla Briggs, Carolin & Pulley). Rates of leaf respiration (R) were measured at atmospheric CO2 concentrations ranging from 75 to 2000 &mgr;mol mol-1 at temperatures from 12 to 42 degrees C. R was measured as CO2 release with a portable gas exchange system with infrared gas analysers. Our hypothesis was that the changes in temperature alter the flux coefficient (i.e. the extent to which changes in potential enzyme activity has an effect on the rate of a reaction) of enzymes potentially affected by CO2. Initial analysis of our results suggested that R was inhibited by elevated CO2 in both species, with the apparent degree of inhibition being greatest at low temperature. Moreover, the apparent degree of inhibition following a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration from 350 to 700 &mgr;mol mol-1 was similar to that reported by several previous studies (approximately 14% and 26% for P. lanceolata and P. euryphylla, respectively) at a temperature equal to the mean of the previous studies. However, subsequent correction for diffusion leaks of CO2 across the gas exchange's cuvette gaskets revealed that no significant inhibition had occurred in either species, at any temperature. The inhibitory effect of elevated CO2 on leaf respiratory CO2 release reported by previous studies may therefore have been overestimated.

  20. Restraint ulcers in the rat. 1: Influence on ulcer frequency of fasting and of environmental temperature associated with immobilization of varying durations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchel, L.; Gallaire, D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the production of experimental ulcers in rats are described. Two experimental conditions were found to regularly provoke the appearance of gastric ulcers in a high percentage of rats: (1) two-and-a-half hour restraint, proceeded by a 24 hour fast; and (2) one-and-a-half hour restraint with lowering of the environmental temperature while fasting.

  1. Antibacterial activity of oregano oil against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens at varying exposure times and storage temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oregano oil on four organic leafy greens (iceberg and romaine lettuces and mature and baby spinaches) inoculated with Salmonella Newport as a function of treatment exposure times as well as storage temperatures. Leaf samples were wash...

  2. Behaviour of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitors on Collagen Scaffolds Varied in Freezing Temperature and Laminin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Khayyatan, Fahimeh; Nemati, Shiva; Kiani, Sahar; Hojjati Emami, Shahriar; Baharvand, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Biomaterial technology, when combined with emerging human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, provides a promising strategy for patient-specific tissue engineering. In this study, we have evaluated the physical effects of collagen scaffolds fabricated at various freezing temperatures on the behavior of hiPSC-derived neural progenitors (hiPSC-NPs). In addition, the coating of scaffolds using different concentrations of laminin was examined on the cells. Materials and Methods: Initially, in this experimental study, the collagen scaffolds fabricated from different collagen concentrations and freezing temperatures were characterized by determining the pore size, porosity, swelling ratio, and mechanical properties. Effects of cross-linking on free amine groups, volume shrinkage and mass retention was also assessed. Then, hiPSC-NPs were seeded onto the most stable three-dimensional collagen scaffolds and we evaluated the effect of pore structure. Additionally, the different concentrations of laminin coating of the scaffolds on hiPSC-NPs behavior were assessed. Results: Scanning electron micrographs of the scaffolds showed a pore diameter in the range of 23-232 μm for the scaffolds prepared with different fabrication parameters. Also porosity of all scaffolds was >98% with more than 94% swelling ratio. hiPSC-NPs were subsequently seeded onto the scaffolds that were made by different freezing temperatures in order to assess for physical effects of the scaffolds. We observed similar proliferation, but more cell infiltration in scaffolds prepared at lower freezing temperatures. The laminin coating of the scaffolds improved NPs proliferation and infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the compatibility of undifferentiated and differentiated hiPSC-NPs on these scaffolds. Conclusion: The results have suggested that the pore structure and laminin coating of collagen scaffolds

  3. Relationships of skin depths and temperatures when varying pulse repetition frequencies from 2.0-μm laser light incident on pig skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, David; Johnson, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Human perception of 2.0-μm infrared laser irradiation has become significant in such disparate fields as law enforcement, neuroscience, and pain research. Several recent studies have found damage thresholds for single-pulse and continuous wave irradiations at this wavelength. However, the only publication using multiple-pulse irradiations was investigating the cornea rather than skin. Literature has claimed that the 2.0-μm light characteristic thermal diffusion time was as long as 300-ms. Irradiating the skin with 2.0-μm lasers to produce sensation should follow published recommendations to use pulses on the order of 10 to 100 ms, which approach the theoretical thermal diffusion time. Therefore, investigation of the heating of skin for a variety of laser pulse combinations was undertaken. Temperatures of ex vivo pig skin were measured at the surface and at three depths from pulse sequences of six different duty factors. Differences were found in temperature rise per unit exposure that did not follow a linear relation to duty factor. The differences can be explained by significant heat conduction during the pulses. Therefore, the common heat modeling assumption of thermal confinement during a pulse may need to be experimentally verified if the pulse approaches the theoretical thermal confinement time.

  4. Transcription of a novel P450 gene varies with some factors (pollutant exposure, temperature, time, and body region) in a marine oligochaete (Thalassodrilides sp.).

    PubMed

    Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Ohta, Kohei; Hano, Takeshi; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Mochida, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play important roles in the metabolism of exogenous compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A novel, full-length CYP gene (CYP4V30) was identified in the oligochaete Thalassodrilides sp. CYP4V30 mRNA expression was studied in worms exposed to PAH-polluted (Σ16PAHs; 37441ng/g dry weight) or unpolluted (Σ16PAHs; 19ng/g dry weight) sediment. CYP4V30 expression was much higher in worms exposed to contaminated sediments than in those exposed to unpolluted sediments at some temperatures (20 and 25°C) and exposure durations (11-fold increase at 20°C, 10-day exposure), but not at 15°C or other exposure durations (P<0.05). CYP4V30 mRNA expression was higher in the middle of the body than in the posterior (P<0.05). The variation in transcriptional response with exposure time, temperature, and body region indicates that these factors should be considered when monitoring marine sediment pollution. PMID:27251443

  5. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response

    PubMed Central

    Tesei, Donatella; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis) belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs. PMID:26061625

  6. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Barbara; Tafer, Hakim; Tesei, Donatella; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis) belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs. PMID:26061625

  7. Antimicrobial activity of oregano oil against antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens at varying exposure times and storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Moore-Neibel, Katherine; Gerber, Colin; Patel, Jitendra; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oregano oil on four organic leafy greens (Iceberg and Romaine lettuces and mature and baby spinaches) inoculated with Salmonella Newport as a function of treatment exposure times as well as storage temperatures. Leaf samples were washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (6-log CFU/ml) and dried. Oregano oil was prepared at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% concentrations in sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Inoculated leaves were immersed in the treatment solution for 1 or 2 min, and individually incubated at 4 or 8 °C. Samples were taken at day 0, 1, and 3 for enumeration of survivors. The results showed that oregano oil was effective against S. Newport at all concentrations. S. Newport showed reductions from the PBS control of 0.7-4.8 log CFU/g (Romaine lettuce), 0.8-4.8 log CFU/g (Iceberg lettuce), 0.8-4.9 log CFU/g (mature spinach), and 0.5-4.7 log CFU/g (baby spinach), respectively. The antibacterial activity also increased with exposure time. Leaf samples treated for 2 min generally showed greater reductions (by 1.4-3.2 log CFU/g), than those samples treated for 1 min; however, there was minimal difference in antimicrobial activity among samples stored under refrigeration and abuse temperatures. This study demonstrates the potential of oregano oil to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens.

  8. Experimental investigation of anaerobic nitrogen fixation rates with varying pressure, temperature and metal concentration with application to the atmospheric evolution of early Earth and Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Prateek

    2012-07-01

    The atmosphere of the early Earth is thought to have been significantly different than the modern composition of 21% O2 and 78% N2, yet the planet has been clearly established as hosting microbial life as far back as 3.8 billion years ago. As such, constraining the atmospheric composition of the early Earth is fundamental to establishing a database of habitable atmospheric compositions. A similar argument can be made for the planet Mars, where nitrates have been hypothesized to exist in the subsurface. During the early period on Mars when liquid water was likely more abundant, life may have developed to take advantage of available nitrates and a biologically-driven Martian nitrogen cycle could have evolved. Early Earth atmospheric composition has been investigated numerically, but only recently has the common assumption of a pN2 different than modern been investigated. Nonetheless, these latest attempts fail to take into account a key atmospheric parameter: life. On modern Earth, nitrogen is cycled vigorously by biology. The nitrogen cycle likely operated on the early Earth, but probably differed in the metabolic processes responsible, dominantly due to the lack of abundant oxygen which stabilizes oxidized forms of N that drive de-nitrification today. Recent advances in evolutionary genomics suggest that microbial pathways that are relatively uncommon today (i.e. vanadium and iron-based nitrogen fixation) probably played important roles in the early N cycle. We quantitatively investigate in the laboratory the effects of variable pressure, temperature and metal concentration on the rates of anoxic nitrogen fixation, as possible inputs for future models investigating atmospheric evolution, and better understand the evolution of the nitrogen cycle on Earth. A common anaerobic methanogenic archaeal species with i) a fully sequenced genome, ii) all three nitrogenases (molybdenum, vanadium and iron-based) and iii) the ability to be genetically manipulated will be used as

  9. The Effects of Varying Concentrations of Dietary Protein and Fat on Blood Gas, Hematologic Serum Chemistry, and Body Temperature Before and After Exercise in Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L.; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J.; Wakshlag, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery. PMID:27532039

  10. The Effects of Varying Concentrations of Dietary Protein and Fat on Blood Gas, Hematologic Serum Chemistry, and Body Temperature Before and After Exercise in Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery. PMID:27532039

  11. The Effects of Varying Concentrations of Dietary Protein and Fat on Blood Gas, Hematologic Serum Chemistry, and Body Temperature Before and After Exercise in Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery.

  12. Host acceptance, suitability, and effects of host deprivation on the West African egg parasitoid Telenomus isis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) reared on East African stemborers under varying temperature and relative humidity regimens.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Anani Yaovi; Schulthess, Fritz; Mueke, Jones

    2009-06-01

    Scelionid egg parasitoids of Telenomus spp. have been shown to significantly affect noctuid stemborer populations and yields of maize in western Africa. One of them, T. isis, has never been reported from eastern Africa and was introduced into the laboratories of the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Kenya. This study evaluates the biotic potential of T. isis using East African stemborers as hosts. Host acceptance was tested using 15 lepidopteran borer species. Only noctuid stemborers were accepted for oviposition by T. isis. Sesamia calamistis Hampson, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre), and Busseola fusca (Fuller) were further used to study the effect of host species, host age, duration of host deprivation, temperature, and humidity on the performance of the parasitoid. In contrast to sex ratio, developmental time, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence varied significantly with host species, and the former two decreased with the age of host eggs. Female longevity increased with duration of host deprivation, whereas average lifetime fecundity decreased, probably because of oocyte resorption. T. isis successfully developed between 18 and 32 degrees C at both low (40-50%) and high (70-80%) relative humidity regimens, but temperature played a more critical role. Using the modified Logan model, the lower and upper temperature thresholds for development were estimated at 11.5 and 37.5 degrees C, respectively, with an optimum at 30.5 degrees C for both humidity regimens. Depending on temperature and relative humidity regimen, the intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)) varied from 0.077 to 0.300, net reproductive rate (R(o)) from 7.70 to 83.96, and generation time (G) from 11 to 38 d. The results of this study indicate that T. isis is likely to establish in eastern Africa.

  13. Varying constants quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P. E-mail: abalcerz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2015-02-01

    We discuss minisuperspace models within the framework of varying physical constants theories including Λ-term. In particular, we consider the varying speed of light (VSL) theory and varying gravitational constant theory (VG) using the specific ansätze for the variability of constants: c(a) = c{sub 0} a{sup n} and G(a)=G{sub 0} a{sup q}. We find that most of the varying c and G minisuperspace potentials are of the tunneling type which allows to use WKB approximation of quantum mechanics. Using this method we show that the probability of tunneling of the universe ''from nothing'' (a=0) to a Friedmann geometry with the scale factor a{sub t} is large for growing c models and is strongly suppressed for diminishing c models. As for G varying, the probability of tunneling is large for G diminishing, while it is small for G increasing. In general, both varying c and G change the probability of tunneling in comparison to the standard matter content (cosmological term, dust, radiation) universe models.

  14. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, I Anand

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner. PMID:20582220

  15. Time Varying Feature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

    2012-04-01

    The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex

  16. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rewoldt

    2003-09-08

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results.

  17. Blade pitch varying mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L.

    1988-04-19

    A gas turbine engine is described comprising: (a) a stationary member; (b) first and second rotating structures coaxially disposed about the stationary member; (c) an annular gas flowpath coaxial with the first and second rotating structures; (d) first and second rotor blades attached to the first and second rotating structures; (e) forward and aft rows of variable pitch propulsor blades coupled to and disposed radially outwardly of the first and second rotating structures respectively; (f) a first gear coaxially coupled to one of the propulsor blades whereby angular displacement of the first gear about a radius of the rotating structure varies the pitch of the propulsor blade with respect to the rotating structure; (g) a second gear rotatably coupled to the first gear; (h) a third gear rigidly coupled to the second gear; (i) a fourth gear rigidly coupled to the rotating structure and rotatably coupled to the thrid gear, (j) means for eccentrically revolving the second gear and the third gear with respect to the first gear and the fourth gear, respectively, whereby the first gear is angularly displaced with respect to the fourth gear.

  18. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  19. The oxygen content of the high-temperature superconducting compound Bi(2+x)Sr(3-y)CayCu2O(8+d) with respect to varying Ca and Bi contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majewski, P.; Su, H.-L.; Aldinger, F.

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen content of Bi(2+x)Sr(3-y)Cu2O(8+d) (2212 phase) has been determined as a function of its cation concentration. With increasing Ca and Bi content the oxygen content increases and T(sub c) decreases. The oxygen content of Ca rich 2212 phase increases with decreasing annealing temperatures. The study shows that the T(sub c) of the 2212 phase primarily is controlled by its cation concentration.

  20. The oxygen content of the high-temperature superconducting compound Bi{sub 2+x}Sr{sub 3-y}CayCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+d} with respect to varying Ca and Bi contents

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, P.; Su, H.L.; Aldinger, F.

    1994-12-31

    The oxygen content of Bi{sub 2+x}Sr{sub 3-y}Ca{sub y}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8+d} (2212 phase) has been determined as a function of its cation concentration. With increasing Ca and Bi content the oxygen content increases and T{sub c} decreases. The oxygen content of Ca rich 2212 phase increases with decreasing annealing temperatures. The study shows that the T{sub c} of the 2212 phase primarily is controlled by its cation concentration.

  1. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Dubey, Manvendra K; Lesins, Glen; Wang, Muyin

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  2. Varying potential silicon carbide gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrocarbon gas detection device operates by dissociating or electro-chemically oxidizing hydrocarbons adsorbed to a silicon carbide detection layer. Dissociation or oxidation are driven by a varying potential applied to the detection layer. Different hydrocarbon species undergo reaction at different applied potentials so that the device is able to discriminate among various hydrocarbon species. The device can operate at temperatures between 100.degree. C. and at least 650.degree. C., allowing hydrocarbon detection in hot exhaust gases. The dissociation reaction is detected either as a change in a capacitor or, preferably, as a change of current flow through an FET which incorporates the silicon carbide detection layers. The silicon carbide detection layer can be augmented with a pad of catalytic material which provides a signal without an applied potential. Comparisons between the catalytically produced signal and the varying potential produced signal may further help identify the hydrocarbon present.

  3. Formulation and Characterization of Waste Glasses with Varying Processing Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, M. J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lepry, William C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Johnson, Fabienne; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.

    2011-10-17

    This report documents the preliminary results of glass formulation and characterization accomplished within the finished scope of the EM-31 technology development tasks for WP-4 and WP-5, including WP-4.1.2: Glass Formulation for Next Generation Melter, WP-5.1.2.3: Systematic Glass Studies, and WP-5.1.2.4: Glass Formulation for Specific Wastes. This report also presents the suggested studies for eventual restart of these tasks. The initial glass formulation efforts for the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM), operating at {approx}1200 C, with selected HLW (AZ-101) and LAW (AN-105) successfully developed glasses with significant increase of waste loading compared to that is likely to be achieved based on expected reference WTP formulations. Three glasses formulated for AZ-101HLW and one glass for AN-105 LAW were selected for the initial CCIM demonstration melter tests. Melter tests were not performed within the finished scope of the WP-4.1.2 task. Glass formulations for CCIM were expanded to cover additional HLWs that have high potential to successfully demonstrate the unique advantages of the CCIM technologies based on projected composition of Hanford wastes. However, only the preliminary scoping tests were completed with selected wastes within the finished scope. Advanced glass formulations for the reference WTP melter, operating at {approx}1200 C, were initiated with selected specific wastes to determine the estimated maximum waste loading. The incomplete results from these initial formulation efforts are summarized. For systematic glass studies, a test matrix of 32 high-aluminum glasses was completed based on a new method developed in this study.

  4. Transient, spatially varied groundwater recharge modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Kibreab Amare; Woodbury, Allan D.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to integrate field data and modeling tools in producing temporally and spatially varying groundwater recharge in a pilot watershed in North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using the Richards equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D), ArcGIS™, ROSETTA, in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture, and a long-term gridded climate data. The public version of HYDUS-1D and another version with detailed freezing and thawing module are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack, and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGIS™ to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8 mm/year. Previous studies in the Okanagan Basin used Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance without any attempt of model performance evaluation, notwithstanding its inherent limitations. Thus, climate change impact results from this previous study and similar others, such as Jyrkama and Sykes (2007), need to be interpreted with caution.

  5. Time-varying cosmological term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term using the Lagrangian formalism characterized by a scalar field ϕ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(ϕ). This model is applied to Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW)cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansats to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  6. Linearized Bekenstein varying α models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelino, P. P.; Martins, C. J.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2004-10-01

    We study the simplest class of Bekenstein-type, varying α models, in which the two available free functions (potential and gauge kinetic function) are Taylor-expanded up to linear order. Any realistic model of this type reduces to a model in this class for a certain time interval around the present day. Nevertheless, we show that no such model is consistent with all existing observational results. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and, in particular, clarify the ambiguous statement (often found in the literature) that “the Webb results are inconsistent with Oklo.”

  7. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  8. Time-Varying Fundamental Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, Keith

    2003-04-01

    Recent data from quasar absorption systems can be interpreted as arising from a time variation in the fine-structure constant. However, there are numerous cosmological, astro-physical, and terrestrial bounds on any such variation. These includes bounds from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (from the ^4He abundance), the Oklo reactor (from the resonant neutron capture cross-section of Sm), and from meteoretic lifetimes of heavy radioactive isotopes. The bounds on the variation of the fine-structure constant are significantly strengthened in models where all gauge and Yukawa couplings vary in a dependent manner, as would be expected in unified theories. Models which are consistent with all data are severly challenged when Equivalence Principle constraints are imposed.

  9. Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.

  10. Gait phase varies over velocities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2014-02-01

    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification.

  11. Varying electric charge in multiscale spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Magueijo, João; Fernández, David Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    We derive the covariant equations of motion for Maxwell field theory and electrodynamics in multiscale spacetimes with weighted Laplacian. An effective spacetime-dependent electric charge of geometric origin naturally emerges from the theory, thus giving rise to a varying fine-structure constant. The theory is compared with other varying-coupling models, such as those with a varying electric charge or varying speed of light. The theory is also confronted with cosmological observations, which can place constraints on the characteristic scales in the multifractional measure. We note that the model considered here is fundamentally different from those previously proposed in the literature, either of the varying-e or varying-c persuasion.

  12. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Sadana, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  13. Statistical Methods with Varying Coefficient Models

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenyang

    2008-01-01

    The varying coefficient models are very important tool to explore the dynamic pattern in many scientific areas, such as economics, finance, politics, epidemiology, medical science, ecology and so on. They are natural extensions of classical parametric models with good interpretability and are becoming more and more popular in data analysis. Thanks to their flexibility and interpretability, in the past ten years, the varying coefficient models have experienced deep and exciting developments on methodological, theoretical and applied sides. This paper gives a selective overview on the major methodological and theoretical developments on the varying coefficient models. PMID:18978950

  14. Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159342.html Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age Right amount leads to ... June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A good night's sleep makes for perkier, better-behaved children. But how ...

  15. Sensing temperature.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Piali; Garrity, Paul

    2013-04-22

    Temperature is an omnipresent physical variable reflecting the rotational, vibrational and translational motion of matter, what Richard Feynman called the "jiggling" of atoms. Temperature varies across space and time, and this variation has dramatic effects on the physiology of living cells. It changes the rate and nature of chemical reactions, and it alters the configuration of the atoms that make up nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules, significantly affecting their activity. While life may have started in a "warm little pond", as Charles Darwin mused, the organisms that surround us today have only made it this far by devising sophisticated systems for sensing and responding to variations in temperature, and by using these systems in ways that allow them to persist and thrive in the face of thermal fluctuation.

  16. Varying duty operation of air-cooled condenser units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milman, O. O.; Kondratev, A. V.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Dunaev, S. N.; Kirjukhin, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Results of experimental investigations of operation modes of air-cooled condensers (ACC) under design and varying duty conditions are presented. ACCs with varying cooling airflow rates under constant heat load and with constant cooling airflow under varying heat load are examined. Diagrams of heat transfer coefficients and condensation pressures on the heat load and cooling airflow are obtained. It is found that, if the relative heat load is in the range from 0.6 to 1.0 of the nominal value, the ACC heat transfer coefficient varies insignificantly, unlike that of the water-cooled surface condensers. The results of the determination of "zero points" are given, i.e., the attainable pressure in air-cooled condensing units (ACCU), if there is no heat load for several values of working water temperature at the input of water-jet ejectors and liquid ring vacuum pump. The results of the experimental determination of atmospheric air suction into the ACC vacuum system. The effect of additional air suctions in the steam pipe on ACCU characteristics is analyzed. The thermal mapping of ACC heat exchange surfaces from the cooling air inlet is carried out. The dependence of the inefficient heat exchange zone on the additional air suction into the ACC vacuum system is given. It is shown that, if there is no additional air suction into the ACC vacuum system, the inefficient heat exchange zone is not located at the bottom of the first pass tubes, and their portion adjacent to the bottom steam pipe works efficiently. Design procedures for the ACC varying duty of capacitors are presented, and their adequacy for the ACCU varying duty estimation is analyzed.

  17. Microwave fidelity studies by varying antenna coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köber, B.; Kuhl, U.; Stöckmann, H.-J.; Gorin, T.; Savin, D. V.; Seligman, T. H.

    2010-09-01

    The fidelity decay in a microwave billiard is considered, where the coupling to an attached antenna is varied. The resulting quantity, coupling fidelity, is experimentally studied for three different terminators of the varied antenna: a hard-wall reflection, an open wall reflection, and a 50Ω load, corresponding to a totally open channel. The model description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian with a complex coupling constant is given. Quantitative agreement is found with the theory obtained from a modified VWZ approach [J. J. M. Verbaarschot , Phys. Rep. 129, 367 (1985)10.1016/0370-1573(85)90070-5].

  18. Solar mass-varying neutrino oscillations.

    PubMed

    Barger, V; Huber, Patrick; Marfatia, Danny

    2005-11-18

    We propose that the solar neutrino deficit may be due to oscillations of mass-varying neutrinos (MaVaNs). This scenario elucidates solar neutrino data beautifully while remaining comfortably compatible with atmospheric neutrino and K2K data and with reactor antineutrino data at short and long baselines (from CHOOZ and KamLAND). We find that the survival probability of solar MaVaNs is independent of how the suppression of neutrino mass caused by the acceleron-matter couplings varies with density. Measurements of MeV and lower energy solar neutrinos will provide a rigorous test of the idea.

  19. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  20. Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

  1. The Varied Uses of Readability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward

    Readability formulas have varied uses. In education they are used to match children's reading ability to the difficulty level of material, select stories and books for classroom use and for individual students' particular needs, select textbooks and other reading materials, aid educational research, and check reading materials of newly literate…

  2. Components in time-varying graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

  3. Components in time-varying graphs.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis. PMID:22757508

  4. Magnetoresistance of polycrystalline gadolinium with varying grain size

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravorty, Manotosh Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2015-01-21

    In this paper, we report a study of evolution of low field magnetoresistance (MR) of Gadolinium as the grain size in the sample is changed from few microns (∼4 μm) to the nanoscopic regime (∼35 nm). The low field MR has a clear effect on varying grain size. In large grain sample (few μm), the magnetic domains are controlled by local anisotropy field determined mainly by the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The low field MR clearly reflects the temperature dependence of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. For decreasing gain size, the contribution of spin disorder at the grain boundary increases and enhances the local anisotropy field.

  5. Learning Time-Varying Coverage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nan; Liang, Yingyu; Balcan, Maria-Florina; Song, Le

    2015-01-01

    Coverage functions are an important class of discrete functions that capture the law of diminishing returns arising naturally from applications in social network analysis, machine learning, and algorithmic game theory. In this paper, we propose a new problem of learning time-varying coverage functions, and develop a novel parametrization of these functions using random features. Based on the connection between time-varying coverage functions and counting processes, we also propose an efficient parameter learning algorithm based on likelihood maximization, and provide a sample complexity analysis. We applied our algorithm to the influence function estimation problem in information diffusion in social networks, and show that with few assumptions about the diffusion processes, our algorithm is able to estimate influence significantly more accurately than existing approaches on both synthetic and real world data. PMID:25960624

  6. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. PMID:21143474

  7. Adaptive, template moderated, spatially varying statistical classification.

    PubMed

    Warfield, S K; Kaus, M; Jolesz, F A; Kikinis, R

    2000-03-01

    A novel image segmentation algorithm was developed to allow the automatic segmentation of both normal and abnormal anatomy from medical images. The new algorithm is a form of spatially varying statistical classification, in which an explicit anatomical template is used to moderate the segmentation obtained by statistical classification. The algorithm consists of an iterated sequence of spatially varying classification and nonlinear registration, which forms an adaptive, template moderated (ATM), spatially varying statistical classification (SVC). Classification methods and nonlinear registration methods are often complementary, both in the tasks where they succeed and in the tasks where they fail. By integrating these approaches the new algorithm avoids many of the disadvantages of each approach alone while exploiting the combination. The ATM SVC algorithm was applied to several segmentation problems, involving different image contrast mechanisms and different locations in the body. Segmentation and validation experiments were carried out for problems involving the quantification of normal anatomy (MRI of brains of neonates) and pathology of various types (MRI of patients with multiple sclerosis, MRI of patients with brain tumors, MRI of patients with damaged knee cartilage). In each case, the ATM SVC algorithm provided a better segmentation than statistical classification or elastic matching alone. PMID:10972320

  8. Synchronization in time-varying networks.

    PubMed

    Kohar, Vivek; Ji, Peng; Choudhary, Anshul; Sinha, Sudeshna; Kurths, Jüergen

    2014-08-01

    We study the stability of the synchronized state in time-varying complex networks using the concept of basin stability, which is a nonlocal and nonlinear measure of stability that can be easily applied to high-dimensional systems [P. J. Menck, J. Heitzig, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Nature Phys. 9, 89 (2013)]. The time-varying character is included by stochastically rewiring each link with the average frequency f. We find that the time taken to reach synchronization is lowered and the stability range of the synchronized state increases considerably in dynamic networks. Further we uncover that small-world networks are much more sensitive to link changes than random ones, with the time-varying character of the network having a significant effect at much lower rewiring frequencies. At very high rewiring frequencies, random networks perform better than small-world networks and the synchronized state is stable over a much wider window of coupling strengths. Lastly we show that the stability range of the synchronized state may be quite different for small and large perturbations, and so the linear stability analysis and the basin stability criterion provide complementary indicators of stability. PMID:25215786

  9. Temperature metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, J.; Fellmuth, B.

    2005-05-01

    units. For the base unit kelvin, this procedure is described in the sections on practical temperature scales, practical thermometry and reference standards. Testing experimentally the fundamental laws of physics means in practice the precise determination of the fundamental constants appearing in the laws. The essence of current activities is that prototypes, which may vary uncontrollably with time and location, are replaced by abstract experimental prescriptions that relate the units to the constants. This approach is shown for the definition of the kelvin and the Boltzmann constant. Dedicated to the occasion of the 60th birthday of Wolfgang Buck.

  10. Linear Parameter Varying Control for Actuator Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Wu, N. Eva; Belcastro, Christine; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A robust linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis is carried out for an HiMAT vehicle subject to loss of control effectiveness. The scheduling parameter is selected to be a function of the estimates of the control effectiveness factors. The estimates are provided on-line by a two-stage Kalman estimator. The inherent conservatism of the LPV design is reducing through the use of a scaling factor on the uncertainty block that represents the estimation errors of the effectiveness factors. Simulations of the controlled system with the on-line estimator show that a superior fault-tolerance can be achieved.

  11. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibret, B.; Premaratne, M.; Lewis, P. M.; Thomson, R.; Fitzgerald, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications.

  12. Artificial neural network modeling of DDGS flowability with varying process and storage parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neural Network (NN) modeling techniques were used to predict flowability behavior in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) prepared with varying CDS (10, 15, and 20%, wb), drying temperature (100, 200, and 300°C), cooling temperature (-12, 0, and 35°C) and cooling time (0 and 1 month) levels....

  13. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions.

  14. Varying execution discipline to increase performance

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.L.; Maccabe, A.B.

    1993-12-22

    This research investigates the relationship between execution discipline and performance. The hypothesis has two parts: 1. Different execution disciplines exhibit different performance for different computations, and 2. These differences can be effectively predicted by heuristics. A machine model is developed that can vary its execution discipline. That is, the model can execute a given program using either the control-driven, data-driven or demand-driven execution discipline. This model is referred to as a ``variable-execution-discipline`` machine. The instruction set for the model is the Program Dependence Web (PDW). The first part of the hypothesis will be tested by simulating the execution of the machine model on a suite of computations, based on the Livermore Fortran Kernel (LFK) Test (a.k.a. the Livermore Loops), using all three execution disciplines. Heuristics are developed to predict relative performance. These heuristics predict (a) the execution time under each discipline for one iteration of each loop and (b) the number of iterations taken by that loop; then the heuristics use those predictions to develop a prediction for the execution of the entire loop. Similar calculations are performed for branch statements. The second part of the hypothesis will be tested by comparing the results of the simulated execution with the predictions produced by the heuristics. If the hypothesis is supported, then the door is open for the development of machines that can vary execution discipline to increase performance.

  15. Crops Models for Varying Environmental Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Cavazzoni, James; Keas, Paul

    2001-01-01

    New variable environment Modified Energy Cascade (MEC) crop models were developed for all the Advanced Life Support (ALS) candidate crops and implemented in SIMULINK. The MEC models are based on the Volk, Bugbee, and Wheeler Energy Cascade (EC) model and are derived from more recent Top-Level Energy Cascade (TLEC) models. The MEC models simulate crop plant responses to day-to-day changes in photosynthetic photon flux, photoperiod, carbon dioxide level, temperature, and relative humidity. The original EC model allows changes in light energy but uses a less accurate linear approximation. The simulation outputs of the new MEC models for constant nominal environmental conditions are very similar to those of earlier EC models that use parameters produced by the TLEC models. There are a few differences. The new MEC models allow setting the time for seed emergence, have realistic exponential canopy growth, and have corrected harvest dates for potato and tomato. The new MEC models indicate that the maximum edible biomass per meter squared per day is produced at the maximum allowed carbon dioxide level, the nominal temperatures, and the maximum light input. Reducing the carbon dioxide level from the maximum to the minimum allowed in the model reduces crop production significantly. Increasing temperature decreases production more than it decreases the time to harvest, so productivity in edible biomass per meter squared per day is greater at nominal than maximum temperatures, The productivity in edible biomass per meter squared per day is greatest at the maximum light energy input allowed in the model, but the edible biomass produced per light energy input unit is lower than at nominal light levels. Reducing light levels increases light and power use efficiency. The MEC models suggest we can adjust the light energy day-to- day to accommodate power shortages or Lise excess power while monitoring and controlling edible biomass production.

  16. Supernumerary teeth vary depending on gender.

    PubMed

    Küchler, Erika Calvano; Costa, Adriana Gomes da; Costa, Marcelo de Castro; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The presence of supernumerary teeth (ST) is a dental developmental anomaly of patterning and morphogenesis. Its variability of morphology, location and developmental timing can shed light on its etiology. In this work we report ST patterns. Orthopantomograms of 1,166 pediatric subjects were examined and the morphology, location and timing of the formation of ST were determined. The frequency of supernumerary teeth in the studied population was 2.3% (n = 27). Twenty-five subjects presented one ST. Maxilla midline was the most commonly affected region (nine cases). We noted high incidence of conical morphology in the midline region. Only teeth with tuberculate morphology presented delayed formation. ST in the midline region occurred more often in males whereas ST in the incisor region were more common in females. In conclusion, ST patterns vary depending on gender. PMID:21359454

  17. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Amit; Kumar, Manish; Senthilkumaran, P.; Joseph, Joby

    2016-04-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  18. Motion Editing for Time-Varying Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Yamasaki, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Kiyoharu

    2008-12-01

    Recently, time-varying mesh (TVM), which is composed of a sequence of mesh models, has received considerable interest due to its new and attractive functions such as free viewpoint and interactivity. TVM captures the dynamic scene of the real world from multiple synchronized cameras. However, it is expensive and time consuming to generate a TVM sequence. In this paper, an editing system is presented to reuse the original data, which reorganizes the motions to obtain a new sequence based on the user requirements. Hierarchical motion structure is observed and parsed in TVM sequences. Then, the representative motions are chosen into a motion database, where a motion graph is constructed to connect those motions with smooth transitions. After the user selects some desired motions from the motion database, the best paths are searched by a modified Dijkstra algorithm to achieve a new sequence. Our experimental results demonstrate that the edited sequences are natural and smooth.

  19. String theory, cosmology and varying constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault

    In string theory the coupling `constants' appearing in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are determined by the vacuum expectation values of some (a priori) massless scalar fields (dilaton, moduli). This naturally leads one to expect a correlated variation of all the coupling constants, and an associated violation of the equivalence principle. We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate such a spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring a very unnatural fine-tuning of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently `observed' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universality of free fall, such as MICROSCOPE and STEP.

  20. Electronegative plasma equilibria with spatially varying ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, E.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Lieberman, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Electronegative inductive discharges in higher pressure ranges typically exhibit strongly localized ionization near the coil structure, with decay of the electron temperature and ionization into the central discharge region. We use a two-dimensional (2D) fluid code with a chlorine feedstock gas to determine the spatial profiles of the particle densities and electron temperature in a cylindrical transformer-coupled plasma device excited by a stove-top coil on top of the plasma chamber. To compare with one-dimensional (1D) analytical models, the 2D results are area-averaged over the radius. The area-averaged ionization frequency νiz is found to decay exponentially away from the coils, allowing the ansatz of an exponentially decaying axial variation for νiz to be used in a 1D numerical model. The 1D model captures the main features of the axial variations of the area-averaged 2D fluid simulation, indicating that the main diffusion mechanisms act along the axial direction. A simple analytical global discharge model is also developed, accounting for the asymmetric density and ionization profiles. The global model gives the scalings of the ion densities and electron temperature with power and pressure. The 1D and global models are compared with the 2D fluid simulations, showing reasonable agreement.

  1. The varying effects of age of acquisition.

    PubMed

    Catling, Jonathan C; Johnston, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of theories that suggest that age of acquisition (AoA) effects are not uniform across different tasks. Catling and Johnston (2006a) found greater AoA effects within an object-naming task than in a semantic classification task. They explained these findings by suggesting that AoA effects might accumulate according to how many levels of representation a task necessitates access to. Brysbaert and Ghyselinck (2006) explain the difference in AoA effects by proposing two distinct types of AoA (frequency dependent and frequency independent), the first accounted for by a connectionist-type mechanism and the latter situated at the interface between semantics and word production. Moreover, Moore, Smith-Spark, and Valentine (2004) and Holmes and Ellis (2006) have suggested that there are two loci of AoA effects: at the phonological level and somewhere within the perceptual level of representation. Again, this could account for the varying degrees of AoA effects. This study sets about testing these ideas by assessing the effect size of AoA across a series of different tasks that necessitate access to various levels of representation. Experiments 1-4 demonstrate significant effects of AoA in a novel picture-picture verification task, an object classification task, a picture verification task, and an object-naming task. Experiment 5 showed no effects of initial phoneme on the naming of the critical objects used within Experiments 1-4. The implication of the varying AoA effect sizes found within Experiments 1-4 in relation to explanations of AoA are discussed.

  2. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  3. Thermal mineral water springs in Karlovy Vary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, J.

    1996-03-01

    In the western part of the Czech Republic about 130 180 km west of the capital of Prague, in an area of about 300 sq km, several dozen mineral springs occur from various origins, with water of different chemical characteristics, temperatures, and levels of carbonation and radioactive intensity. Mineral waters are widely utilized, in particular for spa treatment of a broad range of ailments as well as for bottling (curative and table waters), industrial uses of carbon dioxide, evaporation for the salts dissolved in them and, in regard to thermal waters, for local heating.

  4. Does the Newtonian Gravity "Constant" G Vary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noerdlinger, Peter D.

    2015-08-01

    A series of measurements of Newton's gravity constant, G, dating back as far as 1893, yielded widely varying values, the variation greatly exceeding the stated error estimates (Gillies, 1997; Quinn, 2000, Mohr et al 2008). The value of G is usually said to be unrelated to other physics, but we point out that the 8B Solar Neutrino Rate ought to be very sensitive. Improved pulsar timing could also help settle the issue as to whether G really varies. We claim that the variation in measured values over time (1893-2014 C.E.) is a more serious problem than the failure of the error bars to overlap; it appears that challenging or adjusting the error bars hardly masks the underlying disagreement in central values. We have assessed whether variations in the gravitational potential due to (for example) local dark matter (DM) could explain the variations. We find that the required potential fluctuations could transiently accelerate the Solar System and nearby stars to speeds in excess of the Galactic escape speed. Previous theories for the variation in G generally deal with supposed secular variation on a cosmological timescale, or very rapid oscillations whose envelope changes on that scale (Steinhardt and Will 1995). Therefore, these analyses fail to support variations on the timescale of years or spatial scales of order parsecs, which would be required by the data for G. We note that true variations in G would be associated with variations in clock rates (Derevianko and Pospelov 2014; Loeb and Maoz 2015), which could mask changes in orbital dynamics. Geringer-Sameth et al (2014) studied γ-ray emission from the nearby Reticulum dwarf galaxy, which is expected to be free of "ordinary" (stellar, black hole) γ-ray sources and found evidence for DM decay. Bernabei et al (2003) also found evidence for DM penetrating deep underground at Gran Sasso. If, indeed, variations in G can be tied to variations in gravitational potential, we have a new tool to assess the DM density.

  5. Scrotal abscess: Varied etiology, associations, and management

    PubMed Central

    Ramareddy, Raghu S.; Alladi, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To report a series of scrotal abscess, a rare problem, their etiology, and management. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of children who presented with scrotal abscess between January 2010 and March 2015, analyzed with respect to clinical features, pathophysiology of spread and management. Results: Eight infants and a 3-year-old phenotypically male child presented with scrotal abscess as a result of abdominal pathologies which included mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) [1]; three anorectal malformations with ectopic ureter [1], urethral stricture [1], and neurogenic bladder [1]; meconium peritonitis with meconium periorchitis [2], ileal atresia [1], and intra-abdominal abscess [1]; posturethroplasty for Y urethral duplication with metal stenosis [1] and idiopathic pyocele [1]. Transmission of the organism had varied routes include fallopian tube [1], urethra ejaculatory reflux [4], hematogenous [2], and the patent process of vaginalis [2]. Two of the nine required extensive evaluation for further management. Treating the predisposing pathology resolved scrotal abscesses in eight of nine patients, one of whom, required vasectomy additionally. Idiopathic pyocele responded to needle aspiration and antibiotics. Conclusion: Scrotal abscess needs a high index of suspicion for predisposing pathology, especially in infants. Laparoscopy is safe and effective in the management of the MGD and ectopic ureter. PMID:27695207

  6. Scrotal abscess: Varied etiology, associations, and management

    PubMed Central

    Ramareddy, Raghu S.; Alladi, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To report a series of scrotal abscess, a rare problem, their etiology, and management. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of children who presented with scrotal abscess between January 2010 and March 2015, analyzed with respect to clinical features, pathophysiology of spread and management. Results: Eight infants and a 3-year-old phenotypically male child presented with scrotal abscess as a result of abdominal pathologies which included mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) [1]; three anorectal malformations with ectopic ureter [1], urethral stricture [1], and neurogenic bladder [1]; meconium peritonitis with meconium periorchitis [2], ileal atresia [1], and intra-abdominal abscess [1]; posturethroplasty for Y urethral duplication with metal stenosis [1] and idiopathic pyocele [1]. Transmission of the organism had varied routes include fallopian tube [1], urethra ejaculatory reflux [4], hematogenous [2], and the patent process of vaginalis [2]. Two of the nine required extensive evaluation for further management. Treating the predisposing pathology resolved scrotal abscesses in eight of nine patients, one of whom, required vasectomy additionally. Idiopathic pyocele responded to needle aspiration and antibiotics. Conclusion: Scrotal abscess needs a high index of suspicion for predisposing pathology, especially in infants. Laparoscopy is safe and effective in the management of the MGD and ectopic ureter.

  7. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric.

  8. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  9. Device for varying engine valve timing

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, K.

    1988-07-05

    A device is described for angularly displacing a camshaft relative to the crankshaft of an IC engine to vary the engine valve timing, comprising; a hub member; means to attach the hub member to the engine crankshaft; a drive member rotatably mounted on the hub member, and means connecting the drive member in driving relationship with the engine crankshaft; an advancing member; a first means interconnecting the advancing member with the hub member affecting limited axial movement of the advancing member relative to the hub member; a second means interconnecting the advancing member with the drive member which upon axial movement of the advancing member causes limited rotation of the drive member relative to the hub member; an annular means mounted on the hub member, the advancing member mounted on the annular means; coacting meshing means formed in part on the annular means for moving the advancing member axially relative to the hub upon limited rotation of the annular means relative to the hub; and a non-rotational retarder means which when actuated applies a retarding torque to the annular means causing limited rotation of the annular means relative to the hub and thus cause the advancing member to move axially of the hub whereby the drive member is moved a limited angular distance relative to the hub member.

  10. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  11. Filtration behavior of slurries with varying compressibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Massuda, M.; Bridger, K.; Harvey, M.; Tiller, F.M.

    1988-10-01

    A novel filtration apparatus allows simultaneous measurements of filtrate volume, hydraulic pressure and cake thickness using slurry volumes on the order of 100 cm/sup 3/. Differences in interparticle interactions were studied by varying the barium chloride concentration of 0.38-..mu..m polystyrene latex and filtering at pressures between 2 and 100 psi. Cakes formed from these slurries are highly compressible for concentrations between 0.01M and 0.10M, moderately compressible for the 0.005M concentration, and incompressible for the 0.001M concentration. Plots of filtrate volume versus cake thickness were linear for the incompressible cakes, whereas the compressible cakes showed significant deviations, which were pressure dependent. The pressure distribution for the incompressible cake was found to be essentially linear as predicted from the resistance plots assuming constant ..cap alpha.. and epsilon. For the highly compressible cakes, most of the pressure drop appears to occur near the cake/medium interface with only small changes occurring at the top of the cake.

  12. Time-Varying Modeling of Cerebral Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Shin, Dae C.; Orme, Melissa; Zhang, Rong

    2014-01-01

    The scientific and clinical importance of cerebral hemodynamics has generated considerable interest in their quantitative understanding via computational modeling. In particular, two aspects of cerebral hemodynamics, Cerebral Flow Autoregulation (CFA) and CO2 Vasomotor Reactivity (CVR), have attracted much attention because they are implicated in many important clinical conditions and pathologies (orthostatic intolerance, syncope, hypertension, stroke, vascular dementia, MCI, Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases with cerebrovascular components). Both CFA and CVR are dynamic physiological processes by which cerebral blood flow is regulated in response to fluctuations in cerebral perfusion pressure and blood CO2 tension. Several modeling studies to date have analyzed beat-to-beat hemodynamic data in order to advance our quantitative understanding of CFA-CVR dynamics. A confounding factor in these studies is the fact that the dynamics of the CFA-CVR processes appear to vary with time (i.e. changes in cerebrovascular characteristics) due to neural, endocrine and metabolic effects. This paper seeks to address this issue by tracking the changes in linear time-invariant models obtained from short successive segments of data from 10 healthy human subjects. The results suggest that systemic variations exist but have stationary statistics and, therefore, the use of time-invariant modeling yields “time-averaged models” of physiological and clinical utility. PMID:24184697

  13. Time-varying modeling of cerebral hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Shin, Dae C; Orme, Melissa; Rong Zhang

    2014-03-01

    The scientific and clinical importance of cerebral hemodynamics has generated considerable interest in their quantitative understanding via computational modeling. In particular, two aspects of cerebral hemodynamics, cerebral flow autoregulation (CFA) and CO2 vasomotor reactivity (CVR), have attracted much attention because they are implicated in many important clinical conditions and pathologies (orthostatic intolerance, syncope, hypertension, stroke, vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases with cerebrovascular components). Both CFA and CVR are dynamic physiological processes by which cerebral blood flow is regulated in response to fluctuations in cerebral perfusion pressure and blood CO2 tension. Several modeling studies to date have analyzed beat-to-beat hemodynamic data in order to advance our quantitative understanding of CFA-CVR dynamics. A confounding factor in these studies is the fact that the dynamics of the CFA-CVR processes appear to vary with time (i.e., changes in cerebrovascular characteristics) due to neural, endocrine, and metabolic effects. This paper seeks to address this issue by tracking the changes in linear time-invariant models obtained from short successive segments of data from ten healthy human subjects. The results suggest that systemic variations exist but have stationary statistics and, therefore, the use of time-invariant modeling yields "time-averaged models" of physiological and clinical utility.

  14. Latitudinal gradients in ecosystem engineering by oysters vary across habitats.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Dominic; Cole, Victoria J; Bishop, Melanie J

    2016-04-01

    Ecological theory predicts that positive interactions among organisms will increase across gradients of increasing abiotic stress or consumer pressure. This theory has been supported by empirical studies examining the magnitude of ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients and between habitat settings at local scale. Predictions that habitat setting, by modifying both biotic and abiotic factors, will determine large-scale gradients in ecosystem engineering have not been tested, however. A combination of manipulative experiments and field surveys assessed whether along the east Australian coastline: (1) facilitation of invertebrates by the oyster Saccostrea glomerata increased across a latitudinal gradient in temperature; and (2) the magnitude of this effect varied between intertidal rocky shores and mangrove forests. It was expected that on rocky shores, where oysters are the primary ecosystem engineer, they would play a greater role in ameliorating latitudinal gradients in temperature than in mangroves, where they are a secondary ecosystem engineer living under the mangrove canopy. On rocky shores, the enhancement of invertebrate abundance in oysters as compared to bare microhabitat decreased with latitude, as the maximum temperatures experienced by intertidal organisms diminished. By contrast, in mangrove forests, where the mangrove canopy resulted in maximum temperatures that were cooler and of greater humidity than on rocky shores, we found no evidence of latitudinal gradients of oyster effects on invertebrate abundance. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude by which oysters enhanced biodiversity was in many instances similar between mangroves and rocky shores. Whether habitat-context modifies patterns of spatial variation in the effects of ecosystem engineers on community structure will depend, in part, on the extent to which the environmental amelioration provided by an ecosystem engineer replicates that of other co-occurring ecosystem engineers.

  15. Latitudinal gradients in ecosystem engineering by oysters vary across habitats.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Dominic; Cole, Victoria J; Bishop, Melanie J

    2016-04-01

    Ecological theory predicts that positive interactions among organisms will increase across gradients of increasing abiotic stress or consumer pressure. This theory has been supported by empirical studies examining the magnitude of ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients and between habitat settings at local scale. Predictions that habitat setting, by modifying both biotic and abiotic factors, will determine large-scale gradients in ecosystem engineering have not been tested, however. A combination of manipulative experiments and field surveys assessed whether along the east Australian coastline: (1) facilitation of invertebrates by the oyster Saccostrea glomerata increased across a latitudinal gradient in temperature; and (2) the magnitude of this effect varied between intertidal rocky shores and mangrove forests. It was expected that on rocky shores, where oysters are the primary ecosystem engineer, they would play a greater role in ameliorating latitudinal gradients in temperature than in mangroves, where they are a secondary ecosystem engineer living under the mangrove canopy. On rocky shores, the enhancement of invertebrate abundance in oysters as compared to bare microhabitat decreased with latitude, as the maximum temperatures experienced by intertidal organisms diminished. By contrast, in mangrove forests, where the mangrove canopy resulted in maximum temperatures that were cooler and of greater humidity than on rocky shores, we found no evidence of latitudinal gradients of oyster effects on invertebrate abundance. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude by which oysters enhanced biodiversity was in many instances similar between mangroves and rocky shores. Whether habitat-context modifies patterns of spatial variation in the effects of ecosystem engineers on community structure will depend, in part, on the extent to which the environmental amelioration provided by an ecosystem engineer replicates that of other co-occurring ecosystem engineers

  16. How specific halide adsorption varies hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Stock, Philipp; Müller, Melanie; Utzig, Thomas; Valtiner, Markus

    2016-03-11

    Hydrophobic interactions (HI) are driven by the water structure around hydrophobes in aqueous electrolytes. How water structures at hydrophobic interfaces and how this influences the HI was subject to numerous studies. However, the effect of specific ion adsorption on HI and hydrophobic interfaces remains largely unexplored or controversial. Here, the authors utilized atomic force microscopy force spectroscopy at well-defined nanoscopic hydrophobic interfaces to experimentally address how specific ion adsorption of halide ions as well as NH4 (+), Cs(+), and Na(+) cations alters interaction forces across hydrophobic interfaces. Our data demonstrate that iodide adsorption at hydrophobic interfaces profoundly varies the hydrophobic interaction potential. A long-range and strong hydration repulsion at distances D > 3 nm, is followed by an instability which could be explained by a subsequent rapid ejection of adsorbed iodides from approaching hydrophobic interfaces. In addition, the authors find only a weakly pronounced influence of bromide, and as expected no influence of chloride. Also, all tested cations do not have any significant influence on HI. Complementary, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quartz-crystal-microbalance with dissipation monitoring showed a clear adsorption of large halide ions (Br(-)/I(-)) onto hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Interestingly, iodide can even lead to a full disintegration of SAMs due to specific and strong interactions of iodide with gold. Our data suggest that hydrophobic surfaces are not intrinsically charged negatively by hydroxide adsorption, as it was generally believed. Hydrophobic surfaces rather interact strongly with negatively charged large halide ions, leading to a surface charging and significant variation of interaction forces.

  17. Cold surge: a sudden and spatially varying threat to health?

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Wu, Pei-Chih; Chen, Vivian Yi-Ju; Su, Huey-Jen

    2009-05-01

    While cold surge is one of the most conspicuous features of the winter monsoon in East Asia, its impact on human health remains underexplored. Based on the definition by the Central Weather Bureau in Taiwan, we identified four cold surges between 2000 and 2003 and collected the cardiovascular disease mortality data 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after these events. We attempted to answer the following research questions: 1) whether the cold surges impose an adverse and immediate effect on cardiovascular mortality; 2) whether the people living in temperate zones have a higher tolerance of extreme temperature drop than those in the subtropics. With geographic weighting techniques, we not only found that the cardiovascular disease mortality rates increased significantly after the cold surges, but also discovered a spatially varying pattern of tolerance to cold surges. Even within a small study area such as Taiwan, human reaction to severe weather drop differs across space. Needless to say, in the U.S., these findings should be considered in redirecting policy to address populations living in warm places when extreme temperature drops occur.

  18. Development of a Linear Stirling Model with Varying Heat Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2007-01-01

    The linear model of the Stirling system developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been extended to include a user-specified heat input. Previously developed linear models were limited to the Stirling convertor and electrical load. They represented the thermodynamic cycle with pressure factors that remained constant. The numerical values of the pressure factors were generated by linearizing GRC s non-linear System Dynamic Model (SDM) of the convertor at a chosen operating point. The pressure factors were fixed for that operating point, thus, the model lost accuracy if a transition to a different operating point were simulated. Although the previous linear model was used in developing controllers that manipulated current, voltage, and piston position, it could not be used in the development of control algorithms that regulated hot-end temperature. This basic model was extended to include the thermal dynamics associated with a hot-end temperature that varies over time in response to external changes as well as to changes in the Stirling cycle. The linear model described herein includes not only dynamics of the piston, displacer, gas, and electrical circuit, but also the transient effects of the heater head thermal inertia. The linear version algebraically couples two separate linear dynamic models, one model of the Stirling convertor and one model of the thermal system, through the pressure factors. The thermal system model includes heat flow of heat transfer fluid, insulation loss, and temperature drops from the heat source to the Stirling convertor expansion space. The linear model was compared to a nonlinear model, and performance was very similar. The resulting linear model can be implemented in a variety of computing environments, and is suitable for analysis with classical and state space controls analysis techniques.

  19. Transient,spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Kibreab; Woodbury, Allan

    2013-04-01

    This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin

  20. Transient, spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, K.; Woodbury, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin

  1. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  2. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  3. Temperature Corrected Bootstrap Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Joey C.; Zwally, H. Jay

    1997-01-01

    A temperature corrected Bootstrap Algorithm has been developed using Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data in preparation to the upcoming AMSR instrument aboard ADEOS and EOS-PM. The procedure first calculates the effective surface emissivity using emissivities of ice and water at 6 GHz and a mixing formulation that utilizes ice concentrations derived using the current Bootstrap algorithm but using brightness temperatures from 6 GHz and 37 GHz channels. These effective emissivities are then used to calculate surface ice which in turn are used to convert the 18 GHz and 37 GHz brightness temperatures to emissivities. Ice concentrations are then derived using the same technique as with the Bootstrap algorithm but using emissivities instead of brightness temperatures. The results show significant improvement in the area where ice temperature is expected to vary considerably such as near the continental areas in the Antarctic, where the ice temperature is colder than average, and in marginal ice zones.

  4. Meteorology (Temperature)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    ... daily earth temperature minimum and maximum.   Frost Days (days) The number of days for which the temperature falls below 0 degrees Celsius.   Dew/Frost Point Temperature (° C) Temperature at which air is saturated ...

  5. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  6. Water temperatures of Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zogorski, John S.; Kiesler, James L.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kentucky Geological Survey has been gathering temperature data on streams throughout Kentucky under a number of different programs for several decades. Periodic water temperature observations, which were made at a frequency of approximately once per month during the past 15 years, were analyzed with the aid of a computer program to describe the annual water temperature cycle at sites in the Commonwealth. Shown on a map of Kentucky, at each site of water-temperature collections, are maximum median monthly temperature, minimum median monthly temperature, and annual average temperature. Stream temperatures in Kentucky vary between 0 and 30 degrees Celsius (deg C) during the year. Maximum median monthly water temperatures occur in July and are typically between 23 and 27 deg C, whereas minimum median monthly water temperatures are recorded in January and are useually within the 2 to 6 deg C range. Annual average water temperatures are between 10 and 18 deg C. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Temperature-sensitive optrode

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring temperature and for generating optical signals related to temperature. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a material whose fluorescent response varies with ambient temperature. The same fiber optic delivering the excitation beam also collects a portion of the fluorescent emission for analysis. Signal collection efficiency of the fiber optic is enhanced by requiring that the fluorescent probe material be in the shape of an oblong parabolically tapered solid. Reproducibility is enhanced by using Raman backscatter to monitor excitation beam fluctuations, and by using measurements of fluorescence lifetime.

  8. Temperature-sensitive optrode

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-09-24

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring temperature and for generating optical signals related to temperature. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a material whose fluorescent response varies with ambient temperature. The same fiber optic delivering the excitation beam also collects a portion of the fluorescent emission for analysis. Signal collection efficiency of the fiber optic is enhanced by requiring that the fluorescent probe material be in the shape of an oblong parabolically tapered solid. Reproducibility is enhanced by using Raman backscatter to monitor excitation beam fluctuations, and by using measurements of fluorescence lifetime. 10 figs.

  9. Fluctuation-Dissipation Relation for Systems with Spatially Varying Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farago, Oded; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels

    2014-09-01

    When a particle diffuses in a medium with spatially dependent friction coefficient at constant temperature , it drifts toward the low friction end of the system even in the absence of any real physical force . This phenomenon, which has been previously studied in the context of non-inertial Brownian dynamics, is termed "spurious drift", although the drift is real and stems from an inertial effect taking place at the short temporal scales. Here, we study the diffusion of particles in inhomogeneous media within the framework of the inertial Langevin equation. We demonstrate that the quantity which characterizes the dynamics with non-uniform is not the displacement of the particle (where is the initial position), but rather , where is the primitive function of . We derive expressions relating the mean and variance of to , , and the duration of the dynamics . For a constant friction coefficient , these expressions reduce to the well known forms of the force-drift and fluctuation-dissipation relations. We introduce a very accurate method for Langevin dynamics simulations in systems with spatially varying , and use the method to validate the newly derived expressions.

  10. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

  11. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

  12. Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

  13. Stable Inversion for Nonlinear Nonminimum-Phase Time Varying Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devasia, S.; Paden, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we extend stable inversion to nonlinear time-varying systems and study computational issues; the technique is applicable to minimum-phase as well as nonminimum-phase systems. The inversion technique is new, even in the linear time-varying case, and relies on partitioning (the dichotomic split of) the linearized system dynamics into time-varying, stable, and unstable, submanifolds. This dichotomic split is used to build time-varying filters which are, in turn, the basis of a contraction used to find a bounded inverse input-state trajectory. Finding the inverse input-state trajectory allows the development or exact-output tracking controllers. The method is local to the time-varying trajectory and requires that the internal dynamics vary slowly; however, the method represents a significant advance relative to presently available tracking controllers. Present techniques are restricted to time-invariant nonlinear systems and, in the general case, track only asymptotically.

  14. Propagation of phase modulation signals in time-varying plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Di; Liu, Yanming; He, Pan

    2016-05-01

    The effects of time-varying plasma to the propagation of phase modulation signals are investigated in this paper. Through theoretical analysis, the mechanism of the interaction between the time-varying plasma and the phase modulation signal is given. A time-varying plasma generator which could produce arbitrary time-varying plasma is built by adjusting the discharge power. A comparison of results from experiment and simulation prove that the time-varying plasma could cause the special rotation of QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) constellation, and the mechanism of constellation point's rotation is analyzed. Additionally, the experimental results of the QPSK signals' EVM (Error Vector Magnitude) after time-varying and time-invariant plasma with different ωp/ω are given. This research could be used to improve the TT&C (Tracking Telemeter and Command) system of re-entry vehicles.

  15. Sea turtle species vary in their susceptibility to tropical cyclones.

    PubMed

    Pike, David A; Stiner, John C

    2007-08-01

    Severe climatic events affect all species, but there is little quantitative knowledge of how sympatric species react to such situations. We compared the reproductive seasonality of sea turtles that nest sympatrically with their vulnerability to tropical cyclones (in this study, "tropical cyclone" refers to tropical storms and hurricanes), which are increasing in severity due to changes in global climate. Storm surges significantly decreased reproductive output by lowering the number of nests that hatched and the number of hatchlings that emerged from nests, but the severity of this effect varied by species. Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) began nesting earliest and most offspring hatched before the tropical cyclone season arrived, resulting in little negative effect. Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) nested intermediately, and only nests laid late in the season were inundated with seawater during storm surges. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nested last, and their entire nesting season occurred during the tropical cyclone season; this resulted in a majority (79%) of green turtle nests incubating in September, when tropical cyclones are most likely to occur. Since this timing overlaps considerably with the tropical cyclone season, the developing eggs and nests are extremely vulnerable to storm surges. Increases in the severity of tropical cyclones may cause green turtle nesting success to worsen in the future. However, published literature suggests that loggerhead turtles are nesting earlier in the season and shortening their nesting seasons in response to increasing sea surface temperatures caused by global climate change. This may cause loggerhead reproductive success to improve in the future because more nests will hatch before the onset of tropical cyclones. Our data clearly indicate that sympatric species using the same resources are affected differently by tropical cyclones due to slight variations in the seasonal timing of nesting, a key life

  16. Sea turtle species vary in their susceptibility to tropical cyclones.

    PubMed

    Pike, David A; Stiner, John C

    2007-08-01

    Severe climatic events affect all species, but there is little quantitative knowledge of how sympatric species react to such situations. We compared the reproductive seasonality of sea turtles that nest sympatrically with their vulnerability to tropical cyclones (in this study, "tropical cyclone" refers to tropical storms and hurricanes), which are increasing in severity due to changes in global climate. Storm surges significantly decreased reproductive output by lowering the number of nests that hatched and the number of hatchlings that emerged from nests, but the severity of this effect varied by species. Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) began nesting earliest and most offspring hatched before the tropical cyclone season arrived, resulting in little negative effect. Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) nested intermediately, and only nests laid late in the season were inundated with seawater during storm surges. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nested last, and their entire nesting season occurred during the tropical cyclone season; this resulted in a majority (79%) of green turtle nests incubating in September, when tropical cyclones are most likely to occur. Since this timing overlaps considerably with the tropical cyclone season, the developing eggs and nests are extremely vulnerable to storm surges. Increases in the severity of tropical cyclones may cause green turtle nesting success to worsen in the future. However, published literature suggests that loggerhead turtles are nesting earlier in the season and shortening their nesting seasons in response to increasing sea surface temperatures caused by global climate change. This may cause loggerhead reproductive success to improve in the future because more nests will hatch before the onset of tropical cyclones. Our data clearly indicate that sympatric species using the same resources are affected differently by tropical cyclones due to slight variations in the seasonal timing of nesting, a key life

  17. Temperature correction in conductivity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1962-01-01

    Electrical conductivity has been widely used in freshwater research but usual methods employed by limnologists for converting measurements to conductance at a given temperature have not given uniformly accurate results. The temperature coefficient used to adjust conductivity of natural waters to a given temperature varies depending on the kinds and concentrations of electrolytes, the temperature at the time of measurement, and the temperature to which measurements are being adjusted. The temperature coefficient was found to differ for various lake and stream waters, and showed seasonal changes. High precision can be obtained only by determining temperature coefficients for each water studied. Mean temperature coefficients are given for various temperature ranges that may be used where less precision is required.

  18. Audio Effects Based on Biorthogonal Time-Varying Frequency Warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelista, Gianpaolo; Cavaliere, Sergio

    2001-12-01

    We illustrate the mathematical background and musical use of a class of audio effects based on frequency warping. These effects alter the frequency content of a signal via spectral mapping. They can be implemented in dispersive tapped delay lines based on a chain of all-pass filters. In a homogeneous line with first-order all-pass sections, the signal formed by the output samples at a given time is related to the input via the Laguerre transform. However, most musical signals require a time-varying frequency modification in order to be properly processed. Vibrato in musical instruments or voice intonation in the case of vocal sounds may be modeled as small and slow pitch variations. Simulation of these effects requires techniques for time-varying pitch and/or brightness modification that are very useful for sound processing. The basis for time-varying frequency warping is a time-varying version of the Laguerre transformation. The corresponding implementation structure is obtained as a dispersive tapped delay line, where each of the frequency dependent delay element has its own phase response. Thus, time-varying warping results in a space-varying, inhomogeneous, propagation structure. We show that time-varying frequency warping is associated to an expansion over biorthogonal sets generalizing the discrete Laguerre basis. Slow time-varying characteristics lead to slowly varying parameter sequences. The corresponding sound transformation does not suffer from discontinuities typical of delay lines based on unit delays.

  19. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  20. Dynamic Factor Analysis Models with Time-Varying Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Zu, Jiyun; Shifren, Kim; Zhang, Guangjian

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic factor analysis models with time-varying parameters offer a valuable tool for evaluating multivariate time series data with time-varying dynamics and/or measurement properties. We use the Dynamic Model of Activation proposed by Zautra and colleagues (Zautra, Potter, & Reich, 1997) as a motivating example to construct a dynamic factor model…

  1. Fretting wear of iron, nickel, and titanium under varied environmental conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Fretting wear experiments were conducted on high purity iron, nickel and titanium in air under conditions of varied humidity and temperature, and in nitrogen. For iron and titanium, maximum fretting occurred at 10 and 30 percent relative humidity respectively. Nickel showed a minimum in fretting wear at about 10 percent relative humidity. With increasing temperature, all three metals initially showed reduced fretting wear, with increasing wear observed as temperatures increased beyond 200-300 C. For titanium, dramatically reduced fretting wear was observed at temperatures above 500 C, relatable to a change in oxidation kinetics. All three metals showed much less fretting wear in N2 with the presence of moisture in N2 having a proportionally stronger effect than in air.

  2. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOEpatents

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Huckaby, E. David; Fincham, William

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  3. Surface Temperatures of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisfeiler, M.; Turcotte, D. L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    In the search for habitable exoplanets, the planet's surface temperature plays a crucial role. Unfortunately, direct measurements of surface temperature are not available at this time. Many physical processes influence the surface temperature distribution of a planet. However, the dominating influence is an energy balance between the stellar radiation input and the radiative surface loss of heat. With the further assumptions of a uniform planetary surface temperature, no filtering of the incoming radiation, and black body emission, the only variables are the stellar luminosity and the radial distance of the exoplanet from the star. For the solar system, agreement with observations is quite good except for Venus. The agreement is good for both the inner planets and the outer planets. In this paper we systematically look at methods of improving the zero order approach given above. We consider the filtering of the incoming radiation and the grey body emission. This accounts for the greenhouse effect and can explain the surface temperature of Venus. We systematically vary the filtering of incoming radiation and the emissivities of the daytime and nighttime surfaces. There is evidence that greenhouse heating on the Earth is primarily at nighttime. Different emissivities can explain this effect. It is straightforward to extend the energy balance analysis to include the latitude dependence of surface temperature. Good agreement is obtained at low latitudes but temperature buffering and heat transport by the oceans and atmosphere are clearly important at high latitudes. It is also straightforward to estimate the difference between the daytime and nighttime temperatures. The important parameter is the rotation rate of the exoplanet. The roles of the oceans and the atmosphere in moderating this difference on the Earth will be discussed. Some exoplanets are sufficiently close to their star to have temperatures above the melting temperatures and even the vaporization

  4. Interannually varying salinity effects on ENSO in the tropical pacific: a diagnostic analysis from Argo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fei; Zhang, Rong-Hua

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, three-dimensional temperature and salinity fields from Argo profiles are used to diagnose the interannual variations of some related upper oceanic fields in the tropical Pacific, with a focus on interannually varying salinity effects on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. It is clearly demonstrated that the salinity field plays a significantly large role in modulating the density and mixed layer (ML) over the western-central tropical Pacific. In particular, the contribution of interannually varying salinity to the interannual variations in density, ML, and stratification is surprisingly larger than that of interannually varying temperature. Over the entire region west of the dateline, the salinity effects are not limited to the surface but are clearly seen below the ML as represented in density and stratification fields. Furthermore, the mechanism for how the anomalous salinity field is modulating the ENSO cycle is investigated and explained through the El Niño (2009-2010) and La Niña (2010-2011) cases. Evidently, salinity field is shown to exert a significant influence on interannual variability as it directly affects the vertical mixing and entrainment at the base of the ML, the processes important to sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial regions.

  5. Estimation of Time-Varying Pilot Model Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaal, Peter M. T.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2011-01-01

    Human control behavior is rarely completely stationary over time due to fatigue or loss of attention. In addition, there are many control tasks for which human operators need to adapt their control strategy to vehicle dynamics that vary in time. In previous studies on the identification of time-varying pilot control behavior wavelets were used to estimate the time-varying frequency response functions. However, the estimation of time-varying pilot model parameters was not considered. Estimating these parameters can be a valuable tool for the quantification of different aspects of human time-varying manual control. This paper presents two methods for the estimation of time-varying pilot model parameters, a two-step method using wavelets and a windowed maximum likelihood estimation method. The methods are evaluated using simulations of a closed-loop control task with time-varying pilot equalization and vehicle dynamics. Simulations are performed with and without remnant. Both methods give accurate results when no pilot remnant is present. The wavelet transform is very sensitive to measurement noise, resulting in inaccurate parameter estimates when considerable pilot remnant is present. Maximum likelihood estimation is less sensitive to pilot remnant, but cannot detect fast changes in pilot control behavior.

  6. Control design for a class of nonlinear parameter varying systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiushan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Stabilisation for a class of one-sided Lipschitz nonlinear parameter varying systems is dealt with in this paper. First, the nonlinear parameter varying system is represented as a subsystem of a differential inclusion. Sufficient conditions for exponential stabilisation for the differential inclusion are given by solving linear matrix inequalities. Then a continuous control law is designed to stabilise the differential inclusion. It leads to stabilising the nonlinear parameter varying system. Finally, a simulation example is presented to show the validity and advantages of the proposed method.

  7. Free Electron Lasers with Slowly Varying Beam and Undulator Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2005-05-25

    The performance of a free electron lasers (FEL) is affected when the electron beam energy varies alone the undulator as would be caused by vacuum pipe wakefields and/or when the undulator strength parameter is tapered in the small signal regime until FEL saturation. In this paper, we present a self-consistent theory of FELs with slowly-varying beam and undulator parameters. A general method is developed to apply the WKB approximation to the beam-radiation system by employing the adjoint eigenvector that is orthogonal to the eigenfunctions of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations. This method may be useful for other slowly varying processes in beam dynamics.

  8. Biodegradation of a Light NAPL under Varying Soil Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, B. K.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Kleingeld, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    To see the impact of different soil environmental conditions on LNAPL biodegradation, a series of batch, microcosm, column and 2-D tank experiments under controlled conditions have been planned. Microcosms along with batch experiments have been designed for five different moisture contents ranging from residual to saturated, and under varying temperature condition. The batches are being used for two saturated soils containing toluene. For the unsaturated cases, fifteen microcosms are designed to mimic natural conditions more closely. The microcosms consist of a transparent outer column and an air permeable, but watertight, inner tube comprised of toluene phobic material. The space between the outer column and the inner porous tube is filled with a soil having a particular moisture content with a known amount of toluene. The inner porous tube is filled with air at atmospheric pressure, providing sufficient oxygen for the degradation of considered light NAPL. A special sampling mechanism has been fabricated to enable airtight soil sampling. Four columns have been designed for studying the impact of water table fluctuation on the LNAPL fate and transport in variably-saturated soil. Water table in two columns will be static and remaining two will be subjected to a fluctuation. Finally a 2-D tank setup, made of a steel box and a glass cover, has been refurbished for bioremediation process of LNAPL from start to finish. The main body is constructed of one piece of 1.5 mm thick stainless steel formed into a box with inner dimensions of 200cm-long x 94cm-high x 4cm-deep. The front cover is made of glass wall having 19-mm thickness. The soil is going to be packed between the two walls. The groundwater will be flowing horizontally from left to right and the water table level in the tank will be controlled by two end chambers. The chambers are separated from the soil by a fine meshed stainless steel sheet. The spatial and the temporal distributions of the LNAPL and its

  9. Thermohaline feedbacks in ocean-climate models of varying complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Toom, M.

    2013-03-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is considered an important component of the climate system, because of its significant contribution to the heat budget of the Northern Hemisphere. Theoretical models indicate that the AMOC has non-linear dynamics, which result in a strong sensitivity to high latitude freshwater forcing. These models suggest that, as a result of the presence of multiple equilibria, the AMOC may drive large, abrupt shifts of the climate when a certain threshold is exceeded. There is no direct observational evidence that such AMOC related climate variations occur in reality, but the available data are too short and sparse to be conclusive in this case. Therefore, numerical models provide the main source of information regarding the nonlinear behavior of the AMOC. Because numerical models are necessarily incomplete, not in the least because of a lack of computational resources, their results must always be tested for robustness. This thesis presents four studies that examine how the representation of a certain unresolved process affects the behavior of the simulated AMOC The study in chapter 2 deals with the representation of horizontal mixing by mesoscale eddies. It is shown that a simple horizontal tracer mixing scheme is only a reasonable alternative to the more realistic isoneutral / Gent-McWilliams parameterization, provided that no wind forcing is imposed. In chapter 3, it is demonstrated that the use of a stability-dependent tracer diffusivity, which is commonly used to parameterize convection, leads to the occurrence of artificial multiple equilibria. In chapter 4, the representation of ocean-atmosphere interaction is considered. It is found that the sensitivity to anomalous freshwater forcing is only slightly modified if an interactive (sea surface temperature-dependent) atmosphere model is used, instead of a static atmosphere model. In chapter 5, the simulated sensitivity of the AMOC is compared between a model that

  10. [Cellular metabolism, temperature and brain injury].

    PubMed

    Geeraerts, T; Vigué, B

    2009-04-01

    Brain temperature is strongly linked to brain metabolic rate. In the brain, energy metabolism is mainly oxidative. The oxidative metabolism and heat production are therefore strongly related. In normal conditions, heat production consecutive to brain energy metabolism is counterbalanced by heat loss, by using a complex heat exchange system. After major cerebral injuries as subarachnoid haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury, cerebral temperature can often exceed systemic temperature. Moreover, brain temperature can vary independently to systemic temperature, making difficult the prediction of brain temperature from other central temperatures. Mitochondrial dysfunction is probably the corner stone of these post-injury perturbations of brain temperature. Understanding of this phenomenon remains however not complete. PMID:19303246

  11. Thermal design and simulation of an attitude-varied space camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenjie; Yang, Wengang; Feng, Liangjie; Li, XuYang; Wang, Yinghao; Fan, Xuewu; Wen, Desheng

    2015-10-01

    An attitude-varied space camera changes attitude continually when it is working, its attitude changes with large angle in short time leads to the significant change of heat flux; Moreover, the complicated inner heat sources, other payloads and the satellite platform will also bring thermal coupling effects to the space camera. According to a space camera which is located on a two dimensional rotating platform, detailed thermal design is accomplished by means of thermal isolation, thermal transmission and temperature compensation, etc. Then the ultimate simulation cases of both high temperature and low temperature are chosen considering the obscuration of the satellite platform and other payloads, and also the heat flux analysis of light entrance and radiator surface of the camera. NEVEDA and SindaG are used to establish the simulation model of the camera and the analysis is carried out. The results indicate that, under both passive and active thermal control, the temperature of optical components is 20+/-1°C,both their radial and axial temperature gradient are less than 0.3°C, while the temperature of the main structural components is 20+/-2°C, and the temperature fluctuation of the focal plane assemblies is 3.0-9.5°C The simulation shows that the thermal control system can meet the need of the mission, and the thermal design is efficient and reasonable.

  12. Spatially Varying Index of Refraction: An Open Ended Undergraduate Topic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an experiment on the bending of light in a medium with a continuously varying index of refraction. Several theoretical approaches for the analysis of this experiment, designed for college physics students, are also presented. (HM)

  13. 253. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    253. Mabry Mill. The varying roof lines and siding gives the mill an interesting texture, increasing its photogenic value. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  14. Analysis and Design of Time-Varying Filter Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodagar, Iraj

    Analysis-synthesis filter banks have been studied extensively and a wide range of theoretical problems have been subsequently addressed. However, almost all the research activity has been concentrated on time-invariant filter banks whose components are fixed and do not change in time. The objective of this thesis is to develop analysis and design techniques for time-varying FIR analysis-synthesis filter banks that are perfect reconstructing (PR). In such systems, the analysis and/or synthesis filters, the down-up sampling rates, or even the number of bands can change in time. The underlying idea is that by adapting the basis functions of the filter bank transform to the signal properties, one can represent the relevant information of the signal more efficiently. For analysis purposes, we derive the time-varying impulse response of the filter bank in terms of the analysis and synthesis filter coefficients. We are able to represent this impulse response in terms of the product of the analysis and synthesis matrix transforms. Our approach to the PR time-varying filter bank design is to change the analysis -synthesis filter bank among a set of time-invariant filter banks. The analysis filter banks are switched instantaneously. To eliminate the distortion during switching, a new time-varying synthesis section is designed for each transition. Three design techniques are developed for the time-varying filter bank design. The first technique uses the least squares synthesis filters. This method improves the reconstruction quality significantly, but does not usually achieve the perfect reconstruction. Using the second technique, one can design PR time-varying systems by redesigning the analysis filters. The drawback is that this method requires numerical optimizations. The third technique introduces a new structure for exactly reconstructing time-varying filter banks. This structure consists of the conventional filter bank followed by a time-varying post filter. The post

  15. Strength loss in concrete due to varying sulfate exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Kameswara Rao, C.V.S. )

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study in which the loss in strength of concrete exposed to time varying sulfate environments is determined. A measure of cumulative damage to the material under time dependent exposure conditions is introduced. The test data indicate that the cumulative damage, when concrete is exposed to a succession of sulfate solutions of varying concentrations over successive time intervals, is dependent on the order of application of the exposure.

  16. POCS-based restoration of space-varying blurred images.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, M K; Tekalp, A M; Sezan, M I

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new method for space-varying image restoration using the method of projection onto convex sets (POCS). The formulation allows the use of a different blurring function at each pixel of the image in a computationally efficient manner. We illustrate the performance of the proposed approach by comparing the new results with those of the ROMKF method on simulated images. We also present results on a real-life image with unknown space-varying out-of-focus blur.

  17. Energy harvesting under excitations of time-varying frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuaciuc-Osório, Thiago; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2010-06-01

    The design and optimization of energy harvesters capable of scavenging energy efficiently from realistic environments require a deep understanding of their transduction under non-stationary and random excitations. Otherwise, their small energy outputs can be further decreased lowering their efficiency and rendering many critical and possibly life saving technologies inefficient. As a first step towards this critical understanding, this effort investigates the response of energy harvesters to harmonic excitations of time-varying frequency. Such excitations can be used to represent the behavior of realistic vibratory environments whose frequency varies or drifts with time. Specifically, we consider a piezoelectric stack-type harvester subjected to a harmonic excitation of constant amplitude and a sinusoidally varying frequency. We analyze the response of the harvester in the fixed-frequency scenario then use the Jacobi-Anger's expansion to analyze the response in the time-varying case. We obtain analytical expressions for the harvester's response, output voltage, and power. In-depth analysis of the attained results reveals that the solution to the more complex time-varying frequency can be understood through a process which "samples" the fixed-frequency response curve at a discrete and fixed frequency interval then multiplies the response by proper weights. Extensive discussions addressing the effect of the excitation parameters on the output power is presented leading to some initial suggestions pertinent to the harvester's design and optimization in the sinusoidally varying frequency case.

  18. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOEpatents

    Burke, William F.; Winiecki, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of an electrical system for varying the temperature with strain, the instrument including opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  19. Temperature responsive transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A temperature responsive transmitter is provided in which frequency varies linearly with temperature. The transmitter includes two identically biased transistors connected in parallel. A capacitor, which reflects into the common bases to generate negative resistance effectively in parallel with the capacitor, is connected to the common emitters. A crystal is effectively in parallel with the capacitor and the negative resistance. Oscillations occur if the magnitude of the absolute value of the negative resistance is less than the positive resistive impedance of the capacitor and the inductance of the crystal. The crystal has a large linear temperature coefficient and a resonant frequency which is substantially less than the gain-bandwidth product of the transistors to ensure that the crystal primarily determines the frequency of oscillation. A high-Q tank circuit having an inductor and a capacitor is connected to the common collectors to increase the collector current flow which in turn enhances the radiation of the oscillator frequency by the inductor.

  20. Temperature sensitive oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An oscillator circuit for sensing and indicating temperature by changing oscillator frequency with temperature comprises a programmable operational amplifier which is operated on the roll-off portion of its gain versus frequency curve and has its output directly connected to the inverting input to place the amplifier in a follower configuration. Its output is also connected to the non-inverting input by a capacitor with a crystal or other tuned circuit also being connected to the non-inverting input. A resistor is connected to the program input of the amplifier to produce a given set current at a given temperature, the set current varying with temperature. As the set current changes, the gain-bandwidth of the amplifier changes and, in turn, the reflected capacitance across the crystal changes, thereby providing the desired change in oscillator frequency by pulling the crystal. There is no requirement that a crystal employed with this circuit display either a linear frequency change with temperature or a substantial frequency change with temperature.

  1. Thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, L.

    1993-01-01

    The mirage-effect/thermal wave technique as a modern technique for thermal property characterization is described. The thermal diffusivity of a material is determined by measuring the time and space varying temperature distribution (thermal wave) in the material generated by an intensity modulated heating laser beam. These thermal waves are detected through the deflection of a probe laser beam due to modulation of gradient of the index of refraction (mirage effect) either in the air above the specimens (the in-air technique) or in the specimen itself (the in-solid technique). Three-dimensional theories, for both in-air and in-solid mirage techniques, are represented. In order to extract the material parameters by comparing the theory with experimental data, an extensive data analysis procedure based on multiparameter-least-squares has been developed. The experimental and data analysis details are discussed. Topics concerns with the quality and reliability of the measurements are addressed. This technique has been successfully applied to the thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotope contents. The results showed a 50% enhancement in the thermal conductivity by removal of C[sup 13] content from 1.1% to 0.1% in diamond at room temperature. The technique has also been adapted to function in cryogenic temperatures. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in the temperature range 80-378K for natural IIA specimen and 187-375K for isotopically enriched specimen are obtained, the former results agree with previous works and the latter results demonstrate the isotope effect on the thermal conductivity of single crystal diamond consistently in a large temperature range. The physical source of this enhancement in diffusivity due to the isotope effect in diamond is discussed. The discussion is based on the full Callaway's theory with emphasizing the role of N-processes in the phonon scattering mechanism.

  2. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  3. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  4. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  5. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  6. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  7. Linear, Parameter-Varying Control of Aeroservoelastic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Chicunque, Claudia Patricia

    Modern aircraft designers are adopting light-weight, high-aspect ratio flexible wings to improve performance and reduce operation costs. A technical challenge associated with these designs is that the large deformations in flight of the wings lead to adverse interactions between the aircraft aerodynamic forces and structural forces. These adverse interactions produce excessive vibrations that can degrade flying qualities and may result in severe structural damages or catastrophic failure. This dissertation is focused on the application of multivariable robust control techniques for suppression of these adverse interactions in flexible aircraft. Here, the aircraft coupled nonlinear equations of motion are represented in the linear, parameter-varying framework. These equations account for the coupled aerodynamics, rigid body dynamics, and deformable body dynamics of the aircraft. Unfortunately, the inclusion of this coupled dynamics results in high-order models that increase the computational complexity of linear, parameter-varying control techniques. This dissertation addresses three key technologies for linear, parameter-varying control of flexible aircraft: (i) linear, parameter-varying model reduction; (ii) selection of actuators and sensors for vibration suppression; and (iii) design of linear, parameter-varying controllers for vibration suppression. All of these three technologies are applied to an experimental research platform located at the University of Minnesota. The objective of this dissertation is to provide to the flight control community with a set of design methodologies to safely exploit the benefits of light-weight flexible aircraft.

  8. Generalized semiparametric varying-coefficient models for longitudinal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li

    In this dissertation, we investigate the generalized semiparametric varying-coefficient models for longitudinal data that can flexibly model three types of covariate effects: time-constant effects, time-varying effects, and covariate-varying effects, i.e., the covariate effects that depend on other possibly time-dependent exposure variables. First, we consider the model that assumes the time-varying effects are unspecified functions of time while the covariate-varying effects are parametric functions of an exposure variable specified up to a finite number of unknown parameters. The estimation procedures are developed using multivariate local linear smoothing and generalized weighted least squares estimation techniques. The asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators are established. The simulation studies show that the proposed methods have satisfactory finite sample performance. ACTG 244 clinical trial of HIV infected patients are applied to examine the effects of antiretroviral treatment switching before and after HIV developing the 215-mutation. Our analysis shows benefit of treatment switching before developing the 215-mutation. The proposed methods are also applied to the STEP study with MITT cases showing that they have broad applications in medical research.

  9. Temperature Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal temperature readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as dangerously low (hypothermia) and dangerously high (hyperthermia) body temperatures. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body temperature. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal temperature sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.

  10. Time-varying Reeb Graphs: A Topological Framework Supporting the Analysis of Continuous Time-varying Data

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, Ajith Arthur

    2006-01-01

    I present time-varying Reeb graphs as a topological framework to support the analysis of continuous time-varying data. Such data is captured in many studies, including computational fluid dynamics, oceanography, medical imaging, and climate modeling, by measuring physical processes over time, or by modeling and simulating them on a computer. Analysis tools are applied to these data sets by scientists and engineers who seek to understand the underlying physical processes. A popular tool for analyzing scientific datasets is level sets, which are the points in space with a fixed data value s. Displaying level sets allows the user to study their geometry, their topological features such as connected components, handles, and voids, and to study the evolution of these features for varying s. For static data, the Reeb graph encodes the evolution of topological features and compactly represents topological information of all level sets. The Reeb graph essentially contracts each level set component to a point. It can be computed efficiently, and it has several uses: as a succinct summary of the data, as an interface to select meaningful level sets, as a data structure to accelerate level set extraction, and as a guide to remove noise. I extend these uses of Reeb graphs to time-varying data. I characterize the changes to Reeb graphs over time, and develop an algorithm that can maintain a Reeb graph data structure by tracking these changes over time. I store this sequence of Reeb graphs compactly, and call it a time-varying Reeb graph. I augment the time-varying Reeb graph with information that records the topology of level sets of all level values at all times, that maintains the correspondence of level set components over time, and that accelerates the extraction of level sets for a chosen level value and time. Scientific data sampled in space-time must be extended everywhere in this domain using an interpolant. A poor choice of interpolant can create degeneracies that are

  11. Dynamics of sprite streamers in varying air density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianqi; Pasko, Victor P.

    2015-03-01

    Similarity laws for streamer discharges, which state that the properties of streamers such as streamer radius, electric field, and electron density should respectively scale as N-1, N1, and N2 in different but uniform air densities N, are important relations that have provided a general understanding of the mesospheric sprite discharges based on existing knowledge of streamers in laboratory conditions. Recent modeling studies, however, show that the properties of sprite streamers in varying air density do not follow exactly or even contradict the similarity relations. We present here simulation results and related analysis of sprite streamers to provide a unified view and resolve these contradictions. Our results indicate that the properties of streamers in varying air density are determined by the physical dimensions of streamers and the reduced electric field E/N, with the varying air density N being only one of the three factors controlling the streamer properties.

  12. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

  13. Assessment of preference for varied versus constant reinforcers.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, L G; Piazza, C C; Fisher, W W; Hagopian, L P; Kogan, J S

    1997-01-01

    One method that has been demonstrated to improve the effectiveness of reinforcement is stimulus (reinforcer) variation (Egel, 1980). Egel found that bar pressing increased and responding occurred more rapidly during varied reinforcement than during constant reinforcement when identical stimuli were used across phases for 10 individuals with autism. The purpose of the current investigation was to assess the preferences of 7 individuals for varied presentation of slightly lower quality stimuli relative to constant access to the highest quality stimulus. Varied presentation was preferred over constant reinforcer presentation with 4 participants, and the opposite was true for 2 participants. One participant did not demonstrate a preference. These results suggest that stimulus variation may allow less preferred reinforcers to compete effectively with a more highly preferred reinforcer for some individuals. PMID:9316258

  14. Comparative Analysis of Instruments Measuring Time Varying Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes; Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Carvalho, Frederico Marques

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the performance of commercial class A and class S power quality (PQ) instruments when measuring time-varying harmonics. By using a high precision programmable voltage and current source, two meters from different manufacturers are analyzed and compared. Three-phase voltage signals are applied to PQ instruments, considering 3 situations of time-varying harmonic distortions, whose harmonic distortion values are in accordance with typical values found in power systems. This work is relevant considering that international standardization documents do not pay much attention to this aspect of harmonic distortion.

  15. Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Weed Instrument Inc. produces a line of thermocouples - temperature sensors - for a variety of industrial and research uses. One of the company's newer products is a thermocouple specially designed for high accuracy at extreme temperatures above 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Development of sensor brought substantial increases in Weed Instrument sales and employment.

  16. Characteristics of Quantum Radiation of Slowly Varying Nonstationary Kerr-Newman Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jia-Chen; Huang, Yong-Chang

    Quantum radiative characteristics of slowly varying nonstationary Kerr-Newman black holes are investigated by using the method of generalized tortoise coordinate transformation. It is shown that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on the time and the angle. Further, we reveal a previously ignored relationship between thermal radiation and nonthermal radiation, which is that the chemical potential in the thermal radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative energy state of particles in nonthermal radiation for slowly varying nonstationary Kerr-Newman black holes. Also, we show that the deduced general results can be degenerated to the known conclusion of stationary Kerr-Newman black holes.

  17. Intelligent, Robust Control of Deteriorated Turbofan Engines via Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    A method for accommodating engine deterioration via a scheduled Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function (LPVQLF)-Based controller is presented. The LPVQLF design methodology provides a means for developing unconditionally stable, robust control of Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems. The controller is scheduled on the Engine Deterioration Index, a function of estimated parameters that relate to engine health, and is computed using a multilayer feedforward neural network. Acceptable thrust response and tight control of exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is accomplished by adjusting the performance weights on these parameters for different levels of engine degradation. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that the controller achieves specified performance objectives while being robust to engine deterioration as well as engine-to-engine variations.

  18. Ekman Spiral in a Horizontally Inhomogeneous Ocean with Varying Eddy Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Peter C.

    2015-10-01

    The classical Ekman spiral is generated by surface wind stress with constant eddy viscosity in a homogeneous ocean. In real oceans, the eddy viscosity varies due to turbulent mixing caused by surface wind and buoyancy forcing. Horizontally inhomogeneous density produces vertical geostrophic shear which contributes to current shear that also affects the Ekman spiral. Based on similar theoretical framework as the classical Ekman spiral, the baroclinic components of the Ekman spiral caused by the horizontally inhomogeneous density are obtained analytically with the varying eddy viscosity calculated from surface wind and buoyancy forcing using the K-profile parameterization (KPP). Along with the three existing types of eddy viscosity due to pure wind forcing (zero surface buoyancy flux), such an effect is evaluated using the climatological monthly mean data of surface wind stress, buoyancy flux, ocean temperature and salinity, and mixed layer depth.

  19. Three African antelope species with varying water dependencies exhibit similar selective brain cooling.

    PubMed

    Strauss, W Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The use of selective brain cooling, where warm arterial blood destined for the brain is cooled in the carotid rete via counter-current heat exchange when in close proximity to cooler venous blood, contributes to the conservation of body water. We simultaneously measured carotid blood and hypothalamic temperature in four gemsbok, five red hartebeest and six blue wildebeest to assess the extent to which these free-living animals, with varying water dependency, routinely rely on selective brain cooling. We investigated the hypothesis that innate differences in selective brain cooling exist in large, sympatric artiodactyls with varying water dependency. All three species used selective brain cooling, without any discernible differences in three selective brain cooling indices. GLMMs revealed no species differences in the threshold temperature for selective brain cooling (z = 0.79, P = 0.43), the magnitude (z = -0.51, P = 0.61), or the frequency of selective brain cooling use (z = -0.47, P = 0.64), after controlling for carotid blood temperature and black globe temperature. Comparison of anatomical attributes of the carotid retes of the three species revealed that the volume (F 2,9 = 5.54, P = 0.03) and height (F 2,9 = 5.43, P = 0.03) of the carotid rete, per kilogram body mass, were greater in the red hartebeest than in the blue wildebeest. Nevertheless, intraspecific variability in the magnitude, the frequency of use, and the threshold temperature for selective brain cooling exceeded any interspecific variability in the three indices of selective brain cooling. We conclude that the three species have similar underlying ability to make use of selective brain cooling in an environment with freely available water. It remains to be seen to what extent these three species would rely on selective brain cooling, as a water conservation mechanism, when challenged by aridity, a condition likely to become prevalent throughout much of southern Africa under future climate change

  20. Does thermal time for germination vary among populations of a tree legume (Peltophorum dubium)?

    PubMed

    Andrade, L F D; Cardoso, V J M

    2016-04-19

    Few works report the use of degree-days (DD) - used in crops to predict events and schedule management activities - to describe the germination of tropical trees. The cardinal temperatures (base, optimum and ceiling temperature) for germination of the species may vary depending on the seed provenance. Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub. is an early successional leguminous tree widely distributed in South America, often occurring as cultivated or naturalized trees, thus considered to be a good example for testing DD model in tree species. The main objective of this study was to describe the seed germination response of different populations of P. dubium as function of DD accumulation during germination assays in semi-controlled (fluctuating temperatures) conditions. Germination assays with manually scarified seeds sown in aluminum sheet trays filled with a composed substrate were performed under greenhouse conditions at different times. Three methods were employed in order to describe the accumulation of thermal time throughout the assays and, considering the seed lot and sowing time, a trapezoid area method was relatively more effective in describing the germination. The germination curves of P. dubium seeds from different populations, expressed in degree-days estimated directly from temperature records schedules, tend to be more clustered suggesting little variation among thermal time requirements in different seed provenances. Otherwise, the thermal time requirement can vary depending on the time of sowing, and any increase in DD requirement when the assays were performed under higher mean temperatures can be related to a thermal effect on the germination of scarified seeds. PMID:27097080

  1. Transforming Universities: National Conditions of Their Varied Organisational Actorhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Despite major changes in the governance of universities overtly intended to transform them into authoritatively integrated collectivities, the extent of their organisational actorhood remains quite limited and varied between OECD countries. This is because of inherent limitations to the managerial direction and control of research and teaching…

  2. Time varying market efficiency of the GCC stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charfeddine, Lanouar; Khediri, Karim Ben

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the time-varying levels of weak-form market efficiency for the GCC stock markets over the period spanning from May 2005 to September 2013. We use two empirical approaches: (1) the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity in mean (GARCH-M) model with state space time varying parameter (Kalman filter), and (2) a rolling technique sample test of the fractional long memory parameter d. As long memory estimation methods, we use the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) technique, the modified R/S statistic, the exact local whittle (ELW) and the feasible Exact Local Whittle (FELW) methods. Moreover, we use the Bai and Perron (1998, 2003) multiple structural breaks technique to test and date the time varying behavior of stock market efficiency. Empirical results show that GCC markets have different degrees of time-varying efficiency, and also have experiencing periods of efficiency improvement. Results also show evidence of structural breaks in all GCC markets. Moreover, we observe that the recent financial shocks such as Arab spring and subprime crises have a significant impact on the time path evolution of market efficiency.

  3. Additional Surgery after Breast-Conserving Surgery Varies Widely

    Cancer.gov

    A study published in the Feb. 1, 2012, issue of JAMA found that the number of women who have one or more additional surgeries to remove suspected residual tumor tissue (re-excisions) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer varies widely across surgeons and hospitals.

  4. Neuronal Mechanisms and Transformations Encoding Time-Varying Signals.

    PubMed

    Petkov, Christopher I; Bendor, Daniel

    2016-08-17

    Sensation in natural environments requires the analysis of time-varying signals. While previous work has uncovered how a signal's temporal rate is represented by neurons in sensory cortex, in this issue of Neuron, new evidence from Gao et al. (2016) provides insights on the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27537481

  5. Faculty's Degrees, Experience and Research Vary with Specialty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; Counts, Tim; Carey, Arlen; Santana, Maria Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues of professional experience, degrees, research, and productivity for journalism and mass communication faculty members, separating and comparing different specialties. Finds that requirements regarding academic degrees and research vary from specialty to specialty and that 53% of those teaching in advertising, radio/television, and…

  6. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  7. Mining Graphs for Understanding Time-Varying Volumetric Data.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi; Wang, Chaoli; Peterka, Tom; Jacob, Robert; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A notable recent trend in time-varying volumetric data analysis and visualization is to extract data relationships and represent them in a low-dimensional abstract graph view for visual understanding and making connections to the underlying data. Nevertheless, the ever-growing size and complexity of data demands novel techniques that go beyond standard brushing and linking to allow significant reduction of cognition overhead and interaction cost. In this paper, we present a mining approach that automatically extracts meaningful features from a graph-based representation for exploring time-varying volumetric data. This is achieved through the utilization of a series of graph analysis techniques including graph simplification, community detection, and visual recommendation. We investigate the most important transition relationships for time-varying data and evaluate our solution with several time-varying data sets of different sizes and characteristics. For gaining insights from the data, we show that our solution is more efficient and effective than simply asking users to extract relationships via standard interaction techniques, especially when the data set is large and the relationships are complex. We also collect expert feedback to confirm the usefulness of our approach.

  8. Retention: Rates and Practices Vary from Campus to Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Garry

    1994-01-01

    Although college student retention rates vary widely by institution, educators feel dropout prevention is improving and results from a variety of strategies. Teacher awareness training, better student monitoring, and enhanced support networks and services are credited for the improvement. Some policies concerning academic probation, suspension,…

  9. Varying Instructional Strategies to Accommodate Diverse Thinking Skills. Curriculum Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Michael R.; Eschenbach, John F. von

    1996-01-01

    Proposes using instructional games as a means of reaching students with varying learning styles. Describes several games involving problem solving, role playing, and simulations. The games incorporate aspects of Sternberg's theory that intelligence can be conceptualized as analytic, creative, or practical. (MJP)

  10. Frontal Neurons Modulate Memory Retrieval across Widely Varying Temporal Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wen-Hua; Williams, Ziv M.

    2015-01-01

    Once a memory has formed, it is thought to undergo a gradual transition within the brain from short- to long-term storage. This putative process, however, also poses a unique problem to the memory system in that the same learned items must also be retrieved across broadly varying time scales. Here, we find that neurons in the ventrolateral…

  11. Graduate Students' Pay and Benefits Vary Widely, Survey Shows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2008-01-01

    Graduate students face an array of choices when evaluating compensation-and-benefits packages that make comparisons difficult. A "Chronicle" survey shows that the offers to teaching assistants and research assistants vary widely. Some institutions cover 100 percent of graduate students' tuition, while others waive only a portion. It is possible to…

  12. Explicit Analytical Solution of a Pendulum with Periodically Varying Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tianzhi; Fang, Bo; Li, Song; Huang, Wenhu

    2010-01-01

    A pendulum with periodically varying length is an interesting physical system. It has been studied by some researchers using traditional perturbation methods (for example, the averaging method). But due to the limitation of the conventional perturbation methods, the solutions are not valid for long-term prediction of the pendulum. In this paper,…

  13. Applicability of the Rasch Model with Varying Item Discriminations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinero, Thomas E.; Haertel, Edward

    1977-01-01

    This research simulated responses of 75 subjects to 30 items under the Birnbaum model and attempted a fit to the data using the Rasch model. When item discriminations varied from a variance of .05 to .25, there was only a slight increase in lack of fit as the variances increased. (Author/CTM)

  14. Bayesian classification in a time-varying environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of classifying a pattern based on multiple observation made in a time-varying environment is analyzed. The identity of the pattern may itself change. A Bayesian solution is derived, after which the conditions of the physical situation are invoked to produce a cascade classifier model. Experimental results based on remote sensing data demonstrate the effectiveness of the classifier.

  15. Unit 901: Language Varies With Backgrounds and Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This ninth-grade unit on language differences is intended to increase "the student's awareness or sensitivity to the ways in which language varies with the differing backgrounds and interests of those who use language," to develop his "abilities to adapt his language behavior to more effectively meet the demands of a variety of communication…

  16. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1996-01-01

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit.

  17. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1996-08-20

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit. 7 figs.

  18. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-06-30

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card. 8 figs.

  19. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1998-01-01

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card.

  20. Rhenium-Oxygen Interactions at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.; Zhu, Dongming; Humphrey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    The reaction of pure rhenium metal with dilute oxygen/argon mixtures was studied from 600 to 1400 C. Temperature, oxygen pressure, and flow rates were systematically varied to determine the rate-controlling steps. At lower temperatures the oxygen/rhenium chemical reaction is rate limiting; at higher temperatures gas-phase diffusion of oxygen through the static boundary layer is rate limiting. At all temperatures post-reaction microstructures indicate preferential attack along certain crystallographic planes and defects.

  1. Modeling spatially-varying landscape change points in species occurrence thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Midway, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting species distributions at scales of regions to continents is often necessary, as large-scale phenomena influence the distributions of spatially structured populations. Land use and land cover are important large-scale drivers of species distributions, and landscapes are known to create species occurrence thresholds, where small changes in a landscape characteristic results in abrupt changes in occurrence. The value of the landscape characteristic at which this change occurs is referred to as a change point. We present a hierarchical Bayesian threshold model (HBTM) that allows for estimating spatially varying parameters, including change points. Our model also allows for modeling estimated parameters in an effort to understand large-scale drivers of variability in land use and land cover on species occurrence thresholds. We use range-wide detection/nondetection data for the eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a stream-dwelling salmonid, to illustrate our HBTM for estimating and modeling spatially varying threshold parameters in species occurrence. We parameterized the model for investigating thresholds in landscape predictor variables that are measured as proportions, and which are therefore restricted to values between 0 and 1. Our HBTM estimated spatially varying thresholds in brook trout occurrence for both the proportion agricultural and urban land uses. There was relatively little spatial variation in change point estimates, although there was spatial variability in the overall shape of the threshold response and associated uncertainty. In addition, regional mean stream water temperature was correlated to the change point parameters for the proportion of urban land use, with the change point value increasing with increasing mean stream water temperature. We present a framework for quantify macrosystem variability in spatially varying threshold model parameters in relation to important large-scale drivers such as land use and land cover

  2. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    DOEpatents

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Ericson, M.N.

    1999-01-19

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature. 5 figs.

  3. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Ericson, M. Nance

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature.

  4. Stress analysis of thermally affected rotating nanoshafts with varying material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2016-04-01

    Based on the surface elasticity theory of Gurtin-Murdoch, thermo-elastic fields within rotating nanoshafts with varying material properties subjected to a thermal field are explicitly examined. Accounting for the surface energy effect, the nonclassical boundary conditions are enforced in the cases of fixed-free and free-free conditions. The effects of variation of material properties, temperature of the environment, angular velocity, and radius of the outer radius on the radial displacement, hoop and radial stresses are investigated. In all performed studies, the role of the surface effect on the thermo-elastic field of the nanostructure is methodically discussed.

  5. Method and apparatus for varying the fuel ratio of an air-fuel mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Leonardi, S.

    1981-03-24

    A method and apparatus is described for varying the fuel ratio of an air-fuel mixture supplied to the carburetor of an internal combustion engine. In a first embodiment, a valve opens and closes a port in an aluminum block between a passage coupled to the pcv and carburetor and a second passage open to the atmosphere. A spring in the second passage modulates the air flow as a function of vacuum pressure and thermally responsive means maintains the valve closed until the engine reaches its operating temperature. In a second embodiment the valve is opened as a function of the wind pressure produced during vehicle movement.

  6. Dynamics of two-dimensional vortex pairs in a spatially varying potential

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.H. ); Gunn, J.M.F. )

    1992-10-01

    We consider the dynamics of vortices in a superfluid {sup 4}He film flowing over a substrate at zero temperature. The vortex trajectories are assumed to be governed by the Magnus-force equation with the effect of the substrate incorporated via the gradient of a potential. We use an equivalent Hamiltonian formulation to show that two vortices in a slowly varying potential can exhibit stochastic behavior. In this regard, there are differences between the cases of two vortices of the same sign and those of the opposite sign, the latter becoming stochastic more readily.

  7. Temperature measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body. Wait for 5 minutes before reading. Plastic strip thermometers change color to show the temperature. ... 1 minute while the strip is in place. Plastic strip thermometers for the mouth are also available. ...

  8. Engine Cylinder Temperature Control

    DOEpatents

    Kilkenny, Jonathan Patrick; Duffy, Kevin Patrick

    2005-09-27

    A method and apparatus for controlling a temperature in a combustion cylinder in an internal combustion engine. The cylinder is fluidly connected to an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold. The method and apparatus includes increasing a back pressure associated with the exhaust manifold to a level sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of residual exhaust gas in the cylinder, and varying operation of an intake valve located between the intake manifold and the cylinder to an open duration sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of fresh air from the intake manifold to the cylinder, wherein controlling the quantities of residual exhaust gas and fresh air are performed to maintain the temperature in the cylinder at a desired level.

  9. Why does a protein's evolutionary rate vary over time?

    PubMed

    Du, Xiangjun; Lipman, David J; Cherry, Joshua L

    2013-01-01

    The sequences of different proteins evolve at different rates. The relative evolutionary rate (ER) of a single protein also changes over evolutionary time. The cause of this ER fluctuation remains uncertain, and study of this phenomenon may shed light on protein evolution more broadly. We have characterized ER fluctuation in mammals and Drosophila. We found little correlation between the amount of rate variation observed for a protein and such factors as its expression level or phylogenetic distribution. Perhaps more surprisingly, we found little correlation between our measure of rate variation and ER itself. We also investigated the extent to which the ERs of different domains of a protein vary independently. We found that rates of different domains do tend to vary together. In fact, rates at positions in different domains are coupled just as strongly as rates at equally distant positions in the same domain. These findings provide clues to the protein evolutionary process.

  10. Multiple endobronchial mycetomas with varied appearances and mixed fungal flora.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Thomas A; Ortega, Ismael

    2013-04-01

    We present images of a patient with multiple endobronchial mycetomas visible by bronchoscopy with varying appearances and with mixed fungal flora on culture. A 44-year-old African American male previously treated for pulmonary tuberculosis 11 years earlier presented with moderate hemoptysis and infiltrates in the right upper lobe on chest radiograph. He received levofloxacin without improvement in the infiltrate. Computed tomography scan revealed bronchiectasis, multiple intrabronchial masses, and air crescents. Diagnostic evaluation was negative for acid fast bacilli. Bronchoscopy revealed 4 separate endobronchial masses with varied appearances within dilated bronchiectatic airways. Culture of washings revealed Cunninghamella species, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium species. The patient underwent a lobectomy and was discharged on an azole antifungal agent, which was discontinued after 6 weeks.

  11. Stabilising compensators for linear time-varying differential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a constructive test to decide whether a given linear time-varying (LTV) differential system admits a stabilising compensator for the control tasks of tracking, disturbance rejection or model matching and construct and parametrise all of them if at least one exists. In analogy to the linear time-invariant (LTI) case, the ring of stable rational functions, noncommutative in the LTV situation, and the Kučera-Youla parametrisation play prominent parts in the theory. We transfer Blumthaler's thesis from the LTI to the LTV case and sharpen, complete and simplify the corresponding results in the book 'Linear Time-Varying Systems' by Bourlès and Marinescu.

  12. A Symmetric Time-Varying Cluster Rate of Descent Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    A model of the time-varying rate of descent of the Orion vehicle was developed based on the observed correlation between canopy projected area and drag coefficient. This initial version of the model assumes cluster symmetry and only varies the vertical component of velocity. The cluster fly-out angle is modeled as a series of sine waves based on flight test data. The projected area of each canopy is synchronized with the primary fly-out angle mode. The sudden loss of projected area during canopy collisions is modeled at minimum fly-out angles, leading to brief increases in rate of descent. The cluster geometry is converted to drag coefficient using empirically derived constants. A more complete model is under development, which computes the aerodynamic response of each canopy to its local incidence angle.

  13. Cell response to silica gels with varying mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Molly Ann

    Sol-gel encapsulation has a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine: creating biosensors, biocatalysts, and bioartificial organs. However, encapsulated cell viability is a major challenge. Consequently, interactions between cells and their 3D microenvironment were studied through rheological, metabolic activity, and extraction studies to aid in the development of new gel protocols. The cells were encapsulated in variations of three silica sol-gels with varying stiffness. It was hypothesized that the cell viability and the amount of extracted cells would depend on gel stiffness. For two gels, there was no apparent correlation between the gel stiffness and the cell viability and extracted cell quantity. These gels did strongly depend on the varying gel ingredient, polyethylene glycol. The third gel appeared to follow the hypothesized correlation, but it was not statistically significant. Finally, one gel had a significantly longer period of cell viability and higher quantity of extracted cells than the other gels.

  14. Chimera states in time-varying complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarino, Arturo; Frasca, Mattia; Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Hövel, Philipp

    2015-02-01

    Chimera states have been recently found in a variety of different coupling schemes and geometries. In most cases, the underlying coupling structure is considered to be static, while many realistic systems display significant temporal changes in the pattern of connectivity. In this work we investigate a time-varying network made of two coupled populations of Kuramoto oscillators, where the links between the two groups are considered to vary over time. As a main result we find that the network may support stable, breathing, and alternating chimera states. We also find that, when the rate of connectivity changes is fast, compared to the oscillator dynamics, the network may be described by a low-dimensional system of equations. Unlike in the static heterogeneous case, the onset of alternating chimera states is due to the presence of fluctuations, which may be induced either by the finite size of the network or by large switching times.

  15. Flexural wave cloaking via embedded cylinders with systematically varying thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungjin; Yang, Wonseok; Lee, Sinyeob; Park, Junhong

    2016-06-01

    Simulations of flexural wave cloaking from multiple scattering events that are achieved by embedded cylinders in a thin plate are performed. Minimization of refraction is performed using small surrounding cylinders with varying thickness in radial and angular directions, respectively. The thickness variations render the effective wave speed lower in the radial direction and higher in the angular direction compared to the speed in the surrounding media, which results in the cloaking effect. In order to verify the feasibility of this approach, 15 layers of cylinders are placed around the blocked area. The multiple-scattering method is used to predict wave propagations and to take the interactions between cylinders into account. The effects of the thickness variation on the cloaking performance are analyzed. The results demonstrate that minimal scattering is achieved when the area of interest is surrounded by the thickness-varying cylinders. PMID:27369157

  16. Hemolymph drop impact outcomes on surfaces with varying wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milionis, Athanasios; Ghokulla Krishnan, K.; Loth, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Insect fouling from coagulated hemolymph and exoskeleton parts is a major challenge in the aerospace industry for the next generation of aerodynamic surfaces, which will employ laminar flow that requires extremely smooth surfaces. However, the wetting physics and dynamics of hemolymph (insect blood) on surfaces are not well understood. The present study seeks to gain a fundamental insight on the effect of surface wetting characteristics and dynamics resulting from a hemolymph drop impact, the first such study. In particular, hemolymph drops extracted from Acheta domesticus were dispensed from a range of heights to vary the kinetic impact on surfaces, which had widely varying water wetting behavior (from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic). The impact dynamics were investigated with high-speed imaging while the dried residues were studied with optical microscopy. It was found that a superhydrophobic surface (based on thermoplastic with silica nano-particles) was able to significantly reduce hemolymph drop spreading, and even provide complete rebound when impacting on inclined surfaces.

  17. Epidemic spread in coupled populations with seasonally varying migration rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzyczyn, Adam; Shaw, Leah B.

    2009-03-01

    The H5N1 strain of avian influenza has spread worldwide, and this spread may be due to seasonal migration of birds and mixing of birds from different regions in the wintering grounds. We studied a multipatch model for avian influenza with seasonally varying migration rates. The bird population was divided into two spatially distinct patches, or subpopulations. Within each patch, the disease followed the SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for epidemic spread. Migration rates were varied periodically, with a net flux toward the breeding grounds during the spring and towards the wintering grounds during the fall. The case of two symmetric patches reduced to single-patch SIR dynamics. However, asymmetry in the birth and contact rates in the breeding grounds and wintering grounds led to bifurcations to longer period orbits and chaotic dynamics. We studied the bifurcation structure of the model and the phase relationships between outbreaks in the two patches.

  18. Non-minimally coupled varying constants quantum cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Balcerzak, Adam

    2015-04-01

    We consider gravity theory with varying speed of light and varying gravitational constant. Both constants are represented by non-minimally coupled scalar fields. We examine the cosmological evolution in the near curvature singularity regime. We find that at the curvature singularity the speed of light goes to infinity while the gravitational constant vanishes. This corresponds to the Newton's Mechanics limit represented by one of the vertex of the Bronshtein-Zelmanov-Okun cube [1,2]. The cosmological evolution includes both the pre-big-bang and post-big-bang phases separated by the curvature singularity. We also investigate the quantum counterpart of the considered theory and find the probability of transition of the universe from the collapsing pre-big-bang phase to the expanding post-big-bang phase.

  19. Fault detection in reciprocating compressor valves under varying load conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Kurt; Lughofer, Edwin; Pichler, Markus; Buchegger, Thomas; Klement, Erich Peter; Huschenbett, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for detecting cracked or broken reciprocating compressor valves under varying load conditions. The main idea is that the time frequency representation of vibration measurement data will show typical patterns depending on the fault state. The problem is to detect these patterns reliably. For the detection task, we make a detour via the two dimensional autocorrelation. The autocorrelation emphasizes the patterns and reduces noise effects. This makes it easier to define appropriate features. After feature extraction, classification is done using logistic regression and support vector machines. The method's performance is validated by analyzing real world measurement data. The results will show a very high detection accuracy while keeping the false alarm rates at a very low level for different compressor loads, thus achieving a load-independent method. The proposed approach is, to our best knowledge, the first automated method for reciprocating compressor valve fault detection that can handle varying load conditions.

  20. Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Hoenicke, Dirk

    2012-01-24

    Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth dynamically changes the depth of prefetching so that the number of multiple streams as well as the hit rate of a single stream are optimized. The method and apparatus in one aspect monitor a plurality of load requests from a processing unit for data in a prefetch buffer, determine an access pattern associated with the plurality of load requests and adjust a prefetch depth according to the access pattern.

  1. Varied morphology carbon nanotubes and method for their manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Li, Wenzhi; Wen, Jian Guo; Ren, Zhi Feng

    2007-01-02

    The present invention describes the preparation of carbon nanotubes of varied morphology, catalyst materials for their synthesis. The present invention also describes reactor apparatus and methods of optimizing and controlling process parameters for the manufacture carbon nanotubes with pre-determined morphologies in relatively high purity and in high yields. In particular, the present invention provides methods for the preparation of non-aligned carbon nanotubes with controllable morphologies, catalyst materials and methods for their manufacture.

  2. Hyperbolic tori in Hamiltonian systems with slowly varying parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, Anton G

    2013-05-31

    This paper looks at a Hamiltonian system which depends periodically on a parameter. For each value of the parameter the system is assumed to have a hyperbolic periodic solution. Using the methods in KAM-theory it is proved that if the Hamiltonian is perturbed so that the value of the parameter varies with constant small frequency, then the nonautonomous system will have hyperbolic 2-tori in the extended phase space. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  3. New stability conditions for nonlinear time varying delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmadssia, S.; Saadaoui, K.; Benrejeb, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, new practical stability conditions for a class of nonlinear time varying delay systems are proposed. The study is based on the use of a specific state space description, known as the Benrejeb characteristic arrow form matrix, and aggregation techniques to obtain delay-dependent stability conditions. Application of this method to delayed Lurie-Postnikov nonlinear systems is given. Illustrative examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Holographic flow visualization of time-varying shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Rapid-double-exposure, diffuse-illumination holography is evaluated analytically and experimentally as a flow visualization method for time-varying shock waves. Conditions are determined that minimize the distance (localization error) between the surface or curve of interference-fringe localization and the shock surface. Treated specifically are the cases of shock waves in a transonic compressor rotor for which there is laser anemometer data for comparison and shock waves in a flutter cascade.

  5. Morphable Word Clouds for Time-Varying Text Data Visualization.

    PubMed

    Chi, Ming-Te; Lin, Shih-Syun; Chen, Shiang-Yi; Lin, Chao-Hung; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2015-12-01

    A word cloud is a visual representation of a collection of text documents that uses various font sizes, colors, and spaces to arrange and depict significant words. The majority of previous studies on time-varying word clouds focuses on layout optimization and temporal trend visualization. However, they do not fully consider the spatial shapes and temporal motions of word clouds, which are important factors for attracting people's attention and are also important cues for human visual systems in capturing information from time-varying text data. This paper presents a novel method that uses rigid body dynamics to arrange multi-temporal word-tags in a specific shape sequence under various constraints. Each word-tag is regarded as a rigid body in dynamics. With the aid of geometric, aesthetic, and temporal coherence constraints, the proposed method can generate a temporally morphable word cloud that not only arranges word-tags in their corresponding shapes but also smoothly transforms the shapes of word clouds over time, thus yielding a pleasing time-varying visualization. Using the proposed frame-by-frame and morphable word clouds, people can observe the overall story of a time-varying text data from the shape transition, and people can also observe the details from the word clouds in frames. Experimental results on various data demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed method in morphable word cloud generation. In addition, an application that uses the proposed word clouds in a simulated exhibition demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed method.

  6. Varying the effective buoyancy of cells using magnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevorkian, Karine; Valles, James M.

    2004-06-01

    We introduce a magnetic force buoyancy variation (MFBV) technique that employs intense inhomogeneous magnetic fields to vary the effective buoyancy of cells and other diamagnetic systems in solution. Nonswimming Paramecia have been suspended, forced to sediment and driven to rise in solution using MFBV. Details of their response to MFBV have been used to determine the magnetic susceptibility of a single Paramecium. The use of MFBV as a means by which to suspend cell cultures indefinitely is also described.

  7. Morphable Word Clouds for Time-Varying Text Data Visualization.

    PubMed

    Chi, Ming-Te; Lin, Shih-Syun; Chen, Shiang-Yi; Lin, Chao-Hung; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2015-12-01

    A word cloud is a visual representation of a collection of text documents that uses various font sizes, colors, and spaces to arrange and depict significant words. The majority of previous studies on time-varying word clouds focuses on layout optimization and temporal trend visualization. However, they do not fully consider the spatial shapes and temporal motions of word clouds, which are important factors for attracting people's attention and are also important cues for human visual systems in capturing information from time-varying text data. This paper presents a novel method that uses rigid body dynamics to arrange multi-temporal word-tags in a specific shape sequence under various constraints. Each word-tag is regarded as a rigid body in dynamics. With the aid of geometric, aesthetic, and temporal coherence constraints, the proposed method can generate a temporally morphable word cloud that not only arranges word-tags in their corresponding shapes but also smoothly transforms the shapes of word clouds over time, thus yielding a pleasing time-varying visualization. Using the proposed frame-by-frame and morphable word clouds, people can observe the overall story of a time-varying text data from the shape transition, and people can also observe the details from the word clouds in frames. Experimental results on various data demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed method in morphable word cloud generation. In addition, an application that uses the proposed word clouds in a simulated exhibition demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed method. PMID:26529462

  8. Scanning Iron Temperature Lidar for Mesopause Temperature Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautenbach, Jens; Höffner, Josef

    2004-08-01

    We introduce a new method for temperature profile measurements in the mesopause region in the altitude range from 80 to 105 km. A frequency-doubled narrowband alexandrite laser is used to scan the iron resonance line at 386 nm. The isotopic shifts of the iron isotopes and the laser bandwidth are derived by the measurement itself. Neglecting the minor isotopes results in large temperature errors up to 28 K. We discuss the derived temperatures in comparison with results of our potassium temperature lidar. The iron lidar-derived temperatures have typically a statistical error of 0.4 K and vary by less than 10 K, which is due to the daily natural variation. The all-solid-state system, which is compact, can be containerized and deployed at remote locations.

  9. Identifying structures of continuously-varying weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Guofeng; Wu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Guanrong; Lu, Jun-An

    2016-05-01

    Identifying network structures from dynamical observations is a fundamental problem currently pervading scientific research on complex systems, as understanding and modeling the structure of a complex network will lead to greater knowledge of its evolutionary mechanisms and to a better understanding of its functional behaviors. Usually, one needs to identify a network’s structure through a limited number of observations. Particularly, couplings of many real-world networks are sparse and continuously varying with time. In this study, a new framework is developed via optimization for identifying structures of continuously-varying weighted networks formed by sparsely-connected dynamical systems. Furthermore, a regularization technique is employed to increase the numerical stability of the parameter estimation algorithm. Three numerical examples are provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed identification method. In comparison with other existing techniques, the main advantages of our method include its ability to identify structures of continuously-varying weighted networks in addition to static ones, as well as its requirement of a relatively small number of observations. The proposed method has a potential applicability to a variety of evolving complex dynamical networks.

  10. Identifying structures of continuously-varying weighted networks

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Guofeng; Wu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Guanrong; Lu, Jun-an

    2016-01-01

    Identifying network structures from dynamical observations is a fundamental problem currently pervading scientific research on complex systems, as understanding and modeling the structure of a complex network will lead to greater knowledge of its evolutionary mechanisms and to a better understanding of its functional behaviors. Usually, one needs to identify a network’s structure through a limited number of observations. Particularly, couplings of many real-world networks are sparse and continuously varying with time. In this study, a new framework is developed via optimization for identifying structures of continuously-varying weighted networks formed by sparsely-connected dynamical systems. Furthermore, a regularization technique is employed to increase the numerical stability of the parameter estimation algorithm. Three numerical examples are provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed identification method. In comparison with other existing techniques, the main advantages of our method include its ability to identify structures of continuously-varying weighted networks in addition to static ones, as well as its requirement of a relatively small number of observations. The proposed method has a potential applicability to a variety of evolving complex dynamical networks. PMID:27241956

  11. Efficient Encoding and Rendering of Time-Varying Volume Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Smith, Diann; Shih, Ming-Yun; Shen, Han-Wei

    1998-01-01

    Visualization of time-varying volumetric data sets, which may be obtained from numerical simulations or sensing instruments, provides scientists insights into the detailed dynamics of the phenomenon under study. This paper describes a coherent solution based on quantization, coupled with octree and difference encoding for visualizing time-varying volumetric data. Quantization is used to attain voxel-level compression and may have a significant influence on the performance of the subsequent encoding and visualization steps. Octree encoding is used for spatial domain compression, and difference encoding for temporal domain compression. In essence, neighboring voxels may be fused into macro voxels if they have similar values, and subtrees at consecutive time steps may be merged if they are identical. The software rendering process is tailored according to the tree structures and the volume visualization process. With the tree representation, selective rendering may be performed very efficiently. Additionally, the I/O costs are reduced. With these combined savings, a higher level of user interactivity is achieved. We have studied a variety of time-varying volume datasets, performed encoding based on data statistics, and optimized the rendering calculations wherever possible. Preliminary tests on workstations have shown in many cases tremendous reduction by as high as 90% in both storage space and inter-frame delay.

  12. Contagion dynamics in time-varying metapopulation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Su-Yu; Baronchelli, Andrea; Perra, Nicola

    2013-03-01

    The metapopulation framework is adopted in a wide array of disciplines to describe systems of well separated yet connected subpopulations. The subgroups or patches are often represented as nodes in a network whose links represent the migration routes among them. The connections have been so far mostly considered as static, but in general evolve in time. Here we address this case by investigating simple contagion processes on time-varying metapopulation networks. We focus on the SIR process and determine analytically the mobility threshold for the onset of an epidemic spreading in the framework of activity-driven network models. We find profound differences from the case of static networks. The threshold is entirely described by the dynamical parameters defining the average number of instantaneously migrating individuals and does not depend on the properties of the static network representation. Remarkably, the diffusion and contagion processes are slower in time-varying graphs than in their aggregated static counterparts, the mobility threshold being even two orders of magnitude larger in the first case. The presented results confirm the importance of considering the time-varying nature of complex networks.

  13. Contagion dynamics in time-varying metapopulation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perra, Nicola; Liu, Suyu; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    The metapopulation framework is adopted in a wide array of disciplines to describe systems of well separated yet connected subpopulations. The subgroups/patches are often represented as nodes in a network whose links represent the migration routes among them. The connections has been so far mostly considered as static, but in general evolve in time. Here we address this case by investigating simple contagion processes on time-varying metapopulation networks. We focus on the SIR process, and determine analytically the mobility threshold for the onset of an epidemic spreading in the framework of activity-driven network models. We find profound differences from the case of static networks. The threshold is entirely described by the dynamical parameters defining the average number of instantaneously migrating individuals, and does not depend on the properties of the static network representation. Remarkably, the diffusion and contagion processes are slower in time-varying graphs than in their aggregated static counterparts, the mobility threshold been even two orders of magnitude larger in the first case. The presented results confirm the importance of considering the time-varying nature of complex networks.

  14. Image Cross-Correlation Analysis of Time Varying Flows.

    PubMed

    Marquezin, Cassia A; Ceffa, Nicolò G; Cotelli, Franco; Collini, Maddalena; Sironi, Laura; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2016-07-19

    In vivo studies of blood circulation pathologies have great medical relevance and need methods for the characterization of time varying flows at high spatial and time resolution in small animal models. We test here the efficacy of the combination of image correlation techniques and single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) in characterizing time varying flows in vitro and in vivo. As indicated by numerical simulations and by in vitro experiments on straight capillaries, the complex analytical form of the cross-correlation function for SPIM detection can be simplified, in conditions of interest for hemodynamics, to a superposition of Gaussian components, easily amenable to the analysis of variable flows. The possibility to select a wide field of view with a good spatial resolution along the collection optical axis and to compute the cross-correlation between regions of interest at varying distances on a single time stack of images allows one to single out periodic flow components from spurious peaks on the cross-correlation functions and to infer the duration of each flow component. We apply this cross-correlation analysis to the blood flow in Zebrafish embryos at 4 days after fertilization, measuring the average speed and the duration of the systolic and diastolic phases.

  15. Delivery of continuously-varying stimuli using channelrhodopsin-2

    PubMed Central

    Tchumatchenko, Tatjana; Newman, Jonathan P.; Fong, Ming-fai; Potter, Steve M.

    2013-01-01

    To study sensory processing, stimuli are delivered to the sensory organs of animals and evoked neural activity is recorded downstream. However, noise and uncontrolled modulatory input can interfere with repeatable delivery of sensory stimuli to higher brain regions. Here we show how channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can be used to deliver continuous, subthreshold, time-varying currents to neurons at any point along the sensory-motor pathway. To do this, we first deduce the frequency response function of ChR2 using a Markov model of channel kinetics. We then confirm ChR2's frequency response characteristics using continuously-varying optical stimulation of neurons that express one of three ChR2 variants. We find that wild-type ChR2 and the E123T/H134R mutant (“ChETA”) can pass continuously-varying subthreshold stimuli with frequencies up to ~70 Hz. Additionally, we find that wild-type ChR2 exhibits a strong resonance at ~6–10 Hz. Together, these results indicate that ChR2-derived optogenetic tools are useful for delivering highly repeatable artificial stimuli that mimic in vivo synaptic bombardment. PMID:24367294

  16. Identifying structures of continuously-varying weighted networks.

    PubMed

    Mei, Guofeng; Wu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Guanrong; Lu, Jun-An

    2016-01-01

    Identifying network structures from dynamical observations is a fundamental problem currently pervading scientific research on complex systems, as understanding and modeling the structure of a complex network will lead to greater knowledge of its evolutionary mechanisms and to a better understanding of its functional behaviors. Usually, one needs to identify a network's structure through a limited number of observations. Particularly, couplings of many real-world networks are sparse and continuously varying with time. In this study, a new framework is developed via optimization for identifying structures of continuously-varying weighted networks formed by sparsely-connected dynamical systems. Furthermore, a regularization technique is employed to increase the numerical stability of the parameter estimation algorithm. Three numerical examples are provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed identification method. In comparison with other existing techniques, the main advantages of our method include its ability to identify structures of continuously-varying weighted networks in addition to static ones, as well as its requirement of a relatively small number of observations. The proposed method has a potential applicability to a variety of evolving complex dynamical networks. PMID:27241956

  17. YBa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} with varied oxygen content

    SciTech Connect

    Karen, P.; Kjekshus, A.

    1994-09-01

    The oxygen content in YBa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8+w} is varied within -0.2 < w < 0.1 by thermal equilibration upon controlling the oxygen partial pressure (10{sup {minus}30} < P{sub O2} < 150 atm) at various temperatures (950temperature) electrical conductivity shows a minimum close to this composition, which is reached below p{sub O2} = 10{sup {minus}12} atm for temperature below 1250 K. In oxygen-rich atmospheres, the conductivity becomes independent of temperature above some 800 K. Magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm the occurrence of antiferromagnetism in YBa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8+w} with T{sub N} {approximately} 700 K, and some irregular features are pointed out.

  18. Temperature Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An ingestible mini-thermometer capable of measuring and relaying internal body temperatures is marketed by Human Technologies, Inc. The CorTemp system, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and Applied Physics Lab, incorporates space technologies, among them telemetry and microminiaturized circuit, sensor and battery technologies. The capsule is ingested and continually monitors temperature with a vibrating quartz crystal sensor, which telemeters signals to a recorder, where data is displayed and stored. The system is very accurate, and because it does not require wires, allows patients to be monitored in everyday situations. The industrial variant (CSC-100) has wide utility in commercial applications.

  19. Non-Invasive Neuromodulation Using Time-Varying Caloric Vestibular Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Lesco L.; Ade, Kristen K.; Nicoletto, Heather A.; Adkins, Heather D.; Laskowitz, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) to elicit the vestibulo-ocular reflex has long been used in clinical settings to aid in the diagnosis of balance disorders and to confirm the absence of brainstem function. While a number of studies have hinted at the potential therapeutic applications of CVS, the limitations of existing devices have frustrated that potential. Current CVS irrigators use water or air during short-duration applications; however, this approach is not tenable for longer duration therapeutic protocols or home use. Here, we describe a solid-state CVS device we developed in order to address these limitations. This device delivers tightly controlled time-varying thermal waveforms, which can be programmed through an external control unit. It contains several safety features, which limit patients to the prescribed waveform and prevent the potential for temperature extremes. In this paper, we provide evidence that CVS treatment with time-varying, but not constant temperature waveforms, elicits changes in cerebral blood flow physiology consistent with the neuromodulation of brainstem centers, and we present results from a small pilot study, which demonstrate that the CVS can safely and feasibly be used longitudinally in the home setting to treat episodic migraine. Together, these results indicate that this solid-state CVS device may be a viable tool for non-invasive neuromodulation. PMID:27777829

  20. Spatially Varying Coefficient Inequalities: Evaluating How the Impact of Patient Characteristics on Breast Cancer Survival Varies by Location

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Jeff Ching-Fu; Cramb, Susanna M.; McGree, James M.; Dunn, Nathan A. M.; Baade, Peter D.; Mengersen, Kerrie L.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have identified spatial differences in breast cancer survival. However little is known about whether the structure and dynamics of this spatial inequality are consistent across a region. This study aims to evaluate the spatially varying nature of predictors of spatial inequality in relative survival for women diagnosed with breast cancer across Queensland, Australia. All Queensland women aged less than 90 years diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 1997 to 2007 and followed up to the end of 2008 were extracted from linked Queensland Cancer Registry and BreastScreen Queensland data. Bayesian relative survival models were fitted using various model structures (a spatial regression model, a varying coefficient model and a finite mixture of regressions model) to evaluate the relative excess risk of breast cancer, with the use of Markov chain Monte Carlo computation. The spatially varying coefficient models revealed that some covariate effects may not be constant across the geographic regions of the study. The overall spatial patterns showed lower survival among women living in more remote areas, and higher survival among the urbanised south-east corner. Notwithstanding this, the spatial survival pattern for younger women contrasted with that for older women as well as single women. This complex spatial interplay may be indicative of different factors impacting on survival patterns for these women. PMID:27149274

  1. Electron temperature differences and double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C.; Hershkowitz, N.; Lonngren, K. E.

    1983-01-01

    Electron temperature differences across plasma double layers are studied experimentally. It is shown that the temperature differences across a double layer can be varied and are not a result of thermalization of the bump-on-tail distribution. The implications of these results for electron thermal energy transport in laser-pellet and tandem-mirror experiments are also discussed.

  2. Time-Varying Ankle Mechanical Impedance During Human Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunglae; Hogan, Neville

    2015-09-01

    In human locomotion, we continuously modulate joint mechanical impedance of the lower limb (hip, knee, and ankle) either voluntarily or reflexively to accommodate environmental changes and maintain stable interaction. Ankle mechanical impedance plays a pivotal role at the interface between the neuro-mechanical system and the physical world. This paper reports, for the first time, a characterization of human ankle mechanical impedance in two degrees-of-freedom simultaneously as it varies with time during walking. Ensemble-based linear time-varying system identification methods implemented with a wearable ankle robot, Anklebot, enabled reliable estimation of ankle mechanical impedance from the pre-swing phase through the entire swing phase to the early-stance phase. This included heel-strike and toe-off, key events in the transition from the swing to stance phase or vice versa. Time-varying ankle mechanical impedance was accurately approximated by a second order model consisting of inertia, viscosity, and stiffness in both inversion-eversion and dorsiflexion-plantarflexion directions, as observed in our previous steady-state dynamic studies. We found that viscosity and stiffness of the ankle significantly decreased at the end of the stance phase before toe-off, remained relatively constant across the swing phase, and increased around heel-strike. Closer investigation around heel-strike revealed that viscosity and stiffness in both planes increased before heel-strike occurred. This finding is important evidence of "pretuning" by the central nervous system. In addition, viscosity and stiffness were greater in the sagittal plane than in the frontal plane across all subgait phases, except the early stance phase. Comparison with previous studies and implications for clinical study of neurologically impaired patients are provided.

  3. Bayesian Variable Selection for Multivariate Spatially-Varying Coefficient Regression

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Brian J.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Herring, Amy H.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Physical activity has many well-documented health benefits for cardiovascular fitness and weight control. For pregnant women, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists currently recommends 30 minutes of moderate exercise on most, if not all, days; however, very few pregnant women achieve this level of activity. Traditionally, studies have focused on examining individual or interpersonal factors to identify predictors of physical activity. There is a renewed interest in whether characteristics of the physical environment in which we live and work may also influence physical activity levels. We consider one of the first studies of pregnant women that examines the impact of characteristics of the built environment on physical activity levels. Using a socioecologic framework, we study the associations between physical activity and several factors including personal characteristics, meteorological/air quality variables, and neighborhood characteristics for pregnant women in four counties of North Carolina. We simultaneously analyze six types of physical activity and investigate cross-dependencies between these activity types. Exploratory analysis suggests that the associations are different in different regions. Therefore we use a multivariate regression model with spatially-varying regression coefficients. This model includes a regression parameter for each covariate at each spatial location. For our data with many predictors, some form of dimension reduction is clearly needed. We introduce a Bayesian variable selection procedure to identify subsets of important variables. Our stochastic search algorithm determines the probabilities that each covariate’s effect is null, non-null but constant across space, and spatially-varying. We found that individual level covariates had a greater influence on women’s activity levels than neighborhood environmental characteristics, and some individual level covariates had spatially-varying associations with

  4. Size-varying small target detection for infrared image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Ran; Long, Yunli; An, Wei; Zhou, Yiyu

    2015-10-01

    IRST (Infrared Search and Track) has been applied to many military or civil fields such as precise guidance, aerospace, early warning. As a key technique, small target detection based on infrared image plays an important role. However, infrared targets have their own characteristics, such as target size variation, which make the detection work quite difficult. In practical application, the target size may vary due to many reasons, such as optic angle of sensors, imaging distance, environment and so on. For conventional detection methods, it is difficult to detect such size-varying targets, especially when the backgrounds have strong clutters. This paper presents a novel method to detect size-varying infrared targets in a cluttered background. It is easy to find that the target region is salient in infrared images. It means that target region have a signature of discontinuity with its neighboring regions and concentrates in a relatively small region, which can be considered as a homogeneous compact region, and the background is consistent with its neighboring regions. Motivated by the saliency feature and gradient feature, we introduce minimum target intensity (MTI) to measure the dissimilarity between different scales, and use mean gradient to restrict the target scale in a reasonable range. They are integrated to be multiscale MTI filter. The proposed detection method is designed based on multiscale MTI filter. Firstly, salient region is got by morphological low-pass filtering, where the potential target exists in. Secondly, the candidate target regions are extracted by multiscale minimum target intensity filter, which can effectively give the optimal target size. At last, signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) is used to segment targets, which is computed based on optimal scale of candidate targets. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve both higher detection precision and robustness in complex background.

  5. Identification and robust control of linear parameter-varying systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lawton Hubert

    This dissertation deals with linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems: linear dynamic systems that depend on time-varying parameters. These systems appear in gain scheduling problems, and much recent research has been devoted to their prospective usefulness for systematic gain scheduling. We primarily focus on robust control of uncertain LPV systems and identification of LPV systems that are modelable as linear-fractional transformations (LFTs). Using parameter-dependent quadratic Lyapunov functions, linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and scaled small-gain arguments, we define notions of stability and induced-{cal L}sb2 performance for uncertain LPV systems whose parameters and rates of parameter variation satisfy given bounds. The performance criterion involves integral quadratic constraints and implies naturally parameter-dependent induced-{cal L}sb2 norm bounds. We formulate and solve an {cal H}sb{infty}-like control problem for an LPV plant with measurable parameters and an "Output/State Feedback" structure: the feedback outputs include some noiselessly measured states. Necessary and sufficient solvability conditions reduce to LMIs that can be solved approximately using finite-dimensional convex programming. Reduced-order LPV controllers are constructed from the LMI solutions. A D-K iteration-like procedure provides robustness to structured, time-varying, parametric uncertainty. The design method is applied to a motivating example: flight control for the F-16 VISTA throughout its subsonic flight envelope. Parameter-dependent weights and {cal H}sb{infty} design principles describe the performance objectives. Closed-loop responses exhibited by nonlinear simulations indicate satisfactory flying qualities. Identification of linear-fractional LPV systems is treated using maximum-likelihood parameter estimation. Computing the gradient and Hessian of a maximum-likelihood cost function reduces to simulating one LPV filter per identified parameter. We use nonlinear

  6. Bending of solitons in weak and slowly varying inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Abhik Janaki, M. S. Kundu, Anjan

    2015-12-15

    The bending of solitons in two dimensional plane is presented in the presence of weak and slowly varying inhomogeneous ion density for the propagation of ion acoustic soliton in unmagnetized cold plasma with isothermal electrons. Using reductive perturbation technique, a modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is obtained with a chosen unperturbed ion density profile. The exact solution of the equation shows that the phase of the solitary wave gets modified by a function related to the unperturbed inhomogeneous ion density causing the soliton to bend in the two dimensional plane, while the amplitude of the soliton remains constant.

  7. Axisymmetric vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Shikanai, G.; Suzuki, K.; Kojima, M.

    1995-11-01

    An exact solution procedure is presented for solving axisymmetric free vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness. Based on the classical lamination theory neglecting shear deformation and rotary inertia, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply conical shells. Numerical studies are made for conical shells having both ends clamped to show the effects of the number of laminae, stacking sequences and other parameters upon the frequencies.

  8. A von Bertalanffy growth model with a seasonally varying coefficient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.; Nichols, Frederic H.

    1978-01-01

    The von Bertalanffy model of body growth is inappropriate for organisms whose growth is restricted to a seasonal period because it assumes that growth rate is invariant with time. Incorporation of a time-varying coefficient significantly improves the capability of the von Bertalanffy equation to describe changing body size of both the bivalve mollusc Macoma balthicain San Francisco Bay and the flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon, in Washington state. This simple modification of the von Bertalanffy model should offer improved predictions of body growth for a variety of other aquatic animals.

  9. Creating, Varying, and Growing Single-Site Molecular Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siaj, Mohamed; McBreen, Peter H.

    2005-07-01

    The known range of chemisorption bonds forms the toolbox for the design of electrical contacts in molecular electronics devices. Double-bond contacts to technologically relevant materials would be attractive for a number of reasons. They are truly single-site, bonding to a single surface atom. They obviate the need for a thiol linkage, and they may be amenable to further modification through olefin-metathesis methodologies. We report olefin-metathesis methods for establishing, varying, and growing thermally stable double-bond contacts to molybdenum carbide, a conducting material.

  10. Synthesis and Photochromic Properties of Configurationally Varied Azobenzene Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Vijayanand; Johannes, Eugen; Kobarg, Hauke; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2014-01-01

    Spatial orientation of carbohydrates is a meaningful parameter in carbohydrate recognition processes. To vary orientation of sugars with temporal and spatial resolution, photosensitive glycoconjugates with favorable photochromic properties appear to be opportune. Here, a series of azobenzene glycosides were synthesized, employing glycoside synthesis and Mills reaction, to allow “switching” of carbohydrate orientation by reversible E/Z isomerization of the azobenzene N=N double bond. Their photochromic properties were tested and effects of azobenzene substitution as well as the effect of anomeric configuration and the orientation of the sugars 2-hydroxy group were evaluated. PMID:25050228

  11. Downdating a time-varying square root information filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muellerschoen, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    A new method to efficiently downdate an estimate and covariance generated by a discrete time Square Root Information Filter (SRIF) is presented. The method combines the QR factor downdating algorithm of Gill and the decentralized SRIF algorithm of Bierman. Efficient removal of either measurements or a priori information is possible without loss of numerical integrity. Moreover, the method includes features for detecting potential numerical degradation. Performance on a 300 parameter system with 5800 data points shows that the method can be used in real time and hence is a promising tool for interactive data analysis. Additionally, updating a time-varying SRIF filter with either additional measurements or a priori information proceeds analogously.

  12. A simple cosmology with a varying fine structure constant.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Håvard Bunes; Barrow, John D; Magueijo, João

    2002-01-21

    We investigate the cosmological consequences of a theory in which the electric charge e can vary. In this theory the fine structure "constant," alpha, remains almost constant in the radiation era, undergoes a small increase in the matter era, but approaches a constant value when the universe starts accelerating because of a positive cosmological constant. This model satisfies geonuclear, nucleosynthesis, and cosmic microwave background constraints on time variation in alpha, while fitting the observed accelerating Universe and evidence for small alpha variations in quasar spectra. It also places specific restrictions on the nature of the dark matter. Further tests, involving stellar spectra and Eötvös experiments, are proposed.

  13. Liquid Crystals under Photo-patterned Spatially Varying Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Miao; Guo, Yu-Bing; Wei, Qi-Huo

    2015-03-01

    Liquid crystals under geometric confinements are of not only fundamental interest but also practical importance to applications such as chemical sensing and smart windows. Orientations of liquid crystal molecules in most geometric confinements are uniform at the boundaries and not highly controllable. In this paper, we will present a novel photoalignment technique to pattern spatially varying complex orientation fields, and discuss experimental studies on nematic liquid crystals under confinements of two parallel plates with various well designed molecular orientation fields. Work supported by NSF CMMI-1436565.

  14. Reaching a consensus: a discrete nonlinear time-varying case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saburov, M.; Saburov, K.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we have considered a nonlinear protocol for a structured time-varying and synchronous multi-agent system. By means of cubic triple stochastic matrices, we present an opinion sharing dynamics of the multi-agent system as a trajectory of a non-homogeneous system of cubic triple stochastic matrices. We show that the multi-agent system eventually reaches to a consensus if either of the following two conditions is satisfied: (1) every member of the group people has a positive subjective distribution on the given task after some revision steps or (2) all entries of some cubic triple stochastic matrix are positive.

  15. Equation Of State With Temperature Effects For Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.; Rose, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Behavior at high temperature predicted from only four parameters. Equations derived to express thermodynamical properties of compressed solids at high temperatures. New equations based on fundamental considerations of thermodynamics, isothermal equation of state, and assumption thermal pressure independent of volume and varies linearly with temperature near and about Debye temperature. Using only four parameters (three are those of isothermal equation of state), new equations describe thermodynamic behavior of material over range of temperatures from approximately Debye temperature to melting point.

  16. An Improved Simulation of the Diurnally Varying Street Canyon Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghoobian, Neda; Kleissl, Jan; Paw U, Kyaw Tha

    2012-11-01

    The impact of diurnal variation of temperature distribution over building and ground surfaces on the wind flow and scalar transport in street canyons is numerically investigated using the PArallelized LES Model (PALM). The Temperature of Urban Facets Indoor-Outdoor Building Energy Simulator (TUF-IOBES) is used for predicting urban surface heat fluxes as boundary conditions for a modified version of PALM. TUF-IOBES dynamically simulates indoor and outdoor building surface temperatures and heat fluxes in an urban area taking into account weather conditions, indoor heat sources, building and urban material properties, composition of the building envelope (e.g. windows, insulation), and HVAC equipment. Temperature (and heat flux) distribution over urban surfaces of the 3-D raster-type geometry of TUF-IOBES makes it possible to provide realistic, high resolution boundary conditions for the numerical simulation of flow and scalar transport in an urban canopy. Compared to some previous analyses using uniformly distributed thermal forcing associated with urban surfaces, the present analysis shows that resolving non-uniform thermal forcings can provide more detailed and realistic patterns of the local air flow and pollutant dispersion in urban canyons.

  17. Optimal transport in time-varying small-world networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qu; Qian, Jiang-Hai; Zhu, Liang; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-03-01

    The time-order of interactions, which is regulated by some intrinsic activity, surely plays a crucial role regarding the transport efficiency of transportation systems. Here we study the optimal transport structure by measure of the length of time-respecting paths. Our network is built from a two-dimensional regular lattice, and long-range connections are allocated with probability P(ij)∼r(ij)(-α), where r(ij) is the Manhattan distance. By assigning each shortcut an activity rate subjected to its geometric distance τ(ij)∼r(ij)(-C), long-range links become active intermittently, leading to the time-varying dynamics. We show that for 0varying transportation networks. Empirical studies on British Airways and Austrian Airlines provide consistent evidence with our conclusion. PMID:27078380

  18. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects-which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls-the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments. PMID:27330173

  19. Varying fine structure 'constant' and charged black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Schiffer, Marcelo

    2009-12-15

    Speculation that the fine-structure constant {alpha} varies in spacetime has a long history. We derive, in 4-D general relativity and in isotropic coordinates, the solution for a charged spherical black hole according to the framework for dynamical {alpha} J. D. Bekenstein, Phys. Rev. D 25, 1527 (1982).. This solution coincides with a previously known one-parameter extension of the dilatonic black hole family. Among the notable properties of varying-{alpha} charged black holes are adherence to a 'no hair' principle, the absence of the inner (Cauchy) horizon of the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, the nonexistence of precisely extremal black holes, and the appearance of naked singularities in an analytic extension of the relevant metric. The exteriors of almost extremal electrically (magnetically) charged black holes have simple structures which makes their influence on applied magnetic (electric) fields transparent. We rederive the thermodynamic functions of the modified black holes; the otherwise difficult calculation of the electric potential is done by a shortcut. We confirm that variability of {alpha} in the wake of expansion of the universe does not threaten the generalized second law.

  20. Parallel Rendering of Large Time-Varying Volume Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbutt, Alexander E.

    2005-01-01

    Interactive visualization of large time-varying 3D volume datasets has been and still is a great challenge to the modem computational world. It stretches the limits of the memory capacity, the disk space, the network bandwidth and the CPU speed of a conventional computer. In this SURF project, we propose to develop a parallel volume rendering program on SGI's Prism, a cluster computer equipped with state-of-the-art graphic hardware. The proposed program combines both parallel computing and hardware rendering in order to achieve an interactive rendering rate. We use 3D texture mapping and a hardware shader to implement 3D volume rendering on each workstation. We use SGI's VisServer to enable remote rendering using Prism's graphic hardware. And last, we will integrate this new program with ParVox, a parallel distributed visualization system developed at JPL. At the end of the project, we Will demonstrate remote interactive visualization using this new hardware volume renderer on JPL's Prism System using a time-varying dataset from selected JPL applications.

  1. Sensitivity of solar g-modes to varying G cosmologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, D. B.; Sills, Ken; Demarque, Pierre; Krauss, Lawrence M.

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity of the solar g-mode oscillation spectrum to variability in the universal gravitational constant G is described. Solar models in varying G cosmologies were constructed by evolving a zero-age main-sequence stellar model to the Sun's current age, while allowing the value of G to change according to the power law G(t) proportional to t(exp -beta), where Beta approximately equals delta G/GH and H is the Hubble constant. All solar models were constrained to the observed luminosity and radius at the current age of the Sun by adjusting the helium abundance and the mixing-length parameter of the models in the usual way for standard stellar models. Low-l g-mode oscillation periods were calculated for each of the models and compared to the claimed observation of the solar g-mode oscillation spectrum by Hill & Gu (1990). If one accepts Hill & Gu's claims, then within the uncertainties of the physics of the solar model calculation, our models rule out all but (delta G/GH) less than approximately 0.05. In other words, we conclude that G could not have varied by more than 2% over the past 4.5 Gyr, the lifetime of the present-day Sun. This result lends independent support to the validity of the standard solar model.

  2. Stochastic analysis of epidemics on adaptive time varying networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotnis, Bhushan; Kuri, Joy

    2013-06-01

    Many studies investigating the effect of human social connectivity structures (networks) and human behavioral adaptations on the spread of infectious diseases have assumed either a static connectivity structure or a network which adapts itself in response to the epidemic (adaptive networks). However, human social connections are inherently dynamic or time varying. Furthermore, the spread of many infectious diseases occur on a time scale comparable to the time scale of the evolving network structure. Here we aim to quantify the effect of human behavioral adaptations on the spread of asymptomatic infectious diseases on time varying networks. We perform a full stochastic analysis using a continuous time Markov chain approach for calculating the outbreak probability, mean epidemic duration, epidemic reemergence probability, etc. Additionally, we use mean-field theory for calculating epidemic thresholds. Theoretical predictions are verified using extensive simulations. Our studies have uncovered the existence of an “adaptive threshold,” i.e., when the ratio of susceptibility (or infectivity) rate to recovery rate is below the threshold value, adaptive behavior can prevent the epidemic. However, if it is above the threshold, no amount of behavioral adaptations can prevent the epidemic. Our analyses suggest that the interaction patterns of the infected population play a major role in sustaining the epidemic. Our results have implications on epidemic containment policies, as awareness campaigns and human behavioral responses can be effective only if the interaction levels of the infected populace are kept in check.

  3. Study of selected phenotype switching strategies in time varying environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Denis; Brutovsky, Branislav

    2016-03-01

    Population heterogeneity plays an important role across many research, as well as the real-world, problems. The population heterogeneity relates to the ability of a population to cope with an environment change (or uncertainty) preventing its extinction. However, this ability is not always desirable as can be exemplified by an intratumor heterogeneity which positively correlates with the development of resistance to therapy. Causation of population heterogeneity is therefore in biology and medicine an intensively studied topic. In this paper the evolution of a specific strategy of population diversification, the phenotype switching, is studied at a conceptual level. The presented simulation model studies evolution of a large population of asexual organisms in a time-varying environment represented by a stochastic Markov process. Each organism disposes with a stochastic or nonlinear deterministic switching strategy realized by discrete-time models with evolvable parameters. We demonstrate that under rapidly varying exogenous conditions organisms operate in the vicinity of the bet-hedging strategy, while the deterministic patterns become relevant as the environmental variations are less frequent. Statistical characterization of the steady state regimes of the populations is done using the Hellinger and Kullback-Leibler functional distances and the Hamming distance.

  4. Shrinkage Estimation of Varying Covariate Effects Based On Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Limin; Xu, Jinfeng; Kutner, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Varying covariate effects often manifest meaningful heterogeneity in covariate-response associations. In this paper, we adopt a quantile regression model that assumes linearity at a continuous range of quantile levels as a tool to explore such data dynamics. The consideration of potential non-constancy of covariate effects necessitates a new perspective for variable selection, which, under the assumed quantile regression model, is to retain variables that have effects on all quantiles of interest as well as those that influence only part of quantiles considered. Current work on l1-penalized quantile regression either does not concern varying covariate effects or may not produce consistent variable selection in the presence of covariates with partial effects, a practical scenario of interest. In this work, we propose a shrinkage approach by adopting a novel uniform adaptive LASSO penalty. The new approach enjoys easy implementation without requiring smoothing. Moreover, it can consistently identify the true model (uniformly across quantiles) and achieve the oracle estimation efficiency. We further extend the proposed shrinkage method to the case where responses are subject to random right censoring. Numerical studies confirm the theoretical results and support the utility of our proposals. PMID:25332515

  5. Evaluating multivariate visualizations on time-varying data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, Mark A.; Decker, Jonathan W.; Ai, Zhuming

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate visualization techniques have been applied to a wide variety of visual analysis tasks and a broad range of data types and sources. Their utility has been evaluated in a modest range of simple analysis tasks. In this work, we extend our previous task to a case of time-varying data. We implemented ve visualizations of our synthetic test data: three previously evaluated techniques (Data-driven Spots, Oriented Slivers, and Attribute Blocks), one hybrid of the rst two that we call Oriented Data-driven Spots, and an implementation of Attribute Blocks that merges the temporal slices. We conducted a user study of these ve techniques. Our previous nding (with static data) was that users performed best when the density of the target (as encoded in the visualization) was either highest or had the highest ratio to non-target features. The time-varying presentations gave us a wider range of density and density gains from which to draw conclusions; we now see evidence for the density gain as the perceptual measure, rather than the absolute density.

  6. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects-which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls-the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments.

  7. Optimal transport in time-varying small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qu; Qian, Jiang-Hai; Zhu, Liang; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-03-01

    The time-order of interactions, which is regulated by some intrinsic activity, surely plays a crucial role regarding the transport efficiency of transportation systems. Here we study the optimal transport structure by measure of the length of time-respecting paths. Our network is built from a two-dimensional regular lattice, and long-range connections are allocated with probability Pi j˜rij -α , where ri j is the Manhattan distance. By assigning each shortcut an activity rate subjected to its geometric distance τi j˜rij -C , long-range links become active intermittently, leading to the time-varying dynamics. We show that for 0 varying transportation networks. Empirical studies on British Airways and Austrian Airlines provide consistent evidence with our conclusion.

  8. A Time-Varying Effect Model for Intensive Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xianming; Shiyko, Mariya P.; Li, Runze; Li, Yuelin; Dierker, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Understanding temporal change in human behavior and psychological processes is a central issue in the behavioral sciences. With technological advances, intensive longitudinal data (ILD) are increasingly generated by studies of human behavior that repeatedly administer assessments over time. ILD offer unique opportunities to describe temporal behavioral changes in detail and identify related environmental and psychosocial antecedents and consequences. Traditional analytical approaches impose strong parametric assumptions about the nature of change in the relationship between time-varying covariates and outcomes of interest. This paper introduces time-varying effect models (TVEM) that explicitly model changes in the association between ILD covariates and ILD outcomes over time in a flexible manner. In this article, we describes unique research questions that the TVEM addresses, outline the model-estimation procedure, share a SAS macro for implementing the model, demonstrate model utility with a simulated example, and illustrate model applications in ILD collected as part of a smoking-cessation study to explore the relationship between smoking urges and self-efficacy during the course of the pre- and post- cessation period. PMID:22103434

  9. Optimal transport in time-varying small-world networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qu; Qian, Jiang-Hai; Zhu, Liang; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-03-01

    The time-order of interactions, which is regulated by some intrinsic activity, surely plays a crucial role regarding the transport efficiency of transportation systems. Here we study the optimal transport structure by measure of the length of time-respecting paths. Our network is built from a two-dimensional regular lattice, and long-range connections are allocated with probability P(ij)∼r(ij)(-α), where r(ij) is the Manhattan distance. By assigning each shortcut an activity rate subjected to its geometric distance τ(ij)∼r(ij)(-C), long-range links become active intermittently, leading to the time-varying dynamics. We show that for 0varying transportation networks. Empirical studies on British Airways and Austrian Airlines provide consistent evidence with our conclusion.

  10. Flexible Demand Management under Time-Varying Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yong

    In this dissertation, the problem of flexible demand management under time-varying prices is studied. This generic problem has many applications, which usually have multiple periods in which decisions on satisfying demand need to be made, and prices in these periods are time-varying. Examples of such applications include multi-period procurement problem, operating room scheduling, and user-end demand scheduling in the Smart Grid, where the last application is used as the main motivating story throughout the dissertation. The current grid is experiencing an upgrade with lots of new designs. What is of particular interest is the idea of passing time-varying prices that reflect electricity market conditions to end users as incentives for load shifting. One key component, consequently, is the demand management system at the user-end. The objective of the system is to find the optimal trade-off between cost saving and discomfort increment resulted from load shifting. In this dissertation, we approach this problem from the following aspects: (1) construct a generic model, solve for Pareto optimal solutions, and analyze the robust solution that optimizes the worst-case payoffs, (2) extend to a distribution-free model for multiple types of demand (appliances), for which an approximate dynamic programming (ADP) approach is developed, and (3) design other efficient algorithms for practical purposes of the flexible demand management system. We first construct a novel multi-objective flexible demand management model, in which there are a finite number of periods with time-varying prices, and demand arrives in each period. In each period, the decision maker chooses to either satisfy or defer outstanding demand to minimize costs and discomfort over a certain number of periods. We consider both the deterministic model, models with stochastic demand or prices, and when only partial information about the stochastic demand or prices is known. We first analyze the stochastic

  11. Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

  12. Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1996-01-01

    A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

  13. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-11-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  14. Lagrange constraint neural network for audio varying BSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.

    2002-03-01

    Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) is a statistical-mechanical ab-initio model without assuming the artificial neural network (ANN) model at all but derived it from the first principle of Hamilton and Lagrange Methodology: H(S,A)= f(S)- (lambda) C(s,A(x,t)) that incorporates measurement constraint C(S,A(x,t))= (lambda) ([A]S-X)+((lambda) 0-1)((Sigma) isi -1) using the vector Lagrange multiplier-(lambda) and a- priori Shannon Entropy f(S) = -(Sigma) i si log si as the Contrast function of unknown number of independent sources si. Szu et al. have first solved in 1997 the general Blind Source Separation (BSS) problem for spatial-temporal varying mixing matrix for the real world remote sensing where a large pixel footprint implies the mixing matrix [A(x,t)] necessarily fill with diurnal and seasonal variations. Because the ground truth is difficult to be ascertained in the remote sensing, we have thus illustrated in this paper, each step of the LCNN algorithm for the simulated spatial-temporal varying BSS in speech, music audio mixing. We review and compare LCNN with other popular a-posteriori Maximum Entropy methodologies defined by ANN weight matrix-[W] sigmoid-(sigma) post processing H(Y=(sigma) ([W]X)) by Bell-Sejnowski, Amari and Oja (BSAO) called Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Both are mirror symmetric of the MaxEnt methodologies and work for a constant unknown mixing matrix [A], but the major difference is whether the ensemble average is taken at neighborhood pixel data X's in BASO or at the a priori sources S variables in LCNN that dictates which method works for spatial-temporal varying [A(x,t)] that would not allow the neighborhood pixel average. We expected the success of sharper de-mixing by the LCNN method in terms of a controlled ground truth experiment in the simulation of variant mixture of two music of similar Kurtosis (15 seconds composed of Saint-Saens Swan and Rachmaninov cello concerto).

  15. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  16. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-11-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  17. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (<10 cm) tephra (17-20 species). Gravel rain (preexisting rock ejected by eruption initiation), gravel rain + pumice and flooded forests (fluvially reworked volcanic material entrained by heavy rains) were species-rich (25-42 species). In 2014, the blast and deep tephra had regained 2-3 times the number of lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to

  18. The Effect of Varying Magnetic Field Gradient on Combustion Dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzdalenko, Vera; Zake, Maija; Barmina, Inesa; Gedrovics, Martins

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the recent experimental research is to provide control of the combustion dynamics and complex measurements (flame temperature, heat production rate, and composition of polluting emissions) for pelletized wood biomass using a non-uniform magnetic field that produces magnetic force interacting with magnetic moment of paramagnetic oxygen. The experimental results have shown that a gradient magnetic field provides enhanced mixing of the flame compounds by increasing combustion efficiency and enhancing the burnout of volatiles.

  19. Formulating Spatially Varying Performance in the Statistical Fusion Framework

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-01-01

    To date, label fusion methods have primarily relied either on global (e.g. STAPLE, globally weighted vote) or voxelwise (e.g. locally weighted vote) performance models. Optimality of the statistical fusion framework hinges upon the validity of the stochastic model of how a rater errs (i.e., the labeling process model). Hitherto, approaches have tended to focus on the extremes of potential models. Herein, we propose an extension to the STAPLE approach to seamlessly account for spatially varying performance by extending the performance level parameters to account for a smooth, voxelwise performance level field that is unique to each rater. This approach, Spatial STAPLE, provides significant improvements over state-of-the-art label fusion algorithms in both simulated and empirical data sets. PMID:22438513

  20. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width

    DOEpatents

    Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.

    2011-05-10

    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  1. Wildland-urban interface maps vary with purpose and context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, S.I.; Wilmer, B.; Hammer, R.B.; Aplet, G.H.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Miller, C.; Radeloff, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Maps of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) are both policy tools and powerful visual images. Although the growing number of WUI maps serve similar purposes, this article indicates that WUI maps derived from the same data sets can differ in important ways related to their original intended application. We discuss the use of ancillary data in modifying census data to improve WUI maps and offer a cautionary note about this practice. A comparison of two WUI mapping approaches suggests that no single map is "best" because users' needs vary. The analysts who create maps are responsible for ensuring that users understand their purpose, data, and methods; map users are responsible for paying attention to these features and using each map accordingly. These considerations should apply to any analysis but are especially important to analyses of the WUI on which policy decisions will be made.

  2. Gravity effects of polyhedral bodies with linearly varying density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    We extend a recent approach for computing the gravity effects of polyhedral bodies with uniform density by the case of bodies with linearly varying density and by consistently taking into account the relevant singularities. We show in particular that the potential and the gravity vector can be given an expression in which singularities are ruled out, thus avoiding the introduction of small positive numbers advocated by some authors in order to circumvent undefined operations. We also prove that the entries of the second derivative exhibit a singularity if and only if the observation point is aligned with an edge of a face of the polyhedron. The formulas presented in the paper have been numerically checked with alternative ones derived on the basis of different approaches, already established in the literature, and intensively tested by computing the gravity effects induced by real asteroids with arbitrarily assigned density variations.

  3. Simulations of stretching a flexible polyelectrolyte with varying charge separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, M. J.; Saleh, O. A.

    2016-07-01

    We calculated the force-extension curves for a flexible polyelectrolyte chain with varying charge separations by performing Monte Carlo simulations of a 5000 bead chain using a screened Coulomb interaction. At all charge separations, the force-extension curves exhibit a Pincus-like scaling regime at intermediate forces and a logarithmic regime at large forces. As the charge separation increases, the Pincus regime shifts to a larger range of forces and the logarithmic regime starts are larger forces. We also found that force-extension curve for the corresponding neutral chain has a logarithmic regime. Decreasing the diameter of bead in the neutral chain simulations removed the logarithmic regime, and the force-extension curve tends to the freely jointed chain limit. This result shows that only excluded volume is required for the high force logarithmic regime to occur.

  4. Cold fission description with constant and varying mass asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, S. B.; Rodríguez, O.; Tavares, O. A. P.; Gonçalves, M.; García, F.; Guzmán, F.

    1998-05-01

    Different descriptions for varying the mass asymmetry in the fragmentation process are used to calculate the cold fission barrier penetrability. The relevance of the appropriate choice for both the description of the prescission phase and inertia coefficient to unify alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and spontaneous cold fission processes in the same theoretical framework is explicitly shown. We calculate the half-life of all possible partition modes of nuclei of A>200 following the most recent Mass Table by Audi and Wapstra. It is shown that if one uses the description in which the mass asymmetry is maintained constant during the fragmentation process, the experimental half-life values and mass yield of 234U cold fission are satisfactorily reproduced.

  5. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated with Visceral Leishmaniasis: Varied Presentation.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Piyush; Kumar, Vivek; Ganguly, Shuvadeep; Sukumar, M; Sharma, Sanchit; Singh, Neha; Vikram, Naval K; Pati, Hara Prasad; Sood, Rita

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in many parts of India. Rarely, it may be complicated by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) that has varied presentation and course. We describe two cases of VL complicated by HLH that were markedly different in clinical presentation, course and management. First case presented with Fever of unknown origin whereas second case had fever with severe bleeding manifestations. VL was diagnosed by bone marrow aspiration and serum rk39 immunodiagnostic test respectively in these cases. HLH was diagnosed by HLH 2004 diagnostic criteria. VL was treated by intravenous amphotericin B in both cases. HLH was managed by treating primary disease in the first case whereas steroid was given for management in the second case. High index of suspicion is crucial for early diagnosis of HLH to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27408434

  6. Time-varying deconvolution of GPR data in civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Nikos; Vafidis, Antonis; Hamdan, Hamdan; Kritikakis, George; Andronikidis, Nikos; Dimitriadis, Kleisthenis

    2012-09-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) profiles are often used in civil engineering problems. Overlapping reflections from thin subgrade layers are observed when a relatively low frequency antenna is used. An efficient GPR data processing method, which increases the dominant frequency of GPR data and the temporal resolution, is proposed. It is implemented in the t-f domain. The proposed time-varying deconvolution technique avoids the need for both the calculation of an inverse zero-phase whitening operator and subsequently the application of a band-pass filtering. The user must select the dominant frequency of the Ricker wavelet and use the phase of a reference electromagnetic wavelet, which is acquired experimentally, for stationary dephasing. Apart from delineating thin layers, this method reduces the number of antennas for imaging both shallow and deeper layers in civil engineering. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through four civil engineering applications.

  7. Reconstructing the dark energy equation of state with varying couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Avelino, P. P.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Nunes, N. J.; Olive, K. A.

    2006-10-15

    We revisit the idea of using varying couplings to probe the nature of dark energy, in particular, by reconstructing its equation of state. We show that for the class of models studied this method can be far superior to the standard methods (using type Ia supernovae or weak lensing). We also show that the simultaneous use of measurements of the fine-structure constant {alpha} and the electron-to-proton mass ratio {mu} allows a direct probe of grand unification scenarios. We present forecasts for the sensitivity of this method, both for the near future and for the next generation of spectrographs--for the latter we focus on the planned CODEX instrument for ESO's Extremely Large Telescope (formerly known as OWL). A high-accuracy reconstruction of the equation of state may be possible all the way up to redshift z{approx}4.

  8. Constraining PCP Violating Varying Alpha Theory through Laboratory Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maity, Debaprasad; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    In this report we have studied the implication of a parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating interaction in varying alpha theory. Due to this interaction, the state of photon polarization can change when it passes through a strong background magnetic field. We have calculated the optical rotation and ellipticity of the plane of polarization of an electromagnetic wave and tested our results against different laboratory experiments. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter {beta} and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. By analyzing the laboratory experimental data, we found the most stringent constraints on our model parameters to be 1 {le} {omega} {le} 10{sup 13} GeV{sup 2} and -0.5 {le} {beta} {le} 0.5. We also found that with the existing experimental input parameters it is very difficult to detect the ellipticity in the near future.

  9. Attitudes as Object-Evaluation Associations of Varying Strength

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Russell H.

    2009-01-01

    Historical developments regarding the attitude concept are reviewed, and set the stage for consideration of a theoretical perspective that views attitude, not as a hypothetical construct, but as evaluative knowledge. A model of attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength is summarized, along with research supporting the model’s contention that at least some attitudes are represented in memory and activated automatically upon the individual’s encountering the attitude object. The implications of the theoretical perspective for a number of recent discussions related to the attitude concept are elaborated. Among these issues are the notion of attitudes as “constructions,” the presumed malleability of automatically-activated attitudes, correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and postulated dual or multiple attitudes. PMID:19424447

  10. Calculation of trajectories using constant and slowly varying functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, B. K.

    1971-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating trajectories for the restricted problem of three bodies which utilizes conic propagation of the state vector with frequency correction of position and velocity by means of a constant or slowly varying function. This method of calculating trajectories was applied to the planar circular restricted three body problem, the planar elliptic restricted problem, and the ephemeral restricted problem. Two methods (the refined method and the straight forward method) of determining the direction of the position correction are presented for the circular restricted problem and the elliptic restricted problem of three bodies. Only the straight forward method was used with the ephemeral restricted problem. The earth, the moon, and a space vehicle comprise the restricted three body model that is used.

  11. Interval estimation for uncertain systems with time-varying delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Denis; Perruquetti, Wilfrid; Richard, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    The estimation problem for uncertain time-delay systems is addressed. A design method of reduced-order interval observers is proposed. The observer estimates the set of admissible values (the interval) for the state at each instant of time. The cases of known fixed delays and uncertain time-varying delays are analysed. The proposed approach can be applied to linear delay systems and nonlinear time-delay systems in the output canonical form. It involves the properties of quasi-monotone/Metzler/cooperative systems. In this framework, it is shown that if under a suitable coordinate transformation the delay-free subsystem is cooperative, then the delayed estimation error dynamics inherits this property. The conditions to find the observer gains are formulated in the form of LMI. The framework efficiency is demonstrated on examples of nonlinear systems.

  12. Frontal neurons modulate memory retrieval across widely varying temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Hua; Williams, Ziv M

    2015-06-01

    Once a memory has formed, it is thought to undergo a gradual transition within the brain from short- to long-term storage. This putative process, however, also poses a unique problem to the memory system in that the same learned items must also be retrieved across broadly varying time scales. Here, we find that neurons in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) of monkeys, an area interconnected with both temporal and frontal associative neocortical regions, signaled the need to alter between retrieval of memories formed at different times. These signals were most closely related to the time interval between initial learning and later retrieval, and did not correlate with task switch demands, novelty, or behavioral response. Consistent with these physiological findings, focal inactivation of the VLPFC led to a marked degradation in retrieval performance. These findings suggest that the VLPFC plays a necessary regulatory role in retrieving memories over different temporal scales. PMID:25979992

  13. Systems and methods of varying charged particle beam spot size

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-09-02

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A modified dielectric wall accelerator includes a high gradient lens section and a main section. The high gradient lens section can be dynamically adjusted to establish the desired electric fields to minimize undesirable transverse defocusing fields at the entrance to the dielectric wall accelerator. Once a baseline setting with desirable output beam characteristic is established, the output beam can be dynamically modified to vary the output beam characteristics. The output beam can be modified by slightly adjusting the electric fields established across different sections of the modified dielectric wall accelerator. Additional control over the shape of the output beam can be excreted by introducing intentional timing de-synchronization offsets and producing an injected beam that is not fully matched to the entrance of the modified dielectric accelerator.

  14. Low redshift universe and a varying ghost dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, M.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, a phenomenological modification of ghost dark energy has been suggested and appropriate models of low redshift universe have been constructed. In this paper, we will consider a model of low redshift universe in General Relativity containing another model of varying ghost dark energy. In this model, an effective fluid is a radiation-like fluid in an early universe and evolves to quintessence dark energy in large scale universe. Cosmographic analysis of new model is performed and appropriate constraints on the parameters of the model are obtained. We have a look at suggested model via statefinder hierarchy in addition to thermodynamical description of it. We also study massless particle creation possibility in a radiation dominated universe of our cosmological model. According to our theoretical results, massless particle production is possible. To study particle creation, a straight analogy between quantization in Minkowski background and canonical quantization of a scalar field in curved dynamical backgrounds is taken into account.

  15. Premixed Edge-Flames in Spatially-Varying Straining Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jian-Bang; Ronney, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    Flames subject to temporally and spatially uniform hydrodynamic strain are frequently used to model the local interactions of flame fronts with turbulent flow fields (Williams, 1985; Peters, 1986; Bradley, 1992). The applicability of laminar flamelet models in strongly turbulent flows have been questioned recently (Shay and Ronney, 1998) because in turbulent flows the strain rate (sigma) changes at rates comparable to sigma itself and the scale over which the flame front curvature and sigma changes is comparable to the curvature scale itself. Therefore quasi-static, local models of turbulent strain and curvature effects on laminar flamelets may not be accurate under conditions where the strain and curvature effects are most significant. The purpose of this study is to examine flames in spatially-varying strain and compare their properties to those of uniformly strained flames.

  16. Review of patient safety in time-varying gradient fields.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, D J; Bourland, J D; Nyenhuis, J A

    2000-07-01

    In magnetic resonance, time-varying gradient magnetic fields (dB/dt) may stimulate nerves or muscles by inducing electric fields in patients. Models predicted mean peripheral nerve and cardiac stimulation thresholds. For gradient ramp durations of less than a few milliseconds, mean peripheral nerve stimulation is a safe indicator of high dB/dt. At sufficient amplitudes, peripheral nerve stimulation is perceptible (i.e., tingling or tapping sensations). Magnetic fields from simultaneous gradient axes combine almost as a vector sum to produce stimulation. Patients may become uncomfortable at amplitudes 50%-100% above perception thresholds. In dogs, respiratory stimulation has been induced at about 300% of mean peripheral nerve thresholds. Cardiac stimulation has been induced in dogs by small gradient coils at thresholds near Reilly's predictions. Cardiac stimulation required nearly 80 times the energy needed to produce nerve stimulation in dogs. Nerve and cardiac stimulation thresholds for dogs were unaffected by 1.5-T magnetic fields.

  17. Does Uptake of Pharmaceuticals Vary Across Earthworm Species?

    PubMed

    Carter, Laura J; Ryan, Jim J; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the uptake and depuration of four commonly used pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine and orlistat) in two earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida). L. terrestris are a larger species and often found in deep burrows whereas E. fetida prefer to reside near the soil surface. Species burrowing habits and sizes may alter uptake by earthworms. All four pharmaceuticals were taken up into both L. terrestris and E. fetida tissue after 21 days exposure to spiked soil. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged between 1.72 and 29.83 for L. terrestris and 1.14 and 63.03 for E. fetida. For carbamazepine and diclofenac, BCFs were similar whereas for fluoxetine and orlistat, BCFs in E. fetida were more than double those seen in L. terrestris. Results indicate that uptake into earthworms cannot be generalised between species and that the influence of species traits can vary depending on the nature of the study chemical. PMID:27443341

  18. Interactive isosurface ray tracing of time-varying tetrahedral volumes.

    PubMed

    Wald, Ingo; Friedrich, Heiko; Knoll, Aaron; Hansen, Charles D

    2007-01-01

    We describe a system for interactively rendering isosurfaces of tetrahedral finite-element scalar fields using coherent ray tracing techniques on the CPU. By employing state-of-the art methods in polygonal ray tracing, namely aggressive packet/frustum traversal of a bounding volume hierarchy, we can accomodate large and time-varying unstructured data. In conjunction with this efficiency structure, we introduce a novel technique for intersecting ray packets with tetrahedral primitives. Ray tracing is flexible, allowing for dynamic changes in isovalue and time step, visualization of multiple isosurfaces, shadows, and depth-peeling transparency effects. The resulting system offers the intuitive simplicity of isosurfacing, guaranteed-correct visual results, and ultimately a scalable, dynamic and consistently interactive solution for visualizing unstructured volumes.

  19. Stator-Induced Circumferentially-Varying Preswirl Propulsor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, John; Amitay, Michael; Beal, David; Huyer, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    A propuslor capable of producing maneuvering forces in all directions effectively eliminates the need for additional control surfaces. Side forces can be generated by the propeller through the variation of the inflow swirl velocity to a conventional propeller. These control forces are generated based on the same geometric principles as a helicopter swash-plate. Instead of cyclically adjusting the propeller blade pitch angle, the relative pitch angle of a fixed pitch propeller is cyclically altered through a preswirled inflow generated by an upstream stator row. Experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel to quantify the effectiveness of an upstream stator row to generate a circumferentially varying swirled flow. Global flow measurements were acquired through static pressure and PIV measurements on a simplified propulsor model. From these and future measurements a full understanding of the fluidic interactions associated with the non-uniform upstream stator row and the propeller can be made.

  20. Spall Strength Measurements of Concrete for Varying Aggregate Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Kipp, Marlin E.; Reinhart, William D.; Wilson, Leonard T.

    1999-05-05

    Controlled impact experiments have been performed to determine the spall strength of four different concrete compositions. The four concrete compositions are identified as, `SAC-5, CSPC', ("3/4") large, and ("3/8") small, Aggregate. They differ primarily in aggregate size but with average densities varying by less than five percent. Wave profiles from sixteen experiments, with shock amplitudes of 0.07 to 0.55 GPa, concentrate primarily within the elastic regime. Free-surface particle velocity measurements indicate consistent pullback signals in the release profiles, denoting average span strength of approximately 40 MPa. It is the purpose of this paper to present spall measurements under uniaxial strain loading. Notwithstanding considerable wave structure that is a unique characteristic to the heterogeneous nature of the scaled concrete, the spall amplitudes appear reproducible and consistent over the pressure range reported in this study.

  1. Weakly coupled oscillators in a slowly varying world.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngmin; Ermentrout, Bard

    2016-06-01

    We extend the theory of weakly coupled oscillators to incorporate slowly varying inputs and parameters. We employ a combination of regular perturbation and an adiabatic approximation to derive equations for the phase-difference between a pair of oscillators. We apply this to the simple Hopf oscillator and then to a biophysical model. The latter represents the behavior of a neuron that is subject to slow modulation of a muscarinic current such as would occur during transient attention through cholinergic activation. Our method extends and simplifies the recent work of Kurebayashi (Physical Review Letters, 111, 214101, 2013) to include coupling. We apply the method to an all-to-all network and show that there is a waxing and waning of synchrony of modulated neurons.

  2. Simulations of stretching a flexible polyelectrolyte with varying charge separation

    DOE PAGES

    Stevens, Mark J.; Saleh, Omar A.

    2016-07-22

    We calculated the force-extension curves for a flexible polyelectrolyte chain with varying charge separations by performing Monte Carlo simulations of a 5000 bead chain using a screened Coulomb interaction. At all charge separations, the force-extension curves exhibit a Pincus-like scaling regime at intermediate forces and a logarithmic regime at large forces. As the charge separation increases, the Pincus regime shifts to a larger range of forces and the logarithmic regime starts are larger forces. We also found that force-extension curve for the corresponding neutral chain has a logarithmic regime. Decreasing the diameter of bead in the neutral chain simulations removedmore » the logarithmic regime, and the force-extension curve tends to the freely jointed chain limit. In conclusion, this result shows that only excluded volume is required for the high force logarithmic regime to occur.« less

  3. Latitudinal gradients in biotic niche breadth vary across ecosystem types.

    PubMed

    Cirtwill, Alyssa R; Stouffer, Daniel B; Romanuk, Tamara N

    2015-11-22

    Several properties of food webs-the networks of feeding links between species-are known to vary systematically with the species richness of the underlying community. Under the 'latitude-niche breadth hypothesis', which predicts that species in the tropics will tend to evolve narrower niches, one might expect that these scaling relationships could also be affected by latitude. To test this hypothesis, we analysed the scaling relationships between species richness and average generality, vulnerability and links per species across a set of 196 empirical food webs. In estuarine, marine and terrestrial food webs there was no effect of latitude on any scaling relationship, suggesting constant niche breadth in these habitats. In freshwater communities, on the other hand, there were strong effects of latitude on scaling relationships, supporting the latitude-niche breadth hypothesis. These contrasting findings indicate that it may be more important to account for habitat than latitude when exploring gradients in food-web structure.

  4. Motor skills under varied gravitoinertial force in parabolic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Helen E.

    Parabolic flight produces brief alternating periods of high and low gravitoinertial force. Subjects were tested on various paper-and-pencil aiming and tapping tasks during both normal and varied gravity in flight. It was found that changes in g level caused directional errors in the z body axis (the gravity axis), the arm aiming too high under 0g and too low under 2g. The standard deviation also increased for both vertical and lateral movements in the mid-frontal plane. Both variable and directional errors were greater under 0g than 2g. In an unpaced reciprocal tapping task subjects tended to increase their error rate rather than their movement time, but showed a non-significant trend towards slower speeds under 0g for all movement orientations. Larger variable errors or slower speeds were probably due to the difficulty of re-organising a motor skill in an unfamiliar force environment, combined with anchorage difficulties under 0g.

  5. Static vortices in long Josephson junctions of exponentially varying width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerdjieva, E. G.; Boyadjiev, T. L.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2004-06-01

    A numerical simulation is carried out for static vortices in a long Josephson junction with an exponentially varying width. At specified values of the parameters the corresponding boundary-value problem admits more than one solution. Each solution (distribution of the magnetic flux in the junction) is associated to a Sturm-Liouville problem, the smallest eigenvalue of which can be used, in a first approximation, to assess the stability of the vortex against relatively small spatiotemporal perturbations. The change in width of the junction leads to a renormalization of the magnetic flux in comparison with the case of a linear one-dimensional model. The influence of the model parameters on the stability of the states of the magnetic flux is investigated in detail, particularly that of the shape parameter. The critical curve of the junction is constructed from pieces of the critical curves for the different magnetic flux distributions having the highest critical currents for the given magnetic field.

  6. Pascual Jordan, Varying Gravity, and the Expanding Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-06-01

    In the 1950s, surprising links were proposed between cosmological theory and the geological and paleontological sciences. These links were mainly provided by Paul Dirac's hypothesis of 1937 that the gravitational constant G decreases with cosmic time. Pascual Jordan, famous for his pioneering contributions to quantum theory, took up Dirac's hypothesis; after the end of World War II, Jordan developed its geophysical consequences, concluding that the Earth is expanding. Much of Jordan's later scientific work focused on the expanding Earth and other aspects of the earth sciences relating to the varying- G hypothesis. This chapter in the history of science has received almost no attention from either scientists or historians. The article analyzes Jordan's cosmo-geological work in relation to the somewhat similar efforts of other "expansionists" in the period that led to the plate tectonic revolution in the earth sciences.

  7. Epidemic spreading in time-varying community networks

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Guangming E-mail: ren-guang-ming@163.com; Wang, Xingyuan E-mail: ren-guang-ming@163.com

    2014-06-15

    The spreading processes of many infectious diseases have comparable time scale as the network evolution. Here, we present a simple networks model with time-varying community structure, and investigate susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic spreading processes in this model. By both theoretic analysis and numerical simulations, we show that the efficiency of epidemic spreading in this model depends intensively on the mobility rate q of the individuals among communities. We also find that there exists a mobility rate threshold q{sub c}. The epidemic will survive when q > q{sub c} and die when q < q{sub c}. These results can help understanding the impacts of human travel on the epidemic spreading in complex networks with community structure.

  8. Parameterized modeling and estimation of spatially varying optical blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Jonathan D.; Stevenson, Robert L.

    2015-02-01

    Optical blur can display significant spatial variation across the image plane, even for constant camera settings and object depth. Existing solutions to represent this spatially varying blur requires a dense sampling of blur kernels across the image, where each kernel is defined independent of the neighboring kernels. This approach requires a large amount of data collection, and the estimation of the kernels is not as robust as if it were possible to incorporate knowledge of the relationship between adjacent kernels. A novel parameterized model is presented which relates the blur kernels at different locations across the image plane. The model is motivated by well-established optical models, including the Seidel aberration model. It is demonstrated that the proposed model can unify a set of hundreds of blur kernel observations across the image plane under a single 10-parameter model, and the accuracy of the model is demonstrated with simulations and measurement data collected by two separate research groups.

  9. THE VARIED INFLUENCE OF SES ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cross-national studies have found positive relationships of socioeconomic status (SES) with environmental concern at the individual level but have not systematically examined how the relationships may differ across nations. Such comparisons have relevance to identifying the generality of theories of postmaterialism, affluence, and global environmentalism. Methods This study specifies how the individual-level influence of SES varies across national contexts and tests predictions using four waves of the World Values Survey on up to 96 nations. Results The results show that SES is associated only weakly with environmental concern in lower income nations with poor environmental conditions but is associated strongly and positively in higher income nations with better environmental conditions. Conclusion SES has a contingent relationship with environmental concern such that the global environmentalism theory receives support for lower income nations, while the postmaterialism and affluence theories receive support for higher income nations. PMID:24678128

  10. Local non-Gaussianity from rapidly varying sound speeds

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, Jon; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David E-mail: gianmassimo.tasinato@port.ac.uk

    2012-08-01

    We study the effect of non-trivial sound speeds on local-type non-Gaussianity during multiple-field inflation. To this end, we consider a multiple-DBI model and use the δN formalism to track the super-horizon evolution of perturbations. By adopting a sum separable Hubble parameter we derive analytic expressions for the relevant quantities in the two-field case, valid beyond slow variation. We find that non-trivial sound speeds can, in principle, curve the trajectory in such a way that significant local-type non-Gaussianity is produced. Deviations from slow variation, such as rapidly varying sound speeds, enhance this effect. To illustrate our results we consider two-field inflation in the tip regions of two warped throats and find large local-type non-Gaussianity produced towards the end of the inflationary process.

  11. Hybrid Percolation Transition in Cluster Merging Processes: Continuously Varying Exponents.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y S; Lee, J S; Herrmann, H J; Kahng, B

    2016-01-15

    Consider growing a network, in which every new connection is made between two disconnected nodes. At least one node is chosen randomly from a subset consisting of g fraction of the entire population in the smallest clusters. Here we show that this simple strategy for improving connection exhibits a more unusual phase transition, namely a hybrid percolation transition exhibiting the properties of both first-order and second-order phase transitions. The cluster size distribution of finite clusters at a transition point exhibits power-law behavior with a continuously varying exponent τ in the range 2<τ(g)≤2.5. This pattern reveals a necessary condition for a hybrid transition in cluster aggregation processes, which is comparable to the power-law behavior of the avalanche size distribution arising in models with link-deleting processes in interdependent networks. PMID:26824550

  12. Child-Langmuir flow with periodically varying anode voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Rokhlenko, A.

    2015-02-15

    Using the Lagrangian technique, we study settled Child-Langmuir flows in a one dimensional planar diodes whose anode voltages periodically vary around given positive values. Our goal is to find analytically if the average currents in these systems can exceed the famous Child-Langmuir limit found for the stationary current a long time ago. The main result of our study is that in a periodic quasi-stationary regime the average current can be larger than the Child-Langmuir maximum even by 50% compared with its adiabatic average value. The cathode current in this case has the form of rectangular pulses which are formed by a very special triangular voltage modulation. This regime, i.e., periodicity, shape of pulses, and their amplitude, needs to be carefully chosen for the best performance.

  13. Impacts of Varying Penetration of Distributed Resources with & without Volt/Var Control: Case Study of Varying Load Types

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Li, Fangxing; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Irminger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a follow-up to an earlier one on impacts of distributed energy resources (DR) on distribution feeders. As DR penetration level on the feeder increases, there can be impacts to distribution system/feeder capacity, line losses, and voltage regulation. These can vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system or loading. The question is how high of a DR level can be accommodated without any major changes to system operation, system design and protection. Our objective for this work was to address the question of how the DR impacts vary in regards to both DR voltage regulation capability and load mix. A dynamic analysis was used to focus on the impacts of DR with and without volt/var control with different load composition on the distribution feeder. The study considered an example 10MVA distribution feeder in which two inverter-based DRs were used to provide voltage regulation. The results due to DR without voltage regulation capability are compared with DR capable of providing local (at its bus) voltage regulation. The analysis was repeated for four different feeder load compositions consisting of (1) constant power, (2) constant impedance, (3) constant current and (4) ZIP (equal combination of previous three).

  14. Surface Characterization of pNIPAM Under Varying Absolute Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, Arnav; Kanapuram, Ravitej; Leva, Harrison; Trejo, Juan; Kim, Tae Jin; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has become ubiquitously known as a ``smart'' polymer, showing many promising applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. These applications are particularly reliant on its trenchant, thermally induced hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition that occurs at the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). This feature imparts the pNIPAM programmable adsorption and release capabilities, thus eliminating the need for additional enzymes when removing cells from pNIPAM coated surfaces and leaving the extracellular matrix proteins of the cells largely untouched. The dependence of the LCST on molecular weight, solvent systems, and various salts has been studied extensively. However, what has not been explored is the effect of humidity on the characteristic properties of the polymer, specifically the LCST and the magnitude of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition. We studied the surface energy variation of pNIPAM as a function of humidity by altering the absolute humidity and keeping the ambient temperature constant. Our experiments were conducted inside a cuboidal environmental chamber with control over the temperature and humidity inside the chamber. A controlled needle was employed to dispense size-regulated droplets. Throughout this process, a CCD camera was used to image the droplet and the static contact angle was determined using image processing techniques. The behavior of pNIPAM as a function of humidity is presented and discussed.

  15. Circular motion analysis of time-varying bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, B; Louarroudi, E; Rutkove, S B; Pintelon, R

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a step forward towards the analysis of a linear periodically time-varying (PTV) bioimpedance ZPTV(jw, t), which is an important subclass of a linear time-varying (LTV) bioimpedance. Similarly to the Fourier coefficients of a periodic signal, a PTV impedance can be decomposed into frequency dependent impedance phasors, [Formula: see text], that are rotating with an angular speed of wr = 2πr/TZ. The vector length of these impedance phasors corresponds to the amplitude of the rth-order harmonic impedance |Zr( jw)| and the initial phase is given by Φr(w, t0) = [Symbol: see text]Zr( jw) + 2πrt0/TZ, with t0∈[0, T] being a time instant within the measurement time T. The impedance period TZ stands for the cycle length of the bio-system under investigation; for example, the elapsed time between two consecutive R-waves in the electrocardiogram or the breathing periodicity in case of the heart or lungs, respectively. First, it is demonstrated that the harmonic impedance phasor [Formula: see text], at a particular measured frequency k, can be represented by a rotating phasor, leading to the so-called circular motion analysis technique. Next, the two dimensional (2D) representation of the harmonic impedance phasors is then extended to a three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system by taking into account the frequency dependence. Finally, we introduce a new visualizing tool to summarize the frequency response behavior of ZPTV( jw, t) into a single 3D plot using the local Frenet-Serret frame. This novel 3D impedance representation is then compared with the 3D Nyquist representation of a PTV impedance. The concepts are illustrated through real measurements conducted on a PTV RC-circuit.

  16. Slowly Varying Dilaton Cosmologies and Their Field Theory Duals

    SciTech Connect

    Awad, Adel; Das, Sumit R.; Ghosh, Archisman; Oh, Jae-Hyuk; Trivedi, Sandip P.; /Tata Inst. /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-06-28

    We consider a deformation of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} solution of IIB supergravity obtained by taking the boundary value of the dilaton to be time dependent. The time dependence is taken to be slowly varying on the AdS scale thereby introducing a small parameter {epsilon}. The boundary dilaton has a profile which asymptotes to a constant in the far past and future and attains a minimum value at intermediate times. We construct the sugra solution to first non-trivial order in {epsilon}, and find that it is smooth, horizon free, and asymptotically AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} in the far future. When the intermediate values of the dilaton becomes small enough the curvature becomes of order the string scale and the sugra approximation breaks down. The resulting dynamics is analysed in the dual SU(N) gauge theory on S{sup 3} with a time dependent coupling constant which varies slowly. When N{epsilon} << 1, we find that a quantum adiabatic approximation is applicable, and use it to argue that at late times the geometry becomes smooth AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} again. When N{epsilon} >> 1, we formulate a classical adiabatic perturbation theory based on coherent states which arises in the large N limit. For large values of the tHooft coupling this reproduces the supergravity results. For small 'tHooft coupling the coherent state calculations become involved and we cannot reach a definite conclusion. We argue that the final state should have a dual description which is mostly smooth AdS5 space with the possible presence of a small black hole.

  17. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

    2014-07-21

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370 MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490 MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2 GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  18. Modeling Motu Profile Response to Varying Wave and Storm Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, A. C.; Ashton, A. D.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The atolls of the Pacific Ocean are low-lying landforms (less than 5m in elevation), typically consisting of reef-building corals often mounted by subaerial islets, or motu, which encircle a central lagoon. These motu, perched atop old coral reefs, typically consist of sand and gravel, and are sometimes anchored by relict geologic features (highstand coral reefs). Despite the vital role these islets play as home to terrestrial ecosystems and human infrastructure, the morphologic processes responsible for their formation and maintenance remain poorly understood. For example, although extreme events are hypothesized as a formation mechanism, motu are found in regions where hurricanes or tropical cyclones rarely occur and across varying storm gradients and frequency tracks. Here we use hydrodynamic and event-based morphodynamic modeling to better understand the role of storm events on the formation and evolution of motu. Using XBeach, a two-dimensional model of infragravity wave propagation and sediment transport, coupled with the coastal wave model, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore), we simulate the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic impacts of storm events on the nearshore, beach, and backbarrier portions of atolls. We investigate the effect of different representative profile morphology, for example motu height or the distance from the reef edge to the motu, on storm response. We further test the effect of storm intensity and inundation scenarios (i.e. difference in elevated water levels of the lagoon and ocean) on storm hydrodynamics and morphologic change. Model scenarios are informed and compared to basin-wide analysis of the variation of atoll and motu characteristics, such as reef width, motu width, and motu spacing across the Pacific Ocean. Atoll morphologies and storm responses are affected by both geographic location and, locally, the shoreline orientation (compared to storm tracks). Combining these different model scenarios with measured morphometrics allows

  19. Product Binding Varies Dramatically between Processive and Nonprocessive Cellulase Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, L.; Nimlos, M. R.; Shirts, M. R.; Stahlberg, J.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-07-13

    Cellulases hydrolyze {beta}-1,4 glycosidic linkages in cellulose, which are among the most prevalent and stable bonds in Nature. Cellulases comprise many glycoside hydrolase families and exist as processive or nonprocessive enzymes. Product inhibition negatively impacts cellulase action, but experimental measurements of product-binding constants vary significantly, and there is little consensus on the importance of this phenomenon. To provide molecular level insights into cellulase product inhibition, we examine the impact of product binding on processive and nonprocessive cellulases by calculating the binding free energy of cellobiose to the product sites of catalytic domains of processive and nonprocessive enzymes from glycoside hydrolase families 6 and 7. The results suggest that cellobiose binds to processive cellulases much more strongly than nonprocessive cellulases. We also predict that the presence of a cellodextrin bound in the reactant site of the catalytic domain, which is present during enzymatic catalysis, has no effect on product binding in nonprocessive cellulases, whereas it significantly increases product binding to processive cellulases. This difference in product binding correlates with hydrogen bonding between the substrate-side ligand and the cellobiose product in processive cellulase tunnels and the additional stabilization from the longer tunnel-forming loops. The hydrogen bonds between the substrate- and product-side ligands are disrupted by water in nonprocessive cellulase clefts, and the lack of long tunnel-forming loops results in lower affinity of the product ligand. These findings provide new insights into the large discrepancies reported for binding constants for cellulases and suggest that product inhibition will vary significantly based on the amount of productive binding for processive cellulases on cellulose.

  20. Product Binding Varies Dramatically between Processive and Nonprocessive Cellulase Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Lintao; Nimlos, Mark R.; Shirts, Michael R.; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Himmel, Michael E.; Crowley, Michael F.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2012-01-01

    Cellulases hydrolyze β-1,4 glycosidic linkages in cellulose, which are among the most prevalent and stable bonds in Nature. Cellulases comprise many glycoside hydrolase families and exist as processive or nonprocessive enzymes. Product inhibition negatively impacts cellulase action, but experimental measurements of product-binding constants vary significantly, and there is little consensus on the importance of this phenomenon. To provide molecular level insights into cellulase product inhibition, we examine the impact of product binding on processive and nonprocessive cellulases by calculating the binding free energy of cellobiose to the product sites of catalytic domains of processive and nonprocessive enzymes from glycoside hydrolase families 6 and 7. The results suggest that cellobiose binds to processive cellulases much more strongly than nonprocessive cellulases. We also predict that the presence of a cellodextrin bound in the reactant site of the catalytic domain, which is present during enzymatic catalysis, has no effect on product binding in nonprocessive cellulases, whereas it significantly increases product binding to processive cellulases. This difference in product binding correlates with hydrogen bonding between the substrate-side ligand and the cellobiose product in processive cellulase tunnels and the additional stabilization from the longer tunnel-forming loops. The hydrogen bonds between the substrate- and product-side ligands are disrupted by water in nonprocessive cellulase clefts, and the lack of long tunnel-forming loops results in lower affinity of the product ligand. These findings provide new insights into the large discrepancies reported for binding constants for cellulases and suggest that product inhibition will vary significantly based on the amount of productive binding for processive cellulases on cellulose. PMID:22648408

  1. Circular motion analysis of time-varying bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, B; Louarroudi, E; Rutkove, S B; Pintelon, R

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a step forward towards the analysis of a linear periodically time-varying (PTV) bioimpedance ZPTV(jw, t), which is an important subclass of a linear time-varying (LTV) bioimpedance. Similarly to the Fourier coefficients of a periodic signal, a PTV impedance can be decomposed into frequency dependent impedance phasors, [Formula: see text], that are rotating with an angular speed of wr = 2πr/TZ. The vector length of these impedance phasors corresponds to the amplitude of the rth-order harmonic impedance |Zr( jw)| and the initial phase is given by Φr(w, t0) = [Symbol: see text]Zr( jw) + 2πrt0/TZ, with t0∈[0, T] being a time instant within the measurement time T. The impedance period TZ stands for the cycle length of the bio-system under investigation; for example, the elapsed time between two consecutive R-waves in the electrocardiogram or the breathing periodicity in case of the heart or lungs, respectively. First, it is demonstrated that the harmonic impedance phasor [Formula: see text], at a particular measured frequency k, can be represented by a rotating phasor, leading to the so-called circular motion analysis technique. Next, the two dimensional (2D) representation of the harmonic impedance phasors is then extended to a three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system by taking into account the frequency dependence. Finally, we introduce a new visualizing tool to summarize the frequency response behavior of ZPTV( jw, t) into a single 3D plot using the local Frenet-Serret frame. This novel 3D impedance representation is then compared with the 3D Nyquist representation of a PTV impedance. The concepts are illustrated through real measurements conducted on a PTV RC-circuit. PMID:26489699

  2. Incidence of diapause varies among populations of Daphnia pulicaria.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Carla E; Tessier, Alan J

    2004-11-01

    Dormancy is a common way in which organisms survive environmental conditions that would be lethal to the active individual. However, while dormant, individuals forego reproduction. Hence theory suggests an optimal time in which to enter dormancy, depending on risks associated with both remaining active and entering dormancy. When these relative risks differ among habitats, dormancy strategies are predicted to vary as well. For freshwater zooplankton, it has been suggested that sensitivity to the cues that initiate dormancy should be selected against when females have the opportunity to remain in the water column year round. We tested this prediction with 12 populations of lake-dwelling Daphnia pulicaria (Crustacea: Cladocera). Differences among lakes in basin morphometry, predators and resources create a gradient of risk for Daphnia in the water column. Some populations persist in high numbers year round while others are abundant only in spring. We used this difference in persistence ability as an estimate of risk in the water-column. For 3 years of field sampling we found consistent differences among the lake populations in the incidence of dormancy. In some populations, only a small fraction of females switched to producing dormant eggs each year whereas in others the majority of eggs produced in the late spring were dormant. In general, populations that experienced predictably low abundances in the active form exhibited higher incidence of dormancy than did populations that persisted in high abundance year round, but there were exceptions. Our results confirm that the incidence of dormancy varies considerably among populations in a fashion consistent with general theory, but suggest that persistence in the water column is not the sole predictor of the diapause strategy found in any particular lake.

  3. The nightside ionosphere of Venus under varying levels of solar EUV flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Brace, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    Solar activity varied widely over the 14 year lifetime of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO), and these variations directly affected the properties of the nightside ionosphere. At solar maximum, when solar EUV was largest, the Venus ionosphere was found to extend to highest altitudes and nightward ion transport was the main source of the nightside ionosphere. At solar minimum, nightward ion transport was reduced, and electron precipitation was thought to be the main source. In this study, we have attempted a separation of spatial variations from temporal variations by examining the altitude profiles of the magnetic field, and electron density and temperature for three different solar EUV flux ranges. In the upper ionosphere and near-planet magnetotail (h greater than 1800 km), the solar EUV flux effects are significant. The electron density decreases about an order of magnitude from high to low EUV flux, while the electron temperature at least doubles. The magnetic field also increases 2 - 3 nT. In the lower ionosphere (200 - 600 km), lower EUV fluxes are associated with slightly reduced density, and higher temperature. These results are in accord with recent entry phase observations, where the electron density measured above the ionospheric density peak is lower than that observed at solar maximum during the early Pioneer Venus mission.

  4. The Nightside Ionosphere of Venus Under Varying Levels of Solar EUV Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Stangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Brace, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    Solar activity varied widely over the 14 year lifetime of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, and these variations directly affected the properties of the nightside ionosphere. At solar maximum, when solar EUV was largest, the Venus ionosphere was found to extend to highest altitudes and nightward ion transport was the main source of the nightside ionosphere. At solar minimum, nightward ion transport was reduced, and electron precipitation was thought to be the main source. In this study, we have attempted a separation of spatial variations from temporal variations by examining the altitude profiles of the magnetic field, and electron density and temperature for three different solar EUV flux ranges. In the upper ionosphere and near-planet magnetotail (h greater than 1800 km), the solar EUV effects are significant. The electron density decreases about an order of magnitude from high to low EUV flux, while the electron temperature at least doubles. The magnetic field also increases 2 - 3 nT. In the lower ionosphere (200 - 600 km), lower EUV fluxes are associated with slightly reduced density, and higher temperature. These results are in accord with recent entry phase observations, where the electron density measured above the ionospheric density peak is lower than that observed at solar maximum during the early Pioneer Venus mission.

  5. Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham

    2012-06-01

    A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.

  6. Thermal plasticity of growth and development varies adaptively among alternative developmental pathways.

    PubMed

    Kivelä, Sami M; Svensson, Beatrice; Tiwe, Alma; Gotthard, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Polyphenism, the expression of discrete alternative phenotypes, is often a consequence of a developmental switch. Physiological changes induced by a developmental switch potentially affect reaction norms, but the evolution and existence of alternative reaction norms remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that, in the butterfly Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), thermal reaction norms of several life history traits vary adaptively among switch-induced alternative developmental pathways of diapause and direct development. The switch was affected both by photoperiod and temperature, ambient temperature during late development having the potential to override earlier photoperiodic cues. Directly developing larvae had higher development and growth rates than diapausing ones across the studied thermal gradient. Reaction norm shapes also differed between the alternative developmental pathways, indicating pathway-specific selection on thermal sensitivity. Relative mass increments decreased linearly with increasing temperature and were higher under direct development than diapause. Contrary to predictions, population phenology did not explain trait variation or thermal sensitivity, but our experimental design probably lacks power for finding subtle phenology effects. We demonstrate adaptive differentiation in thermal reaction norms among alternative phenotypes, and suggest that the consequences of an environmentally dependent developmental switch primarily drive the evolution of alternative thermal reaction norms in P. napi.

  7. Vibration condition monitoring of planetary gearbox under varying external load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelmus, W.; Zimroz, R.

    2009-01-01

    The paper shows that for condition monitoring of planetary gearboxes it is important to identify the external varying load condition. In the paper, systematic consideration has been taken of the influence of many factors on the vibration signals generated by a system in which a planetary gearbox is included. These considerations give the basis for vibration signal interpretation, development of the means of condition monitoring, and for the scenario of the degradation of the planetary gearbox. Real measured vibration signals obtained in the industrial environment are processed. The signals are recorded during normal operation of the diagnosed objects, namely planetary gearboxes, which are a part of the driving system used in a bucket wheel excavator, used in lignite mines. It is found that a planetary gearbox in bad condition is more susceptible to load than a gearbox in good condition. The estimated load time traces obtained by a demodulation process of the vibration acceleration signal for a planetary gearbox in good and bad conditions are given. It has been found that the most important factor of the proper planetary gearbox condition is connected with perturbation of arm rotation, where an arm rotation gives rise to a specific vibration signal whose properties are depicted by a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and Wigner-Ville distribution presented as a time frequency map. The paper gives evidence that there are two dominant low-frequency causes that influence vibration signal modulation, i.e. the varying load, which comes from the nature of the bucket wheel digging process, and the arm/carrier rotation. These two causes determine the condition of the planetary gearboxes considered. Typical local faults such as cracking or breakage of a gear tooth, or local faults in rolling element bearings, have not been found in the cases considered. In real practice, local faults of planetary gearboxes have not occurred, but heavy destruction of planetary gearboxes have

  8. Temperature Trapping: Energy-Free Maintenance of Constant Temperatures as Ambient Temperature Gradients Change.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Huang, Jiping

    2016-07-29

    It is crucial to maintain constant temperatures in an energy-efficient way. Here we establish a temperature-trapping theory for asymmetric phase-transition materials with thermally responsive thermal conductivities. Then we theoretically introduce and experimentally demonstrate a concept of an energy-free thermostat within ambient temperature gradients. The thermostat is capable of self-maintaining a desired constant temperature without the need of consuming energy even though the environmental temperature gradient varies in a large range. As a model application of the concept, we design and show a different type of thermal cloak that has a constant temperature inside its central region in spite of the changing ambient temperature gradient, which is in sharp contrast to all the existing thermal cloaks. This work has relevance to energy-saving heat preservation, and it provides guidance both for manipulating heat flow without energy consumption and for designing new metamaterials with temperature-responsive or field-responsive parameters in many disciplines such as thermotics, optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, mechanics, electrics, and magnetism. PMID:27517778

  9. Temperature Trapping: Energy-Free Maintenance of Constant Temperatures as Ambient Temperature Gradients Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Huang, Jiping

    2016-07-01

    It is crucial to maintain constant temperatures in an energy-efficient way. Here we establish a temperature-trapping theory for asymmetric phase-transition materials with thermally responsive thermal conductivities. Then we theoretically introduce and experimentally demonstrate a concept of an energy-free thermostat within ambient temperature gradients. The thermostat is capable of self-maintaining a desired constant temperature without the need of consuming energy even though the environmental temperature gradient varies in a large range. As a model application of the concept, we design and show a different type of thermal cloak that has a constant temperature inside its central region in spite of the changing ambient temperature gradient, which is in sharp contrast to all the existing thermal cloaks. This work has relevance to energy-saving heat preservation, and it provides guidance both for manipulating heat flow without energy consumption and for designing new metamaterials with temperature-responsive or field-responsive parameters in many disciplines such as thermotics, optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, mechanics, electrics, and magnetism.

  10. Physiological responses to simulated firefighter exercise protocols in varying environments.

    PubMed

    Horn, Gavin P; Kesler, Richard M; Motl, Robert W; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Klaren, Rachel E; Ensari, Ipek; Petrucci, Matthew N; Fernhall, Bo; Rosengren, Karl S

    2015-01-01

    For decades, research to quantify the effects of firefighting activities and personal protective equipment on physiology and biomechanics has been conducted in a variety of testing environments. It is unknown if these different environments provide similar information and comparable responses. A novel Firefighting Activities Station, which simulates four common fireground tasks, is presented for use with an environmental chamber in a controlled laboratory setting. Nineteen firefighters completed three different exercise protocols following common research practices. Simulated firefighting activities conducted in an environmental chamber or live-fire structures elicited similar physiological responses (max heart rate: 190.1 vs 188.0 bpm, core temperature response: 0.047°C/min vs 0.043°C/min) and accelerometry counts. However, the response to a treadmill protocol commonly used in laboratory settings resulted in significantly lower heart rate (178.4 vs 188.0 bpm), core temperature response (0.037°C/min vs 0.043°C/min) and physical activity counts compared with firefighting activities in the burn building. Practitioner Summary: We introduce a new approach for simulating realistic firefighting activities in a controlled laboratory environment for ergonomics assessment of fire service equipment and personnel. Physiological responses to this proposed protocol more closely replicate those from live-fire activities than a traditional treadmill protocol and are simple to replicate and standardise.

  11. Thermoregulation in rats: Effects of varying duration of hypergravic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of hypergravitational fields on the thermoregulatory system of the rat are examined. The question underlying the investigation was whether the response of the rat to the one hour cold exposure depends only upon the amplitude of the hypergravic field during the period of cold exposure or whether the response is also dependent on the amplitude and duration of the hypergravic field prior to cold exposure. One hour of cold exposure applied over the last hour of either a 1, 4, 7, 13, 19, 25, or 37 hr period of 3G evoked a decrease in core temperature (T sub c) of about 3 C. However, when rats were subjected concurrently to cold and acceleration following 8 days at 3G, they exhibited a smaller fall in T sub c, suggesting partial recovery of the acceleration induced impairment of temperature regulation. In another series of experiments, the gravitational field profile was changed in amplitude in 3 different ways. Despite the different gravitational field profiles used prior to cold, the magnitude of the fall in T sub c over the 1 hr period of cold exposure was the same in all cases. These results suggest that the thermoregulatory impairment has a rapid onset, is a manifestation of an ongoing effect of hypergravity, and is not dependent upon the prior G profile.

  12. Dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at varying conditions.

    PubMed

    Neureiter, Markus; Danner, Herbert; Thomasser, Christiane; Saidi, Bamusi; Braun, Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse, a byproduct of the cane sugar industry, is an abundant source of hemicellulose that could be hydrolyzed to yield a fermentation feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol and chemicals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration, temperature, time, and dry matter concentration on hemicellulose hydrolysis were studied with a 20-L batch hydrolysis reactor using a statistical experimental design. Even at less severe conditions considerable amounts (>29%) of the hemicellulose fraction could be extracted. The percentage of soluble oligosaccharides becomes very low in experiments with high yields in monosaccharides, which indicates that the cellulose fraction is only slightly affected. For the sugar yields, acid concentration appears to be the most important parameter, while for the formation of sugar degradation products, temperature shows the highest impact. It could be demonstrated that the dry matter concentration in the reaction slurry has a negative effect on the xylose yield that can be compensated by higher concentrations of sulfuric acid owing to a positive interaction between acid concentration and dry matter contents.

  13. Plasma-Catalysis During Temperature Transient Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hoard, John

    2001-08-05

    A combination of catalysts is used together with nonthermal plasma in simulated diesel exhaust, while the gas temperature is varied. The catalysts both store and convert pollutants. As a result, pollutant concentrations during temperature ramps are different than those at steady state conditions. The data are presented for plasma followed by BaY, alumina, and Pt catalysts in simulated exhaust. When temperature ramps from high to low, apparent NOx conversion is quite high. However, when temperature is ramped from low to high, lower apparent conversions are seen. In a typical test cycle, average NOx conversion between 100 and 400 C is 60%. Peak conversion during the down ramp is over 90%, and minimum conversion during the up ramp is 30%. The composition of the effluent gas also varies during the temperature cycle. Intermediates such as methyl nitrate and hydrogen cyanide are not present following the combination of catalysts.

  14. Tuning lattice stability and mechanical strength of ultraincompressible tungsten carbides by varying the stacking sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z. J.; Fu, Z. H.; Legut, D.; Yu, X. H.; Zhang, Q. F.; Ivashchenko, V. I.; Veprek, S.; Zhang, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical properties and electronic structure of polymorphic tungsten carbides with different stacking sequences have been investigated by means of density functional theory. The stacking sequence strongly influences the stability and mechanical strength of these polymorphs. Using the plastic parameters based on resistance to slip, we found that the newly identified metastable h P 4 [194 ] structure (expressed by the Pearson symbol and a space group number) possesses the highest plastic resistance despite its lower elastic moduli as compared to the thermodynamically stable h P 2 [187 ] . The c F 8 [225 ] structure is thermodynamically and dynamically unstable at 0 K, but it shows anharmonic stabilization at finite temperature, in agreement with the experimental data. Our results provide a way to increase material strength and hardness by varying the crystal lattice stacking sequence.

  15. The slowly varying corona from DEMs with the EVE data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, Samuel J.; White, Stephen M.; Hock, Rachel A.; McAteer, James

    2016-05-01

    We present a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the slowly varying corona during the first half of solar cycle 24. Using the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) and the CHIANTI atomic line database we identify strong isolated iron emission lines present in the non-flaring spectrum with peak emissions covering the coronal temperature range of 5.7 < log(T) < 6.5. These lines are used to generate daily DEMs from EVE spectra to observe the long term variability of global coronal thermal properties. We discuss the choice of emission lines and the implications of this data set for the relationship between EUV and the F10.7 radio flux.

  16. An Adaptive Particle Filtering Approach to Tracking Modes in a Varying Shallow Ocean Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V

    2011-03-22

    The shallow ocean environment is ever changing mostly due to temperature variations in its upper layers (< 100m) directly affecting sound propagation throughout. The need to develop processors that are capable of tracking these changes implies a stochastic as well as an 'adaptive' design. The stochastic requirement follows directly from the multitude of variations created by uncertain parameters and noise. Some work has been accomplished in this area, but the stochastic nature was constrained to Gaussian uncertainties. It has been clear for a long time that this constraint was not particularly realistic leading a Bayesian approach that enables the representation of any uncertainty distribution. Sequential Bayesian techniques enable a class of processors capable of performing in an uncertain, nonstationary (varying statistics), non-Gaussian, variable shallow ocean. In this paper adaptive processors providing enhanced signals for acoustic hydrophonemeasurements on a vertical array as well as enhanced modal function estimates are developed. Synthetic data is provided to demonstrate that this approach is viable.

  17. Morphology and dynamics of polymer nanocomposites for varying polymer filler interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Goswami, Monojoy

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of polymer nanocomposites using Stochastic Molecular Dynamics simulation in the canonical ensemble. One of the major parameters that determines the properties of nanocomposites is the filler-monomer interfacial interaction strengths. By varying the interaction strengths as well as temperature of the system we could capture the dynamical response of the system from a fluid-fluid to bridging induced network states The structural properties when analyzed show a strongly networked solid-like transition which has been augmented using dynamical analysis. Calculations show the slowing down of nanoparticle diffusion in the network phase due to jamming of the nanoparticles. At certain parameter range, the equilibrium stress-stress autocorrelation function does not decay confirming the existence of solid-like behavior. The change in mechanical properties is supported by the morphological observations.

  18. Effects of varying surfactant chain lengths on the magnetic, optical and hyperthermia properties of ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Vaishnava, Prem; Regmi, Rajesh; Sudakar, Chandran; Black, Correy; Lawes, Gavin; Naik, Ratna; Lavoie, Melissa; Kahn, David

    2009-03-01

    We report studies of the structural, magnetic, magneto-thermal and magneto-optic properties of dextran, oleic acid, lauric acid and myristic acid surfacted Fe3O4 nanoparticles of hydrodynamic sizes ranging from 32 nm to 92 nm. All the samples showed saturation magnetization of ˜50 emu/g, significantly smaller than the bulk value for Fe3O4, together with superparamagnetic behavior. The ac magnetization measurements on the dextran coated nanoparticles showed frequency dependent blocking temperature, consistent with superparamgnetic blocking. The ferrofluid heating rates in a 250 Gauss, 100 kHz ac magnetic field varied with the chain lengths of the surfactants, with higher heating rates for longer chains. DC-magnetic-field-induced light scattering patterns produced by two orthogonal He-Ne laser beams passing through the ferrofluid sample revealed different optical signatures for different surfactants.

  19. Perception of acoustically presented time series with varied intervals.

    PubMed

    Wackermann, Jiří; Pacer, Jakob; Wittmann, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Data from three experiments on serial perception of temporal intervals in the supra-second domain are reported. Sequences of short acoustic signals ("pips") separated by periods of silence were presented to the observers. Two types of time series, geometric or alternating, were used, where the modulus 1+δ of the inter-pip series and the base duration Tb (range from 1.1 to 6s) were varied as independent parameters. The observers had to judge whether the series were accelerating, decelerating, or uniform (3 paradigm), or to distinguish regular from irregular sequences (2 paradigm). "Intervals of subjective uniformity" (isus) were obtained by fitting Gaussian psychometric functions to individual subjects' responses. Progression towards longer base durations (Tb=4.4 or 6s) shifts the isus towards negative δs, i.e., accelerating series. This finding is compatible with the phenomenon of "subjective shortening" of past temporal intervals, which is naturally accounted for by the lossy integration model of internal time representation. The opposite effect observed for short durations (Tb=1.1 or 1.5s) remains unexplained by the lossy integration model, and presents a challenge for further research.

  20. Evolutionary patterns of genic DNA methylation vary across land plants.

    PubMed

    Takuno, Shohei; Ran, Jin-Hua; Gaut, Brandon S

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about patterns of genic DNA methylation across the plant kingdom or about the evolutionary processes that shape them. To characterize gene-body methylation (gbM) within exons, we have gathered single-base resolution methylome data that span the phylogenetic breadth of land plants. We find that a basal land plant, Marchantia polymorpha, lacks any evident signal of gbM within exons, but conifers have high levels of both CG and CHG (where H is A, C or T) methylation in expressed genes. To begin to understand the evolutionary forces that shape gbM, we first tested for correlations in methylation levels across orthologues(1,2). Genic CG methylation levels, but not CHG or CHH levels, are correlated across orthologues for species as distantly related as ferns and angiosperms. Hence, relative levels of CG methylation are a consistent property across genes, even for species that diverged ∼400 million years ago(3,4). In contrast, genic CHG methylation correlates with genome size, suggesting that the host epigenetic response to transposable elements also affects genes. Altogether, our data indicate that the evolutionary forces acting on DNA methylation vary substantially across species, genes and methylation contexts. PMID:27249194

  1. Multivariate varying coefficient models for DTI tract statistics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongtu; Styner, Martin; Li, Yimei; Kong, Linglong; Shi, Yundi; Lin, Weili; Coe, Christopher; Gilmore, John H

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is important for characterizing the structure of white matter fiber bundles as well as detailed tissue properties along these fiber bundles in vivo. There has been extensive interest in the analysis of diffusion properties measured along fiber tracts as a function of age, diagnostic status, and gender, while controlling for other clinical variables. However, the existing methods have several limitations including the independent analysis of diffusion properties, a lack of method for accounting for multiple covariates, and a lack of formal statistical inference, such as estimation theory and hypothesis testing. This paper presents a statistical framework, called VCMTS, to specifically address these limitations. The VCMTS framework consists of four integrated components: a varying coefficient model for characterizing the association between fiber bundle diffusion properties and a set of covariates, the local polynomial kernel method for estimating smoothed multiple diffusion properties along individual fiber bundles, global and local test statistics for testing hypotheses of interest along fiber tracts, and a resampling method for approximating the p-value of the global test statistic. The proposed methodology is applied to characterizing the development of four diffusion properties along the splenium and genu of the corpus callosum tract in a study of neurodevelopment in healthy rhesus monkeys. Significant time effects on the four diffusion properties were found. PMID:20879291

  2. Comparison of tactile discrimination associated with varying weights of explorers.

    PubMed

    Simmer-Beck, Melanie; Branson, Bonnie G; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando; Holt, Lorie

    2007-05-01

    The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in dental hygienists is significantly higher than that of the general population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of explorer weight on dental and dental hygiene students' tactile discrimination when exploring. A randomized controlled clinical trial utilizing a dual dependent statistical design was used to collect data on a convenience sample of forty-eight (n=48) dental hygiene students beginning their senior year of their curriculum. Tactile discrimination was measured by having twenty-four experimental subjects (using a lightweight 0.4 ounce explorer) and twenty-four control subjects (using a heavier 1.0 ounce explorer) delineate the coarseness of varying textures of sandpaper in an apparatus that provided a blinded environment. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics, chi square tests, and independent sample t-test were computed. Results did not display statistically significant differences between groups. Descriptive statistics illustrated that students using lightweight explorers were better able to delineate between textures. One exception to this finding was with very similar textures, where heavier explorers provided superior tactile discrimination. Overall, the weight of the explorer does not affect students' tactile discrimination abilities.

  3. Novel regression equations predicting lung age from varied spirometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Omori, Hisamitsu; Onoue, Ayumi; Katoh, Takahiko; Ogata, Yasuhiro; Kawashima, Hidetoshi; Onizawa, Shigemitsu; Tsuji, Takao; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Nagai, Atsushi

    2012-08-15

    Although lung age calculated backward from regression formulas constructed for FEV(1) estimation is widely used, it possesses a couple of faults. We developed novel equations predicting lung age from varied spirometric parameters (spirometry-derived lung age (SDL-age)). Applying multiple regression analysis, equations predicting SDL-age were invented using data from 8015 never-smokers with normal spirometry (group I). Validation was made based on data from 6398 never-smokers with normal spirometry (group II). Equations were further applied for 446 subjects with airflow limitation. FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC, FEF(50), and PEF were selected as explanatory variables for reference value of SDL-age. Normal limits of difference between SDL-age and chronological-age were ± 13.4 years in the male and ± 15.0 years in the female. Established equations predicted SDL-age of group II. SDL-age was older than chronological-age only in subjects with severe airflow limitation. Novel regression equations allowing prediction of reference value of SDL-age and normal limits of difference between SDL-age and chronological-age were elaborated in both genders.

  4. Device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Clark, Mark L.; Rossignol, E. John

    1982-01-01

    A device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition comprises a chamber having an inlet at one end and outlet at the other. Between the inlet and outlet there are substantially planar pans or baffles positioned normal to the bulk flow of fluid between the inlet and the outlet. These pans are arranged in pairs. Each pan, except those of the pair most remote from the inlet, is spaced from the walls of the chamber to permit air to flow past it. The pans of each pair are also spaced from each other, in a direction parallel to their planes, leaving an empty space along the mid-plane of the chamber. This produces a circulation and mixing of fluid between the pairs of pans or baffles. A secondary stream of fluid is introduced between two pairs of baffles in the intermediate portion of the chamber, so that the composition of the fluid is different in the portion adjacent to the outlet and the portion adjacent to the inlet. In a specific embodiment, the device is an exposure chamber for experimental animals, and the pans or baffles are catch pans for excrement.

  5. Detection of Epigenetic Changes Using ANOVA with Spatially Varying Coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guanghua; Wang, Xinlei; LaPlant, Quincey; Nestler, Eric; Xie, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Identification of genome-wide epigenetic changes, the stable changes in gene function without a change in DNA sequence, under various conditions plays an important role in biomedical research. High-throughput epigenetic experiments are useful tools to measure genome-wide epigenetic changes, but the measured intensity levels from these high-resolution genome-wide epigenetic profiling data are often spatially correlated with high noise levels. In addition, no formal statistical method was developed to compare genome-wide epigenetic changes across multiple conditions. In this study, we consider ANOVA models with spatially varying coefficients, combined with a hierarchical Bayes approach, to explicitly model spatial correlation caused by location-dependent biological effects (i.e., epigenetic changes) and borrow strength among neighboring probes to compare epigenetic changes across multiple conditions. Through simulation studies and applications in drug addiction and depression models, we find that our approach compares favorably with competing methods; it is more efficient in estimation and more effective in detecting epigenetic changes. In addition, it can provide biologically meaningful results. PMID:23502341

  6. Economic strategies of plant absorptive roots vary with root diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D. L.; Wang, J. J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H. F.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X. B.; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots typically vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum, depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root economic strategies differ with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven plant species (a fern, a conifer, and five angiosperms from south China) for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (thickness of root cortex plus epidermis < 247 µm) and thick roots. For each category, we analyzed a range of root traits related to resource acquisition and conservation, including root tissue density, different carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) fractions (i.e., extractive, acid-soluble, and acid-insoluble fractions) as well as root anatomical traits. The results showed significant relationships among root traits indicating an acquisition-conservation tradeoff for thin absorptive roots while no such trait relationships were found for thick absorptive roots. Similar results were found when reanalyzing data of a previous study including 96 plant species. The contrasting economic strategies between thin and thick absorptive roots, as revealed here, may provide a new perspective on our understanding of the root economics spectrum.

  7. NARAC SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE: ADAPTING FORMALISM TO MEET VARYING NEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Nasstrom, J S; Homann, S G

    2007-11-20

    The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provides tools and services that predict and map the spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC is a full function system that can meet a wide range of needs with a particular focus on emergency response. The NARAC system relies on computer software in the form of models of the atmosphere and related physical processes supported by a framework for data acquisition and management, user interface, visualization, communications and security. All aspects of the program's operations and research efforts are predicated to varying degrees on the reliable and correct performance of this software. Consequently, software quality assurance (SQA) is an essential component of the NARAC program. The NARAC models and system span different levels of sophistication, fidelity and complexity. These different levels require related but different approaches to SQA. To illustrate this, two different levels of software complexity are considered in this paper. As a relatively simple example, the SQA procedures that are being used for HotSpot, a straight-line Gaussian model focused on radiological releases, are described. At the other extreme, the SQA issues that must be considered and balanced for the more complex NARAC system are reviewed.

  8. Detection of epigenetic changes using ANOVA with spatially varying coefficients.

    PubMed

    Guanghua, Xiao; Xinlei, Wang; Quincey, LaPlant; Nestler, Eric J; Xie, Yang

    2013-03-13

    Identification of genome-wide epigenetic changes, the stable changes in gene function without a change in DNA sequence, under various conditions plays an important role in biomedical research. High-throughput epigenetic experiments are useful tools to measure genome-wide epigenetic changes, but the measured intensity levels from these high-resolution genome-wide epigenetic profiling data are often spatially correlated with high noise levels. In addition, it is challenging to detect genome-wide epigenetic changes across multiple conditions, so efficient statistical methodology development is needed for this purpose. In this study, we consider ANOVA models with spatially varying coefficients, combined with a hierarchical Bayesian approach, to explicitly model spatial correlation caused by location-dependent biological effects (i.e., epigenetic changes) and borrow strength among neighboring probes to compare epigenetic changes across multiple conditions. Through simulation studies and applications in drug addiction and depression datasets, we find that our approach compares favorably with competing methods; it is more efficient in estimation and more effective in detecting epigenetic changes. In addition, it can provide biologically meaningful results.

  9. Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Nicole E.; Ives, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

  10. Oxidative profile varies with personality in European greenfinches.

    PubMed

    Herborn, Katherine A; Coffey, Jo; Larcombe, Stephen D; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E

    2011-05-15

    Where behavioural responses differ consistently between individuals, this is termed 'personality'. There is the suggestion, but with little supporting data, that personality traits reflect underlying variation in physiology. Here, we tested whether greenfinches Carduelis chloris differing in personality traits differed in various plasma indices of oxidative profile: antioxidant capacity (OXY), pro-oxidant status (reactive oxygen metabolites, ROMs), oxidative stress (OS) and an end-product of oxidative damage: malondialdehyde (MDA). We measured two personality traits: neophobia (latency to approach food near novel objects) and object exploration (latency to approach novel objects). These traits were uncorrelated. ROMs, OXY, OS and MDA were also uncorrelated with each other. Highly neophobic birds had lower OXY, higher ROMs and higher OS than less neophobic birds. Fast exploring birds had higher OXY than slow explorers, but did not differ in ROMs or OS. Variation in MDA was described by a quadratic relationship with neophobia: birds with extremely high or low neophobia had lower MDA than birds with intermediate neophobia, despite highly neophobic birds exhibiting lower OS than intermediately neophobic birds. Additively in that model, fast explorers had lower MDA than slower explorers. To conclude: first, personality types can differ in oxidative profile. Second, although physiological differences (e.g. hormonal stress responsiveness) between personality types generally range along a linear continuum, physiological costs may not. Finally, relationships with oxidative profile differed between neophobia and object exploration. Understanding how oxidative profile and thus physiological costs vary within and between personality traits may explain how differences in personality traits can predict fitness.

  11. Metal complexes with varying intramolecular hydrogen bonding networks

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, David C.; Mukherjee, Jhumpa; Lucas, Robie L.; Day, Victor W.; Borovik, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Alfred Werner described the attributes of the primary and secondary coordination spheres in his development of coordination chemistry. To examine the effects of the secondary coordination sphere on coordination chemistry, a series of tripodal ligands containing differing numbers of hydrogen bond (H-bond) donors were used to examine the effects of H-bonds on Fe(II), Mn(II)–acetato, and Mn(III)–OH complexes. The ligands containing varying numbers of urea and amidate donors allowed for systematic changes in the secondary coordination spheres of the complexes. Two of the Fe(II) complexes that were isolated as their Bu4N+ salts formed dimers in the solid-state as determined by X-ray diffraction methods, which correlates with the number of H-bonds present in the complexes (i.e., dimerization is favored as the number of H-bond donors increases). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies suggested that the dimeric structures persist in acetonitrile. The Mn(II) complexes were all isolated as their acetato adducts. Furthermore, the synthesis of a rare Mn(III)–OH complex via dioxygen activation was achieved that contains a single intramolecular H-bond; its physical properties are discussed within the context of other Mn(III)–OH complexes. PMID:24904193

  12. Innovation diffusion on time-varying activity driven networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Alessandro; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1960s, the theory of innovation diffusion has contributed to the advancement of several research fields, such as marketing management and consumer behavior. The 1969 seminal paper by Bass [F.M. Bass, Manag. Sci. 15, 215 (1969)] introduced a model of product growth for consumer durables, which has been extensively used to predict innovation diffusion across a range of applications. Here, we propose a novel approach to study innovation diffusion, where interactions among individuals are mediated by the dynamics of a time-varying network. Our approach is based on the Bass' model, and overcomes key limitations of previous studies, which assumed timescale separation between the individual dynamics and the evolution of the connectivity patterns. Thus, we do not hypothesize homogeneous mixing among individuals or the existence of a fixed interaction network. We formulate our approach in the framework of activity driven networks to enable the analysis of the concurrent evolution of the interaction and individual dynamics. Numerical simulations offer a systematic analysis of the model behavior and highlight the role of individual activity on market penetration when targeted advertisement campaigns are designed, or a competition between two different products takes place.

  13. Partial migration: growth varies between resident and migratory fish

    PubMed Central

    Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; Izzo, Christopher; Doubleday, Zoë A.; Ye, Qifeng

    2015-01-01

    Partial migration occurs in many taxa and ecosystems and may confer survival benefits. Here, we use otolith chemistry data to determine whether fish from a large estuarine system were resident or migratory, and then examine whether contingents display differences in modelled growth based on changes in width of otolith growth increments. Sixty-three per cent of fish were resident based on Ba : Ca of otoliths, with the remainder categorized as migratory, with both contingents distributed across most age/size classes and both sexes, suggesting population-level bet hedging. Migrant fish were in slightly better condition than resident fish based on Fulton's K condition index. Migration type (resident versus migratory) was 56 times more likely to explain variation in growth than a model just incorporating year- and age-related growth trends. While average growth only varied slightly between resident and migratory fish, year-to-year variation was significant. Such dynamism in growth rates likely drives persistence of both life-history types. The complex relationships in growth between contingents suggest that management of species exhibiting partial migration is challenging, especially in a world subject to a changing climate. PMID:25788490

  14. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    PubMed

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P < 0·05). There was no significant difference between the glucose areas under the curve or GI for the two barley porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  15. Hydrophobicity studies of polymer thin films with varied CNT concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Rodzi, N. H.; M. Shahimin, M.; Poopalan, P.; Man, B.; M. Nor, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Surface functionalization studies for re-creating a `Lotus Leaf' effect (superhydrophobic) have been carried out for the past decade; looking for the material which can provide high transparency, low energy surface and high surface roughness. Fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid thin film variations on glass to produce near-superhydrophobic surfaces is presented in this paper. There are three important parameters studied in producing hydrophobic surfaces based on the hybrid thin films; concentration of PDMS, concentration of MWCNT and droplet sizes. The study is carried out by using PDMS of varied cross linker ratio (10:1, 30:1 and 50:1) with MWCNT concentration of 1mg, 10mg and 15mg for 0.5 μl, 2.0 μl, 5.0 μl and 10 μl droplet sizes. The resulting hybrid thin films show that hydrophobicity increased with increasing cross linker ratio and MWCNT percentage in the PDMS solution. A near superhydrophobic surface can be created when using 15 mg of MWCNT with 50:1 cross linker ratio PDMS thin films, measured on 10 μl droplet size. The hybrid thin films produced can be potentially tailored to the application of biosensors, MEMS and even commercial devices.

  16. Partial migration: growth varies between resident and migratory fish.

    PubMed

    Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Izzo, Christopher; Doubleday, Zoë A; Ye, Qifeng

    2015-03-01

    Partial migration occurs in many taxa and ecosystems and may confer survival benefits. Here, we use otolith chemistry data to determine whether fish from a large estuarine system were resident or migratory, and then examine whether contingents display differences in modelled growth based on changes in width of otolith growth increments. Sixty-three per cent of fish were resident based on Ba : Ca of otoliths, with the remainder categorized as migratory, with both contingents distributed across most age/size classes and both sexes, suggesting population-level bet hedging. Migrant fish were in slightly better condition than resident fish based on Fulton's K condition index. Migration type (resident versus migratory) was 56 times more likely to explain variation in growth than a model just incorporating year- and age-related growth trends. While average growth only varied slightly between resident and migratory fish, year-to-year variation was significant. Such dynamism in growth rates likely drives persistence of both life-history types. The complex relationships in growth between contingents suggest that management of species exhibiting partial migration is challenging, especially in a world subject to a changing climate. PMID:25788490

  17. Extent of DNR policies varies across healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Longo, D R; Warren, M; Roberts, J S; Dunlop, G R

    1988-06-01

    A cross-section random survey of acute care hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, long-term care facilities, and hospices was conducted in 1986 to determine the extent of use, the nature, and the implementation of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) policies. Data also were collected to identify the common problems of implementing DNR policies, as well as how conflicts in the use of DNR orders are resolved. The survey found that 30.7 percent of healthcare organizations have a formal policy, 28 percent have an informal policy, and 41.3 percent have no policy. Formal policies were found in 56.9 percent of acute care and 42.9 percent of hospice care settings, compared with 11.4 percent in psychiatric and 20.1 percent in long-term care settings. Although predictors varied across the four settings studied, formal policies were associated with larger organizations, the use of consultation, accreditation by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, and the presence of an ethics committee. The recognition of a living will plays a small role in the presence of a formal DNR policy. Given the growing concern of the American public and healthcare organizations over DNR orders, the implications of this study call for careful attention to DNR and related medical and ethical issues and the establishment of policies that clearly delineate when, how, and with whom such issues are discussed and resolved.

  18. Computation of rapidly varied unsteady, free-surface flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basco, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Many unsteady flows in hydraulics occur with relatively large gradients in free surface profiles. The assumption of hydrostatic pressure distribution with depth is no longer valid. These are rapidly-varied unsteady flows (RVF) of classical hydraulics and also encompass short wave propagation of coastal hydraulics. The purpose of this report is to present an introductory review of the Boussinnesq-type differential equations that describe these flows and to discuss methods for their numerical integration. On variable slopes and for large scale (finite-amplitude) disturbances, three independent derivational methods all gave differences in the motion equation for higher order terms. The importance of these higher-order terms for riverine applications must be determined by numerical experiments. Care must be taken in selection of the appropriate finite-difference scheme to minimize truncation error effects and the possibility of diverging (double mode) numerical solutions. It is recommended that practical hydraulics cases be established and tested numerically to demonstrate the order of differences in solution with those obtained from the long wave equations of St. Venant. (USGS)

  19. Management of neonatal jaundice varies by practitioner type

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Patrocinio C.; Lee, Kyong-Soon; Barozzino, Matthew; Sgro, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To survey current practices among different types of medical practitioners in Ontario to assess if national guidelines for screening and management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were being followed. Design An anonymized, cross-sectional survey distributed by mail and e-mail. Setting Ontario. Participants From each group (general practitioners, family medicine practitioners, and pediatricians), 500 participants were randomly selected, and all 390 registered midwives were selected. Main outcome measures Compliance with national guidelines for screening, postdischarge follow-up, and management of newborns with hyperbilirubinemia. Results Of the 1890 potential respondents, 321 (17%) completed the survey. Only 41% of family physicians reported using national guidelines, compared with 75% and 69% of pediatricians and midwives, respectively (P < .001). Bilirubin was routinely measured for all newborns before discharge by 42% of family physicians, 63% of pediatricians, and 22% of midwives (P < .001). Newborn follow-up was completed within 72 hours after discharge by 60% of family physicians, 89% of pediatricians, and 100% of midwives. Management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia differed significantly (P < .001), with 91% of family physicians, 99% of pediatricians, and 79% of midwives correctly managing a case scenario according to the guidelines. Conclusion The management of jaundice varied considerably among the different practitioner types, with pediatricians both most aware of the guidelines and most likely to follow them. Increased knowledge translation efforts are required to promote adherence to the jaundice management guidelines across all practitioner types, but particularly among family physicians. PMID:23946045

  20. Size matters: Perceived depth magnitude varies with stimulus height.

    PubMed

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Both the upper and lower disparity limits for stereopsis vary with the size of the targets. Recently, Tsirlin, Wilcox, and Allison (2012) suggested that perceived depth magnitude from stereopsis might also depend on the vertical extent of a stimulus. To test this hypothesis we compared apparent depth in small discs to depth in long bars with equivalent width and disparity. We used three estimation techniques: a virtual ruler, a touch-sensor (for haptic estimates) and a disparity probe. We found that depth estimates were significantly larger for the bar stimuli than for the disc stimuli for all methods of estimation and different configurations. In a second experiment, we measured perceived depth as a function of the height of the bar and the radius of the disc. Perceived depth increased with increasing bar height and disc radius suggesting that disparity is integrated along the vertical edges. We discuss size-disparity correlation and inter-neural excitatory connections as potential mechanisms that could account for these results.

  1. External Field QED on Cauchy Surfaces for Varying Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckert, D.-A.; Merkl, F.

    2016-08-01

    The Shale-Stinespring Theorem (J Math Mech 14:315-322, 1965) together with Ruijsenaar's criterion (J Math Phys 18(4):720-737, 1977) provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the implementability of the evolution of external field quantum electrodynamics between constant-time hyperplanes on standard Fock space. The assertion states that an implementation is possible if and only if the spatial components of the external electromagnetic four-vector potential {A_μ} are zero. We generalize this result to smooth, space-like Cauchy surfaces and, for general {A_μ}, show how the second-quantized Dirac evolution can always be implemented as a map between varying Fock spaces. Furthermore, we give equivalence classes of polarizations, including an explicit representative, that give rise to those admissible Fock spaces. We prove that the polarization classes only depend on the tangential components of {A_μ} w.r.t. the particular Cauchy surface, and show that they behave naturally under Lorentz and gauge transformations.

  2. Placental diffusing capacities at varied carbon monoxide tensions.

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, J M; Wickham, W K; Drummond, W H

    1977-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that carbon monoxide transfer across the placenta is, in part, a facilitated process, we have looked for evidence of saturation kinetics for carbon monoxide. In eight pregnant ewes, fetal to maternal carbon monoxide transfer was examined in a preparation in which the fetal side of the placenta was perfused with blood. The carboxyhemoglobin concentrations on the fetal side of the placenta were varied from 4.8 to 70% in 23 measurements. At increased carbon monoxide tensions, the transfer from fetus to mother always decreased. The slope of log rate of carbon monoxide transfer vs. log partial pressure gradient across the placenta was significantly different from 1. Placental membrane diffusing capacity was calculated separately from total placental diffusing capacity which includes hemoglobin reaction rates and erythrocyte membrane diffusion. Placental membrane diffusing capacity decreased at increased carbon monoxide tensions. Placental permeability for urea did not change with increasing carbon monoxide tensions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that carbon monoxide diffusion in the placenta is, in part, carrier mediated. PMID:864001

  3. Crop yield response to climate change varies with cropping intensity.

    PubMed

    Challinor, Andrew J; Parkes, Ben; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Projections of the response of crop yield to climate change at different spatial scales are known to vary. However, understanding of the causes of systematic differences across scale is limited. Here, we hypothesize that heterogeneous cropping intensity is one source of scale dependency. Analysis of observed global data and regional crop modelling demonstrate that areas of high vs. low cropping intensity can have systematically different yields, in both observations and simulations. Analysis of global crop data suggests that heterogeneity in cropping intensity is a likely source of scale dependency for a number of crops across the globe. Further crop modelling and a meta-analysis of projected tropical maize yields are used to assess the implications for climate change assessments. The results show that scale dependency is a potential source of systematic bias. We conclude that spatially comprehensive assessments of climate impacts based on yield alone, without accounting for cropping intensity, are prone to systematic overestimation of climate impacts. The findings therefore suggest a need for greater attention to crop suitability and land use change when assessing the impacts of climate change.

  4. Deblurring for spatial and temporal varying motion with optical computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiao; Xue, Dongfeng; Hui, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    A way to estimate and remove spatially and temporally varying motion blur is proposed, which is based on an optical computing system. The translation and rotation motion can be independently estimated from the joint transform correlator (JTC) system without iterative optimization. The inspiration comes from the fact that the JTC system is immune to rotation motion in a Cartesian coordinate system. The work scheme of the JTC system is designed to keep switching between the Cartesian coordinate system and polar coordinate system in different time intervals with the ping-pang handover. In the ping interval, the JTC system works in the Cartesian coordinate system to obtain a translation motion vector with optical computing speed. In the pang interval, the JTC system works in the polar coordinate system. The rotation motion is transformed to the translation motion through coordinate transformation. Then the rotation motion vector can also be obtained from JTC instantaneously. To deal with continuous spatially variant motion blur, submotion vectors based on the projective motion path blur model are proposed. The submotion vectors model is more effective and accurate at modeling spatially variant motion blur than conventional methods. The simulation and real experiment results demonstrate its overall effectiveness.

  5. Etiology of phenotype switching strategy in time varying stochastic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Denis; Brutovsky, Branislav

    2016-11-01

    In the paper, we present the two-state discrete-time Markovian model to study the impact of the two alternative switching strategies on the fitness of the population evolving in time varying environment. The first strategy, referred as the 'responsive switching', enables the cell to make transition into the state conferring to it higher fitness in the instant environment. If the alternative strategy, termed 'random switching' is applied, the cell undergoes transition into the new state not regarding the instant environment. Each strategy comes with the respective cost for its physical realization. Within the framework of evolutionary model, mutations occur as random events which change parameters of the probabilistic models corresponding to the respective switching strategies. Most of the general trends of population averages can be easily understood at the intuitive level, with a few exceptions related to the cases when too low mutation noise hampers population to follow rapid environmental changes. On the other hand, the more detailed study of the parameter distributions reveals much more complex structure than expected. The simulation results may help to understand, at the conceptual level, relation between the population heterogeneity and its environment that could find important implications in various areas, such as cancer therapy or development of risk diversifying strategies.

  6. Varied line-space gratings: past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1985-08-01

    A classically ruled diffraction grating consists of grooves which are equidistant, straight and parallel. Conversely, the so-called ''holographic'' grating (formed by the interfering waves of coherent visible light), although severely constrained by the recording wavelength and recording geometry, has grooves which are typically neither equidistant, straight nor parallel. In contrast, a varied line-space (VLS) grating, in common nomenclature, is a design in which the groove positions are relatively unconstrained yet possess sufficient symmetry to permit mechanical ruling. Such seemingly exotic gratings are no longer only a theoretical curiosity, but have been ruled and used in a wide variety of applications. These include: (1) aberration-corrected normal incidence concave gratings for Seya-Namioka monochromators and optical de-multiplexers, (2) flat-field grazing incidence concave gratings for plasma diagnostics, (3) aberration-corrected grazing incidence plane gratings for space-borne spectrometers, (4) focusing grazing incidence plane grating for synchrotron radiation monochromators, and (5) wavefront generators for visible interferometry of optical surfaces (particularly aspheres). Future prospects of VLS gratings as dispersing elements, wavefront correctors and beamsplitters appear promising. The author discusses the history of VLS gratings, their present applications, and their potential in the future. 61 refs., 24 figs.

  7. Robust algorithm for estimation of time-varying transfer functions.

    PubMed

    Zou, Rui; Chon, Ki H

    2004-02-01

    We introduce a new method to estimate reliable time-varying (TV) transfer functions (TFs) and TV impulse response functions. The method is based on TV autoregressive moving average models in which the TV parameters are accurately obtained using the optimal parameter search method which we have previously developed. The new method is more accurate than the recursive least-squares (RLS), and remains robust even in the case of significant noise contamination. Furthermore, the new method is able to track dynamics that change abruptly, which is certainly a deficiency of the RLS. Application of the new method to renal blood pressure and flow revealed that hypertensive rats undergo more complex and TV autoregulation in maintaining stable blood flow than do normotensive rats. This observation has not been previously revealed using time-invariant TF analyses. The newly developed approach may promote the broader use of TV system identification in studies of physiological systems and makes linear and nonlinear TV modeling possible in certain cases previously thought intractable. PMID:14765694

  8. Temporal-varying failures of nodes in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Georgie; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2015-08-01

    We consider networks in which random walkers are removed because of the failure of specific nodes. We interpret the rate of loss as a measure of the importance of nodes, a notion we denote as failure centrality. We show that the degree of the node is not sufficient to determine this measure and that, in a first approximation, the shortest loops through the node have to be taken into account. We propose approximations of the failure centrality which are valid for temporal-varying failures, and we dwell on the possibility of externally changing the relative importance of nodes in a given network by exploiting the interference between the loops of a node and the cycles of the temporal pattern of failures. In the limit of long failure cycles we show analytically that the escape in a node is larger than the one estimated from a stochastic failure with the same failure probability. We test our general formalism in two real-world networks (air-transportation and e-mail users) and show how communities lead to deviations from predictions for failures in hubs.

  9. Supercritical carbon dioxide tubular flow under temporally varying thermal boundary condition

    SciTech Connect

    Son, H. M.; Halimi, B.; Suh, K. Y.

    2012-07-01

    During transient operation of fusion power plants the amount of thermal energy transferred from plasma to surrounding blanket modules will be varied over time, and will affect behavior of the working fluid inside the blanket and power conversion system where the coolant is in a supercritical state. Transient behavior of the power is in pulsed state in tokamak. The Optimized Supercritical Cycle Operation (OSCO) loop is constructed to investigate the thermohydraulic characteristics of the supercritical fluid under temporally varying thermal boundary condition. In this study the tube outer wall temperature data are measured for abrupt change in thermal power as a preliminary power transient test. The OSCO test conditions are selected to include the erratic behavior of the supercritical fluid under pseudo-critical condition during transient. In order to incorporate the delayed response of utilized thermocouples, a time constant is applied to adjust the obtained results. Along with the experimental study, computational fluid dynamic software is used to perform detailed analysis over the test section geometry. The preliminary test results are presented for comparison against the available correlations from the literature. (authors)

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Varying Concentrations of Ag-doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachlica, Justin; Wadie-Ibrahim, Patrick; Sahiner, M. Alper

    Silver doped ZnO is a promising compound for photovoltaic solar cell use. Doping this compound with varying amounts of silver will theoretically make this type of thin film more efficient by reducing the overall resistance and increasing the voltage and current output. The extent of this promise is being tested experimentally, by analysis of both the electrical and the surface roughness properties of the cells. Ag-doped Zinc Oxide is deposited by method of Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated Glass. Annealing effects were also observed by varying the temperature at which the annealing occurred after synthesis of the sample. Thickness is confirmed by use of Ellipsometery. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements confirmed a ZnO crystal structure on the thin films. The active dopant carrier concentrations were determined using a Hall Effect Measuring System. Finally, the photovoltaic properties of the film are recorded by using a Keithley Source Meter. The structural characterization and electrical results of the effect of Ag doping on ZnO will then be discussed.

  11. Deep-sea fish distribution varies between seamounts: results from a seamount complex off New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Dianne M; Clark, Malcolm R; Anderson, Owen F; Kim, Susan W

    2012-01-01

    Fish species data from a complex of seamounts off New Zealand termed the "Graveyard Seamount Complex' were analysed to investigate whether fish species composition varied between seamounts. Five seamount features were included in the study, with summit depths ranging from 748-891 m and elevation from 189-352 m. Measures of fish species dominance, rarity, richness, diversity, and similarity were examined. A number of factors were explored to explain variation in species composition, including latitude, water temperature, summit depth, depth at base, elevation, area, slope, and fishing effort. Depth at base and slope relationships were significant with shallow seamounts having high total species richness, and seamounts with a more gradual slope had high mean species richness. Species similarity was modelled and showed that the explanatory variables were driven primarily by summit depth, as well as by the intensity of fishing effort and elevation. The study showed that fish assemblages on seamounts can vary over very small spatial scales, in the order of several km. However, patterns of species similarity and abundance were inconsistent across the seamounts examined, and these results add to a growing literature suggesting that faunal communities on seamounts may be populated from a broad regional species pool, yet show considerable variation on individual seamounts. PMID:22745656

  12. Deep-sea fish distribution varies between seamounts: results from a seamount complex off New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Dianne M; Clark, Malcolm R; Anderson, Owen F; Kim, Susan W

    2012-01-01

    Fish species data from a complex of seamounts off New Zealand termed the "Graveyard Seamount Complex' were analysed to investigate whether fish species composition varied between seamounts. Five seamount features were included in the study, with summit depths ranging from 748-891 m and elevation from 189-352 m. Measures of fish species dominance, rarity, richness, diversity, and similarity were examined. A number of factors were explored to explain variation in species composition, including latitude, water temperature, summit depth, depth at base, elevation, area, slope, and fishing effort. Depth at base and slope relationships were significant with shallow seamounts having high total species richness, and seamounts with a more gradual slope had high mean species richness. Species similarity was modelled and showed that the explanatory variables were driven primarily by summit depth, as well as by the intensity of fishing effort and elevation. The study showed that fish assemblages on seamounts can vary over very small spatial scales, in the order of several km. However, patterns of species similarity and abundance were inconsistent across the seamounts examined, and these results add to a growing literature suggesting that faunal communities on seamounts may be populated from a broad regional species pool, yet show considerable variation on individual seamounts.

  13. Terfenol-D elastomagnetic properties under varied operating conditions using hysteresis loop analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faidley, LeAnn E.; Lund, Brian J.; Flatau, Alison B.; Calkins, Frederick T.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the effects of varied magnetic bias, AC magnetic field amplitude and frequency on the characteristics of hysteresis loops produced in a magnetostrictive transducer. The study uses a magnetostrictive transducer designed at Iowa State University that utilizes an 11.5 cm (4.54 in) long by 1.27 cm (0.5 in) diameter cylindrical Terfenol-D rod. This transducer allows controlled variation of the following operating conditions: mechanical prestress, magnitude and frequency of AC magnetic field, and magnetic bias. By performing extensive experimental tests, material property trends can be developed for use in the optimization of transducer design parameters for different applications. For the results presented, the magnetic bias, the AC magnetic field amplitude, and the frequency of excitation were independently varied while temperature, mass load and prestress were kept constant. The minor hysteresis loops of the strain versus applied magnetic field, flux density versus applied magnetic field, and magnetization versus applied magnetic field are presented and compared. Material property trends identified from the minor loops are presented for the axial strain coefficient, permeability, susceptibility, and energy losses.

  14. Evaluation of Varying Biochars as Carrier Materials for Bacterial Soil Inoculants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Lauren; Crowley, David

    2014-05-01

    The incorporation of biochar into agricultural soils for carbon sequestration and improved soil fertility creates an opportunity to simultaneously deliver plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Many characteristics of biochar materials indicate that these particles could be conducive as inoculum carriers. This could provide a value-added component for biochar marketing and has an advantage over traditional carrier materials, which can be unsustainable or expensive to produce. Here, we assessed the suitability of 10 biochar types, made from 5 feedstocks at 2 pyrolysis temperatures (300°C and 600°C), to serve as carriers for 2 model PGPR strains, Enterobacter cloacae UW5 and Pseudomonas putida UW4. All biochars were characterized based on BET specific surface area, C-N content, pH, EC, and their abilities to adsorb bacterial cells from a liquid inoculum. Further studies incorporated qPCR to quantify the survival of inoculants after introduction into soils via biochar carriers. The biochars that performed well were further assayed for their influence on PGPR traits, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and auxin production. Peat and vermiculite served as traditional carrier materials to which we compared the biochars. Our findings indicated that biochars varied in their interactions with our model PGPR strains. Based on our analysis several biochar types were able to serve as carriers which were as good, if not better than, the traditional carrier materials. Future work should seek to assess shelf life and varying inoculation methods for the biochar-inoculant complexes.

  15. Thermal co-reduction approach to vary size of silver nanoparticle: its microbial and cellular toxicology.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nandita; Ranjan, Shivendu; Rajendran, Bhavapriya; Manickam, Venkatraman; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Avadhani, Ganesh S; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted considerable interest in the field of food, agriculture and pharmaceuticals mainly due to its antibacterial activity. AgNPs have also been reported to possess toxic behavior. The toxicological behavior of nanomaterials largely depends on its size and shape which ultimately depend on synthetic protocol. A systematic and detailed analysis for size variation of AgNP by thermal co-reduction approach and its efficacy toward microbial and cellular toxicological behavior is presented here. With the focus to explore the size-dependent toxicological variation, two different-sized NPs have been synthesized, i.e., 60 nm (Ag60) and 85 nm (Ag85). A detailed microbial toxicological evaluation has been performed by analyzing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ), growth kinetics (GrK), and death kinetics (DeK). Comparative cytotoxicological behavior was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. It has been concluded by this study that the size of AgNPs can be varied, by varying the concentration of reactants and temperature called as "thermal co-reduction" approach, which is one of the suitable approaches to meet the same. Also, the smaller AgNP has shown more microbial and cellular toxicity. PMID:25943508

  16. Hot Ductility Behavior of Boron Containing Microalloyed Steels with Varying Manganese Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Tobias; Senk, Dieter; Walpot, Raphael; Steenken, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    The hot ductility is measured for six different steel grades with different microalloying elements and with varying manganese contents using the hot tensile test machine with melting/solidification unit at the Department of Ferrous Metallurgy RWTH Aachen University. To identify the influence of manganese on hot ductility, tests are performed with varying the manganese content from 0.7 to 18.2 wt pct, a high manganese steel. Additionally, the effect of different cooling and strain rates is analyzed by changing the particular rate for selected samples in the minima. To investigate and detect the cause of cracking during testing, the fracture surfaces in the ductility minima are considered with scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thermodynamic modeling is conducted on basis of the commercial software ThermoCalc©. A sharp decrease of the hot ductility is recognizable at 1398 K (1125 °C), at only 0.7 wt pct manganese because of the low manganese to sulfur ratio. The grades with a Mn content up to 1.9 wt pct show a good ductility with minimal ductility loss. In comparison, the steel grade with 18.2 wt pct has a poor hot ductility. Because of the formation of complex precipitates, where several alloying elements are involved, the influence of boron on hot ductility is not fully clarified. By increasing the cooling rate, the reduction of area values are shifted to smaller values. For high test temperatures, these measured values are decreased for lower strain rates. Thereby, an early drop of the ductility is noticeable for the high temperatures around 1373 K (1100 °C).

  17. Sensitivity of Modeled Cretaceous Climate to Insolation Forcing Created by Varying Earth-Sun Orbital Relationships.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glancy, Thomas J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Rhythmic sedimentation patterns observed within the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, such as those in the Bridge Creek Limestone Member of the Greenhorn Limestone Formation exposed near Pueblo, Colorado, appear to be a response to episodic climate change. These climatic variations could, in turn, be forced by the periodic insolation change over the North American continent created by Milankovitch -scale Earth-Sun orbital relationships--eccentricity (100 kiloyears), obliquity (41 kiloyears) and precession of the equinox (23 kiloyears). To test the sensitivity of Cretaceous climate to changes in Milankovitch-scale insolation forcing, a set of seasonal simulations using maximum difference insolation forcing conditions was conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Climate Model using 100 MA Cretaceous paleogeography and paleotopography. Analysis showed statistically significant differences in surface temperature, precipitation, surface wind, storm track location, and upwelling occurred over many regions of the Cretaceous Earth, particularly in the summer and winter monsoon system. During Northern Hemisphere winter, differences in the position of storm passage over Cretaceous western North America under maximum difference insolation forcing conditions varies the precipitation received over the southern Western Interior Seaway at the location where the Bridge Creek Limestone Member rhythmic sedimentation was produced. Northern Hemisphere winter simulations removing all sea ice from the model showed little difference in the climatic effects observed over southwestern North America from the case with sea ice present. Additional simulations varying only the obliquity within the model suggest that the observed Bridge Creek Limestone Member rhythmic sedimentation patterns are controlled by climatic change produced by cyclic variation in the precession of the equinox and eccentricity insolation forcing, rather than by periodic change in

  18. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOEpatents

    Burke, W.F.; Winiecki, A.L.

    1984-10-17

    An instrument is described for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of means for varying the temperature with strain. The instrument includes opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  19. Evolution of cooling-channel properties for varying aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzarelli, M.; Nasuti, F.; Onofri, M.

    2016-07-01

    A trade-off analysis is performed on a cooling channel system representative of liquid rocket engine cooling systems. This analysis requires multiple cooling channel flow calculations which are performed by means of a proper numerical approach, referred to as quasi-two-dimensional (2D) model. This model, which is suited to high-aspect-ratio cooling channels (HARCC), permits to have a fast prediction of both the coolant flow evolution and the temperature distribution along the whole cooling channel structure. Before using the quasi-2D model for the trade-off analysis, its validation by comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results is presented and discussed. The results show that the pump power required to overcome losses in the cooling circuit can be minimized selecting a channel shaped with a suitably high aspect ratio.

  20. Radon diffusion coefficients in soils of varying moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papachristodoulou, C.; Ioannides, K.; Pavlides, S.

    2009-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is generated in the Earth's crust and is free to migrate through soil and be released to the atmosphere. Due to its unique properties, soil gas radon has been established as a powerful tracer used for a variety of purposes, such as exploring uranium ores, locating geothermal resources and hydrocarbon deposits, mapping geological faults, predicting seismic activity or volcanic eruptions and testing atmospheric transport models. Much attention has also been given to the radiological health hazard posed by increased radon concentrations in the living and working environment. In order to exploit radon profiles for geophysical purposes and also to predict its entry indoors, it is necessary to study its transport through soils. Among other factors, the importance of soil moisture in such studies has been largely highlighted and it is widely accepted that any measurement of radon transport parameters should be accompanied by a measurement of the soil moisture content. In principle, validation of transport models in the field is encountered by a large number of uncontrollable and varying parameters; laboratory methods are therefore preferred, allowing for experiments to be conducted under well-specified and uniform conditions. In this work, a laboratory technique has been applied for studying the effect of soil moisture content on radon diffusion. A vertical diffusion chamber was employed, in which radon was produced from a 226Ra source, was allowed to diffuse through a soil column and was finally monitored using a silicon surface barrier detector. By solving the steady-state radon diffusion equation, diffusion coefficients (D) were determined for soil samples of varying moisture content (m), from null (m=0) to saturation (m=1). For dry soil, a D value of 4.1×10-7 m2s-1 was determined, which increased moderately by a factor of ~3 for soil with low moisture content, i.e. up to m ~0.2. At higher water fractions, a decrease

  1. Song trait similarity in great tits varies with social structure.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Lysanne; van der Eijk, Jerine; van Rooij, Erica P; de Goede, Piet; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called "dear enemy" relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in

  2. Bacterial Communities Vary between Sinuses in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients.

    PubMed

    Joss, Tom V; Burke, Catherine M; Hudson, Bernard J; Darling, Aaron E; Forer, Martin; Alber, Dagmar G; Charles, Ian G; Stow, Nicholas W

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common and potentially debilitating disease characterized by inflammation of the sinus mucosa for longer than 12 weeks. Bacterial colonization of the sinuses and its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is an ongoing area of research. Recent advances in culture-independent molecular techniques for bacterial identification have the potential to provide a more accurate and complete assessment of the sinus microbiome, however there is little concordance in results between studies, possibly due to differences in the sampling location and techniques. This study aimed to determine whether the microbial communities from one sinus could be considered representative of all sinuses, and examine differences between two commonly used methods for sample collection, swabs, and tissue biopsies. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was applied to both swab and tissue samples from multiple sinuses of 19 patients undergoing surgery for treatment of CRS. Results from swabs and tissue biopsies showed a high degree of similarity, indicating that swabbing is sufficient to recover the microbial community from the sinuses. Microbial communities from different sinuses within individual patients differed to varying degrees, demonstrating that it is possible for distinct microbiomes to exist simultaneously in different sinuses of the same patient. The sequencing results correlated well with culture-based pathogen identification conducted in parallel, although the culturing missed many species detected by sequencing. This finding has implications for future research into the sinus microbiome, which should take this heterogeneity into account by sampling patients from more than one sinus. PMID:26834708

  3. Bacterial Communities Vary between Sinuses in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Joss, Tom V.; Burke, Catherine M.; Hudson, Bernard J.; Darling, Aaron E.; Forer, Martin; Alber, Dagmar G.; Charles, Ian G.; Stow, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common and potentially debilitating disease characterized by inflammation of the sinus mucosa for longer than 12 weeks. Bacterial colonization of the sinuses and its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is an ongoing area of research. Recent advances in culture-independent molecular techniques for bacterial identification have the potential to provide a more accurate and complete assessment of the sinus microbiome, however there is little concordance in results between studies, possibly due to differences in the sampling location and techniques. This study aimed to determine whether the microbial communities from one sinus could be considered representative of all sinuses, and examine differences between two commonly used methods for sample collection, swabs, and tissue biopsies. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was applied to both swab and tissue samples from multiple sinuses of 19 patients undergoing surgery for treatment of CRS. Results from swabs and tissue biopsies showed a high degree of similarity, indicating that swabbing is sufficient to recover the microbial community from the sinuses. Microbial communities from different sinuses within individual patients differed to varying degrees, demonstrating that it is possible for distinct microbiomes to exist simultaneously in different sinuses of the same patient. The sequencing results correlated well with culture-based pathogen identification conducted in parallel, although the culturing missed many species detected by sequencing. This finding has implications for future research into the sinus microbiome, which should take this heterogeneity into account by sampling patients from more than one sinus. PMID:26834708

  4. Song trait similarity in great tits varies with social structure.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Lysanne; van der Eijk, Jerine; van Rooij, Erica P; de Goede, Piet; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called "dear enemy" relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in

  5. Song Trait Similarity in Great Tits Varies with Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Lysanne; van der Eijk, Jerine; van Rooij, Erica P.; de Goede, Piet; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called “dear enemy” relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in

  6. Respiratory clearance of aerosolized radioactive solutes of varying molecular weight

    SciTech Connect

    Huchon, G.J.; Montgomery, A.B.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

    1987-05-01

    To determine the influence of varying molecular weight (mol wt) on respiratory clearance of aerosolized solutes, we studied eight radiopharmaceuticals, each administered to four dogs: sodium /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate (TcO4), /sup 99m/Tc glucoheptonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)GH), 51Cr-ethylenedinitrotetraacetate ((51Cr)EDTA), /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ((99mTc) DTPA), /sup 111/In diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ((/sup 111/In)DTPA), /sup 67/Ga desferoxaminemesylate ((/sup 67/Ga)DFOM), /sup 99m/Tc dextran ((/sup 99m/Tc)DX) and /sup 111/In transferrin ((/sup 111/In)TF). After aerosolization (0.8 m MMD, 2.4 GSD), clearance was determined for 30 min and then corrected by intravenous injection for nonairspace radioactivity. In-TF clearance (0.11 +/- 0.10%/min) was lower than TcO4 (6.32 +/- 0.62%/min), (/sup 99m/Tc)GH (1.50 +/- 0.37%/min), (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA (2.38 +/- 1.02%/min), (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA (3.51 +/- 0.40%/min), (/sup 111/In)DTPA (2.35 +/- 0.42%/min), (/sup 67/Ga) DFOM (1.99 +/- 0.49%/min) and (/sup 99m/Tc)DX (1.81 +/- 0.75%/min) clearances (p less than 0.001). TcO4 clearance was higher than others (p less than 0.001). Technetium binding to DX was unsatisfactory; aerosolization caused unbinding from DTPA. We conclude that respiratory clearance of large mol wt solutes within 30 min is negligible and, that clearance of molecules between 347-5099 daltons differs greatly, suggesting that binding and/or intrapulmonary retention affect transfer.

  7. Reconciling sensory cues and varied consequences of avian repellents.

    PubMed

    Werner, Scott J; Provenza, Frederick D

    2011-02-01

    We learned previously that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) use affective processes to shift flavor preference, and cognitive associations (colors) to avoid food, subsequent to avoidance conditioning. We conducted three experiments with captive red-winged blackbirds to reconcile varied consequences of treated food with conditioned sensory cues. In Experiment 1, we compared food avoidance conditioned with lithium chloride (LiCl) or naloxone hydrochloride (NHCl) to evaluate cue-consequence specificity. All blackbirds conditioned with LiCl (gastrointestinal toxin) avoided the color (red) and flavor (NaCl) of food experienced during conditioning; birds conditioned with NHCl (opioid antagonist) avoided only the color (not the flavor) of food subsequent to conditioning. In Experiment 2, we conditioned experimentally naïve blackbirds using free choice of colored (red) and flavored (NaCl) food paired with an anthraquinone- (postingestive, cathartic purgative), methiocarb- (postingestive, cholinesterase inhibitor), or methyl anthranilate-based repellent (preingestive, trigeminal irritant). Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents avoided the color and flavor of foods experienced during conditioning; methyl anthranilate conditioned only color (not flavor) avoidance. In Experiment 3, we used a third group of blackbirds to evaluate effects of novel comparison cues (blue, citric acid) subsequent to conditioning with red and NaCl paired with anthraquinone or methiocarb. Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents did not avoid conditioned color or flavor cues when novel comparison cues were presented during the test. Thus, blackbirds cognitively associate pre- and postingestive consequences with visual cues, and reliably integrate visual and gustatory experience with postingestive consequences to procure nutrients and avoid toxins.

  8. Extremely varied phenotypes in granular corneal dystrophy type 2 heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyung Eun; Choi, Seung-il; Chung, Woo Suk; Jung, Se Hwan; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kim, Tae-im

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the phenotypic variability of patients bearing the heterozygous R124H mutation in the TGFBI (transforming growth factor-beta-induced) gene that causes granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). Methods We describe the phenotypic range of GCD2 heterozygotes for the common R124H mutation in TGFBI; seven with an extremely mild phenotype and six with an extremely severe phenotype. Detailed slit-lamp photographs of these patients were generated. All patients had no history of ocular surgery and were diagnosed as being heterozygous for GCD2 by DNA analysis from peripheral blood. Expression levels of transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) were compared among cultured corneal fibroblasts from ten normal donors. Results We report profound differences in the severity of the phenotype across our case series. Two patients with a mild phenotype were diagnosed as unaffected at presentation; however follow-up examinations revealed granular deposits. Importantly, we also observed familial clustering of phenotypic variance; five patients from two families with a mild phenotype showed a similarly mild phenotype within family members. Similarly, six patients from two families with severe phenotypes showed corneal deposits with similar patterns and severity within each distinct family, but distinct patterns between families. TGFBIp expressions from different donor derived cultured corneal fibroblasts were different between one another. Conclusions GCD2 heterozygotes have extremely varied phenotypes between individual patients. However phenotypes were broadly consistent within families, suggesting that the observed variable expressivity might be regulated by other genetic factors that could influence the abundance of TGFBIp or the function of the pathway. From a clinical perspective, our data also highlighted that genetic analysis and meticulous slit-lamp examination in both eyes at multiple time intervals is necessary. PMID:22815629

  9. TDR Using Autocorrelation and Varying-Duration Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Mullinex, Pam; Huang, PoTien; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Zavala, Carlos; Lane, John

    2008-01-01

    In an alternative to a prior technique of time-domain-reflectometry (TDR) in which very short excitation pulses are used, the pulses have very short rise and fall times and the pulse duration is varied continuously between a minimum and a maximum value. In both the present and prior techniques, the basic idea is to (1) measure the times between the generation of excitation pulses and the reception of reflections of the pulses as indications of the locations of one or more defects along a cable and (2) measure the amplitudes of the reflections as indication of the magnitudes of the defects. In general, an excitation pulse has a duration T. Each leading and trailing edge of an excitation pulse generates a reflection from a defect, so that a unique pair of reflections is associated with each defect. In the present alternative technique, the processing of the measured reflection signal includes computation of the autocorrelation function R(tau) identical with fx(t)x(t-tau)dt where t is time, x(t) is the measured reflection signal at time t, and taus is the correlation interval. The integration is performed over a measurement time interval short enough to enable identification and location of a defect within the corresponding spatial interval along the cable. Typically, where there is a defect, R(tau) exhibits a negative peak having maximum magnitude for tau in the vicinity of T. This peak can be used as a means of identifying a leading-edge/trailing-edge reflection pair. For a given spatial interval, measurements are made and R(tau) computed, as described above, for pulse durations T ranging from the minimum to the maximum value. The advantage of doing this is that the effective signal-to-noise ratio may be significantly increased over that attainable by use of a fixed pulse duration T.

  10. Vehicle Walks on Varied Terrain, Can Assist Handicapped Persons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The problem: Designing a vehicle capable of traversing varied terrain at moderate speeds (up to 4 miles per hour). Development of such a vehicle was originally undertaken to meet NASA requirements for a remotely controlled instrument carrier to be used for unmanned exploration of lunar and planetary surfaces. The solution: A battery-powered motorized vehicle with three pairs of legs that are connected to push rods and a series of linkages. How it's done: Locomotion of the basic vehicle is accomplished by three pairs of legs, one pair in the front and two pairs in the rear. Each leg consists of an upper horizontal portion, a middle vertical portion, and a foot. Two cams connected to the drive mechanism (a small motor, gearbox, and push rods) control the motion of the legs. The two outer rear legs move in unison with the right front leg, and the two inner rear legs move in unison with the left front leg. Each set of three legs is lifted to clear or rest on any expected obstacle on the terrain to be traversed by the vehicle and advanced a fixed distance for the succeeding step. A system of spring-loaded vertical-motion linkages permits obstacles (within design limitations) to be traversed with a minimum disturbance of the vehicle's axes. The linkages are arranged to permit the legs to be folded when the vehicle is stored. Steering is accomplished by a small motor, which swings the front pair of legs to the desired angle. The rear legs are connected by a differential linkage to compensate for the required variation in step length or speed between the right and left pairs of rear legs when turns are made.

  11. The Activity of Antimicrobial Surfaces Varies by Testing Protocol Utilized

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Matias D.; Zucchi, Paola C.; Phung, Ann; Leonard, Steven N.; Hirsch, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Contaminated hospital surfaces are an important source of nosocomial infections. A major obstacle in marketing antimicrobial surfaces is a lack of efficacy data based on standardized testing protocols. Aim We compared the efficacy of multiple testing protocols against several “antimicrobial” film surfaces. Methods Four clinical isolates were used: one Escherichia coli, one Klebsiella pneumoniae, and two Staphylococcus aureus strains. Two industry methods (modified ISO 22196 and ASTM E2149), a “dried droplet”, and a “transfer” method were tested against two commercially available antimicrobial films, one film in development, an untreated control, and a positive (silver) control film. At 2 (only ISO) and 24 hours following inoculation, bacteria were collected from film surfaces and enumerated. Results Compared to untreated films in all protocols, there were no significant differences in recovery on either commercial brand at 2 or 24 hours after inoculation. The silver surface demonstrated significant microbicidal activity (mean loss 4.9 Log10 CFU/ml) in all methods and time points with the exception of 2 hours in the ISO protocol and the transfer method. Using our novel droplet method, no differences between placebo and active surfaces were detected. The surface in development demonstrated variable activity depending on method, organism, and time point. The ISO demonstrated minimal activity at 2 hours but significant activity at 24 hours (mean 4.5 Log10 CFU/ml difference versus placebo). The ASTEM protocol exhibited significant differences in recovery of staphylococci (mean 5 Log10 CFU/ml) but not Gram-negative isolates (10 fold decrease). Minimal activity was observed with this film in the transfer method. Conclusions Varying results between protocols suggested that efficacy of antimicrobial surfaces cannot be easily and reproducibly compared. Clinical use should be considered and further development of representative methods is needed. PMID

  12. Varying nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length during capillary electrophoresis†

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Varuni; Griffith, Lindsay; Haes, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis based separations of the hypothesized Parkinson’s disease biomarkers dopamine, epinephrine, pyrocatechol, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), glutathione, and uric acid are performed in the presence of a 1 nM 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid functionalized gold (Au@MUA) nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug. Au@MUA nanoparticles are monitored in the capillary and remain stable in the presence of electrically-driven flow. Migration times, peak areas, and relative velocity changes (vs. no pseudostationary) are monitored upon varying (1) the Au@MUA nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length at a fixed separation voltage and (2) the separation voltage for a fixed Au@MUA nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length. For instance, the migration times of positively charged dopamine and epinephrine increase slightly as the nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length increases with concomitant decreases in peak areas and relative velocities as a result of attractive forces between the positively charged analytes and the negatively charged nanoparticles. Migration times for neutral pyrocatechol and slightly negative L-DOPA did not exhibit significant changes with increasing nanoparticle pseudostationary plug length; however, reduction in peak areas for these two molecules were evident and attributed to non-specific interactions (i.e. hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions) between the biomarkers and nanoparticles. Moreover, negatively charged uric acid and glutathione displayed progressively decreasing migration times and peak areas and as a result, increased relative velocities with increasing nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length. These trends are attributed to partitioning and exchanging with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid on nanoparticle surfaces for uric acid and glutathione, respectively. Similar trends are observed when the separation voltage decreased thereby suggesting that nanoparticle-biomarker interaction

  13. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Methods Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). Results The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. Conclusion Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively. PMID:23672409

  14. Reconciling sensory cues and varied consequences of avian repellents.

    PubMed

    Werner, Scott J; Provenza, Frederick D

    2011-02-01

    We learned previously that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) use affective processes to shift flavor preference, and cognitive associations (colors) to avoid food, subsequent to avoidance conditioning. We conducted three experiments with captive red-winged blackbirds to reconcile varied consequences of treated food with conditioned sensory cues. In Experiment 1, we compared food avoidance conditioned with lithium chloride (LiCl) or naloxone hydrochloride (NHCl) to evaluate cue-consequence specificity. All blackbirds conditioned with LiCl (gastrointestinal toxin) avoided the color (red) and flavor (NaCl) of food experienced during conditioning; birds conditioned with NHCl (opioid antagonist) avoided only the color (not the flavor) of food subsequent to conditioning. In Experiment 2, we conditioned experimentally naïve blackbirds using free choice of colored (red) and flavored (NaCl) food paired with an anthraquinone- (postingestive, cathartic purgative), methiocarb- (postingestive, cholinesterase inhibitor), or methyl anthranilate-based repellent (preingestive, trigeminal irritant). Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents avoided the color and flavor of foods experienced during conditioning; methyl anthranilate conditioned only color (not flavor) avoidance. In Experiment 3, we used a third group of blackbirds to evaluate effects of novel comparison cues (blue, citric acid) subsequent to conditioning with red and NaCl paired with anthraquinone or methiocarb. Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents did not avoid conditioned color or flavor cues when novel comparison cues were presented during the test. Thus, blackbirds cognitively associate pre- and postingestive consequences with visual cues, and reliably integrate visual and gustatory experience with postingestive consequences to procure nutrients and avoid toxins. PMID:20971129

  15. The Effects of Varying Cosmological Parameters on Halo Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Zukin, Phillip; Ji, Alexander P.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars E.; Frebel, Anna

    2014-05-01

    We investigate how different cosmological parameters, such as those delivered by the WMAP and Planck missions, affect the nature and evolution of the dark matter halo substructure. We use a series of flat Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of structure formation, each with a different power spectrum but with the same initial white noise field. Our fiducial simulation is based on parameters from the WMAP seventh year cosmology. We then systematically vary the spectral index, ns ; matter density, Ω M ; and normalization of the power spectrum, σ8, for seven unique simulations. Across these, we study variations in the subhalo mass function, mass fraction, maximum circular velocity function, spatial distribution, concentration, formation times, accretion times, and peak mass. We eliminate dependence of subhalo properties on host halo mass and average the values over many hosts to reduce variance. While the "same" subhalos from identical initial overdensity peaks in higher σ8, ns , and Ω m simulations accrete earlier and end up less massive and closer to the halo center at z = 0, the process of continuous subhalo accretion and destruction leads to a steady state distribution of these properties across all subhalos in a given host. This steady state mechanism eliminates cosmological dependence on all of the properties listed above except for subhalo concentration and V max, which remain greater for higher σ8, ns , and Ω m simulations, and subhalo formation time, which remains earlier. We also find that the numerical technique for computing the scale radius and the halo finder that were used can significantly affect the concentration-mass relationship as computed for a simulation.

  16. The effects of varying cosmological parameters on halo substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Ji, Alexander P.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Frebel, Anna; Zukin, Phillip; Hernquist, Lars E.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate how different cosmological parameters, such as those delivered by the WMAP and Planck missions, affect the nature and evolution of the dark matter halo substructure. We use a series of flat Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of structure formation, each with a different power spectrum but with the same initial white noise field. Our fiducial simulation is based on parameters from the WMAP seventh year cosmology. We then systematically vary the spectral index, n{sub s} ; matter density, Ω {sub M}; and normalization of the power spectrum, σ{sub 8}, for seven unique simulations. Across these, we study variations in the subhalo mass function, mass fraction, maximum circular velocity function, spatial distribution, concentration, formation times, accretion times, and peak mass. We eliminate dependence of subhalo properties on host halo mass and average the values over many hosts to reduce variance. While the 'same' subhalos from identical initial overdensity peaks in higher σ{sub 8}, n{sub s} , and Ω {sub m} simulations accrete earlier and end up less massive and closer to the halo center at z = 0, the process of continuous subhalo accretion and destruction leads to a steady state distribution of these properties across all subhalos in a given host. This steady state mechanism eliminates cosmological dependence on all of the properties listed above except for subhalo concentration and V {sub max}, which remain greater for higher σ{sub 8}, n{sub s} , and Ω {sub m} simulations, and subhalo formation time, which remains earlier. We also find that the numerical technique for computing the scale radius and the halo finder that were used can significantly affect the concentration-mass relationship as computed for a simulation.

  17. Titanium (IV) sol-gel chemistry in varied gravity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Matthew; Martens, Wayde; Steinberg, Theodore

    Sol-gel synthesis in reduced gravity is a relatively new topic in the literature and further inves-tigation is essential to realise its potential and application to other sol-gel systems. The sol-gel technique has been successfully applied to the synthesis of silica systems of varying porosity for many diverse applications [1-5]. It is proposed that current methods for the synthesis of silica sol-gels in reduced gravity may be applied to titanium sol-gel processing in order to enhance desirable physical and chemical characteristics of the final materials. The physical and chemical formation mechanisms for titanium alkoxide based sol-gels, to date, is not fully understood. However, various authors [6-9] have described potential methods to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of titanium alkoxides through the use of chemical inhibitors. A preliminary study of the reaction kinetics of titanium alkoxide sol-gel reaction in normal gravity was undertaken in order to determine reactant mixtures suitable for further testing under varied gravity conditions of limited duration. Through the use of 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) for structural analysis of precursor materials, Ultra-Violet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and viscosity measurements, it was demonstrated that not only could the rate of the chemical reaction could be controlled, but directed linear chain growth within the resulting gel structure was achievable through the use of increased inhibitor concentrations. Two unique test systems have been fabricated to study the effects of varied gravity (reduced, normal, high) on the formation of titanium sol-gels. Whilst the first system is to be used in conjunction with the recently commissioned drop tower facility at Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia to produce reduced gravity conditions. The second system is a centrifuge capable of providing high gravity environments of up to 70 G's for extended periods of time

  18. Mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata) and weevil (Rhinoncomimus latipes) response to varying moisture and temperature conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined effects of herbivory and water stress on growth and reproduction of mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross) were investigated in greenhouse trials over two years, with well-watered or water-limited plants either exposed or not exposed to herbivory by the mile-a-minute w...

  19. Studies in new materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Alex W.

    Ceramic materials have historically been of interest for their thermal and mechanical properties. However, certain ceramic materials can have very interesting electrical, magnetic and optical properties, leading to a new subclass, the electroceramics. Perovskites, in particular, have become the subject of intense research in this field. Specifically, doped barium zirconates have shown high proton conductivity in the intermediate temperature range (600--800°C), making them advantageous for use in solid oxide fuel cells. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy into electricity using ion-conducting oxide ceramics as electrolytes. The anode component of the cell is also of interest. Cermets or ceramic metals can serve a dual role as substrates for thin film electrolytes and anodes in the cell. Thin films of gadolinium and ytterbium doped barium zirconate were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (KrF; 1--3 J/cm2) on several substrates, including cermets developed in our lab, in a 10--400 mTorr oxygen environment with various substrate temperatures. Crystalline structure and chemical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis, respectively. Preliminary electrical measurements of the electrolyte/cermet structure were taken using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Keywords: solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), perovskites, proton conductors, electroceramics, gadolinium-doped barium zirconate (BZG).

  20. The effect of oral temperature on the temperature perception of liquids and semisolids in the mouth.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Lina; de Wijk, Rene A; Prinz, Jon F; van der Bilt, Andries; Janssen, Anke M; Bosman, Frits

    2002-12-01

    This work examined the influence of oral temperature on oral perception of temperature in liquids and semisolids. A panel of 20 adults assessed the temperature of water, custard dessert and mayonnaise. Oral temperatures were manipulated by 5-s mouth rinses of 10, 35 and 55 degrees C performed prior to assessments, which resulted in oral temperatures of 27, 35 and 43 degrees C, respectively. The products were evaluated at 10, 22 and 35 degrees C. Results show that subjects were able to differentiate between the product temperatures. A large effect of type of product was seen on perceived temperature, where water was, overall, perceived as significantly colder than custard dessert and mayonnaise. The range of perceived thermal ratings was widest for custard dessert, followed by water and mayonnaise. This might be due to differences in composition and structure of the products. Even though oral temperature was varied considerably in the present study, this did not exert large effects on perceived temperature.

  1. New Electron Temperature Diagnostic for Low Temperature Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, Robert; Loch, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    A new line ratio diagnostic design to measure electron temperature in plasma is presented. Unlike previous diagnostics, this new technique features emission lines originating from levels with different principal quantum numbers. A significant advantage of this approach is that the line ratio varies considerably with temperature in the 1 to 20 eV range. Another advantage is that both transitions are optically thin even for plasma density up to 1 E 14 cm-3. The drawbacks are: a large difference in the line intensities and the significant difference in wavelength. The event of high sensitivity CCD camera combine with precise calibration can to a large extent minimize these latest two issues. The diagnostic is tested on the ASTRAL (Auburn Steady sTate Research fAciLity) helicon plasma source. ASTRAL is a 2.3 m long helicon source designed to investigate basic plasma and space plasma processes. The device produces plasmas with the following typical parameters ne = 1 E9 to 1 E13 cm-3, Te = 2 to 20 eV and Ti = 0.03 to 0.3 eV. A series of 8 large coils produce an axial magnetic field up to 1.2 kGauss. Operating pressure varies from 0.1 to 100 mTorr. A water cooled fractional helix antenna is used to introduce RF power up to 2 kwatt through a standard matching circuit. The line ratio temperatures are measured by means of a 0.33 m McPherson Criss-Cross Scanning monochromator instrumented with a SPH5 Apogee CCD camera. The line ratio temperatures are compared to electron temperatures measured by a rf compensated Langmuir Probe. To validate the diagnostic, a new collisional radiative model that makes use of the latest excitation cross-section values is presented. The model is also used to predict the potential range of this new diagnostic both in terms of electron temperature and plasma density.

  2. Jupiter's Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is one of the highest resolution images ever recorded of Jupiter's temperature field. It was obtained by NASA's Galileo mission, with its Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) experiment, during the sixth of its 10 orbits around Jupiter to date. This map, shown in the lower panel, indicates the forces powering Jovian winds, and differentiates between areas of strongest upwelling and downwelling winds in the upper part of the atmosphere where winds are strong. The map is based on measurements from the PPR's 27-micron wavelength channel. A ground-based image from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii, showing thermal emission from holes in clouds at 4.85 microns, is shown in the middle panel for reference, with the outline of the area covered by the PPR. The upper panel shows the area covered by the Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) also during the sixth orbit.

    Galileo's observations of the atmosphere targeted specific Jovian features, including the Great Red Spot and similar, but smaller, 'storms

  3. Synthetic Coal Slag Infiltration into Varying Refractory Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Tetsuya K; Thomas, Hugh; Bennett, James P; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    The infiltrations of synthetic coal slag into 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2}, and 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} refractories with a temperature gradient induced along the penetration direction were compared to one another. The infiltrating slag was synthesized with a composition that is representative of an average of the ash contents from U S coal feedstock. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450°C in a CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Minimal penetration was observed in the 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material because interactions between the refractory and the slag produced a protective layer of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which impeded slag flow into the bulk of the refractory. After 5 h, the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample exhibited an average penetration of 12.7 mm whereas the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} sample showed 3.8 mm. Slag infiltrated into the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} refractory systems by dissolving the respective refractories' matrix materials, which consist of fine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and an amorphous alumino-silicate phase. Due to enrichment in SiO{sub 2}, a network-former, infiltration into the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} system yielded a higher viscosity slag and hence, a shallower penetration depth. The results suggest that slag infiltration can be limited by interactions with the refractory through the formation of either a solid layer that physically impedes fluid flow or a more viscous slag that retards infiltration.

  4. Elk (Cervus Canadensis) preference for feeds varying in selenium concentration.

    PubMed

    Pfister, J A; Davis, T Z; Hall, J O; Stegelmeier, B L; Panter, K E

    2015-07-01

    Selenium-accumulator plants are reputed to be unpalatable to large ungulates. Elk (Cervus canadensis) populations in southeastern Idaho overlap with populations of Se-rich plants, but there is no information on the influence of plant Se concentration on elk dietary preferences. The objective of this study was to determine, under controlled conditions, the preference of elk for feeds varying in Se concentrations. Seven yearling female elk (128 ± 5 kg) were purchased from a commercial elk farm in southeastern Idaho and adapted to low-Se alfalfa pellets. Three feeding trials using pellets with predetermined Se concentrations were conducted. Alfalfa pellets were commercially made with the addition of Symphyotrichum ascendens (western aster) so that the pellets contained 0.4, 5, 20, 50, or 100 mg/kg (DM basis) Se. In trial 1, 5 Se-containing alfalfa pellets (0.4, 5, 20, 50, and 100 mg/kg Se) were offered for 10 d; trial 2 used 4 Se-containing alfalfa pellet choices (0.4, 20, 50, and 100 mg/kg), and trial 3 used 3 pellet choices (0.4, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 6 d. In trial 1, consumption of the control pellets by elk was greater than each of the other pellet choices (P < 0.001). Similarly, consumption of the 5-mg/kg Se pellet differed from control pellet and all other Se-containing pellets (P < 0.0001). There were no differences (P > 0.50) in consumption of the 20-, 50-, or 100-mg/kg Se pellets. In trial 2, elk consumed more (P < 0.0001) of the control pellet than the 20-, 50-, and 100-mg/kg Se pellets. Similarly, elk consumed more (P < 0.0001) of the 20-mg/kg Se pellet than the 50- and 100-mg/kg Se pellets. There were no differences (P > 0.99) in elk consumption of the 50- and 100-mg/kg Se pellets. In trial 3, elk consumption of the control and 50- and 100-mg/kg Se pellets differed (P ≤ 0.03) from one another each day except that on d 1 and 2, where elk consumption of the 50- and 100-mg/kg Se pellets did not differ (P ≥ 0.32). Elk clearly discriminated against

  5. Correlation between maternal and infant cortisol varies by breastfeeding status

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Stroo, Marissa; Mayhew, Meghan; Maselko, Joanna; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine associations of mother and infant salivary cortisol, measured three times over the course of a day, and assess whether these varied by breastfeeding status. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 54 mothers and their infants aged 4–11 months. Mothers collected their own saliva and that of their infants upon awakening, 30 min after waking and at bedtime. Breastfeeding status was reported by mothers and cortisol level was measured in saliva in μg/dl using standard techniques. We used generalized linear models to evaluate relationships between maternal and infant cortisol levels, and assessed whether the relationship differed by breastfeeding status: formula only compared to partial and full breastfeeding, adjusting for infant sex, race, age, maternal education, and family income. Results Thirty-four infants received formula only and 20 were either partially or fully breastfed. Breastfeeding was associated with higher household income, higher maternal education, and white race. Cortisol levels were higher among breastfed infants at all three time points. After adjustment, maternal cortisol levels were related with infant cortisol at bedtime only (regression estimate 0.06; 95% CI: 0.10, 1.1; p = 0.02). The adjusted association between bedtime maternal and infant cortisol was stronger among breastfeeding dyads than among formula-feeding dyads (regression estimate 1.0; 95% CI: 0.1, 2.0; p = 0.04 vs. 0.6; CI: −0.1,1.3; p = 0.10). In addition, we assessed the influence of maternal education and household income in our adjusted model; income strengthened the observed association, whereas maternal education did not change the estimate. Conclusions Breastfeeding mothers and infants had significant correlations for cortisol at bedtime, while formula-feeding dyads did not. These data suggest that several factors may contribute to cortisol synchrony observed in mother/infant dyads, including the transfer of

  6. Follicle Microstructure and Innervation Vary between Pinniped Micro- and Macrovibrissae.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Erin E; Marshall, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Histological data from terrestrial, semiaquatic, and fully aquatic mammal vibrissa (whisker) studies indicate that follicle microstructure and innervation vary across the mystacial vibrissal array (i.e. medial microvibrissae to lateral macrovibrissae). However, comparative data are lacking, and current histological studies on pinniped vibrissae only focus on the largest ventrolateral vibrissae. Consequently, we investigated the microstructure, medial-to-lateral innervation, and morphometric trends in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) vibrissal follicle-sinus complexes (F-SCs). The F-SCs were sectioned either longitudinally or in cross-section and stained with a modified Masson's trichrome stain (microstructure) or Bodian's silver stain (innervation). All F-SCs exhibited a tripartite blood organization system. The dermal capsule thickness, the distribution of major branches of the deep vibrissal nerve, and the hair shaft design were more symmetrical in medial F-SCs, but these features became more asymmetrical as the F-SCs became more lateral. Overall, the mean axon count was 1,221 ± 422.3 axons/F-SC and mean axon counts by column ranged from 550 ± 97.4 axons/F-SC (medially, column 11) to 1,632 ± 173.2 axons/F-SC (laterally, column 2). These values indicate a total of 117,216 axons innervating the entire mystacial vibrissal array. The mean axon count of lateral F-SCs was 1,533 ± 192.9 axons/ F-SC, which is similar to values reported in the literature for other pinniped F-SCs. Our data suggest that conventional studies that only examine the largest ventrolateral vibrissae may overestimate the total innervation by ∼20%. However, our study also accounts for variation in quantification methods and shows that conventional analyses likely only overestimate innervation by ∼10%. The relationship between axon count and cross-sectional F-SC surface area was nonlinear, and axon densities were consistent across the snout. Our data indicate that harp seals exhibit

  7. Follicle Microstructure and Innervation Vary between Pinniped Micro- and Macrovibrissae.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Erin E; Marshall, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Histological data from terrestrial, semiaquatic, and fully aquatic mammal vibrissa (whisker) studies indicate that follicle microstructure and innervation vary across the mystacial vibrissal array (i.e. medial microvibrissae to lateral macrovibrissae). However, comparative data are lacking, and current histological studies on pinniped vibrissae only focus on the largest ventrolateral vibrissae. Consequently, we investigated the microstructure, medial-to-lateral innervation, and morphometric trends in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) vibrissal follicle-sinus complexes (F-SCs). The F-SCs were sectioned either longitudinally or in cross-section and stained with a modified Masson's trichrome stain (microstructure) or Bodian's silver stain (innervation). All F-SCs exhibited a tripartite blood organization system. The dermal capsule thickness, the distribution of major branches of the deep vibrissal nerve, and the hair shaft design were more symmetrical in medial F-SCs, but these features became more asymmetrical as the F-SCs became more lateral. Overall, the mean axon count was 1,221 ± 422.3 axons/F-SC and mean axon counts by column ranged from 550 ± 97.4 axons/F-SC (medially, column 11) to 1,632 ± 173.2 axons/F-SC (laterally, column 2). These values indicate a total of 117,216 axons innervating the entire mystacial vibrissal array. The mean axon count of lateral F-SCs was 1,533 ± 192.9 axons/ F-SC, which is similar to values reported in the literature for other pinniped F-SCs. Our data suggest that conventional studies that only examine the largest ventrolateral vibrissae may overestimate the total innervation by ∼20%. However, our study also accounts for variation in quantification methods and shows that conventional analyses likely only overestimate innervation by ∼10%. The relationship between axon count and cross-sectional F-SC surface area was nonlinear, and axon densities were consistent across the snout. Our data indicate that harp seals exhibit

  8. External auditory canal temperature as an estimate of core temperature.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Castle, B. L.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of rectal (T sub re), auditory canal (T sub ac), positioned 8 to 10 mm from the tympanic membrane, and mean skin temperature (mean T sub sk) in five men during various exercise regimens at an ambient temperature (T sub a) of 25 C (phase one) and in two men during rest and exercise at 5, 15, 25, and 35 C T sub a (phase two). The purpose was to determine if T sub ac can be used as an accurate estimate of core temperature. Previous observations that T sub ac was highly correlated with T sub re but T sub ac was consistently lower than T sub re are confirmed; the mean difference varied from 0.4 C at rest to 1.1 C at the end of exercise. It is concluded that auditory canal temperature cannot be utilized as an estimate of core temperature, but T sub ac may be used to estimate mean body temperature where very accurate measurements are not required.

  9. Cosmological effects of scalar-photon couplings: dark energy and varying-α Models

    SciTech Connect

    Avgoustidis, A.; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Monteiro, A.M.R.V.L.; Vielzeuf, P.E.; Luzzi, G. E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt E-mail: up110370652@alunos.fc.up.pt

    2014-06-01

    We study cosmological models involving scalar fields coupled to radiation and discuss their effect on the redshift evolution of the cosmic microwave background temperature, focusing on links with varying fundamental constants and dynamical dark energy. We quantify how allowing for the coupling of scalar fields to photons, and its important effect on luminosity distances, weakens current and future constraints on cosmological parameters. In particular, for evolving dark energy models, joint constraints on the dark energy equation of state combining BAO radial distance and SN luminosity distance determinations, will be strongly dominated by BAO. Thus, to fully exploit future SN data one must also independently constrain photon number non-conservation arising from the possible coupling of SN photons to the dark energy scalar field. We discuss how observational determinations of the background temperature at different redshifts can, in combination with distance measures data, set tight constraints on interactions between scalar fields and photons, thus breaking this degeneracy. We also discuss prospects for future improvements, particularly in the context of Euclid and the E-ELT and show that Euclid can, even on its own, provide useful dark energy constraints while allowing for photon number non-conservation.

  10. A probabilistic assessment of the likelihood of vegetation drought under varying climate conditions across China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Li, Chao; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Xiuzhi

    2016-10-01

    Climate change significantly impacts the vegetation growth and terrestrial ecosystems. Using satellite remote sensing observations, here we focus on investigating vegetation dynamics and the likelihood of vegetation-related drought under varying climate conditions across China. We first compare temporal trends of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and climatic variables over China. We find that in fact there is no significant change in vegetation over the cold regions where warming is significant. Then, we propose a joint probability model to estimate the likelihood of vegetation-related drought conditioned on different precipitation/temperature scenarios in growing season across China. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the vegetation-related drought risk over China from a perspective based on joint probability. Our results demonstrate risk patterns of vegetation-related drought under both low and high precipitation/temperature conditions. We further identify the variations in vegetation-related drought risk under different climate conditions and the sensitivity of drought risk to climate variability. These findings provide insights for decision makers to evaluate drought risk and vegetation-related develop drought mitigation strategies over China in a warming world. The proposed methodology also has a great potential to be applied for vegetation-related drought risk assessment in other regions worldwide.

  11. A probabilistic assessment of the likelihood of vegetation drought under varying climate conditions across China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyong; Li, Chao; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Xiuzhi

    2016-01-01

    Climate change significantly impacts the vegetation growth and terrestrial ecosystems. Using satellite remote sensing observations, here we focus on investigating vegetation dynamics and the likelihood of vegetation-related drought under varying climate conditions across China. We first compare temporal trends of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and climatic variables over China. We find that in fact there is no significant change in vegetation over the cold regions where warming is significant. Then, we propose a joint probability model to estimate the likelihood of vegetation-related drought conditioned on different precipitation/temperature scenarios in growing season across China. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the vegetation-related drought risk over China from a perspective based on joint probability. Our results demonstrate risk patterns of vegetation-related drought under both low and high precipitation/temperature conditions. We further identify the variations in vegetation-related drought risk under different climate conditions and the sensitivity of drought risk to climate variability. These findings provide insights for decision makers to evaluate drought risk and vegetation-related develop drought mitigation strategies over China in a warming world. The proposed methodology also has a great potential to be applied for vegetation-related drought risk assessment in other regions worldwide. PMID:27713530

  12. Compression of lipid membranes as observed at varying membrane positions.

    PubMed Central

    Scarlata, S F

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the microscopic isothermal compressibility of dioleoyl- and dimyristyl-phosphatidylcholine multilayers and bilayers as a function of membrane depth by the pressure dependence of the polarization of a series of anthroyloxy fatty acids. In both systems, within experimental error, the compressibility did not change with membrane depth. The magnitudes of the compressibilities matched those of organic solids and those reported for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine multilayers from neutron diffraction measurements (Braganza, L. F., and D. L. Worcester. 1986. Biochemistry, 25:7484-7488). The bilayer compressibility decreased with temperature and this decrease was similar with membrane depth consistent with the isotropic thermal expansion of membranes previously observed (Scarlata, S. 1989. Biophys. J. 55:1215-1223). The vertical compressibility in the z direction is much lower than the horizontal (xy planes) for probes that lie parallel to the hydrocarbon chains which is consistent with an increase in bilayer thickness. The compressibility for probes that lie perpendicular to the hydrocarbon chains is more isotropic due to their limited spatial access to the z plane. PMID:1912276

  13. Thermochemistry of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks of varying porosity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James T; Bennett, Thomas D; Cheetham, Anthony K; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2013-01-16

    The first thermochemical analysis by room-temperature aqueous solution calorimetry of a series of zeolite imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) has been completed. The enthalpies of formation of the evacuated ZIFs-ZIF-zni, ZIF-1, ZIF-4, CoZIF-4, ZIF-7, and ZIF-8-along with as-synthesized ZIF-4 (ZIF-4·DMF) and ball-milling amorphized ZIF-4 (a(m)ZIF-4) were measured with respect to dense components: metal oxide (ZnO or CoO), the corresponding imidazole linker, and N,N dimethylformamide (DMF) in the case of ZIF-4·DMF. Enthalpies of formation of ZIFs from these components at 298 K are exothermic, but the ZIFs are metastable energetically with respect to hypothetical dense components in which zinc is bonded to nitrogen rather than oxygen. These enthalpic destabilizations increase with increasing porosity and span a narrow range from 13.0 to 27.1 kJ/mol, while the molar volumes extend from 135.9 to 248.8 cm(3)/mol; thus, almost doubling the molar volume results in only a modest energetic destabilization. The experimental results are supported by DFT calculations. The series of ZIFs studied tie in with previously studied MOF-5, creating a broader trend that mirrors a similar pattern by porous inorganic oxides, zeolites, zeotypes, and mesoporous silicas. These findings suggest that no immediate thermodynamic barrier precludes the further development of highly porous materials. PMID:23270310

  14. Boiling radial flow in fractures of varying wall porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, Robb Allan

    2000-06-01

    The focus of this report is the coupling of conductive heat transfer and boiling convective heat transfer, with boiling flow in a rock fracture. A series of experiments observed differences in boiling regimes and behavior, and attempted to quantify a boiling convection coefficient. The experimental study involved boiling radial flow in a simulated fracture, bounded by a variety of materials. Nonporous and impermeable aluminum, highly porous and permeable Berea sandstone, and minimally porous and permeable graywacke from The Geysers geothermal field. On nonporous surfaces, the heat flux was not strongly coupled to injection rate into the fracture. However, for porous surfaces, heat flux, and associated values of excess temperature and a boiling convection coefficient exhibited variation with injection rate. Nucleation was shown to occur not upon the visible surface of porous materials, but a distance below the surface, within the matrix. The depth of boiling was a function of injection rate, thermal power supplied to the fracture, and the porosity and permeability of the rock. Although matrix boiling beyond fracture wall may apply only to a finite radius around the point of injection, higher values of heat flux and a boiling convection coefficient may be realized with boiling in a porous, rather than nonporous surface bounded fracture.

  15. Immune defence under extreme ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Jokela, Jukka

    2011-02-23

    Owing to global climate change, the extreme weather conditions are predicted to become more frequent, which is suggested to have an even greater impact on ecological interactions than the gradual increase in average temperatures. Here, we examined whether exposure to high ambient temperature affects immune function of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). We quantified the levels of several immune traits from snails maintained in a non-stressful temperature (15°C) and in an extreme temperature (30°C) that occurs in small ponds during hot summers. We found that snails exposed to high temperature had weaker immune defence, which potentially predisposes them to infections. However, while phenoloxidase and antibacterial activity of snail haemolymph were reduced at high temperature, haemocyte concentration was not affected. This suggests that the effect of high temperature on snail susceptibility to infections may vary across different pathogens because different components of invertebrate immune defence have different roles in resistance.

  16. Development of a Linear Stirling System Model with Varying Heat Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2007-01-01

    The linear model of the Stirling system developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been extended to include a user-specified heat input. Previously developed linear models were limited to the Stirling convertor and electrical load. They represented the thermodynamic cycle with pressure factors that remained constant. The numerical values of the pressure factors were generated by linearizing GRC's nonlinear System Dynamic Model (SDM) of the convertor at a chosen operating point. The pressure factors were fixed for that operating point, thus, the model lost accuracy if a transition to a different operating point were simulated. Although the previous linear model was used in developing controllers that manipulated current, voltage, and piston position, it could not be used in the development of control algorithms that regulated hot-end temperature. This basic model was extended to include the thermal dynamics associated with a hot-end temperature that varies over time in response to external changes as well as to changes in the Stirling cycle. The linear model described herein includes not only dynamics of the piston, displacer, gas, and electrical circuit, but also the transient effects of the heater head thermal inertia. The linear version algebraically couples two separate linear dynamic models, one model of the Stirling convertor and one model of the thermal system, through the pressure factors. The thermal system model includes heat flow of heat transfer fluid, insulation loss, and temperature drops from the heat source to the Stirling convertor expansion space. The linear model was compared to a nonlinear model, and performance was very similar. The resulting linear model can be implemented in a variety of computing environments, and is suitable for analysis with classical and state space controls analysis techniques.

  17. Quantifying Geographic Variation in the Climatic Drivers of Midcontinent Wetlands with a Spatially Varying Coefficient Model

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region and in the Great Plains are notorious for their sensitivity to weather variability. These wetlands have been the focus of considerable attention because of their ecological importance and because of the expected impact of climate change. Few models in the literature, however, take into account spatial variation in the importance of wetland drivers. This is surprising given the importance spatial heterogeneity in geomorphology and climatic conditions have in the region. In this paper, I use spatially-varying coefficients to assess the variation in ecological drivers in a number of ponds observed over a 50-year period (1961-2012). I included the number of ponds observed the year before on a log scale, the log of total precipitation, and mean maximum temperature during the four previous seasons as explanatory variables. I also included a temporal component to capture change in the number of ponds due to anthropogenic disturbance. Overall, fall and spring precipitation were most important in pond abundance in the west, whereas winter and summer precipitation were the most important drivers in the east. The ponds in the east of the survey area were also more dependent on pond abundance during the previous year than those in the west. Spring temperature during the previous season influenced pond abundance; while the temperature during the other seasons had a limited effect. The ponds in the southwestern part of the survey area have been increasing independently of climatic conditions, whereas the ponds in the northeast have been steadily declining. My results underline the importance of accounting the spatial heterogeneity in environmental drivers, when working at large spatial scales. In light of my results, I also argue that assessing the impacts of climate change on wetland abundance in the spring, without more accurate climatic forecasting, will be difficult. PMID:25915770

  18. Quantifying geographic variation in the climatic drivers of midcontinent wetlands with a spatially varying coefficient model.

    PubMed

    Roy, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region and in the Great Plains are notorious for their sensitivity to weather variability. These wetlands have been the focus of considerable attention because of their ecological importance and because of the expected impact of climate change. Few models in the literature, however, take into account spatial variation in the importance of wetland drivers. This is surprising given the importance spatial heterogeneity in geomorphology and climatic conditions have in the region. In this paper, I use spatially-varying coefficients to assess the variation in ecological drivers in a number of ponds observed over a 50-year period (1961-2012). I included the number of ponds observed the year before on a log scale, the log of total precipitation, and mean maximum temperature during the four previous seasons as explanatory variables. I also included a temporal component to capture change in the number of ponds due to anthropogenic disturbance. Overall, fall and spring precipitation were most important in pond abundance in the west, whereas winter and summer precipitation were the most important drivers in the east. The ponds in the east of the survey area were also more dependent on pond abundance during the previous year than those in the west. Spring temperature during the previous season influenced pond abundance; while the temperature during the other seasons had a limited effect. The ponds in the southwestern part of the survey area have been increasing independently of climatic conditions, whereas the ponds in the northeast have been steadily declining. My results underline the importance of accounting the spatial heterogeneity in environmental drivers, when working at large spatial scales. In light of my results, I also argue that assessing the impacts of climate change on wetland abundance in the spring, without more accurate climatic forecasting, will be difficult. PMID:25915770

  19. Quantifying geographic variation in the climatic drivers of midcontinent wetlands with a spatially varying coefficient model.

    PubMed

    Roy, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region and in the Great Plains are notorious for their sensitivity to weather variability. These wetlands have been the focus of considerable attention because of their ecological importance and because of the expected impact of climate change. Few models in the literature, however, take into account spatial variation in the importance of wetland drivers. This is surprising given the importance spatial heterogeneity in geomorphology and climatic conditions have in the region. In this paper, I use spatially-varying coefficients to assess the variation in ecological drivers in a number of ponds observed over a 50-year period (1961-2012). I included the number of ponds observed the year before on a log scale, the log of total precipitation, and mean maximum temperature during the four previous seasons as explanatory variables. I also included a temporal component to capture change in the number of ponds due to anthropogenic disturbance. Overall, fall and spring precipitation were most important in pond abundance in the west, whereas winter and summer precipitation were the most important drivers in the east. The ponds in the east of the survey area were also more dependent on pond abundance during the previous year than those in the west. Spring temperature during the previous season influenced pond abundance; while the temperature during the other seasons had a limited effect. The ponds in the southwestern part of the survey area have been increasing independently of climatic conditions, whereas the ponds in the northeast have been steadily declining. My results underline the importance of accounting the spatial heterogeneity in environmental drivers, when working at large spatial scales. In light of my results, I also argue that assessing the impacts of climate change on wetland abundance in the spring, without more accurate climatic forecasting, will be difficult.

  20. Modeling equinox temperature variations in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, L. J.; Ferrari, C. C.; Morishima, R.

    2011-12-01

    For a few days around Saturn ring equinox, the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) obtained data on Saturn's rings at different local times and phase angles. We examine results from 15 scans taken near equinox. The sun was shining on the south side of the rings prior to the equinox crossing. The solar elevation angle in the 15 scans varied between -0.00007 degrees and 0.036 degrees and the phase angle ranged from 30 degrees to 147 degrees. The equinox geometry is unique because the sun is edge-on to the rings. Saturn heating dominates while solar heating is at a minimum. The ring temperature varies between the lit and unlit sides of the A and B rings when the sun is the dominant heat source. With the sun shining on the rings the temperature of the lit rings decreases with increasing phase angle and the ring temperature in the shadow is less than the ring temperature at noon. At equinox the ring temperature does not decrease with increasing phase angle and the temperature at noon is no longer greater than the temperature in the shadow. As the solar elevation angle decreased the last few degrees, the ring temperatures on the lit and unlit sides rapidly decreased to the coldest temperatures observed thus far. At equinox radial and longitudinal temperature variations are observed in the A, B and C rings and the Cassini Division. The radial temperature variations result both from the decreasing Saturn solid angle with increasing distance from the planet and varying optical depth as the screening effect of optically thicker rings limits the heat contribution to primarily one hemisphere of Saturn. Both monolayer and multilayer models can explain the radial variations in ring temperature except for the A ring. A ring model fits produce temperatures that are lower than observed temperatures perhaps because of the effects from gravitational wakes, density waves and bending waves that are not included in the models. Saturn ring temperatures near equinox also vary

  1. High-temperature containerless calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. B.; Lacy, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A high-temperature (greater than 1500 K) containerless calorimeter is described and its usefulness demonstrated. The calorimeter uses the technique of omnidirectional electron bombardment of pendant drops to achieve an isothermal test environment. The small heat input into the sample (i.e., 15-50 W) can be controlled and measured. The apparatus can be used to determine the total hemispherical emissivity, specific heat, heat of fusion, surface tension, and equilibrium melting temperature of small molten drops in the temperature range of 1500 to 3500 K. The total hemispherical emissivity and specific heat of pure niobium and two alloys of niobium-germanium have been measured in the temperature range of 1700 to 2400 K. As reported in the literature, the total hemispherical emissivity varied as a function of temperature. However, specific heat values for both the pure metal and alloys seem to be independent of temperature. Specific heat for the liquid alloy phase was also measured and compared to the solid phase.

  2. Effects of temperature variation on MOSFET dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tsang; Butson, Martin J; Yu, Peter K N

    2004-07-01

    This note investigates temperature effects on dosimetry using a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) for radiotherapy x-ray treatment. This was performed by analysing the dose response and threshold voltage outputs for MOSFET dosimeters as a function of ambient temperature. Results have shown that the clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) MOSFET provides stable dose measurements with temperatures varying from 15 degrees C up to 40 degrees C. Thus standard irradiations performed at room temperature can be directly compared to in vivo dose assessments performed at near body temperature without a temperature correction function. The MOSFET dosimeter threshold voltage varies with temperature and this level is dependent on the dose history of the MOSFET dosimeter. However, the variation can be accounted for in the measurement method. For accurate dosimetry, the detector should be placed for approximately 60 s on a patient to allow thermal equilibrium before measurements are taken with the final reading performed whilst still attached to the patient or conversely left for approximately 120 s after removal from the patient if initial readout was measured at room temperature to allow temperature equilibrium to be established. PMID:15285264

  3. Component temperature versus laser-welding parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    Applications have arisen in which the component temperature near a laser weld is critical because of possible damage to the explosive powder adjacent to the member being welded. To evaluate the thermal excursion experienced at the powder cavity wall, a study was conducted using assemblies that had been equipped with 0.05 mm diameter thermocouple wires. The main goal of the study was to determine how changes in the laser welding parameters owuld affect the powder cavity wall temperature. The objective lens-to-work distance, pulse rate, and beam power parameters were varied. The peak temperature varied from 117/sup 0/C to 311/sup 0/C in response to welding parameter changes. The study concluded that by utilizing a selected set of welding parameters, the design requirement of a 160/sup 0/C maximum powder cavity wall temperature could easily be satisfied.

  4. Temperature effects in treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Kadlec, R H; Reddy, K R

    2001-01-01

    Several biogeochemical processes that regulate the removal of nutrients in wetlands are affected by temperature, thus influencing the overall treatment efficiency. In this paper, the effects of temperature on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling processes in treatment wetlands and their implications to water quality are discussed. Many environmental factors display annual cycles that mediate whole system performance. Water temperature is one of the important cyclic stimuli, but inlet flow rates and concentrations, and several features of the annual biogeochemical cycle, also can contribute to the observed patterns of nutrient and pollutant removal. Atmospheric influences, including rain, evapotranspiration, and water reaeration, also follow seasonal patterns. Processes regulating storages in wetlands are active throughout the year and can act as seasonal reservoirs of nutrients, carbon, and pollutants. Many individual wetland processes, such as microbially mediated reactions, are affected by temperature. Response was much greater to changes at the lower end of the temperature scale (< 15 degrees C) than at the optimal range (20 to 35 degrees C). Processes regulating organic matter decomposition are affected by temperature. Similarly, all nitrogen cycling reactions (mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification) are affected by temperature. The temperature coefficient (theta) varied from 1.05 to 1.37 for carbon and nitrogen cycling processes during isolated conditions. Phosphorus sorption reactions are least affected by temperature, with theta values of 1.03 to 1.12. Physical processes involved in the removal of particulate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus are not affected much by temperature. In contrast, observed wetland removals may have different temperature dependence. Design models are oversimplified because of limitations of data for calibration. The result of complex system behavior and the simple model is the need to interpret whole ecosystem data

  5. Cd Isotope Fractionation During Adsorption Varies with Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasylenki, L. E.; Montanez, G.; Anbar, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    Because its marine concentration profile is very similar to that of phosphate [1], Cd is considered to have potential as a paleophosphate or paleonutrient proxy in the geologic record. Previous work [2,3] has established that lighter isotopes of Cd are preferentially assimilated by phytoplankton, leaving surface waters isotopically heavy. Another recent study [4] suggests that analysis of Cd isotope variations in transects of ferromanganese crusts could reveal past variations in the extent to which Cd, and thus phosphate, has been depleted over time. This idea presumes that the extent of consumption of Cd by phytoplankton is reflected in the isotopic composition of seawater and that the Cd isotopic composition of seawater is in turn faithfully recorded in ferromanganese crusts. To test the latter assumption, Rehkämper et al. [4] measured the Cd isotopic composition of 15 Fe-Mn crusts from various ocean basins and found that 13 of those samples were within analytical error of the Cd isotopic composition of deep seawater from [3], indicating that Cd often does not fractionate appreciably during incorporation into ferromanganese crusts. Other studies [5,6] have likewise revealed little or no variation in Cd isotopic compositions among various terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous chondrites, suggesting that few earth processes significantly fractionate Cd isotopes. To test this conclusion experimentally, we performed adsorption experiments in which aqueous Cd was allowed to adsorb to synthetic birnessite (Mn oxyhydroxide). Stock solutions of dissolved Cd and birnessite suspension were mixed and agitated from 1 to 48 hours at room temperature. Some experiments had 0.1m KNO3 as background electrolyte, while others had 0.3m NaCl + 0.1m KNO3. After filtration, both the fluid with remaining dissolved Cd and solids with adsorbed Cd were purified with anion exchange chemistry. Column yields and proportions of dissolved and adsorbed Cd were determined by ICP-MS, and isotope

  6. Sources and Transformations of Nitrate from Streams Draining Varying Land Uses: Evidence from Dual Isotope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Boyer, E. W.; Elliott, E. M.; Kendall, C.

    2008-12-01

    Dual isotope analysis revealed evidence of varying sources and processes that affect the transport of nitrate (NO3-) in six watersheds of different land uses in New York. Samples from two streams draining forested watersheds indicated that NO3- derived from nitrification was dominant at baseflow. Values of δ18ONO3 were greater than previously measured in forested watersheds in this region, a difference attributed to a new, more accurate sample preparation method. A watershed dominated by suburban land use, but with all waste water discharged outside the watershed had three δ18ONO3 values > 25‰ indicating a large direct contribution of atmospheric NO3- transported to the stream during some high flow periods. Two watersheds with large proportions of agricultural land use had many samples with δ15NNO3 > 9‰ suggesting a waste source consistent with direct application of manure to fields associated with dairy farming practices in the region. These data showed a linear seasonal pattern with a δ15NNO3:δ18ONO3 close to 1:2 consistent with seasonally-varying denitrification that peaked in late summer to early fall with the warmest temperatures and lowest streamflow of the year. The large annual range of δ18ONO3 (~ 10‰) in these streams suggests a large fractionation associated with denitrification, indicative of a dominance of denitrification outside of the stream environment. Mixing of two or more NO3- sources may also have affected the patterns observed in these two agricultural streams. At a larger basin scale in a mixed land use watershed that represented the average proportions of land uses in this study, none of the source and process patterns observed in the small streams were evident. These results emphasize that observations at small to medium size watersheds of a few to several hundred km2 may be necessary to adequately quantify the relative roles of various NO3- transport and process patterns that contribute to streamflow in large basins.

  7. Sensitivity of modeled Cretaceous climate to insolation forcing created by varying Earth-Sun orbital relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Glancy, T.J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Rhythmic sedimentation patterns observed within the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, such as those in the Bridge Creek Limestone Member of the Greenhorn Limestone Formation exposed near Pueblo, Colorado, appear to be a response to episodic climate change. These climatic variations could, in turn, be forced by the periodic insolation change over the North American continent created by Milankovitch-scale Earth-Sun orbital relationships - eccentricity (100 kiloyears), obliquity (41 kiloyears) and precession of the equinox (23 kiloyears). To test the sensitivity of Cretaceous climate to changes in Milankovitch-scale insolation forcing, a set of seasonal simulations using maximum difference insolation forcing conditions was conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Climate Model using 100 MA Cretaceous paleogeography and paleotopography. Analysis showed statistically significant differences in surface temperature, precipitation, surface wind, storm track location, and upwelling occurred over many regions of the Cretaceous Earth, particularly in the summer and winter monsoon system. During Northern Hemisphere winter, differences in the position of storm passage over Cretaceous western North America under maximum difference insolation forcing conditions varies the precipitation received over the southern Western Interior Seaway at the location where the Bridge Creek Limestone Member rhythmic sedimentation was produced. Northern Hemisphere winter simulations removing all sea ice from the model showed little difference in the climatic effects observed over southwestern North America from the case with sea ice present. Additional simulations varying only the obliquity within the model suggest that the observed Bridge Creek Limestone Member rhythmic sedimentation patterns are controlled by climatic change produced by cyclic variation in the precession of the equinox and eccentricity insolation forcing.

  8. Assembly route toward raspberry-like composite particles and their controlled surface wettability through varied dual-size binary roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xin; Niu, Lin; Wu, Yuehuan; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

    2015-03-01

    Sulfonated PS template/aniline medium method was used to assemble raspberry-like composite particles with varied dual-size binary morphology. The assembly efficiency of SiO2 particles on templates was found to increase with sulfonation temperature as well as sulfuric acid concentration. For sulfonation time one turning point appeared because there existed one balance between microgel structure formation and PSS chains detachment. The optimal preparation condition was finally obtained and proved effective for other types of anionic particles. Wettability of surfaces with varied binary roughness was studied and the results showed that dual-size structure could further improve the hydrophobic performance. The contact angles were found to increase with the size ratio of template particles/outer particles.

  9. Effect of thermal processing on silver thin films of varying thickness deposited on zinc oxide and indium tin oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaramakrishnan, K.; Ngo, A. T.; Alford, T. L.; Iyer, S.

    2009-03-15

    Silver films of varying thicknesses (25, 45, and 60 nm) were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) on silicon and zinc oxide (ZnO) on silicon. The films were annealed in vacuum for 1 h at different temperatures (300-650 deg. C). Four-point-probe measurements were used to determine the resistivity of the films. All films showed an abrupt change in resistivity beyond an onset temperature that varied with thickness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements revealed agglomeration of the Ag films upon annealing as being responsible for the resistivity change. X-ray pole figure analysis determined that the annealed films took on a preferential <111> texturing; however, the degree of texturing was significantly higher in Ag/ZnO/Si than in Ag/ITO/Si samples. This observation was accounted for by interface energy minimization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements revealed an increasing surface roughness of the annealed films with temperature. The resistivity behavior was explained by the counterbalancing effects of increasing crystallinity and surface roughness. Average surface roughness obtained from the AFM measurements were also used to model the agglomeration of Ag based on Ostwald ripening theory.

  10. Temperature Effects in the ATIC BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K.; Chang, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fazely, A.; Ganel, O.; Gunasigha, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment contains a segmented calorimeter composed of 320 individual BGO crystals (18 radiation lengths deep) to determine the particle energy. Like all inorganic scintillation crystals the light output of BGO depends not only on the energy deposited by particles but also on the temperature of the crystal. ATIC had successful flights in 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 from McMurdo, Antarctica. The temperature of balloon instruments varies during their flights at altitude due to sun angle variations and differences in albedo from the ground and is monitored and recorded. In order to determine the temperature sensitivity of the ATIC calorimeter it was temperature cycled in the thermal vacuum chamber at the CSBF in Palestine, TX. The temperature dependence is derived from the pulse height response to cosmic ray muons at various temperatures.

  11. Impacts of weather on long-term patterns of plant richness and diversity vary with location and management.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jayne L; Buhl, Deborah A; Symstad, Amy J

    2015-09-01

    Better understanding the influence of precipitation and temperature on plant assemblages is needed to predict the effects of climate change. Many studies have examined the relationship between plant productivity and weather (primarily precipitation), but few have directly assessed the relationship between plant richness or diversity and weather despite their increased use as metrics of ecosystem condition. We focus on the grasslands of central North America, which are characterized by high temporal climatic variability. Over the next 100 years, these grasslands are predicted to experience further increased variability in growing season precipitation, as well as increased temperatures, due to global climate change. We assess the portion of interannual variability of richness and diversity explained by weather, how relationships between these metrics and weather vary among plant assemblages, and which aspects of weather best explain temporal variability. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess relationships between long-term plant richness and diversity patterns and a priori weather covariates using six data sets from four grasslands. Weather explained up to 49% and 63% of interannual variability in total plant species richness and diversity, respectively. However, richness and diversity responses to specific weather variables varied both among sites and among experimental treatments within sites. In general, we found many instances in which temperature was of equal or greater importance as precipitation, as well as evidence of the importance of lagged effects and precipitation or temperature variability. Although precipitation has been shown to be a key driver of productivity in grasslands, our results indicate that increasing temperatures alone, without substantial changes in precipitation patterns, could have measurable effects on Great Plains grassland plant assemblages and biodiversity metrics. Our results also suggest that richness and diversity

  12. Impacts of weather on long-term patterns of plant richness and diversity vary with location and management.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jayne L; Buhl, Deborah A; Symstad, Amy J

    2015-09-01

    Better understanding the influence of precipitation and temperature on plant assemblages is needed to predict the effects of climate change. Many studies have examined the relationship between plant productivity and weather (primarily precipitation), but few have directly assessed the relationship between plant richness or diversity and weather despite their increased use as metrics of ecosystem condition. We focus on the grasslands of central North America, which are characterized by high temporal climatic variability. Over the next 100 years, these grasslands are predicted to experience further increased variability in growing season precipitation, as well as increased temperatures, due to global climate change. We assess the portion of interannual variability of richness and diversity explained by weather, how relationships between these metrics and weather vary among plant assemblages, and which aspects of weather best explain temporal variability. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess relationships between long-term plant richness and diversity patterns and a priori weather covariates using six data sets from four grasslands. Weather explained up to 49% and 63% of interannual variability in total plant species richness and diversity, respectively. However, richness and diversity responses to specific weather variables varied both among sites and among experimental treatments within sites. In general, we found many instances in which temperature was of equal or greater importance as precipitation, as well as evidence of the importance of lagged effects and precipitation or temperature variability. Although precipitation has been shown to be a key driver of productivity in grasslands, our results indicate that increasing temperatures alone, without substantial changes in precipitation patterns, could have measurable effects on Great Plains grassland plant assemblages and biodiversity metrics. Our results also suggest that richness and diversity

  13. Impacts of weather on long-term patterns of plant richness and diversity vary with location and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonas, Jayne L.; Buhl, Deborah A.; Symstad, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding the influence of precipitation and temperature on plant assemblages is needed to predict the effects of climate change. Many studies have examined the relationship between plant productivity and weather (primarily precipitation), but few have directly assessed the relationship between plant richness or diversity and weather despite their increased use as metrics of ecosystem condition. We focus on the grasslands of central North America, which are characterized by high temporal climatic variability. Over the next 100 years, these grasslands are predicted to experience further increased variability in growing season precipitation, as well as increased temperatures, due to global climate change. We assess 1) the portion of interannual variability of richness and diversity explained by weather, 2) how relationships between these metrics and weather vary among plant assemblages, and 3) which aspects of weather best explain temporal variability. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess relationships between long-term plant richness and diversity patterns and a priori weather covariates using six datasets from four grasslands. Weather explained up to 49% and 63% of interannual variability in total plant species richness and diversity, respectively. However, richness and diversity responses to specific weather variables varied both among sites and among experimental treatments within sites. In general, we found many instances in which temperature was of equal or greater importance as precipitation, as well as evidence of the importance of lagged effects and precipitation or temperature variability. Although precipitation has been shown to be a key driver of productivity in grasslands, our results indicate that increasing temperatures alone, without substantial changes in precipitation patterns, could have measurable effects on Great Plains grassland plant assemblages and biodiversity metrics. Our results also suggest that richness and

  14. Enamel for high-temperature superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Lent, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Desired optical and high temperature enamel properties are obtained with glasses prepared from the system Li2O-ZrO2-nSiO2. Molar compositions range from n=4 to n=1.3, to which are added minor amounts in varying combinations of alumina, alkali fluorides, boric oxide, alkali oxides, and akaline earth oxides.

  15. The influence of spatially and temporally varying oceanographic conditions on meroplanktonic metapopulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botsford, L. W.; Moloney, C. L.; Hastings, A.; Largier, J. L.; Powell, T. M.; Higgins, K.; Quinn, J. F.

    We synthesize the results of several modelling studies that address the influence of variability in larval transport and survival on the dynamics of marine metapopulations distributed along a coast. Two important benthic invertebrates in the California Current System (CCS), the Dungeness crab and the red sea urchin, are used as examples of the way in which physical oceanographic conditions can influence stability, synchrony and persistence of meroplanktonic metapopulations. We first explore population dynamics of subpopulations and metapopulations. Even without environmental forcing, isolated local subpopulations with density-dependence can vary on time scales roughly twice the generation time at high adult survival, shifting to annual time scales at low survivals. The high frequency behavior is not seen in models of the Dungeness crab, because of their high adult survival rates. Metapopulations with density-dependent recruitment and deterministic larval dispersal fluctuate in an asynchronous fashion. Along the coast, abundance varies on spatial scales which increase with dispersal distance. Coastwide, synchronous, random environmental variability tends to synchronize these metapopulations. Climate change could cause a long-term increase or decrease in mean larval survival, which in this model leads to greater synchrony or extinction respectively. Spatially managed metapopulations of red sea urchins go extinct when distances between harvest refugia become greater than the scale of larval dispersal. All assessments of population dynamics indicate that metapopulation behavior in general dependes critically on the temporal and spatial nature of larval dispersal, which is largely determined by physical oceanographic conditions. We therfore explore physical influences on larval dispersal patterns. Observed trends in temperature and salinity applied to laboratory-determined responses indicate that natural variability in temperature and salinity can lead to variability in

  16. Optical temperature sensor utilizing birefringent crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quick, William H. (Inventor); James, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Strahan, Virgil H. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A temperature sensor comprising an optical transducer member having an array of birefringent crystals. The length and, accordingly, the sensitivity to temperature change of successive birefringent crystals varies according to a particular relationship. The transducer is interconnected with a fiber optic transmission and detecting system. Respective optical output signals that are transmitted from the birefringent crystals via the fiber optic transmission system are detected and decoded so as to correspond to digits of a numbering system, whereby an accurate digital representation of temperature can ultimately be provided.

  17. Liana competition with tropical trees varies seasonally but not with tree species identity.

    PubMed

    Leonor, Alvarez-Cansino; Schnitzer, Stefan A; Reid, Joseph P; Powers, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Lianas in tropical forests compete intensely with trees for above- and belowground resources and limit tree growth and regeneration. Liana competition with adult canopy trees may be particularly strong, and, if lianas compete more intensely with some tree species than others, they may influence tree species composition. We performed the first systematic, large-scale liana removal experiment to assess the competitive effects of lianas on multiple tropical tree species by measuring sap velocity and growth in a lowland tropical forest in Panama. Tree sap velocity increased 60% soon after liana removal compared to control trees, and tree diameter growth increased 25% after one year. Although tree species varied in their response to lianas, this variation was not significant, suggesting that lianas competed similarly with all tree species examined. The effect of lianas on tree sap velocity was particularly strong during the dry season, when soil moisture was low, suggesting that lianas compete intensely with trees for water. Under the predicted global change scenario of increased temperature and drought intensity, competition from lianas may become more prevalent in seasonal tropical forests, which, according to our data, should have a negative effect on most tropical tree species. PMID:26236888

  18. The Sensitivity of Abradable Coating Residual Stresses to Varying Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports recent research on abradable materials employed for aero-engine applications. Such thermal spray coatings are used extensively within the gas turbine, applied to the inner surface of compressor and turbine shroud sections, coating the periphery of the blade rotation path. The function of an abradable seal is to wear preferentially when rotating blades come into contact with it, while minimizing over-tip clearance and improving the efficiency of the engine. Thermal spraying of an abradable coating onto a substrate imparts two components of residual stress; rapid quenching stresses as the spray material cools on impact and stresses arising from differential thermal contraction. In-service thermal stresses are superimposed by the differential expansion of these bonded layers. The combination of the production and operation history will lead to thermal-mechanical fatigue damage within the abradable coating. The present paper will describe the numerical modeling and sensitivity analysis of the thermal spray process. The sensitivity of residual stresses (with varying material properties, coating/substrate thickness, Poisson’s ratio, and substrate temperature) predicted by the Tsui and Clyne progressive deposition model enabled identification of performance drivers to coating integrity. Selecting material properties that minimize in-service stresses is a crucial stage in advancing future abradable performance.

  19. Exploring vibration control strategies for a footbridge with time-varying modal parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Jose M.; Díaz, Ivan M.; Pereira, Emiliano; García-Palacios, Jaime H.; Wang, Xidong

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores different vibration control strategies for the cancellation of human-induced vibration of a structure with time-varying modal parameters. The motivation of this study is an urban stress-ribbon footbridge (Pedro Gomez Bosque, Valladolid, Spain) that, after a whole-year monitoring, it has been obtained that the natural frequency of a vibration mode at approximately 1.8 Hz (within the normal range of walking) changes up to 20%, mainly due to temperature variations. Thus, this paper takes the annual modal parameter estimates (aprox. 14000 estimations) of this mode and designs three control strategies: a) a tuned mass damper (TMD) tuned to the aforementioned mode using its most-repeated modal properties, b) a semi-active TMD with an on-off control law for the TMD damping, and c) an active mass damper designed using the well-known velocity feedback control strategy with a saturation nonlinearity. Illustrative results have been reported from this preliminary study.

  20. Influence of reaction parameters on carboxymethylation of rice starches with varying amylose contents.

    PubMed

    Sangseethong, Kunruedee; Chatakanonda, Pathama; Wansuksri, Rungtiva; Sriroth, Klanarong

    2015-01-22

    The influence of reaction parameters on the carboxymethylation of rice starches with different amylose contents was investigated. Rice starches with varying amylose contents showed various degrees of susceptibility to the reaction conditions. The maximum degree of substitution (DS) for all three rice starches was obtained under similar reaction conditions which involved a reaction medium consisting of isopropanol-water at the ratio of 90:10, a molar ratio of NaOH:AGU at 1.5 and a reaction temperature and time of 40°C and 3 h. Under these conditions, the DS for all rice starches was similar; however, when the reaction was performed under conditions using lower NaOH concentration, the effect of starch types on the DS was observed. The results could be explained in terms of the granular/structural features of the different rice starches, their degrees of granular swelling as influenced by the reaction conditions and the accessibility of the etherifying reagents to starch molecules.