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Sample records for 13th century bc

  1. A three-dimensional color space from the 13th century.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Hannah E; Dinkova-Bruun, Greti; Gasper, Giles E M; Huxtable, Mike; McLeish, Tom C B; Panti, Cecilia

    2012-02-01

    We present a new commentary on Robert Grosseteste's De colore, a short treatise that dates from the early 13th century, in which Grosseteste constructs a linguistic combinatorial account of color. In contrast to other commentaries (e.g., Kuehni & Schwarz, Color Ordered: A Survey of Color Order Systems from Antiquity to the Present, 2007, p. 36), we argue that the color space described by Grosseteste is explicitly three-dimensional. We seek the appropriate translation of Grosseteste's key terms, making reference both to Grosseteste's other works and the broader intellectual context of the 13th century, and to modern color spaces.

  2. A three-dimensional color space from the 13th century

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Hannah E.; Dinkova-Bruun, Greti; Gasper, Giles E. M.; Huxtable, Mike; McLeish, Tom C. B.; Panti, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    We present a new commentary on Robert Grosseteste’s De colore, a short treatise that dates from the early 13th century, in which Grosseteste constructs a linguistic combinatorial account of color. In contrast to other commentaries (e.g., Kuehni & Schwarz, Color Ordered: A Survey of Color Order Systems from Antiquity to the Present, 2007, p. 36), we argue that the color space described by Grosseteste is explicitly three-dimensional. We seek the appropriate translation of Grosseteste’s key terms, making reference both to Grosseteste’s other works and the broader intellectual context of the 13th century, and to modern color spaces. PMID:22330399

  3. A color coordinate system from a 13th century account of rainbows

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Hannah E.; Anderson, Philip S.; Dinkova-Bruun, Greti; Fosbury, Robert A. E.; Gasper, Giles E. M.; Laven, Philip; McLeish, Tom C. B.; Panti, Cecilia; Tanner, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analysis of Robert Grosseteste’s account of color in his treatise De iride, On the Rainbow, dating from the early 13th century. The work explores color within the three-dimensional framework set out in Grosseteste’s De colore (see Smithson et al, 2012, A three-dimensional color space from the 13th century.” Journal of the Optical Society of America (A), 29 (2), A346-A352), but now links the axes of variation to observable properties of rainbows. We combine a modern understanding of the physics of rainbows and of human color perception to resolve the linguistic ambiguities of the medieval text and to interpret Grosseteste’s key terms. PMID:24695192

  4. [Replica of a 13th century piece in the Museum of Pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Zarranz M del, C

    1995-06-01

    Since the Museum of Pharmacy of the University of Buenos Aires has a big historical pieces collection, its Director and founddress Dr. Rosa D. de Carnevale Bonino signed an article about this subject (Revista del Museo. 1: 12/16-dic, 1986). One of such pieces, dating from the 13th century, is here depicted, as well as Alberto Magno's biography, who is intensely related with the so called "magical glass".

  5. Archaeological implications of a widespread 13th Century tephra marker across the central Indonesian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloway, Brent V.; Andreastuti, Supriyati; Setiawan, Ruly; Miksic, John; Hua, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Despite the occurrence of exceptionally large eruptions in the Indonesian Archipelago in recent historic times (i.e. Krakatoa 1883, Tambora 1815), no historic tephra beds have been widely identified in the terrestrial realm that could facilitate the correlation of equivalent aged sequences and/or archaeological remains. This study has identified one such tephra bed of 13th Century age that can be correlated throughout central-east Java and now can be unequivocally correlated with the Samalas 1257 A.D. tephra recently described from Lombok. The occurrence of this historic tephra marker extending ≥650 km west from its eruptive source provides the first opportunity to effect inter-regional correlation over large swathes of central Indonesia. It remains entirely conceivable that in the aftermath of this exceptionally large eruptive event there was considerable westward disruption to subsistence agriculture and trade, food shortages and famine, dislocation of affected populations and socio-political unrest on a scale that equalled or exceeded the catastrophic effects documented from the more recent Tambora 1815 A.D. eruption. Indeed the effects of this mid-13th Century eruption can be registered globally in a variety of records from Antarctica, Europe, Middle East and the Americas. Unfortunately, archaeological evidence indicating such disruption in mid-13th Century Indonesia is yet to be deciphered from the so-far sparse accounts and inscriptions of that time. However, this paucity of evidence does not diminish the utility of this widespread tephra bed as a unique chronostratigraphic marker for archaeological studies across large areas of central Indonesia.

  6. Animal origin of 13th-century uterine vellum revealed using noninvasive peptide fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Fiddyment, Sarah; Holsinger, Bruce; Ruzzier, Chiara; Devine, Alexander; Binois, Annelise; Albarella, Umberto; Fischer, Roman; Nichols, Emma; Curtis, Antoinette; Cheese, Edward; Teasdale, Matthew D.; Checkley-Scott, Caroline; Milner, Stephen J.; Rudy, Kathryn M.; Johnson, Eric J.; Vnouček, Jiří; Garrison, Mary; McGrory, Simon; Bradley, Daniel G.; Collins, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-thin parchment made it possible to produce the first pocket Bibles: Thousands were made in the 13th century. The source of this parchment, often called “uterine vellum,” has been a long-standing controversy in codicology. Use of the Latin term abortivum in many sources has led some scholars to suggest that the skin of fetal calves or sheep was used. Others have argued that it would not be possible to sustain herds if so many pocket Bibles were produced from fetal skins, arguing instead for unexpected alternatives, such as rabbit. Here, we report a simple and objective technique using standard conservation treatments to identify the animal origin of parchment. The noninvasive method is a variant on zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS) peptide mass fingerprinting but extracts protein from the parchment surface by using an electrostatic charge generated by gentle rubbing of a PVC eraser on the membrane surface. Using this method, we analyzed 72 pocket Bibles originating in France, England, and Italy and 293 additional parchment samples that bracket this period. We found no evidence for the use of unexpected animals; however, we did identify the use of more than one mammal species in a single manuscript, consistent with the local availability of hides. These results suggest that ultrafine vellum does not necessarily derive from the use of abortive or newborn animals with ultrathin hides, but could equally well reflect a production process that allowed the skins of maturing animals of several species to be rendered into vellum of equal quality and fineness. PMID:26598667

  7. CCSM3 simulation of climatic impact by volcanism during mid-late 13th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Y.; Miller, G. H.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Schneider, D. P.; Ammann, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    Consecutive volcanic eruptions during the second half of 13th century were hypothesized to have initiated the transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age. To test this hypothesis, we study the climatic impact on the Northern Hemisphere high-latitudes by the historical volcanism with a focus on its potential dependency on the state of Arctic sea ice cover, using the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3). Our results suggest the instantaneous volcanic climatic impact is a fairly robust phenomenon with a spatial pattern that is insensitive to the Arctic sea ice state; whereas the long-term integrated impact is susceptible to the Arctic state and contingent on a responsive overturning circulation in the Northern North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean, which could get weaker transporting less heat poleward and thus help sustain the Arctic surface cooling. Further experiments employing the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) stand-alone version show the volcanic impact via atmospheric physical and dynamic processes is short-lived up to a couple of years, in consistent with previous studies, while the longer-term persistence can be achieved through coupling with the underlying Ocean and Cryosphere. When the Atmosphere-Ocean-Cryosphere is interactive, nonlinearity occurs with the short-term climate response to volcanism in the sense that a winter warming pattern across northern Eurasia is found in the case of weaker volcanism, but a general cooling pattern as the volcanic forcing gets stronger. Previous studies argued for dominancy by atmosphere dynamic warming effect in the former case and direct radiative cooling effect in the latter. However, our CAM stand-alone experiments with fixed sea surface temperature and sea ice cover yield warming across northern Eurasia regardless of the strength of volcanism, hinting at an ocean/sea ice control of continental climate. Further attribution efforts suggest the expanding Arctic sea ice resultant from

  8. XAFS study of copper and silver nanoparticles in glazes of medieval middle-east lustreware (10th-13th century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, S.; Puzzovio, D.; Sada, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Borgia, I.; Sgamellotti, A.; Brunetti, B. G.; Cartechini, L.; D'Acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Shokoui, F.; Oliaiy, P.; Rahighi, J.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Pantos, E.

    2006-06-01

    It has recently been shown that lustre decoration of medieval and Renaissance pottery consists of silver and copper nanoparticles dispersed in the glassy matrix of the ceramic glaze. Here the findings of an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) study on lustred glazes of shards belonging to 10th and 13rd century pottery from the National Museum of Iran are reported. Absorption spectra in the visible range have been also measured in order to investigate the relations between colour and glaze composition. Gold colour is mainly due to Ag nanoparticles, though Ag+, Cu+ and Cu2+ ions can be also dispersed within the glassy matrix, with different ratios. Red colour is mainly due to Cu nanoparticles, although some Ag nanoparticles, Ag+ and Cu+ ions can be present. The achievement of metallic Cu and the absence of Cu2+ indicate a higher reduction of copper in red lustre. These findings are in substantial agreement with previous results on Italian Renaissance pottery. In spite of the large heterogeneity of cases, the presence of copper and silver ions in the glaze confirms that lustre formation is mediated by a copper- and silver-alkali ion exchange, followed by nucleation and growth of metal nanoparticles.

  9. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Berry, M.S.; Jolie, E.A.; Spangler, J.D.; Stahle, D.W.; Hattori, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  10. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry V.; Berry, Michael S.; Jolie, Edward A.; Spangler, Jerry D.; Stahle, David W.; Hattori, Eugene M.

    2007-02-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  11. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    The landscape in extensive areas in SE-Netherlands is underlain by coversand, deposited during the Late Glacial of the Weichselian. In the Preboreal, aeolian processes reduced soil formation. From the Preboreal to the Atlantic a deciduous climax forest developed. The geomorphology was a coversand landscape, composed of ridges (umbric podzols), coversand plains (gleyic podzols), coversand depressions (histic podzols) and small valleys (gleysols). The area was used by hunting people during the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic. During the Bronze and Iron Ages the area was populated by people, living from forest grazing, shifting cultivation and trade. The natural deciduous forest gradually degraded into Calluna heath. The deforestation accelerated the soil acidification and affected the hydrology, which is reflected in drying out of ridges and wetting of depressions, promoting the development of histic podzols and even histosols. Aeolian erosion was during this period restricted to local, small scale sand drifting, related to natural hazards as forest fires and hurricanes and shifting cultivation. Sustainable crop productivity on chemically poor sandy substrates required application of organic fertilizers, composed of a mixture of organic litter and animal manure with a very low mineral compound, produced in shallow stables. At least since 1000 AD, heath management was regulated by a series of rules that aimed to protect the valuable heat lands against degradation. During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries there was an increasing demand for wood and clear cutting transformed the majority of the forests in driftsand landscapes. The most important market was formed by the very wealthy Flemish cities. The exposed soil surface was subjected to wind erosion and sand drifting which endangered the Calluna heath, arable land and even farmhouses. As a consequence, umbric podzols, the natural climax soil under deciduous forests on coversand, degraded into larger scale driftsand

  12. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    PubMed

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna.

  13. [Learning to read Pierre Lombard's Books of Sentences at the University of Paris in the 13(th) and 14 (th) centuries].

    PubMed

    Angotti, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In the middle ages, the ability to offer an oral commentary on Pierre Lombard's Books of Sentences was seen as an essential step in the training of masters of theology (maîtres régents). This was an exercise done by bachelors. While the first university statutes say little about this exercise, later statutes, particularly in the 14(th) century, suggest that it was carried out by following very strict guidelines. This article posits that students actually followed a number of « model commentaries » because the masters applied the methodology of exegesis. Looking at the manuscripts and their critical apparatus, this article offers a better understanding of the lectio of the Books of Sentences.

  14. The dispersion of pederasty and the athletic revolution in sixth-century BC Greece.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Thomas F

    2005-01-01

    Dorian Crete and Thebes are conventionally seen by ancient sources as the originators of pederasty; modern historians see support for this view in Dorian male-centered militarism and sexual segregation in upbringing. Here athletic culture, including training, nudism, and competition, is argued to be a chief 'trigger' for the emergence of pederasty in Sparta and its relatively rapid spread to other Greek states in the seventh to sixth centuries BC. Athletic nudity, in particular, was not a device to enforce civic egalitarianism, as some have argued, but is a persistently erotic incentive that reinforces hegemonic maleness and advertises the individual's virtuous exercise of restraint. In particular, Sparta is found to be the likely source of generalized athletic nudity combined with open pederasty in the early seventh century BC. Nudism in Greek art is erotically charged and not, as others argue, simply a gender marker in the seventh century. Generalized athletic nudity spread to other Greek states emulating the successful Spartan model by the 'athletic revolution' of the early sixth century. With athletic nudity, open pederasty, again following Sparta, was fostered.

  15. Alloying Elements as Chronotechnological Marker for Second and First Century BC Fibulae from Ancient Pannonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mödlinger, Marianne; Drnić, Ivan; Piccardo, Paolo

    2012-11-01

    Fibulae as main the metal elements of people's costume and clothing vary significantly in form and shape through time, and therefore, they are the perfect chronological markers of periods and time horizons and help archaeologists to date associated finds and stratigraphic units precisely. Five Late La Tène fibulae (150-80 BC) typical of the Western Carpathian Basin were studied in order to achieve information of their composition and manufacture. In particular, the alloy compositions were analyzed to understand if different alloys were used for the bow and the pin of the fibulae, and to establish if Pb and Zn were present. The latter was introduced to the workshops in Gallia and Northern Italy, and reached as imports the southeast Alpine region around 50 BC, creating a chronological horizon interesting for dating. Pb with >5 wt.% also turned out to be a chronological marker of La Tène fibulae. The presence of these alloying elements thus gives an even more detailed technological and chronological picture of the metallurgical advances in the ancient region of Pannonia during the second and beginning of the first century BC.

  16. PIXE analysis of jewels from an Achaemenid tomb (IVth century BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querré, G.; Bouquillon, A.; Calligaro, T.; Dubus, M.; Salomon, J.

    1996-04-01

    Ion beam analysis has seldom been applied to gemmology. The privileged location of the Laboratoire de recherche des musées de France, close to some of the most prestigious art collections, along with the implementation of the AGLAE IBA facility, have allowed us to initiate several gemmological research programs since 1991. The latest of these deals with a series of Achaemenid jewels (IVth century BC) exhibited in the Louvre museum. The aim of the present research is three-fold: determination of the coloured materials inlayed in gold, composition of the golden alloys and the inlay fixation technique. Analyses have been carried out by PIXE using an external proton beam under conditions set from test experiments on reference gemstones in order to optimise the experimental parameters. Quantitative chemical analysis of both major and trace elements has allowed us to distinguish between 15 types of fine or ornamental stones as well as man-made materials and to identify a peculiar cement technique. We will describe the analytical procedure in detail, then present the main results obtained on coloured inlays and cement and underline a potential drawback of the technique, i.e. a transient colour variation of the target under the impact of the beam, which needs further investigation.

  17. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  18. Variations in geomagnetic intensity and temperature in the second Millennium B.C. in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.

    2012-05-01

    The Bronze ceramics of the Baeza archeological monument in Spain is studied by archaeomagnetic methods. In the 19th and 18th centuries B.C, the intensity of the geomagnetic field varied from 40 to 60 mkT. The variations are smooth; they attained their maximum in the 16th to 15th centuries B.C. The obtained data on the variations in the geomagnetic intensity perfectly agree with the results of previous investigations for the ceramics from the Bronze Age multilayered archeological monuments Azuer and Ubeda. The temperature in the region of the Baeza monument is estimated in the interval from the 18th to the 13th centuries B.C. It experiences wave-like variation, ranging from ˜15 to 23°C and attains its maximum in the 16th century B.C.

  19. Childbirth in the Greek island of Chois in the 6th century B.C., 1780, and 1914.

    PubMed

    Argenti, P

    1944-01-01

    Terracottas from the 6th century B.C.; a description of a delivery written in 1780; and a description of a labor chair used until 1914 give an historical picture of childbirth on the Greek island of Chios. The terracottas establish the fact that women were delivered in an upright perpendicular position in classical times. The upright labor chair seems to have continued in use until 1914. Midwives have historically at deliveries. In Chios, doctors seem to have taken over from midwives only around 1914.

  20. Philological Papers: Special Issue Devoted to the Teacher in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Literature and Film. Volume 36. Papers Presented at the West Virginia University's Annual Colloquium (13th, Morgantown, West Virginia, September 29-October 1, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Armand E., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains papers read at West Virginia University's Colloquium on "The Teacher in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Literature and Film" including the following 12 articles listed with their authors: "A Second Pair of Eyes: The Editor as Teacher" (Hart L. Wegner); "Don Juan Goes to the Movies" (Armand E.…

  1. 13th International Conference on Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Silflow, Carolyn D.

    2014-03-11

    The 13th International Conference on Chlamydomonas (EMBO Workshop on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas) was held May 27 to June 1, 2008 in Hyeres, France. The conference was the biennial meeting for all researchers studying the green algal systems Chlamydomonas and Volvox. The conference brought together approximately 200 investigators from around the world (North America, Asia, Europe and Australia) representing different fields and disciplines (cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, plant physiology, genomics). It provided an opportunity for investigators from different countries to share methodologies and to discuss recent results with a focus on the Chlamydomonas experimental system.

  2. FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopic study of decorated potteries from VI and VII century BC, excavated in ancient Ainos Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, S.; Akyuz, T.; Basaran, S.; Bolcal, C.; Gulec, A.

    2007-05-01

    Ancient decorated pottery fragments belong to sixth and seventh century BC, excavated in the archaeological district of Enez - Turkey (Ancient Ainos) were analysed using micro-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The experimental results allowed us to identify the peculiar components of the ceramic body and the main pigments of the decoration. The presence of albite and anatase suggests low firing temperatures.

  3. Archelaus (fifth century BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek philosopher and cosmologist. Pupil of ANAXAGORAS and teacher of Socrates, Archelaus believed that air is the primitive substance, which formed water at the center of the universe. Part condensed to Earth, pieces of which broke off to become the stars....

  4. Hesiod (eighth century BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek epic poet who described his cosmology in Theogeny, the birth of the gods, which he derived from Babylonian mythology. In his family tree of the gods, Chaos (the yawning gap between Earth and Heaven) produced Erebus (the Abyss) and Night, who produced Ether and Day. At the same time, Earth produced the Heavens, Mountains, and Sea. The Heavens and Earth then produced Cronos. This family tree...

  5. Alloy characterization of a 7th Century BC archeological bronze vase - Overcoming patina constraints using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manso, M.; Schiavon, N.; Queralt, I.; Arruda, A. M.; Sampaio, J. M.; Brunetti, A.

    2015-05-01

    In this work we evaluate the composition of a bronze alloy using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. For this purpose, a 7th Century BC archeological vase from the SW Iberian Peninsula, displaying a well formed corrosion patina was analyzed by means of a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Realistic MC simulations of the experimental setup were performed with the XRMC code package which is based on an intensive use of variance-reduction techniques and uses XRAYLIB a constantly updated X-ray library of atomic data. A single layer model was applied for simulating XRF of polished/pristine bronze whereas a two-or-three-layer model was developed for bronze covered respectively by a corrosion patina alone or coupled with a superficial soil derived crust. These simulations took into account corrosion (cerussite (PbCO3), cuprite (Cu2O), malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2), litharge (PbO)) and soil derived products (goethite (FeO(OH)) and quartz (SiO2)) identified by means of X-ray diffraction and Raman micro analytical techniques. Results confirm previous research indicating that the XRF/Monte Carlo protocol is well suited when a two-layered model is considered, whereas in areas where the patina + soil derived products' crust is too thick, X-rays from the alloy substrate are not able to exit the sample. Quantitative results based on MC simulations indicate that the vase is made of a lead-bronze alloy: Mn (0.2%), Fe (1.0%), Cu (81.8%), As (0.5%), Ag (0.6%), Sn (8.0%) and Pb (8.0%).

  6. Is Friday the 13th bad for your health?

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, T J; Luben, R N; Scanlon, F L; Singleton, N

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between health, behaviour, and superstition surrounding Friday 13th in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Retrospective study of paired data comparing driving and shopping patterns and accidents. SUBJECTS--Drivers, shoppers, and residents. SETTING--South West Thames region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Numbers of vehicles on motorways; numbers of shoppers in supermarkets; and hospital admissions due to accidents. RESULTS--There were consistently and significantly fewer vehicles on the southern section of the M25 on Friday the 13th compared with Friday the 6th. The numbers of shoppers were not significantly different on the two days. Admissions due to transport accidents were significantly increased on Friday 13th (total 65 v 45; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--Friday 13th is unlucky for some. The risk of hospital admission as a result of a transport accident may be increased by as much as 52%. Staying at home is recommended. PMID:8292946

  7. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. Martin

    2011-06-01

    Electrostatics 2011 was held in the city of Bangor which is located in North West Wales in an area of outstanding natural beauty close to the Snowdonia mountain range and bordering the Irish Sea. The history of the area goes back into the mists of times, but a continuous technological thread can be traced from the stone- and bronze-age craftsmen, who inhabited the area several thousand years ago, via the civil engineering and fortifications of the Romans and Edward I of England, through Marconi's long-wave trans-Atlantic transmitter near Caernarfon to the conference host. The School of Electronic Engineering at Bangor University has contributed much to the discipline of Electrostatics not only in teaching and research but also in supporting industry. It was a great pleasure for me, therefore, to have the pleasure of welcoming the world's experts in Electrostatics to Bangor in April 2011. In my preface to the Proceedings of Electrostatics 1999, I reported that almost 90 papers were presented. Interestingly, a similar number were presented in 2011 testifying to the importance and endurance of the subject. The all-embracing nature of electrostatics is captured in the pictorial depiction used for the conference logo: a hand-held plasma ball with its close link to gaseous discharges and the superimposed Antarctic aurora highlighting the featured conference themes of atmospheric, planetary and environmental electrostatics. Leading these themes were three invited contributions, the first by Giles Harrison who delivered the Bill Bright Memorial Lecture 'Fair weather atmospheric electricity', Carlos Calle on 'The electrostatic environments of Mars and the Moon' and Istvan Berta on 'Lightning protection - challenges, solutions and questionable steps in the 21st century'. Leading other key sessions were invited papers by Atsushi Ohsawa on 'Statistical analysis of fires and explosions attributed to static electricity over the last 50 years in Japanese industry' and Antonio

  8. Newton's Apple 13th Season. Free Educational Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twin Cities Public Television, St. Paul, MN.

    This educational materials packet was designed to help teachers use the Public Broadcasting Service's (PBS) program called "Newton's Apple" in the classroom. This book contains information on how these materials support the latest science standards; an index to the 13th season lesson pages and an index to the past three seasons; a…

  9. [The Dynamics of the Composition of mtDNA Haplotypes of the Ancient Population of the Altai Mountains from the Early Bronze Age (3rd Millennium BC) to the Iron Age (2nd-1st Centuries BC)].

    PubMed

    Gubina, M A; Kulikov, I V; Babenko, V N; Chikisheva, T A; Romaschenko, A G; Voevoda, M I; Molodin, V I

    2016-01-01

    The mtDNA polymorphism in representatives of various archaeological cultures of the Developed Bronze Age, Early Scythian, and Hunnish-Sarmatian periods was analyzed (N = 34). It detected the dominance of Western-Eurasian haplotypes (70.6%) in mtDNA samples from the representatives of the ancient population of the Early Bronze Age--Iron Age on the territory of Altai Mountains. Since the 8th to the 7th centuries BC, a sharp increase was revealed in the Eastern-Eurasian haplogroups A, D, C, andZ (43.75%) as compared to previous cultures (16.7%). The presence of haplotype 223-242-290-319 of haplogroup A8 in Dolgans, Itelmens, Evens, Koryaks, and Yakuts indicates the possible long-term presence of its carriers in areas inhabited by these populations. The prevalence of Western-Eurasian haplotypes is observed not only in the Altai Mountains but also in Central Asia (Kazakhstan) and the South of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. All of the three studied samples from the Western-Eurasian haplogroups were revealed to contain U, H, T, and HV. The ubiquitous presence of haplotypes of haplogroup H and some haplogroups of cluster U (U5al, U4, U2e, and K) in the vast territory from the Yenisei River basin to the Atlantic Ocean may indicate the direction of human settlement, which most likely occurred in the Paleolithic Period from Central Asia.

  10. Variations in the geomagnetic field strength in the 5th 3rd centuries BC in the eastern Mediterranean (according to narrowly dated ceramics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Il'Ina, T. A.

    2008-06-01

    The magnetization of ceramics from the eastern Mediterranean dated within a short period (mostly shorter than ±20 years) has been studied, which made it possible to specify the geomagnetic field variations on the time interval 5th 3rd centuries BC. The 11-year time series of the geomagnetic field strength values has been constructed. The field strength changes have been considered, which indicated that the centennial variation with a characteristic time of ˜130 years (according to the obtained data) is observed on this time interval as well as during the last two millennia. The ceramic material from the Mayskaya Gora archeological site (Taman), the preparation succession of which was established based on the shape of pottery but the problem of absolute dating was not solved, has been dated.

  11. Presentations from the 13th International Magnetic Measurement Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary R

    2003-07-30

    The 13th International Magnetic Measurement Workshop was held at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center from Monday, May 19 through Thursday, May 22, 2003. All professionals in the field of magnetic measurements were encouraged to attend. The workshop was primarily concerned with equipment and techniques for measuring and fiducializing accelerator magnets and insertion devices, although other relevant topics were also welcome. The program consisted of presentations by the workshop participants followed by discussions. During the workshop, there was an industrial exhibit and a tour of the SLAC magnetic measurement facilities.

  12. Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

  13. Leucippus (fl. fifth century BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Philosopher, born in Miletus, Asia Minor. Virtually nothing is known of his life, except that he was the founder of Atomism, developed by his disciple DEMOCRITUS and accessibly presented by LUCRETIUS in De Rerum Natura. Essentially Atomism is a theory to explain change. Atoms are microscopic particles and are permanent. They move in the permanent framework of space and alter their arrangements—ap...

  14. The 13th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP13)

    PubMed Central

    CALDERON, ENRIQUE J.; CUSHION, MELANIE T.; XIAO, LIHUA; LORENZO-MORALES, JACOB; MATOS, OLGA; KANESHIRO, EDNA S.; WEISS, LOUIS M.

    2015-01-01

    The 13th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-13) was held November 13 to 15, 2014 in Seville, Spain. The objectives of the IWOP meetings are to: (1) Serve as a forum for exchange of new information among active researchers concerning the basic biology, molecular genetics, immunology, biochemistry, pathogenesis, drug development, therapy, and epidemiology of these immunodeficiency associated pathogenic eukaryotic microorganisms that are seen in patients with AIDS; and (2) to foster the entry of new and young investigators into these underserved research areas. The IWOP meeting focuses on opportunistic protists; e.g. the free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. This conference represents the major conference which brings together research groups working on these opportunistic pathogens. Progress has been achieved on understanding the biology of these pathogenic organisms, their involvement in disease causation in both immune deficient and immune competent hosts and is providing important insights into these emerging and reemerging pathogens. A continuing concern of the participants is the ongoing loss of scientific expertise and diversity in this research community. This decline is due to the small size of these research communities and an ongoing lack of understanding by the broader scientific community of the challenges and limitations faced by researchers working on these organisms, which makes these research communities very sensitive to declines in research funding. PMID:25923469

  15. PREFACE: 13th IMEKO TC17-TC7 Joint Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sanowar

    2010-04-01

    'Without Measurement No Science, Without Science No Measurement' The 13th IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7 Joint Symposium was held at City University London, UK from 1-3 September 2010. For the first time this Symposium also included the involvement of IMEKO Technical Committee 13 (TC13) - Measurements in Biology and Medicine. This brings an added dimension to the Symposium in London since the area of measurement science and technology in biology and medicine is an important and a fast growing one. The Symposium was organized by the City University London (www.city.ac.uk) in collaboration with the Institute of Physics (IOP), UK (www.iop.org). The work of this Symposium is reported in this volume. The scope of the Symposium included the main topics covered by the above Technical Committees - education and training in measurement and instrumentation (TC1), measurement science (TC7) and measurements in biology and medicine. These themes underpinned the strap line of the Symposium, 'Without Measurement No Science, Without Science No Measurement' with the highest number of contributions from the measurement science area. The thematic areas were led by invited presentations from each of the areas by eminent speakers. The Symposium provided a useful forum for experts working in these areas for sharing and exchanging their work and ideas. The Symposium attracted participants from many countries of the world including the United States, Japan, Russia and Ukraine. In total over sixty papers are included in the volume and they are presented under the above three key thematic areas. Each paper was independently peer-reviewed by two reviewers from a distinguished international panel. The organizers of the Symposium, City University London have pioneered the establishment of measurement and instrumentation as an academic discipline in the UK through the work of Professor Ludwik Finkelstein who was for many years Chairman of TC1 and a founding member of TC

  16. Between the Vinča and Linearbandkeramik Worlds: The Diversity of Practices and Identities in the 54th-53rd Centuries cal BC in Southwest Hungary and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Jakucs, János; Bánffy, Eszter; Oross, Krisztián; Voicsek, Vanda; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Dunbar, Elaine; Kromer, Bernd; Bayliss, Alex; Hofmann, Daniela; Marshall, Peter; Whittle, Alasdair

    2016-01-01

    Perhaps nowhere in European prehistory does the idea of clearly-defined cultural boundaries remain more current than in the initial Neolithic, where the southeast-northwest trend of the spread of farming crosses what is perceived as a sharp divide between the Balkans and central Europe. This corresponds to a distinction between the Vinča culture package, named for a classic site in Serbia, with its characteristic pottery assemblage and absence of longhouses, and the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), with equally diagnostic but different pottery, and its apparently culturally-diagnostic longhouses, extending in a more northerly belt through central Europe westward to the Dutch coast. In this paper we question the concept of such a clear division through a presentation of new data from the site of Szederkény-Kukorica-dűlő. A large settlement in southeast Transdanubia, Hungary, excavated in advance of road construction, Szederkény is notable for its combination of pottery styles, variously including Vinča A, Ražište and LBK, and longhouses of a kind otherwise familiar from the LBK world. Formal modelling of its date establishes that the site probably began in the later 54th century cal BC, lasting until the first decades of the 52nd century cal BC. Occupation, featuring longhouses, pits and graves, probably began at the same time in the eastern and western parts of the settlement, starting a decade or two later in the central part; the western part was probably the last to be abandoned. Vinča pottery is predominantly associated with the eastern and central parts of the site, and Ražište pottery with the west. Formal modelling of the early history of longhouses in the LBK world suggests their emergence in the Formative LBK of Transdanubia c. 5500 cal BC followed by rapid dispersal in the middle of the 54th century cal BC, associated with the 'earliest' (älteste) LBK. The adoption of longhouses at Szederkény thus appears to come a few generations after the start of

  17. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy; Son, Leonid; Sabirzjanov, Alexandre

    2007-06-01

    The state of the art in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys is regularly updated through two series of complementary international conferences, the LAM (Liquid and Amorphous Metals) and the RQ (Rapidly Quenched Materials). The first series of the conferences started as LM-1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semi conductors, quasicrystals etc, were accepted as well. The conference tradition strongly encourages the participation of junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU) and held on 8-13 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). There were 242 active and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries who attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale (25 min) and brief (15 min) oral reports. The program included 10 sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A) Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B) Phase transitions; C) Structure; D) Atomic dynamics and transport; E) Thermodynamics; F) Modelling, simulation; G) Surface and interface; H) Mechanical properties

  18. Ancient writings reveal presence of aurora in 13th-century Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Sam

    Modern Norway, Iceland, and Greenland are subject to frequent displays of the aurora borealis. The aurora can be viewed on almost every clear night in the northern part of Iceland and southern Greenland, which lie in or near the auroral oval. Thus, it is surprising to find almost no mention of the aurora in medieval Norse chronicles or in the extensive Icelandic saga literature. Only one paragraph, in the "King's Mirror," a Norwegian writing dating to about 1250 C.E., notes the occurrence of the aurora in Greenland. The author reports this as hearsay and not from personal knowledge. For a fuller discussion of the Norse literature, see Brekke and Egeland [1983].

  19. Beleaguered Muslim Fortresses and Ethiopian Imperial Expansion from the 13th to the 16th Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Historical Society of Nigeria 2 (1963): 567-92. 6 Trimingham, 1952: 142-45. 7 Edward Ullendorff, The Ethiopians: An Introduction to Country and...crafts workers engaged in occupations such as pottery making, leather tanning, carpentry, and blacksmithing were despised and regarded by Christians as...Culture (Part II): Implicit Factors behind the Movement,” Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 3 (1964): 120. 62 Pankhurst, 1998: 73-74. 20

  20. Late second-early first millennium BC abrupt climate changes in coastal Syria and their possible significance for the history of the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniewski, D.; Paulissen, E.; Van Campo, E.; Weiss, H.; Otto, T.; Bretschneider, J.; Van Lerberghe, K.

    2010-09-01

    The alluvial deposits near Gibala-Tell Tweini provide a unique record of environmental history and food availability estimates covering the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age. The refined pollen-derived climatic proxy suggests that drier climatic conditions occurred in the Mediterranean belt of Syria from the late 13th/early 12th centuries BC to the 9th century BC. This period corresponds with the time frame of the Late Bronze Age collapse and the subsequent Dark Age. The abrupt climate change at the end of the Late Bronze Age caused region-wide crop failures, leading towards socio-economic crises and unsustainability, forcing regional habitat-tracking. Archaeological data show that the first conflagration of Gibala occurred simultaneously with the destruction of the capital city Ugarit currently dated between 1194 and 1175 BC. Gibala redeveloped shortly after this destruction, with large-scale urbanization visible in two main architectural phases during the Early Iron Age I. The later Iron Age I city was destroyed during a second conflagration, which is radiocarbon-dated at circa 2950 cal yr BP. The data from Gibala-Tell Tweini provide evidence in support of the drought hypothesis as a triggering factor behind the Late Bronze Age collapse in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  1. New archaeomagnetic data recovered from the study of celtiberic remains from central Spain (Numantia and Ciadueña, 3rd-1st centuries BC). Implications on the fidelity of the Iberian paleointensity database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osete, M. L.; Chauvin, A.; Catanzariti, G.; Jimeno, A.; Campuzano, S. A.; Benito-Batanero, J. P.; Tabernero-Galán, C.; Roperch, P.

    2016-11-01

    Variations of geomagnetic field in the Iberian Peninsula prior to roman times are poorly constrained. Here we report new archaeomagnetic results from four ceramic collections and two combustion structures recovered in two pre-roman (celtiberic) archaeological sites in central Spain. The studied materials have been dated by archaeological evidences and supported by five radiocarbon dates. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that the characteristic remanent manetization (ChRM) is carried by a low coercivity magnetic phase with Curie temperatures of 530-575 °C, most likely Ti-poor titanomagnetite/titanomaghemite. Archaeointensity determinations were carried out by using the classical Thellier-Thellier protocol including tests and corrections for magnetic anisotropy and cooling rate dependency. Two magnetic behaviours were depicted during the laboratory treatment. Black potsherds and poor heated samples from the kilns, presented two magnetization components, alterations or curved Arai plots and were therefore rejected. In contrast, well heated specimens (red ceramic fragments and well heated samples from the kilns) show one single well defined component of magnetization going through the origin and linear Arai plots providing successful archaeointensity determinations. The effect of anisotropy of the thermoremanent magnetization (ATRM) on paleointensity analysis was systematically investigated obtaining very high ATRM corrections on fine pottery specimens. In some cases, differences between the uncorrected and ATRM corrected paleointensity values reached up to 86 %. The mean intensity values obtained from three selected set of samples were 64.3 ± 5.8 μT; 56.8 ± 3.8 and 56.7 ± 4.6 μT (NUS2, CI2 and CIA, respectively), which contribute to better understand the evolution of the palaeofield intensity in central Iberia during the 3rd-1st centuries BC. The direction of the field at first century BC has also been determined from oriented samples from CIA kilns (D = 357

  2. Reading, Writing, Thinking: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandis, Meeli, Ed.; Ward, Angela, Ed.; Mathews, Samuel R., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This collection of papers presented at the 13th European Conference on Reading brings together a vast range of knowledge, research, and perspectives about literacy and its complex processes. The book explores topics including: (1) Literacy and critical thinking; (2) Working with learners at all levels, from young children to adolescents to…

  3. Report of the 13th Annual International Pachyonychia Congenita Consortium Symposium.

    PubMed

    Rittié, L; Kaspar, R L; Sprecher, E; Smith, F J D

    2017-03-27

    The International Pachyonychia Congenita Consortium (IPCC) is a group of physicians and scientists from around the world dedicated to developing therapies for pachyonychia congenita, a rare autosomal dominant skin disorder. The research presented at the 13th Annual Research Symposium of the IPCC, held on 10-11 May 2016, in Scottsdale, AZ, U.S.A., is reported here.

  4. Report of the 13th Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolate from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kallen, Alexander J.; Zhu, Wenming; Eggers, Paula; McDougal, Linda K.; Albrecht, Valerie S.

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA), an important multidrug-resistant organism of public health concern, has been infrequently identified in the United States since 2002. All previous VRSA isolates belonged to clonal complex 5, a lineage associated primarily with health care. This report describes the most recent (13th) U.S. VRSA isolate, the first to be community associated. PMID:24371243

  5. The 13th Annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon: Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltrus, John P.

    2004-12-01

    The 13th Annual James L. Waters Symposium focused on a review of the origin, development, implementation, and commercialization of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis by four of the pioneers in the field. The subsequent articles summarize the presentations made in that symposium.

  6. The 13th Annual Legislative Summit (Washington, DC, 2010). Briefing Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Education Association, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains briefing papers presented at the 13th Annual National Indian Education Association (NIEA) Legislative Summit held in Washington, DC. The following papers are included: (1) NIEA Appropriations Priorities for FY11; (2) The President's Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2011 for Native Education; (3) BIE Race to the Top; (4)…

  7. CONFERENCE REPORT: 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, J. W.; Fasoli, A.; Hidalgo, C.; Kirk, A.; Naulin, V.; Peeters, A. G.; Tala, T.

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1-4 September 2008. There were sessions on core heat and particle transport; core and edge momentum transport; edge and scrape-off-layer transport and MHD and fast particle interaction with transport.

  8. Paleobiology, palaeopathology and necrophobic practices in early Iron Age burials (IX-VII century BC) in Capo Colonna, Trani, Apulia, southern Italy--the state of health of a small sample from Iron Age.

    PubMed

    Sublimi Saponetti, Sandro; Scattarella, Fabio; De Lucia, Amelia; Scattarella, Vito

    2007-03-01

    In this palaeobiological and palaeopathological study of skeletal remains, we attempt to define the physical characteristics, living conditions and the state of health of a small sample from two early Iron Age (IX-VIII century BC) graves at Capo Colonna, Trani (Bari, Apulia, southern Italy). In the thoraco-lumbar segment (T11-L1) of the vertebral column of an adult male 35 years old, we found wedge-shaped deformation of the anterior part of T12 with kyphosis of the affected tract. Digital radiography and volumetric reconstruction by 3D CT indicated that the alteration did not result from an infectious process (Pott's disease). Instead, it was a traumatic lesion probably caused by falling from a height. The archaeological investigation revealed extraordinary arrangements of the bodies in the graves: they were buried with a boulder placed on the coffin. This practice has been seen in similar graves in the Balkan area, particularly in Greece, from the Neolithic to the Early Middle Ages. The most likely explanation is a funeral ritual characterized by necrophobia, the purpose of which was to prevent the deceased from returning to terrorize the living.

  9. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Cosponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  10. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics, May 11-15, 1998. Co-sponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  11. The 13th Annual Aurora Biomed Ion Channel Retreat: Three Days of Research, Technology, and Networking.

    PubMed

    Magee, Kaylee E A; Stanwood, Shawna R

    2016-03-01

    The 13th Annual Ion Channel Retreat was held by Aurora Biomed in Vancouver, Canada from July 7 to 9, 2015. The meeting showcased prominent current research including cardiac safety and pharmacology; ion channel structure, function and engineering; transporters and ion pumps; screening technologies; ion channels as disease targets; alcohol, tobacco, and ion channels; and ion channels as pain targets. This report summarizes the work presented at the retreat.

  12. Generics, Supergenerics and Patent Strategies--SMi's 13th Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    SMi's 13th Annual Meeting on Generics, Supergenerics and Patent Strategies, held in London, included topics covering new trends in the generics field, the difficulties faced by companies in entering the generics market and recent developments in IP. This conference report highlights selected presentations on generics in India, protecting pharmaceutical products in China, changes in generics law and litigation in the US and Europe, challenges for market selection and entry for generics companies, the influence of changes in the healthcare market on the generics industry, supergenerics, and biosimilars.

  13. The 13th order resonance from Navy tracking on a diademe 2 fragment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    A strong constraint on 13th order (odd degree) terms in the geopotential has been derived from Navy tracking on a DIADEME 2 fragment (1967-14F). This object (perigee height: 580 km, orbit inclination: 38.9 deg) is presently decaying slowly through perfect commensurability with these terms. The resonance forces will increase its inclination by 0.02 deg when the passage is complete by late 1974. The constraint (lumped harmonics), derived by adjustment of a pair of harmonic coefficients to the Navy inclination data (principally) is: 10 to the 9th power (14.8 + or - 0.8, 48.3 + or - 0.7) = 0.023(C,S)13,13 -0.172(C,S)15,13 0.505(C,S)17,13 - 0.884(C,S)19,13 + (C,S)21,13 0.673(C,S)23,13 0.099(C,S)25,13 0.295(C,S)27,13 -0.279(C,S)29,13 0.018(C,S)31,13 + There should be a significant contribution to this result from terms as high as 29th degree. But current geopotential solutions (for 13th order terms) to this degree are about 20% in error when judged by this independent data.

  14. [Great damage event of the Dutch Enschede on May 13th, 2000].

    PubMed

    Woltering, H P; Schneider, B M

    2002-11-01

    The mass casualty of injured confronts the rescue service with a special challenge again and again. An immediate need arises besides the emergency medical help for the coordination of use strengths moving up differently than at the individual emergency. Executives of the rescue service in Germany are leading emergency doctor and organizational leader. If the damage event takes place, however, outside the country borders or country general, then one feels compared with a situation which offers next to sizes in addition unknown to a great damage situation of the country by different use of tactics. It is interesting from this aspect to look at the great damage event of the Dutch Enschede on May 13th, 2000 and to examine the accident expiry by different points of view.

  15. Report of the 13(th) Genomic Standards Consortium Meeting, Shenzhen, China, March 4-7, 2012.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jack A; Bao, Yiming; Wang, Hui; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Edmunds, Scott C; Morrison, Norman; Meyer, Folker; Schriml, Lynn M; Davies, Neil; Sterk, Peter; Wilkening, Jared; Garrity, George M; Field, Dawn; Robbins, Robert; Smith, Daniel P; Mizrachi, Ilene; Moreau, Corrie

    2012-05-25

    This report details the outcome of the 13(th) Meeting of the Genomic Standards Consortium. The three-day conference was held at the Kingkey Palace Hotel, Shenzhen, China, on March 5-7, 2012, and was hosted by the Beijing Genomics Institute. The meeting, titled From Genomes to Interactions to Communities to Models, highlighted the role of data standards associated with genomic, metagenomic, and amplicon sequence data and the contextual information associated with the sample. To this end the meeting focused on genomic projects for animals, plants, fungi, and viruses; metagenomic studies in host-microbe interactions; and the dynamics of microbial communities. In addition, the meeting hosted a Genomic Observatories Network session, a Genomic Standards Consortium biodiversity working group session, and a Microbiology of the Built Environment session sponsored by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  16. BC Jurisdictional Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report was submitted by the BC Council on Admissions (BCCAT) to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC). This report is a summary of projects and activities completed by BCCAT during the period from April 1, 2009, to March 31, 2010. The purpose of this report is to inform the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) of…

  17. Frequency and patterning of bone trauma in the late medieval population (13th-16th century) from Dugopolje, southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario; Slaus, Mario

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the hypothesis of an increased level of interpersonal violence in Dugopolje during the late medieval period as testified by written sources. In order to accomplish this, an analysis and comparison of frequencies and patterning of long bone and craniofacial fractures between sex and age categories in the Dugopolje skeletal sample was performed. In total 209 excellently preserved adult skeletons were analysed: 111 males and 98 females. The total long bone fracture frequency is 1.5% (29/1910) with a significantly higher frequency in males compared to females. Most of the long bone injuries occurred as a result of accidents, probably due to rugged mountainous terrain, while a certain portion of trauma resulted from deliberate violence. Significantly higher fracture frequencies in males could be a result of a strict sexual division of labour where males performed more physically demanding and risky tasks, as witnessed by historical sources. 26 out of 119 complete adult crania (21.8%) exhibit skeletal trauma with significantly higher frequencies in males. Perimortem trauma was observed in one individual while antemortem healed sharp force lesions were registered in five individuals (all males). The predominance of frontal craniofacial injuries, as well as the presence ofperimortem trauma and sharp force lesions, suggests the presence of deliberate violence in this community. Although the indicators of deliberate violence were recorded predominantly in males, suggesting that intentional violence in Dugopolje was exclusively males' prerogative, the presence of nasal fracture in a female skeleton might point to a male towards female violence. Presented bioarchaeological data are in accordance with the written documents thus corroborating the claims of an increased level of deliberate interpersonal violence in the late medieval population from Dugopolje.

  18. Evaluation of a Parchment Document, the 13th Century Incorporation Charter for the City of Krakow, Poland, for Microbial Hazards

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The literature of environmental microbiology broadly discusses issues associated with microbial hazards in archives, but these publications are mainly devoted to paper documents. There are few articles on historical parchment documents, which used to be very important for the development of literature and the art of writing. These studies present a broad spectrum of methods for the assessment of biodeterioration hazards of the parchment document in question. They are based on both conventional microbiological methods and advanced techniques of molecular biology. Here, a qualitative analysis was conducted, based on genetic identification of bacteria and fungi present on the document as well as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling and examining the destructive potential of isolated microbes. Moreover, the study involved a quantitative and qualitative microbiological assessment of the indoor air in the room where the parchment was kept. The microbes with the highest destructive potential that were isolated from the investigated item were Bacillus cereus and Acinetobacter lwoffii bacteria and Penicillium chrysogenum, Chaetomium globosum, and Trichoderma longibrachiatum fungi. The presence of the B. cereus strain was particularly interesting since, under appropriate conditions, it leads to complete parchment degradation within several days. PMID:26896133

  19. BC Medication Management Project

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Natalie; Tsao, Nicole; Gastonguay, Louise; Lynd, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Background: The BC Medication Management Project (BCMMP) was developed by the BC Ministry of Health and the BC Pharmacy Association. This pilot project ran from September 2010 to January 2012. Pharmacists reviewed patients’ medication histories, discussed best use of medications, provided education and monitored for adverse effects, developed a plan to deal with medication issues and created a best possible medication history. Methods: To evaluate the experience of participating in the BCMMP, challenges and strengths of the project and the alignment of these experiences with the overarching goals, focus groups and interviews were conducted with 6 stakeholder groups. Themes were compared within and across stakeholder type and descriptively analyzed. Results: A total of 88 people participated in the focus groups/interviews. Pharmacists stated that providing BCMMP services was professionally satisfying and concurred with patients that the service did benefit them. However, participating in the BCMMP was not seen as financially sustainable by pharmacy owners, and there were concerns about patient selection. Physicians expressed concerns about increased workload associated with the BCMMP, for which they were not compensated. The computer system and burden of documentation were identified as the greatest problems. Conclusions: The BCMMP pilot project was enthusiastically received by pharmacists and patients who felt that it benefited patients and moved the pharmacy profession in a positive direction. It was widely felt that the BCMMP could be successful and sustainable if the identified challenges are addressed. PMID:25983759

  20. PREFACE: 13th Annual International Astrophysics Conference: Voyager, IBEX, and the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The 13th Annual International Astrophysics Conference was held in scenic Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, USA, during the week of 10-14 March 2014. The meeting drew nearly 80 participants from all over the world, representing a wide range of interests and expertise in the interplanetary medium, the solar wind, observations, and theory. The theme of the meeting was Voyager, IBEX, and the Interstellar Medium. This decade may one day be viewed as the golden age in the exploration of the large-scale heliosphere and the local interstellar medium (LISM). Voyager 1 and 2 and IBEX are yielding remarkable new discoveries about the boundaries of the solar wind - LISM region and the interstellar medium. Hitherto, our basic understanding of the interstellar medium has been provided by telescope observations across multiple wavelengths that are typically integrated over many parsecs. For the first time, with these three spacecraft, we are making detailed measurements of the interstellar plasma, energetic particles (charged and neutral), magnetic field, and plasma waves in situ or with very short integration distances. IBEX provides insight into the global characteristics of the very local interstellar medium and Voyager 1 has just crossed the heliopause and is now in the interstellar medium. Remarkable results can be anticipated as discoveries over the next decade are made and the physics of the interstellar medium unfolds. As described in the papers in this volume, the new observations are already challenging theoretical models. The 13th Annual International Conference focused on the physics of the solar wind - LISM boundaries and the emerging physics of the local interstellar medium. To address this, astrophysicists and space physicists assembled to share their combined expertise to address in a highly interdisciplinary fashion the physics of the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium. We thank Adele Corona and ICNS for her continued excellent

  1. 13th IUPAC- international congress of pesticide chemistry: crop, environment, and public health protection, technologies for a changing world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This introductory paper provides an overview of Perspectives papers written by plenary speakers from the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held in San Francisco, CA in August, 2014. This group of papers emphasizes some of the emerging issues and challenges at the forefront of...

  2. Residues in food and feed topic area at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of pesticide chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The organizers of two symposia in the “Residues in Food and Feed” topic area held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry introduce the papers that were contributed to this special section in the Journal. The symposia were titled “Taking Advantage of Advanced Analytical Tool...

  3. Tomorrow's Imperatives Today. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Forum, Vancouver, British Columbia, The Association for Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Robert G., Ed.

    Prepared from addresses and papers selected from those presented at the 13th Annual Association for Institutional Research Forum in May 1973, this collection deals both with the broad national issues facing postsecondary education, and with matters that are directly related to campus functions, such as computer simulation models. The tone of these…

  4. Report from the 13th annual Western canadian gastrointestinal cancer consensus conference; calgary, alberta; september 8-10, 2011.

    PubMed

    Vickers, M M; Pasieka, J; Dixon, E; McEwan, S; McKay, A; Renouf, D; Schellenberg, D; Ruether, D

    2012-12-01

    The 13th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Calgary, Alberta, September 8-10, 2011. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management neuroendocrine tumours and locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

  5. 75 FR 29559 - The 13th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... No. FDA-2010-N-0001] The 13th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs... Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group (OCRA). The conference is intended to provide the drug...; or Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group [[Page 29560

  6. PREFACE: 13th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The High-Tech Plasma Processes - 13th European Plasma Conference (HTPP-2014) was held in Toulouse (France) on 22-27 June 2014. The conference series started in 1990 as a thermal plasma conference and has gradually expanded to include other related topics. Now the High-Tech Plasma Processes - European Plasma Conference (HTPP) is an international conference organised in Europe every two years with topics encompassing the whole field of plasma processing science. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, to facilitate contacts between science, technology and industry and to provide a platform for the exploration of both the fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. For this edition of HTPP, as was the case for the last, we have acheived a well balanced participation from the communities of both thermal and non-thermal plasma researchers. 142 people from 17 countries attended the conference with the total number of contributions being 155, consisting of 8 plenary and 8 invited talks plus 51 oral and 88 poster contributions. We have received numerous papers corresponding to the contributions of HTPP-2014 that have been submitted for publication in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Each submitted contribution has been peer reviewed (60 referees with at least two reviewing each paper) and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In total, 52 manuscripts have been accepted for publication covering a range of topics of plasma processing science from plasma fundamentals to process applications through to experiments, diagnostics and modelling. We have grouped the papers into the following 5 topics: - Arc-Materials Interaction and Metallurgy - Plasma Torches and Spraying - Synthesis of Powders and Nanomaterials - Deposition and Surface Treatment - Non-Equilibrium Plasmas We deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high

  7. PREFACE: 13th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélat, Pierre; Pinfield, Valerie; Cegla, Frederic; Saffari, Nader; Lhémery, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The 13th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC) was held at Selsdon Park Hotel, Croydon near London, United Kingdom, on 15-17 January 2014. The venue was an excellent location to exchange ideas, regardless whether this happened in the conference room, over lunch at the drinks reception in the conservatory, in the oak panelled bar after the conference dinner or in the local pub next door. Over 45 papers were presented at the conference. There were over 60 delegates from institutions covering four countries. The invited speakers from the French side shared their knowledge about the generation of sound from supersonic jets (Prof Christophe Bailly, École Centrale de Lyon) and the application of ultrasonic microscropy in the nuclear industry (Prof Gilles Despaux, Université de Montpellier). The UK invited speakers included Prof Malcolm Povey (University of Leeds), who talked about characterisation of the nucleation of crystals using ultrasound, and Prof Bruce Drinkwater (University of Bristol), who captured the audience by speaking about "ultrasonic lassos" and ultrasonic particle manipulation. There was a strong representation of laser ultrasonics at the meeting with scientific considerations of problems and applications that range from the macro to the nanoscale. There were also numerous papers on the interaction of elastic and acoustic waves with complex materials and scattering of these waves by materials such as foams or cavitating liquids. Presentations on biomedical applications are increasingly being featured at AFPAC meetings. Talks this year covered topics such as imaging and high-intensity focused ultrasound for therapeutic applications. Finally, there were also several contributions from the field of Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) with talks ranging from the determination of the properties of in vivo wood to ultrasonic scattering techniques and tomographic reconstructions to recover the size and shape of

  8. PREFACE: 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications (SLOPOS13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings originate from the 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications SLOPOS13 which was held at the campus of the Technische Universität München in Garching between 15th-20th September, 2013. This event is part of a series of triennial SLOPOS conferences. In total 123 delegates from 21 countries participated in the SLOPOS13. The excellent scientific program comprised 50 talks and 58 posters presented during two poster sessions. It was very impressive to learn about novel technical developments on positron beam facilities and the wide range of their applications all over the world. The workshop reflected the large variety of positron beam experiments covering fundamental studies, e.g., for efficient production of anti-hydrogen as well as applied research on defects in bulk materials, thin films, surfaces, and interfaces. The topics comprised: . Positron transport and beam technology . Pulsed beams and positron traps . Defect profiling in bulk and layered structures . Nanostructures, porous materials, thin films . Surfaces and interfaces . Positronium formation and emission . Positron interactions with atoms and molecules . Many positrons and anti-hydrogen . Novel experimental techniques The international advisory committee of SLOPOS awarded student prizes for the best presented scientific contributions to a team of students from Finland, France, and the NEPOMUC team at TUM. The conference was overshadowed by the sudden death of Professor Klaus Schreckenbach immediately before the workshop. In commemoration of him as a spiritus rectus of the neutron induced positron source a minutes' silence was hold. We are most grateful for the hard work of the Local Organising Committee, the help of the International Advisory Committee, and all the students for their friendly and efficient support during the meeting. The workshop could not have occurred without the generous support of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Deutsche

  9. Report from the 13th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Calgary, Alberta; September 8–10, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, M.M.; Pasieka, J.; Dixon, E.; McEwan, S.; McKay, A.; Renouf, D.; Schellenberg, D.; Ruether, D.

    2012-01-01

    The 13th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Calgary, Alberta, September 8–10, 2011. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management neuroendocrine tumours and locally advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:23300370

  10. NDIA13th Annual Small Business Conference. Held in McLean, Virginia on 2-3 December 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-03

    330 HOTEL INFORMATION A block of rooms has been reserved at the Hilton McLean Tysons Corner. To make your reservation, please call the hotel ...Military 13th ANNUAL SMALL BUSINESS CONFERENCE EVENT #0430 DECEMBER 2-3, 2009 WWW.NDIA.ORG/MEETINGS/0430 HILTON McLEAN TYSONS CORNER u McLEAN, VIRGINIA...from non-core activities so the firm can concentrate on the activities that it does best. Therefore, when exploring opportunities for forming an

  11. Eight Sages over Five Centuries Share Oxygen's Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severinghaus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color.…

  12. Race and the Constitution in the Nineteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, John Hope

    1988-01-01

    Examines the impact of race on 19th century politics and social order. Discusses the denial of voting rights and due process to free Blacks prior to the Civil War and the "unkept promises" of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Lists books on the 19th century Black experience and identifies significant…

  13. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  14. PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

    2014-03-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A

  15. PREFACE The 13th International Conference on Rapidly Quenched and Metastable Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ludwig; Eckert, Jürgen; Battezzati, Livio; Stoica, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    The 13th International Conference on Rapidly Quenched and Metastable Materials (RQ13) took place in Dresden, Germany, 24-29 August 2008. It belongs to the triennial series of RQ meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1970 - Brela, 1975 - Boston, 1978 - Brighton, 1981 - Sendai, 1984 - Würzburg, 1987 - Montreal, 1990 - Stockholm, 1993 - Sendai, 1996 - Bratislava, 1999 - Bangalore, 2002 - Oxford, 2005 - Jeju Island. RQ13 was hosted by the Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research, IFW Dresden. Research on rapidly quenched and metastable materials is stimulated by the high demand for new materials with unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties. Topics of RQ13 conference have fallen into three parts: synthesis and processing, materials and properties, and applications of rapidly quenched and metastable materials. These topics cover exiting developments from the traditional field of rapidly quenched metals to newly emerging areas such as bulk metallic glasses and nanostructured materials. As such, the presentations reported on recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the fields of metastable materials, quasicrystals, nanometer-scale materials, magnetic materials, metallic glasses, solid state reaction, undercooling and modeling. As in the previous proceedings (RQ12), the largest number of papers is dedicated to bulk metallic glasses and magnetic materials. With respect to property characterization and applications, there are great attempts for use and application of these materials, particularly for bulk metallic glasses, as well as for further design and optimization of properties. The RQ13 conference attracted a total of 381 abstracts submitted by scientists from 38 different countries. The conference included 8 plenary talks and 25 invited keynote talks. In addition, 163 regular oral contributions were presented and more than 180 posters were presented. It was a particular highlight of the conference that Dr Ho Sou Chen was

  16. A glimpse into the early origins of medieval anatomy through the oldest conserved human dissection (Western Europe, 13th c. A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Poupon, Joël; Lancelot, Eloïse; Campos, Paula F.; Favier, Dominique; Jeannel, Gaël-François; Bonati, Maurizio Rippa; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Medieval autopsy practice is very poorly known in Western Europe, due to a lack of both descriptive medico-surgical texts and conserved dissected human remains. This period is currently considered the dark ages according to a common belief of systematic opposition of Christian religious authorities to the opening of human cadavers. Material and methods The identification in a private collection of an autopsied human individual dated from the 13th century A.D. is an opportunity for better knowledge of such practice in this chrono-cultural context, i.e. the early origins of occidental dissections. A complete forensic anthropological procedure was carried out, completed by radiological and elemental analyses. Results The complete procedure of this body opening and internal organs exploration is explained, and compared with historical data about forensic and anatomical autopsies from this period. During the analysis, a red substance filling all arterial cavities, made of mercury sulfide (cinnabar) mixed with vegetal oil (oleic and palmitic acids) was identified; it was presumably used to highlight vascularization by coloring in red such vessels, and help in the preservation of the body. Conclusions Of particular interest for the description of early medical and anatomical knowledge, this “human preparation” is the oldest known yet, and is particularly important for the fields of history of medicine, surgery and anatomical practice. PMID:24904674

  17. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (μSR2014) organized by the Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute in collaboration with the University of Zurich and the University of Fribourg, was held in Grindelwald, Switzerland from 1st to 6th June 2014. The conference provided a forum for researchers from around the world with interests in the applications of μSR to study a wide range of topics including condensed matter physics, materials and molecular sciences, chemistry and biology. Polarized muons provide a unique and versatile probe of matter, enabling studies at the atomic level of electronic structure and dynamics in a wide range of systems. The conference was the thirteenth in a series, which began in Rorschach in 1978 and it took place for the third time in Switzerland. The previous conferences were held in Cancun, Mexico (2011), Tsukuba, Japan (2008), Oxford, UK (2005), Williamsburg, USA (2002), Les Diablerets, Switzerland (1999), Nikko, Japan (1996), Maui, USA (1993), Oxford, UK (1990), Uppsala, Sweden (1986), Shimoda, Japan (1983), Vancouver, Canada (1980), and Rorschach, Switzerland (1978). These conference proceedings contain 67 refereed publications from presentations covering magnetism, superconductivity, chemistry, semiconductors, biophysics and techniques. The conference logo, displayed in the front pages of these proceedings, represents both the location of μSR2014 in the Alps and the muon-spin rotation technique. The silhouette represents the famous local mountains Eiger, Mönch and Jungfrau as drawn by the Swiss painter Ferdinand Hodler and the apple with arrow is at the same time a citation of the Wilhelm Tell legend and a remembrance of the key role played by the muon spin and the asymmetric muon decay (which for the highest positron energy has an apple like shape). More than 160 participants (including 32 registered as students and 13 as accompanying persons) from 19 countries

  18. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  19. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Halil Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    Conference photograph The 13th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR2012) was held in Ankara, Turkey at Gazi University in the Architect Kemaleddin historical hall on 2-6 July 2012. The first International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions took place nearly 25 years ago and this conference continued the same tradition by providing an arena for researchers around the world to present their new research findings in these fields, and gave them the opportunity to learn about the latest research and technology and to renew their acquaintances. The meeting brought together scientists and engineers in multidisciplinary areas such as chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science and engineering, physics, chemistry and polymer science and technology, to explore the state-of-art technology, identify key areas to be focused on and discuss their problems/issues. All oral presentations were held in a single session to enhance the interactions between the scientists and engineers. The ERMR2012 Conference included plenary lectures given by prominent leaders in their respective fields. About 130 participants from more than 50 organizations attended the conference and 15 plenary speeches, 64 oral presentations and 57 poster presentations took place in the following areas: (i) synthesis, characterization and processing of novel ER/MR materials, (ii) dynamics, chain and structure formation of ER/MR materials, (iii) ER/MR elastomers, ferrogels and their characterizations, (iv) rheological techniques and measurements of ER/MR materials, (v) modeling and simulations of ER/MR materials, (vi) device development and control techniques and (vii) applications of ER/MR materials. The ERMR2012 International Conference began with Turkish classical music performed by the musicians of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Rector Professor Dr R Ayhan welcomed the participants and the

  20. Residues in Food and Feed Topic Area at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lehotay, Steven J; Riter, Leah S; Saha, Manasi

    2015-05-13

    The organizers of two symposia in the "Residues in Food and Feed" topic area held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry introduce the papers that were contributed to this special section in the Journal. The symposia were titled "Taking Advantage of Advanced Analytical Tools" and "Going from Macro to Micro: The Future of Sample Processing in Residue Analytical Methods". The oral and poster sessions generated much interest and discussion among the attendees, and some highlights are described in this introductory paper.

  1. Aplastic articular facets in a dog with intervertebral disk rupture of the 12th to 13th thoracic vertebral space.

    PubMed

    Werner, Thorsten; McNicholas, W Thomas; Kim, Jongmin; Baird, Debra K; Breur, Gert J

    2004-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female spayed Pomeranian was presented with acute hind-limb paraplegia with the presence of deep pain perception and urinary incontinence. Myelography showed a Hansen type I herniation of the12th to 13th thoracic intervertebral space (T(12-13)). Articular facets of the T(12-13) and T(13) to first lumbar vertebra (L(1)) were absent. The spinal cord was decompressed using a bilateral T(12-13) modified lateral hemilaminectomy (pediculectomy). The aplastic sites were associated with minimal instability of the vertebral column, and stabilization of the vertebral column was not required. Familiarity with this condition is important, because articular facet aplasia may cause vertebral instability and may require an adjusted surgical approach or vertebral reduction and fusion following decompression.

  2. Plato (428-347 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Philosopher, real name said to be Aristocles, with `Plato' a nickname (`broad') derived either from the breadth of his knowledge, shoulders, or forehead, born in Athens, Greece, taught by Socrates, and travelled in Egypt, Sicily and Italy. Back in Athens, he founded, in 387 BC, a school of learning called the Academy, devoted to research and instruction in philosophy and the sciences, particularl...

  3. BC Jurisdictional Report for CMEC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) was established to facilitate admission, articulation and transfer arrangements among British Columbia (BC) post-secondary institutions. Each year BCCAT prepares a detailed work plan and at the end of the fiscal year prepares an Annual Report that summarizes what was achieved. Each…

  4. [Capabilities from the very beginning. Analysis of early interventions for child protection within the 13th Children and Youth Report].

    PubMed

    Keupp, H

    2010-10-01

    The 13th Children and Youth Report of the Federal Government was tasked with assessing the achievements attained in health-related prevention and health promotion by the Child and Youth Services and evaluating the goals still to be accomplished. Health-relevant development issues in the first phase of life are attachment and autonomy. The concept of early intervention is defined by the threefold responsibility entrusted to the Child and Youth Services: encouraging opportunities for development, providing assistance where resources are inadequate, and protecting children who are endangered or neglected. The greatest need for support is seen to involve children of impoverished or migrant families. The three specified goals require regional networks, which connect the existing support systems, in addition to the Child and Youth Services including pediatrics and child psychiatry, midwives, and early childhood intervention, to form integrated activity systems. Based on this foundation, the aim is then to strengthen parent competence through measures for family enrichment, to offer support related to the social sphere and family structure (e.g., early excellence programs, multigenerational homes, family centers, or family midwives) and to ensure effective child protective services.

  5. 13th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes: Summary Discussion, 10-13 August 2003, Vail, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Sinton, R.; Tan, T.; Swanson, D.

    2004-01-01

    The 13th Workshop discussion sessions addressed recent progress, critical issues in implementing new technologies, and the role of fundamental R&D in the growing PV industry. For the first time, we included a rump session, which was held on Sunday evening, August 10. This session included a panel of representatives, from various photovoltaic companies, who led a discussion of''R&D Challenges in Si PV.'' A special poster/presentation session was held on Monday evening, August 11, in which NREL/DOE subcontractors highlighted their results of research performed during the current subcontract period. This session served as a subcontract review. The workshop offered special sessions to discuss: (1) High-Efficiency Si Solar Cells, which reviewed progress made in implementing high-efficiency Si solar cell fabrication processes in the manufacturing environment; (2) Advanced Processing, as future potential approaches for making Si solar cells; (3) Commercial Issues, which addressed basic understanding behind recent processes that have been used by the PV industry; and (4) Automation and Equipment, to address capabilities and requirements of new manufacturing equipment.

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Mexican-American Educators, Inc., State of California (13th, San Francisco, California, October 26-28, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Mexican-American Educators, Inc., Redwood City, CA.

    Officially incorporated in 1965 to advocate for equal opportunity for all, especially students of Hispanic ancestry, and greater opportunities for Hispanic professionals at all levels of the teaching field, the Association of Mexican American Educators, Inc., held its 13th annual conference October 26-28, 1978. The five position papers included in…

  7. Muon groups and primary composition at 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budko, E. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Dogujaev, V. A.; Mihelev, A. R.; Padey, V. A.; Petkov, V. A.; Striganov, P. S.; Suvorova, O. V.; Voevodsky, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The data on muon groups observed at Baksan underground scintillation telescope is analyzed. In this analysis we compare the experimental data with calulations, based on a superposition model in order to obtain the effective atomic number of primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV.

  8. Measurement of the Earth's rotation: 720 BC to AD 2015.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, F R; Morrison, L V; Hohenkerk, C Y

    2016-12-01

    New compilations of records of ancient and medieval eclipses in the period 720 BC to AD 1600, and of lunar occultations of stars in AD 1600-2015, are analysed to investigate variations in the Earth's rate of rotation. It is found that the rate of rotation departs from uniformity, such that the change in the length of the mean solar day (lod) increases at an average rate of +1.8 ms per century. This is significantly less than the rate predicted on the basis of tidal friction, which is +2.3 ms per century. Besides this linear change in the lod, there are fluctuations about this trend on time scales of decades to centuries. A power spectral density analysis of fluctuations in the range 2-30 years follows a power law with exponent -1.3, and there is evidence of increased power at a period of 6 years. There is some indication of an oscillation in the lod with a period of roughly 1500 years. Our measurements of the Earth's rotation for the period 720 BC to AD 2015 set firm boundaries for future work on post-glacial rebound and core-mantle coupling which are invoked to explain the departures from tidal friction.

  9. Measurement of the Earth's rotation: 720 BC to AD 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. R.; Morrison, L. V.; Hohenkerk, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    New compilations of records of ancient and medieval eclipses in the period 720 BC to AD 1600, and of lunar occultations of stars in AD 1600-2015, are analysed to investigate variations in the Earth's rate of rotation. It is found that the rate of rotation departs from uniformity, such that the change in the length of the mean solar day (lod) increases at an average rate of +1.8 ms per century. This is significantly less than the rate predicted on the basis of tidal friction, which is +2.3 ms per century. Besides this linear change in the lod, there are fluctuations about this trend on time scales of decades to centuries. A power spectral density analysis of fluctuations in the range 2-30 years follows a power law with exponent -1.3, and there is evidence of increased power at a period of 6 years. There is some indication of an oscillation in the lod with a period of roughly 1500 years. Our measurements of the Earth's rotation for the period 720 BC to AD 2015 set firm boundaries for future work on post-glacial rebound and core-mantle coupling which are invoked to explain the departures from tidal friction.

  10. Measurement of the Earth's rotation: 720 BC to AD 2015

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, F. R.; Morrison, L. V.

    2016-01-01

    New compilations of records of ancient and medieval eclipses in the period 720 BC to AD 1600, and of lunar occultations of stars in AD 1600–2015, are analysed to investigate variations in the Earth’s rate of rotation. It is found that the rate of rotation departs from uniformity, such that the change in the length of the mean solar day (lod) increases at an average rate of +1.8 ms per century. This is significantly less than the rate predicted on the basis of tidal friction, which is +2.3 ms per century. Besides this linear change in the lod, there are fluctuations about this trend on time scales of decades to centuries. A power spectral density analysis of fluctuations in the range 2–30 years follows a power law with exponent −1.3, and there is evidence of increased power at a period of 6 years. There is some indication of an oscillation in the lod with a period of roughly 1500 years. Our measurements of the Earth’s rotation for the period 720 BC to AD 2015 set firm boundaries for future work on post-glacial rebound and core–mantle coupling which are invoked to explain the departures from tidal friction. PMID:28119545

  11. The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers (Oxford, UK, 2011) The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers (Oxford, UK, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibene, G.

    2012-11-01

    The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers, held in Lady Margaret Hall College in Oxford in October 2011 continues the tradition of bi-annual international meetings dedicated to the study of transport barriers in fusion plasmas. The first meeting of this series took place in S Diego (CA, US) in 1987, and since then scientists in the fusion community studying the formation and effects of transport barriers in plasmas have been meeting at this small workshop to discuss progress, new experimental evidence and related theoretical studies. The first workshops were strongly focussed on the characterization and understanding of the H-mode plasma, discovered in ASDEX in 1982. Tokamaks throughout the entire world were able to reproduce the H-mode transition in the following few years and since then the H-mode has been recognised as a pervasive physics feature of toroidally confined plasmas. Increased physics understanding of the H-mode transition and of the properties of H-mode plasmas, together with extensive development of diagnostic capabilities for the plasma edge, led to the development of edge transport barrier studies and theory. The H-mode Workshop reflected this extension in interest, with more and more contributions discussing the phenomenology of edge transport barriers and instabilities (ELMs), L-H transition and edge transport barrier formation theory. In the last 15 years, in response to the development of fusion plasma studies, the scientific scope of the workshop has been broadened to include experimental and theoretical studies of both edge and internal transport barriers, including formation and sustainment of transport barriers for different transport channels (energy, particle and momentum). The 13th H-mode Workshop was organized around six leading topics, and, as customary for this workshop, a lead speaker was selected for each topic to present to the audience the state-of-the-art, new understanding and open issues, as well

  12. Earth's Variable Rotation from 750BC to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Leslie Valentine; Hohenkerk, Catherine; Stephenson, F. Richard

    2015-08-01

    Ancient Babylonian clay tablets buried for centuries beneath the sands of the desert are part of an extensive historical archive that contains vital information about the Earth's rotation from 750BC to the present. These historical observations of solar and lunar eclipses and occultations of stars are re-analysed to determine the error of the Earth's rotational clock, usually designated by ΔT. The diagrams display the individual results for ΔT, together with the best-fitting curve through these data.

  13. Hippocrates (ca 460-370 BC) on nasal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Sgantzos, Markos

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cancer in antiquity is rather an unknown scientific field. Nevertheless, During the 5th century BC, Hippocrates and his followers, studied thoroughly this fatal disease and proposed surgical techniques and palliative drugs to confront and treat the malignant tumors caused by the black bile (the 4 humors theory). Inside Corpus Hippocraticum, nasal cancer was mentioned, alongside with its treatment. Local surgical excision, cautherization, drugs to relief the pain and face possible metastases combined with a possible pessary technique and endotracheal intubation, have been employed by the physicians of the era.

  14. BC Transfer System: New Members Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The mandate of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) includes the responsibility to manage and coordinate the British Columbia (BC) Transfer System. Upon its inception in 1989, the Council inherited a Transfer System that included all BC public institutions, Yukon College, and three private institutions. Since then, new…

  15. Superhard BC3 in cubic diamond structure

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Quan; ...

    2015-01-06

    We solve the crystal structure of recently synthesized cubic BC3 using an unbiased swarm structure search, which identifies a highly symmetric BC3 phase in the cubic diamond structure (d–BC3) that contains a distinct B-B bonding network along the body diagonals of a large 64-atom unit cell. Simulated x-ray diffraction and Raman peaks of d–BC3 are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Calculated stress-strain relations of d–BC3 demonstrate its intrinsic superhard nature and reveal intriguing sequential bond-breaking modes that produce superior ductility and extended elasticity, which are unique among superhard solids. Here, the present results establish the first boron carbide inmore » the cubic diamond structure with remarkable properties, and these new findings also provide insights for exploring other covalent solids with complex bonding configurations.« less

  16. Cytochrome bc1 complexes of microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Trumpower, B L

    1990-01-01

    The cytochrome bc1 complex is the most widely occurring electron transfer complex capable of energy transduction. Cytochrome bc1 complexes are found in the plasma membranes of phylogenetically diverse photosynthetic and respiring bacteria, and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of all eucaryotic cells. In all of these species the bc1 complex transfers electrons from a low-potential quinol to a higher-potential c-type cytochrome and links this electron transfer to proton translocation. Most bacteria also possess alternative pathways of quinol oxidation capable of circumventing the bc1 complex, but these pathways generally lack the energy-transducing, protontranslocating activity of the bc1 complex. All cytochrome bc1 complexes contain three electron transfer proteins which contain four redox prosthetic groups. These are cytochrome b, which contains two b heme groups that differ in their optical and thermodynamic properties; cytochrome c1, which contains a covalently bound c-type heme; and a 2Fe-2S iron-sulfur protein. The mechanism which links proton translocation to electron transfer through these proteins is the proton motive Q cycle, and this mechanism appears to be universal to all bc1 complexes. Experimentation is currently focused on understanding selected structure-function relationships prerequisite for these redox proteins to participate in the Q-cycle mechanism. The cytochrome bc1 complexes of mitochondria differ from those of bacteria, in that the former contain six to eight supernumerary polypeptides, in addition to the three redox proteins common to bacteria and mitochondria. These extra polypeptides are encoded in the nucleus and do not contain redox prosthetic groups. The functions of the supernumerary polypeptides of the mitochondrial bc1 complexes are generally not known and are being actively explored by genetically manipulating these proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Images PMID:2163487

  17. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  18. The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve

    2013-12-01

    It is a pleasure to welcome you to The Royal Society in London and the 13th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2013. The objective of PowerMEMS 2013 is to catalyse innovation in miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, and the development of new ideas in the Power MEMS/NEMS field as well as at the meso-scale. It will allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering. The technical program is led by four invited speakers covering inductive power transfer, chip scale power sources, thermal energy harvesting and implantable biofuel cells. We received 177 abstracts and following a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 137 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organised into 16 oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions that have been augmented by 10 late news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are, for the first time, being published by the Institute of Physics. We have made every effort to make PowerMEMS 2013 the busiest yet and have included for the first time the PowerMEMS School. This two-day school held at Imperial College London covered a wide range of power-MEMS topics including technologies for power generation, power transmission, energy storage, power electronics interfaces and metrology. Registrations for the School exceeded our expectations and it was full by early November. We hope this, and other activities such as the Discussion Panel and the inclusion of late news papers, will make PowerMEMS 2013 a memorable success. We have also reached out to new communities, such as those working in wireless power transfer and RF harvesting to broaden the technology remit of

  19. Observation of the decay Bc+/--->J/psipi+/- and measurement of the Bc+/- mass.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giakoumopolou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyria, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2008-05-09

    The Bc+/- meson is observed through the decay Bc+/--->J/psipi+/-, in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.4 fb(-1) recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. A signal of 108+/-15 candidates is observed, with a significance that exceeds 8sigma. The mass of the Bc+/- meson is measured to be 6275.6+/-2.9(stat)+/-2.5(syst) MeV/c2.

  20. Char BC amendments for soil and sediment amelioration: BC quantification and field pilot trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, G.; Braendli, R. C.; Eek, E.; Henriksen, T.; Hartnik, T.; Breedveld, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Background Activated char BC binds organic contaminants and possibly mercury so strongly that their bioaccumulation and transport to other environmental compartments are reduced. The advantages of black carbon amendment over many other remediation methods include i) it can be used as an in situ risk reduction method, ii) the price is low, and iii) it overcomes significant controversies associated with disposal of dredged and excavated materials. In this study BC amendment is used in pilot trials in the field for soil and sediment amelioration. Quantification of amended char BC Two methods for char BC quantification were tested: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. The amount of BC amended to three soils was accurately determined by CTO at 375°C. For two sediments, much of the BC disappeared during combustion at 375°C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects caused by sediment constituents such as metals, mineral oxides and salts. Attempts to avoid these effects through rinsing with acid before combustion did not result in higher char BC recoveries. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350°C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation with potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid proved to effectively function for BC quantification in sediments, since almost complete BC recovery (81-92 %) was observed for both sediments, while the amount of organic carbon remaining was low (5-16 %). Field pilots Earlier, we showed the effectiveness of BC amendment in the laboratory. In the laboratory it was shown that BC amendments (2 %) reduced freely dissolved porewater concentrations (factor of 10-50) and bioaccumulation (factor of 5). This presentation will describe 50 × 50 m pilot field trials in Norway (2007-2008): Trondheim Harbor (sediment) and Drammen (soil). The presentation will focus on physical monitoring (distribution of BC in the

  1. Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C.

    PubMed

    Manning, Sturt W; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Kutschera, Walter; Higham, Thomas; Kromer, Bernd; Steier, Peter; Wild, Eva M

    2006-04-28

    Radiocarbon (carbon-14) data from the Aegean Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C. show that the Santorini (Thera) eruption must have occurred in the late 17th century B.C. By using carbon-14 dates from the surrounding region, cultural phases, and Bayesian statistical analysis, we established a chronology for the initial Aegean Late Bronze Age cultural phases (Late Minoan IA, IB, and II). This chronology contrasts with conventional archaeological dates and cultural synthesis: stretching out the Late Minoan IA, IB, and II phases by approximately 100 years and requiring reassessment of standard interpretations of associations between the Egyptian and Near Eastern historical dates and phases and those in the Aegean and Cyprus in the mid-second millennium B.C.

  2. First observation of a baryonic Bc+ decay.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, Rf; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Geraci, A; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani', S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-10-10

    A baryonic decay of the B(c)(+) meson, B(c)(+) → J/ψppπ(+), is observed for the first time, with a significance of 7.3 standard deviations, in pp collision data collected with the LHCb detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) taken at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. With the B(c)(+) → J/ψπ(+) decay as the normalization channel, the ratio of branching fractions is measured to be B(B(c)(+) → J/ψppπ(+))/B(B(c)(+) → J/ψπ(+)) = 0.143(-0.034)(+0.039)(stat) ± 0.013(syst). The mass of the B(c)(+) meson is determined as M(B(c)(+) = 6274.0 ± 1.8(stat) ± 0.4(syst) MeV/c(2), using the B(c)(+) → J/ψppπ(+) channel.

  3. Recalibrating the BC Transfer System: Approved Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In November 2005, the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer launched a consultation entitled Recalibrating the BC Transfer System with the institutional members of the BC Transfer System and other interested parties. This consultation was motivated in large part by significant changes in the BC post-secondary system over the last decade, and…

  4. Deflector for XFEL TDS BC1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volobuev, E. V.; Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Kravchuk, L. V.; Paramonov, V. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Churanov, D. V.

    2016-09-01

    Deflector is the part of the Transverse Deflecting System TDS BC1 of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL). TDS BC1 is located on the XFEL beam line at the coordinate z=206 m. This system is designed to monitor the longitudinal phase space and the emittance of the accelerated electron bunch after Bunch Compressor 1 (BC1), where electron beam energy is 600 MeV. The deflector includes waveguide window, waveguide load, E-bend, ion pump adapters, two antennas, two ion pumps and 1.7 m long disk-loaded EH-hybrid mode deflecting structure. Operating frequency is 2997.2 MHz. Input RF power is up to 24 MW. The deflector has been manufactured, and all designed RF parameters have been obtained experimentally at low RF power level.

  5. Highlights from the 13th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in Glasgow, Scotland, May 10-13, 2003. The complex world of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Jack, David

    2003-01-01

    At the 13th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, held in Glasgow, Scotland, May 10-13, 2003, the latest developments in clinical microbiology and the treatment of infectious diseases were presented alongside recent progress on molecular aspects of diagnosis and emerging patterns of infection. Around 5,000 delegates from more than 80 countries attended the congress, which saw the presentation of more than 400 oral communications and 1,700 posters. In addition to a historical session looking at Scotland's own contribution to the control of infectious diseases, the meeting involved up to six parallel sessions a day, looking at all the major aspects of infectious diseases, treatment, surveillance, epidemiology and drug pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The organizers also organized a Late Breaker symposium on severe acute respiratory syndrome. The topics likely to be of most interest to Drug News and Perspectives readers are described here.

  6. Mesoscale convective system surface pressure anomalies responsible for meteotsunamis along the U.S. East Coast on June 13th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wertman, Christina A.; Yablonsky, Richard M.; Shen, Yang; Merrill, John; Kincaid, Christopher R.; Pockalny, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Two destructive high-frequency sea level oscillation events occurred on June 13th, 2013 along the U.S. East Coast. Seafloor processes can be dismissed as the sources, as no concurrent offshore earthquakes or landslides were detected. Here, we present evidence that these tsunami-like events were generated by atmospheric mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) propagating from inland to offshore. The USArray Transportable Array inland and NOAA tide gauges along the coast recorded the pressure anomalies associated with the MCSs. Once offshore, the pressure anomalies generated shallow water waves, which were amplified by the resonance between the water column and atmospheric forcing. Analysis of the tidal data reveals that these waves reflected off the continental shelf break and reached the coast, where bathymetry and coastal geometry contributed to their hazard potential. This study demonstrates that monitoring MCS pressure anomalies in the interior of the U.S. provides important observations for early warnings of MCS-generated tsunamis. PMID:25420958

  7. Measurement of the Bc+ meson lifetime using the decay mode Bc+ --> J/Psie+nue.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cresciolo, F; Cruz, A; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Naganoma, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-07-07

    We present a measurement of the Bc+ meson lifetime in the decay mode Bc+ --> J/Psie+nue using the Collider Detector at Fermilab II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. From a sample of about of 360 pb(-1) of pp collisions at square root of s = 1.96 TeV, we reconstruct J/Psie+ pairs with invariant mass in the kinematically allowed range 4< M(J/Psie) < 6 GeV/c2. A fit to the decay-length distribution of 238 signal events yields a measured Bc+ meson lifetime of 0.463(-0.065)(+0.073)(stat) +/- 0.036(syst) ps.

  8. Observation of the Bc meson in the exclusive decay Bc-->J/psipi.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Korablev, V M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Krop, D; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Leveque, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2008-07-04

    A fully reconstructed Bc-->J/psipi signal is observed with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp[over] collider using 1.3 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity. The signal consists of 54+/-12 candidates with a significance that exceeds 5 standard deviations, and confirms earlier observations of this decay. The measured mass of the Bc meson is 6300+/-14(stat)+/-5(syst) MeV/c2.

  9. Measurements of Bc+ Production and Mass with the Bc+→J/ψπ+ Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellan Beteta, C.; Adametz, A.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bates, A.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blanks, C.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bobrov, A.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Büchler-Germann, A.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Buono, L.; Deplano, C.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dickens, J.; Dijkstra, H.; Diniz Batista, P.; Domingo Bonal, F.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Elsby, D.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garnier, J.-C.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Ilten, P.; Imong, J.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jahjah Hussein, M.; Jans, E.; Jansen, F.; Jaton, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Keaveney, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kim, Y. M.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, V.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; von Loeben, J.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Luisier, J.; Mac Raighne, A.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Magnin, J.; Maino, M.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mangiafave, N.; Marconi, U.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin, L.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Massafferri, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matveev, M.; Maurice, E.; Mazurov, A.; McCarthy, J.; McGregor, G.; McNulty, R.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Mylroie-Smith, J.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrick, G. N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perego, D. L.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pie Valls, B.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogers, G. J.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salzmann, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santinelli, R.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schleich, S.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, M.; Sobczak, K.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V. K.; Swientek, S.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Urner, D.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Videau, I.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Visniakov, J.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, H.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Webber, A. D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.; Witzeling, W.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, F.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Young, R.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of Bc+ production and mass are performed with the decay mode Bc+→J/ψπ+ using 0.37fb-1 of data collected in pp collisions at s=7TeV by the LHCb experiment. The ratio of the production cross section times branching fraction between the Bc+→J/ψπ+ and the B+→J/ψK+ decays is measured to be (0.68±0.10(stat)±0.03(syst)±0.05(lifetime))% for Bc+ and B+ mesons with transverse momenta pT>4GeV/c and pseudorapidities 2.5<η<4.5. The Bc+ mass is directly measured to be 6273.7±1.3(stat)±1.6(syst)MeV/c2, and the measured mass difference with respect to the B+ meson is M(Bc+)-M(B+)=994.6±1.3(stat)±0.6(syst)MeV/c2.

  10. Evaluation of cotton leaf curl virus resistance in BC1, BC2, and BC3 progenies from an interspecific cross between Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Nazeer, Wajad; Tipu, Abdul Latif; Ahmad, Saghir; Mahmood, Khalid; Mahmood, Abid; Zhou, Baoliang

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD) is an important constraint to cotton production. The resistance of G. arboreum to this devastating disease is well documented. In the present investigation, we explored the possibility of transferring genes for resistance to CLCuD from G. arboreum (2n = 26) cv 15-Mollisoni into G. hirsutum (2n = 52) cv CRSM-38 through conventional breeding. We investigated the cytology of the BC1 to BC3 progenies of direct and reciprocal crosses of G. arboreum and G. hirsutum and evaluated their resistance to CLCuD. The F1 progenies were completely resistant to this disease, while a decrease in resistance was observed in all backcross generations. As backcrossing progressed, the disease incidence increased in BC1 (1.7-2.0%), BC2 (1.8-4.0%), and BC3 (4.2-7.0%). However, the disease incidence was much lower than that of the check variety CIM-496, with a CLCuD incidence of 96%. Additionally, the disease incidence percentage was lower in the direct cross 2(G. arboreum)×G. hirsutum than in that of G. hirsutum×G. arboreum. Phenotypic resemblance of BC1 ∼BC3 progenies to G. arboreum confirmed the success of cross between the two species. Cytological studies of CLCuD-resistant plants revealed that the frequency of univalents and multivalents was high in BC1, with sterile or partially fertile plants, but low in BC2 (in both combinations), with shy bearing plants. In BC3, most of the plants exhibited normal bearing ability due to the high frequency of chromosome associations (bivalents). The assessment of CLCuD through grafting showed that the BC1 to BC3 progenies were highly resistant to this disease. Thus, this study successfully demonstrates the possibility of introgressing CLCuD resistance genes from G. arboreum to G. hirsutum.

  11. Evaluation of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Resistance in BC1, BC2, and BC3 Progenies from an Interspecific Cross between Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Wajad; Tipu, Abdul Latif; Ahmad, Saghir; Mahmood, Khalid; Mahmood, Abid; Zhou, Baoliang

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD) is an important constraint to cotton production. The resistance of G. arboreum to this devastating disease is well documented. In the present investigation, we explored the possibility of transferring genes for resistance to CLCuD from G. arboreum (2n = 26) cv 15-Mollisoni into G. hirsutum (2n = 52) cv CRSM-38 through conventional breeding. We investigated the cytology of the BC1 to BC3 progenies of direct and reciprocal crosses of G. arboreum and G. hirsutum and evaluated their resistance to CLCuD. The F1 progenies were completely resistant to this disease, while a decrease in resistance was observed in all backcross generations. As backcrossing progressed, the disease incidence increased in BC1 (1.7–2.0%), BC2 (1.8–4.0%), and BC3 (4.2–7.0%). However, the disease incidence was much lower than that of the check variety CIM-496, with a CLCuD incidence of 96%. Additionally, the disease incidence percentage was lower in the direct cross 2(G. arboreum)×G. hirsutum than in that of G. hirsutum×G. arboreum. Phenotypic resemblance of BC1 ∼BC3 progenies to G. arboreum confirmed the success of cross between the two species. Cytological studies of CLCuD-resistant plants revealed that the frequency of univalents and multivalents was high in BC1, with sterile or partially fertile plants, but low in BC2 (in both combinations), with shy bearing plants. In BC3, most of the plants exhibited normal bearing ability due to the high frequency of chromosome associations (bivalents). The assessment of CLCuD through grafting showed that the BC1 to BC3 progenies were highly resistant to this disease. Thus, this study successfully demonstrates the possibility of introgressing CLCuD resistance genes from G. arboreum to G. hirsutum. PMID:25372141

  12. Geographic origin and evolutionary history of China’s two predominant HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yi; Takebe, Yutaka; Wei, Huamian; He, Xiang; Hsi, Jenny H.; Li, Zhenpeng; Xing, Hui; Ruan, Yuhua; Yang, Yao; Li, Fan; Wei, Jing; Li, Xingguang; Shao, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    To determine the origin and evolutionary history of two predominant and closely-related circulating recombinant forms (CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC), recombinant structures and phylogenies of 7 unique recombinant forms comprised of subtypes of B’ (Thai B linage) and C (designated URFs_BC) from archival specimens of injection drug users (IDUs) collected in 1996 to 1998 from western Yunnan and 4 circulating recombinant forms with B’/C recombinants recently identified (designated nCRFs_BC) in China were compared with those of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC. The results showed that 5 of 7 URFs_BC and all the nCRFs_BC shared recombination breakpoints with CRF07_BC and/or CRF08_BC. Yunnan URFs_BC consistently occupied the basal branch positions compared with CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC, and nCRFs_BC in phylogenetic trees. The estimated most recent common ancestors (tMRCA) for Yunnan URFs_BC were from ~1987, approximately half a decade earlier than those for CRF07_BC (~1994) and CRF08_BC (~1992). Discrete phylogeographic and spatial diffusion analysis revealed that both CRF07_BC and CRF08 BC came from western Yunnan in the early 1990s. Our results provide compelling evidence for western Yunnan as the geographic origin of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC, which emerged from a swarm of URFs_BC by a series of recombination events in western Yunnan in the early 1990s. PMID:26763952

  13. Ferro- and antiferro-magnetism in (Np, Pu)BC

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczuk, T.; Kozub, A. L.; Griveau, J.-C.; Colineau, E.; Wastin, F.; Falmbigl, M.; Rogl, P.

    2015-04-01

    Two new transuranium metal boron carbides, NpBC and PuBC, have been synthesized. Rietveld refinements of powder XRD patterns of (Np,Pu)BC confirmed in both cases isotypism with the structure type of UBC. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data reveal antiferromagnetic ordering for PuBC below T{sub N} = 44 K, whereas ferromagnetic ordering was found for NpBC below T{sub C} = 61 K. Heat capacity measurements prove the bulk character of the observed magnetic transition for both compounds. The total energy electronic band structure calculations support formation of the ferromagnetic ground state for NpBC and the antiferromagnetic ground state for PuBC.

  14. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (13th, Mannheim, Germany, October 28-30, 2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 13th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2016), October 28-30, 2016, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by the University of Mannheim, Germany, and endorsed by the…

  15. Report of the Two-Day National Seminar on New Directions in Higher Education, Organized by the Kerala State Higher Education Council on 12th and 13th July 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praveen, C.

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of the Two-Day National Seminar on New Directions in Higher Education, organized by the Kerala State Higher Education Council on 12th and 13th July 2010. The objective of the seminar was to deliberate upon the reforms being undertaken by the Government of India in Higher Education. Reputed scholars from within and outside the…

  16. International Perspectives on Environmental Education: Issues and Actions. Proceedings of the 1st International and 13th Annual Conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education (Banff, Alberta, Canada, October 5-9, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dorothy A., Ed.; Stapp, William B., Ed.

    The proceedings of the first International Conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEE), which was also the 13th annual conference of the National Association of Environmental Education as the NAEE was formerly known, provides as complete a record as possible of the conference activities. Papers and reports are…

  17. NCSE's 13th National Conference on Disasters and Environment: Science, Preparedness and Resilience, Post Conference Follow-up Activities and Dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Saundry, Peter; Kossak, Shelley

    2014-04-29

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) received $15,000 from the US Department of Energy to support post-conference activities of the 13th National Conference on the theme of Disasters and the Environment: Science, Preparedness and Resilience, held on January 15-17, 2013 at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, DC. Over 1,000 participants from the scientific, emergency response, policy, conservation, and business communities, as well as federal and local government officials, and international entities attended the event. The conference developed actionable outcomes that constructively advance the science behind decision-making on environmental disasters, with an intended result of more prepared and resilient communities in light of a changing climate. Disasters and Environment topic was addressed through six organizing themes: Cascading Disasters; Intersection of the Built and Natural Environments; Disasters as Mechanisms of Ecosystem Change; Rethinking Recovery and Expanding the Vision of Mitigation; Human Behavior and its Consequences; and "No Regrets" Resilience. The program featured eight plenary sessions, 24 symposia and 23 breakout workshops and addressed pivotal issues surrounding disasters and environment including lifeline services, the energy, climate, hazard nexus, grid collapse, community vulnerability, and natural resource management. Sessions, symposia and workshops were conducted by over 200 distinguished thought leaders, scientists, government officials, policy experts and international speakers throughout the three day event. Following the conference, NCSE prepared a set of recommendations and results from the workshops and disseminated the results to universities, organizations and agencies, the business community. NCSE’s national dissemination involved organized several targeted trips and meetings to disseminate significant findings to key stakeholder groups.

  18. Semileptonic decays of the Bc meson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, N.; Naimuddin, Sk.; Dash, P. C.; Kar, Susmita

    2009-10-01

    We study the semileptonic transitions Bc→ηc,J/Ψ,D,D*,B,B*,Bs,Bs* in the leading order in the framework of a relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. We compute relevant weak form factors as overlap integrals of the meson-wave functions obtained in the relativistic independent quark model in the whole accessible kinematical range. We predict that the semileptonic transitions of the Bc meson are mostly dominated by two Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM)-favored modes, Bc→Bs(Bs⋆)eν, contributing about 77% of the total decay width, and its decays to vector meson final states take place in the predominantly transverse mode. Our predicted values for the total decay rates, branching ratios, polarization ratios, the forward-backward asymmetry factor, etc., are broadly in agreement with other model predictions.

  19. 'Criteria' aPL tests: report of a task force and preconference workshop at the 13th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies, Galveston, Texas, April 2010.

    PubMed

    Pierangeli, S S; de Groot, P G; Dlott, J; Favaloro, E; Harris, E N; Lakos, G; Ortel, T; Meroni, P L; Otomo, K; Pengo, V; Tincani, A; Wong, R; Roubey, R

    2011-02-01

    Current classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) mandate the use of one or more of three positive 'standardized' laboratory assays to detect antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) (viz: anticardiolipin [aCL] IgG and IgM; anti-β(2)glycoprotein I [anti-β(2)GPI] antibodies IgG and IgM; and/or a lupus anticoagulant [LAC]), when at least one of the two major clinical manifestations (thrombosis or pregnancy losses) are present. Although, efforts of standardization for these 'criteria' aPL tests have been conducted over the last 27 years, reports of inconsistencies, inter-assay and inter-laboratory variation in the results of aCL, LAC, and anti-β(2)GPI, and problems with the interpretation and the clinical value of the tests still exist, which affect the consistency of the diagnosis of APS. A Task Force of scientists and pioneers in the field from different countries, subdivided in three working groups, discussed and analyzed critical questions related to 'criteria' aPL tests in an evidence-based manner, during the 13(th) International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLA 2010, April 13-16, 2010, Galveston, TX). These included: review of the standardization and the need for international consensus protocol for aCL and anti-β(2)GPI tests; the use of monoclonal and/or polyclonal standards in the calibration curve of those tests; and the need for establishment of international units of measurement for anti-β(2)GPI tests. The group also reviewed the recently updated guidelines for LAC testing, and analyzed and discussed the possibility of stratification of 'criteria' aPL tests as risk factors for APS, as well as the clinical value of single positive vs. multiple aPL positivity. The group members presented, discussed, analyzed data, updated and re-defined those critical questions at a preconference workshop that was open to congress attendees. This report summarizes the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of this Task Force.

  20. 19308B MLRS, Missile Numbers BC-147, BC-143, BC-135, Round Numbers V-357/PQ-88, V-358/PQ-89, V-359/PQ-90, 2 November 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    D-A123 61 193080 MLRS MISSILE NUMBERS BC-147 BC-143 BC-135 ROUND i/iNUMBERS V-357/PQ-8..( ) A MY ELECTRONICS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND WSMR... Electronics Research ’I )evelopnent Grid Aeibr13 Atmospheric Sciences LaboratoryI. dMEROPAS 1.1hite Sands jissil 1 tang. ’Imi 1lncira ui)J2 14. MONITORING...AGENCY NAMIE a ADDMfESS(Il different froem Controlling Office) 1S. SECURITY CLASS. (of thle report) US Amly Electronics qesearch wnid 9evelopirnt Did

  1. Early Human Activity (pre-332 BC) in Alexandria, Egypt: New findings in Eastern Harbor Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, J.; Landau, E. A.

    2005-12-01

    Historians have long postulated that a settlement called Rhakotis was present on Egypt's Mediterranean coast in the area subsequently occupied by the city of Alexandria. To date, however, the precise position of that site has not been located in the immediate area of the city founded by Alexander the Great. Also undefined are the earliest phases of occupation that pre-date Alexandria on Pharos Island and in the harbour area. A geoarchaeological project emphasizing sediment cores in Alexandria's Eastern Harbour now provides evidence of human occupation adjacent to these settings prior to establishment of Greece's great port in 332 BC. A radiocarbon-dated stratigraphic unit, defined as Middle Sand (III) and older than the 4th century BC, includes locally produced ceramics, along with rock fragments of non-local origin, and increased content of sand-sized heavy mineral and organic matter. Together, these date at least to Egypt's Late Dynastic Period (712-332 BC). Moreover, the geographic positions of core sites containing these markers indicate that early habitation occurred both at Pharos Island and on the mainland where the future Alexandria would be built. New findings in cores recovered in this marine environment are adding to knowledge of both natural processes and effects of human activity in early Alexandria.

  2. Report on the 13th symposium on invertebrate neurobiology held 26-30 August 2015 at the Balaton Limnological Institute, MTA Centre for ecological research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Tihany, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Crisford, Anna; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the lectures and posters presented at the International Society for Invertebrate Neurobiology's 13th symposium held 26-30 August 2015, at the Balaton Limnological Institute, MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Tihany, Hungary. The symposium provided an opportunity for scientists working on a range of topics in invertebrate neurobiology to meet and present their research and discuss ways to advance the discipline.

  3. A serological and histological study of the Egyptian mummy 'Iset Iri Hetes' from the Ptolemaic period III-I B.C.

    PubMed

    Kłys, M; Opolska-Bogusz, B; Próchnicka, B

    1999-01-25

    Serological and histological examinations of the muscles of the calf of an Egyptian mummy dated between the third and first centuries B.C. were performed. Human protein was identified, the ABO phenotype was determined as type B, and morphological disruption of the cells was observed.

  4. Power and Limitations of Anhydrosugars to Trace Historical Natural and Anthropogenic Inputs of charcoal BC to Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louchouarn, P.; Kuo, L.; Brandenberger, J. M.; Andresen, C. S.; Kjaer, K. H.; Dalton, M.

    2011-12-01

    Plant-derived chars are the solid residues from incomplete combustion of plant materials. They are an important constituent in the black carbon (BC) continuum, an array of diverse pyrogenic organic materials ranging from slightly charred biomass (low temperature) to highly condensed refractory soot (high temperature). The characterization and quantification of plant-derived chars in environmental samples is a challenging process due to the heterogeneous nature of these substances. Most of the BC methods using oxidative approaches that seek to remove non-BC materials are limited in their potential to identify and quantify plant-derived chars because of their relative labilities compared to the condensed BC forms such as soot. Anhydrosugars, such as levoglucosan and its isomers (mannosan and galactosan), have generated considerable interest in recent years in BC research because they are exclusive thermal degradation products of cellulose/hemicellulose and are produced in different proportions in chars and smokes from low temperature combustion of different plant species permitting some source discrimination in environmental samples (e.g. softwoods vs. hardwoods; gymnosperms vs. angiosperms). We show here a synthesis of several years of work using levoglucosan in diverse environments to reconstruct local to large-scale environmental change from climate-driven wildfires to human and accidental fires. For example, in the Hood Canal (WA), the striking consistency between the fluxes of levoglucosan, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) Index, and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), suggests that climate oscillations may play a role in the historical wildfire activities and thus influence the inputs of char-BC to the Puget Sound. Similarly, peaks in anhydrosugars in a sediment core from Lake Copenhagen record large-scale accidental fires in the city of Copenhagen during the early and late 18th Century, and help constrain the geochronology of the core beyond the

  5. 100-B/C Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Ovink

    2010-03-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-B/C remedial investigation/feasibility study addendum to DOE/RL-2008-46. This report also establishes the analyte exclusion criteria applicable for 100-B/C use and the analytical methods needed to analyze the target analytes.

  6. 32 CFR Appendixes B-C to Part 636 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false B Appendixes B-C to Part 636 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Appendixes B-C to Part 636...

  7. Mobility of Transfer Students in BC. Research Results, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Dale

    2007-01-01

    In the last two years, the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has conducted research on the number of potential and eligible transfer students in colleges, university colleges, and institutes in the fall of each year and the number that enrolled in a BC public university in the subsequent year with transfer as the basis of admission.…

  8. Nonleptonic two-body Bc-meson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naimuddin, Sk.; Kar, Susmita; Priyadarsini, M.; Barik, N.; Dash, P. C.

    2012-11-01

    We study the exclusive nonleptonic two-body Bc decays within factorization approximation, in the framework of the relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The relevant weak form factors and branching ratios for different decay modes (Bc→PP,PV,VP) are predicted in reasonable agreement with other quark model predictions. We find that the dominant contribution to the Bc-meson lifetime comes from the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Masakawa favored c¯→s¯, d¯ decay modes, and the most promising modes are found to be Bc-→B¯s0π-, Bc-→B¯s0ρ- and Bc-→B¯s⋆0π- with predicted branching ratios of 12.01, 9.96, and 8.61%, respectively, which might be easily detected at the hadron collider in the near future.

  9. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  10. Effects of diatomic reagent alignment on the A + BC reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattengill, M. D.; Zare, R. N.; Jaffe, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A computational study is reported on the A + BC - AB + C bimolecular exchange reaction in which BC is aligned with respect to the approach direction of atom A so that the initial rotational angular momentum vector of BC is either parallel (or equivalently antiparallel) or perpendicular to the initial velocity vector of A. The calculations employ a modification of the extended LEPS potential, which permits straightforward generation of noncollinear minimum energy reaction paths. The calculations clearly demonstrate that diatomic reagent alignment can markedly affect the nature of reaction product early partitioning; they also demonstrate that diatomic reagent alignment affects reactive cross sections.

  11. Observation of the Decay Bc±→J/ψπ± and Measurement of the Bc± Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M. G.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Aoki, M.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Azzurri, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Baroiant, S.; Bartsch, V.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Bednar, P.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Belloni, A.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beringer, J.; Berry, T.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bolla, G.; Bolshov, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bridgeman, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Choudalakis, G.; Chuang, S. H.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooper, B.; Copic, K.; Cordelli, M.; Cortiana, G.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Dagenhart, D.; Datta, M.; Davies, T.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lentdecker, G.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; de Pedis, D.; Derwent, P. F.; di Giovanni, G. P.; Dionisi, C.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Donini, J.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Forrester, S.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garberson, F.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Genser, K.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopolou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, K.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamilton, A.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Handler, R.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harper, S.; Harr, R. F.; Harris, R. M.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauser, J.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heijboer, A.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J.; Henderson, C.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huffman, B. T.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; Iyutin, B.; James, E.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeans, D.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Kar, D.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kephart, R.; Kerzel, U.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Klute, M.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, B. R.; Koay, S. A.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kubo, T.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kusakabe, Y.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lai, S.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, S. W.; Lefèvre, R.; Leonardo, N.; Leone, S.; Levy, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.; Lin, C. S.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Loreti, M.; Lovas, L.; Lu, R.-S.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Luci, C.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lyons, L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Mack, P.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maki, T.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, M.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Maruyama, T.; Mastrandrea, P.; Masubuchi, T.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzemer, S.; Menzione, A.; Merkel, P.; Mesropian, C.; Messina, A.; Miao, T.; Miladinovic, N.; Miles, J.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Mumford, R.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Nagano, A.; Naganoma, J.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Necula, V.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norman, M.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Oldeman, R.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papaikonomou, A.; Paramonov, A. A.; Parks, B.; Pashapour, S.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Piedra, J.; Pinera, L.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Portell, X.; Poukhov, O.; Pounder, N.; Prakoshyn, F.; Pronko, A.; Proudfoot, J.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rademacker, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Reisert, B.; Rekovic, V.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Richter, S.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rossin, R.; Roy, P.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Saarikko, H.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Salamanna, G.; Saltó, O.; Santi, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Scheidle, T.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. A.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scott, A. L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sfyria, A.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shapiro, M. D.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Sherman, D.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shon, Y.; Shreyber, I.; Sidoti, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sisakyan, A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Slaunwhite, J.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snihur, R.; Soderberg, M.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Spalding, J.; Spinella, F.; Spreitzer, T.; Squillacioti, P.; Stanitzki, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Stuart, D.; Suh, J. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Sun, H.; Suslov, I.; Suzuki, T.; Taffard, A.; Takashima, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Terashi, K.; Thom, J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Tipton, P.; Tiwari, V.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Tourneur, S.; Trischuk, W.; Tu, Y.; Turini, N.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Remortel, N.; Varganov, A.; Vataga, E.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Veszpremi, V.; Vidal, M.; Vidal, R.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vine, T.; Vogel, M.; Volobouev, I.; Volpi, G.; Würthwein, F.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, R. L.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wagner, W.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Wester, W. C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Williams, G.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, C.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wynne, S. M.; Yagil, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamashita, T.; Yang, C.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanello, L.; Zanetti, A.; Zaw, I.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.

    2008-05-01

    The Bc± meson is observed through the decay Bc±→J/ψπ±, in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.4fb-1 recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. A signal of 108±15 candidates is observed, with a significance that exceeds 8σ. The mass of the Bc± meson is measured to be 6275.6±2.9(stat)±2.5(syst)MeV/c2.

  12. Observation of Bc+→D0K+ Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baryshnikov, F.; Baszczyk, M.; Batozskaya, V.; Batsukh, B.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Déléage, N.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Funk, W.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hatch, M.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, H.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jiang, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kozachuk, A.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marinangeli, M.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurice, E.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Morgunova, O.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Mussini, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nogay, A.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Placinta, V.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubert, K.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Soares Lavra, l.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevens, H.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Toriello, F.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, J. V.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    Using proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1, recorded by the LHCb detector at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, the Bc+→D0K+ decay is observed with a statistical significance of 5.1 standard deviations. By normalizing to B+→D¯ 0 π+ decays, a measurement of the branching fraction multiplied by the production rates for Bc+ relative to B+ mesons in the LHCb acceptance is obtained, RD0K=(fc/fu)×B (Bc+→D0K+)=(9. 3-2.5+2.8±0.6 )×10-7 , where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This decay is expected to proceed predominantly through weak annihilation and penguin amplitudes, and is the first Bc+ decay of this nature to be observed.

  13. Poliovirus protein 2BC increases cytosolic free calcium concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Aldabe, R; Irurzun, A; Carrasco, L

    1997-01-01

    Poliovirus-infected cells undergo an increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentrations from the 4th h postinfection. The protein responsible for this effect was identified by the expression of different poliovirus nonstructural proteins in HeLa cells by using a recombinant vaccinia virus system. Synthesis of protein 2BC enhances cytoplasmic calcium concentrations in a manner similar to that observed in poliovirus-infected cells. To identify the regions in 2BC involved in modifying cytoplasmic calcium levels, several 2BC variants were generated. Regions present in both 2B and 2C are necessary to augment cellular free calcium levels. Therefore, in addition to inducing proliferation of membranous vesicles, poliovirus protein 2BC also alters cellular calcium homeostasis. PMID:9223520

  14. Superhard cubic BC2N compared to diamond.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Hong; Chen, Changfeng

    2004-11-05

    Recent experiments claimed successful synthesis of cubic boron-carbonitride compounds BC2N with an extreme hardness second only to diamond. In the present Letter, we examine the ideal strength of cubic BC2N using first-principles calculations. Our results reveal that, despite the large elastic parameters, compositional anisotropy and strain dependent bonding character impose limitation on their strength. Consequently, the hardness of the optimal BC2N structure is predicted to be lower than that of cubic BN, the second hardest material known. The measured extreme hardness of BC2N nanocomposites is most likely due to the nanocrystalline size effect and the bonding to the surrounding amorphous carbon matrix. This may prove to be a general rule useful in the quest for new superhard covalent materials.

  15. Uncertainties in BC Estimations: the Role of Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignati, E.; Kloster, S.; Koch, D.; Bauer, S. E.; Dentener, F.; Bond, T.; Sun, H.

    2006-12-01

    Modelling physical and chemical processes involving aerosol particles remains a large source of uncertainties. To characterize the range of uncertainty in these processes on atmospheric BC concentrations, three global models (CTM-TM5, GCM ECHAM5-HAM and GISS GCM) were run using identical BC, particulate organic matter and SO2 emission inventories provided by IIASA for the year 2000. The first two models have the same aerosol dynamic module, while TM5 is also run with a bulk aerosol scheme; the GISS model uses both bulk aerosol and a method of moments aerosol microphysical schemes. We can thus specifically assess the differences in predicted BC concentrations from using the bulk approach and the two microphysical schemes. By comparing the modeled concentrations with an extensive data set of observations, distinguished by measurement methodology, season and region, we will critically evaluate the benefit of using microphysical schemes to simulate the atmospheric BC cycle.

  16. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  17. Characterization of Chromosome Inheritance of the Intergeneric BC2 and BC3 Progeny between Saccharum spp. and Erianthus arundinaceus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongji; Wu, Jiayun; Wang, Ping; Lin, Yanquan; Fu, Cheng; Deng, Zuhu; Wang, Qinnan; Li, Qiwei; Chen, Rukai; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Erianthus arundinaceus (E. arundinaceus) has many desirable agronomic traits for sugarcane improvement, such as high biomass, vigor, rationing ability, tolerance to drought, and water logging, as well as resistance to pests and disease. To investigate the introgression of the E. arundinaceus genome into sugarcane in the higher generations, intergeneric BC2 and BC3 progeny generated between Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus were studied using the genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique. The results showed that the BC2 and BC3 generations resulted from n + n chromosome transmission. Furthermore, chromosome translocation occurred at terminal fragments from the E. arundinaceus chromosome in some progeny of Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus. Notably, the translocated chromosomes could be stably transmitted to their progeny. This study illustrates the characterization of chromosome inheritance of the intergeneric BC2 and BC3 progeny between Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus. This work could provide more useful molecular cytogenetic information for the germplasm resources of E. arundinaceus, and may promote further understanding of the germplasm resources of E. arundinaceus for sugarcane breeders to accelerate its progress in sugarcane commercial breeding.

  18. Characterization of Chromosome Inheritance of the Intergeneric BC2 and BC3 Progeny between Saccharum spp. and Erianthus arundinaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Lin, Yanquan; Fu, Cheng; Deng, Zuhu; Wang, Qinnan; Li, Qiwei; Chen, Rukai; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Erianthus arundinaceus (E. arundinaceus) has many desirable agronomic traits for sugarcane improvement, such as high biomass, vigor, rationing ability, tolerance to drought, and water logging, as well as resistance to pests and disease. To investigate the introgression of the E. arundinaceus genome into sugarcane in the higher generations, intergeneric BC2 and BC3 progeny generated between Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus were studied using the genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique. The results showed that the BC2 and BC3 generations resulted from n + n chromosome transmission. Furthermore, chromosome translocation occurred at terminal fragments from the E. arundinaceus chromosome in some progeny of Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus. Notably, the translocated chromosomes could be stably transmitted to their progeny. This study illustrates the characterization of chromosome inheritance of the intergeneric BC2 and BC3 progeny between Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus. This work could provide more useful molecular cytogenetic information for the germplasm resources of E. arundinaceus, and may promote further understanding of the germplasm resources of E. arundinaceus for sugarcane breeders to accelerate its progress in sugarcane commercial breeding. PMID:26196281

  19. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  20. Photoproduction of the Bc(*) meson at the LHeC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Huan-Yu; Zhang, Ren-You; Han, Hua-Yong; Jiang, Yi; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2017-02-01

    We make a detailed study of the photoproduction mechanism of the doubly heavy flavored Bc(*) meson at the purposed Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) within the framework of nonrelativistic QCD. In addition to the photoproduction mechanism via the gluon-induced channel γ +g →Bc(*)+b +c ¯ , the extrinsic heavy quark mechanism via the two channels γ +c →Bc(*)+b and γ +b ¯ →Bc(*)+c ¯ has also been studied. Those two extrinsic channels are generally suppressed by the heavy quark distribution functions in the proton, which provide significant contributions in the low and intermediate pT region. A detailed comparison of those channels together with the theoretical uncertainties has been presented. By summing up all the mentioned photoproduction channels, we observe that about (1.0 4-0.53+0.90)×1 05 Bc and (4.8 6-2.30+3.72)×1 05 Bc* events can be generated at the LHeC in one operation year with the proton-electron collision energy √{S }=1.30 TeV and the luminosity L ≃1 033 cm-2 s-1 . Here the errors are for mc=1.50 ±0.20 and mb=4.9 ±0.40 GeV . Thus, in addition to the hadronic experiments, the LHeC shall provide another helpful platform for studying the Bc(*) meson properties, especially to test the extrinsic heavy quark mechanism.

  1. The Botrytis cinerea PAK kinase BcCla4 mediates morphogenesis, growth and cell cycle regulating processes downstream of BcRac.

    PubMed

    Minz-Dub, Anna; Sharon, Amir

    2017-02-06

    Rac proteins are involved in a variety of cellular processes. Effector proteins that interact with active Rac convey the GTPase-generated signal to downstream developmental cascades and processes. Here we report on the analysis of the main effector and signal cascade downstream of BcRac, the Rac homolog of the grey mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. Several lines of evidence highlighted the p21-activated kinase Cla4 as an important effector of Rac in fungi. Analysis of Δbccla4 strains revealed that the BcCla4 protein was sufficient to mediate all of the examined BcRac-driven processes, including hyphal growth and morphogenesis, conidia production and pathogenicity. In addition, the Δbccla4 strains had altered nuclei content, a phenomenon that was previously observed in Δbcrac isolates, thus connecting the BcRac/BcCla4 module with cell cycle control. Further analyses revealed that BcRac/BcCla4 control mitotic entry through changes in phosphorylation status of the cyclin dependent kinase BcCdk1. The complete cascade includes the kinase BcWee1, which is downstream of BcCla4 and upstream of BcCdk1. These results provide a mechanistic insight on the connection of cell cycle, morphogenesis and pathogenicity in fungi, and position BcCla4 as the most essential effector and central regulator of all of these processes downstream of BcRac.

  2. Differences Between Magnitudes and Health Impacts of BC ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Recent assessments have analyzed the health impacts of PM2.5 from emissions from different locations and sectors using simplified or reduced-form air quality models. Here we present an alternative approach using the adjoint of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, which provides source–receptor relationships at highly resolved sectoral, spatial, and temporal scales. While damage resulting from anthropogenic emissions of BC is strongly correlated with population and premature death, we found little correlation between damage and emission magnitude, suggesting that controls on the largest emissions may not be the most efficient means of reducing damage resulting from anthropogenic BC emissions. Rather, the best proxy for locations with damaging BC emissions is locations where premature deaths occur. Onroad diesel and nonroad vehicle emissions are the largest contributors to premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC, while onroad gasoline emissions cause the highest deaths per amount emitted. Emissions in fall and winter contribute to more premature deaths (and more per amount emitted) than emissions in spring and summer. Overall, these results show the value of the high-resolution source attribution for determining the locations, seasons, and sectors for which BC emission controls have the most effective health benefits. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s Atmospheric Modeling Division (AMAD) conducts research in support of EPA’s mis

  3. Electronic, elastic, and optical properties of monolayer BC2N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lina; Hu, Meng; Peng, Yusi; Luo, Yanting; Li, Chunmei; Chen, Zhiqian

    2016-12-01

    The structural stability, electronic structure, elasticity, and optical properties of four types of monolayer BC2N have been investigated from first principles using calculation based on density functional theory. The results show that the structural stability of BC2N increases with the number of C-C and B-N bonds. By calculating the two-dimensional Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, and shear anisotropic factors in different directions, four structures present various anisotropies and the most stable structure is almost isotropic. For C-type BC2N, the values of two-dimensional Young's modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus (309, 128, 195 GPa m-1), are smaller than those of graphene (343, 151, 208) but bigger than those of h-BN (286, 185, 116). Furthermore, the dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity, absorption coefficient, and energy loss spectrum are also calculated to investigate the mechanism underpinning the optical transitions in BC2N, revealing monolayer BC2N as a candidate window material.

  4. Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry-Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Dorothy; Bauer, Susanne E.; Del Genio, Anthony; Faluvegi, Greg; McConnell, Joseph R.; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ronald L.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew

    2011-01-01

    The authors simulate transient twentieth-century climate in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, with aerosol and ozone chemistry fully coupled to one another and to climate including a full dynamic ocean. Aerosols include sulfate, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, nitrate, sea salt, and dust. Direct and BC snow-albedo radiative effects are included. Model BC and sulfur trends agree fairly well with records from Greenland and European ice cores and with sulfur deposition in North America; however, the model underestimates the sulfur decline at the end of the century in Greenland. Global BC effects peak early in the century (1940s); afterward the BC effects decrease at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but continue to increase at lower latitudes. The largest increase in aerosol optical depth occurs in the middle of the century (1940s-80s) when sulfate forcing peaks and causes global dimming. After this, aerosols decrease in eastern North America and northern Eurasia leading to regional positive forcing changes and brightening. These surface forcing changes have the correct trend but are too weak. Over the century, the net aerosol direct effect is -0.41 Watts per square meter, the BC-albedo effect is -0.02 Watts per square meter, and the net ozone forcing is +0.24 Watts per square meter. The model polar stratospheric ozone depletion develops, beginning in the 1970s. Concurrently, the sea salt load and negative radiative flux increase over the oceans around Antarctica. Net warming over the century is modeled fairly well; however, the model fails to capture the dynamics of the observedmidcentury cooling followed by the late century warming.Over the century, 20% of Arctic warming and snow ice cover loss is attributed to the BC albedo effect. However, the decrease in this effect at the end of the century contributes to Arctic cooling. To test the climate responses to sulfate and BC pollution, two experiments were branched from 1970 that removed

  5. Plume Delineation in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, Dale F.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2004-11-30

    HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc. and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were contracted by Fluor Hanford Group, Inc. to conduct a geophysical investigation in the area of the BC Cribs and Trenches (subject site) at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The BC Cribs and Trenches are located south of the 200 East Area. This document provides the details of the investigation to identify existing infrastructure from legacy disposal activities and to delineate the edges of a groundwater plume that contains radiological and heavy metal constituents beneath the 216-B-26 and 216-B-52 Trenches, and the 216-B-14 through 216-B-19 Cribs.

  6. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  7. High-Tc Superconductivity in Superhard Diamondlike BC5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco

    2008-07-01

    Using density functional theory calculations we show that the recently synthesized superhard diamondlike BC5 is superconducting with a critical temperature of the same order as that of MgB2. The average electron-phonon coupling is λ=0.89, the phonon-frequency logarithmic average is ⟨ω⟩log⁡=67.4meV, and the isotope coefficients are α(C)=0.3 and α(B)=0.2. In BC5, superconductivity is mostly sustained by concerted vibrations of the B atom and its C neighbors.

  8. Study of Υ(nS) → Bcρ and BcK∗ decays within the QCD factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Qin; Zhang, Yunyun; Han, Lin

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the heavy-flavor experiments at running Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and upgrading SuperKEKB, which provide abundant Υ data samples, the tree-dominated Υ(nS) → Bcρ and BcK∗ (n =1, 2, 3) weak decays are studied within the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) factorization. The QCD corrections to the longitudinal and transverse amplitudes are evaluated at next-to-leading order, and the branching fractions and polarization fractions are predicted. Numerically, the Υ(nS) → Bcρ decays have relatively large branching fractions at the order of 𝒪(10-10) and are in the scope of the LHC and SuperKEKB/Belle-II experiments.

  9. Taming B.C. Hydro: Site C and the implementation of the B.C. Utilities Commission Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. Graham

    1988-07-01

    Public policy making in resources management is greatly influenced by the institutional arrangements that arise out of the legal powers, administrative structures, and financial provisions of the decision system. In British Columbia, the institutional arrangements for energy planning in the province have been greatly altered by the passage of the Utilities Commission Act in 1980. This act redefines the policy implementation process for energy in British Columbia and provides for the regulation of the province's power utility, B.C. Hydro. This is the first time that the hitherto autonomous utility has been subject to regulation and the Utilities Commission Act represents a major reform in the institutional arrangements for energy planning in the province. The article evaluates the effectiveness of the 1980 B.C. Utilities Commission Act and assesses the impact of the legislation upon the institutional arrangements for energy planning in the province. Data for the article were derived from written sources and a series of personal interviews with key participants involved with energy planning in B.C. It is shown that the act represented a major departure in the management of energy resources in B.C. Moreover the implementation of the act's provisions, particularly in regard to B.C. Hydro, had a dramatic impact on the development of new energy projects in the province. It is suggested that while the political and economic climate during the period also favored restraint, the major influence on “taming” the utility was passage of the Utilities Commission Act. The article concludes by exploring the implications of policy changes that have occurred as a consequence of the act's impact on B.C. Hydro.

  10. Sosigenes of Alexandria (c. 50 or 90 BC-?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Peripatetic Greek philosopher, born in Alexandria, astronomer and mathematician who advised Julius Caesar on calendar reform. He recommended a year of 365.25 days, and inserted extra days into the year 46 BC to bring the calendar back in register with the seasons. His account of Eudoxus's planetary system is the most complete surviving account....

  11. The current status and future perspectives of CSPOR-BC.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Tomohiko; Mukai, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    The Comprehensive Support Project for Oncology Research in Breast Cancer (CSPOR-BC) was initiated in 2000 as part of the investigation project of the Stress Science Research Institute, which was founded by the Public Health Research Foundation. The main objective of CSPOR-BC is to comprehensively support investigator-initiated clinical trials, research related to health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), and epidemiological research for breast cancer. After its initiation, 6 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on adjuvant therapy for breast cancer and 2 RCTs on metastatic breast cancer have been conducted. To date, patient recruitment has been completed in 3 trials on adjuvant therapy and 1 trial on metastatic breast cancer. In addition to the assessment of efficacy and quality of life, treatment-related side effects have been evaluated. Large cohort studies have been accompanied by some RCTs to evaluate the effect of lifestyle, use of complementary and alternative medicine, sociopsychological factors, and supportive therapies on prognoses of patients with primary breast cancer. These subanalyses are unique to clinical trials conducted by CSPOR-BC. In this report, the current status and future perspectives of CSPOR-BC are described.

  12. Bacterial Cellulose (BC) as a Functional Nanocomposite Biomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandgaonkar, Avinav Ghanashyam

    Cellulosic is the most abundant biopolymer in the landscape and can be found in many different organisms. It has been already seen use in the medical field, for example cotton for wound dressings and sutures. Although cellulose is naturally occurring and has found a number of applications inside and outside of the medical field, it is not typically produced in its pure state. A lengthy process is required to separate the lignin, hemicelluloses and other molecules from the cellulose in most renewables (wood, agricultural fibers such as cotton, monocots, grasses, etc.). Although bacterial cellulose has a similar chemical structure to plant cellulose, it is easier to process because of the absence of lignin and hemicelluloses which require a lot of energy and chemicals for removal. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is produced from various species of bacteria such as Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Due to its high water uptake, it has the tendency to form gels. It displays high tensile strength, biocompatibility, and purity compared to wood cellulose. It has found applications in fields such as paper, paper products, audio components (e.g., speaker diaphragms), flexible electronics, supercapacitors, electronics, and soft tissue engineering. In my dissertation, we have functionalized and studied BC-based materials for three specific applications: cartilage tissue engineering, bioelectronics, and dye degradation. In our first study, we prepared a highly organized porous material based on BC by unidirectional freezing followed by a freeze-drying process. Chitosan was added to impart additional properties to the resulting BC-based scaffolds that were evaluated in terms of their morphological, chemical, and physical properties for cartilage tissue engineering. The properties of the resulting scaffold were tailored by adjusting the concentration of chitosan over 1, 1.5, and 2 % (by wt-%). The scaffolds containing chitosan showed excellent shape recovery and structural stability after

  13. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2011-07-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of its official program, within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial activities. This event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project `Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4', supported by the National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya in 1980, and was followed by: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006) and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss recent progress and outlooks in plasma science, covering fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, plasma applications, etc. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005) and Caracas (2007). The purpose of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is to provide a forum in which the achievements of the Latin American plasma physics communities can be displayed, as well as to foster collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The Program of ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included

  14. Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013) Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.

    2014-10-01

    In magnetic fusion plasmas, a significant fraction of the kinetic pressure is contributed by superthermal charged particles produced by auxiliary heating (fast ions and electrons) and fusion reactions (a-particles). Since these energetic particles are often far away from thermal equilibrium due to their non-Maxwellian distribution and steep pressure gradients, the free energy can excite electromagnetic instabilities to intensity levels well above the thermal fluctuations. The resultant electromagnetic turbulence could induce large transport of energetic particles, which could reduce heating efficiency, degrade overall plasma confinement, and damage fusion devices. Therefore, understanding and predicting energetic particle confinement properties are critical to the success of burning plasma experiments such as ITER since the ignition relies on plasma self-heating by a-particles. To promote international exchanges and collaborations on energetic particle physics, the biannual conference series under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were help in Kyiv (1989), Aspenas (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007), Kyiv (2009), and Austin (2011). The papers in this special section were presented at the most recent meeting, the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was hosted by the Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing, China (17-20 September 2013). The program of the meeting consisted of 71 presentations, including 13 invited talks, 26 oral contributed talks, 30 posters, and 2 summary talks, which were selected by the International Advisory Committee (IAC). The IAC members include H. Berk, L.G. Eriksson, A. Fasoli, W. Heidbrink, Ya. Kolesnichenko, Ph. Lauber, Z. Lin, R. Nazikian, S. Pinches, S. Sharapov, K. Shinohara, K. Toi, G. Vlad, and X.T. Ding. The conference program

  15. Observation of Bc+→J /ψ D(*)K(*) decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baryshnikov, F.; Baszczyk, M.; Batozskaya, V.; Batsukh, B.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Déléage, N.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Funk, W.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hatch, M.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, H.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jiang, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kozachuk, A.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marinangeli, M.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurice, E.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Morgunova, O.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Mussini, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nogay, A.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Placinta, V.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubert, K.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Soares Lavra, l.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevens, H.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Toriello, F.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, J. V.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    A search for the decays Bc+→J /ψ D(*)0K+ and Bc+→J /ψ D(*)+K*0 is performed with data collected at the LHCb experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 . The decays Bc+→J /ψ D0K+ and Bc+→J /ψ D*0K+ are observed for the first time, while first evidence is reported for the Bc+→J /ψ D*+K*0 and Bc+→J /ψ D+K*0 decays. The branching fractions of these decays are determined relative to the Bc+→J /ψ π+ decay. The Bc+ mass is measured, using the J /ψ D0K+ final state, to be 6274.28 ±1.40 (stat) ±0.32 (syst) MeV /c2 . This is the most precise single measurement of the Bc+ mass to date.

  16. Overview of Hydrometeorologic Forecasting Procedures at BC Hydro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollor, D.

    2004-12-01

    Energy utility companies must balance production from limited sources with increasing demand from industrial, business, and residential consumers. The utility planning process requires a balanced, efficient, and effective distribution of energy from source to consumer. Therefore utility planners must consider the impact of weather on energy production and consumption. Hydro-electric companies should be particularly tuned to weather because their source of energy is water, and water supply depends on precipitation. BC Hydro operates as the largest hydro-electric company in western Canada, managing over 30 reservoirs within the province of British Columbia, and generating electricity for 1.6 million people. BC Hydro relies on weather forecasts of watershed precipitation and temperature to drive hydrologic reservoir inflow models and of urban temperatures to meet energy demand requirements. Operations and planning specialists in the company rely on current, value-added weather forecasts for extreme high-inflow events, daily reservoir operations planning, and long-term water resource management. Weather plays a dominant role for BC Hydro financial planners in terms of sensitive economic responses. For example, a two percent change in hydropower generation, due in large part to annual precipitation patterns, results in an annual net change of \\50 million in earnings. A five percent change in temperature produces a \\5 million change in yearly earnings. On a daily basis, significant precipitation events or temperature extremes involve potential profit/loss decisions in the tens of thousands of dollars worth of power generation. These factors are in addition to environmental and societal costs that must be considered equally as part of a triple bottom line reporting structure. BC Hydro water resource managers require improved meteorological information from recent advancements in numerical weather prediction. At BC Hydro, methods of providing meteorological forecast data

  17. Drought frequency in central California since 101 B.C. recordered in giant sequoia tree rings

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.K.; Brown, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Well replicated tree-ring width index chronologies have been developed for giant sequoia at three sites in the Sierra Nevada, California. Extreme low-growth events in these chronologies correspond with regional drought events in the twentieth century in the San Joaquin drainage, in which the giant sequoia sites are located. This relationship is based upon comparison of tree-ring indices with August Palmer Drought Severity Indices for California Climate Division 5. Ring-width indices in the lowest decile from each site were compared. The frequency of low-growth events which occurred at all three sites in the same year is reconstructed from 101 B.C. to A.D. 1988. The inferred frequency of severe drought events changes through time, sometimes suddenly. The period from roughly 1850 to 1950 had one of the lowest frequencies of drought of any one hundred year period in the 2089 year record. The twentieth century so far has had a below-average frequency of extreme droughts. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases BcPtpA and BcPtpB in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and multi-stress tolerance in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Yu, Fangwei; Yin, Yanni; Ma, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation have emerged as fundamentally important mechanisms of signal transduction and regulation in eukaryotic cells, governing many processes, but little has been known about their functions in filamentous fungi. In this study, we deleted two putative protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) genes (BcPTPA and BcPTPB) in Botrytis cinerea, encoding the orthologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ptp2 and Ptp3, respectively. Although BcPtpA and BcPtpB have opposite functions in conidiation, they are essential for sclerotial formation in B. cinerea. BcPTPA and BcPTPB deletion mutants ΔBcPtpA-10 and ΔBcPtpB-4 showed significantly increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to cell wall damaging agents. Inoculation tests showed that both mutants exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on tomato leaves, apples and grapes. In S. cerevisiae, it has been shown that Ptp2 and Ptp3 negatively regulate the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway and the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. Although both BcPtpA and BcPtpB were able to inactive Hog1 and Mpk1 in S. cerevisiae, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, they positively regulate phosphorylation of BcSak1 (the homologue of Hog1) and BcBmp3 (the homologue of Mpk1) in B. cinerea under stress conditions. These results demonstrated that functions of PTPs in B. cinerea are different from those in S. cerevisiae, and BcPtpA and BcPtpB play important roles in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and in adaptation to oxidative, osmotic and cell-wall damage stresses in B. cinerea.

  19. Variation of the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field in Portugal in the 1st millennium BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.

    2009-07-01

    The study of magnetization of the ceramic material from 21 archeological monuments of Portugal (the Evora province), dated archeologically from the Bronze Age to the end of the Iron Age has been carried out. For the purpose of more detailed timing of the material from the monuments the method of ceramic age dating on the basis of its porosity has been used. In order to take into account the distorted factors in the determination of the parameters of the ancient geomagnetic field with the aim of the maximal approximation to the actual values the diagnostic features of magnetite weathering have been considered and the level of weathering of the magnetic fraction in the ceramics from archeological monuments has been determined. The data of geomagnetic field-strength variation in the time interval of the 12th century BC to the beginning of the Common Era have been obtained. The field-strength at this time interval varied in the range of 60-90 micro Tesla with the maximal values in the 9th, 8th, and the second half of the 5th to the beginning of the 4th century BC. In addition, the timing of the ceramic material from the urns of the megalithic complex Monte de Tera of the Evora province has been clarified.

  20. Neutron detection and applications using a BC454/BGO array

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.C.; Biddle, R.S.; Bourret, S.C.

    1998-12-01

    Neutron detection and multiplicity counting has been investigated using a boron-loaded plastic scintillator (BC454)/bismuth germanate (BGO) phoswich detector array. Boron-loaded plastic combines neutron moderation (H) and detection ({sup 10}B) at the molecular level, thereby physically coupling increasing detection efficiency and decreasing die-away time with detector volume. Separation of the phoswich response into its plastic scintillator and bismuth germanate components was accomplished on an event-by-event basis using custom integrator and timing circuits, enabling a prompt coincidence requirement between the BC454 and BGO to be used to identify neutron captures. In addition, a custom time-tag module was used to provide a time for each detector event. Time-correlation analysis was subsequently performed on the filtered event stream to obtain shift-register-type singles and doubles count rates.

  1. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  2. The Pan 13th Annual Forum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Poulakidas, CAMR, Sean Tipton, CAMR, Larry Soler , CAMR Plenary Session: Emerging Therapies: Parkinson’s Treatments in the Pipeline...October 2005. J. Alexander ’’Andy’’ Salisbury -- North Carolina Mr. Salisbury is a lawyer, working extensively with the energy and public utility

  3. The 13th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Technological areas covered include propulsion, motion compensation, instrument pointing and adjustment, centrifuge testing, bearing design, vehicle braking, and cargo handling. Devices for satellite, missile, and hypersonic-wind-tunnel applications; space shuttle mechanical and thermal protection systems; and techniques for building large space structures are described. In addition, a fluid drop injector device for a Spacelab experiment, a helical grip for cable cars, and applications of rare earth permanent magnets are discussed.

  4. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  5. Dynamical Mass of the Substellar Benchmark Binary HD 130948BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.; Ireland, Michael J.

    2009-02-01

    We present Keck adaptive optics imaging of the L4+L4 binary HD 130948BC along with archival Hubble Space Telescope and Gemini North observations, which together span ≈ 70% of the binary's orbital period. From the relative orbit, we determine a total dynamical mass of 0.109 ± 0.003 M sun (114 ± 3 M Jup). The flux ratio of HD 130948BC is near unity, so both components are unambiguously substellar for any plausible mass ratio. An independent constraint on the age of the system is available from the primary HD 130948A (G2V, [M/H] = 0.0). The ensemble of available indicators suggests an age comparable to Hyades, with the most precise age being 0.79+0.22 -0.15 Gyr based on gyrochronology. Therefore, HD 130948BC is now a unique benchmark among field L and T dwarfs, with a well-determined mass, luminosity, and age. We find that substellar theoretical models disagree with our observations. (1) Both components of HD 130948BC appear to be overluminous by a factor of ≈ 2-3 times compared to evolutionary models. The age of the system would have to be notably younger than the gyro age to ameliorate the luminosity disagreement. (2) Effective temperatures derived from evolutionary models for HD 130948B and C are inconsistent with temperatures determined from spectral synthesis for objects of similar spectral type. Overall, regardless of the adopted age, evolutionary and atmospheric models give inconsistent results, which indicate systematic errors in at least one class of models, possibly both. The masses of HD 130948BC happen to be very near the theoretical mass limit for lithium burning, and thus measuring the differential lithium depletion between B and C will provide a uniquely discriminating test of theoretical models. The potential underestimate of luminosities by evolutionary models would have wide-ranging implications; therefore, a more refined estimate age for HD 130948A is critically needed. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory (program IDs GN

  6. Profile of BC College Transfer Students 2003/04 to 2007/08. Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    This newsletter summarizes the results from five reports commissioned by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) that profiled the academic experiences and demographics of BC college transfer students: those students who transferred from a BC college, university college, or institute to a BC university during the period…

  7. 21 CFR 528.1070 - Bc6 recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid construct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ANIMALS § 528.1070 Bc6 recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid construct. (a) Specifications and indications for use. Five copies of a human Bc6 recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) construct located at the GTC... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bc6 recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid...

  8. Measurements of B(c)+ production and mass with the B(c)+ → J/ψπ+ decay.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Maino, M; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Voss, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-12-07

    Measurements of B(c)(+) production and mass are performed with the decay mode B(c)(+)→J/ψπ(+) using 0.37 fb(-1) of data collected in pp collisions at √[s]=7 TeV by the LHCb experiment. The ratio of the production cross section times branching fraction between the B(c)(+)→J/ψπ(+) and the B(+)→J/ψK(+) decays is measured to be (0.68±0.10(stat)±0.03(syst)±0.05(lifetime))% for B(c)(+) and B(+) mesons with transverse momenta p(T)>4 GeV/c and pseudorapidities 2.5<η<4.5. The B(c)(+) mass is directly measured to be 6273.7±1.3(stat)±1.6(syst) MeV/c(2), and the measured mass difference with respect to the B(+) meson is M(B(c)(+))-M(B(+))=994.6±1.3(stat)±0.6(syst) MeV/c(2).

  9. 'Non-criteria' aPL tests: report of a task force and preconference workshop at the 13th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies, Galveston, TX, USA, April 2010.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, M L; Amengual, O; Atsumi, T; Binder, W L; de Laat, B; Forastiero, R; Kutteh, W H; Lambert, M; Matsubayashi, H; Murthy, V; Petri, M; Rand, J H; Sanmarco, M; Tebo, A E; Pierangeli, S S

    2011-02-01

    Abstract: Current classification criteria for definite APS recommend the use of one or more of three positive standardized laboratory assays, including anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), lupus anticoagulant (LA), and antibodies directed to β(2)glycoprotein I (anti-β(2)GPI) to detect antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in the presence of at least one of the two major clinical manifestations (i.e., thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity) of the syndrome. Several other autoantibodies shown to be directed to phospholipids and/or their complexes with phospholipids and/or to proteins of the coagulation cascade, as well as a mechanistic test for resistance to annexin A5 anticoagulant activity, have been proposed to be relevant to APS. A task force of worldwide scientists in the field discussed and analyzed critical questions related to 'non-criteria' aPL tests in an evidence-based manner during the 13th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLA 2010, 13-16 April 2010, Galveston, Texas, USA). This report summarizes the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of this task force.

  10. Meeting report: The 13th Annual Meeting of the Translational Research Cancer Centers Consortium (TrC3); Immune Suppression and the Tumor Microenvironment, Columbus, Ohio; March 1-2, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lesinski, Gregory B; Carson, William E; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Wei, Wei-zen; Kalinski, Pawel; Lotze, Michael T; June, Carl H; Petros, William; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Olencki, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    The Translational Research Cancer Centers Consortium (TrC3) is a cancer immunotherapy network, established to promote biologic therapeutics in the Midwestern and Northeastern regions of The United States. The 13th Annual Meeting of the TrC3 was hosted by The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute and took place at The Blackwell Hotel and Conference Center in Columbus, OH on March 1-2, 2010 (http://www.osuccc.osu.edu/TrC3/index.htm). This year's theme was "Immune Suppression and the Tumor Microenvironment." The meeting consisted of 21 oral presentations, a roundtable discussion focused on enhancing collaborative relationships within the consortium, and a poster session with 54 abstracts from predoctoral or postdoctoral researchers. This annual meeting brought together more than 170 investigators from 9 regional cancer centers including: Abramson Cancer Center at The University of Pennsylvania, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute at Wayne State University, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center at West Virginia University, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Penn State Cancer Institute, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute. The proceedings of this year's meeting are summarized in this report.

  11. Geomagnetic field intensity in the eastern Mediterranean region in the second half of the 1st millennium BC and the beginning of our era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Il'Ina, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    The magnetization of ceramic material manufactured in the eastern Mediterranean is studied. Data on the variation in geomagnetic field intensity in the time interval from the fourth-quarter of the 6th century BC through the 2nd century AD are obtained. The main tendency of the variation in the field intensity until approximately the middle of this interval is its decrease, after which the average intensity level varied insignificantly over the three next centuries. Variations with characteristic times of a few tens to a few hundreds of years are superimposed on the smooth variation in the field intensity approximated by a sinusoid with a period of 1600 yr. The data obtained in this work confirm the previously derived conclusion that short-term intensity variations have been permanently present in the geomagnetic field in the recent millennia.

  12. Regulation of alternative splicing of Bcl-x by BC200 contributes to breast cancer pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, R; Gupta, S C; Peng, W-X; Zhou, N; Pochampally, R; Atfi, A; Watabe, K; Lu, Z; Mo, Y-Y

    2016-01-01

    BC200 is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that has been implicated in the regulation of protein synthesis, yet whether dysregulation of BC200 contributes to the pathogenesis of human diseases remains elusive. In this study, we show that BC200 is upregulated in breast cancer; among breast tumor specimens there is a higher level of BC200 in estrogen receptor (ER) positive than in ER-negative tumors. Further experiments show that activation of estrogen signaling induces expression of BC200. To determine the significance of ER-regulated BC200 expression, we knockout (KO) BC200 by CRISPR/Cas9. BC200 KO suppresses tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo by expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-xS isoform. Mechanistically, BC200 contains a 17-nucleotide sequence complementary to Bcl-x pre-mRNA, which may facilitate its binding to Bcl-x pre-mRNA and recruitment of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1, a known splicing factor. Consequently, hnRNP A2/B1 interferes with association of Bcl-x pre-mRNA with the Bcl-xS-promoting factor Sam68, leading to a blockade of Bcl-xS expression. Together, these results suggest that BC200 plays an oncogenic role in breast cancer. Thus, BC200 may serve as a prognostic marker and possible target for attenuating deregulated cell proliferation in estrogen-dependent breast cancer. PMID:27277684

  13. Voyaging from the Past, to the Present, and into the Future: Knowing Your Heritage. Selected Papers from PIALA 2003, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums Annual Conference (13th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 4-6, 2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 13th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 4-6, 2003. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2003 Planning &…

  14. PIALA 2000: Libraries and Archives--Where Information and Language Literacy Begin [and] Engaged Readers and Writers in Multicultural Island Communities. Selected Papers from the 10th Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference Joint with the 13th Annual Regional Language Arts Conference (Tumon, Guam, November 9-11, 2000)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.; Quan, Clarisa G., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This proceedings combines presentations from the jointly held 10th Annual PIALA 2000 Conference and the 13th Annual Regional Language Arts Conference. The volume begins with the welcoming remarks of Mary L. Silk, Christine Ku Scott-Smith, Antonio R. Umpingco, Delia Munoz Rosal, Lawrence Kasperbauer, Rosie Tainatongo, Richard S. Tom, Mary L.…

  15. Characterization of BcMF23a and BcMF23b, two putative pectin methylesterase genes related to pollen development in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sue; Huang, Li; Yu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xingpeng; Yue, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingting; Liang, Ying; Lv, Meiling; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    Two homologous genes, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 23a (BcMF23a) and Brassica campestris Male Fertility 23b (BcMF23b), encoding putative pectin methylesterases (PMEs) were isolated from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis (syn. Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis). These two genes sharing high sequence identity with each other were highly expressed in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile line system ('Bcajh97-01A/B'). Results of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization suggested that BcMF23a and BcMF23b were pollen-expressed genes, whose transcripts were first detected at the binucleate pollen and maintained throughout to the mature pollen grains. Western blot indicated that both of the putative BcMF23a and BcMF23b proteins are approximately 40 kDa, which exhibited extracellular localization revealed by transient expression analysis in the onion epidermal cells. The promoter of BcMF23a was active specifically in pollen during the late pollen developmental stages, while, in addition to the pollen, BcMF23b promoter drove an extra gene expression in the valve margins, abscission layer at the base of the first true leaves, taproot and lateral roots in seedlings.

  16. Identification of pBC218/pBC210 Genes of Bacillus cereus G9241 in Five Florida Soils Using qPCR.

    PubMed

    Luna, Vicki Ann; Nguyen, Kimmy; Gilling, Damian H

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of the virulent plasmid pBC210 of B. cereus that carries several B. anthracis genes and has been implicated in lethal anthrax-like pulmonary disease is unknown. We screened our collection of 103 B. cereus isolates and 256 soil samples using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay that targeted three open reading frames putatively unique to pBC210. When tested with DNA from 2 B. cereus strains carrying pBC210, and 64 Gram-positive and 55 Gram-negative bacterial species, the assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity. None of the DNA from the B. cereus isolates yielded positive amplicons but DNA extracted from five soils collected in Florida gave positive results for all three target sequences of pBC210. While screening confirms that pBC210 is uncommon in B. cereus, this study is the first to report that pBC210 is present in Florida soils. This study improves our knowledge of the distribution of pBC210 in soils and, of public health importance, the potential threat of B. cereus isolates carrying the toxin-carrying plasmid. We demonstrated that sequences of pBC210 can be found in a larger geographical area than previously thought and that finding more B. cereus carrying the virulent plasmid is a possibility in the future.

  17. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: a technical study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO3) and Fe (existing as Fe2O3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

  18. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: A technical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO 3) and Fe (existing as Fe 2O 3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

  19. From 200 BC to 2015 AD: an integration of robotic surgery and Ayurveda/Yoga

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Geethakrishnan Gopalakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Background Among the traditional systems of medicine practiced all over the world, Ayurveda and Yoga has a documented history dating back to beyond 200 BC. Robotic and video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is an invention of the 21st century. We aim to quantify the effects of integration of Ayurveda and Yoga on patients undergoing minimally invasive robotic and VATS. Methods Four hundred and fifty-four patients undergoing VATS and robotic thoracic surgery were introduced to a pre and postoperative protocol of Yoga therapy, mediation and oil massages. Yoga exercises included Pranayam, Anulom Vilom, and Oil Massages included Urotarpan. Preoperative and postoperative respiratory functions were recorded. Patient satisfaction questionnaire were noted. Statistical comparison was made to control group undergoing minimally invasive thoracic surgery without integrative medicine. Only one patient refused to undergo Ayurveda therapy and was deleted from the group. Results Acceptability was high among all patients. Preoperative training led to implementation as early as 6 hours post surgery. Pulmonary function test showed significant improvement. All patients suggested an improvement in satisfaction score. Pain score were less in study patients. Quicker mobilization led to early discharge and drain removal. Chronic pain was prevented in patients having oil massages over the healed wound sites. Conclusions Integration of Ayurveda, Yoga and minimally invasive robotic and VATS is acceptable to Indian patients and gives better clinical results and higher patient satisfaction. PMID:26941975

  20. Regulation of conidiation in Botrytis cinerea involves the light-responsive transcriptional regulators BcLTF3 and BcREG1.

    PubMed

    Brandhoff, Beate; Simon, Adeline; Dornieden, Anne; Schumacher, Julia

    2017-04-05

    Botrytis cinerea is a plant pathogenic fungus with a broad host range. Due to its rapid growth and reproduction by asexual spores (conidia), which increases the inoculum pressure, the fungus is a serious problem in different fields of agriculture. The formation of the conidia is promoted by light, whereas the formation of sclerotia as survival structures occurs in its absence. Based on this observation, putative transcription factors (TFs) whose expression is induced upon light exposure have been considered as candidates for activating conidiation and/or repressing sclerotial development. Previous studies reported on the identification of six light-responsive TFs (LTFs), and two of them have been confirmed as crucial developmental regulators: BcLTF2 is the positive regulator of conidiation, whose expression is negatively regulated by BcLTF1. Here, the functional characterization of the four remaining LTFs is reported. BcLTF3 has a dual function, as it represses conidiophore development by repressing bcltf2 in light and darkness, and is moreover essential for conidiogenesis. In bcltf3 deletion mutants conidium initials grow out to hyphae, which develop secondary conidiophores. In contrast, no obvious functions could be assigned to BcLTF4, BcLTF5 and BcLTF6 in these experiments. BcREG1, previously reported to be required for virulence and conidiogenesis, has been re-identified as light-responsive transcriptional regulator. Studies with bcreg1 overexpression strains indicated that BcREG1 differentially affects conidiation by acting as a repressor of BcLTF2-induced conidiation in the light and as an activator of a BcLTF2-independent conidiation program in the dark.

  1. A compositional study of a museum jewellery collection (7th-1st BC) by means of a portable XRF spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydas, A. G.; Kotzamani, D.; Bernard, R.; Barrandon, J. N.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2004-11-01

    Within the framework of the project "Jewelmed" (ICA3-1999-10020), the chemical composition of 34 gold and four silver jewels was examined. These jewels belong to the Benaki museum's collection in Athens, Greece and are dating from the 7th to the 1st century BC. The compositional analysis of the jewels was performed by means of a "home-made" portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. The XRF results have shown that the gold jewels can be categorized in two groups, which include artifacts made by native and by high purity gold, respectively. For the silver jewels the results have provided interesting information regarding the manufacturing technology, the authenticity of the jewels and the raw materials used. The potential and the limitations of the XRF technique, applied in the chemical analysis of archaeological metal artifacts, are also discussed.

  2. Avoiding HFC growth is critical for keeping global warming below 2 °C during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Zaelke, D.; Velders, G. J. M.; Ramanathan, V.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing international interest in mitigating climate change during the early part of this century by reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), in addition to reducing emissions of CO2. The SLCPs include methane (CH4), black carbon aerosols (BC), tropospheric ozone (O3) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Recent studies have estimated that by mitigating emissions of CH4, BC, and O3 using available technologies, about 0.5 to 0.6 °C warming can be avoided by mid-21st century. Here we show that avoiding production and use of high-GWP (global warming potential) HFCs by using technologically feasible low-GWP substitutes to meet the increasing global demand can avoid as much as another 0.5 °C warming by end of the century, therefore significantly reducing the rate of warming and lowering the probability of exceeding the 2 °C warming threshold during this century.

  3. A Hydro System Modeling Hierarchy to Optimize the Operation of the BC Hydroelectric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawwash, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We present the Hydro System Modeling Hierarchy that we have developed to optimize the operation of the BC Hydro system in British Columbia, Canada. The Hierarchy consists of a number of simulation and optimization models that we have developed over the past twelve years in a research program under the Grant-in-Aid Agreement between BC Hydro and the Department of Civil Engineering at UBC. We first provide an overview of the BC Hydro system and then present our modeling framework and discuss a number of optimization modeling tools that we have developed and are currently in use at BC Hydro and we briefly outline ongoing research and model development work supported by BC Hydro and leveraged by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council's (NSERC) Collaborative Research and Development (CRD) grants.he BC Hydro System Optimization Modeling Hierarchy

  4. Radiative leptonic Bc decay in the relativistic independent quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, N.; Naimuddin, Sk.; Dash, P. C.; Kar, Susmita

    2008-12-01

    The radiative leptonic decay Bc-→μ-ν¯μγ is analyzed in its leading order in a relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratio for this decay in the vanishing lepton mass limit is obtained as Br(Bc→μνμγ)=6.83×10-5, which includes the contributions of the internal bremsstrahlung and structure-dependent diagrams at the level of the quark constituents. The contributions of the bremsstrahlung and the structure-dependent diagrams, as well as their additive interference parts, are compared and found to be of the same order of magnitude. Finally, the predicted photon energy spectrum is observed here to be almost symmetrical about the peak value of the photon energy at Ẽγ≃(MBc)/(4), which may be quite accessible experimentally at LHC in near future.

  5. Hadron Spectroscopy, exotics and BC + physics at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Biplab

    2016-11-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study properties and decays of heavy flavored hadrons produced from pp collisions at the LHC. During Run 1, it has recorded the world's largest data sample of beauty and charm hadrons, enabling precision spectroscopy studies of such particles. Several important results obtained by LHCb, such as the discovery of the first pentaquark states and the first unambiguous determination of the Zc (4430) - as an exotic state, have dramatically increased the interest in spectroscopy of heavy hadrons. An overview of the latest LHCb results on the subject, including the discovery of four strange exotic states decaying as X → J/ψϕ, is presented. LHCb has also made significant contributions to the field of BC + physics, the lowest bound state of the heavy flavor ̅b and c quarks. A synopsis of the latest results is given.

  6. Measurement of the lifetime of the Bc+/- meson in the semileptonic decay channel.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalk, J M; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Krop, D; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Leveque, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-03-06

    Using approximately 1.3 fb(-1) of data collected by the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, we measure the lifetime of the Bc+/- meson in the Bc-/+-->J/psimicro+/-+X final state. A simultaneous unbinned likelihood fit to the J/psi+micro invariant mass and lifetime distributions yields a signal of 881+/-80(stat) candidates and a lifetime measurement of tau(Bc+/-)=0.448(-0.036)(+0.038)(stat)+/-0.032(syst) ps.

  7. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  8. EKTACHEM bilirubin fraction Bc as a predictor of liver transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Cox, C J; Valdiserri, R O; Zerbe, T R; Genter, J L

    1987-10-01

    Bilirubin fractions Bc and DELTA, not routinely available prior to the EKTACHEM Chemistry Analyzer and its slide methodology, were studied in an outpatient population of liver transplant recipients. A preliminary evaluation by the authors has shown that direct bilirubin (DBILI) levels in the normal range consist almost exclusively of DELTA (protein-bound conjugated bilirubin), while at elevated DBILI levels, an increasing amount of Bc (non-protein-bound conjugated bilirubin) is measured as well. The present study evaluated the clinical significance of Bc in the serum of 80 liver transplant recipients as a means of identifying episodes of rejection. Each patient was classified into rejection or nonrejection categories based on clinical status, liver biopsy results, and/or response to therapy. Eighteen patients were classified as experiencing an episode of rejection during the period of this study. Fourteen of these (77.8%) had Bc levels that ranged from 0.1 to 6.8 mg/dl. Sixty two patients were classified in the nonrejection category. Fourteen (22.6%) of these patients had Bc levels that ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 mg/dl. In our outpatient liver transplant recipients with Bc greater than or equal to 0.1 mg/dl, the relative risk of rejection (% of rejection patients with Bc/% of nonrejection patients with Bc) was 3.44. This value indicates that Bc determination may be a helpful adjunct in the assessment of rejection.

  9. BC1 RNA: transcriptional analysis of a neural cell-specific RNA polymerase III transcript.

    PubMed Central

    Martignetti, J A; Brosius, J

    1995-01-01

    Rodent BC1 RNA represents the first example of a neural cell-specific RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription product. By developing a rat brain in vitro system capable of supporting Pol III-directed transcription, we showed that the rat BC1 RNA intragenic promoter elements, comprising an A box element and a variant B box element, as well as its upstream region, containing octamer-binding consensus sequences and functional TATA and proximal sequence element sites, are necessary for transcription. The BC1 B box, lacking the invariant A residue found in the consensus B boxes of tRNAs, represents a functionally related and possibly distinct promoter element. The transcriptional activity of the BC1 B box element is greatly increased, in both a BC1 RNA and a chimeric tRNA(Leu) gene construct, when the BC1 5' flanking region is present and is appropriately spaced. Moreover, a tRNA consensus B-box sequence can efficiently replace the BC1 B box only if the BC1 upstream region is removed. These interactions, identified only in a homologous in vitro system, between upstream Pol II and intragenic Pol III promoters suggest a mechanism by which the tissue-specific BC1 RNA gene and possibly other Pol III-transcribed genes can be regulated. PMID:7862155

  10. 21st Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

  11. Importance of composition and hygroscopicity of BC particles to the effect of BC mitigation on cloud properties: Application to California conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, Ranjit; Russell, Lynn M.; Jacobson, Mark Z.; Prather, Kimberly; Nenes, Athanasios; Adams, Peter; Seinfeld, John H.

    2012-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) has many effects on climate including the direct effect on atmospheric absorption, indirect and semi-direct effects on clouds, snow effects, and others. While most of these are positive (warming), the first indirect effect is negative and quantifying its magnitude in addition to other BC feedbacks is important for supporting policies that mitigate BC. We use the detailed aerosol chemistry parcel model of Russell and Seinfeld (1998), observationally constrained by initial measured aerosol concentrations from five California sites, to provide simulated cloud drop number (CDN) concentrations against which two GCM calculations - one run at the global scale and one nested from the global-to-regional scale are compared. The GCM results reflect the combined effects of their emission inventories, advection schemes, and cloud parameterizations. BC-type particles contributed between 16 and 20% of cloud droplets at all sites even in the presence of more hygroscopic particles. While this chemically detailed parcel model result is based on simplified cloud dynamics and does not consider semi-direct or cloud absorption effects, the cloud drop number concentrations are similar to the simulations of both Chen et al. (2010b) and Jacobson (2010) for the average cloud conditions in California. Reducing BC particle concentration by 50% decreased the cloud droplet concentration by between 6% and 9% resulting in the formation of fewer, larger cloud droplets that correspond to a lower cloud albedo. This trend is similar to Chen et al. (2010b) and Jacobson (2010) when BC particles were modeled as hygroscopic. This reduction in CDN in California due to the decrease in activated BC particles supports the concern raised by Chen et al. (2010a) that the cloud albedo effect of BC particles has a cooling effect that partially offsets the direct forcing reduction if other warming effects of BC on clouds are unchanged. These results suggests that for regions like the California

  12. Study of Bc+ decays to the K+K-π+ final state and evidence for the decay Bc+→χc 0π+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baszczyk, M.; Batozskaya, V.; Batsukh, B.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Déléage, N.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hatch, M.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, H.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozachuk, A.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Mussini, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubert, K.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stenzel Martins, J.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Toriello, F.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhu, X.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    A study of Bc+→K+K-π+ decays is performed for the first time using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 collected by the LHCb experiment in p p collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Evidence for the decay Bc+→χc 0(→K+K-)π+ is reported with a significance of 4.0 standard deviations, giving σ/(Bc+) σ (B+) ×B (Bc+→χc 0π+)=(9. 8-3.0+3.4(stat )±0.8 (syst ))×10-6 . Here B denotes a branching fraction while σ (Bc+) and σ (B+) are the production cross sections for Bc+ and B+ mesons. An indication of b ¯c weak annihilation is found for the region m (K-π+)<1.834 GeV /c2 , with a significance of 2.4 standard deviations.

  13. Body-centered superhard BC2N phases from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaoguang; Guo, Xiaoju; Xu, Bo; Wu, Qinghua; Hu, Qianku; Liu, Zhongyuan; He, Julong; Yu, Dongli; Tian, Yongjun; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2007-09-01

    Body-centered BC2N deduced from the unit cell of the recently predicted body-centered carbon [F. J. Ribeiro , Phys. Rev. B 74, 172101 (2006)] are studied with first-principles pseudopotential density functional method. The structural, electronic, and mechanical properties are investigated for 11 possible atomic configurations of body-centered BC2N . Our results show that the sp3 -bonded body-centered BC2N phases have lower density than the previously investigated sp3 -bonded zinc-blende BC2N , wurtzite BC2N , and chalcopyrite BC2N . The struc-A and struc-B composed of the maximum numbers of C-C and B-N bonds have the lowest total energy among the investigated body-centered BC2N structures. Their calculated bulk moduli are 305 and 309GPa , respectively. The theoretical Vickers hardness of the body-centered BC2N is over 60GPa , indicating that it is a potential superhard material with the hardness comparable to cubic boron nitride.

  14. Designation as a Receiving Institution in the BC Transfer Guide: Policy and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Recalibrating the British Columbia (BC) Transfer System project initiated in 2005 proposed that the designation of institutions in the BC Transfer Guide as either "sending institution" or "receiving institution," according to their perceived primary function, should be examined. The results of the consultation indicated…

  15. Block Transfer: A Private Career College Student's Ladder into the BC Transfer System. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIvor, Raili

    2010-01-01

    In June 2008 the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) approved a new policy to publish in the BC Transfer Guide block transfer agreements (BTAs) between BC Transfer System member institutions and private post-secondary institutions accredited by the Private Career Training Institutions Agency (PCTIA). This new policy was…

  16. BC measurement activities at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Black carbon (BC)--sometimes referred to as soot, char, or elemental carbon (EC)--is a refractory form of light-absorbing carbon produced from incomplete combustion. Accurate measurement of BC in combustion source emissions is important for understanding anthropogenic climate for...

  17. Bacterial cellulose based hydrogel (BC-g-AA) and preliminary result of swelling behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hakam, Adil; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Abdul Rahman, I. Irman

    2013-11-27

    In this study, hydrogel based on Bacterial cellulose (BC) or local known as Nata de Coco, which grafted with monomer: Acrylic acid (AA) is synthesis by using gamma radiation technique. These hydrogel (BC-g-AA) has unique characteristic whereby responsive to pH buffer solution.

  18. 17 CFR 240.15Bc4-1 - Persons associated with municipal advisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Persons associated with municipal advisors. 240.15Bc4-1 Section 240.15Bc4-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules...

  19. BcMF21 is important for pollen development and germination in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Yu, Youjian; Dong, Heng; Yao, Lina; Zhang, Zhixian; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-01-01

    Brassica campestris Male Fertility 21 (BcMF21) was previously isolated from the flower buds of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) and expressed specifically in tapetum and microspores during the meiosis stage and the uninucleate stage of microspore development. Here, we used antisense RNA technology to knock down the expression level of BcMF21 in B. campestris and analyzed the phenotype of the transgenic plants. Alexander staining and scanning electron microscope revealed sterility and exine deformities in the mature pollen grains of BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic plants. The germination furrow of the BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic pollen was covered by lipid like materials. The pollen tubes burst and could not grow normally in vitro. Therefore, we presented here BcMF21 might be an important gene for pollen development and germination.

  20. Genome sequences of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC and K601(T)

    SciTech Connect

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J.; Veuskens, Teun; Plugge, Caroline M.; Langenhoff, A. M.; Gerritse, Jan; Van Berkel, Willem J. H.; Pieper, Dietmar; Junca, Howard; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC and A. denitrificans strain K601T degrade cyclic hydrocarbons. These strains have been isolated from a mixture of wastewater treatment plant material and benzene-polluted soil and from a wastewater treatment plant, respectively, suggesting their role in bioremediation of soil and water. Although the strains are phylogenetically closely related, there are some clear physiological differences. The hydrocarbon cyclohexanol, for example, can be degraded by strain K601T but not by strain BC. Furthermore, both strains can use nitrate and oxygen as an electron acceptor, but only strain BC can use chlorate as electron acceptor. To better understand the nitrate and chlorate reduction mechanisms coupled to the oxidation of cyclic compounds, the genomes of A. denitrificans strains BC and K601T were sequenced. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of A. denitrificans strains BC and K601T.

  1. Climatic changes and social transformations in the Near East and North Africa during the 'long' 4th millennium BC: A comparative study of environmental and archaeological evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Joanne; Brooks, Nick; Banning, Edward B.; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Campbell, Stuart; Clare, Lee; Cremaschi, Mauro; di Lernia, Savino; Drake, Nick; Gallinaro, Marina; Manning, Sturt; Nicoll, Kathleen; Philip, Graham; Rosen, Steve; Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich; Tafuri, Mary Anne; Weninger, Bernhard; Zerboni, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the possible links between rapid climate change (RCC) and social change in the Near East and surrounding regions (Anatolia, central Syria, southern Israel, Mesopotamia, Cyprus and eastern and central Sahara) during the 'long' 4th millennium (∼4500-3000) BC. Twenty terrestrial and 20 marine climate proxies are used to identify long-term trends in humidity involving transitions from humid to arid conditions and vice versa. The frequency distribution of episodes of relative aridity across these records is calculated for the period 6300-2000 BC, so that the results may be interpreted in the context of the established arid episodes associated with RCC around 6200 and 2200 BC (the 8.2 and 4.2 kyr events). We identify two distinct episodes of heightened aridity in the early-mid 4th, and late 4th millennium BC. These episodes cluster strongly at 3600-3700 and 3100-3300 BC. There is also evidence of localised aridity spikes in the 5th and 6th millennia BC. These results are used as context for the interpretation of regional and local archaeological records with a particular focus on case studies from western Syria, the middle Euphrates, southern Israel and Cyprus. Interpretation of the records involves the construction of plausible narratives of human-climate interaction informed by concepts of adaptation and resilience from the literature on contemporary (i.e. 21st century) climate change and adaptation. The results are presented alongside well-documented examples of climatically-influenced societal change in the central and eastern Sahara, where detailed geomorphological studies of ancient environments have been undertaken in tandem with archaeological research. While the narratives for the Near East and Eastern Mediterranean remain somewhat speculative, the use of resilience and adaptation frameworks allows for a more nuanced treatment of human-climate interactions and recognises the diversity and context-specificity of human responses to climatic

  2. Optimizing Thermal-Optical Analysis for Atmospheric Black Carbon (BC): Determining the Beer-Lambert Mass Without a Fixed Mass Absorption Coefficient for BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conny, J. M.; Norris, G.

    2007-12-01

    In thermal-optical transmission analysis (TOT), laser light passing through a particle-laden filter is monitored while carbonaceous material is removed in several heating steps and measured by flame ionization detection. In a helium atmosphere, the laser signal is attenuated by the pyrolysis of organic carbon (OC). Later, while carbon is removed in an oxidizing atmosphere, the laser signal returns to its value prior to pyrolysis (split point), whereupon the amount of carbon equivalent to the native BC is measured. Since pyrolyzed OC may actually evolve beyond the split point, the specific absorption cross sections of pyrolyzed OC and native BC must be equivalent. Moreover, OC pyrolysis must be sufficient so that unpyrolyzed OC is not measured as BC beyond the split point. Using response surfaces models of the apparent specific absorption cross sections for pyrolyzed OC and what the instrument measures as native BC, we determined the thermal conditions for establishing the equivalence of the apparent cross sections while insuring sufficient pyrolysis of OC. In this way, we have optimized TOT for BC mass based on the Beer-Lambert Law but without the need for an absolute mass absorption coefficient (or an absolute attenuation coefficient) for BC. Optimal thermal conditions for the equivalence of the cross sections were indicated by the intersection of the response surfaces. Concurrently, optimal conditions for sufficient pyrolysis of OC were indicated by a plateau in the response surface for the BC cross section. Modeling was based on extensive analyses of PM2.5 samples collected from Atlanta, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

  3. Report on Modifications to the BX12 and BX13 BC1 Dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, James; DeBarge, S.; Emma, P.; Fisher, A.; Li, N.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2010-11-23

    Emittance growth seen during the last commissioning run in the bunch compressor optics section, BC1, was blamed on inadequate dipole field quality. The significant linear and nonlinear field non-uniformities generated large horizontal dispersion errors beyond BC1. The linear dispersion after BC1 was corrected using two small 'corrector' quadrupoles placed in BC1 for this purpose, but the remaining nonlinear field caused growth of the normalized horizontal emittance of 40% or more. At best {gamma}{epsilon}{sub x} went from 1.2 {micro}m before BC1 up to 1.7 {micro}m after BC1. The problem was magnified by the larger-than-design energy spread in BC1 due to a long initial bunch length. To improve the field quality we decided to modify the two 'inner dipoles', BX12 and BX13, of the four magnet chicane during the four month down time in the Fall of 2007. Only the two inner dipoles were chosen because of the limited time available and the fact that the beam is particularly sensitive to field quality of the inner dipoles due to its very large transverse size when going through them. The modifications were completed in November and included new poles and a new pinning scheme. The outer dipoles were left unchanged.

  4. Genome analysis and physiological comparison of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strains BC and K601T

    SciTech Connect

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J.; Veuskens, Teun; Saia, Flavia Talarico; Weelink, Sander A.B.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Langenhoff, A. M.; Gerritse, Jan; Van Berkel, Willem J. H.; Pieper, Dietmar; Junca, Howard; Smidt, Hauke; Schraa, Gosse; Davids, Mark; Schaap, Peter J; Plugge, Caroline M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The genomes of the Betaproteobacteria Alicycliphilus denitrificans strains BC and K601T have been sequenced to get insight into the physiology of the two strains. Strain BC degrades benzene with chlorate as electron acceptor. The cyclohexanol-degrading denitrifying strain K601T is not able to use chlorate as electron acceptor, while strain BC cannot degrade cyclohexanol. The 16S rRNA sequences of strains BC and K601T are identical and the fatty acid methyl ester patterns of the strains are similar. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of predicted open reading frames of both strains showed most hits with Acidovorax sp. JS42, a bacterium that degrades nitro-aromatics. The genomes include strain-specific plasmids (pAlide201 in strain K601T and pAlide01 and pAlide02 in strain BC). Key genes of chlorate reduction in strain BC were located on a 120 kb megaplasmid (pAlide01), which was absent in strain K601T. Genes involved in cyclohexanol degradation were only found in strain K601T. Benzene and toluene are degraded via oxygenase-mediated pathways in both strains. Genes involved in the meta-cleavage pathway of catechol are present in the genomes of both strains. Strain BC also contains all genes of the ortho-cleavage pathway. The large number of mono- and dioxygenase genes in the genomes suggests that the two strains have a broader substrate range than known thus far.

  5. miR-200bc/429 Inhibits Osteosarcoma Cell Proliferation and Invasion by Targeting PMP22

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaodong; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Lianping; Wang, Shusen; Zheng, Jinxin

    2017-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and could contribute to cancer development and progression. MiR-200bc/429 have been found to be aberrantly expressed in osteosarcoma (OS). However, the features of miR-200bc/429 in the tumorigenesis and progress of OS remain poorly understood. Material/Methods The miR-200bc/429 expression was firstly identified in human OS clinical samples and cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). After transfection with miR-200bc/429 mimics or negative control in U2OS or MG63 cells, cell proliferation was measured by CCK-8 assay. Following that, wound-healing assay and Transwell invasion assay were performed to evaluate cell migration and invasion, respectively. Finally, luciferase reporter assay and Western blot analysis were performed to determine if peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) is a direct target of miR-200bc/429. Results Results revealed that miR-200bc/429 were significantly depressed in human OS tissues and cell lines by qRT-PCR. Then, restoration of miR-200bc/429 significantly inhibited cell proliferation (P<0.05) and invasion (P<0.05) in vitro. Luciferase reporter assay and Western blot analysis revealed that miR-200bc/429 could directly target PMP22 3′ untranslated region (UTR) and inhibit its expression in U2OS and MG63 cells. Conclusions These findings suggest that miR-200bc/429 inhibit OS cells proliferation and invasion by targeting PMP22, and function as a tumor suppressor and may be a patent molecular marker as well as a potential target for OS therapy. PMID:28234890

  6. Measurement of Atmospheric Black Carbon Concentrations, [BC]atm, in the Arctic Region from ~1700 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, L.; Sarkar, S.; Jyethi, D. S.; Ruppel, M.; Dutkiewicz, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) aerosols play a key role in Earth's climate through direct and indirect effects. Due to a lack of long-term BC data, climate models are used to estimate BC based on fuel inventories, which have large uncertainties. Hence, long term BC data is needed to verify global models. We report here the first measurements of atmospheric BC concentrations, [BC]atm, from ~1700 to 2013 using sediments from Finnish lakes, Saanajarvi (SJ)(690 44' N, 200 52' E), and Vuoskojarvi (VJ)(69044'N, 26057'E). The cores were collected from the deepest parts of the lakes using a HTH gravity corer, sliced in 0.25 cm sections; freeze dried, and ages determined using 210Pb dating method. The BC was chemically separated, and [BC] determined by the thermal optical method. The [BC] varied from 50 to 1140µg/gdry weight in SJ; and 20 to 130µg/gdry weight in VJ. Husain et al.,(JGR, vol 113, D13102,doi:10.1029/2007JD009398, 2008) showed that the atmospheric deposition of BC into lake sediments depends on the characteristic of individual lakes, BC washout ratios, precipitation intensity, and sedimentation rates. The deposition rate, K, for a lake is defined by, [BC]sed = K[BC]atm where [BC]sed, is the concentration of BC in the sediment. We have measured [BC]atm from 1970 to 2010 in Kevo, Finland, where VJ and SJ are located. The [BC]atm from Kevo, and [BC]sed from VJ, and SJ were used to determine K for each of the lake. Owing to the availability of the long term atmospheric BC data from 1970 to 2010 multiple measurements of K were made, and provided a high measure of precision. The mean values of K for VJ, and SJ were 226 ± 60, and 830 ± 290 (m3air/ gdry weight). The K values were used to determine [BC]atm for the years before 1970. The [BC]atm from 2013 to 2006 was 82ng/m3. It increased slowly reaching a peak value of about 947 ± 322 ng/m3.The concentrations decreased subsequently to 244 ± 83ng/m3 in 1920, and changed little ~ 1774.The lowest concentration, 77

  7. Evidence for the exclusive decay B(c)+- --> J/psi pi+- and measurement of the mass of the B(c)+- meson.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachocou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cijliak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cranshaw, J; Cruz, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nicolas, L; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Papikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-03-03

    We report the first evidence for a fully reconstructed decay mode of the B(c)+- meson in the channel B(c)+- --> J/psi pi+-, with J/psi --> mu+ mu-. The analysis is based on an integrated luminosity of 360 pb(-1) in pp collisions at 1.96 TeV center of mass energy collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We observe 14.6 +/- 4.6 signal events with a background of 7.1 +/- 0.9 events, and a fit to the J/psi pi+-mass spectrum yields a B(c)+- mass of 6285.7 +/- 5.3(stat) +/- 1.2(syst) MeV/c2. The probability of a peak of this magnitude occurring by random fluctuation in the search region is estimated as 0.012%.

  8. Simulation of Arctic Black Carbon using Hemispheric CMAQ: Role of Russia's BC Emissions, Transport, and Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Fu, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon plays a unique role in the Arctic climate system due to its multiple effects. It causes Arctic warming by directly absorbing sunlight from space and by darkening the surface albedo of snow and ice, which indirectly leads to further warming and melting, thus inducing an Arctic amplification effect. BC depositions over the Arctic are more sensitive to regions in close proximity. In this study, we reconstruct BC emissions for Russian Federation, which is the country that occupies the largest area in the Arctic Circle. Local Russia information such as activity data, emission factors and other emission source data are used. In 2010, total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia is estimated to be around 254 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a dominant 43.9% of Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 22.0%, 17.8%, 11.5%, and 4.8%, respectively. BC simulations were conducted using the hemispheric version of CMAQ with polar projection. Emission inputs are from a global emissions database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulations using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 46 - 61% of the Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AAOD) measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four air monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert, and Tiksi) in the Arctic Circle, surface BC simulations are improved the most during the Arctic haze periods (October - March). Emission perturbation studies show that Russia's BC emissions contribute over 50% of the surface BC concentrations over the Arctic during the cold seasons. This study demonstrates the good capability of H-CMAQ in

  9. Synthesis of new Diamond-like B-C Phases under High Pressure and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, L. C.; Zinin, P. V.; Sharma, S. K.

    2014-04-22

    A cubic BC3 (c-BC3) phase was synthesized by direct transformation from graphitic phases at a pressure of 39 GPa and temperature of 2200 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements lead us to conclude that the obtained phase is hetero-nano-diamond, c-BC3. The EELS measurements show that the atoms inside the cubic structure are bonded by sp3 bonds.

  10. Volume of Courses Students Carry among Central Data Warehouse (CDW) Institutions: Implications for Recalibration of the BC Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has undertaken, in the last couple of years, a review of the BC Transfer System. Preliminary findings indicate that the current structure of the BC Transfer Guide (BCTG), which designates institutions as either "sending" institutions or "receiving"…

  11. Study of the B+c → J/ΨD+s and B+c → J/ΨD*s+ decays with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2016-01-05

    The decays B+c → J/ΨD+s and B+c → J/ΨD*s+ are studied with the ATLAS detector at the LHC using a dataset corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9 and 20.6 fb–1 of pp collisions collected at centre-of-mass energies √s = 7 TeV and 8 TeV, respectively. Furthermore, signal candidates are identified through J/ψ → μ+μ- and D(*)+s → Φπ+(γ/π0) decays.

  12. Some physics from 550 BC to AD 1948.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines terminology and its origins. It traces the development of physics ideas from Thales of Miletus, via Isaac Newton, to the nuclear physics investigations at the beginning of the twentieth century. It also outlines the evolving technology required to make the discoveries that would form the basis of radiosurgery. Up to the 1920s, all experiments on atomic structure and radioactivity had involved the use of vacuum tubes and naturally occurring radioactive substances. There was a need to make useable subatomic particles to obtain better understanding of the interior structure of atoms. Because of this, machines that could make atoms move at high speed were invented, known as particle accelerators. A new era had dawned. There is a brief mention of the effect of radiation on living tissue and of the units used to measure it.

  13. Eight sages over five centuries share oxygen's discovery.

    PubMed

    Severinghaus, John W

    2016-09-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color. Michael Sendivogius (1566-1636) in Poland called a part of air "the food of life" and identified it as the gas made by heating saltpetre. John Mayow (1641-1679) in Oxford found that one-fifth of air was a special gas he called "spiritus nitro aereus." Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) in Uppsala generated a gas he named "fire air" by heating several metal calcs. He asked Lavoisier how it fit the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier never answered. In 1744, Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) in England discovered how to make part of air by heating red calc of mercury. He found it brightened a flame and supported life in a mouse in a sealed bottle. He called it "dephlogisticated air." He published and personally told Lavoisier and other chemists about it. Lavoisier never thanked him. After 9 years of generating and studying its chemistry, he couldn't understand whether it was a new element. He still named it "principe oxigene." He was still not able to disprove phlogiston. Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) made an inflammable gas in 1766. He and Priestley noted that its flame made a dew. Cavendish proved the dew was pure water and published this in 1778, but all scientists called it impossible to make water, an element. In 1783, on June 24th, Lavoisier was urged to try it, and, when water appeared, he realized that water was not an element but a compound of two gases, proving that oxygen was an element. He then demolished phlogiston and began the new chemistry revolution.

  14. Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30 (BC30) improves indices of Clostridium difficile-Induced colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Probiotics have beneficial effects in rodent models of Clostridium difficile (C. diffiicle)-induced colitis. The spore forming probiotic strain Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in vitro. Our goal was to determine if BC30 improved C. difficile-induced colitis in mice. Starting on study day 0, female C57BL/6 mice were dosed by oro-gastric gavage for 15 days with vehicle (saline) or BC30 (2 × 109 CFU per day). Mice in the C. difficile groups received an antibiotic mixture (study days 5 to 8 in the drinking water), and clindamycin (10 mg/kg, i.p., on study day 10). The C. difficile strain VPI 10463 was given by gavage at 104 CFU to induce colitis on day 11. On day 16, stools and colons were collected for further analyses. Results All mice treated with BC30 survived on study day 13, while two mice treated with vehicle did not survive. On day 12, a significant difference (p = 0.0002) in the percentage of mice with normal stools (66.7%) was found in the BC30/C. difficile group, as compared to the vehicle/C. diffcile group (13.0%). On study day 16, 23.8% of mice treated with BC30 had normal stools, while this value was 0% with vehicle treatment (p value = 0.0187). On this day, the stool consistency score for the BC30/C. difficile group (1.1 ± 0.2) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for the vehicle/C. difficile cohort (1.9 ± 0.2). BC30 modestly attenuated the colonic pathology (crypt damage, edema, leukocyte influx) that was present following C. difficile infection. Colonic MIP-2 chemokine contents (pg/2 cm colon) were: 10.2 ± 0.5 (vehicle/no C. difficile), 24.6 ± 9.5 (vehicle/C. difficile) and 16.3 ± 4.3 (BC30/C. difficle). Conclusion The probiotic BC30 improved some parameters of C. difficile-induced colitis in mice. BC30 prolonged the survival of C. diffiicle infected mice. Particularly, this probiotic improved the stool consistency of mice, in this infectious colitis model. PMID

  15. Characteristics of elementary school children's daily exposure to black carbon (BC) in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyeran; Park, Donguk

    2017-04-01

    A daily black carbon (BC) exposure assessment of forty 10-12 years-old children was conducted in the Seoul Metropolitan Area from August 2015 to January 2016. Each participant carried a micro-aethalometer to measure BC concentrations for 24 h while their whereabouts and microenvironments (MEs) were recorded via a time-activity diary (TAD) and follow-up interviews. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to compare average BC levels by potential risk factors including demographic, temporal, residential, and indoor/outdoor/transportation activity variables. The children's average daily exposure was 1.93 μg/m3, with a range of 0.2-85.43 μg/m3 (mean daily individual exposure ranges from 0.54 to 4.80 μg/m3). Even children attending the same elementary school reported BC exposures which differed by approximately 40%, primarily because of individually distinct time-activity patterns and the MEs with which each child interacted. On weekends (Saturdays and Sundays) (1.86 ± 2.50 μg/m3) and holidays (Saturdays, Sundays, and vacation) (1.71 ± 2.48 μg/m3), children were subject to reduced exposures to BC, likely due to decreased surrounding traffic volumes and different time-activity patterns on weekend days compared to on weekdays (from Mondays to Fridays) (1.95 ± 2.44 μg/m3) or school days (weekdays during the school semesters) (2.05 ± 2.43 μg/m3). Commuting in diesel vehicles (often to private academies) or in the subway, cooking, and environmental tobacco smoke were all found to elevate BC exposure. Likewise, proximity to traffic sources and parental indoor smoking contributed to the enhancement of residential BC concentrations. Our findings suggested a need to emplace proactive measures including diesel fleet regulation and smoking cessation campaigns to protect children from high levels of BC exposure.

  16. The ϒ(1S)→Bcρ decay with perturbative QCD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junfeng; Yang, Yueling; Li, Qingxia; Lu, Gongru; Huang, Jinshu; Chang, Qin

    2016-08-01

    With the potential prospects of the ϒ (1 S) data samples at the running LHC and upcoming SuperKEKB, the ϒ (1 S) →Bc ρ weak decay is studied with the pQCD approach. It is found that (1) the lion's share of branching ratio comes from the longitudinal polarization helicity amplitudes; (2) branching ratio for the ϒ (1 S) →Bc ρ decay can reach up to O (10-9), which might be hopefully measurable.

  17. Black carbon (BC) of urban topsoil of steel industrial city (Anshan), Northeastern China: Concentration, source identification and environmental implication.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yutong; Xiao, Qing; Lu, Shenggao

    2016-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) and total carbon (TC) concentrations in urban topsoils and vertical profiles from steel industrial city, Anshan, Northeastern China, were determined. A total of 115 topsoil samples and 4 soil profiles were collected, in which the BC concentrations were determined using chemical oxidation technique. The BC concentrations in urban topsoils are in the range of 1.86 to 246.46gkg(-1) with an average of 33.86gkg(-1). Both BC and TC concentrations decrease sharply with soil depth, whereas BC/TC ratio shows a little variation with depth. The spatial distribution of BC in urban topsoils reveals that the BC concentration is much higher in the northern part of the city, which is consistent with the steel production. The distribution factors (DF) of BC are the highest in 1000-500 and 500-250μm size fractions, while the lowest in 50-2μm fraction. The mass loading of BC in 250-50 and 50-2μm size fractions accounts for 76.2% of bulk soil, indicating these two size fractions responsible for BC accumulation in soils. Enrichment factor (EF) of BC in urban topsoils ranges from 0.92 to 122.01 with an average of 16.76, indicating that the urban topsoils studied are moderately or severely accumulated by the BC. Strong correlation is found between BC and pollution load index (PLI) of heavy metals, indicating the possibility of similar sources of BC and heavy metals in soils. The BC/TC ratio in soils ranges from 0.45 to 0.97, with an average of 0.75. The BC/TC ratio shows the mixed sources of BC derived from fossil fuel combustion and vehicle emissions. The BC concentration and BC/TC ratio may reflect the degree of industrial activities and pollution sources in urban soils. The study demonstrated that BC is an effective indicator of degree and "hotspots" of heavy metals pollution in urban soils.

  18. Suidas (tenth century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek encyclopedist. In the course of reading Suidas's Lexicon, EDMOND HALLEY mistakenly connected the naming of the Saros cycle of 223 synodic months by the tenth century Greek lexicographer Suidas with the eclipse cycle of the same period. The solar eclipse cycle is thus now known by the name that Suidas used for another phenomenon. Halley's mistake accounts for the historical confusion that th...

  19. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation through centuries].

    PubMed

    Gajić, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    THE ANCIENT TIMES: Many early civilisations left testimonies about ancient times and resuscitation, as well. Some of them did it successfully and some of them did it less successfully; however, all of them wished to help a dying person and to bring him back to life. The first trustworthy note can be found in the Bible--Old Testament as a very realistic description of resuscitation of a child. THE MIDDLE AGES: The medieval scientists, Paracelsus and Vesalius, described first successful resuscitation attempts in the 15th and 16th century. These two men successfully applied ventilation methods by air inflation with blacksmith bellows. THE MODERN ERA: The first defibrillation was recorded in the 18th century in England, which was conducted by one of the volunteer society members. With the development of mechanics and techniques, the first precursors of modern respirators were introduced in the 19th century. The age of modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation began in the middle of 20th century, when Dr Peter Safar brought in the combination of artificial ventilation and chest compressions as the standard for implementing resuscitation. Adrenalin and defibrillation were introduced into the resuscitation techniques by Dr Redding and Dr Kouwenhaven, respectively; thus beginning the advance life support administration, which has been applied, with minor changes, until today.

  20. The Chemical Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Ralph E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses present and future problems of producing clean energy. Graphically presents the changing patterns of fuel use in the United States over the past century, and predicts population growth and energy sources and consumption up to the year 2100 for the United States and the world. (JR)

  1. Observation of an excited Bc(±) meson state with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

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Soloshenko, A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Song, H Y; Soni, N; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Soualah, R; Soueid, P; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Spagnolo, S; Spanò, F; Spearman, W R; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Spreitzer, T; Spurlock, B; St Denis, R D; Staerz, S; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Stavina, P; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Subramania, Hs; Subramaniam, R; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Suhr, C; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Swedish, S; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Taccini, C; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tam, J Y C; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tanasijczuk, A J; Tannenwald, B B; Tannoury, N; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Tavares Delgado, A; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thong, W M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Topilin, N D; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Tran, H L; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Triplett, N; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; True, P; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urbaniec, D; Urquijo, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Virzi, J; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, A; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wright, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yao, W-M; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2014-11-21

    A search for excited states of the Bc(±) meson is performed using 4.9  fb(-1) of 7 TeV and 19.2  fb(-1) of 8 TeV pp collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. A new state is observed through its hadronic transition to the ground state, with the latter detected in the decay Bc(±)→J/ψπ(±). The state appears in the m(Bc(±)π(+)π(-))-m(Bc(±))-2m(π(±)) mass difference distribution with a significance of 5.2 standard deviations. The mass of the observed state is 6842±4±5  MeV, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. The mass and decay of this state are consistent with expectations for the second S-wave state of the Bc(±) meson, Bc(±)(2S).

  2. Use of Ruthenium Photooxidation Techniques to Study Electron Transfer in the Cytochrome bc1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Millett, Francis; Durham, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Ruthenium photooxidation methods are presented to study electron transfer between the cytochrome bc1 complex and cytochrome c, and within the cytochrome bc1 complex. Methods are described to prepare a ruthenium cytochrome c derivative, Ruz-39-Cc, by labeling the single sulfhydryl on yeast H39C;C102T iso-1-Cc with the reagent Ru(bpz)2(4-bromomethyl-4′-methylbipyridine). The ruthenium complex attached to Cys-39 on the opposite side of Cc from the heme crevice does not affect the interaction with cyt bc1. Laser excitation of reduced Ruz-39-Cc results in photooxidation of heme c within 1 μs with a yield of 20%. Flash photolysis of a 1:1 complex between reduced yeast cytochrome bc1 and Ruz-39-Cc leads to electron transfer from heme c1 to heme c with a rate constant of 1.4 × 104 s-1. Methods are described for the use of the ruthenium dimer, Ru2D, to photooxidize cyt c1 in the cytochrome bc1 complex within 1 μs with a yield of 20%. Electron transfer from the Rieske iron-sulfur center [2Fe2S] to cyt c1 was detected with a rate constant of 6 × 104 s-1 in R. sphaeroides cyt bc1 using this method. This electron transfer step is rate-limited by the rotation of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein in a conformational gating mechanism. This method provides critical information on the dynamics of rotation of the iron-sulfur protein (ISP) as it transfers electrons from QH2 in the Qo site to cyt c1 These ruthenium photooxidation methods can be used to measure many of the electron transfer reactions in cytochrome bc1 complexes from any source. PMID:19348884

  3. The role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Zaelke, D.; Velders, G. J. M.; Ramanathan, V.

    2013-06-01

    There is growing international interest in mitigating climate change during the early part of this century by reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), in addition to reducing emissions of CO2. The SLCPs include methane (CH4), black carbon aerosols (BC), tropospheric ozone (O3) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Recent studies have estimated that by mitigating emissions of CH4, BC, and O3 using available technologies, about 0.5 to 0.6 °C warming can be avoided by mid-21st century. Here we show that avoiding production and use of high-GWP (global warming potential) HFCs by using technologically feasible low-GWP substitutes to meet the increasing global demand can avoid as much as another 0.5 °C warming by the end of the century. This combined mitigation of SLCPs would cut the cumulative warming since 2005 by 50% at 2050 and by 60% at 2100 from the CO2-only mitigation scenarios, significantly reducing the rate of warming and lowering the probability of exceeding the 2 °C warming threshold during this century.

  4. The role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Zaelke, D.; Velders, G. J.; Ramanathan, V.

    2013-12-01

    There is growing international interest in mitigating climate change during the early part of this century by reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), in addition to reducing emissions of CO2. The SLCPs include methane (CH4), black carbon aerosols (BC), tropospheric ozone (O3) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Recent studies have estimated that by mitigating emissions of CH4, BC, and O3 using available technologies, about 0.5 to 0.6°C warming can be avoided by mid-21st century. Here we show that avoiding production and use of high-GWP (global warming potential) HFCs by using technologically feasible low-GWP substitutes to meet the increasing global demand can avoid as much as another 0.5°C warming by the end of the century. This combined mitigation of SLCPs would cut the cumulative warming since 2005 by 50% at 2050 and by 60% at 2100 from the CO2-only mitigation scenarios, significantly reducing the rate of warming and lowering the probability of exceeding the 2°C warming threshold during this century.

  5. BcMtg2 is required for multiple stress tolerance, vegetative development and virulence in Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wenyong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jin; Lv, Chiyuan; Chen, Changjun

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mtg2 gene encodes the Obg protein, which has an important function in assembling ribosomal subunits. However, little is known about the role of the Obg GTPase in filamentous fungi. In this study, we identified an Mtg2 ortholog, BcMtg2, in B. cinerea. The BcMtg2 deletion mutant showed a defect in spore production, conidial germination and sclerotial formation. Additionally, the mutant increased sensitivity to various environmental stresses. The BcMtg2 mutant exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on host plant tissues. BcMtg2 mutant showed increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to Congo red (cell wall stress agent). In the yeast complement assay, growth defects of yeast BY4741ΔMTG2 mutant were partly restored by genetic complementation of BcMtg2 under these environmental stresses. Additionally, compared with the parental strain and complement strain, the BcMtg2 deletion mutant displayed a minor glycerol response to osmosis stress. These defective phenotypes were recovered in the complement strain ΔBcMtg2C, which was created by adding the wild-type BcMtg2 gene to the ΔBcMtg2 mutant. The results of this study indicate that BcMtg2 has a necessary role in asexual development, environmental stress response and pathogenicity in B. cinerea. PMID:27346661

  6. The Beginning of Metallurgy in the Southern Levant: A Late 6th Millennium CalBC Copper Awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, Yosef; Klimscha, Florian; Shalev, Sariel; Rosenberg, Danny

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC. This paper examines the chemical composition of this item and reviews its context. The results indicate that it was exported from a distant source, probably in the Caucasus, and that the location where it was found is indicative of the social status of the buried individual. This rare finding indicates that metallurgy was first defused to the southern Levant through exchange networks and only centuries later involved local production. This copper awl, the earliest metal artifact found in the southern Levant, indicates that the elaborate Late Chalcolithic metallurgy developed from a more ancient tradition. PMID:24671185

  7. The beginning of metallurgy in the southern Levant: a late 6th millennium CalBC copper awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Yosef; Klimscha, Florian; Shalev, Sariel; Rosenberg, Danny

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC. This paper examines the chemical composition of this item and reviews its context. The results indicate that it was exported from a distant source, probably in the Caucasus, and that the location where it was found is indicative of the social status of the buried individual. This rare finding indicates that metallurgy was first diffused [corrected] to the southern Levant through exchange networks and only centuries later involved local productionThis copper awl, the earliest metal artifact found in the southern Levant, indicates that the elaborate Late Chalcolithic metallurgy developed from a more ancient tradition.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sorption process to the "black carbon" (BC) component in river sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Narres, Hans-Dieter; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    The importance of BC for the long term sequestration of organic carbon is actually discussed for mitigating climate change. In this context, the role of BC as a filter or source of nutrients or toxic chemicals is questioned. The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is especially concerned. In this study, we have investigated the binding of PAH compounds, pyrene and phenanthrene, to Yangtze River sediments. For this purpose, the PAHs sorption to pristine and preheated sediments at 375°C was studied, which allow discriminating the contributions of amorphous organic carbon (AOC) and black carbon (BC) fractions to the PAH sorption extent. An analytical procedure for the determination of PAHs in the solution phase of the batch experiments has been developed with fluorescence spectroscopy. The PAHs sorption isotherms to pristine sediments were fitted by Freundlich and composite models as linear Langmuir model (LLM) and linear Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model (LPDMM). The sequential application of composite models LLM and LPDMM to the sorption isotherms allows assessing the partition of PAHs into AOC and its nonlinear adsorption in the porous structure of BC. The modelling results indicate that the PAHs sorption to minor BC component of sediments (< 0.2 % TOC) is more effective than that to the major AOC component (< 1.3 % TOC). A similar sorption capacity of BC in pristine and preheated sediments is also calculated at high PAHs concentrations, which indicates that the AOC fraction does not block the micropore filling of BC. The microporous structure and the hydrophobic nature of BC component in sediments are thus factors, which create favourable energetic sites for the sorption of PAHs in the river sediments. It can also be shown that a BC molecular sieving plays an important role in the competitive PAHs sorption in a multi-solute system. J. Zhang, Ph.D. Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, Germany, 2010 J. Zhang et al., Effects of organic carbon and clay fractions on the

  9. Large 14C excursion in 5480 BC indicates an abnormal sun in the mid-Holocene.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Fusa; Jull, A J Timothy; Panyushkina, Irina P; Wacker, Lukas; Salzer, Matthew; Baisan, Christopher H; Lange, Todd; Cruz, Richard; Masuda, Kimiaki; Nakamura, Toshio

    2017-01-31

    Radiocarbon content in tree rings can be an excellent proxy of the past incoming cosmic ray intensities to Earth. Although such past cosmic ray variations have been studied by measurements of (14)C contents in tree rings with ≥10-y time resolution for the Holocene, there are few annual (14)C data. There is a little understanding about annual (14)C variations in the past, with the exception of a few periods including the AD 774-775 (14)C excursion where annual measurements have been performed. Here, we report the result of (14)C measurements using the bristlecone pine tree rings for the period from 5490 BC to 5411 BC with 1- to 2-y resolution, and a finding of an extraordinarily large (14)C increase (20‰) from 5481 BC to 5471 BC (the 5480 BC event). The (14)C increase rate of this event is much larger than that of the normal grand solar minima. We propose the possible causes of this event are an unknown phase of grand solar minimum, or a combination of successive solar proton events and a normal grand solar minimum.

  10. Large 14C excursion in 5480 BC indicates an abnormal sun in the mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Fusa; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Wacker, Lukas; Salzer, Matthew; Baisan, Christopher H.; Lange, Todd; Cruz, Richard; Masuda, Kimiaki; Nakamura, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Radiocarbon content in tree rings can be an excellent proxy of the past incoming cosmic ray intensities to Earth. Although such past cosmic ray variations have been studied by measurements of 14C contents in tree rings with ≥10-y time resolution for the Holocene, there are few annual 14C data. There is a little understanding about annual 14C variations in the past, with the exception of a few periods including the AD 774‑775 14C excursion where annual measurements have been performed. Here, we report the result of 14C measurements using the bristlecone pine tree rings for the period from 5490 BC to 5411 BC with 1- to 2-y resolution, and a finding of an extraordinarily large 14C increase (20‰) from 5481 BC to 5471 BC (the 5480 BC event). The 14C increase rate of this event is much larger than that of the normal grand solar minima. We propose the possible causes of this event are an unknown phase of grand solar minimum, or a combination of successive solar proton events and a normal grand solar minimum.

  11. BC-box protein domain-related mechanism for VHL protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Pozzebon, Maria Elena; Varadaraj, Archana; Mattoscio, Domenico; Jaffray, Ellis G.; Miccolo, Claudia; Galimberti, Viviana; Tommasino, Massimo; Hay, Ronald T.; Chiocca, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor VHL (von Hippel–Lindau) protein is a substrate receptor for Ubiquitin Cullin Ring Ligase complexes (CRLs), containing a BC-box domain that associates to the adaptor Elongin B/C. VHL targets hypoxia-inducible factor 1α to proteasome-dependent degradation. Gam1 is an adenoviral protein, which also possesses a BC-box domain that interacts with the host Elongin B/C, thereby acting as a viral substrate receptor. Gam1 associates with both Cullin2 and Cullin5 to form CRL complexes targeting the host protein SUMO enzyme SAE1 for proteasomal degradation. We show that Gam1 protein expression induces VHL protein degradation leading to hypoxia-inducible factor 1α stabilization and induction of its downstream targets. We also characterize the CRL-dependent mechanism that drives VHL protein degradation via proteasome. Interestingly, expression of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) domain-containing viral proteins and cellular BC-box proteins leads to VHL protein degradation, in a SOCS domain-containing manner. Our work underscores the exquisite ability of viral domains to uncover new regulatory mechanisms by hijacking key cellular proteins. PMID:24145437

  12. Single-Particle Composition Measured in an Alpine Valley: Wood Smoke, EC and BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liepmann, C.; Gross, D. S.; Benzaid, S.; Christensen, J.; Turetsky, E.; Musicant, D.; Sandradewi, J.; Prevot, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2007-12-01

    Particulate pollution is an issue of concern in today's society. Current regulations focus on the mass of particulate matter (PM) per volume of air, and not the source or chemical composition of the PM. Here we will present results from the AEROWOOD campaign in Roveredo, Switzerland where we investigated the PM composition measured using a single-particle mass spectrometer (TSI 3800 ATOFMS) to identify the sources of ambient particles. The goal was to differentiate wood smoke particles from diesel emissions. Roveredo is located in a deep alpine valley with strong wintertime thermal inversions, trapping the emissions. Local homes are predominantly heated by wood fires, and the village is located along a motorway that crosses the Swiss alps, providing two distinct particle sources. The particles sampled with the ATOFMS have been analyzed in a variety of ways with a focus on the temporal trends of the different particle types identified. Of particular interest is the distinction made between elemental carbon (EC) and black carbon (BC). During AEROWOOD, EC was measured chemically using real- time thermo/optical methods. BC was recorded directly by absorption, using an aethalometer. Regression models have been constructed to predict the EC and BC values using the single-particle mass spectra, providing chemical insight into the differences in these quantities. Additionally, comparing the timeline plots of EC, BC and the particle types found from the ATOFMS data should provide an idea as to the sources of EC and BC in this location.

  13. Crystal Structure of the GerBC Component of a Bacillus Subtilis Spore Germinant Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Setlow, B; Setlow, P; Hao, B

    2010-01-01

    The nutrient germinant receptors (nGRs) of spores of Bacillus species are clusters of three proteins that play a critical role in triggering the germination of dormant spores in response to specific nutrient molecules. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C protein of the GerB germinant receptor, so-called GerBC, of Bacillus subtilis spores at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. The GerBC protein adopts a previously uncharacterized type of protein fold consisting of three distinct domains, each of which is centered by a beta sheet surrounded by multiple alpha helices. Secondary-structure prediction and structure-based sequence alignment suggest that the GerBC structure represents the prototype for C subunits of nGRs from spores of all Bacillales and Clostridiales species and defines two highly conserved structural regions in this family of proteins. GerBC forms an interlocked dimer in the crystalline state but is predominantly monomeric in solution, pointing to the possibility that GerBC oligomerizes as a result of either high local protein concentrations or interaction with other nGR proteins in spores. Our findings provide the first structural view of the nGR subunits and a molecular framework for understanding the architecture, conservation, and function of nGRs.

  14. BcSUN1, a B. cinerea SUN-Family Protein, Is Involved in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Hernández, Alicia; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Brito, Nélida

    2017-01-01

    BcSUN1 is a glycoprotein secreted by Botrytis cinerea, an important plant pathogen that causes severe losses in agriculture worldwide. In this work, the role of BcSUN1 in different aspects of the B. cinerea biology was studied by phenotypic analysis of Bcsun1 knockout strains. We identified BcSUN1 as the only member of the Group-I SUN family of proteins encoded in the B. cinerea genome, which is expressed both in axenic culture and during infection. BcSUN1 is also weakly attached to the cellular surface and is involved in maintaining the structure of the cell wall and/or the extracellular matrix. Disruption of the Bcsun1 gene produces different cell surface alterations affecting the production of reproductive structures and adhesion to plant surface, therefore reducing B. cinerea virulence. BcSUN1 is the first member of the SUN family reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of a filamentous fungus. PMID:28163701

  15. Functional dissection of the human Bc12 protein: sequence requirements for inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, J J; Bond, B L; Parslow, T G

    1996-01-01

    Overexpression of the cytoplasmic oncoprotein Bc12 blocks programmed cell death (apoptosis) in many cellular systems. To map the sequences in Bc12 that are necessary for its activity, we created a library of deletion-scanning mutants of this 239-amino-acid protein and tested their abilities to block staurosporine-induced fibroblast apoptosis, using a novel transient-transfection assay. Phenotypes of informative mutants were then confirmed by assaying for inhibition of steroid-induced apoptosis in stably transfected T-lymphoid cells. In accordance with earlier results, we found that Bc12 activity was only partially reduced after deletion of the hydrophobic tail that normally anchors it in cytoplasmic membranes. Essential sequences were found in the remainder of the protein and appeared to be organized in at least two discrete functional domains. The larger, more C-terminal region (within residues 90 to 203) encompassed, but extended beyond, two oligopeptide motifs called BH1 and BH2, which are known to mediate dimerization of Bc12 and related proteins. The second, more N-terminal regions (within residues 6 to 31) was not required for protein dimerization in vivo, but its deletion imparted a dominant negative phenotype, yielding mutants that promoted rather than inhibited apoptotic death. Residues 30 to 91 were not absolutely required for function; by deleting most of this region along with the hydrophobic tail, we derived a 155-residue mini-Bc12 that retains significant ability to inhibit apoptosis. PMID:8622689

  16. Measurement of the branching fraction ratio B (Bc+→ψ (2 S )π+)/B (Bc+→J /ψ π+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthieu, K.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Using p p collision data collected by LHCb at center-of-mass energies √{s } =7 TeV and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 , the ratio of the branching fraction of the Bc+→ψ (2 S ) π+ decay relative to that of the Bc+→J /ψ π+ decay is measured to be 0.268 ±0.032 (stat ) ±0.007 (syst ) ±0.006 (BF ) . The first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainties on the branching fractions of the J /ψ →μ+μ- and ψ (2 S ) →μ+μ- decays. This measurement is consistent with the previous LHCb result, and the statistical uncertainty is halved.

  17. Plague: the dreadful visitation occupying the human mind for centuries.

    PubMed

    Khan, Iqbal Akhtar

    2004-05-01

    Plague is one of mankind's greatest scourges, which has swept away millions of people over the centuries. The first available record of the occurrence of this calamity, in humans, is from the Bible, in 1000 bc, in the city of Ashdod. The first definitely identified pandemic originated in Egypt in ad 542 (the Justinian Plague) and is estimated to have caused 100 million deaths. The second one, lasting for three centuries and claiming over 25 million lives appeared in 1334 in China spreading to many spots on the globe. The third pandemic occurred in Europe from the fifteenth to eighteenth century. The current pandemic began around 1860, in the Chinese province Yunnan; it reached Hong Kong in 1894 killing 100 000 individuals. Within 20 years the disease spread from southern Chinese ports throughout the world resulting in more than 10 million deaths. Since the discovery of the causative agent in 1894, there have been remarkable advancements in immunoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis. However, the disease is still active in Africa, in Asia and in Americas and has been classified as a currently re-emerging disease. A 'Plague-free World' will probably remain a dream for an indefinite period.

  18. Thomas Paine: Eighteenth Century Feminist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbison, John L.

    1978-01-01

    Unlike Franklin, Jefferson, and Adams, Thomas Paine was a feminist, a revolutionary in his time for the cause of women's rights and their liberation from servility. While others considered women second-class citizens whose only place was in the home. Paine argued for the political, legal, economic, and social rights of women. (Author/BC)

  19. Design and Use of Photoactive Ruthenium Complexes to Study Electron Transfer within Cytochrome bc1 and from Cytochrome bc1 to Cytochrome c

    PubMed Central

    Millett, Francis; Havens, Jeffrey; Rajagukguk, Sany; Durham, Bill

    2012-01-01

    The cytochrome bc1 complex (ubiquinone:cytochrome c oxidoreductase) is the central integral membrane protein in the mitochondrial respiratory chain as well as the electron-transfer chains of many respiratory and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Based on X-ray crystallographic studies of cytochrome bc1, a mechanism has been proposed in which the extrinsic domain of the iron-sulfur protein first binds to cytochrome b where it accepts an electron from ubiquinol in the Qo site, and then rotates by 57o to a position close to cytochrome c1 where it transfers an electron to cytochrome c1. This review describes the development of a ruthenium photooxidation technique to measure key electron transfer steps in cytochrome bc1, including rapid electron transfer from the iron-sulfur protein to cytochrome c1. It was discovered that this reaction is rate-limited by the rotational dynamics of the iron-sulfur protein rather than true electron transfer. A conformational linkage between the occupant of the Qo ubiquinol binding site and the rotational dynamics of the iron-sulfur protein was discovered which could play a role in the bifurcated oxidation of ubiquinol. A ruthenium photoexcitation method is also described for the measurement of electron transfer from cytochrome c1 to cytochrome c. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Respiratory Complex III. PMID:22985600

  20. A DFT study of adsorption of glycine onto the surface of BC2N nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Alireza; Azmoodeh, Zivar; Javan, Masoud Bezi; Lemeski, E. Tazikeh; Karami, Leila

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical study of structure and the energy interaction of amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) with BC2N nanotube is crucial for apperception behavior occurring at the nanobiointerface. Herein, we studied the adsorption of glycine in their radical and zwitterionic forms upon the surface of BC2N nanotube using M06 functional and 6-311G** standard basis set. We also considered the different orientations of the glycine amino acid on the surface of adsorbent. Further, we found out that the stability of glycine from its carbonyl group is higher than hydroxyl and amine groups. Our results also indicated that the electronic structure of BC2N nanotube on the adsorption of glycine from its amine group is more altered than the other groups. Our study exhibits that opto-electronic property of adsorbent is changed after the glycine adsorption.

  1. Next-to-leading order QCD corrections to paired Bc production in e+e- annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnoy, A. V.; Likhoded, A. K.; Onishchenko, A. I.; Poslavsky, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    We present theoretical analysis of paired Bc mesons production in e+e- annihilation at different energy scales taking into account full next-to-leading order QCD corrections. Both possible electroweak channels are considered: production via virtual photon and via virtual Z-boson. We study in detail the role of radiative QCD corrections, which were found to be significant especially at low energies. It is shown that the contribution from Z-boson is significant at high energies (√{ s} >MZ / 2) especially in the case of paired production of pseudo-scalar and vector (Bc +Bc*) mesons. Azimuthal asymmetry induced by a P-violating weak interaction with Z-boson is also analyzed.

  2. Analysis of the B_{c}^{+} to D_{s}^{+} overline {K}^{0^{ast }} decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, A.; Mehraban, H.

    2017-01-01

    We analysed the process of Bc+{to } Ds+overline {K}^{0^{ast } } using QCD factorization (QCDF) and final-state interaction (FSI) effects. First, the Bc+{to } Ds+overline {K}^{0^{ast } } decay is calculated using QCDF method. The value found by using the QCDF method is less than the experimental value. Then we considered FSI effect as a sizable correction where the intermediate state D^{+^{ast } }π 0 mesons via the exchange of K0(K^{0^{ast } }) are produced. To consider the amplitudes of this intermediate state, the QCDF approach was used. The experimental branching ratio of Bc+{to } Ds+overline {K}^{0^{ast } } decay is less than 0.4×10-6 and our results are (0.21±0.04)×10-7 and (0.37±0.05)×10-6 from QCDF and FSI, respectively.

  3. Magnetic, electronic and optical properties of different graphene, BN and BC2N nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, T.; Leite, L.; Azevedo, S.; de Lima Bernardo, B.

    2017-04-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are predicted to be essential components in future nanoelectronics. The size, edge type, form, arrangement of atoms and width of nanoribbons drastically change their properties. However, magnetic, electronic and optical properties of armchair, chevron and sawtooth of graphene, BN and BC2N nanoribbons are not fully understood so far. Here, we make use of first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the structural, magnetic, electronic and optical properties of nanoribbons of graphene, boron nitride and BC2N with armchair edge, chevron-type and sawtooth forms. The lowest formation energies were found for the armchair and chevron nanoribbons of graphene and boron nitride. We have shown that the imbalance of carbon atoms between different sublattices generates a net magnetic moment. Chevron-type nanoribbons of BC2N and graphene showed a band gap comparable with silicon, and a high light absorption in the visible spectrum when compared to the other configurations.

  4. Characterization of liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system

    SciTech Connect

    Lombigit, L. Yussup, N. Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rawi, M. Z. M.

    2015-04-29

    A digital n/γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system is currently under development at Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This system aims at simultaneous detection of fast neutron and gamma ray in mixed radiations environment. This work reports the system characterization performed on the liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system. The characterization involves measurement of electron light output from the BC-501A detector and energy channels calibration of the pulse height spectra acquired with DPSD system using set of photon reference sources. The main goal of this experiment is to calibrate the ADC channel of our DPSD system, characterized the BC-501 detector and find the position of Compton edge which later could be used as threshold for the n/γ PSD experiment. The detector resolution however is worse as compared to other published data but it is expected as our detector has a smaller active volume.

  5. Search for Bc+ decays to the p p ‾π+ final state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hongming, L.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-08-01

    A search for the decays of the Bc+ meson to p p bar π+ is performed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. No signal is found and an upper limit, at 95% confidence level, is set, fc/fu × B (Bc+ → p p ‾π+) < 3.6 ×10-8 in the kinematic region m (p p ‾) < 2.85 GeV /c2, pT (B) < 20 GeV / c and 2.0 < y (B) < 4.5, where B is the branching fraction and fc (fu) is the fragmentation fraction of the b quark into a Bc + (B+) meson.

  6. Successive magnetic transitions and multi-step magnetization in GdBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Akinori; Muramoto, Akihiro; Noguchi, Satoru

    2003-05-01

    We report the results of the magnetization measurements in the GdBC single crystal using a pulsed-magnet system up to 30 T and a SQUID magnetometer up to 5 T. The magnetization for the b-axis at 4.2 K shows three steps at 1, 5 and 15 T, being saturated above 23 T. The saturation moment is almost 7 μB/Gd. Temperature dependence of the step fields is obtained for all axes. These imply that GdBC has the successive antiferromagnetic transitions with the complex magnetic structures in spite of the simple spin system of Gd 3+.

  7. Identification of the diamond-like B-C phase by confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zinin, P V; Kudryashov, I; Konishi, N; Ming, L C; Solozhenko, V L; Sharma, S K

    2005-08-01

    The new diamond-like B-C phase was obtained from the graphite-like BC phase in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell at high temperature 2230+/-140 K and high pressure 45 GPa. Raman spectra of the new phase measured at ambient conditions revealed a peak at 1315 cm(-1), which was attributed to longitudinal-optical (LO) mode. The X-Y Raman mapping was used to investigate spatial distribution of the diamond-like phases and was shown to be a powerful tool in studying the sp(2)-to-sp(3) phase transformations occurring in the diamond cell under high temperature and high pressure.

  8. Characterization of LiBC by phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krumeich, Frank; Wörle, Michael; Reibisch, Philipp; Nesper, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    LiBC was used as a model compound for probing the applicability of phase-contrast (PC) imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to visualize lithium distributions. In the LiBC structure, boron and carbon are arranged to hetero graphite layers between which lithium is incorporated. The crystal structure is reflected in the PC-STEM images recorded perpendicular to the layers. The experimental images and their defocus dependence match with multi-slice simulations calculated utilizing the reciprocity principle. The observation that a part of the Li positions is not occupied is likely an effect of the intense electron beam triggering Li displacement.

  9. Structural stability, mechanical and electronic properties of cubic BC(x)N crystals within a random solid solution model.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Chunqiang; Zhao, Jijun; Jiang, Xue; Jiang, Xin

    2009-10-07

    We propose a random solution model for cubic BC(x)N (0.21BC(x)N solid solutions are not a simple mixing of diamond and cubic-BN. The computed bandgaps are substantially lower than those of diamond and BN. Compared to BC(2)N, the BC(x)N solids with higher carbon content (x>2) exhibit better structural stability and higher elastic moduli, making them more attractive as potential superhard materials.

  10. The management century.

    PubMed

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it.

  11. [A manuscript with illustrations and equipment of alchemy in the 14th century].

    PubMed

    Kurzmann, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Manuscript 1122 Trinity College Cambridge was written in Latin in England in the late 13th century. Page 120verso shows drawings with descriptions of alchemistic vessels and apparatus. These descriptions have been deciphered, translated into German and commented on. Unlike many comments in literature relating to these drawings they neither go back to Artefius or Alphidius nor are they part of the paper "clavis sapientiae". They were drawn up by an unknown hand in the late 14th century on the empty page 120verso of the older manuscript 1122. The drawings show a great variety of vessels and apparatus of highly sophisticated design. It is clear that they are based on older, professional sources. The descriptions in many cases go back to Arab designations, which were later lost. In many cases, archaeological finds confirm the actual existence of the vessels shown in the manuscript, so that we can assume that the drawings represent reality. Thus the drawings can help to interpret finds in storerooms of museums which up to now have not been identified, or recently excavated parts or fragments.

  12. Black Carbon Aging from SOA Coatings and Coagulation with Diesel BC Emissions during SAAS at the PNNL Environmental Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Dubey, M. K.; Zaveri, R. A.; Shilling, J. E.; Gourihar, K.; Pekour, M. S.; Subramanian, R.; Zelenyuk, A.; Wilson, J. M.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.; Sharma, N.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is considered to be potentially the 2nd most important global warming factor behind CO2 (Bond et al., 2013). Uncertainties exist due to BC morphology and mixing state on the extent of the warming that it causes, e.g. Cappa et al., 2012. Core-shell BC is expected to enhance absorption by up to a factor of 2, but has yet to be observed to this extent from ambient data. Experiments were conducted during the Soot Aerosol Aging Study (SAAS) Laboratory Campaign at Pactific Northwest National Laboratory's Environmental Chamber in the winter of 2013-2014 to investigate the relationship between coatings and enhancements from diesel emissions. Direct on-line measurements were made with the single particle soot photometer (SP2) from fresh and aged BC from coating and coagulation experiments with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the chamber. BC measurements are coupled with photoactoustic measurements spanning the visible region to probe BC enhancements when mixed with SOA. Here we focus on the enhancements at 781 nm, that are tracked throughout SOA growth on BC, as determined from SP2 coating thicknesses. Thermal denuder (TD) experiments are conducted and enhancements are calculated from two different methods that agree well with each other, confirming the observed results. BC measurements are also compared with co-located measurements from SPLAT-II and filter analysis using SEM and TEM. BC coagulated with SOA produces minimal absorption enhancement values, whereas coatings are observed to have significant enhancement values at 300 degrees C, e.g. 1.3 for thickly coated BC. BC particles were coagulated with SOA in the chamber since this morphology has been observed in wildfire emissions (Sedlacek et al., 2012). Since we did not observe appreciable enhancements for the coagulated BC, we expect that ambient emissions dominated by this particle type to have enhancements due to other sources, such as brown carbon (BrC) that is often co-emitted (Saleh et

  13. A century of silence.

    PubMed

    Danielian, Jack

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses how crimes of genocide go beyond a need for naked power, economic aggrandizement, or territorial conquest. Such crimes involve psychogenic and psychodynamic underpinnings that can be terrifying to contemplate. Yet their psychological study is essential. The Armenian genocide has been taken as a point of reference. Because the Armenian genocide has resulted in nearly a century-long effort of perpetrator denial, it can provide an important case study of how long-standing trauma and denial reinforce each other and illuminate each other. As a result, this genocide has aptly been called the "secret genocide," the "unremembered genocide," and a "crime without a name." The author holds that genocidal trauma (and trauma in general) is contagious and the contagion is likely to be insidious. All who come in contact with it can come away marked, including victim, victim families and progeny, observers, advocates, researchers, and yes, perpetrators.

  14. 47 CFR 52.12 - North American Numbering Plan Administrator and B&C Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... B&C Agent. 52.12 Section 52.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Agent will conduct their respective operations with oversight from the Federal Communications Commission (the “Commission”) and with recommendations from the North American Numbering Council (“NANC”)....

  15. Research Results: Mobility of BC Transfer Students. Fall 2007 to Calendar Year 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    This newsletter highlights research results on the Mobility of Transfer Students (MTS), a branch of research conducted under the auspices of the Student Transitions Project (STP). In this annual study, students enrolled in the Fall of 2007 in BC colleges, university colleges, and institutes were followed into calendar year 2008 to identify those…

  16. 21 CFR 528.1070 - Bc6 recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid construct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hircus) directing the expression of the human gene for antithrombin (which is intended for the treatment.... 528.1070 Section 528.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... use. Five copies of a human Bc6 recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) construct located at the...

  17. 21 CFR 528.1070 - Bc6 recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid construct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hircus) directing the expression of the human gene for antithrombin (which is intended for the treatment.... 528.1070 Section 528.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... use. Five copies of a human Bc6 recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) construct located at the...

  18. Mobility of Adult Basic Education Students in BC: The 2004-05 Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrance, Jill

    2008-01-01

    British Columbia offers multiple educational pathways to address the literacy and academic needs of its adult population. In BC, Adult Basic Education (ABE) is offered through two public systems: the secondary system offers the Adult Graduation program in various school district facilities, typically through Continuing Education, and the public…

  19. How to Articulate: Requesting and Assessing Credit in the BC Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide a resource for institutions, departments, faculty members, and articulation committees who are engaged in articulating courses and programs for credit within the British Columbia (BC) Transfer System. The handbook is based on best practices as observed and recorded by the British Columbia Council on…

  20. BC International Student Revenue Grows Again. BCTF Research Report. Section V. 2012-EF-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Larry

    2011-01-01

    After two years of decline, the tuition from international students increased in 2010-11 and reached more than $129 million. The revenue from international students has more than doubled in a decade, from $55.5 million in 2001-02. This revenue is the most significant source of funding for K-12 education in BC outside of direct grants from the…

  1. SN 2014bc, SN2014bi and SN 1981K not detected in radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, Michael; Bartel, Norbert

    2014-08-01

    We report on 10 GHz Jansky Very Large Array radio observations of SN 2014bc (Psn J12185771+4718113; Smartt et al CBET #3877) and SN 2014bi (PSN J12060299+4729335; Kumar et al, CBET #3892), as well as SN 1981K.

  2. English Proficiency Requirements at BC Post-Secondary Institutions: Challenges Posed for Students. Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This newsletter presents key observations from a review of BC post-secondary institutional websites undertaken to assess any differences in admission requirements for entry into standard First Year English courses and in institutional English admission requirements. Recommendations are made on possible actions that could be taken to clarify…

  3. Presenting Computer Literacy for the B.C. Generation at the Smithsonian Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, C. Dianne; Heller, Rachelle S.

    1984-01-01

    Though computer literacy has become a key educational issue of the 1980s, little attention has been paid to adults over the age of 25 who received their formal education Before Computers (B.C.). One-day seminars (developed at the request of the Smithsonian Institution) designed to satisfy this need are described. (JN)

  4. The Comet Of 44 B.C. and Caesar's Funeral Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, John T.; Licht, A. Lewis

    1997-05-01

    Using insights from physics and classics, this book explores the social and cultural implications of the spectacular, daylight comet that was observed in 44 B.C. during the games that the future emperor Augustus gave in honor of the late Julius Caesar.

  5. IQs Predict Differences in the Technological Development of Nations from 1000 BC through 2000 AD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    National IQs and measures of technological development given by Comin, Easterly and Gong (2010) are presented for 133 nations for the year 1000 BC, for 134 nations for 0 AD, for 120 nations for 1500 AD and for 133 nations for 2000 AD. It is shown that national IQs are significantly correlated with national differences in technological development…

  6. 2004 and 2005 BC Student Outcomes: Job Destinations of Former College and Institute Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey Project (CISO) collects and disseminates information about former students' post-secondary experiences and their subsequent labour market and further education experiences. The survey is administered annually to a number of former students of public colleges, university colleges, and institutes…

  7. Metabolic response of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC toward electron acceptor variation.

    PubMed

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J; Boeren, Sjef; Plugge, Caroline M; Schaap, Peter J; Stams, Alfons J M

    2013-10-01

    Alicycliphilus denitrificans is a versatile, ubiquitous, facultative anaerobic bacterium. Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC can use chlorate, nitrate, and oxygen as electron acceptor for growth. Cells display a prolonged lag-phase when transferred from nitrate to chlorate and vice versa. Furthermore, cells adapted to aerobic growth do not easily use nitrate or chlorate as electron acceptor. We further investigated these responses of strain BC by differential proteomics, transcript analysis, and enzyme activity assays. In nitrate-adapted cells transferred to chlorate and vice versa, appropriate electron acceptor reduction pathways need to be activated. In oxygen-adapted cells, adaptation to the use of chlorate or nitrate is likely difficult due to the poorly active nitrate reduction pathway and low active chlorate reduction pathway. We deduce that the Nar-type nitrate reductase of strain BC also reduces chlorate, which may result in toxic levels of chlorite if cells are transferred to chlorate. Furthermore, the activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase appear to be not balanced when oxygen-adapted cells are shifted to nitrate as electron acceptor, leading to the production of a toxic amount of nitrite. These data suggest that strain BC encounters metabolic challenges in environments with fluctuations in the availability of electron acceptors. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000258.

  8. Structural Basis of Resistance to Anti-Cytochrome bc1 Complex Inhibitors: Implication for Drug Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Lothar; Yu, Chang-An; Xia, Di

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistance has devastating economic and social consequences, a testimonial of which is the rise and fall of inhibitors against the respiratory component cytochrome bc1 complex, a time tested and highly effective target for disease control. Unfortunately, the mechanism of resistance is a multivariate problem, including primarily mutations in the gene of the cytochrome b subunit but also activation of alternative pathways of ubiquinol oxidation and pharmacokinetic effects. There is a considerable interest in designing new bc1 inhibitors with novel modes of binding and lower propensity to induce the development of resistance. The accumulation of crystallographic data of bc1 complexes with and without inhibitors bound provides the structural basis for rational drug design. In particular, the cytochrome b subunit offers two distinct active sites that can be targeted for inhibition - the quinol oxidation site and the quinone reduction site. This review brings together available structural information of inhibited bc1 by various quinol oxidation- and reduction-site inhibitors, the inhibitor binding modes, conformational changes upon inhibitor binding of side chains in the active site and large scale domain movements of the iron-sulfur protein subunit. Structural data analysis provides a clear understanding of where and why existing inhibitors fail and points towards promising alternatives. PMID:23688079

  9. The GISP ice core record of volcanism since 7000 B.C.

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedel, S.J.

    1995-01-13

    Two technical comments are presented on an article by Zielinski concerning the GISP ice core record of volcanic activity in 7000 BC, including a detailed record of the volcanic contribution to sulfate concentrations. The authors describe concerns about (1) correct C14 dating for known eruptions correlated to calendar years and (2) the need for unambiguous volcanic source identifications. 24 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Transformation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleria protoplasts by plasmid pBC16.

    PubMed Central

    Alikhanian, S I; Ryabchenko, N F; Bukanov, N O; Sakanyan, V A

    1981-01-01

    Protoplasts of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleria were transformed by plasmid pBC16. The frequency of transformation was much lower than that of Bacillus subtilis. All isolated B. thuringiensis transformants were characterized by increased sensitivity to lysozyme as compared with the original strain. Images PMID:7217007

  11. [Genetic characteristics of viral quasispecies of HIV-1 CRF07_BC among intravenous drug users].

    PubMed

    Xin, Ruo-Lei; Ma, Ze-Qin; Cheng, Chun-Lin; Xing, Hui; Hong, Kun-Xue; Ruan, Yu-Hua; Li, Jia; Lu, Hong-Yan; Shao, Yi-Ming; He, Xiang

    2013-05-01

    To explore the genetic characteristics of viral quasispecies in HIV-1 CRF07_BC infections among intravenous drug users (IDU), the gp120 fragments of HIV-1 env gene were amplified from plasma samples collected from 6 CRF07_BC infected persons using single genome amplification and sequencing (SGA/ SGS) method, and 11 to 28 sequences were obtained from these samples, respectively, A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was reconstructed to describe the genetic characteristics of viral quasispecies. The Simplot, segments' phylogenetic trees and diversity plots based on average pairwise distance (APD) were used to identify the recombination events between quasispecies. The SGA sequences derived from single specimen formed a large monophyletic cluster in the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree and showed the complex topologic structures of viral quasispecies. Of the 6 CRF07_BC infected patients, only one possessed the high genetic homogeneity, whereas the other five individuals showed high heterogeneity, with two to four subclusters inside the monophyletic cluster for each specimen. In addition, the recombinant events were identified among viral quasispecies from 3 cases. The results show SGA technique and phylogenetic analyses are useful tool to investigate the intrahost CRF07_BC gp120 complex quasispecies variation and high genetic diversity.

  12. The polygalacturonase gene BcMF2 from Brassica campestris is associated with intine development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Cao, Jiashu; Zhang, Aihong; Ye, Yiqun; Zhang, Yuchao; Liu, Tingting

    2009-01-01

    Brassica campestris Male Fertility 2 (BcMF2) is a putative polygalacturonase (PG) gene previously isolated from the flower bud of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis). This gene was found to be expressed specifically in tapetum and pollen after the tetrad stage of anther development. Antisense RNA technology was used to study the function of BcMF2 in Chinese cabbage. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that there were deformities in the transgenic mature pollen grains such as abnormal location of germinal furrows. In addition, the homogeneous pectic exintine layer facing the exterior seemed to be overdeveloped and predominantly occupied the intine, thus reversing the normal proportional distribution of the internal endintine layer and the external exintine layer. Since it is a continuation of the intine layer, the pollen tube wall could not grow normally. This resulted in the formation of a balloon-like swelling structure in the pollen tube tip in nearly 80% of the transgenic pollen grains. Premature degradation of tapetum was also found in these transgenic plants, which displayed decreased expression of the BcMF2 gene. BcMF2 might therefore encode a new PG with an important role in pollen wall development, possibly via regulation of pectin's dynamic metabolism. PMID:19039102

  13. Yeast two-hybrid systems confirm the membrane- association and oligomerization of BC1 but do not detect an interaction of the movement proteins BC1 and BV1 of Abutilon mosaic geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Frischmuth, S; Kleinow, T; Aberle, H-J; Wege, C; Hülser, D; Jeske, H

    2004-12-01

    Most of the plant begomoviruses use two proteins to transport their DNA from cell to cell, BV1 to shuttle it between nucleus and cytoplasm and BC1 to facilitate movement across plasmodesmata. In order to analyse their interaction for Abutilon mosaic geminivirus (AbMV) in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae), BC1 and BV1 genes were cloned into various plasmid vectors suitable for two-hybrid analysis. BC1 was fused to the binding domain (GBD) and BV1 to the activation domain (GAD) of the GAL4 transcription factor to check for interactions in the nucleus. Additionally, BC1 as well as BV1 were integrated into pMyr or pSos vectors to analyze protein binding at the plasma membrane using the CytoTraptrade mark system. Using freeze-fracture immuno-labelling (FreeFI), singly-expressed GBD:BC1 was localized at the plasma membrane although it was fused to a nuclear localization signal provided by the construct. GAD:BV1 was found in the nucleus of transformed cells as expected. Upon co-transformation of both constructs, cells grew poorly and exhibited symptoms of autolysis without any detectable level of GBD:BC1 or GAD:BV1, as revealed by FreeFI. In conclusion, both fusion proteins did not meet in the same compartment and appeared to be harmful to yeast if constitutively co-expressed. When expressed from pSos vector, BC1 induced the CytoTrap detection signal in the absence of pMyr indicating that BC1 protein alone is able to target the effector protein to the inner face of the plasma membrane. A mutated form of BC1 (DeltaBC1) lacking the previously identified membrane-binding domain was no longer able to auto-induce the CytoTrap signal cascade. Using DeltaBC1, an N-terminal, or a C-terminal third of BC1 revealed a homo-oligomerization of the C-terminal region of BC1 in two-hybrid analysis, but no interaction of BC1 with BV1.

  14. [Hospitals in Europe and Yugoslavia through the centuries].

    PubMed

    Topalović, R

    1998-01-01

    The primary object of this paper is to give a retrospective of hospital development in Europe and Yugoslavia for the past twenty-five centuries. The earliest records of hospitals called the "iatreia" date back to the V century B.C., ancient Greece. The sick in those hospitals were treated with drugs as well operated on. The Romans, during the reign of the emperor Augustus, built valetudinaries within military camps. The name "hospital" was introduced in the IV century A.D. and has been used ever since. The first hospital was founded in Cesarea, i.e. in the East Roman Empire in Asia Minor. The chronology of the hospital development in the Middle Ages is given in table 1--"Chronology of Hospital Development in the Middle Ages." St. Sava (Nemanjić) founded the first Serbian hospital in the Monastery of Hilandar about 1199 and in 1208/1209 a hospital in the Monastery of Studenica. In the hospital of the Monastery of St. Arhangel in Prizren, according to the regulations prescribed by tzar Dusan, only curable patients were to be treated. The first hospital in Vojvodina in Bac near Novi Sad dates back to 1234. More data about hospitals in former Yugoslavia are given in table 2--"The Oldest Hospitals in former Yugoslavia" and about the Frontier Hospitals in Vojvodina in table 3--"Frontier Hospitals for the Wounded and Sick in Vojvodina". The first medical high school was established in Salerno in the IX century and the first European University in Bologna in 1088, where the School of Medicine was founded in 1156. The University in Paris was founded in 1107 and in Oxford in 1145.

  15. Routine mapping of Fusarium wilt resistance in BC1 populations of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to Fusarium wilt disease varies among wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Six RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM (RFO) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 to Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli (FOM) are detected in a recombinant population derived from a single backcross of the F1 hybrid (BC1). In particular, the RFO1 QTL appears to interact with three other loci, RFO2, RFO4 and RFO6, and is attributed to the gene At1g79670. Results When resistance to FOM was mapped in a new BC1 population, in which the loss-of-function mutant of At1g79670 replaced wild type as the Col-0 parent, RFO1’s major effect and RFO1’s interaction with RFO2, RFO4 and RFO6 were absent, showing that At1g79670 alone accounts for the RFO1 QTL. Resistance of two QTLs, RFO3 and RFO5, was independent of RFO1 and was reproduced in the new BC1 population. In analysis of a third BC1 population, resistance to a second pathogen, F. oxysporum forma specialis conglutinans race 1 (FOC1), was mapped and the major effect locus RFO7 was identified. Conclusions Natural quantitative resistance to F. oxysporum is largely specific to the infecting forma specialis because different RFO loci were responsible for resistance to FOM and FOC1. The mapping of quantitative disease resistance traits in BC1 populations, generated from crosses between sequenced Arabidopsis accessions, can be a routine procedure when genome-wide genotyping is efficient, economical and accessible. PMID:24172069

  16. Ancient Skeletal Evidence for Leprosy in India (2000 B.C.)

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Gwen; Tripathy, V. Mushrif; Misra, V. N.; Mohanty, R. K.; Shinde, V. S.; Gray, Kelsey M.; Schug, Malcolm D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects almost 250,000 people worldwide. The timing of first infection, geographic origin, and pattern of transmission of the disease are still under investigation. Comparative genomics research has suggested M. leprae evolved either in East Africa or South Asia during the Late Pleistocene before spreading to Europe and the rest of the World. The earliest widely accepted evidence for leprosy is in Asian texts dated to 600 B.C. Methodology/Principal Findings We report an analysis of pathological conditions in skeletal remains from the second millennium B.C. in India. A middle aged adult male skeleton demonstrates pathological changes in the rhinomaxillary region, degenerative joint disease, infectious involvement of the tibia (periostitis), and injury to the peripheral skeleton. The presence and patterning of lesions was subject to a process of differential diagnosis for leprosy including treponemal disease, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, and non-specific infection. Conclusions/Significance Results indicate that lepromatous leprosy was present in India by 2000 B.C. This evidence represents the oldest documented skeletal evidence for the disease. Our results indicate that Vedic burial traditions in cases of leprosy were present in northwest India prior to the first millennium B.C. Our results also support translations of early Vedic scriptures as the first textual reference to leprosy. The presence of leprosy in skeletal material dated to the post-urban phase of the Indus Age suggests that if M. leprae evolved in Africa, the disease migrated to India before the Late Holocene, possibly during the third millennium B.C. at a time when there was substantial interaction among the Indus Civilization, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. This evidence should be impetus to look for additional skeletal and molecular evidence of leprosy in India and Africa to confirm the African origin of

  17. Premature deaths attributed to source-specific BC emissions in six urban US regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Matthew D.; Henze, Daven K.; Capps, Shannon L.; Hakami, Amir; Zhao, Shunliu; Resler, Jaroslav; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Stanier, Charles O.; Baek, Jaemeen; Sandu, Adrian; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios; Pinder, Rob W.; Napelenok, Sergey L.; Bash, Jesse O.; Percell, Peter B.; Chai, Tianfeng

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to particulate black carbon (BC) has significant adverse health effects and may be more detrimental to human health than exposure to PM2.5 as a whole. Mobile source BC emission controls, mostly on diesel-burning vehicles, have successfully decreased mobile source BC emissions to less than half of what they were 30 years ago. Quantification of the benefits of previous emissions controls conveys the value of these regulatory actions and provides a method by which future control alternatives could be evaluated. In this study we use the adjoint of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to estimate highly-resolved spatial distributions of benefits related to emission reductions for six urban regions within the continental US. Emissions from outside each of the six chosen regions account for between 7% and 27% of the premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC within the region. While we estimate that nonroad mobile and onroad diesel emissions account for the largest number of premature deaths attributable to exposure to BC, onroad gasoline is shown to have more than double the benefit per unit emission relative to that of nonroad mobile and onroad diesel. Within the region encompassing New York City and Philadelphia, reductions in emissions from large industrial combustion sources that are not classified as EGUs (i.e., non-EGU) are estimated to have up to triple the benefits per unit emission relative to reductions to onroad diesel sectors, and provide similar benefits per unit emission to that of onroad gasoline emissions in the region. While onroad mobile emissions have been decreasing in the past 30 years and a majority of vehicle emission controls that regulate PM focus on diesel emissions, our analysis shows the most efficient target for stricter controls is actually onroad gasoline emissions.

  18. Airborne, Balloon-borne and ground network measurements of aerosol BC over Indian region: Current understanding and possible implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Babu, Suresh, S.; Manoj, M. R.; Gogoi, Mukunda

    2012-07-01

    Though the role of BC aerosols in direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing is now well accepted and being extensively investigated, there is a large knowledge gap on its vertical distribution. Large amounts of BC, if present above and within the clouds, could significantly modify the atmospheric heating due to aerosol absorption. In the back drop of some of the recent measurements of strong BC layers in the middle and upper troposphere and even in the stratosphere, the knowledge of vertical distribution of BC becomes all the more relevant, especially over the tropics, with significant solar heating, cloud cover and BC hotspots. With a view to addressing this issue from comprehensive measurements over Indian region, extensive measurements using aircrafts, balloons, and a large network of ground-based observatories have been made as a part of the Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX). These measurements were examined in the light of simulations made using the regional climate model (RegCM of ICTP) to understand the ability and biases of climate models. While the aircraft measurements revealed presence of strong BC layers above the atmospheric boundary layer, within which the BC concentration often exceeded those near the surface. These layers were more elevated and strong along the eastern coast and over Bay of Bengal, rather than on the west. The RegCM simulations were found to underestimate the BC concentrations, especially during the daytime probably owing to inadequate representation of ABL dynamics. The details would be presented and implications would be discussed

  19. A Century of Skills Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The author is a historian of education and has written often about the educational enthusiasms and fads of the past century. One of her books, titled "Left Back," tells the story of the rise and fall of one fad after another across the 20th century. In brief, what she has found is that in the land of American pedagogy, innovation is frequently…

  20. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  1. A Century of Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Patrick N.

    The history of technology and industrial education in the United States provides lessons that should be heeded if current advances such as tech prep are to succeed. Practical, vocation-oriented education has been an urgent objective for U.S. education three times in the 20th century. At the turn of the century, manual training (later manual arts)…

  2. Superhard BC3 in cubic diamond structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Quan; Gao, Bo; Wang, Yanchao; Li, Hongdong; Chen, Changfeng; Ma, Yanming

    2015-01-06

    We solve the crystal structure of recently synthesized cubic BC3 using an unbiased swarm structure search, which identifies a highly symmetric BC3 phase in the cubic diamond structure (d–BC3) that contains a distinct B-B bonding network along the body diagonals of a large 64-atom unit cell. Simulated x-ray diffraction and Raman peaks of d–BC3 are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Calculated stress-strain relations of d–BC3 demonstrate its intrinsic superhard nature and reveal intriguing sequential bond-breaking modes that produce superior ductility and extended elasticity, which are unique among superhard solids. Here, the present results establish the first boron carbide in the cubic diamond structure with remarkable properties, and these new findings also provide insights for exploring other covalent solids with complex bonding configurations.

  3. SP2 Deployment at Boston College—Aerodyne-Led Coated Black Carbon Study (BC4) Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Onasch, T. B.; Sedlacek, A. J.

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of the Boston College-Aerodyne led laboratory study (BC4) was to measure the optical properties of black carbon (BC) particles from a diffusion flame directly and after being coated with secondary organic and inorganic material and to achieve optical closure with model predictions. The measurements of single particle BC mass and population mixing states provided by a single particle soot photometer (SP2) was central to achieving the laboratory-based study’s objective. Specifically, the DOE ARM SP2 instrument participated in the BC4 project to address the following scientific questions: 1. What is the mass-specific absorption coefficient as a function of secondary organic and inorganic material coatings? 2. What is the spread in the population mixing states within our carefully generated laboratory particles? 3. How does the SP2 instrument respond to well-characterized, internally mixed BC-containing particles?

  4. Genome sequence of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF64_BC) identified from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Jenny; Wei, Huamian; Xing, Hui; Feng, Yi; He, Xiang; Liao, Lingjie; Jia, Manhong; Wang, Nidan; Ning, Chuanyi; Shao, Yiming

    2014-04-01

    We report a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF64_BC) that was isolated from five epidemiologically unlinked HIV-infected persons in Yunnan province. CRF64_BC was composed of subtype B and subtype C, with five short subtype B segments inserted into the subtype C backbone. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the C subregion was correlated with the India C lineage, which was transmitted into China in the early 1990s. The evolutionary history of the B subregion was not as clear as the C subregion, as the short length of this region yielded poor phylogenetic results. Dehong is considered the epicenter of HIV-1 in China, and recombinant strains such as CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC, which also originated from this region, have spread widely in China. The newly emerged CRF64_BC increases the complexity of the HIV epidemic in China and complicates the development of subtype-specific tools against HIV transmission.

  5. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-2 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This work plan and attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-2 operable unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The 100 Area is one of four areas at the Hanford Site that are on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) National Priorities List under CERCLA. The 100-BC-2 operable unit is one of two source operable units in the 100-B/C Area (Figure ES-1). Source operable units are those that contain facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. The 100-BC-2 source operable unit contains waste sites that were formerly in the 100-BC-2, 100-BC-3, and 100-BC-4 operable units. Because of their size and geographic location, the waste sites from these two operable units were added to 100-BC-2. This allows for a more efficient and effective investigation of the remaining 100-B/C Reactor area waste sites. The investigative approach to waste sites associated with the 100-BC-2 operable unit are listed in Table ES-1. The waste sites fall into three general categories: high priority liquid waste disposal sites, low priority liquid waste disposal sites, and solid waste burial grounds. Several sites have been identified as candidates for conducting an IRM. Two sites have been identified as warranting additional limited field sampling. The two sites are the 116-C-2A pluto crib, and the 116-C-2C sand filter.

  6. Isolation and characterization of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC, which grows on benzene with chlorate as the electron acceptor.

    PubMed

    Weelink, Sander A B; Tan, Nico C G; ten Broeke, Harm; van den Kieboom, Corné; van Doesburg, Wim; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Gerritse, Jan; Junca, Howard; Stams, Alfons J M

    2008-11-01

    A bacterium, strain BC, was isolated from a benzene-degrading chlorate-reducing enrichment culture. Strain BC degrades benzene in conjunction with chlorate reduction. Cells of strain BC are short rods that are 0.6 microm wide and 1 to 2 microm long, are motile, and stain gram negative. Strain BC grows on benzene and some other aromatic compounds with oxygen or in the absence of oxygen with chlorate as the electron acceptor. Strain BC is a denitrifying bacterium, but it is not able to grow on benzene with nitrate. The closest cultured relative is Alicycliphilus denitrificans type strain K601, a cyclohexanol-degrading nitrate-reducing betaproteobacterium. Chlorate reductase (0.4 U/mg protein) and chlorite dismutase (5.7 U/mg protein) activities in cell extracts of strain BC were determined. Gene sequences encoding a known chlorite dismutase (cld) were not detected in strain BC by using the PCR primers described in previous studies. As physiological and biochemical data indicated that there was oxygenation of benzene during growth with chlorate, a strategy was developed to detect genes encoding monooxygenase and dioxygenase enzymes potentially involved in benzene degradation in strain BC. Using primer sets designed to amplify members of distinct evolutionary branches in the catabolic families involved in benzene biodegradation, two oxygenase genes putatively encoding the enzymes performing the initial successive monooxygenations (BC-BMOa) and the cleavage of catechol (BC-C23O) were detected. Our findings suggest that oxygen formed by dismutation of chlorite can be used to attack organic molecules by means of oxygenases, as exemplified with benzene. Thus, aerobic pathways can be employed under conditions in which no external oxygen is supplied.

  7. Evolution of cytochrome bc complexes: from membrane-anchored dehydrogenases of ancient bacteria to triggers of apoptosis in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2013-01-01

    This review traces the evolution of the cytochrome bc complexes from their early spread among prokaryotic lineages and up to the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex (complex III) and its role in apoptosis. The results of phylogenomic analysis suggest that the bacterial cytochrome b6f-type complexes with short cytochromes b were the ancient form that preceded in evolution the cytochrome bc1-type complexes with long cytochromes b. The common ancestor of the b6f-type and the bc1-type complexes probably resembled the b6f-type complexes found in Heliobacteriaceae and in some Planctomycetes. Lateral transfers of cytochrome bc operons could account for the several instances of acquisition of different types of bacterial cytochrome bc complexes by archaea. The gradual oxygenation of the atmosphere could be the key evolutionary factor that has driven further divergence and spread of the cytochrome bc complexes. On one hand, oxygen could be used as a very efficient terminal electron acceptor. On the other hand, auto-oxidation of the components of the bc complex results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which necessitated diverse adaptations of the b6f-type and bc1-type complexes, as well as other, functionally coupled proteins. A detailed scenario of the gradual involvement of the cardiolipin-containing mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex into the intrinsic apoptotic pathway is proposed, where the functioning of the complex as an apoptotic trigger is viewed as a way to accelerate the elimination of the cells with irreparably damaged, ROS-producing mitochondria. PMID:23871937

  8. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2006-06-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  9. A century of smoke.

    PubMed

    Yach, D; Wipfli, H

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco kills 5 million people annually. By the mid 2020s, that figure will increase to about 10 million a year, with most of the deaths occurring in developing countries. This review explains how early technological and regulatory developments contributed to the epidemic, reveals the efforts of the tobacco industry to conceal its products' harmfulness, and stresses the role of the globalization of trade and marketing as a means of increasing consumption world-wide. The results of tens of thousands of studies published globally over the past 50 years point to an association between smoking and lung cancer and other adverse health effects, and the non-smoker's rights movement has exposed the wide-spread perils of 'secondhand' smoke. Yet, the tobacco industry continues its global expansion, and consumers in low- and middle-income countries are especially susceptible to its marketing tactics. This review ends by emphasising the need for a global public-health response, and identifies the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control as a significant effort. It stresses the need for accelerated action and innovative tobacco-control efforts, if the projected death toll is to be reduced in this century.

  10. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  11. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2014-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ∼0.2) in CA vary seasonally with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ∼10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2-90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ∼0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD, and PM2.5, PM10, BC, organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in the Kyrgyz Republic (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrate that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants

  12. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants

  13. Rolling-element bearings in China: From ancient times to the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lie; Li, Ang

    2016-03-01

    The development of rolling-element bearings in China has spanned a long period. Based on several typical and important cases, the present article reconstructs the history of rolling-element bearings in China by dividing it into four stages according to the various characteristics of the bearings. The first stage represents the origin of rolling bearings in China, which remains controversial because of several suspected races and cages that were likely the components of bearings more than a millennium ago. At the second stage, a type of simple roller bearing was used for astronomical instruments not later than the 13th century based on clear philological and physical evidence. A similar bearing was also applied to an abridged armillary in the 17th century. Another type of spherical thrust bearings with rolling elements, which is a key component of a traditional Chinese windmill, could support a rotating shaft that moves rotationally and at an angle. At the third stage, the Chinese began studying and using the so-called Europeanstyle bearing since the 17th century. Moreover, over the last 100 years, the modern rolling bearing industry was gradually established in China, particularly because of the technology transfer from the Soviet Union in the 1950s. At the fourth stage, the Chinese government initiated the relatively rapid development of bearing technology. The government launched the "bearing movement" from the 1950s to the 1960s to establish the modern bearing industry and to promote rolling bearings as replacement for traditional sliding bearings. Furthermore, a number of large professional factories and institutions in China have continually introduced advanced technology and equipment. At present, these companies and institutions play a significant role in the international bearing industry.

  14. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  15. Identification and validation of tetracyclic benzothiazepines as Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome bc1 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Carolyn; Urgaonkar, Sameer; Cortese, Joseph F.; Gamo, F. Javier; Garcia-Bustos, Jose F.; Lafuente, Maria J.; Patel, Vishal; Ross, Leila; Coleman, Bradley I.; Derbyshire, Emily R.; Clish, Clary B.; Serrano, Adelfa E.; Cromwell, Mandy; Barker, Robert H.; Dvorin, Jeffrey D.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Wirth, Dyann F.; Clardy, Jon; Mazitschek, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Summary Here we report the discovery of tetracyclic benzothiazepines (BTZ) as highly potent and selective antimalarials along with the identification of the Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome bc1 complex as the primary functional target of this novel compound class. Investigation of the structure activity relationship within this previously unexplored chemical scaffold has yielded inhibitors with low nanomolar activity. A combined approach employing genetically modified parasites, biochemical profiling, and resistance selection validated inhibition of cytochrome bc1 activity, an essential component of the parasite respiratory chain and target of the widely used antimalarial drug atovaquone, as the mode of action of this novel compound class. Resistance to atovaquone is eroding the efficacy of this widely used antimalarial drug. Intriguingly, BTZ-based inhibitors retain activity against atovaquone resistant parasites, suggesting this chemical class may provide an alternative to atovaquone in combination therapy. PMID:22195562

  16. Targeting the Cytochrome bc1 Complex of Leishmania Parasites for Discovery of Novel Drugs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Diana; Forquer, Isaac; Boitz, Jan; Soysa, Radika; Elya, Carolyn; Fulwiler, Audrey; Nilsen, Aaron; Polley, Tamsen; Riscoe, Michael K; Ullman, Buddy; Landfear, Scott M

    2016-08-01

    Endochin-like quinolones (ELQs) are potent and specific inhibitors of cytochrome bc1 from Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii and show promise for novel antiparasitic drug development. To determine whether the mitochondrial electron transport chain of Leishmania parasites could be targeted similarly for drug development, we investigated the activity of 134 structurally diverse ELQs. A cohort of ELQs was selectively toxic to amastigotes of Leishmania mexicana and L. donovani, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the low micromolar range, but the structurally similar hydroxynaphthoquinone buparvaquone was by far the most potent inhibitor of electron transport, ATP production, and intracellular amastigote growth. Cytochrome bc1 is thus a promising target for novel antileishmanial drugs, and further improvements on the buparvaquone scaffold are warranted for development of enhanced therapeutics.

  17. Targeting the Cytochrome bc1 Complex of Leishmania Parasites for Discovery of Novel Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Diana; Forquer, Isaac; Boitz, Jan; Soysa, Radika; Elya, Carolyn; Fulwiler, Audrey; Nilsen, Aaron; Polley, Tamsen; Riscoe, Michael K.; Ullman, Buddy

    2016-01-01

    Endochin-like quinolones (ELQs) are potent and specific inhibitors of cytochrome bc1 from Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii and show promise for novel antiparasitic drug development. To determine whether the mitochondrial electron transport chain of Leishmania parasites could be targeted similarly for drug development, we investigated the activity of 134 structurally diverse ELQs. A cohort of ELQs was selectively toxic to amastigotes of Leishmania mexicana and L. donovani, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the low micromolar range, but the structurally similar hydroxynaphthoquinone buparvaquone was by far the most potent inhibitor of electron transport, ATP production, and intracellular amastigote growth. Cytochrome bc1 is thus a promising target for novel antileishmanial drugs, and further improvements on the buparvaquone scaffold are warranted for development of enhanced therapeutics. PMID:27297476

  18. Flow fields within Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Oval BC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. L.; Garneau, G. W.; Beebe, R. F.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 1 high-resolution images of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and White Oval BC are used to map flow fields within these two areas. The relative vorticity is computed as a function of semi-major axis length and position angle in a coordinate system consisting of concentric ellipses of equal eccentricity. Wind speeds of 110-120 m/s are observed near the outer edge of both features, and along their minor axes relative vorticity profiles reach a maximum of 0.00006/s. Maximum Rossby numbers of 0.36 are computed for flows within both features, and are found to be low, indicating geostrophic constraints on the flow. The difference in streamline curvature within the GRS and the Oval BC is found to compensate for the difference in planetary vorticity at the respective latitudes of the features. Finally, motions within the central region of the GRS are slower and more random than around the spot's outer portion.

  19. A new small temperate DNA phage BcP15 isolated from Burkholderia cepacia DR11.

    PubMed

    Hens, D K; Ghosh, A N; Kumar, R

    2005-12-01

    A Burkholderia cepacia DR11 strain was isolated during the survey of microorganisms from coastal water of deltaic Sunderbans. This strain always released temperate phage BcP15 into culture supernatant. UV irradiation of the strain also induced phage induction. The phage titer was 2.3 x 10(8). New temperate phage BcP15 has unusual structure. It has a hexagonal head, 65 nm in diameter and a tail 200 nm long, attached with single thick wavy tail fiber (424-705 nm). Phage DNA is double stranded 11.9 kb long. Southern hybridization result indicated that the phage DNA was in lysogenic state into the B. cepacia DR11 genome. SDS-PAGE of phage protein showed two major bands of molecular weight 20 kDa and 40 kDa.

  20. Electronic and magnetic properties of bare armchair BC2N nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Xiao, Xiang; Tie, Jun; Lu, Jing

    2017-03-01

    We present the electronic and magnetic properties of bare armchair BC2N nanoribbons (ABC2NNRs) in the view of density functional calculations. We consider three types of edge terminations with a width of 0.75 2.10 nm. All the investigated ribbons exhibit magnetic ground states with the magnetic moments mainly located on the edge C atoms. Room temperature accessible magnetic stabilities are obtained for ABC2NNRs with NC-NC and NC-BC edge alignments. We find the ABC2NNRs have various electronic structures, where half-metal, metal, and semiconductor are all acquired depend on the edge alignment and magnetic coupling state. The results show the ABC2NNRs can be a promising candidate material in nanoelectronics and nanospintronics.

  1. BcGs1, a glycoprotein from Botrytis cinerea, elicits defence response and improves disease resistance in host plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yunhua; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei; Guo, Lihua; Yang, Xiufen

    2015-02-20

    In this study, a necrosis-inducing protein was purified from the culture filtrate of the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea BC-98 strain. Secreted proteins were collected and fractionated by liquid chromatography. The fraction with the highest necrosis-inducing activity was further purified. A glycoprotein named BcGs1 was identified by 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The BcGs1 protein consisted of 672 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 70.487 kDa. Functional domain analysis indicated that BcGs1 was a glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase, a cell wall-degrading enzyme, with a Glyco_hydro_15 domain and a CBM20_glucoamylase domain. The BcGs1 protein caused necrotic lesions that mimicked a typical hypersensitive response and H2O2 production in tomato and tobacco leaves. BcGs1-treated plants exhibited resistance to B. cinerea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and tobacco mosaic virus in systemic leaves. In addition, BcGs1 triggered elevation of the transcript levels of the defence-related genes PR-1a, TPK1b and Prosystemin. This is the first report of a Botrytis glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase triggering host plant immunity as an elicitor. These results lay a foundation for further study of the comprehensive interaction between plants and necrotrophic fungi.

  2. Radiocarbon-based source apportionment of black carbon (BC) in PM 10 aerosols from residential area of suburban Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Masao; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Koike, Yasuyo; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Uchida, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Kitao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2010-04-01

    The AMS technique was applied to analyse black carbon (BC), total organic carbon (TOC), and previously reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 10 aerosols from a residential area, suburban Tokyo, to determine natural abundance of radiocarbon ( 14C), an ideal tracer to distinguish fossil fuel ( 14C-free) from modern biomass combustion sources of pyrolytic products. The 14C concentrations in BC, isolated using the CTO-375 method, were 42% and 30% pMC (in terms of percent Modern Carbon: pMC) in summer and winter, respectively. The 14C concentrations in BC were also compared with those of compound-class specific 14C content of PAHs previously reported for the same samples: they were 45% and 33% pMC in summer and winter, respectively. The 14C signals of BC were identical to those of high molecular weight (MW ⩾ 226, 5-6 rings) PAHs. The resemblance between 14C signals of BC and PAHs can be referred as a 'certificate' for the validity of the BC isolation method employed in this study. Also, it suggests that 14C-BC approach can be a surrogate for PAHs specific 14C analyses to monitor seasonal source variation of combustion-derived pyrolytic products. On the other hand, 14C contents of total organic carbon in 2004 were 61% and 42% pMC in summer and winter, respectively. This is likely attributed to higher contribution of plant activity in summer.

  3. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P < 0.01). The phagocytic activity in the coelomocytes of sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P < 0.05). In addition, 105 and 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 significantly enhanced lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P < 0.01). Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  4. Unveiling the Semicoherent Interface with Definite Orientation Relationships between Reinforcements and Matrix in Novel Al3BC/Al Composites.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongfeng; Qian, Zhao; Ma, Xia; Chen, Houwen; Gao, Tong; Wu, Yuying; Liu, Xiangfa

    2016-10-05

    High-strength lightweight Al-based composites are promising materials for a wide range of applications. To provide high performance, a strong bonding interface for effective load transfer from the matrix to the reinforcement is essential. In this work, the novel Al3BC reinforced Al composites have been in situ fabricated through a liquid-solid reaction method and the bonding interface between Al3BC and Al matrix has been unveiled. The HRTEM characterizations on the Al3BC/Al interface verify it to be a semicoherent bonding structure with definite orientation relationships: (0001)Al3BC//(11̅1)Al;[112̅0]Al3BC//[011]Al. Periodic arrays of geometrical misfit dislocations are also observed along the interface at each (0001)Al3BC plane or every five (11̅1)Al planes. This kind of interface between the reinforcement and the matrix is strong enough for effective load transfer, which would lead to the evidently improved strength and stiffness of the introduced new Al3BC/Al composites.

  5. The 13th Biennial Psychology in the Department of Defense,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-17

    unique perceptual and psychomotor skills . In addition, with a machine as expensive and inherently dangerous as the LCAC, sound judgment and decision-making...abilities, 66 higher order processes, psychomotor skills , time-sharing ability, and personality traits that might predict success in LCAC training. The

  6. Proceedings of the 13th Project integration meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Progress made by the Low Cost Solar Array Project during the period April through August 1979 is presented. Reports are given on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering and operations, and a discussion of the steps taken to integrate these efforts. A report on, and copies of viewgraphs presented at the Project Integration Meeting held August 22-23, 1979 are presented.

  7. The 13th Tihany Symposium on Radiation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, László; Takács, Erzsébet

    2016-07-01

    The Symposium was held in Balatonalmádi, a beautiful city by the Lake Balaton, Hungary, between August 29 and September 3, 2015. This time - to meet the expectations of many colleagues and friends - a place close to the village Tihany was selected, where the first Tihany Symposium was organized in 1962. The participants beside the excellent lectures could also enjoy the panorama of the Lake from the rooms and from the terrace of Hotel Ramada. The number of participants was close to 170 from about 33 countries. The highest number of participants arrived from Poland (14), followed by France (11), Turkey (9) and China (9). The Symposium had 6-6 colleagues from Brazil, Israel, and Romania. Beside China, Asia was represented by a few scientists from the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and from Saudi Arabia.

  8. Proceedings, 13th Annual Conference on Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of manual control theory are discussed. Specific topics covered include: tracking; performance, attention allocation, and mental load; surface vehicle control; monitoring behavior and supervisory control; manipulators and prosthetics; aerospace vehicle control; motion and visual cues; and displays and controls.

  9. 13th annual meeting of the ALS Users' Association

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art

    2000-11-21

    A complement of 266 users, staff, and vendors descended upon the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) from Monday through Wednesday, October 16-18, 2000 for the thirteenth edition of the annual Advanced Light Source (ALS) users meeting. In a departure from previous practice, the meeting featured an increased emphasis on workshops with the result that the proceedings were equally divided between oral and poster presentations and the workshops. After the traditional welcomes and facility updates on the first morning, science dominated the first day and a half comprising the formal meeting with a session of highlights from young researchers, three sessions of scientific highlights from the ALS and elsewhere, and a poster session that included a student poster competition. A set of seven workshops covering research areas of current or growing interest at the ALS rounded out the final day and a half of the meeting.

  10. PqsBC, a Condensing Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Steffen Lorenz; Li, Chan; Prasetya, Fajar; Saleem, Muhammad; Dreveny, Ingrid; Williams, Paul; Hennecke, Ulrich; Emsley, Jonas; Fetzner, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a number of alkylquinolone-type secondary metabolites best known for their antimicrobial effects and involvement in cell-cell communication. In the alkylquinolone biosynthetic pathway, the β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthase III (FabH)-like enzyme PqsBC catalyzes the condensation of octanoyl-coenzyme A and 2-aminobenzoylacetate (2-ABA) to form the signal molecule 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone. PqsBC, a potential drug target, is unique for its heterodimeric arrangement and an active site different from that of canonical FabH-like enzymes. Considering the sequence dissimilarity between the subunits, a key question was how the two subunits are organized with respect to the active site. In this study, the PqsBC structure was determined to a 2 Å resolution, revealing that PqsB and PqsC have a pseudo-2-fold symmetry that unexpectedly mimics the FabH homodimer. PqsC has an active site composed of Cys-129 and His-269, and the surrounding active site cleft is hydrophobic in character and approximately twice the volume of related FabH enzymes that may be a requirement to accommodate the aromatic substrate 2-ABA. From physiological and kinetic studies, we identified 2-aminoacetophenone as a pathway-inherent competitive inhibitor of PqsBC, whose fluorescence properties could be used for in vitro binding studies. In a time-resolved setup, we demonstrated that the catalytic histidine is not involved in acyl-enzyme formation, but contributes to an acylation-dependent increase in affinity for the second substrate 2-ABA. Introduction of Asn into the PqsC active site led to significant activity toward the desamino substrate analog benzoylacetate, suggesting that the substrate 2-ABA itself supplies the asparagine-equivalent amino function that assists in catalysis. PMID:26811339

  11. Oh Canada! B.C. ratifies North America's first carbon tax

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-08-15

    British Columbia began collecting increased tax revenue on fossil fuels on July 1 with a promise to rebate those taxes through reduced income and business tax rates. This 'revenue recycling' plan makes little progress toward the province's goal to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions 33% by 2020, yet it is hailed by proponents as a legislative milestone. Others believe BC residents are victims of another governmental 'bait and switch' program. This paper examines the legislation. 2 figs.

  12. Draft Genome Assembly of a Filamentous Euendolithic (True Boring) Cyanobacterium, Mastigocoleus testarum Strain BC008

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Brandon S.

    2016-01-01

    Mastigocoleus testarum strain BC008 is a model organism used to study marine photoautotrophic carbonate dissolution. It is a multicellular, filamentous, diazotrophic, euendolithic cyanobacterium ubiquitously found in marine benthic environments. We present an accurate draft genome assembly of 172 contigs spanning 12,700,239 bp with 9,131 annotated genes with an average G+C% of 37.3. PMID:26823575

  13. New archaeomagnetic data recovered from the study of celtiberic remains from central Spain (Numancia and Ciadueña, III-I BC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osete, María Luisa; Chauvin, Annick; Catanzariti, Gianluca; Jimeno, Alfredo; Campuzano, Saioa A.; Benito-Batanero, Juan Pedro; Roperch, Pierrick

    2016-04-01

    Variation of geomagnetic field changes in the Iberian Peninsula between prior to roman times remain very poorly constrained. Here we report results from the archeomagnetic study carried out on four set of ceramics and one combustion structure recovered in two pre-roman (celtiberic) archeological sites in central Spain. Rock magnetic experiments indicate the ChRM is carried by magnetite. Archaeointensity determinations were carried out by using the classical Thellier-Thellier experiment including tests and corrections for magnetic anisotropy and magnetic cooling rate dependency. Well heated specimens (red ceramic fragments and well heated samples from the kiln) show one single well defined component of magnetisation going through the origin and a linear arai plot providing successful archaeointensity determinations. The effect of anisotropy of the termoremanent magnetization (ATRM) on paleointensity analysis was specially investigated obtaining very high ATRM corrections on fine pottery specimens. With differences between the uncorrected and ATRM corrected paleointensity values that reached up to 80-100%. Mean intensity values obtained from three selected groups were 61.1 ±5.9μT; 57.6±3.3 and 56.4± 4.7μT which allows delineate the evolution of the paleofield intensity in central Iberia during the III-I centuries BC. The new archaeointensity data disagrees with previous results from Iberian ceramics which were not corrected by the ATRM effect. But they are in agreement with the most recent French paleointensity curve and latest European intensity model. Both based on a selection of high quality paleointensity data. This result reinforces the idea that the puzzling scatter often observed in the global paleointensity database is likely due to differences in the laboratory protocol. Further data from well contrasted laboratory protocols are still necessary to delineate confidently the evolution of the geomagnetic paleofield during the first millennium BC.

  14. New Numismatic Evidence about the Comets of Mithradates the Great of Pontus (134 and 119 BC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, M. R.

    1997-12-01

    The historian, Justinus, tells us that the life of Mithradates the Great of Pontus (ca. 134 - 63 BC) was marked by two unusually large comets: one at his birth in ca. 134 BC and another at his coronation ca. 119 BC. Often these comets are cited as proof that sometimes comets heralded great, good events (such as the Star of Bethlehem.) We now have evidence that counters that notion. Mithradates struck some bronze coins that depict a foreboding hippeus (horse) comet. Pliny, the Roman naturalist, tells us that this kind of comet had plumes much like horses manes in very rapid motion and moving in a circle. The evidence is that the horses mains are synchronic bands. The visibility of these bands indicates that the hippeus comet is a class of comets that had a close encounter with the earth, perhaps on the order of a million kilometers. Hephaistion of Thebes tells us that the hippeus comet foretold the quick fall of kings and tyrants and rapid changes in the affairs of these countries. It is likely that the comet was interpreted as an omen of violent revolution, but Mithradates apparently altered the focus of the portent, namely that the comet signified his struggle to evict the Romans from Asia Minor.

  15. McrBs, a modulator peptide for McrBC activity.

    PubMed Central

    Panne, D; Raleigh, E A; Bickle, T A

    1998-01-01

    McrBC is a methylation-dependent endonuclease from Escherichia coli K-12. The enzyme recognizes DNA with modified cytosines preceded by a purine. McrBC restricts DNA that contains at least two methylated recognition sites separated by 40-80 bp. Two gene products, McrBL and McrBs, are produced from the mcrB gene and one, McrC, from the mcrC gene. DNA cleavage in vitro requires McrBL, McrC, GTP and Mg2+. We found that DNA cleavage was optimal at a ratio of 3-5 McrBL per molecule of McrC, suggesting that formation of a multisubunit complex with several molecules of McrBL is required for cleavage. To understand the role of McrBs, we have purified the protein and analyzed its role in vitro. At the optimal ratio of 3-5 McrBL per molecule of McrC, McrBs acted as an inhibitor of DNA cleavage. Inhibition was due to sequestration of McrC and required the presence of GTP, suggesting that the interaction is GTP dependent. If McrC was in excess, a condition resulting in suboptimal DNA cleavage, addition of McrBs enhanced DNA cleavage, presumably due to sequestration of excess McrC. We suggest that the role of McrBs is to modulate McrBC activity by binding to McrC. PMID:9736625

  16. An epidemic of HIV type I CRF07_BC infection among injection drug users in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Shih, Yi-Li; Liu, Yung-Ching; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Huang, Chun-Kai; Chen, Ya-Lei; Chin, Chuen; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Guo, Yi-Chi; Zhang, Linqi

    2006-06-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic in Taiwan is rapidly escalating because of an increasing number of injection drug users (IDUs). A molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1-infected IDUs in Taiwan was conducted from January 2004 to April 2005. Of the 131 HIV-1-positive specimens collected, all contained detectable sequences, including 105 from the C2-V3 region of env and 87 from the protease and reverse transcriptase genes of pol. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences indicated that 128 individuals harbored CRF07_BC, which resembles the dominant strains circulating among IDUs in China. Twenty-three individuals had a history of travel to the southwest provinces of China and shared needles or apparatuses there. This suggests that CRF07_BC might have been transmitted from China into Taiwan, thereby causing an outbreak among IDUs in Taiwan. This is the first report in the English literature of the appearance of HIV-1 CRF07_BC in Taiwan. These provide information relevant to the development of antiviral therapy and vaccine in Taiwan and may assist public health workers in the prevention of HIV-1 spread.

  17. Antimalarial 4(1H)-pyridones bind to the Qi site of cytochrome bc1

    PubMed Central

    Capper, Michael J.; O’Neill, Paul M.; Fisher, Nicholas; Strange, Richard W.; Moss, Darren; Ward, Stephen A.; Berry, Neil G.; Lawrenson, Alexandre S.; Hasnain, S. Samar; Biagini, Giancarlo A.; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome bc1 is a proven drug target in the prevention and treatment of malaria. The rise in drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the organism responsible for malaria, has generated a global effort in designing new classes of drugs. Much of the design/redesign work on overcoming this resistance has been focused on compounds that are presumed to bind the Qo site (one of two potential binding sites within cytochrome bc1) using the known crystal structure of this large membrane-bound macromolecular complex via in silico modeling. Cocrystallization of the cytochrome bc1 complex with the 4(1H)-pyridone class of inhibitors, GSK932121 and GW844520, that have been shown to be potent antimalarial agents in vivo, revealed that these inhibitors do not bind at the Qo site but bind at the Qi site. The discovery that these compounds bind at the Qi site may provide a molecular explanation for the cardiotoxicity and eventual failure of GSK932121 in phase-1 clinical trial and highlight the need for direct experimental observation of a compound bound to a target site before chemical optimization and development for clinical trials. The binding of the 4(1H)-pyridone class of inhibitors to Qi also explains the ability of this class to overcome parasite Qo-based atovaquone resistance and provides critical structural information for future design of new selective compounds with improved safety profiles. PMID:25564664

  18. Physical, Chemical, and Ice-nucleating Properties of BC-Containing PM from Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenkopf, C. A.; Lodoysamba, S.; Veghte, D. P.; Schill, G. P.; Freedman, M. A.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Due to frequent wintertime temperature inversions and smoke emitted from individual stoves and coal-fired power plants to meet high heating demands during the sub-arctic winter, the annual average PM10 concentration in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is one of the highest in the world. With winter daily PM10 averages reaching as high as 4000 micrograms per cubic meter, the pollution has had devastating health effects for the 1.3 million living in Ulaanbaatar. Studies estimate that 10-25% of deaths in Ulaanbaatar are attributable to the high PM10 levels. At present, there is little information on BC levels, the chemical and physical characteristics of the PM, or its ice-nucleating ability. These data are essential for assessing the direct and indirect effects of PM and BC on regional climate. We present the preliminary results from our ongoing yearlong field campaign which include: rough particle size distribution (for particles < 1μm) and elemental composition on a particle-by-particle basis as a function of month as measured through EDS and TEM analysis of collected samples, ice-nucleating ability of collected samples as observed using an ice nucleation chamber and Raman spectroscopy, BC concentrations on fast timescales from micro-aethalometer measurements, and size distribution (for particles > 2μm) and composition on a particle-by-particle basis via Raman spectral mapping and optical microscopy.

  19. Orbital motion of the binary brown dwarf companions HD 130948 BC around their host star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginski, C.; Neuhäuser, R.; Mugrauer, M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Adam, C.

    2013-09-01

    Evolutionary models and mass estimates for brown dwarfs remain uncertain, hence determining the masses of brown dwarfs by model-independent methods is important to test and constrain such theories. Following the orbital motion of brown dwarf companions around their primaries gives us the opportunity to dynamically calculate the masses of these systems. In addition, detecting curvature (acceleration or deceleration) in the orbit would confirm that the companion is physically associated with its primary, thus eliminating the possibility of a by-chance alignment of the primary's and the companion's proper motions and positions. Furthermore, the orbit parameters can be important indicators for the formation process of such wide, massive substellar companions. The binary brown dwarf companions to HD 130948 were discovered by Potter et al. We present various observations of this triple system over the course of 7 yr. With these data points we can show that HD 130948 BC are indeed comoving with HD 130948 A with higher significance than before (˜32.4σ), and also for the first time that the BC pair shows differential motion relative to A (˜2.2σ). We introduce an orbit fitting approach and constrain the orbit parameters for the orbit of the BC binary around their host star.

  20. Observation of the decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0)π+.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-11-01

    The result of a search for the decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0) π+ is presented, using the B(s)(0) → D(s)(-)π+ and B(s)(0) → J/ψ Ø channels. The analysis is based on a data sample of pp collisions collected with the LHCb detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb(-1) taken at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, and 2 fb(-1) taken at 8 TeV. The decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0)π+ is observed with significance in excess of 5 standard deviations independently in both decay channels. The measured product of the ratio of cross sections and branching fraction is [σ(B(c)(+))/σ(B(s)(0))] × B(B(c)(+)→ B(s)(0)π+) = [2.37 ± 0.31 (stat)± 0.11 (syst)(-0.13)(+0.17)(τ(B)(c)(+)))] × 10(-3), in the pseudorapidity range 2<η(B)<5, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainty on the B(c)(+) lifetime. This is the first observation of a B meson decaying to another B meson via the weak interaction.

  1. BC047440 antisense eukaryotic expression vectors inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation and suppressed xenograft tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lu; Liang, Ping; Zhou, JianBo; Huang, XiaoBing; Wen, Yu; Wang, Zheng; Li, Jing

    2012-02-01

    The biological functions of the BC047440 gene highly expressed by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unknown. The objective of this study was to reconstruct antisense eukaryotic expression vectors of the gene for inhibiting HepG(2) cell proliferation and suppressing their xenograft tumorigenicity. The full-length BC047440 cDNA was cloned from human primary HCC by RT-PCR. BC047440 gene fragments were ligated with pMD18-T simple vectors and subsequent pcDNA3.1(+) plasmids to construct the recombinant antisense eukaryotic vector pcDNA3.1(+)BC047440AS. The endogenous BC047440 mRNA abundance in target gene-transfected, vector-transfected and naive HepG(2) cells was semiquantitatively analyzed by RT-PCR and cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were profiled by flow cytometry. The in vivo xenograft experiment was performed on nude mice to examine the effects of antisense vector on tumorigenicity. BC047440 cDNA fragments were reversely inserted into pcDNA3.1(+) plasmids. The antisense vector significantly reduced the endogenous BC047440 mRNA abundance by 41% in HepG(2) cells and inhibited their proliferation in vitro (P < 0.01). More cells were arrested by the antisense vector at the G(1) phase in an apoptosis-independent manner (P = 0.014). Additionally, transfection with pcDNA3.1(+)BC047440AS significantly reduced the xenograft tumorigenicity in nude mice. As a novel cell cycle regulator associated with HCC, the BC047440 gene was involved in cell proliferation in vitro and xenograft tumorigenicity in vivo through apoptosis-independent mechanisms.

  2. BcMF9, a novel polygalacturonase gene, is required for both Brassica campestris intine and exine formation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Ye, Yiqun; Zhang, Yuchao; Zhang, Aihong; Liu, Tingting; Cao, Jiashu

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The polygalacturonase (PG) gene family has been found to be enriched in pollen of several species; however, little is currently known about the function of the PG gene in pollen development. To investigate the exact role that the PG gene has played in pollen development and about this family in general, one putative PG gene, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 9 (BcMF9), was isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) and characterized. Methods RT-PCR, northern blotting and in situ hybridization were used to analyse the expression pattern of BcMF9, and antisense RNA technology was applied to study the function of this gene. Key Results BcMF9 is expressed in particular in the tapetum and microspore during the late stages of pollen development. Antisense RNA transgenic plants that displayed decreased expression of BcMF9 showed pollen morphological defects that resulted in reduced pollen germination efficiency. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the homogeneous pectic exintine layer of pollen facing the exterior was over-developed and predominantly occupied the intine, reversing the normal proportional distribution of the internal endintine layer and the external exintine in transgenic pollen. Inhibition of BcMF9 also resulted in break-up of the previously formed tectum and baculae from the beginning of the binucleate stage, as a result of premature degradation of tapetum. Conclusions Several lines of evidence, including patterns of BcMF9 expression and phenotypic defects, suggest a sporophytic role in exine patterning, and a gametophytic mode of action of BcMF9 in intine formation. BcMF9 might act as a co-ordinator in the late stages of tapetum degeneration, and subsequently in the regulation of wall material secretion and, in turn, exine formation. BcMF9 might also play a role in intine formation, possibly via regulation of the dynamic metabolism of pectin. PMID:19815569

  3. Structure and Proposed Activity of a Member of the VapBC Family of Toxin-Antitoxin Systems: VapBC-5 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Miallau, L.; Faller, M.; Chiang, J.; Arbing, M.; Guo, F.; Cascio, D.; Eisenberg, D.

    2009-03-02

    In prokaryotes, cognate toxin-antitoxin pairs have long been known, but no three-dimensional structure has been available for any given complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we report the crystal structure and activity of a member of the VapBC family of complexes from M. tuberculosis. The toxin VapC-5 is a compact, 150 residues, two domain {alpha}/{beta} protein. Bent around the toxin is the VapB-5 antitoxin, a 33-residue {alpha}-helix. Assays suggest that the toxin is an Mg-enabled endoribonuclease, inhibited by the antitoxin. The lack of DNase activity is consistent with earlier suggestions that the complex represses its own operon. Furthermore, analysis of the interactions in the binding of the antitoxin to the toxin suggest that exquisite control is required to protect the bacteria cell from toxic VapC-5.

  4. Evidence for New Madrid earthquakes in A.D. 300 and 2350 B.C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.P.; Schweig, E. S.; Campbell, J.; Thomas, P.M.; Sims, J.D.; Lafferty, R. H.

    2005-01-01

    Six episodes of earthquake-induced liquefaction are associated with soil horizons containing artifacts of the Late Archaic (3000-500 B.C.) and Early to Middle Woodland (500 B.C.-A.D. 400) cultural periods at the Burkett archaeological site in the northern part of the New Madrid seismic zone, where little information about prehistoric earthquakes has been available. Radiocarbon dating of organic material and analysis of artifacts are used to estimate the ages of the liquefaction features and times of the causative earthquakes. The most recent episode of liquefaction occurred after A.D. 1670, produced small sand dikes, and is probably related to the 1895 Charleston, Missouri earthquake. The preceding episode struck the area in A.D. 300 ?? 200 years and generated a sand blow that contains Late Woodland artifacts and buries an Early to Middle Woodland cultural horizon. Four older episodes of liquefaction occurred in 2350 B.C. ?? 200 years and may have been produced by a sequence of closely timed earthquakes. The four earlier episodes produced graben structures, sand dikes, and associated sand blows on which a cultural mound was constructed. The Burkett liquefaction features that formed about 2350 B.C. and A.D. 300 are relatively large and similar in age to other liquefaction features in northeastern Arkansas and southeastern Missouri, respectively. If the prehistoric features at the Burkett site and those of similar age elsewhere in the region are the result of the same earthquakes, then this suggests that they were similar in size to the three largest (M 7-8) 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. A New Madrid-type earthquake in A.D. 300 ?? 200 years would support an average recurrence time of 500 years. Although this study extends the earthquake chronology back to 2500 B.C., it is uncertain that the record of New Madrid events is complete for the period between 2350 B.C. and A.D. 300. As demonstrated by this study, information about other prehistoric earthquakes may be

  5. Admissions and Transfer Experiences of Students Continuing Their Studies in British Columbia: Findings from the BC College & Institute Student Outcomes Survey, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrance, Jill

    The British Columbia (B.C.) Council on Admissions and Transfer commissioned this report to investigate the admissions and transfer-related experiences of former students who had attended a B.C. college, institute, university college, or the Open Learning Agency. The analysis presented here is based on data collected through the 2002 B.C. College…

  6. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 is associated with the homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) play a central role in potyviral infection. Accordingly, mutations in the gene encoding eIF4E have been identified as a source of recessive resistance in several plant species. In common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, four recessive genes, bc-1, bc-2, bc-3...

  7. A facile and chemoselective conjugate reduction using polymethylhydrosiloxane (PMHS) and catalytic B(C6F5)3.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Srivari; Chandrashekar, Gudise; Reddy, Marepally Srinivasa; Srihari, Pabbaraja

    2006-05-07

    A highly chemoselective conjugate reduction of electron-deficient Michael acceptors, including alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, carboxylic esters, nitriles and nitro compounds with PMHS in the presence of catalytic B(C6F5)3 is described.

  8. A Diastereoselective Intramolecular Pauson-Khand Approach to the Construction of the BC Ring System in Tuberostemoninol

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiangna; Williams, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Herein we describe an asymmetric approach to the synthesis of a BC-ring synthon in tuberostemoninol via an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction stereocontrolled by a commercially available chiral glycinate. PMID:19779590

  9. White Macael marble: a key element in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia for over 25 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sol Cruz, Ana; Arriaga, Lourdes; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Marble from Macael (Andalusia) is one of the most important natural stones in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia; in particular the variety commercially known as "White Macael". This natural stone has been used outdoors as well as indoors for decorative, ornamental or structural purposes. During the 7th century (B.C.) the Phoenicians began to systematically extract these quarries to be used in their more social important elements such as sarcophagus. During the Roman period this rock had a greater importance in construction; we find columns, pavements, tombstones… in many historical buildings such as the Roman amphitheatre in Mérida (1st century B.C.) and the city of Itálica in Seville (3rd century B.C.). But it is during the Muslim period when marble from Macael is more widely used: the Mosque of Córdoba (8th century), the Lions Court in the Alhambra palace, the Alcazaba in Almería, the Medina-Azahara palace in Córdoba (10th century). Other important buildings using the white marble are: Carlos V palace or the Royal Chapel in Granada (15th century), the Almería cathedral or El Escorial monastery in Madrid (16th century), San Telmo palace in Seville (17th century) or The Royal Palace in Madrid (18th century). Uncountable number of buildings, both historical and contemporary, show different elements made of this marble. From a geological point of view, the quarries are located in the upper part of the Nevado-Filábride Complex, the lowest nappe of the Internal Zones of the Betic Chains. Under the "White Macael" name is also possible to include another commercial denominations such "White Macael Río" or "White Macael Río Veteado". It is a clear white coloured, calcitic marble (up than 97% calcite), with average grain size between 0,16 y 3,2 mm in a mosaic texture with a very homogenous aspect. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity value between 0,1-0,6%, bulk density 2,50-2,75 g/cm3, water absorption at

  10. The physicians and surgeons of Koper from the 14th to the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Uran, Lejla Peternelj

    2011-03-01

    Koper stands out among Istrian towns of the nordeastern Adriatic coast for its highly advanced medicine. Communal service developed between the 13th and 15th century. Beside the hospital, almshouse and a quarantine, the city also boasted highly trained physicians, surgeons and barbers. Trade, crafts and navigation prospered and numerous town intellectuals established an academy whose most active members were medical doctors. The aim of this article is to give a chronological presentation of physicians related to Koper by their birth or work and of other scientists who contributed to the development of local medicine. These includes (about forty names) S. Santorio, Ser Benvenuto, P P. Vergerio, G. Nuzio, E Nuzio, P de Castaldi, I. de Albertis, L. Zarotti, B. Petronio, I. Bratti, Z. Zarotti, A.Valdera, G. Vergerio and C. Zarotti of whom some are well known. The author wishes to systematisize the bibliography, fill the gaps and show ways for further research in the archives and museums of Istria, Triest, Venice and Vienna.

  11. The discovery of lymphatic system in the seventeenth century. Part I: the early history.

    PubMed

    Suy, Raphael; Thomis, Sarah; Fourneau, Inge

    2016-08-01

    The early history of lymphatic anatomy from Hippocrates (ca. 460-377 B.C.) to Eustachius (1510-1574). The presence of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes was reported by ancient anatomists without any accurate knowledge of their true functions. Lymph nodes were described as spongy structures, spread over the whole body for the support of vulnerable body parts. Digestion was explained as being the resorption of clear chyle from digested food by the open endings of chyle vessels. The first insights into the place of lymphatic components within nutrition emanated from the medical school of Alexandria (fourth century B.C.) where vivisection was a common practice. Herophilus and Erasistratus described mesenteric veins full of clear liquid, air or milk. For Galen of Pergamum, (104-210) mesenteric lymph nodes also had a nutritional function. He described three different types of mesenteric vessels, namely, the arterial vessels, for the transport of spirituous blood to the intestines; the venous side branches of the portal vein, for the transport of nutritive blood from the liver to the intestines; and small vessels, from the intestines to the mesenteric lymph nodes (serous lymph vessels?). According to Galen, chyle was transported via the above-mentioned mesenteric venous vessels from the intestines to the portal vein and liver, where it was transformed into nutritive blood. This doctrine would be obliterated in the seventeenth century by the discovery of systemic circulation and of the drainage of chyle through a thoracic duct to the subclavian veins.

  12. Boreal and temperate snow cover variations induced by black carbon emissions in the middle of the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménégoz, M.; Krinner, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A.; Boucher, O.; Ciais, P.

    2013-03-01

    We used a coupled climate-chemistry model to quantify the impacts of aerosols on snow cover north of 30° N both for the present-day and for the middle of the 21st century. Black carbon (BC) deposition over continents induces a reduction in the mean number of days with snow at the surface (MNDWS) that ranges from 0 to 10 days over large areas of Eurasia and Northern America for the present-day relative to the pre-industrial period. This is mainly due to BC deposition during the spring, a period of the year when the remaining of snow accumulated during the winter is exposed to both strong solar radiation and a large amount of aerosol deposition induced themselves by a high level of transport of particles from polluted areas. North of 30° N, this deposition flux represents 222 Gg BC month-1 on average from April to June in our simulation. A large reduction in BC emissions is expected in the future in all of the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. In particular, considering the RCP8.5 in our simulation leads to a decrease in the spring BC deposition down to 110 Gg month-1 in the 2050s. However, despite the reduction of the aerosol impact on snow, the MNDWS is strongly reduced by 2050, with a decrease ranging from 10 to 100 days from present-day values over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. This reduction is essentially due to temperature increase, which is quite strong in the RCP8.5 scenario in the absence of climate mitigation policies. Moreover, the projected sea-ice retreat in the next decades will open new routes for shipping in the Arctic. However, a large increase in shipping emissions in the Arctic by the mid-21st century does not lead to significant changes of BC deposition over snow-covered areas in our simulation. Therefore, the MNDWS is clearly not affected through snow darkening effects associated with these Arctic ship emissions. In an experiment without nudging toward atmospheric reanalyses, we simulated however some changes of

  13. Elevated layers of BC aerosols over Indian region and its implications: Results from Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.; Satheesh, S.; Gogoi, M. M.; Nair, V. S.; Kompalli, S. K.; Chaubey, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the context of atmospheric warming by elevated layers of absorbing aerosols and its consequence on regional climate such as Indian monsoon, the Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX) was formulated under Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India (ARFI) Project of Indian Space Research Organisation - Geosphere Biosphere Program (ISRO-GBP). As a part of RAWEX, an aerosol observatory was established at a high altitude Himalayan location (Hanle, 32.76°N, 78.95°E and 4520 m msl) to characterise the long term changes in columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD), black carbon aerosols as well as ultra fine particles at free troposphere heights . In addition, extensive measurements of the vertical distribution of BC along with concurrent measurements of atmospheric parameters were also undertaken using high altitude balloons from central part of India. Seasonal variation of aerosol BC as well as AOD showed enhanced loading during pre- monsoon season at the high altitudes associated with the advection from west Asian region as well as due to vertical transport from the plains. However, the seasonal and annual mean BC over Hanle is found to be significantly lower than the corresponding values over other Himalayan stations. The altitude distribution of BC over central Indian region also showed enhanced concentration at free troposphere altitudes during the pre-monsoon season. The elevated layers of BC cause change in the environmental lapse rate due to heating by BC aerosols at an altitude region of 4 to 5 km. The change in environmental lapse rate and increase in atmospheric stability leads to further trapping of BC aerosols at higher altitudes, thus raises an interesting question : "Do BC layers build 'their own homes' up in the atmosphere?"

  14. 2-aminohydroxamic acid derivatives as inhibitors of Bacillus cereus phosphatidylcholine preferred phospholipase C PC-PLC(Bc).

    PubMed

    González-Bulnes, Patricia; González-Roura, Albert; Canals, Daniel; Delgado, Antonio; Casas, Josefina; Llebaria, Amadeu

    2010-12-15

    Phosphatidylcholine preferring phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is an important enzyme that plays a key role in a variety of cellular events and lipid homoeostases. Bacillus cereus phospholipase C (PC-PLC(Bc)) has antigenic similarity with the elusive mammalian PC-PLC, which has not thus far been isolated and purified. Therefore the discovery of inhibitors of PC-PLC(Bc) is of current interest. Here, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new type of compounds inhibiting PC-PLC(Bc). These compounds have been designed by evolution of previously described 2-aminohydroxamic acid PC-PLC(Bc) inhibitors that block the enzyme by coordination of the zinc active site atoms present in PC-PLC(Bc) [Gonzalez-Roura, A.; Navarro, I.; Delgado, A.; Llebaria, A.; Casas, J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.2004, 43, 862]. The new compounds maintain the zinc coordinating groups and possess an extra trimethylammonium function, linked to the hydroxyamide nitrogen by an alkyl chain, which is expected to mimic the trimethylammonium group of the phosphatidylcholine PC-PLC(Bc) substrates. Some of the compounds described inhibit the enzyme with IC(50)'s in the low micromolar range. Unexpectedly, the most potent inhibitors found are those that possess a trimethylammonium group but have chemically blocked the zinc coordinating functionalities. The results obtained suggest that PC-PLC(Bc) inhibition is not due to the interaction of compounds with the phospholipase catalytic zinc atoms, but rather results from the inhibitor cationic group recognition by the PC-PLC(Bc) amino acids involved in choline lipid binding.

  15. Insurgency in Ancient Times: The Jewish Revolts Against the Seleucid and Roman Empires, 166 BC-73 AD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dissolution of his empire began rapidly. The provinces of the former Persian Empire were savagely fought over by his generals Ptolemy and Seleucus...would inherit her territory, but was caught in the conflict. In 318 BC, Ptolemy attacked Jerusalem and took many Jews captive into Egypt. His assault...subordinated his command between three generals, Ptolemy , Nicanor, and Gorgias. In the spring of 165 BC they began their march into Judea. Lycias, careful

  16. Retreatability of two endodontic sealers, EndoSequence BC Sealer and AH Plus: a micro-computed tomographic comparison

    PubMed Central

    Oltra, Enrique; Cox, Timothy C.; LaCourse, Matthew R.; Johnson, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Recently, bioceramic sealers like EndoSequence BC Sealer (BC Sealer) have been introduced and are being used in endodontic practice. However, this sealer has limited research related to its retreatability. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the retreatability of two sealers, BC Sealer as compared with AH Plus using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) analysis. Materials and Methods Fifty-six extracted human maxillary incisors were instrumented and randomly divided into 4 groups of 14 teeth: 1A, gutta-percha, AH Plus retreated with chloroform; 1B, gutta-percha, AH Plus retreated without chloroform; 2A, gutta-percha, EndoSequence BC Sealer retreated with chloroform; 2B, gutta-percha, EndoSequence BC Sealer retreated without chloroform. Micro-CT scans were taken before and after obturation and retreatment and analyzed for the volume of residual material. The specimens were longitudinally sectioned and digitized images were taken with the dental operating microscope. Data was analyzed using an ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey test. Fisher exact tests were performed to analyze the ability to regain patency. Results There was significantly less residual root canal filling material in the AH Plus groups retreated with chloroform as compared to the others. The BC Sealer samples retreated with chloroform had better results than those retreated without chloroform. Furthermore, patency could be re-established in only 14% of teeth in the BC Sealer without chloroform group. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the BC Sealer group had significantly more residual filling material than the AH Plus group regardless of whether or not both sealers were retreated with chloroform. PMID:28194360

  17. Detection of intra-brain cytoplasmic 1 (BC1) long noncoding RNA using graphene oxide-fluorescence beacon detector

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee Young; Hwang, Do Won; Li, Fangyuan; Choi, Yoori; Byun, Jung Woo; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Jee-Eun; Char, Kookheon; Lee, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Detection of cellular expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) was elusive due to the ambiguity of exposure of their reactive sequences associated with their secondary/tertiary structures and dynamic binding of proteins around lncRNAs. Herein, we developed graphene-based detection techniques exploiting the quenching capability of graphene oxide (GO) flakes for fluorescent dye (FAM)-labeled single-stranded siRNAs and consequent un-quenching by their detachment from GO by matching lncRNAs. A brain cytoplasmic 1 (BC1) lncRNA expression was significantly decreased by a siRNA, siBC1–1. GO quenched the FAM-labeled siBC1–1 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe, and this quenching was recovered by BC1. While FAM-siBC1–1-PNA-GO complex transfected spontaneously mouse or human neural stem cells, fluorescence was recovered only in mouse cells having high BC1 expression. Fluorescent dye-labeled single-stranded RNA-GO probe could detect the reactive exposed nucleic acid sequence of a cytoplasmic lncRNA expressing in the cytoplasm, which strategy can be used as a detection method of lncRNA expression. PMID:26997297

  18. Botrytis small RNA Bc-siR37 suppresses plant defense genes by cross-kingdom RNAi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Weiberg, Arne; Dellota, Exequiel; Yamane, Daniel; Jin, Hailing

    2017-03-07

    Pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress host immune responses. Recently, we showed that an aggressive plant fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea can also deliver small RNA effectors into host cells to suppress host immunity. B. cinerea sRNAs (Bc-sRNAs) translocate into host plants and hijack the plant RNAi machinery to induce cross-kingdom RNAi of host immune responsive genes. Here, we functionally characterized another Bc-sRNA effector Bc-siR37 that is predicted to target at least 15 Arabidopsis genes, including WRKY transcription factors, receptor-like kinases, and cell wall-modifying enzymes. Upon B. cinerea infection, the expression level of Bc-siR37 was induced, and at least eight predicted Arabidopsis target genes were downregulated. These target genes were also suppressed in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing Bc-siR37, which exhibited enhanced disease susceptibility to B. cinerea. Furthermore, the knockout mutants of the Bc-siR37 targets, At-WRKY7, At-PMR6, and At-FEI2, also exhibited enhanced disease susceptibility to B. cinerea, giving further support that these genes indeed play a positive role in plant defense against B. cinerea. Our study demonstrates that analysis of pathogen sRNA effectors can be a useful tool to help identify host immunity genes against the corresponding pathogen.

  19. Detection of intra-brain cytoplasmic 1 (BC1) long noncoding RNA using graphene oxide-fluorescence beacon detector.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mee Young; Hwang, Do Won; Li, Fangyuan; Choi, Yoori; Byun, Jung Woo; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Jee-Eun; Char, Kookheon; Lee, Dong Soo

    2016-03-21

    Detection of cellular expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) was elusive due to the ambiguity of exposure of their reactive sequences associated with their secondary/tertiary structures and dynamic binding of proteins around lncRNAs. Herein, we developed graphene-based detection techniques exploiting the quenching capability of graphene oxide (GO) flakes for fluorescent dye (FAM)-labeled single-stranded siRNAs and consequent un-quenching by their detachment from GO by matching lncRNAs. A brain cytoplasmic 1 (BC1) lncRNA expression was significantly decreased by a siRNA, siBC1-1. GO quenched the FAM-labeled siBC1-1 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe, and this quenching was recovered by BC1. While FAM-siBC1-1-PNA-GO complex transfected spontaneously mouse or human neural stem cells, fluorescence was recovered only in mouse cells having high BC1 expression. Fluorescent dye-labeled single-stranded RNA-GO probe could detect the reactive exposed nucleic acid sequence of a cytoplasmic lncRNA expressing in the cytoplasm, which strategy can be used as a detection method of lncRNA expression.

  20. Genetic Control of L-a and L-(Bc) Dsrna Copy Number in Killer Systems of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Steven G.; Tirtiaux, Catherine; Wickner, Reed B.

    1984-01-01

    M dsRNA in yeast encodes a toxin precursor and immunity protein, whereas L-A dsRNA encodes the 81,000-dalton major protein of the intracellular particles in which both L-A and M are found. L-(BC) dsRNA(s) are found in particles with different coat proteins. We find that M dsRNA lowers the copy number of L-A, but not L-(BC). The SKI gene products lower the copy number of L-(BC), L-A, M1 and M2. This is the first known interaction of L-(BC) with any element of the killer systems. The MAK3, MAK10 and PET18 gene products are necessary for L-A maintenance and replication, but mutations in these genes do not affect L-(BC) copy number. Mutations in MAK1, MAK4, MAK7, MAK17 and MAK24 do not detectably affect copy number of L-(BC) or L-A. PMID:17246214

  1. Wagnerite-MA5BC From Granulite-Facies Paragneiss, Larsemann Hills, Prydz Bay, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Grew, E. S.; Xiong, M.; Ma, Z.

    2003-04-01

    Wagnerite-Ma5bc, which is one of three new polytypes of (Mg,Fe)_2(PO_4)(F,OH) (Chopin, Armbruster &Leyx, this conference), occurs in paragneiss associated with banded cordierite-prismatine gneiss. It forms anhedral to euhedral grains mostly 0.5-2 mm across, some with a tabular habit. Textures are consistent with a primary assemblage wagnerite-Ma5bc + plagioclase + apatite + magnetite + ilmenite-hematite that crystallized under granulite-facies conditions (750 - ˜860^oC, 6-7 kbar). Also present are biotite, quartz, K-feldspar, monazite, xenotime, corundum, hercynite, sulfide. Electron microprobe analyses give P_2O_5 41.39, SiO_2 0.06, TiO_2 0.88, FeO 4.16, MnO 0.09, MgO 44.54, CaO 0.09, F 6.87, H_2O (calculated for OH + F = 1) 2.04, O=F -2.89, total 97.22 wt%, corresponding to (Mg1.88Fe0.10Ti0.02)(P0.99O_4)(F0.61OH0.39). Space group is Ia. Lattice parameters a = 9.645(2)Å, b = 31.659(6) Å , c = 11.914(2) Å, â=108.26 (3)^o, V= 3455(1) Å^3 for Z=40, Dcalc = 3.18(1) g/cm^3. The crystal structure has been solved by direct methods and refined to R_1=0.0413 for the independent 4521 reflections [I>2σ(I)] using MoKα radiation. The primary difference among the wagnerite polytypes is ordering of the (F,OH) positions. F can occupy one of two positions resulting in two distinct configurations along the a direction. In magniotriplite the sequence of configurations in the b direction is disordered, whereas in wagnerite-Ma2bc the sequence is ordered 121212... and in wagnerite-Ma5bc, 12112... Magniotriplite and the wagnerite polytypes do not overlap in composition: minerals richer in Fe and Mn (average ionic radius >= 0.76 Å) crystallize as the disordered minerals in the triplite group, whereas highly magnesian minerals (average ionic radius <= 0.73 Å or >= 86% of the Mg end member) crystallize as the ordered wagnerite polytypes. Magniotriplite formed at moderate temperatures (e.g., amphibolite-facies), whereas wagnerite-Ma2bc is found in rocks formed under a wide range

  2. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    DOE PAGES

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; ...

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly valuesmore » from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of

  3. Control by fibroblast growth factor of differentiation in the BC3H1 muscle cell line

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) expression by polypeptide growth factors has been examined in the clonal mouse muscle BC3H1 cell line. After arrest of cell growth by exposure to low concentrations of serum, BC3H1 cells accumulate high levels of muscle- specific proteins including CPK. The induction of this enzyme is reversible in the presence of high concentrations of fetal calf serum, which cause quiescent, differentiated cells to reenter the cell cycle. Under these conditions, the rate of CPK synthesis is drastically reduced. We show in the present communication that either pituitary- derived fibroblast growth factor (FGF) or brain-derived FGF are as effective as serum in repressing the synthesis of CPK when added to quiescent, differentiated cells. The decrease in the rate of synthesis of CPK occurs within 22 h after the addition of pituitary FGF to the cells. Pituitary FGF had very little effect, if any, on the rate CPK degradation. The overall rate of protein synthesis and the pattern of synthesis of the major polypeptides made by these cells was not altered by the addition of FGF. Although pituitary FGF was mitogenic for BC3H1 cells, the rate of cell growth was not absolutely correlated with the extent of repression of CPK. Brain-derived FGF fully repressed CPK induction under conditions where it showed no significant mitogenic activity. These results show that the expression of a muscle-specific protein, CPK, can be controlled by a single defined polypeptide growth factor in fully differentiated cultures, and that initiation of cell division is not required for their regulation to take place. PMID:3988800

  4. Mitotic Catastrophe in BC3H1 Cells following Yessotoxin Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Korsnes, Mónica Suárez; Korsnes, Reinert

    2017-01-01

    The marine toxin yessotoxin (YTX) can cause various cytotoxic effects depending on cell type and cell line. It is well known to trigger distinct mechanisms for programmed cell death which may overlap or cross-talk. The present contribution provides the first evidence that YTX can cause genotoxicity and induce mitotic catastrophe which can lead to different types of cell death. This work also demonstrates potential information gain from non-intrusive computer-based tracking of many individual cells during long time. Treatment of BC3H1 cells at their exponential growth phase causes atypical nuclear alterations and formation of giant cells with multiple nuclei. These are the most prominent morphological features of mitotic catastrophe. Giant cells undergo slow cell death in a necrosis-like manner. However, apoptotic-like cell death is also observed in these cells. Electron microscopy of treated BC3H1 cells reveal uncondensed chromatin and cells with double nuclei. Activation of p-p53, p-H2AX, p-Chk1, p-ATM, and p-ATR and down-regulation of p-Chk2 indicate DNA damage response and cell cycle deregulation. Micronuclei formation further support this evidence. Data from tracking single cells reveal that YTX treatment suppresses a second round of cell division in BC3H1 cells. These findings suggest that YTX can induce genomic alterations or imperfections in chromosomal segregation leading to permanent mitotic failure. This understanding extends the list of effects from YTX and which are of interest to control cancer and tumor progression.

  5. Direct evidence for the existence of dairying farms in prehistoric Central Europe (4th millennium BC).

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Jorge E; Matuschik, Irenaus; Jacomet, Stephanie; Schibler, Joerg

    2008-06-01

    The molecular and isotopic chemistry of organic residues from archaeological potsherds was used to obtain further insight into the dietary trends and economies at the Constance lake-shore Neolithic settlements. The archaeological organic residues from the Early Late Neolithic (3922-3902 BC) site Hornstaad-Hornle IA/Germany are, at present, the oldest archaeological samples analysed at the Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the University of Lausanne. The approach includes 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of the bulk organic residues, fatty acids distribution and 13C/12C ratios of individual fatty acids. The results are compared with those obtained from the over 500 years younger Neolithic (3384-3370 BC) settlement of Arbon Bleiche 3/Switzerland and with samples of modern vegetable oils and fat of animals that have been fed exclusively on C3 forage grasses. The overall fatty acid composition (C9 to C24 range, maximizing at C14 and C16), the bulk 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios (delta13C, delta15N) and the 13C/12C ratios of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and oleic acids (C18:1) of the organic residues indicate that most of the studied samples (25 from 47 samples and 5 from 41 in the delta13C18:0 vs. delta13C16:0 and delta13C18:0 vs. delta13C18:1 diagrams, respectively) from Hornstaad-Hornle IA and Arbon Bleiche 3 sherds contain fat residues of pre-industrial ruminant milk, and young suckling calf/lamb adipose. These data provide direct proof of milk and meat (mainly from young suckling calves) consumption and farming practices for a sustainable dairying in Neolithic villages in central Europe around 4000 BC.dagger.

  6. Twenty-first century vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-10-12

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78-85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498-503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177-1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages.

  7. Pectus excavatum in relief from Ancient Egypt (dating back to circa 2400 BC).

    PubMed

    Bialas, Adam J; Kaczmarski, Jacek; Kozak, Jozef; Kempinska-Miroslawska, Bogumila

    2015-04-01

    Pectus excavatum is one of the most common congenital deformities of the chest wall. The aim of the study was to analyse 621 artefacts (reliefs, sculptures, paintings) from Ancient Egypt in terms of anatomical defects of the chest. The team which analysed artefacts consisted of historians of medicine and thoracic surgeons. The researchers found a relief, depicting a man with an abnormal shape of the chest. The relief was from Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep mastaba and dates back to circa 2400 BC. The authors think it is possible that the relief may represent a pectus excavatum deformity and believe the image will open up debate on the occurrence of this deformity in ancient times.

  8. Characterisation by molecular hybridization of RNA fragments isolated from ancient (1400 B.C.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rollo, F

    1985-12-01

    The analysis of cress seeds from Thebes dated approximately 1400 years B.C. showed that fragments of RNA up to 10 bases in length were still present in the ancient seeds. After having been made radioactive at the 5'OH terminus, the RNA fragments were used as probes in a spot hybridization experiment. They were shown to hybridize to cress DNA and, to a lesser extent, to that of phylogenetically distant species. When fixed onto nitrocellulose and probed with different cloned genes, the RNA fragments were shown to originate from breakage of the 25 and 18s cytoplasmic rRNA.

  9. Measurement of the Response Function of a BC501A Neutron Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Alexander, D.; Daniel, A.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ahmed, M. W.; Sikora, M.

    2015-10-01

    A 5'' X 2'' BC501A neutron detector was used to measure proton recoil spectra at a number of mono-energetic incident neutron energies between 2 and 6 MeV at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. The goal of the experiment was to characterize the response function for a variety of known neutron energies so that an unknown neutron spectrum can be obtained by unfolding the detector response to the incident spectrum. We discuss calibration, optimization of the neutron-gamma discrimination, and the progress of the analysis. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. New Synthetic Strategies for Structured Silicones Using B(C6F5)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Michael A.; Grande, John B.; Ganachaud, François

    The dehydrocarbonative condensation of alkoxysilanes + hydrosilanes in the presence of the Lewis acid catalyst B(C6F5)3 (R3SiOR' + HSiR3 '' → R3SiOSiR3 '' + R ' H) - described throughout this review as the Piers-Rubinsztajn reaction - provides a new, mild strategy for the controlled synthesis of silicones. In this review we examine the mechanistic parameters that control the reaction, and outline the types of accessible small molecules, linear, branched, and cross-linked materials (resins and elastomers) that can be prepared using this and related reactions.

  11. Production of 211At using the JSW BC3015 at the University of Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freifelder, R.; Kachur, A.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Schmitz, A.; Toto, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    Using 211At for targeted radiotherapy has long been discussed. We describe using 30 MeV α-particle beams accelerated with the Japan Steel Works, BC3015 cyclotron at the University of Pennsylvania with the goal of 211At-MABG production. Target manufacturing and cooling is discussed. Active beam monitoring using a beam-profile monitor ensures a uniform particle profile across the target. A head-on irradiation geometry is used. Cross calibrations and thick target yields will be presented. Extracted amounts of 211At from the target, and limits to the production of 210At and our MABG labeling results and yields will be discussed.

  12. In Vitro Selection of HIV-1 CRF08_BC Variants Resistant to Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Hao-Jie; Zhang, Qiwei; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) circulating recombinant form 08_BC (CRF08_BC), carrying the recombinant reverse transcriptase (RT) gene from subtypes B and C, has recently become highly prevalent in Southern China. As the number of patients increases, it is important to characterize the drug resistance mutations of CRF08_BC, especially against widely used antiretrovirals. In this study, clinically isolated virus (2007CNGX-HK), confirmed to be CRF08_BC with its sequence deposited in GenBank (KF312642), was propagated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with increasing concentrations of nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV), or lamivudine (3TC). Three different resistance patterns led by initial mutations of Y181C, E138G, and Y188C were detected after the selection with NVP. Initial mutations, in combination with other previously reported substitutions (K20R, D67N, V90I, K101R/E, V106I/A, V108I, F116L, E138R, A139V, V189I, G190A, D218E, E203K, H221Y, F227L, N348I, and T369I) or novel mutations (V8I, S134N, C162Y, L228I, Y232H, E396G, and D404N), developed during NVP selection. EFV-associated variations contained two initial mutations (L100I and Y188C) and three other mutations (V106L, F116Y, and A139V). Phenotypic analyses showed that E138R, Y181C, and G190A contributed high-level resistance to NVP, while L100I and V106L significantly reduced virus susceptibility to EFV. Y188C was 20-fold less sensitive to both NVP and EFV. As expected, M184I alone, or with V90I or D67N, decreased 3TC susceptibility by over 1,000-fold. Although the mutation profile obtained in culture may be different from the patients, these results may still provide useful information to monitor and optimize the antiretroviral regimens. PMID:25482475

  13. First observation of the decay B(c)+ → J/ψπ(+) π- π+.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-06-22

    The decay B(c)(+) → J/ψπ(+) π(-) π(+) is observed for the first time, using 0.8 fb(-1) of pp collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV collected by the LHCb experiment. The ratio of branching fractions B(B(c)(+) → J/ψπ(+) π(-) π(+))/B(B(c)(+)→J/ψπ^{+}) is measured to be 2.41 ± 0.30 ± 0.33, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The result is in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  14. Drastic Aridification Caused the Decline of Oasis Civilizations on the Silk Route during the Eighth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, K.; Song, S.; Huang, C.

    2003-12-01

    Availability of water, and response to shortage of it, plays an important role in shaping human history. Near a century ago, Ellsworth Huntington (1907) suggested that the developments of ancient civilizations in Inner Asian and their invasions into China and Europe were pulsed by climatic changes. In revisiting this proposition, here we present a paleoclimatic record of the past 5000 years deduced from carbon isotopic ratio of organic carbon and percentage of aragonite in bulk sediments of a radiometrically dated sedimentary core of Lake Bosten, Xinjiang, China. Together the two proxies of aridity provide a detailed record of climatic fluctuation of the Inner Asia. The arid periods are well characterized by high content of authigenic aragonite and heavier values of carbon isotopic ratio of organic carbon in the bulk sediments (implying dominance of C4 plants which thrived under arid condition). Conversely, the humid/wet periods are marked by lighter carbon isotopic values (indicating presence of C3 plants of humid climateœcand absence of aragonite. The Western Region (Xi-Y"1) area of China enjoyed a long period of stable and humid condition from 2nd century B.C. to the 8th century when many oasis city-states were established and Buddhism spread from India. A drastic deterioration of climate during the eighth century appears to cause the decline of those once strived ancient civilizations in the eastern side of the Tarim Basin along the Silk Routes.

  15. The impact of land-use change on floristic diversity at regional scale in southern Sweden 600 BC-AD 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredh, D.; Broström, A.; Rundgren, M.; Lagerås, P.; Mazier, F.; Zillén, L.

    2012-12-01

    This study explores the relationship between land-use and floristic diversity between 600 BC and AD 2008 in the uplands of southern Sweden. We use fossil pollen assemblages and the Regional Estimates of Vegetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model to quantitatively reconstruct land-cover at a regional scale. Floristic richness and evenness are estimated using palynological richness and REVEALS-based evenness, respectively. We focus on the period AD 350 to 750 to investigate the impact of an inferred, short-lived (< 200 yr) period of land-use expansion and subsequent land abandonment on vegetation composition and floristic diversity. The observed vegetation response is compared to that recorded during the transition from traditional to modern land-use management at the end of the 19th century. Our results suggest that agricultural land-use was most widespread between AD 350 and 1850, which correlates broadly with high values of palynological richness. REVEALS-based evenness was highest between AD 500 and 1600 which indicates a more equal distribution among taxa during this time interval. Palynological richness increased during the inferred land-use expansion after AD 350 and decreased during the subsequent regression AD 550-750, while REVEALS-based increased throughout this period. The values of palynological richness during the last few decades are within the range observed during the last 1650 yr. However, REVEALS-based evenness shows much lower values during the last century compared to the previous ca. 2600 yr, which indicates that the distribution of present day vegetation is unusual in a millennial perspective. Our results show that regional scale changes in land-use have had clear impacts on floristic diversity in southern Sweden, with a vegetation response time of less than 20 to 50 yr. We show the importance of traditional land-use to attain high biodiversity and suggest that ecosystem management should include a regional landscape perspective.

  16. The impact of land-use change on floristic diversity at regional scale in southern Sweden 600 BC-AD 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredh, D.; Broström, A.; Rundgren, M.; Lagerås, P.; Mazier, F.; Zillén, L.

    2013-05-01

    This study explores the relationship between land-use and floristic diversity between 600 BC and AD 2008 in the uplands of southern Sweden. We use fossil pollen assemblages and the Regional Estimates of Vegetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model to quantitatively reconstruct land cover at a regional scale. Floristic richness and evenness are estimated using palynological richness and REVEALS-based evenness, respectively. We focus on the period AD 350 to 750 to investigate the impact of an inferred, short-lived (< 200 yr) period of land-use expansion and subsequent land abandonment on vegetation composition and floristic diversity. The observed vegetation response is compared to that recorded during the transition from traditional to modern land-use management at the end of the 19th century. Our results suggest that agricultural land use was most widespread between AD 350 and 1850, which correlates broadly with high values of palynological richness. REVEALS-based evenness was highest between AD 500 and 1600 which indicates a more equal cover among taxa during this time interval. Palynological richness increased during the inferred land-use expansion after AD 350 and decreased during the subsequent regression AD 550-750, while REVEALS-based evenness increased throughout this period. The values of palynological richness during the last few decades are within the range observed during the last 1650 yr. However, REVEALS-based evenness shows much lower values during the last century compared to the previous ca. 2600 yr, which indicates that the composition of present-day vegetation is unusual in a millennial perspective. Our results show that regional scale changes in land use have had clear impacts on floristic diversity in southern Sweden, with a vegetation response time of less than 20 to 50 yr. We show the importance of traditional land use to attain high biodiversity and suggest that ecosystem management should include a regional landscape perspective.

  17. EDITORIAL: `Bridging Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Observational Astrophysics', Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13) (San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009), sponsored by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, The University of Texas at Brownsville and The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center `Bridging Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Observational Astrophysics', Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13) (San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009), sponsored by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, The University of Texas at Brownsville and The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Mario; Jenet, Fredrick; Mohanty, Soumya

    2009-10-01

    The 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop took place in San Juan, Puerto Rico on the 19-22 January 2009. This annual event has become the established venue for presenting and discussing new results and techniques in this crucial subfield of gravitational wave astronomy. A major attraction of the event is that scientists working with all possible instruments gather to discuss their projects and report on the status of their observations. The Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy at the University of Texas at Brownsville, USA (a National Aeronautics and Space Administration University Research Center and a National Science Foundation Center for Research Excellence in Science and Technology) jointly with the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (which operates the Arecibo Observatory) were the proud sponsors of the gathering this time. As in previous years, GWDAW13 was well attended by more than 100 participants from over 10 countries worldwide As this issue is going to press GEO, LIGO and VIRGO are undergoing new scientific runs of their instruments with the LIGO detectors holding the promise of increasing their operational sensitivity twofold as compared with the observations finished a couple of years ago. This new cycle of observations is a major milestone compared to the previous observations which have been accomplished. Gravitational waves have not been observed yet, but the instrumental sensitivity achieved has started producing relevant astrophysical results. In particular, very recently (Nature, 20 August 2009) a letter from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration http://www.ligo.org and the VIRGO Collaboration http://www.virgo.infn.it has set the most stringent limits yet on the amount of gravitational waves that could have come from the Big Bang in the gravitational wave frequency band where current gravitational wave detectors can observe. These results have put new constraints on the physical characteristics of the early universe. The proximity

  18. GENXICC: A generator for hadronic production of the double heavy baryons ΞccΞcc, ΞbcΞbc and ΞbbΞbb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao-Hsi; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2007-09-01

    -number (GM-VFN) scheme. Specially, to deal with the amplitude and in order to save CPU time as much as possible, the 'improved helicity-approach' is applied for the most complicated gluon-gluon fusion mechanism. The code with a proper option can generate weighted and unweighted events accordingly as user's wish. Moreover, an interface to PYTHIA is provided to meet ones' needs to generate the 'complete events' of Ξ, i.e. to do the 'showers' of the partons appearing in the initial and final states of the subprocess, and the hadronization for final obtained 'showers', etc. Restrictions:In GENXICC, the approach to the hadronic production in terms of a 'complete αs4 calculation' via the production of a binding diquark state either (QQ)[3]3¯ or (QQ)[1]6 ( Q=c,b) for Ξ and Ξ production, and via that of a binding diquark state of (bc)[3]3¯ or (bc)[1]3¯ or (bc)[3]6 or (bc)[1]6 for Ξ is available, but the contributions from the other higher Fock states of the diquark states are not involved. Considering the needs of comparisons and applications in most cases, three mechanisms and their consistent summation for the hadronic production of Ξ are available. But for most purposes and applications to the baryons Ξ and Ξ, which contain b-quark(s) (much heavier than c-quark), only the 'gluon-gluon fusion' mechanism for the production is accurate enough, therefore, here only the 'gluon-gluon fusion' mechanism is available. Moreover, since the polarization of the double-heavy baryons is also strongly effected by hadronization of the double-heavy diquark produced via the mechanisms considered here, so in the present generator only the unpolarized production for the baryons are available. Running time:It depends on which option one chooses to match PYTHIA when generating the events and also on which mechanism is chosen for generating the events. Typically, for the most complicated case via gluon-gluon mechanism to generate the mixed events via the intermediate diquark in (cc)[3]3¯ and

  19. Short-term natural events at the thermal humid maximum in the tenth to twelfth centuries in the environs of early Yaroslavl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrushin, Yu. A.; Spiridonova, E. A.; Engovatova, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The succession of short-term natural events at the thermal humid maximum in the Middle Ages (10th-12th centuries) within the forest zones of European Russia was established. The archaeological excavation in the most ancient part of the town of Yaroslavl opened a thick cultural horizon, where fragments of lacustrine deposits dating back to the 11th-12th centuries were preserved. The most ancient fragments of the construction, found in lacustrine deposits, date back to the first third of the 13th century. An analysis of the structural and textural peculiarities of these deposits made it possible to reconstruct types of hydrogeological regime in the Timerevo paleolake and a paleostrait between this paleolake and Lake Nero. Thus, the waterway between the central part of the Principality of Rostov and early Yaroslavl (the first Russian settlement at the Great Volga Waterway) was revealed. The probable reasons for a rapid warming event followed by a cooling one in the Middle Ages are discussed.

  20. Thermal evolution of the metastable r8 and bc8 polymorphs of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Haberl, Bianca; Guthrie, Malcolm; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Shen, Guoyin; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-28

    The kinetics of two metastable polymorphs of silicon under thermal annealing was investigated. These phases with body-centered cubic bc8 and rhombohedral r8 structures can be formed upon pressure release from metallic silicon.We study these metastable polymorphs were formed by two different methods, via point loading and in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Upon thermal annealing different transition pathways were detected. In the point loading case, the previously reported Si-XIII formed and was confirmed as a new phase with an as-yet-unidentified structure. In the DAC case, bc8-Si transformed to the hexagonal-diamond structure at elevated pressure, consistent with previous studies at ambient pressure. In contrast, r8-Si transformed directly to diamond-cubic Si at a temperature of 255⁰C. In conclusion, these data were used to construct diagrams of the metastability regimes of the polymorphs formed in a DAC and may prove useful for potential technological applications of these metastable polymorphs.

  1. Molecular characterization of the gene for human interleukin-1[beta] converting enzyme (IL1BC)

    SciTech Connect

    Cerretti, D.P.; Hollingsworth, L.T.; Kozlosky, C.J.; Nelson, N. ); Valentine, M.B. ); Shapiro, D.N.; Morris, S.W. Univ. of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN )

    1994-04-01

    Interleukin-1[beta] (IL-1[beta]) mediates a wide range of immune and inflammatory responses. The active cytokine is generated by proteolytic cleavage of an inactive precursor by a protease called the IL-1[beta] converting enzyme (ICE). A cDNA encoding this protease was recently isolated. A human genomic clone containing the ICE gene (IL1BC) was isolated using the cDNA as a probe. The gene consists of 10 exons spanning at least 10.6 kb. 5[prime]-anchored polymerase chain reaction indicated a single transcription start site [approximately]33 bp upstream of the initiator Met codon. The 5[prime]-flanking region does not have an apparent TATA box but may contain an initiator (Inr) promotor element. However, transcriptional activity could not be detected with a fusion gene containing the 5[prime]-flanking region linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (CAT) when transfected into the human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Using the genomic IL1BC clone, the authors have confirmed the localization of the gene to chromosome 11 band q22.2-q22.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. 34 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Epidermal growth factor controls smooth muscle alpha-isoactin expression in BC3H1 cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet- derived growth factor, and insulin on the differentiation of a mouse vascular smooth muscle-like cell line, the BC3H1 cells. On the basis of cell morphology and smooth muscle alpha-isoactin synthesis, we demonstrate that EGF at physiological concentrations prevents the differentiation of these cells, whereas platelet-derived growth factor has no apparent effect. The induction of alpha-isoactin synthesis by serum deprivation is inhibited by EGF in a dose-dependent manner with a half-maximal effect at 3-5 ng/ml and a maximal inhibition at approximately 30 ng/ml. Northern analysis also shows that EGF blocks the accumulation of alpha-isoactin mRNA normally observed during cell differentiation. Addition of EGF to differentiated cells results in a repression of alpha-isoactin synthesis, a stimulation of beta- and gamma-isoactin synthesis, and the stabilization of the nonmuscle isoactins. The synthesis of creatine phosphokinase, a muscle-specific noncontractile protein, is also regulated by EGF in a similar fashion. Modulation by EGF of alpha-isoactin expression is not affected by aphidicolin and is therefore independent of its mitogenic effect on these cells. Insulin is not required for observation of the EGF- dependent effects but instead seems to promote differentiation. Our results show that EGF can replace serum in controlling the differentiation of BC3H1 cells. PMID:3279054

  3. Engineered Mononuclear Variants in Bacillus cereus Metallo-β-lactamase BcII Are Inactive†

    PubMed Central

    Abriata, Luciano A.; González, Lisandro J.; Llarrull, Leticia I.; Tomatis, Pablo E.; Myers, William K.; Costello, Alison L.; Tierney, David L.; Vila, Alejandro J.

    2008-01-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) are zinc enzymes able to hydrolyze almost all β-lactam antibiotics, rendering them inactive, at the same time endowing bacteria high levels of resistance. The design of inhibitors active against all classes of MβLs has been hampered by their structural diversity and by the heterogeneity in metal content in enzymes from different sources. BcII is the metallo-β-lactamase from Bacillus cereus, which is found in both the mononuclear and dinuclear forms. Despite extensive studies, there is still controversy about the nature of the active BcII species. Here we have designed two mutant enzymes in which each one of the metal binding sites was selectively removed. Both mutants were almost inactive, despite preserving most of the structural features of each metal site. These results reveal that neither site isolated in the MβL scaffold is sufficient to render a fully active enzyme. This suggests that only the dinuclear species is active or that the mononuclear variants can be active only if aided by other residues that would be metal ligands in the dinuclear species. PMID:18652482

  4. B/C mixing and vibrational relaxation in XeF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorents, D. C.

    From several runs, time-dependent profiles (resolution, approximately 1 ns) are accumulated of the B and C state fluorescence in Ne, Ar, N2, and SF6 at pressures ranging from zero to several thousand torr as well as in the mixtures Ar/Xe and N2/Xe. It is noted that over the same time period Brashears and Setser (1980) completed pressure-dependent spectral intensity measurements in the same gases over a similar pressure range using steady-state photodissociation of XeF2 with uv lamps. On the basis of the integrated spectral profiles of the uv and visible intensities, they determined the relative B and C state fluorescent yields as a function of gas density. With the two-state model, they also obtained a set of B/C mixing and quenching rate constants for various additives, assuming a pure B state initial population and reasonable values for the radiative lifetimes. It is noted that the rate constants derived by these two different techniques are not completely consistent. These two data sets - the integrated and time-dependent intensity measurement over a wide pressure range - constitute a comprehensive data set from which a consistent detailed model of the kinetic behavior of the B/C states of XeF is thought to be possible.

  5. Early (300−100 B.C.) temple precinct in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Elsa M.; Spencer, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Archaeological investigations during the past two decades in Mexico’s Valley of Oaxaca have documented the appearance of key public buildings, such as the royal palace and multiroom temple, associated with the rise of an archaic state at ca. 300−100 B.C. A fuller picture is now emerging from the site of El Palenque, where recent excavations have defined a temple precinct on the east side of the site’s plaza. This precinct exhibits characteristics similar to those of the temple precincts of later Mesoamerican states described by Colonial period sources. The excavation data document a walled enclosure containing three multiroom temples, two special residences identified as priests’ residences, and an array of ritual features and activity areas. The temple precinct’s components are interpreted as comprising a hierarchy of temples staffed by a specialized priesthood. A series of radiocarbon dates indicate that the precinct’s differentiated components were all in use during the 300−100 B.C. period of archaic state emergence. The El Palenque temple precinct is the earliest temple precinct excavated thus far in the Valley of Oaxaca. PMID:23610387

  6. Pertussis toxin treatment attenuates some effects of insulin in BC3H-1 murine myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, L.M.; Hewlett, E.L.; Romero, G.; Rogol, A.D.

    1988-05-05

    The effects of pertussis toxin (PT) treatment on insulin-stimulated myristoyl-diacylglycerol (DAG) generation, hexose transport, and thymidine incorporation were studied in differentiated BC3H-1 mycocytes. Insulin treatment caused a biphasic increase in myristoyl-DAG production which was abolished in myocytes treated with PT. There was no effect of PT treatment on basal (nonstimulated) myristoyl-DAG production. Insulin-stimulated hydrolysis of a membrane phosphatidylinositol glycan was blocked by PT treatment. ADP-ribosylation of BC3H-1 plasma membranes with (/sup 32/P)NAD revealed a 40-kDa protein as the major PT substrate in vivo and in vitro. The time course and dose dependence of the effects of PT on diacylglycerol generation correlated with the in vivo ADP-ribosylation of the 40-kDa substrate. Pertussis toxin treatment resulted in a 71% attenuation of insulin-stimulated hexose uptake without effect on either basal or phorbol ester-stimulated uptake. The stimulatory effects of insulin and fetal calf serum on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into quiescent myocytes were attenuated by 61 and 59%, respectively, when PT was added coincidently with the growth factors. Nonstimulated and EGF-stimulated (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation was unaffected by PT treatment. These data suggest that a PT-sensitive G protein is involved in the cellular signaling mechanisms of insulin.

  7. Thermal evolution of the metastable r8 and bc8 polymorphs of silicon

    DOE PAGES

    Haberl, Bianca; Guthrie, Malcolm; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; ...

    2015-01-28

    The kinetics of two metastable polymorphs of silicon under thermal annealing was investigated. These phases with body-centered cubic bc8 and rhombohedral r8 structures can be formed upon pressure release from metallic silicon.We study these metastable polymorphs were formed by two different methods, via point loading and in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Upon thermal annealing different transition pathways were detected. In the point loading case, the previously reported Si-XIII formed and was confirmed as a new phase with an as-yet-unidentified structure. In the DAC case, bc8-Si transformed to the hexagonal-diamond structure at elevated pressure, consistent with previous studies at ambientmore » pressure. In contrast, r8-Si transformed directly to diamond-cubic Si at a temperature of 255⁰C. In conclusion, these data were used to construct diagrams of the metastability regimes of the polymorphs formed in a DAC and may prove useful for potential technological applications of these metastable polymorphs.« less

  8. Engineered Mononuclear Variants in Bacillus cereus Metallo-beta-lactamase BcII Are Inactive

    SciTech Connect

    Abriata,L.; Gonzalez, L.; Llarrull, L.; Tomatis, P.; Myers, W.; Costello, A.; Tierney, D.; Vila, A.

    2008-01-01

    Metallo-{beta}-lactamases (M{beta}Ls) are zinc enzymes able to hydrolyze almost all {beta}-lactam antibiotics, rendering them inactive, at the same time endowing bacteria high levels of resistance. The design of inhibitors active against all classes of M{beta}Ls has been hampered by their structural diversity and by the heterogeneity in metal content in enzymes from different sources. BcII is the metallo-{beta}-lactamase from Bacillus cereus, which is found in both the mononuclear and dinuclear forms. Despite extensive studies, there is still controversy about the nature of the active BcII species. Here we have designed two mutant enzymes in which each one of the metal binding sites was selectively removed. Both mutants were almost inactive, despite preserving most of the structural features of each metal site. These results reveal that neither site isolated in the M{beta}L scaffold is sufficient to render a fully active enzyme. This suggests that only the dinuclear species is active or that the mononuclear variants can be active only if aided by other residues that would be metal ligands in the dinuclear species.

  9. Molecular Modeling Analysis of the Inhibition of Mitochondrial Cytochrome BC1 Complex Activity by Tocol Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Awantika; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Compadre, Cesar M.; Kumar, K. Sree

    2011-06-01

    The biological functions of vitamin E related compounds have been of interest in biomedical research for several decades. Among those compounds, α-, β-, δ-, and γ-tocopherols and their oxidation products, α-, β-, δ-, γ-tocopherylquinone and their analogs α-TQo, γ-TQo, TMC20 and TMC40 were recently shown to inhibit the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex. In this investigation the effects of the structural variation on the inhibition of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex were analyzed using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA). CoMFA performed using steric and electrostatic molecular fields produced a very good correlation. The best CoMFA models were obtained using the manual alignment of 12 compounds with 5 components (q2 = 0.589, SPRESS = 0.515, r2 = 0.992, s = 0.068 and F value = 156.520). The resulting contour maps produced by the best CoMFA model were helpful in identifying the structural features required for the biological activity of compounds under study. These results would be helpful for predicting the activity of new compounds, and they could be used for guiding the design, synthesis and development of new and more effective agents.

  10. Early (300-100 B.C.) temple precinct in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Elsa M; Spencer, Charles S

    2013-05-07

    Archaeological investigations during the past two decades in Mexico's Valley of Oaxaca have documented the appearance of key public buildings, such as the royal palace and multiroom temple, associated with the rise of an archaic state at ca. 300-100 B.C. A fuller picture is now emerging from the site of El Palenque, where recent excavations have defined a temple precinct on the east side of the site's plaza. This precinct exhibits characteristics similar to those of the temple precincts of later Mesoamerican states described by Colonial period sources. The excavation data document a walled enclosure containing three multiroom temples, two special residences identified as priests' residences, and an array of ritual features and activity areas. The temple precinct's components are interpreted as comprising a hierarchy of temples staffed by a specialized priesthood. A series of radiocarbon dates indicate that the precinct's differentiated components were all in use during the 300-100 B.C. period of archaic state emergence. The El Palenque temple precinct is the earliest temple precinct excavated thus far in the Valley of Oaxaca.

  11. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    1999-01-01

    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  12. Comparative kinetics of Qi site inhibitors of cytochrome bc1 complex: picomolar antimycin and micromolar cyazofamid.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Wen-Chao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Antimycin and cyazofamid are specific inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and bind to the Qi site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. With the aim to understand the detailed molecular inhibition mechanism of Qi inhibitors, we performed a comparative investigation of the inhibitory kinetics of them against the porcine bc1 complex. The results showed that antimycin is a slow tight-binding inhibitor of succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCR) with Ki  = 0.033 ± 0.00027 nm and non-competitive inhibition with respect to cytochrome c. Cyazofamid is a classical inhibitor of SCR with Ki  = 12.90 ± 0.91 μm and a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to cytochrome c. Both of them show competitive inhibition with respect to substrate DBH2 . Further molecular docking and quantum mechanics calculations were performed. The results showed that antimycin underwent significant conformational change upon the binding. The energy barrier between the conformations in the crystal and in the binding pocket is ~13.63 kcal/mol. Antimycin formed an H-bond with Asp228 and two water-bridged H-bonds with Lys227 and His201, whereas cyazofamid formed only one H-bond with Asp228. The conformational change and the different hydrogen bonding network might account for why antimycin is a slow tight-binding inhibitor, whereas cyazofamid is a classic inhibitor.

  13. Three Centuries of American Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

  14. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  15. Selenography in the seventeenth century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, E. A.

    Contents: 1. Pre-telescopic observations. 2. The first telescopic observations. 3. Galileo's lunar observations. 4. Two new selenographical programmes. 5. A flurry of activity. 6. Hevelius and his Selenographia. 7. Riccioli, Grimaldi, and nomenclature. 8. Robert Hooke and selenology. 9. Cassini and La Hire. 10. Other seventeenth-century selenography. 11. Conclusion.

  16. The 21st Century Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Beverly

    The profound changes of the 21st century are transforming America into what must become a learning society. Never before have museums, libraries and the whole of the non-formal sector of educational institutions faced such challenges and opportunities. The demand is great for fresh and innovative thinking to construct a bold, new learning network…

  17. Twenty-first-century science.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, M R

    1995-01-01

    Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

  18. Toward 21st Century Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy and Education, and codirector of the school redesign network at Stanford. In this interview, Darling-Hammond describes the term "21st century skills" and shares her…

  19. Physics in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskopf, Victor F.

    1970-01-01

    Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

  20. Talladega College: The First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maxine D.; Richardson, Joe M.

    The book presents the history of the growth, development, and significance of Alabama's Talladega College, a black liberal arts college, from its inception in the 1860s through the student protest movement more than a century later. The historical account emphasizes such college issues as finance, enrollment, students, educational policy, and the…

  1. [Mercury (and...) through the centuries].

    PubMed

    Kłys, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products

  2. Sequence analysis of the gag-pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 of intersubtype (B'/C) recombinant strain in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing-rong; Xin, Ruo-lei; Bai, Li-shi; Lu, Hong-yan; Yu, Shuang-qin; Zeng, Yi

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about the molecular and biological properties of HIV-1 intersubtype B'/C in Beijing. To fill the gap, we sequenced and analyzed the gag-pol genes from 39 HIV-1 B'/C recombinant infectors in Beijing, China during 2007. The results show that 36 CRF07_BC and 2 CRF08_BC isolates have a structural profile identical or nearly identical to CRF07_BC or CRF08_BC according to sequences in the gag-pol regions. The CRF07_BC circulating in injecting drug users (IDUs) and heterosexuals forms a diverse phylogenetic tree and most isolates from homosexuals cluster together. However, all the B'/C recombinant strains were remarkable for their low interpatient diversity in gag-pol genes (3.1, 3.0, and 2.2% for isolates from IDUs, heterosexuals, and homosexuals, respectively). We identified I7V, E91G, N242T, and K361R in the gag gene and R290I (HXB2 positions) in the pol gene as signature amino acid substitutions characteristic of HIV-1 CRF07_BC from the Beijing lineage. In addition, one new B'/C recombinant was detected. These results may contribute to an understanding of HIV-1 in Beijing.

  3. Black carbon over Mexico: The effect of atmospheric transport on mixing state, mass absorption cross-section, and BC/CO ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, R.; Kok, G. L.; Baumgardner, Darrel; Clarke, A. D.; Shinozuka, Y.; Campos, Teresa; Heizer, CG; Stephens, Britton; de Foy, B.; Voss, Paul B.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2010-01-13

    A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was operated on the NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE campaign (part of MILAGRO), sampling black carbon (BC) over Mexico. The highest BC concentrations were measured over Mexico City (sometimes as much as 2 Fg/m34 ) and over hill fires to the south of the city. The age of plumes outside of Mexico City was determined using a combination of HYSPLIT trajectories, WRF-FLEXPART modeling and CMET balloon tracks. As expected, older, diluted air masses had lower BC concentrations. A comparison of carbon monoxide (CO) and BC suggests a CO background of around 65 ppbv, and a backgroundcorrected BC/COnet ratio of 2.89±0.89 (ng/m39 -STP)/ppbv (average ± standard deviation). This ratio is similar for fresh emissions over Mexico City, as well as for aged airmasses. Comparison of light absorption measured with a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and the SP2 BC suggests a BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) of 10.9±2.1 m212 /g at 660 nm (or 13.1 m213 /g @ 550 nm, assuming MAC is inversely dependent on wavelength). This appears independent of aging and similar to the expected absorption cross-section for aged BC, but values, particularly in fresh emissions, could be biased high due to instrument artifacts. SP2-derived BC coating indicators show a prominent thinly-coated BC mode over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), while older air masses show both thinly-coated and thickly-coated BC. Some 2-day-old plumes do not show a prominent thickly-coated BC mode, possibly due to preferential wet scavenging of the likely-hydrophilic thickly-coated BC.

  4. The regulation and function of miR-21-FOXO3a-miR-34b/c signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyan; Feng, Jie; Tang, Lili; Liao, Liqiu; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Shaihong

    2015-01-30

    Upregulation of miR-21 (microRNA-21) and downregulation of miR-34b/c have been found in breast cancer (BC). However, their regulation mechanism and function roles in BC have not been fully addressed. Here, we report that miR-21 levels were inversely correlated with miR-34b/c levels in BC. MiR-21 upregulation contributes to PTEN downregulation, which is beneficial for the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling. The activation of AKT phosphorylates FOXO3a, triggering relocalization of FOXO3a proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. FOXO3a is a newly identified transcription factor responsible for miR-34b/c expression. Downregulation of nuclear FOXO3a decreased the expression levels of miR-34b and miR-34c in breast cancer cells, in which p53 was mutated. We also found upregulation of circulating miR-21 and downregulation of circulating miR-34b/c in BC patients' serum. More importantly, we showed that systemic delivery of miR-34b/c or with anti-miR-21 significantly inhibited breast tumor growth in vivo. These results suggest that high circulating levels of miR-21 and low levels of miR-34b/c may provide potential biomarkers for BC diagnosis, and systemic delivery of miR-34b/c has potential as a therapeutic option for BC treatment.

  5. Black carbon over Mexico: the effect of atmospheric transport on mixing state, mass absorption cross-section, and BC/CO ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, R.; Kok, G. L.; Baumgardner, D.; Clarke, A.; Shinozuka, Y.; Campos, T. L.; Heizer, C. G.; Stephens, B. B.; de Foy, B.; Voss, P. B.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was operated on the NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE campaign (part of MILAGRO), sampling black carbon (BC) over Mexico. The highest BC concentrations were measured over Mexico City (sometimes as much as 2 μg/m3) and over hill-fires to the south of the city. The age of plumes outside of Mexico City was determined using a combination of HYSPLIT trajectories, WRF-FLEXPART modeling and CMET balloon tracks. As expected, older, diluted air masses had lower BC concentrations. A comparison of carbon monoxide (CO) and BC suggests a CO background of around 65 ppbv, and a background-corrected BC/COnet ratio of 2.89±0.89 (ng/m3-STP)/ppbv (average ± standard deviation). This ratio is similar for fresh emissions over Mexico City, as well as for aged airmasses. Comparison of light absorption measured with a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and the SP2 BC suggests a BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) of 10.9±2.1 m2/g at 660 nm (or 13.1 m2/g @ 550 nm, assuming MAC is inversely dependent on wavelength). This appears independent of aging and similar to the expected absorption cross-section for aged BC, but values, particularly in fresh emissions, could be biased high due to instrument artifacts. SP2-derived BC coating indicators show a prominent thinly-coated BC mode over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), while older air masses show both thinly-coated and thickly-coated BC. Some 2-day-old plumes do not show a prominent thickly-coated BC mode, possibly due to preferential wet scavenging of the likely-hydrophilic thickly-coated BC.

  6. ["Carious" and "noncarious" lesions of the hard dental tissues. Ultrastructural (SEM) and microanalytical (EDS) analyses of teeth from the 3rd century B.C].

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, C; Leonardi, R; Martinez, G; Viscuso, O; Romeo, M; Caltabiano, R

    1996-05-01

    The study was carried out on 80 teeth (70 of permanent dentition and 10 of primary one) of mandibular and maxillary bones. The teeth owned to subjects lived in the III c.b.C. in Sicily, and they were found in Naxos necropolis. The teeth were examined as far as carious and non carious lesions, then they were prepared for instrumental analyses by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersed X ray spectrometry (EDS). To an objective examination of the sample no caries were detected in the teeth sample apart one tooth, on the other hand there was an extensive occlusal abrasion, from a macroscopic point of view there were no difference as far teeth morphology. SEM examination pointed out all around dentinal tubules a circle of sclerotic dentin as reaction to occlusal wear. The amelocemental junction showed from a ultramicroscopic point of view an overlap of cementum onto enamel. EDS analysis pointed out a higher P concentration on the crown versus the root in all the teeth of the sample.

  7. Metabolic control analysis of the bc1 complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effect on cytochrome c oxidase, respiration and growth rate.

    PubMed Central

    Boumans, H; Berden, J A; Grivell, L A; van Dam, K

    1998-01-01

    A number of strains varying in steady-state level of assembled bc1 complex were used to test the conclusions from inhibitor titration experiments with isolated mitochondria that, in cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on non-fermentable carbon sources, the control coefficient of the bc1 complex on the mitochondrial respiratory capacity equals 1 and the respiratory chain consists of supermolecular respiratory units [Boumans, Grivell and Berden (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 4872-4877]. In addition, the control coefficient of mitochondrial respiration on the growth rate was determined. It was found that a reduced level of bc1 complex is accompanied by an almost parallel decrease in steady-state level of cytochrome c oxidase. Since the linear relationship between level of active bc1 complex and respiratory capacity still holds, it is concluded that cytochrome c oxidase has disappeared from respiratory units that are already deficient in the bc1 complex and that the cytochrome c oxidase in a respiratory unit is destabilized when the bc1 complex is deficient. The control coefficient of the bc1 complex, and thus of mitochondrial electron-transfer capacity, on respiration of intact cells (without uncoupler added) is 0.20. Addition of uncoupler results in an increase in the coefficient to 0.36. Thus changing the respiratory state changes the distribution of control, increasing the control coefficient of electron-transfer activity as the respiratory state goes towards State 3u. Rates of growth of the strains on different carbon sources were determined and subsequently fitted to calculate control coefficients of the bc1 complex (and therefore of the respiratory capacity) on growth. Little variation was found between lactate-, ethanol- and glycerol-containing media, control coefficients being around 0.18 at pH 5. At pH 7 the control coefficient increased to 0.57, indicative of a higher dependence of the cell on ATP derived from oxidative phosphorylation. During growth on

  8. ygiW and qseBC are co-expressed in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and regulate biofilm growth.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Demuth, Donald R

    2013-06-01

    The quorum-sensing Escherichia coli regulators B and C (QseBC) two-component system were previously shown to regulate biofilm growth of the oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and to be essential for virulence. In this study, we use RT-PCR to show that an open reading frame, ygiW, residing upstream of qseBC and encoding a hypothetical protein is co-expressed with qseBC. In addition, using a series of lacZ transcriptional fusion constructs and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), the promoter that drives expression of the ygiW-qseBC operon and the transcriptional start site was mapped to the 372 bp intergenic region upstream from ygiW. No internal promoters drive qseBC expression independently from ygiW. However, qseBC expression is attenuated by approximately ninefold by a putative attenuator stem-loop (ΔG = -77.0 KJ/mol) that resides in the 137 bp intergenic region between ygiW and qseB. The QseB response regulator activates expression of the ygiW-qseBC operon and transcription from the ygiW promoter is drastically reduced in ΔqseB and ΔqseBC mutants of A. actinomycetemcomitans. In addition, transcriptional activity of the ygiW promoter is significantly reduced in a mutant expressing an in-frame deletion of qseC that lacks the sensor domain of QseC, suggesting that a periplasmic signal is required for QseB activation. Finally, a non-polar in-frame deletion in ygiW had little effect on biofilm depth but caused a significant increase in surface coverage relative to wild-type. Complementation of the mutant with a plasmid-borne copy of ygiW reduced surface coverage back to wild-type levels. Interestingly, deletion of the sensor domain of QseC or of the entire qseC open reading frame resulted in significant reductions in biofilm depth, biomass and surface coverage, indicating that the sensor domain is essential for optimal biofilm formation by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Thus, although ygiW and qseBC are co-expressed, they regulate biofilm

  9. Differences between magnitudes and health impacts of BC emissions across the United States using 12 km scale seasonal source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Turner, Matthew D; Henze, Daven K; Hakami, Amir; Zhao, Shunliu; Resler, Jaroslav; Carmichael, Gregory R; Stanier, Charles O; Baek, Jaemeen; Sandu, Adrian; Russell, Armistead G; Nenes, Athanasios; Jeong, Gill-Ran; Capps, Shannon L; Percell, Peter B; Pinder, Rob W; Napelenok, Sergey L; Bash, Jesse O; Chai, Tianfeng

    2015-04-07

    Recent assessments have analyzed the health impacts of PM2.5 from emissions from different locations and sectors using simplified or reduced-form air quality models. Here we present an alternative approach using the adjoint of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, which provides source-receptor relationships at highly resolved sectoral, spatial, and temporal scales. While damage resulting from anthropogenic emissions of BC is strongly correlated with population and premature death, we found little correlation between damage and emission magnitude, suggesting that controls on the largest emissions may not be the most efficient means of reducing damage resulting from anthropogenic BC emissions. Rather, the best proxy for locations with damaging BC emissions is locations where premature deaths occur. Onroad diesel and nonroad vehicle emissions are the largest contributors to premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC, while onroad gasoline emissions cause the highest deaths per amount emitted. Emissions in fall and winter contribute to more premature deaths (and more per amount emitted) than emissions in spring and summer. Overall, these results show the value of the high-resolution source attribution for determining the locations, seasons, and sectors for which BC emission controls have the most effective health benefits.

  10. Characterization of a putative pollen-specific arabinogalactan protein gene, BcMF8, from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Cao, Jia-Shu; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Ye, Yi-Qun

    2008-12-01

    The BcMF8 (Brassica campestris male fertility 8) gene, possessing the features of 'classical' arabinogalactan protein (AGP) was isolated from Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, Makino syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. This gene was highly abundant in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile A/B line ('ZUBajh97-01A/B') in B. campestris. Expression patterns analysis suggested BcMF8 was a pollen-specific gene, whose transcript started to be expressed at the uninucleate stage and maintained throughout to the pollen at pollination stage. BcMF8 is highly homologous to the known pollen-specific AGP genes Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 from B. napus. Isolation and multiple alignment of the homologs of BcMF8 gene in the family Cruciferae indicated that BcMF8 was highly conserved in this family, which reflect the conservation in biological function and importance of this putative AGP gene in plant development. Similarity analysis also demonstrated Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 may originate from different genomes.

  11. Genetic control of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Sean A; Diez, Eduardo; Miao, Qianqian; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Gagné, Mireille; Paquette, Olivier; Lafrenière, Ronald G; Ndao, Momar; Castellani, Lawrence W; Skamene, Emil; Vidal, Silvia M; Fortin, Anny

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies show that high HDL-cholesterol (HDLc) decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease. To map genes controlling lipid metabolism, particularly HDLc levels, we screened the plasma lipids of 36 AcB/BcA RC mouse strains subjected to either a normal or a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Strains BcA68 and AcB65 showed deviant HDLc plasma levels compared with the parental A/J and C57BL/6J strains; they were thus selected to generate informative F2 crosses. Linkage analyses in the AcB65 strain identified a locus on chromosome 4 (Hdlq78) responsible for high post-high fat diet HDLc levels. This locus has been previously associated at genome-wide significance to two regions in the human genome. A second linkage analysis in strain BcA68 identified linkage in the vicinity of a gene cluster known to control HDLc levels. Sequence analysis of these candidates identified a de novo, loss-of-function mutation in the ApoA1 gene of BcA68 that prematurely truncates the ApoA1 protein. The possibility of dissecting the specific effects of this new ApoA1 deficiency in the context of isogenic controls makes the BcA68 mouse a valuable new tool.

  12. Validation of CoaBC as a Bactericidal Target in the Coenzyme A Pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on its own ability to biosynthesize coenzyme A to meet the needs of the myriad enzymatic reactions that depend on this cofactor for activity. As such, the essential pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis pathways have attracted attention as targets for tuberculosis drug development. To identify the optimal step for coenzyme A pathway disruption in M. tuberculosis, we constructed and characterized a panel of conditional knockdown mutants in coenzyme A pathway genes. Here, we report that silencing of coaBC was bactericidal in vitro, whereas silencing of panB, panC, or coaE was bacteriostatic over the same time course. Silencing of coaBC was likewise bactericidal in vivo, whether initiated at infection or during either the acute or chronic stages of infection, confirming that CoaBC is required for M. tuberculosis to grow and persist in mice and arguing against significant CoaBC bypass via transport and assimilation of host-derived pantetheine in this animal model. These results provide convincing genetic validation of CoaBC as a new bactericidal drug target. PMID:27676316

  13. Analysis of 18th-19th century's historical samples of Iranian ink and paper belonging to the Qajar dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha-Aligol, D.; Khosravi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Baghizadeh, A.; Oliaiy, P.; Shokouhi, F.

    2007-11-01

    Thirteen historical Iranian manuscripts belonging to the Qajar dynasty (18th-19th Century BC) were investigated by micro-PIXE technique using Van de Graaff accelerator in the Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute in Iran. The aim of the present work has mainly been to determine the elemental composition of different inks and papers. In addition, the effects due to the variation of thickness and texture of the paper were simultaneously measured with the off-axis STIM technique. Elemental maps by micro-PIXE were compared to photographs taken in visible light.

  14. [Expression and immunity of multi-HIV B'/C subype genes in replicating DNA vaccines].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying-ying; Deng, Yao; Qi, Xiang-rong; Zhang, Xiang-min; Meng, Xin; Wang, Hui-juan; Tan, Wen-jie; Ruan, Li

    2010-05-01

    To understand the effect of various gene structures of HIV B'/C subtype on the gene expression and immunity in DNA vaccine, replicating DNA vector pSCK2 was used to construct seven DNA vaccines carrying one or more of HIV B'/C subtype genes: gagpol, gp160 and rtn (rev, tat and nef fusion gene). Immunofluorescence staining indicated that Gag, Gp160, Rev, Tat and Nef could be expressed from the seven DNA vaccines. Stronger expression was observed with the gene in single-gene expression plasmid or with the gene located at upper-IRES in double- or multi-gene expression plasmid. ELISA test showed that Gag induced higher antibody response, but the antibody titers stimulated by Gp160, Pol, or RTN were very low. Both Gag single-gene expression plasmid and Gag-RTN double-gene expression plasmid separately inoculating induced stronger antibody response against Gag than Gag-Gp160 double-gene expression plasmid and Gagpol-Gp160-RTN multi-gene expression plasmid or combined inoculation of Gag and Gp160 single-gene expression plasmids did. ELISPOT detection showed that all the seven DNA vaccines could stimulate cellular immune response against Gag, Pol, Gp160, Tat, and Nef, respectively. Gagpol or Gp160 single-gene expression plasmid separately inoculating stimulated the strongest cellular immune response. Tat and Nef expressed in all the plasmids induced similar immune response. These results indicated that HIV B'/C subtype genes gagpol, gp160 and rtn could be efficiently expressed in the replicating DNA vaccine vector, single-gene expression plasmid had the higher gene expression level and induced stronger immune response; combined immunization of Gagpol and Gp160 had dramatically lower immunity than Gagpol or Gp160 separated immunization did. Immunity of RTN had no difference between combined and separated immunizations. Therefore, in case of immunization with DNA vaccines containing different HIV genes, it is necessary to optimize the combined immunization procedure

  15. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  16. Regional Impacts of Climate Change in the Caribou Chilcotin Region, Fraser River Basin, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, K. E.; Werner, A. T.; Salathé, E. P.; Schnorbus, M.; Nelitz, M.; David, R. R.

    2009-05-01

    The terrain and climate of British Columbia (BC) is some of the most complex in the country, and is likely going to face unprecedented changes in hydrology due to the impacts of climate change. The Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC) was formed in 2005 to produce tools to determine how water resources in BC and its surrounding provinces, territories and states are being affected by climate change. PCIC's first large-scale watershed modelling project implemented, in collaboration with the River Forecast Centre and the University of Washington, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model in several major BC watersheds. Future scenarios were developed to analyse the impacts of climate change on snowpack, streamflow and soil moisture in these basins. The current study focuses on the methods to develop future scenarios and the results of the hydrologic modelling. Six different GCM emissions scenarios were selected for BC from the AR4 scenarios. A modified bias correction and statistical downscaling (BCSD) technique created at the University of Washington was used to downscale GCM results to the scale of gridded historical forcings data to generate transient-daily time step, regional-scale projections of future climate change. These forcings were then used to drive the VIC macro-scale hydrologic model. A comparison of forcings for the historical period (1961-1990) from the downscaled GCM data to the forcings created from the observed records on the monthly-timescale demonstrated that the downscaled data captured the range of variability present in the 1961-1990 period in large and medium sized basins quite well. Accurately downscaling data for application in small basins was more difficult. Daily results created with the original BCSD technique were unrealistic in places and problematic for application in hydrologic models, such as VIC that depend on an accurate daily temperature range to model evaporation and snowpack. Results for the Fraser Basin study include

  17. The 1st of April 2470 BC Total Solar Eclipse Seen by the Prophet Ibraheem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, S. M.

    The Holy Quran describes a phenomenon seen by young Abraham that can only fit a solar eclipse. Two criteria were given for this particular eclipse; first only one planet was seen as soon as it got dark and second no corona was seen. In order to justify the first selection rule, examinations of solar and planetary longitudes for total solar eclipses passing over Babel were carried out. Only the eclipse of the 1st of April 2470 BC meets this condition, as it was only Venus that was seen at that eclipse. The second selection rule was also naturally fulfilled, as Babel happened to be on the border of the totality zone hence no corona was seen, however all the time the moon glistened as Baily's beads. There is no doubt that the prophet Abraham witnessed the 1st of April total solar eclipse that passed over Babel. This will put him about 470 years backward than it was previously anticipated.

  18. Determination of the method of construction of 1650 B.C. wall paintings.

    PubMed

    Papaodysseus, Constantin; Fragoulis, Dimitrios K; Panagopoulos, Mihalis; Panagopoulos, Thanasis; Rousopoulos, Panayiotis; Exarhos, Mihalis; Skembris, Angelos

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, a methodology of general applicability is presented for answering the question if an artist used a number of archetypes to draw a painting or if he drew it freehand. In fact, the contour line parts of the drawn objects that potentially correspond to archetypes are initially spotted. Subsequently, the exact form of these archetypes and their appearance throughout the painting is determined. The method has been applied to celebrated Thera Late Bronze Age wall paintings with full success. It has been demonstrated that the artist or group of artists has used seven geometrical archetypes and seven corresponding well-constructed stencils (four hyperbolae, two ellipses, and one Archimedes' spiral) to draw the wall painting "Gathering of Crocus" in 1650 B.C. This method of drawing seems to be unique in the history of arts and of great importance for archaeology, and the history of mathematics and sciences, as well.

  19. Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism in Clostridium sp. BC1

    SciTech Connect

    Yarlagadda V. N.; Francis A.; Gupta, A.; Dodge, C. J.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the influence exogenous electron shuttles on the growth and glucose fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. BC1 was investigated. Bicarbonate addition to mineral salts (MS) medium accelerated growth and glucose fermentation which shifted acidogenesis (acetic- and butyric-acids) towards solventogenesis (ethanol and butanol). Addition of ferrihydrite, anthraquinone disulfonate, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in bicarbonate to growing culture showed no significant influence on fermentative metabolism. In contrast, methyl viologen (MV) enhanced ethanol- and butanol-production by 28- and 12-fold, respectively with concomitant decrease in hydrogen, acetic- and butyric-acids compared to MS medium. The results show that MV addition affects hydrogenase activity with a significant reduction in hydrogen production and a shift in the direction of electron flow towards enhanced production of ethanol and butanol.

  20. Cuban Meningococcal BC Vaccine: Experiences & Contributions from 20 Years of Application.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo, Franklin; Campa, Concepción; Casanueva, Victoria; Fajardo, Esther María; Cuevas, Iván Edelberto; González, Noel

    2008-10-01

    This paper reviews 20 years of experience and scientific contributions of the Cuban meningococcal BC vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC®) obtained by the Finlay Institute in Havana, Cuba. The vaccine is the first of its type in the world that is safe, effective, and commercially available for preventing meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B meningococcus; it is also effective against serogroup C. VA-MENGOC-BC® has shown satisfactory results, with no serious adverse events, after application of approximately 55 million doses in some 15 countries. Also included is background information on meningococcal disease, as well as the main characteristics of VA-MENGOC-BC®, the strategy used for controlling meningococcal disease and its prevention in Cuba, and a summary of the main scientific results obtained in basic research, development, clinical evaluation, and post-marketing results (safety, efficacy-effectiveness, post-vaccination adverse events, etc.) in Cuba and elsewhere.

  1. Cuban Meningococcal BC Vaccine: Experiences & Contributions from 20 Years of Application.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo, Franklin; Campa, Concepción; Casanueva, Victoria; Fajardo, Esther María; Cuevas, Iván Edelberto; González, Noel

    2007-10-01

    This paper reviews 20 years of experience and scientific contributions of the Cuban meningococcal BC vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC®) obtained by the Finlay Institute in Havana, Cuba. The vaccine is the first of its type in the world that is safe, effective, and commercially available for preventing meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B meningococcus; it is also effective against serogroup C. VA-MENGOC-BC® has shown satisfactory results, with no serious adverse events, after application of approximately 55 million doses in some 15 countries. Also included is background information on meningococcal disease, as well as the main characteristics of VA-MENGOC-BC®, the strategy used for controlling meningococcal disease and its prevention in Cuba, and a summary of the main scientific results obtained in basic research, development, clinical evaluation, and post-marketing results (safety, efficacy-effectiveness, post-vaccination adverse events, etc.) in Cuba and elsewhere.

  2. A review of dynamical resonances in A  +  BC chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zefeng; Sun, Zhigang; Zhang, Donghui; Yang, Xueming

    2017-02-01

    The concept of the transition state has played an important role in the field of chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics. Reactive resonances in the transition-state region can dramatically enhance the reaction probability; thus investigation of the reactive resonances has attracted great attention from chemical physicists for many decades. In this review, we mainly focus on the recent progress made in probing the elusive resonance phenomenon in the simple A  +  BC reaction and understanding its nature, especially in the benchmark F/Cl  +  H2 and their isotopic variants. The signatures of reactive resonances in the integral cross section, differential cross section (DCS), forward- and backward-scattered DCS, and anion photodetachment spectroscopy are comprehensively presented in individual prototype reactions. The dynamical origins of reactive resonances are also discussed in this review, based on information on the wave function in the transition-state region obtained by time-dependent quantum wave-packet calculations.

  3. Branching fractions of B(c) decays involving J/ψ and X(3872)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Y. K.; Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    We study two-body B(c) → Mc(π,K) and semileptonic decays with , where is regarded as the tetraquark state cc¯uū(dd¯). With the decay constant determined from the data, we predict that , , and . With the form factors in QCD models, we calculate that and (4.7 ± 2.0) × 10-6, and and (1.35 ± 0.18) × 10-3, respectively, and extract the ratio of the fragmentation fractions to be fc/fu = (6.4 ± 1.9) × 10-3. Supported in part by National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Science Council (NSC-101-2112-M-007-006-MY3), MoST (MoST-104-2112-M-007-003-MY3) National Science Foundation of China (11675030)

  4. Characterization and mechanism of action of cerein 7, a bacteriocin produced by Bacillus cereus Bc7.

    PubMed

    Oscáriz, J C; Pisabarro, A G

    2000-08-01

    Cerein 7 is a peptidic antibiotic produced by Bacillus cereus Bc7 (CECT 5148) at the end of exponential growth but before sporulation onset. Cerein 7 has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, but it is inactive against Gram-negative bacteria. The sequence of its amino-terminal end and its characteristics of hydrophobicity and molecular mass make cerein 7 unique among the bacteriocins produced by the soil bacterium B. cereus. In this paper a further characterization of cerein 7 is presented, it is shown that it can be classified as a Klaenhammer's class II bacteriocin and that its mode of action corresponds to that of a membrane-active compound.

  5. A review of dynamical resonances in A  +  BC chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zefeng; Sun, Zhigang; Zhang, Donghui; Yang, Xueming

    2017-02-01

    The concept of the transition state has played an important role in the field of chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics. Reactive resonances in the transition-state region can dramatically enhance the reaction probability; thus investigation of the reactive resonances has attracted great attention from chemical physicists for many decades. In this review, we mainly focus on the recent progress made in probing the elusive resonance phenomenon in the simple A  +  BC reaction and understanding its nature, especially in the benchmark F/Cl  +  H2 and their isotopic variants. The signatures of reactive resonances in the integral cross section, differential cross section (DCS), forward- and backward-scattered DCS, and anion photodetachment spectroscopy are comprehensively presented in individual prototype reactions. The dynamical origins of reactive resonances are also discussed in this review, based on information on the wave function in the transition-state region obtained by time-dependent quantum wave-packet calculations.

  6. Characterization of black pigment used in 30 BC fresco wall paint using instrumental methods and chemometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Several standard powdered black pigments were characterized by means of thermogravimetry TG-DTG and allied techniques. These pigments were used to make standard plaster frescoes at this purpose prepared. The latter ones were subjected to Raman and reflectance analysis. The results obtained, together with TG data, were chemometrically processed and used to identify an analogous standard fresco fabricated by an unknown commercial black pigment, obtaining excellent results. Results The same colorimetric and reflectometric techniques, coupled with suitable chemometric techniques, were then successfully used to identify the type of black pigment present in an ancient roman fresco of the Imperial Age (30 B.C.). Conclusion TG-DTG resulted useful techniques to autenticate powdered black pigments.Colorimetry and Raman, but also the only colorimetry, were useful to identify an ancient black pigment in situ. PMID:22594437

  7. Unfolding the fast neutron spectra of a BC501A liquid scintillation detector using GRAVEL method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, YongHao; Chen, XiMeng; Lei, JiaRong; An, Li; Zhang, XiaoDong; Shao, JianXiong; Zheng, Pu; Wang, XinHua

    2014-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of the neutron energy spectra is useful in basic research and applications. The overall procedure of measuring and unfolding the fast neutron energy spectra with BC501A liquid scintillation detector is described. The recoil proton spectrum of 241Am-Be neutrons was obtained experimentally. With the NRESP7 code, the response matrix of detector was simulated. Combining the recoil proton spectrum and response matrix, the unfolding of neutron spectra was performed by GRAVEL iterative algorithm. A MatLab program based on the GRAVEL method was developed. The continuous neutron spectrum of 241Am-Be source and monoenergetic neutron spectrum of D-T source have been unfolded successfully and are in good agreement with their standard reference spectra. The unfolded 241Am-Be spectrum are more accurate than the spectra unfolded by artificial neural networks in recent years.

  8. Fertility, segregation at a herbicide-resistance locus, and genome structure in BC hybrids from two important weedy Amaranthus species.

    PubMed

    Trucco, F; Tatum, T; Rayburn, A L; Tranel, P J

    2005-08-01

    Field studies have established high potential for hybridization between two important and often coexisting weedy species, Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus tuberculatus. Prezygotic reproductive barriers between these species are believed to be limited to pollen competition and availability. A greenhouse study showed that a herbicide-resistance gene (ALS) from A. hybridus could be introgressed into an advanced A. tuberculatus background (BC2). However, evidence is lacking in support of such transfer in nature. Postzygotic reproductive barriers may minimize, if not preclude, natural introgression. Indeed, A. hybridus xA. tuberculatus hybrids are characterized by reduced fertility and even floral neuterism. The purpose of this study was to assess hybrid fertility in the BC1 generation and its relationship with genome structure and segregation at ALS. Fertility was assessed by measuring seed output and by pollen evaluation, and segregation at ALS was determined via a molecular marker system. The two parental species have the same ploidy (2n = 32) but differ in DNA content (2C) values, with A. tuberculatus chromosomes being on average 29% greater than those of A. hybridus. Given that most (98%) BC(1)s were homoploid, 2C values were used as indicators of relative genomic constitution. Fertility in the BC1 generation was greater than that of F1s, and 3% of BC1s had seed output similar to that of the parental species. Fertility in the BC1 did not correlate (in a strict way) with reconstitution of parental genomes. Hybrid sterility appeared to be controlled by relatively few loci. Heterozygosity at ALS was negatively correlated with fertility. Also, the A. tuberculatus ALS allele was not observed in the A. hybridus sexual condition, monoecism. Linkage of ALS to a locus associated (directly or via epistasis) with hybrid sterility may explain the fertility penalty observed with ALS introgression. Moreover, this linkage might explain why sequenced herbicide-resistance ALS

  9. Isolation of ubiquinol oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans and resolution into cytochrome bc1 and cytochrome c-aa3 complexes.

    PubMed

    Berry, E A; Trumpower, B L

    1985-02-25

    An enzyme complex with ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, cytochrome c oxidase, and ubiquinol oxidase activities was purified from a detergent extract of the plasma membrane of aerobically grown Paracoccus denitrificans. This ubiquinol oxidase consists of seven polypeptides and contains two b cytochromes, cytochrome c1, cytochrome aa3, and a previously unreported c-type cytochrome. This c-type cytochrome has an apparent Mr of 22,000 and an alpha absorption maximum at 552 nm. Retention of this c cytochrome through purification presumably accounts for the independence of ubiquinol oxidase activity on added cytochrome c. Ubiquinol oxidase can be separated into a 3-subunit bc1 complex, a 3-subunit c-aa3 complex, and a 57-kDa polypeptide. This, together with detection of covalently bound heme and published molecular weights of cytochrome c1 and the subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, allows tentative identification of most of the subunits of ubiquinol oxidase with the prosthetic groups present. Ubiquinol oxidase contains cytochromes corresponding to those of the mitochondrial bc1 complex, cytochrome c oxidase complex, and a bound cytochrome c. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity of the complex is inhibited by inhibitors of the mitochondrial bc1 complex. Thus it seems likely that the pathway of electron transfer through the bc1 complex of ubiquinol oxidase is similar to that through the mitochondrial bc1 complex. The number of polypeptides present is less than half the number in the corresponding mitochondrial complexes. This structural simplicity may make ubiquinol oxidase from P. denitrificans a useful system with which to study the mechanisms of electron transfer and energy transduction in the bc1 and cytochrome c oxidase sections of the respiratory chain.

  10. Measurements of Refractory Black Carbon (rBC) Aerosols in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A. L.; McMeeking, G. R.; Lyons, W. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Welch, K. A.; McKnight, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of light absorbing particles in the boundary layer of the high southern latitudes are scarce. During the 2013-2014 austral summer field season refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosols were quantified by a single particle soot photometer (SP2) in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The dark rBC particles absorb more radiation thereby increasing atmospheric heating, as well as reducing surface albedo and enhancing hydrologic melt when deposited on highly reflective surfaces such as snow and ice. Quantifying both local and long-range atmospheric transport of rBC to this region of a remote continent mostly covered by ice and snow would be useful in understanding meltwater generation as climate changes. Although the Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region of Antarctica, they contain many alpine glaciers, some of which are fed from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Continuous rBC measurements were collected at Lake Hoare Camp in the Taylor Valley for two months, along with shorter periods at more remote locations within the Dry Valleys. Conditions at the Lake Hoare Camp were dominated by up-valley winds from McMurdo Sound, however, winds also brought air down-valley from the EAIS polar plateau. Here we investigated periods dominated by both up and down-valley winds to explore differences in rBC concentrations, size distributions, and scattering properties. The average background rBC mass concentration was 1ng/m3, though concentrations as high as 50 ng/m3 were observed at times, likely due to local sources.

  11. The B(C6F5)3 boron Lewis acid route to arene-annulated pentalenes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Harhausen, Marcel; Fukazawa, Aiko; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro; Fröhlich, Roland; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Petersen, Jeffrey L; Kehr, Gerald; Erker, Gerhard

    2014-06-01

    4,5-Dimethyl-1,2-bis(1-naphthylethynyl)benzene (12) undergoes a rapid multiple ring-closure reaction upon treatment with the strong boron Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 to yield the multiply annulated, planar conjugated π-system 13 (50 % yield). In the course of this reaction, a C6F5 group was transferred from boron to carbon. Treatment of 12 with CH3B(C6F5)2 proceeded similarly, giving a mixture of 13 (C6F5-transfer) and the product 15, which was formed by CH3-group transfer. 1,2-Bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (8 a) reacts similarly with CH3B(C6F5)2 to yield a mixture of the respective C6F5- and CH3-substituted dibenzopentalenes 10 a and 16. The reaction is thought to proceed through zwitterionic intermediates that exhibit vinyl cation reactivities. Some B(C6F5)3-substituted species (26, 27) consequently formed by in situ deprotonation upon treatment of the respective 1,2-bis(alkynyl)benzene starting materials (24, 8) with the frustrated Lewis pair B(C6F5)3/P(o-tolyl)3. The overall formation of the C6F5-substituted products formally require HB(C6F5)2 cleavage in an intermediate dehydroboration step. This was confirmed in the reaction of a thienylethynyl-containing starting material 21 with B(C6F5)3, which gave the respective annulated pentalene product 23 that had the HB(C6F5)2 moiety 1,4-added to its thiophene ring. Compounds 12-14, 23, and 26 were characterized by X-ray diffraction.

  12. Lessons learned from Action Schools! BC--an 'active school' model to promote physical activity in elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Macdonald, Heather M; Zebedee, Janelle A; Reed, Katherine E; McKay, Heather A

    2006-10-01

    The 'active school' model offers promise for promoting school-based physical activity (PA); however, few intervention trials have evaluated its effectiveness. Thus, our purpose was to: (1) describe Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) and its implementation (fidelity and feasibility) and (2) evaluate the impact of AS! BC on school provision of PA. Ten elementary schools were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions: Usual Practice (UP, three schools), Liaison (LS, four schools) or Champion (CS, three schools). Teachers in LS and CS schools received AS! BC training and resources but differed on the level of facilitation provided. UP schools continued with regular PA. Delivery of PA during the 11-month intervention was assessed with weekly Activity Logs and intervention fidelity and feasibility were assessed using Action Plans, workshop evaluations, teacher surveys and focus groups with administrators, teachers, parents and students. Physical activity delivered was significantly greater in LS (+67.4 min/week; 95% CI: 18.7-116.1) and CS (+55.2 min/week; 95% CI: 26.4-83.9) schools than UP schools. Analysis of Action Plans and Activity Logs showed fidelity to the model and moderate levels of compliance (75%). Teachers were highly satisfied with training and support. Benefits of AS! BC included positive changes in the children and school climate, including provision of resources, improved communication and program flexibility. These results support the use of the 'active school' model to positively alter the school environment. The AS! BC model was effective, providing more opportunities for "more children to be more active more often" and as such has the potential to provide health benefits to elementary school children.

  13. Dissociation of insulin receptor phosphorylation and stimulation of glucose transport in BC3H-1 myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojsilovic, L.P.; Standaert, M.L.; Rosic, N.K.; Pollet, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated insulin receptor phosphorylation in differentiated cultured BC3H-1 myocytes. As for other insulin-responsive cell systems in partially purified wheat germ agglutinin receptor preparations, insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of its own receptor (95K ..beta..-subunits) in a dose dependent manner (0-400 nM), as identified by immunoprecipitation with antiinsulin receptor antibodies and SDS-PAGE. In the same preparations they show that 12-0-tetradecanyl phorbol acetate (TPA), which in many respect ..beta..-subunits in the same dose dependent manner (0-5 ..mu..M). In addition, antiinsulin receptor antibodies (B-10) also induced phosphorylation of mimics insulin action, also induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and HPLC tryptic maps of the /sup 32/P-labeled ..beta..-subunit were identical to those for insulin-induced receptor phosphorylation. However, while insulin and TPA are potent stimulators of glucose transport in these muscle cells, the antireceptor antibodies alone failed to provoke glucose transport at any concentration. The specificity and activity of these antibodies were confirmed in their system by their ability to inhibit insulin binding and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in a concentration-dependent manner. Their results indicate that phosphorylation of insulin receptor is not a crucial event in mediating insulin action, at least with respect to glucose transport. While the effects of the B-10 antibody in the BC3H-1 myocyte differ from those in the adipocyte, their results provide independent confirmation of their essential conclusion that phosphorylation of the insulin receptor may not be necessary nor sufficient for its acute action in promoting glucose transport.

  14. Control features within the rplJL-rpoBC transcription unit of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Barry, G; Squires, C L; Squires, C

    1979-10-01

    Gene fusions constructed in vitro have been used to examine transcription regulatory signals from the operon which encodes ribosomal proteins L10 and L7/12 and the RNA polymerase beta and beta' subunits (the rplJL-rpoBC operon). Portions of this operon, which were obtained by in vitro deletions, have been placed between the ara promoter and the lacZ gene in the gene-fusion plasmid pMC81 developed by M. Casadaban and S. Cohen. The effect of the inserted DNA segment on the expression of the lacZ gene (in the presence and absence of arabinose) permits the localization of regulatory signals to discrete regions of the rplJL-rpoBC operon. An element that reduces the level of distal gene expression to one-sixth is located on a fragment which spans the rplL-rpoB intercistronic region. This strongly supports the idea that there is an attenuator in this region. The terminator for the operon is located on a fragment which spans the 3' end of the rpoC gene. The major promoter for the operon precedes the rplJ gene [Yamamoto, M. & Nomura, M. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 3891-3895 and Linn, T. & Scaife, J. (1978) Nature (London) 276, 33-37] and was not examined in this study. However, a weak promoter is observed on the fragment that spans the rplJ-rplL intercistronic region. Other regions of the operon may also contain weak promoters. The contribution of these elements to the regulation of this complex operon is discussed.

  15. THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORDS CLEANUP PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2005-11-17

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50-acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity. and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy.

  16. THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORDS CLEANUP PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE, MN.W.

    2006-02-22

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50 acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity, and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy. It is

  17. Historic volcanism, European dry fogs, and greenland Acid precipitation, 1500 B.C. To a.d. 1500.

    PubMed

    Stothers, R B; Rampino, M R

    1983-10-28

    Historic dry fogs in Europe, acid precipitation in Greenland, and major explosive volcanic eruptions correlate well with each other between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1500. European (Mediterranean and Icelandic) volcanic eruptions appear to be the source of at least five of the nine largest acidity signals found in Greenland ice for this period. Between 152 B.C. and A.D. 43, eruptions of sulfur-rich Mount Etna probably supplied about 15 percent of the smaller acidity signals.

  18. Potential vorticity and layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Oval BC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1988-01-01

    Using Voyager images, layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and White Oval BC were investigated by treating potential vorticity as a conserved tracer. Fluid trajectories around the GRS and the White Oval BC were calculated assuming the flow to be frictionless, adiabatic, hydrostatic, and steady in the reference frame of the vortex. The data obtained constitute a useful diagnostic which will help to differentiate between models of Jovian vortices. Implications of the observations were studied in the context of a one-layer quasi-geostrophic model in which a thin upper weather layer, which contains the vortex, is supported hydrostatically by a much deeper lower layer.

  19. Frustrated Lewis pair-like reactions of nucleophilic palladium carbenes with B(C6F5)3.

    PubMed

    Cui, Peng; Comanescu, Cezar C; Iluc, Vlad M

    2015-04-11

    The reactions of two nucleophilic palladium carbene complexes with the strong Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 afforded two zwitterionic products. One of them features a remote nucleophilic attack at the para-carbon of the supporting ligand, while the other indicates C-F activation of B(C6F5)3. Both behaviours are reminiscent of the reactivity of frustrated Lewis pairs due to the steric inaccessibility of the nucleophilic carbon center, but are unprecedented for transition metal carbene complexes. Furthermore, when those reactions are carried out in the presence of H2, products resulting from H2 splitting are observed.

  20. A photo Lewis acid generator (PhLAG): controlled photorelease of B(C6F5)3.

    PubMed

    Khalimon, Andrey Y; Piers, Warren E; Blackwell, James M; Michalak, David J; Parvez, Masood

    2012-06-13

    A molecule that releases the strong organometallic Lewis acid B(C(6)F(5))(3) upon irradiation with 254 nm light has been developed. This photo Lewis acid generator (PhLAG) now enables the photocontrolled initiation of several reactions catalyzed by this important Lewis acid. Herein is described the synthesis of the triphenylsulfonium salt of a carbamato borate based on a carbazole function, its establishment as a PhLAG, and the application of the photorelease of B(C(6)F(5))(3) to the fabrication of thin films of a polysiloxane material.

  1. Photo Lewis acid generators: photorelease of B(C6F5)3 and applications to catalysis.

    PubMed

    Khalimon, Andrey Y; Shaw, Bryan K; Marwitz, Adam J V; Piers, Warren E; Blackwell, James M; Parvez, Masood

    2015-11-07

    A series of molecules capable of releasing of the strong organometallic Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 upon exposure to 254 nm light have been developed. These photo Lewis acid generators (PhLAGs) can now serve as photoinitiators for several important B(C6F5)3-catalyzed reactions. Herein is described the synthesis of the triphenylsulfonium and diphenyliodonium salts of carbamato- and hydridoborates, their establishment as PhLAGs, and studies aimed at defining the mechanism of borane release. Factors affecting these photolytic reactions and the application of this concept to photoinduced hydrosilylation reactions and construction of siloxane scaffolds are also discussed.

  2. The VELVET Complex in the Gray Mold Fungus Botrytis cinerea: Impact of BcLAE1 on Differentiation, Secondary Metabolism, and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Julia; Simon, Adeline; Cohrs, Kim C; Traeger, Stefanie; Porquier, Antoine; Dalmais, Bérengère; Viaud, Muriel; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2015-06-01

    Botrytis cinerea, the gray mold fungus, is an important plant pathogen. Field populations are characterized by variability with regard to morphology, the mode of reproduction (conidiation or sclerotia formation), the spectrum of secondary metabolites (SM), and virulence. Natural variation in bcvel1 encoding the ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans VeA, a member of the VELVET complex, was previously shown to affect light-dependent differentiation, the formation of oxalic acid (OA), and virulence. To gain broader insight into the B. cinerea VELVET complex, an ortholog of A. nidulans LaeA, BcLAE1, a putative interaction partner of BcVEL1, was studied. BcVEL1 but not its truncated versions interacts with BcLAE1 and BcVEL2 (VelB ortholog). In accordance with the expected common as well as specific functions of BcVEL1 and BcLAE1, the deletions of both genes result in similar though not identical phenotypes. Both mutants lost the ability to produce OA, to colonize the host tissue, and to form sclerotia. However, mutants differ with regard to aerial hyphae and conidia formation. Genome-wide expression analyses revealed that BcVEL1 and BcLAE1 have common and distinct target genes. Some of the genes that are underexpressed in both mutants, e.g., those encoding SM-related enzymes, proteases, and carbohydrate-active enzymes, may account for their reduced virulence.

  3. BEEC: An event generator for simulating the Bc meson production at an e+e- collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Xing-Gang; Wang, Xian-You

    2013-12-01

    The Bc meson is a doubly heavy quark-antiquark bound state and carries flavors explicitly, which provides a fruitful laboratory for testing potential models and understanding the weak decay mechanisms for heavy flavors. In view of the prospects in Bc physics at the hadronic colliders such as Tevatron and LHC, Bc physics is attracting more and more attention. It has been shown that a high luminosity e+e- collider running around the Z0-peak is also helpful for studying the properties of Bc meson and has its own advantages. For this purpose, we write down an event generator for simulating Bc meson production through e+e- annihilation according to relevant publications. We name it BEEC, in which the color-singlet S-wave and P-wave (cb¯)-quarkonium states together with the color-octet S-wave (cb¯)-quarkonium states can be generated. BEEC can also be adopted to generate the similar charmonium and bottomonium states via the semi-exclusive channels e++e-→|(QQ¯)[n]>+Q+Q¯ with Q=b and c respectively. To increase the simulation efficiency, we simplify the amplitude as compact as possible by using the improved trace technology. BEEC is a Fortran program written in a PYTHIA-compatible format and is written in a modular structure, one may apply it to various situations or experimental environments conveniently by using the GNU C compiler make. A method to improve the efficiency of generating unweighted events within PYTHIA environment is proposed. Moreover, BEEC will generate a standard Les Houches Event data file that contains useful information of the meson and its accompanying partons, which can be conveniently imported into PYTHIA to do further hadronization and decay simulation. Catalogue identifier: AEQC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEQC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in

  4. Bacillus cereus efflux protein BC3310 – a multidrug transporter of the unknown major facilitator family, UMF-2

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Jasmin K.; Hassan, Karl; Vörös, Aniko; Simm, Roger; Saidijam, Massoud; Bettaney, Kim E.; Bechthold, Andreas; Paulsen, Ian T.; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic classification divides the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) into 82 families, including 25 families that are comprised of transporters with no characterized functions. This study describes functional data for BC3310 from Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, a member of the “unknown major facilitator family-2” (UMF-2). BC3310 was shown to be a multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to ethidium bromide, SDS and silver nitrate when heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α ΔacrAB. A conserved aspartate residue (D105) in putative transmembrane helix 4 was identified, which was essential for the energy dependent ethidium bromide efflux by BC3310. Transport proteins of the MFS comprise specific sequence motifs. Sequence analysis of UMF-2 proteins revealed that they carry a variant of the MFS motif A, which may be used as a marker to distinguish easily between this family and other MFS proteins. Genes orthologous to bc3310 are highly conserved within the B. cereus group of organisms and thus belong to the core genome, suggesting an important conserved functional role in the normal physiology of these bacteria. PMID:26528249

  5. Following Their Footsteps: What Happens to Students Who Move from Research Universities to Other BC Public Post-Secondary Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    British Columbia has a differentiated post-secondary system in which different kinds of institutions provide students with a wide range of educational program options and numerous opportunities for credential completion. As a result of the many education choices and pathways available to students in BC, they tend to navigate their way through the…

  6. Introducing the New American Nurses Association President: Pamela F. Cipriano, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Pamela F

    2014-11-01

    This month in the Magnet® Perspectives column, Pamela F. Cipriano, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAAN, new President of the American Nurses Association, discusses her priorities for the future and partnerships that are being forged to support nursing.

  7. Unbiased identification of signal-activated transcription factors by barcoded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM)

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Pauline; Rando, Gianpaolo; Fleury-Olela, Fabienne; Schibler, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of transcription factors (TFs) controlling pathways in health and disease is of paramount interest. We designed a widely applicable method, dubbed barcorded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM), to identify signal-activated TFs without any a priori knowledge about their properties. The BC-STAR-PROM library consists of ∼3000 luciferase expression vectors, each harboring a promoter (composed of six tandem repeats of synthetic random DNA) and an associated barcode of 20 base pairs (bp) within the 3′ untranslated mRNA region. Together, the promoter sequences encompass >400,000 bp of random DNA, a sequence complexity sufficient to capture most TFs. Cells transfected with the library are exposed to a signal, and the mRNAs that it encodes are counted by next-generation sequencing of the barcodes. This allows the simultaneous activity tracking of each of the ∼3000 synthetic promoters in a single experiment. Here we establish proof of concept for BC-STAR-PROM by applying it to the identification of TFs induced by drugs affecting actin and tubulin cytoskeleton dynamics. BC-STAR-PROM revealed that serum response factor (SRF) is the only immediate early TF induced by both actin polymerization and microtubule depolymerization. Such changes in cytoskeleton dynamics are known to occur during the cell division cycle, and real-time bioluminescence microscopy indeed revealed cell-autonomous SRF–myocardin-related TF (MRTF) activity bouts in proliferating cells. PMID:27601530

  8. A Survey of Movers: Students Who Move between BC Public Post-Secondary Institutions. A Summary of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several years, there has been a wealth of new data on student mobility in British Columbia's postsecondary system. Quantitative information from the Student Transitions Project (STP) has allowed current and prospective students, the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT), public post-secondary institutions, the Ministry…

  9. Surface-Modulated Motion Switch: Capture and Release of Iron-Sulfur Protein in the Cytochrome bc1 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Esser,L.; Gong, X.; Yang, S.; Yu, L.; Yu, C.; Xia, D.

    2006-01-01

    In the cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex, the swivel motion of the iron-sulfur protein (ISP) between two redox sites constitutes a key component of the mechanism that achieves the separation of the two electrons in a substrate molecule at the quinol oxidation (Q{sub o}) site. The question remaining is how the motion of ISP is controlled so that only one electron enters the thermodynamically favorable chain via ISP. An analysis of eight structures of mitochondrial bc{sub 1} with bound Q{sub o} site inhibitors revealed that the presence of inhibitors causes a bidirectional repositioning of the cd1 helix in the cytochrome b subunit. As the cd1 helix forms a major part of the ISP binding crater, any positional shift of this helix modulates the ability of cytochrome b to bind ISP. The analysis also suggests a mechanism for reversal of the ISP fixation when the shape complementarity is significantly reduced after a positional reorientation of the reaction product quinone. The importance of shape complementarity in this mechanism was confirmed by functional studies of bc{sub 1} mutants and by a structure determination of the bacterial form of bc{sub 1}. A mechanism for the high fidelity of the bifurcated electron transfer is proposed.

  10. Surface-modulated motion switch: Capture and release of iron–sulfur protein in the cytochrome bc1 complex

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Lothar; Gong, Xing; Yang, Shaoqing; Yu, Linda; Yu, Chang-An; Xia, Di

    2006-01-01

    In the cytochrome bc1 complex, the swivel motion of the iron–sulfur protein (ISP) between two redox sites constitutes a key component of the mechanism that achieves the separation of the two electrons in a substrate molecule at the quinol oxidation (Qo) site. The question remaining is how the motion of ISP is controlled so that only one electron enters the thermodynamically favorable chain via ISP. An analysis of eight structures of mitochondrial bc1 with bound Qo site inhibitors revealed that the presence of inhibitors causes a bidirectional repositioning of the cd1 helix in the cytochrome b subunit. As the cd1 helix forms a major part of the ISP binding crater, any positional shift of this helix modulates the ability of cytochrome b to bind ISP. The analysis also suggests a mechanism for reversal of the ISP fixation when the shape complementarity is significantly reduced after a positional reorientation of the reaction product quinone. The importance of shape complementarity in this mechanism was confirmed by functional studies of bc1 mutants and by a structure determination of the bacterial form of bc1. A mechanism for the high fidelity of the bifurcated electron transfer is proposed. PMID:16924113

  11. New strategies for the synthesis of biologically important tetrapyrroles. The "B,C + D + A" approach to linear tetrapyrroles.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, P A; Coutts, L D; Guo, J; Hauck, S I; Leung, S H

    2000-01-14

    Linear tetrapyrroles related to phytochrome (1) were prepared in enantiospecific fashion by a new strategy beginning with ring-B,C synthons of type 19 (bis-iododipyrrins). Rings A and D were elaborated by Pd(0)-mediated coupling of 19a with the appropriate alkyne acid or amide derivatives 9 and 20, followed by intramolecular cyclization (method C: BC + D + A --> ABCD).

  12. Determination of the energy dependence of the BC-408 plastic scintillation detector in medium energy x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, H.; Çubukçu, Ş.; Uyar, E.; Engin, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The energy dependence of the response of BC-408 plastic scintillator (PS), an approximately water-equivalent material, has been investigated by employing standardized x-ray beams. IEC RQA and ISO N series x-ray beam qualities, in the range of 40-100 kVp, were calibrated using a PTW-type ionization chamber. The energy response of a thick BC-408 PS detector was measured using the multichannel pulse height analysis method. The response of BC-408 PS increased gradually with increasing energy in the energy range of 40-80 kVp and then showed a flat behavior at about 80 to 120 kVp. This might be due to the self-attenuation of scintillation light by the scintillator itself and may also be partly due to the ionization quenching, leading to a reduction in the intensity of the light output from the scintillator. The results indicated that the sensitivity drop in BC-408 PS material at lower photon energies may be overcome by adding some high-Z elements to its polyvinyltoluene (PVT) base. The material modification may compensate for the drop in the response at lower photon energies. Thus plastic scintillation dosimetry is potentially suitable for applications in diagnostic radiology.

  13. Neural Tube Defect Induction by Fumonisin B1 in LM/Bc Mice Fed Folate Deficient or Folate Replete Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. FB1 is found in corn-based foods and evidence suggests that it is a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTD). The mechanism(s) underlying NTD induction by FB1 in the sensitive LM/Bc mouse model is not well...

  14. Fumonisin B1 induced neural tube defects were not increased in LM/Bc mice fed folate-deficient diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides that is found in corn-based foods and is possibly a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTD). The mechanism(s) underlying NTD induction by FB1 in the sensitive LM/Bc mouse model is not well understood, however, there is evidenc...

  15. Theoretical investigation of the atomic and electronic structure of Li{sub x}BC{sub 3} intercalated compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzubov, A. A.; Eliseeva, N. S.; Krasnov, P. O.; Tomilin, F. N.; Fedorov, A. S.; Lykhin, A. O.

    2012-06-15

    Li{sub x}BC{sub 3} intercalated compounds with various configurations are studied for their possible application as electrode materials for lithium current sources. For this purpose, the band structure and the density of states were calculated for each structure, and energy stability and possible deformations due to a change in the unit cell volume during intercalation are investigated.

  16. Inhibitor-complexed Structures of the Cytochrome bc[subscript 1] from the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    SciTech Connect

    Esser, Lothar; Elberry, Maria; Zhou, Fei; Yu, Chang-An; Yu, Linda; Xia, Di

    2008-06-30

    The cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex (bc{sub 1}) is a major contributor to the proton motive force across the membrane by coupling electron transfer to proton translocation. The crystal structures of wild type and mutant bc{sub 1} complexes from the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Rsbc{sub 1}), stabilized with the quinol oxidation (Q{sub P}) site inhibitor stigmatellin alone or in combination with the quinone reduction (Q{sub N}) site inhibitor antimycin, were determined. The high quality electron density permitted assignments of a new metal-binding site to the cytochrome c1 subunit and a number of lipid and detergent molecules. Structural differences between Rsbc{sub 1} and its mitochondrial counterparts are mostly extra membranous and provide a basis for understanding the function of the predominantly longer sequences in the bacterial subunits. Functional implications for the bc{sub 1} complex are derived from analyses of 10 independent molecules in various crystal forms and from comparisons with mitochondrial complexes.

  17. Hybrid fusions show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly supports cytochrome bc{sub 1} function in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Ekiert, Robert; Czapla, Monika; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • We used hybrid fusion bc{sub 1} complex to test inter-monomer electron transfer in vivo. • Cross-inactivated complexes were able to sustain photoheterotrophic growth. • Inter-monomer electron transfer supports catalytic cycle in vivo. • bc{sub 1} dimer is functional even when cytochrome b subunits come from different species. - Abstract: Electronic connection between Q{sub o} and Q{sub i} quinone catalytic sites of dimeric cytochrome bc{sub 1} is a central feature of the energy-conserving Q cycle. While both the intra- and inter-monomer electron transfers were shown to connect the sites in the enzyme, mechanistic and physiological significance of the latter remains unclear. Here, using a series of mutated hybrid cytochrome bc{sub 1}-like complexes, we show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly sustains the function of the enzyme in vivo, even when the two subunits in a dimer come from different species. This indicates that minimal requirement for bioenergetic efficiency is to provide a chain of cofactors for uncompromised electron flux between the catalytic sites, while the details of protein scaffold are secondary.

  18. C11orf83, a Mitochondrial Cardiolipin-Binding Protein Involved in bc1 Complex Assembly and Supercomplex Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Michelangelo; Raemy, Etienne; Vaz, Frédéric Maxime; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Bairoch, Amos

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian mitochondria may contain up to 1,500 different proteins, and many of them have neither been confidently identified nor characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that C11orf83, which was lacking experimental characterization, is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein facing the intermembrane space. This protein is specifically associated with the bc1 complex of the electron transport chain and involved in the early stages of its assembly by stabilizing the bc1 core complex. C11orf83 displays some overlapping functions with Cbp4p, a yeast bc1 complex assembly factor. Therefore, we suggest that C11orf83, now called UQCC3, is the functional human equivalent of Cbp4p. In addition, C11orf83 depletion in HeLa cells caused abnormal crista morphology, higher sensitivity to apoptosis, a decreased ATP level due to impaired respiration and subtle, but significant, changes in cardiolipin composition. We showed that C11orf83 binds to cardiolipin by its α-helices 2 and 3 and is involved in the stabilization of bc1 complex-containing supercomplexes, especially the III2/IV supercomplex. We also demonstrated that the OMA1 metalloprotease cleaves C11orf83 in response to mitochondrial depolarization, suggesting a role in the selection of cells with damaged mitochondria for their subsequent elimination by apoptosis, as previously described for OPA1. PMID:25605331

  19. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia's Vancouver campus on the basis of a minimum 24 transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2003/04 through 2007/08 academic years. The report mines familiar ground--similar…

  20. Reaction of five-membered zirconacycloallenoids with the strong Lewis acid B(C6F5)3.

    PubMed

    Bender, Georg; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Wibbeling, Birgit; Kehr, Gerald; Erker, Gerhard

    2014-08-28

    Two alkyl and aryl substituted five-membered zirconacycloallenoids underwent a typical σ-alkyl metallocene reaction with B(C6F5)3, namely cleavage of the Zr-C(sp(3)) bond with formation of zwitterionic (η(2)-allenyl)zirconium/alkylborate products. Both products were characterized by X-ray crystal structural analyses.

  1. The Origins of Greek Civilization: From the Bronze Age to the Polis ca. 2500-600 B.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmell, Rhoda; And Others

    This document consists of three units in which students study and compare the two civilizations of ancient Greece, that of the Greek kingdoms of the second millennium B.C. and the city states of historical Greece, and learn how historians use archaeological evidence to reconstruct the history of Mycenaean Greece. Suggestions are included for…

  2. Two Centuries of Solar Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.

    2015-10-01

    In 1811, François Arago observed the disk of the Sun with his "lunette polariscopique". From the absence of detectable polarization compared with his laboratory observations of glowing solids, liquids, and flames he concluded that the Sun's visible surface is an incandescent gas. From this beginning, thanks to orders of magnitude technology improvements, a remarkable amount of what we know about the physics of the Sun has continued to flow from solar polarimetry. This short review compares some selected polarimetric discoveries with subsequent recent observations to illustrate the tremendous progress of solar polarimetry during the last two centuries.

  3. Tracing the 5000-year recorded history of inorganic thin films from ˜3000 BC to the early 1900s AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Gold is very likely the first metal discovered by man, more than 11 000 years ago. However, unlike copper (˜9000 BC), bronze (˜3500 BC), and wrought iron (˜2500-3000 BC), gold is too soft for fabrication of tools and weapons. Instead, it was used for decoration, religious artifacts, and commerce. The earliest documented inorganic thin films were gold layers, some less than 3000 Å thick, produced chemi-mechanically by Egyptians approximately 5000 years ago. Examples, gilded on statues and artifacts (requiring interfacial adhesion layers), were found in early stone pyramids dating to ˜2650 BC in Saqqara, Egypt. Spectacular samples of embossed Au sheets date to at least 2600 BC. The Moche Indians of northern Peru developed electroless gold plating (an auto-catalytic reaction) in ˜100 BC and applied it to intricate Cu masks. The earliest published electroplating experiments were ˜1800 AD, immediately following the invention of the dc electrochemical battery by Volta. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal films was reported in 1649, atmospheric arc deposition of oxides (Priestley) in the mid-1760s, and atmospheric plasmas (Siemens) in 1857. Sols were produced in the mid-1850s (Faraday) and sol-gel films synthesized in 1885. Vapor phase film growth including sputter deposition (Grove, 1852), vacuum arc deposition ("deflagration," Faraday, 1857), plasma-enhanced CVD (Barthelot, 1869) and evaporation (Stefan, Hertz, and Knudsen, 1873-1915) all had to wait for the invention of vacuum pumps whose history ranges from ˜1650 for mechanical pumps, through ˜1865 for mercury pumps that produce ballistic pressures in small systems. The development of crystallography, beginning with Plato in 360 BC, Kepler in 1611, and leading to Miller indices (1839) for describing orientation and epitaxial relationships in modern thin film technology, was already well advanced by the 1780s (Haüy). The starting point for the development of heterogeneous thin film nucleation theory was

  4. Measurement of Black (BC) and Elemental (EC) Carbon by an Optical and a Thermal- optical Method: An Intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, T.; Dutkiewicz, V. A.; Khan, A. R.; Husain, L.

    2009-05-01

    Elemental or Black carbon (EC or BC) aerosol emitted into the atmosphere from incomplete combustion of fossil fuel, biomass and forest fires absorbs solar radiations and contributes to global warming. EC or BC is defined based on different analytical methods used for measuring the same fraction of carbonaceous aerosol. The different methods give different results which can vary widely. There is no accepted standard available to accurately quantify EC and therefore measurements between different methods need to be compared to reduce the bias. In this study intercomparison of data between two widely used techniques, BC obtained using optical method (non-destructive technique) and EC obtained using thermal-optical methods (destructive technique) are performed on aerosol samples collected on Whatman 41 filter paper from two rural sites, Whiteface Mountain (WFM) and Mayville, NY. Daily aerosol samples from six months at Mayville collected during 1998 and 2002 and fourteen months from WFM collected during 1996 and 2002 were analyzed using Sunset thermal-optical transmittance (TOT) elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC) analyzer and Magee Scientific Transmissiometer (Model OT-21). Total numbers of samples analyze