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Sample records for 13th century bc

  1. A three-dimensional color space from the 13th century

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Hannah E.; Dinkova-Bruun, Greti; Gasper, Giles E. M.; Huxtable, Mike; McLeish, Tom C. B.; Panti, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    We present a new commentary on Robert Grosseteste’s De colore, a short treatise that dates from the early 13th century, in which Grosseteste constructs a linguistic combinatorial account of color. In contrast to other commentaries (e.g., Kuehni & Schwarz, Color Ordered: A Survey of Color Order Systems from Antiquity to the Present, 2007, p. 36), we argue that the color space described by Grosseteste is explicitly three-dimensional. We seek the appropriate translation of Grosseteste’s key terms, making reference both to Grosseteste’s other works and the broader intellectual context of the 13th century, and to modern color spaces. PMID:22330399

  2. A color coordinate system from a 13th century account of rainbows

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Hannah E.; Anderson, Philip S.; Dinkova-Bruun, Greti; Fosbury, Robert A. E.; Gasper, Giles E. M.; Laven, Philip; McLeish, Tom C. B.; Panti, Cecilia; Tanner, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analysis of Robert Grosseteste’s account of color in his treatise De iride, On the Rainbow, dating from the early 13th century. The work explores color within the three-dimensional framework set out in Grosseteste’s De colore (see Smithson et al, 2012, A three-dimensional color space from the 13th century.” Journal of the Optical Society of America (A), 29 (2), A346-A352), but now links the axes of variation to observable properties of rainbows. We combine a modern understanding of the physics of rainbows and of human color perception to resolve the linguistic ambiguities of the medieval text and to interpret Grosseteste’s key terms. PMID:24695192

  3. Characterisation of decorations on Iranian (10th-13th century) lustreware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgia, I.; Brunetti, B.; Giulivi, A.; Sgamellotti, A.; Shokouhi, F.; Oliaiy, P.; Rahighi, J.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Mellini, M.; Viti, C.

    It has been recently shown that lustre decoration of Medieval and Renaissance pottery consists of silver and copper nanoparticles, dispersed within the glassy matrix of the ceramic glaze. Lustre surfaces show peculiar optical effects, such as metallic reflection and iridescence. Here we report the findings of a study on lustred glazes of several shards belonging to Iranian pottery of the 10th and 13th centuries, decorated on both sides. Two different glazes, depending on the side of the sample, have been identified. Different lustre chromatic effects are characterised by the relative presence of silver- and copper-metal nanoparticles dispersed in the glassy matrix.

  4. Color-coordinate system from a 13th-century account of rainbows.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Hannah E; Anderson, Philip S; Dinkova-Bruun, Greti; Fosbury, Robert A E; Gasper, Giles E M; Laven, Philip; McLeish, Tom C B; Panti, Cecilia; Tanner, Brian K

    2014-04-01

    We present a new analysis of Robert Grosseteste's account of color in his treatise De iride (On the Rainbow), dating from the early 13th century. The work explores color within the 3D framework set out in Grosseteste's De colore [see J. Opt. Soc. Am. A29, A346 (2012)], but now links the axes of variation to observable properties of rainbows. We combine a modern understanding of the physics of rainbows and of human color perception to resolve the linguistic ambiguities of the medieval text and to interpret Grosseteste's key terms. PMID:24695192

  5. Animal origin of 13th-century uterine vellum revealed using noninvasive peptide fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Fiddyment, Sarah; Holsinger, Bruce; Ruzzier, Chiara; Devine, Alexander; Binois, Annelise; Albarella, Umberto; Fischer, Roman; Nichols, Emma; Curtis, Antoinette; Cheese, Edward; Teasdale, Matthew D; Checkley-Scott, Caroline; Milner, Stephen J; Rudy, Kathryn M; Johnson, Eric J; Vnouček, Jiří; Garrison, Mary; McGrory, Simon; Bradley, Daniel G; Collins, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Tissue-thin parchment made it possible to produce the first pocket Bibles: Thousands were made in the 13th century. The source of this parchment, often called "uterine vellum," has been a long-standing controversy in codicology. Use of the Latin term abortivum in many sources has led some scholars to suggest that the skin of fetal calves or sheep was used. Others have argued that it would not be possible to sustain herds if so many pocket Bibles were produced from fetal skins, arguing instead for unexpected alternatives, such as rabbit. Here, we report a simple and objective technique using standard conservation treatments to identify the animal origin of parchment. The noninvasive method is a variant on zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS) peptide mass fingerprinting but extracts protein from the parchment surface by using an electrostatic charge generated by gentle rubbing of a PVC eraser on the membrane surface. Using this method, we analyzed 72 pocket Bibles originating in France, England, and Italy and 293 additional parchment samples that bracket this period. We found no evidence for the use of unexpected animals; however, we did identify the use of more than one mammal species in a single manuscript, consistent with the local availability of hides. These results suggest that ultrafine vellum does not necessarily derive from the use of abortive or newborn animals with ultrathin hides, but could equally well reflect a production process that allowed the skins of maturing animals of several species to be rendered into vellum of equal quality and fineness. PMID:26598667

  6. Animal origin of 13th-century uterine vellum revealed using noninvasive peptide fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Fiddyment, Sarah; Holsinger, Bruce; Ruzzier, Chiara; Devine, Alexander; Binois, Annelise; Albarella, Umberto; Fischer, Roman; Nichols, Emma; Curtis, Antoinette; Cheese, Edward; Teasdale, Matthew D.; Checkley-Scott, Caroline; Milner, Stephen J.; Rudy, Kathryn M.; Johnson, Eric J.; Vnouček, Jiří; Garrison, Mary; McGrory, Simon; Bradley, Daniel G.; Collins, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-thin parchment made it possible to produce the first pocket Bibles: Thousands were made in the 13th century. The source of this parchment, often called “uterine vellum,” has been a long-standing controversy in codicology. Use of the Latin term abortivum in many sources has led some scholars to suggest that the skin of fetal calves or sheep was used. Others have argued that it would not be possible to sustain herds if so many pocket Bibles were produced from fetal skins, arguing instead for unexpected alternatives, such as rabbit. Here, we report a simple and objective technique using standard conservation treatments to identify the animal origin of parchment. The noninvasive method is a variant on zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS) peptide mass fingerprinting but extracts protein from the parchment surface by using an electrostatic charge generated by gentle rubbing of a PVC eraser on the membrane surface. Using this method, we analyzed 72 pocket Bibles originating in France, England, and Italy and 293 additional parchment samples that bracket this period. We found no evidence for the use of unexpected animals; however, we did identify the use of more than one mammal species in a single manuscript, consistent with the local availability of hides. These results suggest that ultrafine vellum does not necessarily derive from the use of abortive or newborn animals with ultrathin hides, but could equally well reflect a production process that allowed the skins of maturing animals of several species to be rendered into vellum of equal quality and fineness. PMID:26598667

  7. [Innovations in arabic medicine from the 9th to the 13th centuries].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2011-07-01

    From the 9th century and for more than five centuries, the Arab speaking physicians, tireless translators of Greek treatises on which they based their conceptions of art, enriched the scientific equipment at their disposal by explanations and comments. Reflection led them sometimes to challenge the teaching of the Ancients and to search new ideas that led to medical advances, to develop methods and techniques and study of specific diseases. Examples illustrate this point of view: anatomical discoveries of by Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi and Ibn al-Nafis, minor surgical techniques in with Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), methods of extraction and dental prothesis in with Al-Zahrawi (Albucasis), study of melancholy in with Ishaq ibn Imran. PMID:21998973

  8. XAFS study of copper and silver nanoparticles in glazes of medieval middle-east lustreware (10th-13th century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, S.; Puzzovio, D.; Sada, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Borgia, I.; Sgamellotti, A.; Brunetti, B. G.; Cartechini, L.; D'Acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Shokoui, F.; Oliaiy, P.; Rahighi, J.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Pantos, E.

    2006-06-01

    It has recently been shown that lustre decoration of medieval and Renaissance pottery consists of silver and copper nanoparticles dispersed in the glassy matrix of the ceramic glaze. Here the findings of an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) study on lustred glazes of shards belonging to 10th and 13rd century pottery from the National Museum of Iran are reported. Absorption spectra in the visible range have been also measured in order to investigate the relations between colour and glaze composition. Gold colour is mainly due to Ag nanoparticles, though Ag+, Cu+ and Cu2+ ions can be also dispersed within the glassy matrix, with different ratios. Red colour is mainly due to Cu nanoparticles, although some Ag nanoparticles, Ag+ and Cu+ ions can be present. The achievement of metallic Cu and the absence of Cu2+ indicate a higher reduction of copper in red lustre. These findings are in substantial agreement with previous results on Italian Renaissance pottery. In spite of the large heterogeneity of cases, the presence of copper and silver ions in the glaze confirms that lustre formation is mediated by a copper- and silver-alkali ion exchange, followed by nucleation and growth of metal nanoparticles.

  9. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Berry, M.S.; Jolie, E.A.; Spangler, J.D.; Stahle, D.W.; Hattori, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  10. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry V.; Berry, Michael S.; Jolie, Edward A.; Spangler, Jerry D.; Stahle, David W.; Hattori, Eugene M.

    2007-02-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  11. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    The landscape in extensive areas in SE-Netherlands is underlain by coversand, deposited during the Late Glacial of the Weichselian. In the Preboreal, aeolian processes reduced soil formation. From the Preboreal to the Atlantic a deciduous climax forest developed. The geomorphology was a coversand landscape, composed of ridges (umbric podzols), coversand plains (gleyic podzols), coversand depressions (histic podzols) and small valleys (gleysols). The area was used by hunting people during the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic. During the Bronze and Iron Ages the area was populated by people, living from forest grazing, shifting cultivation and trade. The natural deciduous forest gradually degraded into Calluna heath. The deforestation accelerated the soil acidification and affected the hydrology, which is reflected in drying out of ridges and wetting of depressions, promoting the development of histic podzols and even histosols. Aeolian erosion was during this period restricted to local, small scale sand drifting, related to natural hazards as forest fires and hurricanes and shifting cultivation. Sustainable crop productivity on chemically poor sandy substrates required application of organic fertilizers, composed of a mixture of organic litter and animal manure with a very low mineral compound, produced in shallow stables. At least since 1000 AD, heath management was regulated by a series of rules that aimed to protect the valuable heat lands against degradation. During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries there was an increasing demand for wood and clear cutting transformed the majority of the forests in driftsand landscapes. The most important market was formed by the very wealthy Flemish cities. The exposed soil surface was subjected to wind erosion and sand drifting which endangered the Calluna heath, arable land and even farmhouses. As a consequence, umbric podzols, the natural climax soil under deciduous forests on coversand, degraded into larger scale driftsand

  12. Transient Astronomical Events as Inspiration Sources of Medieval Art. III: the 13th and 14th Centuries, and the case of the French "Ordre de L'Étoile"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bònoli, F.; Incerti, M.; Polcaro, V. F.

    2015-05-01

    Going ahead in our long-term project of analysis of the role of transient astronomical events as inspirational sources of medieval art, we extend our interest towards the 13th and 14th centuries, epochs of strong changes either in society, art or science. It is our aim to verify if the relationship we found in the 11th century between the number of artworks where a star is represented, and astonishing transient astronomical events was, in this new situation, still valid. Moreover, in order to check the influence of astronomical events on the 14th-century social and cultural environment, we focus on the case of the Ordre de l'Étoile, a chivalrous society founded by John II of France (Jan le Bon, roi de France) at the end of 1351, looking in ancient chronicles for some relevant contemporary astronomical event as an inspiration source for the "star" in the Order's name, in the garb of its knights and in its motto.

  13. The dispersion of pederasty and the athletic revolution in sixth-century BC Greece.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Thomas F

    2005-01-01

    Dorian Crete and Thebes are conventionally seen by ancient sources as the originators of pederasty; modern historians see support for this view in Dorian male-centered militarism and sexual segregation in upbringing. Here athletic culture, including training, nudism, and competition, is argued to be a chief 'trigger' for the emergence of pederasty in Sparta and its relatively rapid spread to other Greek states in the seventh to sixth centuries BC. Athletic nudity, in particular, was not a device to enforce civic egalitarianism, as some have argued, but is a persistently erotic incentive that reinforces hegemonic maleness and advertises the individual's virtuous exercise of restraint. In particular, Sparta is found to be the likely source of generalized athletic nudity combined with open pederasty in the early seventh century BC. Nudism in Greek art is erotically charged and not, as others argue, simply a gender marker in the seventh century. Generalized athletic nudity spread to other Greek states emulating the successful Spartan model by the 'athletic revolution' of the early sixth century. With athletic nudity, open pederasty, again following Sparta, was fostered. PMID:16338890

  14. Massartu: The Observation of Astronomical Phenomena in Assyria (7th Century BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fales, F. M.

    2011-06-01

    The term massartu is well attested in letters in cuneiform to and from the Neo-Assyrian court, written in the main in the 7th century BC. In itself, massartu is a general Akkadian term, meaning "watch, guard", but in the early 1st millennium BC it takes on two interesting semantic specializations, both of which are tied to the practical and political needs of the Assyrian empire. In astrological-astronomical terms, massartu denotes the wake, vigil, or watch for astronomical observations on the part of the court specialists: such a wake was required by the Assyrian king on a nightly basis, for the subsequent consultation of the vast compilation of omens called Enūma Anu Enlil, and the drawing of conclusions relating to the state of the empire and of the royal dynasty. Many interesting texts show us the workings of the massartu in the capital city Nineveh or in other cities of Mesopotamia. But massartu had also a wider meaning, "vigilance", which denoted the requirement, on the part of all the subjects of the king of Assyria, to keep their eyes and ears open, so as to be able to report to the king if anything untoward was taking place, whether in the capital city or in the most remote military outpost of the empire. Thus, in a way, the astrologers were expected to perform no more and no less than the collective duty of "vigilance" on behalf of the king-but with their eyes trained on the heavens, and in await for signs ultimately sent from the gods.

  15. PIXE analysis of jewels from an Achaemenid tomb (IVth century BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querré, G.; Bouquillon, A.; Calligaro, T.; Dubus, M.; Salomon, J.

    1996-04-01

    Ion beam analysis has seldom been applied to gemmology. The privileged location of the Laboratoire de recherche des musées de France, close to some of the most prestigious art collections, along with the implementation of the AGLAE IBA facility, have allowed us to initiate several gemmological research programs since 1991. The latest of these deals with a series of Achaemenid jewels (IVth century BC) exhibited in the Louvre museum. The aim of the present research is three-fold: determination of the coloured materials inlayed in gold, composition of the golden alloys and the inlay fixation technique. Analyses have been carried out by PIXE using an external proton beam under conditions set from test experiments on reference gemstones in order to optimise the experimental parameters. Quantitative chemical analysis of both major and trace elements has allowed us to distinguish between 15 types of fine or ornamental stones as well as man-made materials and to identify a peculiar cement technique. We will describe the analytical procedure in detail, then present the main results obtained on coloured inlays and cement and underline a potential drawback of the technique, i.e. a transient colour variation of the target under the impact of the beam, which needs further investigation.

  16. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  17. Philological Papers: Special Issue Devoted to the Teacher in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Literature and Film. Volume 36. Papers Presented at the West Virginia University's Annual Colloquium (13th, Morgantown, West Virginia, September 29-October 1, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Armand E., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains papers read at West Virginia University's Colloquium on "The Teacher in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Literature and Film" including the following 12 articles listed with their authors: "A Second Pair of Eyes: The Editor as Teacher" (Hart L. Wegner); "Don Juan Goes to the Movies" (Armand E. Singer); "The Teacher in Jean…

  18. 13th International Conference on Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Silflow, Carolyn D.

    2014-03-11

    The 13th International Conference on Chlamydomonas (EMBO Workshop on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas) was held May 27 to June 1, 2008 in Hyeres, France. The conference was the biennial meeting for all researchers studying the green algal systems Chlamydomonas and Volvox. The conference brought together approximately 200 investigators from around the world (North America, Asia, Europe and Australia) representing different fields and disciplines (cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, plant physiology, genomics). It provided an opportunity for investigators from different countries to share methodologies and to discuss recent results with a focus on the Chlamydomonas experimental system.

  19. Hesiod (eighth century BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek epic poet who described his cosmology in Theogeny, the birth of the gods, which he derived from Babylonian mythology. In his family tree of the gods, Chaos (the yawning gap between Earth and Heaven) produced Erebus (the Abyss) and Night, who produced Ether and Day. At the same time, Earth produced the Heavens, Mountains, and Sea. The Heavens and Earth then produced Cronos. This family tree...

  20. Archelaus (fifth century BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek philosopher and cosmologist. Pupil of ANAXAGORAS and teacher of Socrates, Archelaus believed that air is the primitive substance, which formed water at the center of the universe. Part condensed to Earth, pieces of which broke off to become the stars....

  1. Alloy characterization of a 7th Century BC archeological bronze vase - Overcoming patina constraints using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manso, M.; Schiavon, N.; Queralt, I.; Arruda, A. M.; Sampaio, J. M.; Brunetti, A.

    2015-05-01

    In this work we evaluate the composition of a bronze alloy using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. For this purpose, a 7th Century BC archeological vase from the SW Iberian Peninsula, displaying a well formed corrosion patina was analyzed by means of a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Realistic MC simulations of the experimental setup were performed with the XRMC code package which is based on an intensive use of variance-reduction techniques and uses XRAYLIB a constantly updated X-ray library of atomic data. A single layer model was applied for simulating XRF of polished/pristine bronze whereas a two-or-three-layer model was developed for bronze covered respectively by a corrosion patina alone or coupled with a superficial soil derived crust. These simulations took into account corrosion (cerussite (PbCO3), cuprite (Cu2O), malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2), litharge (PbO)) and soil derived products (goethite (FeO(OH)) and quartz (SiO2)) identified by means of X-ray diffraction and Raman micro analytical techniques. Results confirm previous research indicating that the XRF/Monte Carlo protocol is well suited when a two-layered model is considered, whereas in areas where the patina + soil derived products' crust is too thick, X-rays from the alloy substrate are not able to exit the sample. Quantitative results based on MC simulations indicate that the vase is made of a lead-bronze alloy: Mn (0.2%), Fe (1.0%), Cu (81.8%), As (0.5%), Ag (0.6%), Sn (8.0%) and Pb (8.0%).

  2. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. Martin

    2011-06-01

    Electrostatics 2011 was held in the city of Bangor which is located in North West Wales in an area of outstanding natural beauty close to the Snowdonia mountain range and bordering the Irish Sea. The history of the area goes back into the mists of times, but a continuous technological thread can be traced from the stone- and bronze-age craftsmen, who inhabited the area several thousand years ago, via the civil engineering and fortifications of the Romans and Edward I of England, through Marconi's long-wave trans-Atlantic transmitter near Caernarfon to the conference host. The School of Electronic Engineering at Bangor University has contributed much to the discipline of Electrostatics not only in teaching and research but also in supporting industry. It was a great pleasure for me, therefore, to have the pleasure of welcoming the world's experts in Electrostatics to Bangor in April 2011. In my preface to the Proceedings of Electrostatics 1999, I reported that almost 90 papers were presented. Interestingly, a similar number were presented in 2011 testifying to the importance and endurance of the subject. The all-embracing nature of electrostatics is captured in the pictorial depiction used for the conference logo: a hand-held plasma ball with its close link to gaseous discharges and the superimposed Antarctic aurora highlighting the featured conference themes of atmospheric, planetary and environmental electrostatics. Leading these themes were three invited contributions, the first by Giles Harrison who delivered the Bill Bright Memorial Lecture 'Fair weather atmospheric electricity', Carlos Calle on 'The electrostatic environments of Mars and the Moon' and Istvan Berta on 'Lightning protection - challenges, solutions and questionable steps in the 21st century'. Leading other key sessions were invited papers by Atsushi Ohsawa on 'Statistical analysis of fires and explosions attributed to static electricity over the last 50 years in Japanese industry' and Antonio

  3. Secular changes in the height of the inhabitants of Anatolia (Turkey) from the 10th millennium B.C. to the 20th century A.D.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Başak Koca; Sağır, Mehmet; Ozer, Ismail

    2011-03-01

    We use human-skeleton samples to estimate the height of adults living in Anatolia during the Neolithic period. We also report the results of surveys taken in the 20th century on the height of the Turkish population. Neolithic and the Chalcolithic (5000-3000 B.C.) male heights are estimated as 170.9 cm and 165.0 cm, respectively. Pronounced increases were observed for both sexes between the Chalcolithic and Iron (1000-580 B.C.) periods and sharp decreases among both males and females in the Hellenistic-Roman period (333 B.C. to 395 A.D.). Moreover, recovery to the Iron Age levels was achieved in the Anatolian Medieval period (395-1453 A.D.) for both sexes (169.4 cm for males and 158.0 cm for females). In 1884 the mean height of men was 162.2 cm and by the beginning of the 1930s it increased to 166.3 cm. In the first nationwide survey in 1937 males mean height was 165.3 cm, and females was 152.3 cm, where today current heights are 174.0 cm and 158.9 cm, respectively. PMID:21316315

  4. Newton's Apple 13th Season. Free Educational Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twin Cities Public Television, St. Paul, MN.

    This educational materials packet was designed to help teachers use the Public Broadcasting Service's (PBS) program called "Newton's Apple" in the classroom. This book contains information on how these materials support the latest science standards; an index to the 13th season lesson pages and an index to the past three seasons; a science subject…

  5. [The Dynamics of the Composition of mtDNA Haplotypes of the Ancient Population of the Altai Mountains from the Early Bronze Age (3rd Millennium BC) to the Iron Age (2nd-1st Centuries BC)].

    PubMed

    Gubina, M A; Kulikov, I V; Babenko, V N; Chikisheva, T A; Romaschenko, A G; Voevoda, M I; Molodin, V I

    2016-01-01

    The mtDNA polymorphism in representatives of various archaeological cultures of the Developed Bronze Age, Early Scythian, and Hunnish-Sarmatian periods was analyzed (N = 34). It detected the dominance of Western-Eurasian haplotypes (70.6%) in mtDNA samples from the representatives of the ancient population of the Early Bronze Age--Iron Age on the territory of Altai Mountains. Since the 8th to the 7th centuries BC, a sharp increase was revealed in the Eastern-Eurasian haplogroups A, D, C, andZ (43.75%) as compared to previous cultures (16.7%). The presence of haplotype 223-242-290-319 of haplogroup A8 in Dolgans, Itelmens, Evens, Koryaks, and Yakuts indicates the possible long-term presence of its carriers in areas inhabited by these populations. The prevalence of Western-Eurasian haplotypes is observed not only in the Altai Mountains but also in Central Asia (Kazakhstan) and the South of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. All of the three studied samples from the Western-Eurasian haplogroups were revealed to contain U, H, T, and HV. The ubiquitous presence of haplotypes of haplogroup H and some haplogroups of cluster U (U5al, U4, U2e, and K) in the vast territory from the Yenisei River basin to the Atlantic Ocean may indicate the direction of human settlement, which most likely occurred in the Paleolithic Period from Central Asia. PMID:27183799

  6. Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

  7. Leucippus (fl. fifth century BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Philosopher, born in Miletus, Asia Minor. Virtually nothing is known of his life, except that he was the founder of Atomism, developed by his disciple DEMOCRITUS and accessibly presented by LUCRETIUS in De Rerum Natura. Essentially Atomism is a theory to explain change. Atoms are microscopic particles and are permanent. They move in the permanent framework of space and alter their arrangements—ap...

  8. The 13th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP13)

    PubMed Central

    CALDERON, ENRIQUE J.; CUSHION, MELANIE T.; XIAO, LIHUA; LORENZO-MORALES, JACOB; MATOS, OLGA; KANESHIRO, EDNA S.; WEISS, LOUIS M.

    2015-01-01

    The 13th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-13) was held November 13 to 15, 2014 in Seville, Spain. The objectives of the IWOP meetings are to: (1) Serve as a forum for exchange of new information among active researchers concerning the basic biology, molecular genetics, immunology, biochemistry, pathogenesis, drug development, therapy, and epidemiology of these immunodeficiency associated pathogenic eukaryotic microorganisms that are seen in patients with AIDS; and (2) to foster the entry of new and young investigators into these underserved research areas. The IWOP meeting focuses on opportunistic protists; e.g. the free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. This conference represents the major conference which brings together research groups working on these opportunistic pathogens. Progress has been achieved on understanding the biology of these pathogenic organisms, their involvement in disease causation in both immune deficient and immune competent hosts and is providing important insights into these emerging and reemerging pathogens. A continuing concern of the participants is the ongoing loss of scientific expertise and diversity in this research community. This decline is due to the small size of these research communities and an ongoing lack of understanding by the broader scientific community of the challenges and limitations faced by researchers working on these organisms, which makes these research communities very sensitive to declines in research funding. PMID:25923469

  9. The 13th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP13).

    PubMed

    Calderon, Enrique J; Cushion, Melanie T; Xiao, Lihua; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Matos, Olga; Kaneshiro, Edna S; Weiss, Louis M

    2015-01-01

    The 13th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-13) was held November 13-15, 2014 in Seville, Spain. The objectives of the IWOP meetings are to: (1) serve as a forum for exchange of new information among active researchers concerning the basic biology, molecular genetics, immunology, biochemistry, pathogenesis, drug development, therapy, and epidemiology of these immunodeficiency-associated pathogenic eukaryotic microorganisms that are seen in patients with AIDS and; (2) to foster the entry of new and young investigators into these underserved research areas. The IWOP meeting focuses on opportunistic protists; e.g. the free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. This conference represents the major conference which brings together research groups working on these opportunistic pathogens. Progress has been achieved on understanding the biology of these pathogenic organisms, their involvement in disease causation in both immune deficient and immune competent hosts and is providing important insights into these emerging and reemerging pathogens. A continuing concern of the participants is the ongoing loss of scientific expertise and diversity in this research community. This decline is due to the small size of these research communities and an ongoing lack of understanding by the broader scientific community of the challenges and limitations faced by researchers working on these organisms, which makes these research communities very sensitive to declines in research funding. PMID:25923469

  10. NRC's 13th Annual Congress highlights the mainstream of recycling

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M.

    1994-12-01

    The theme of the National Recycling Coalition's (NRC, Washington, DC) recent 13th Annual Congress and Exposition in Portland, OR, was ''Jump into the Mainstream: Recycle,'' which is an action organizers of the show set out to prove is currently happening across this country. Indeed, this year's congress was designed to demonstrate how far recycling has jumped into the mainstream of American life, and show attendees what it will take to make recycling succeed in the future. Lending testament to recycling's increasing visibility, the most dominant topic at this year's show was the creation of national recycling policy. Through this agenda, and other programs that surfaced at the congress, NRC is hoping to move closer to its goal of making recycling as mainstream as taking out the garbage. NRC's board of directors unanimously voted to adopt a draft advocacy message that promotes recycling initiatives at the national level, but rejected a proposed demand-side initiative that would have established post-consumer-content recycling rates for certain materials, with product-specific, minimum-content standards as an alternative method of compliance. The initiative had called for glass, metal, paper, plastic, and wood used in primary and secondary packaging to achieve a 50% post-consumer recycling rate by the year 2000. As an alternative method of compliance, individual companies could meet the following post-consumer, minimum-content standards for products: glass, metal, paper, plastic, and wood packaging: 40% by 2000; newsprint and tissue paper: 50% by 2000; and printing and writing papers: 25% by 2000.

  11. PREFACE: 13th IMEKO TC17-TC7 Joint Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sanowar

    2010-04-01

    'Without Measurement No Science, Without Science No Measurement' The 13th IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7 Joint Symposium was held at City University London, UK from 1-3 September 2010. For the first time this Symposium also included the involvement of IMEKO Technical Committee 13 (TC13) - Measurements in Biology and Medicine. This brings an added dimension to the Symposium in London since the area of measurement science and technology in biology and medicine is an important and a fast growing one. The Symposium was organized by the City University London (www.city.ac.uk) in collaboration with the Institute of Physics (IOP), UK (www.iop.org). The work of this Symposium is reported in this volume. The scope of the Symposium included the main topics covered by the above Technical Committees - education and training in measurement and instrumentation (TC1), measurement science (TC7) and measurements in biology and medicine. These themes underpinned the strap line of the Symposium, 'Without Measurement No Science, Without Science No Measurement' with the highest number of contributions from the measurement science area. The thematic areas were led by invited presentations from each of the areas by eminent speakers. The Symposium provided a useful forum for experts working in these areas for sharing and exchanging their work and ideas. The Symposium attracted participants from many countries of the world including the United States, Japan, Russia and Ukraine. In total over sixty papers are included in the volume and they are presented under the above three key thematic areas. Each paper was independently peer-reviewed by two reviewers from a distinguished international panel. The organizers of the Symposium, City University London have pioneered the establishment of measurement and instrumentation as an academic discipline in the UK through the work of Professor Ludwik Finkelstein who was for many years Chairman of TC1 and a founding member of TC

  12. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy; Son, Leonid; Sabirzjanov, Alexandre

    2007-06-01

    The state of the art in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys is regularly updated through two series of complementary international conferences, the LAM (Liquid and Amorphous Metals) and the RQ (Rapidly Quenched Materials). The first series of the conferences started as LM-1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semi conductors, quasicrystals etc, were accepted as well. The conference tradition strongly encourages the participation of junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU) and held on 8-13 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). There were 242 active and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries who attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale (25 min) and brief (15 min) oral reports. The program included 10 sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A) Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B) Phase transitions; C) Structure; D) Atomic dynamics and transport; E) Thermodynamics; F) Modelling, simulation; G) Surface and interface; H) Mechanical properties

  13. Ancient writings reveal presence of aurora in 13th-century Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Sam

    Modern Norway, Iceland, and Greenland are subject to frequent displays of the aurora borealis. The aurora can be viewed on almost every clear night in the northern part of Iceland and southern Greenland, which lie in or near the auroral oval. Thus, it is surprising to find almost no mention of the aurora in medieval Norse chronicles or in the extensive Icelandic saga literature. Only one paragraph, in the "King's Mirror," a Norwegian writing dating to about 1250 C.E., notes the occurrence of the aurora in Greenland. The author reports this as hearsay and not from personal knowledge. For a fuller discussion of the Norse literature, see Brekke and Egeland [1983].

  14. Surgical pain management at the Medical School of Salerno (11th-13th centuries).

    PubMed

    Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-06-01

    Before the advent of general anesthesia, only poorly effective remedies were known to relieve pain. Although classical medical authorities describe a number of elaborate surgical techniques, no references about some forms of anesthesia are reported. Only the authors of pharmaceutical or botanical texts mention the use of substances, especially mandrake, to induce sleep in the patient. The first and most detailed evidences of general anesthesia described in medical texts of the western world can be found at the Medical School of Salerno. However, the use of substances aimed to relieve pain or to induce sleep during surgery is mentioned only by the authors of pharmaceutical or botanical texts and not by surgeons. Furthermore, the efficacy of these preparations to produce a profound and lasting sleep is doubtful. The general impression is that surgeons knew how to relieve pain, but considered it a necessary appendix of surgery and therefore an incisive effort to eliminate it was not pursued. PMID:26050287

  15. View in the Woodrow Wilson Plaza (along the building's 13th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View in the Woodrow Wilson Plaza (along the building's 13th Street side) looking to Martin Puryear's "Bearing Witness" sculpture - Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry: Crop, Environment, and Public Health Protection, Technologies for a Changing World.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Laura L; Racke, Kenneth D; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Seiber, James N

    2016-01-13

    This introductory paper provides an overview of Perspectives papers written by plenary speakers from the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held in San Francisco, CA, USA, in August 2014. This group of papers emphasizes some of the emerging issues and challenges at the forefront of agricultural research: sustainability; agriculture's response to climate change and population growth; pollinator health and risk assessment; and global food production and food security. In addition, as part of the Congress, a workshop on "Developing Global Leaders for Research, Regulation, and Stewardship of Crop Protection Chemistry in the 21st Century" identified specific recommendations to attract the best scientists to agricultural science, to provide opportunities to study and conduct research on crop protection chemistry topics, and to improve science communication skills. PMID:26709728

  17. Paleosols and climate in the southeast of the Central Russian Upland during the Middle and Late Bronze ages (the 25th-15th Centuries BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Borisov, A. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    Paleosol studies of kurgans dating back to the Middle and Late Bronze ages (the Catacomb, Pokrovskaya, and Srubnaya cultural epochs; 4500-3500 BP) have been performed within the dry steppe zone in the southeast of the Central Russian Upland. The studied kurgans occupy the upper parts of local interfluves differing in the lithology of their upper horizons. The specificity of the Middle Holocene pedogenesis as related to the local lithologic and geomorphic conditions has been characterized. During the past 4500 years, local soils have been subjected to evolutionary changes related to climatic fluctuations. These changes manifested themselves at the subtype level with substitution of dark chestnut soils for chestnut soils. The climatic conditions during the Catacomb and Pokrovskaya cultural epochs (4.5-3.8 ka BP) were more arid than those at present. The maximum aridization of the climate took place at the end of the third and the first quarter of the second millennia BC. Detailed descriptions of the morphology of kurgan bodies and buried paleosols make it possible to hypothesize about the seasons of the kurgan construction and the technology of this work.

  18. Report of the 13th Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolate from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kallen, Alexander J.; Zhu, Wenming; Eggers, Paula; McDougal, Linda K.; Albrecht, Valerie S.

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA), an important multidrug-resistant organism of public health concern, has been infrequently identified in the United States since 2002. All previous VRSA isolates belonged to clonal complex 5, a lineage associated primarily with health care. This report describes the most recent (13th) U.S. VRSA isolate, the first to be community associated. PMID:24371243

  19. The 13th Annual Legislative Summit (Washington, DC, 2010). Briefing Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Education Association, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains briefing papers presented at the 13th Annual National Indian Education Association (NIEA) Legislative Summit held in Washington, DC. The following papers are included: (1) NIEA Appropriations Priorities for FY11; (2) The President's Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2011 for Native Education; (3) BIE Race to the Top; (4)…

  20. Reading, Writing, Thinking: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandis, Meeli, Ed.; Ward, Angela, Ed.; Mathews, Samuel R., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This collection of papers presented at the 13th European Conference on Reading brings together a vast range of knowledge, research, and perspectives about literacy and its complex processes. The book explores topics including: (1) Literacy and critical thinking; (2) Working with learners at all levels, from young children to adolescents to…

  1. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Cosponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  2. AAS/GSFC 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This conference proceedings preprint includes papers and abstracts presented at the 13th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics, May 11-15, 1998. Co-sponsored by American Astronautical Society and the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of the Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude dynamics; and mission design.

  3. Generics, Supergenerics and Patent Strategies--SMi's 13th Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    SMi's 13th Annual Meeting on Generics, Supergenerics and Patent Strategies, held in London, included topics covering new trends in the generics field, the difficulties faced by companies in entering the generics market and recent developments in IP. This conference report highlights selected presentations on generics in India, protecting pharmaceutical products in China, changes in generics law and litigation in the US and Europe, challenges for market selection and entry for generics companies, the influence of changes in the healthcare market on the generics industry, supergenerics, and biosimilars. PMID:20582864

  4. Proceedings of 13th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining held August 2-4, 1994 is presented. The papers include information on bolting and entry stability; coal pillars; longwall overburden movement; longwall roof control, production and maintenance aids; longwall shield selection; longwall tailgate support; mining operations, mine and support design; multiple seam mining; roof/rib quality determination; stress determination; and surface subsidence. Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Geocost-Bc

    1981-03-24

    GEOCOST calculates the cost of generating electricity from geothermal energy. The version of GEOCOST in this release, GEOCOST-BC, simulates the production of electricity using a binary fluid cycle based upon a hydrothermal resource.

  6. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard

    2011-08-01

    The 13th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces focused on the progress in surface metrology, surface characterisation instrumentation and properties of engineering surfaces. The conference provided an international forum for academics, industrialists and engineers from different disciplines to meet and exchange their ideas, results and latest research. The conference was held at Twickenham Stadium, situated approximately six miles from Heathrow Airport and approximately three miles from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). This was the thirteenth in the very successful series of conferences, which have firmly established surface topography as a new and exciting interdisciplinary field of scientific and technological studies. Scientific Themes: Surface, Micro and Nano Metrology Measurement and Instrumentation Metrology for MST Devices Freeform Surface Measurement and Characterisation Uncertainty, Traceability and Calibration AFM/SPM Metrology Tribology and Wear Phenomena Functional Applications Stylus and Optical Instruments

  7. Report of the 13th Genomic Standards Consortium Meeting, Shenzhen, China, March 4–7, 2012.

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yiming; Wang, Hui; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Edmunds, Scott C.; Morrison, Norman; Meyer, Folker; Schriml, Lynn M.; Davies, Neil; Sterk, Peter; Wilkening, Jared; Garrity, George M.; Field, Dawn; Robbins, Robert; Smith, Daniel P.; Mizrachi, Ilene; Moreau, Corrie

    2012-01-01

    This report details the outcome of the 13th Meeting of the Genomic Standards Consortium. The three-day conference was held at the Kingkey Palace Hotel, Shenzhen, China, on March 5–7, 2012, and was hosted by the Beijing Genomics Institute. The meeting, titled From Genomes to Interactions to Communities to Models, highlighted the role of data standards associated with genomic, metagenomic, and amplicon sequence data and the contextual information associated with the sample. To this end the meeting focused on genomic projects for animals, plants, fungi, and viruses; metagenomic studies in host-microbe interactions; and the dynamics of microbial communities. In addition, the meeting hosted a Genomic Observatories Network session, a Genomic Standards Consortium biodiversity working group session, and a Microbiology of the Built Environment session sponsored by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. PMID:22768370

  8. Evaluation of a Parchment Document, the 13th Century Incorporation Charter for the City of Krakow, Poland, for Microbial Hazards.

    PubMed

    Lech, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    The literature of environmental microbiology broadly discusses issues associated with microbial hazards in archives, but these publications are mainly devoted to paper documents. There are few articles on historical parchment documents, which used to be very important for the development of literature and the art of writing. These studies present a broad spectrum of methods for the assessment of biodeterioration hazards of the parchment document in question. They are based on both conventional microbiological methods and advanced techniques of molecular biology. Here, a qualitative analysis was conducted, based on genetic identification of bacteria and fungi present on the document as well as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling and examining the destructive potential of isolated microbes. Moreover, the study involved a quantitative and qualitative microbiological assessment of the indoor air in the room where the parchment was kept. The microbes with the highest destructive potential that were isolated from the investigated item wereBacillus cereusandAcinetobacter lwoffiibacteria andPenicillium chrysogenum,Chaetomium globosum, andTrichoderma longibrachiatumfungi. The presence of theB. cereusstrain was particularly interesting since, under appropriate conditions, it leads to complete parchment degradation within several days. PMID:26896133

  9. BC Jurisdictional Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report was submitted by the BC Council on Admissions (BCCAT) to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC). This report is a summary of projects and activities completed by BCCAT during the period from April 1, 2009, to March 31, 2010. The purpose of this report is to inform the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) of…

  10. PREFACE: 13th Annual International Astrophysics Conference: Voyager, IBEX, and the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The 13th Annual International Astrophysics Conference was held in scenic Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, USA, during the week of 10-14 March 2014. The meeting drew nearly 80 participants from all over the world, representing a wide range of interests and expertise in the interplanetary medium, the solar wind, observations, and theory. The theme of the meeting was Voyager, IBEX, and the Interstellar Medium. This decade may one day be viewed as the golden age in the exploration of the large-scale heliosphere and the local interstellar medium (LISM). Voyager 1 and 2 and IBEX are yielding remarkable new discoveries about the boundaries of the solar wind - LISM region and the interstellar medium. Hitherto, our basic understanding of the interstellar medium has been provided by telescope observations across multiple wavelengths that are typically integrated over many parsecs. For the first time, with these three spacecraft, we are making detailed measurements of the interstellar plasma, energetic particles (charged and neutral), magnetic field, and plasma waves in situ or with very short integration distances. IBEX provides insight into the global characteristics of the very local interstellar medium and Voyager 1 has just crossed the heliopause and is now in the interstellar medium. Remarkable results can be anticipated as discoveries over the next decade are made and the physics of the interstellar medium unfolds. As described in the papers in this volume, the new observations are already challenging theoretical models. The 13th Annual International Conference focused on the physics of the solar wind - LISM boundaries and the emerging physics of the local interstellar medium. To address this, astrophysicists and space physicists assembled to share their combined expertise to address in a highly interdisciplinary fashion the physics of the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium. We thank Adele Corona and ICNS for her continued excellent

  11. Adventuring with Books: A Booklist for Pre-K--Grade 6. 13th Edition. NCTE Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Amy A., Ed.; Kristo, Janice V., Ed.

    In this 13th edition of "Adventuring with Books," teachers and librarians will find descriptions of more than 850 texts (published between 1999 and 2001) suitable for student use in background research, unit study, or pleasure reading, and children will find books that delight, amuse, and entertain. The texts described in the book are divided into…

  12. 13th Annual Comparative Analysis of the Racine Unified School District: Demographics, Attendance, Finances, Student Engagement, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henken, Rob; Dickman, Anneliese; Schmidt, Jeff; Wynn, Tess

    2010-01-01

    This is the 13th annual report on the conditions affecting the Racine Unified School District (RUSD). This year, the analysis again focuses on the long-term historical trends in RUSD and compares the district to nine peer districts across the state. The peer districts are those with the most similar enrollments to RUSD. The report is configured in…

  13. 13th IUPAC- international congress of pesticide chemistry: crop, environment, and public health protection, technologies for a changing world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This introductory paper provides an overview of Perspectives papers written by plenary speakers from the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held in San Francisco, CA in August, 2014. This group of papers emphasizes some of the emerging issues and challenges at the forefront of...

  14. Taking Education's Pulse: The 13th Annual Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallup, George H.

    This survey, which measures the attitudes of Americans toward their public schools, is the 13th annual survey in this series. New as well as trend questions are included in this and every survey. Personal, in-home interviews of 1519 adults were conducted in all areas of the nation and in all types of communities. The survey questions addressed:…

  15. 75 FR 29559 - The 13th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The 13th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County...-sponsored with the Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group (OCRA). The conference is intended to...-608-4417; or Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group ] (OCRA), Attention to Detail,...

  16. Residues in food and feed topic area at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of pesticide chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The organizers of two symposia in the “Residues in Food and Feed” topic area held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry introduce the papers that were contributed to this special section in the Journal. The symposia were titled “Taking Advantage of Advanced Analytical Tool...

  17. PREFACE: 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications (SLOPOS13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings originate from the 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications SLOPOS13 which was held at the campus of the Technische Universität München in Garching between 15th-20th September, 2013. This event is part of a series of triennial SLOPOS conferences. In total 123 delegates from 21 countries participated in the SLOPOS13. The excellent scientific program comprised 50 talks and 58 posters presented during two poster sessions. It was very impressive to learn about novel technical developments on positron beam facilities and the wide range of their applications all over the world. The workshop reflected the large variety of positron beam experiments covering fundamental studies, e.g., for efficient production of anti-hydrogen as well as applied research on defects in bulk materials, thin films, surfaces, and interfaces. The topics comprised: . Positron transport and beam technology . Pulsed beams and positron traps . Defect profiling in bulk and layered structures . Nanostructures, porous materials, thin films . Surfaces and interfaces . Positronium formation and emission . Positron interactions with atoms and molecules . Many positrons and anti-hydrogen . Novel experimental techniques The international advisory committee of SLOPOS awarded student prizes for the best presented scientific contributions to a team of students from Finland, France, and the NEPOMUC team at TUM. The conference was overshadowed by the sudden death of Professor Klaus Schreckenbach immediately before the workshop. In commemoration of him as a spiritus rectus of the neutron induced positron source a minutes' silence was hold. We are most grateful for the hard work of the Local Organising Committee, the help of the International Advisory Committee, and all the students for their friendly and efficient support during the meeting. The workshop could not have occurred without the generous support of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Deutsche

  18. PREFACE: 13th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The High-Tech Plasma Processes - 13th European Plasma Conference (HTPP-2014) was held in Toulouse (France) on 22-27 June 2014. The conference series started in 1990 as a thermal plasma conference and has gradually expanded to include other related topics. Now the High-Tech Plasma Processes - European Plasma Conference (HTPP) is an international conference organised in Europe every two years with topics encompassing the whole field of plasma processing science. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, to facilitate contacts between science, technology and industry and to provide a platform for the exploration of both the fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. For this edition of HTPP, as was the case for the last, we have acheived a well balanced participation from the communities of both thermal and non-thermal plasma researchers. 142 people from 17 countries attended the conference with the total number of contributions being 155, consisting of 8 plenary and 8 invited talks plus 51 oral and 88 poster contributions. We have received numerous papers corresponding to the contributions of HTPP-2014 that have been submitted for publication in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Each submitted contribution has been peer reviewed (60 referees with at least two reviewing each paper) and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In total, 52 manuscripts have been accepted for publication covering a range of topics of plasma processing science from plasma fundamentals to process applications through to experiments, diagnostics and modelling. We have grouped the papers into the following 5 topics: - Arc-Materials Interaction and Metallurgy - Plasma Torches and Spraying - Synthesis of Powders and Nanomaterials - Deposition and Surface Treatment - Non-Equilibrium Plasmas We deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high

  19. PREFACE: 13th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélat, Pierre; Pinfield, Valerie; Cegla, Frederic; Saffari, Nader; Lhémery, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The 13th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC) was held at Selsdon Park Hotel, Croydon near London, United Kingdom, on 15-17 January 2014. The venue was an excellent location to exchange ideas, regardless whether this happened in the conference room, over lunch at the drinks reception in the conservatory, in the oak panelled bar after the conference dinner or in the local pub next door. Over 45 papers were presented at the conference. There were over 60 delegates from institutions covering four countries. The invited speakers from the French side shared their knowledge about the generation of sound from supersonic jets (Prof Christophe Bailly, École Centrale de Lyon) and the application of ultrasonic microscropy in the nuclear industry (Prof Gilles Despaux, Université de Montpellier). The UK invited speakers included Prof Malcolm Povey (University of Leeds), who talked about characterisation of the nucleation of crystals using ultrasound, and Prof Bruce Drinkwater (University of Bristol), who captured the audience by speaking about "ultrasonic lassos" and ultrasonic particle manipulation. There was a strong representation of laser ultrasonics at the meeting with scientific considerations of problems and applications that range from the macro to the nanoscale. There were also numerous papers on the interaction of elastic and acoustic waves with complex materials and scattering of these waves by materials such as foams or cavitating liquids. Presentations on biomedical applications are increasingly being featured at AFPAC meetings. Talks this year covered topics such as imaging and high-intensity focused ultrasound for therapeutic applications. Finally, there were also several contributions from the field of Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) with talks ranging from the determination of the properties of in vivo wood to ultrasonic scattering techniques and tomographic reconstructions to recover the size and shape of

  20. Report from the 13th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Calgary, Alberta; September 8–10, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, M.M.; Pasieka, J.; Dixon, E.; McEwan, S.; McKay, A.; Renouf, D.; Schellenberg, D.; Ruether, D.

    2012-01-01

    The 13th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Calgary, Alberta, September 8–10, 2011. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management neuroendocrine tumours and locally advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:23300370

  1. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  2. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Halil Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    Conference photograph The 13th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR2012) was held in Ankara, Turkey at Gazi University in the Architect Kemaleddin historical hall on 2-6 July 2012. The first International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions took place nearly 25 years ago and this conference continued the same tradition by providing an arena for researchers around the world to present their new research findings in these fields, and gave them the opportunity to learn about the latest research and technology and to renew their acquaintances. The meeting brought together scientists and engineers in multidisciplinary areas such as chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science and engineering, physics, chemistry and polymer science and technology, to explore the state-of-art technology, identify key areas to be focused on and discuss their problems/issues. All oral presentations were held in a single session to enhance the interactions between the scientists and engineers. The ERMR2012 Conference included plenary lectures given by prominent leaders in their respective fields. About 130 participants from more than 50 organizations attended the conference and 15 plenary speeches, 64 oral presentations and 57 poster presentations took place in the following areas: (i) synthesis, characterization and processing of novel ER/MR materials, (ii) dynamics, chain and structure formation of ER/MR materials, (iii) ER/MR elastomers, ferrogels and their characterizations, (iv) rheological techniques and measurements of ER/MR materials, (v) modeling and simulations of ER/MR materials, (vi) device development and control techniques and (vii) applications of ER/MR materials. The ERMR2012 International Conference began with Turkish classical music performed by the musicians of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Rector Professor Dr R Ayhan welcomed the participants and the

  3. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (μSR2014) organized by the Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute in collaboration with the University of Zurich and the University of Fribourg, was held in Grindelwald, Switzerland from 1st to 6th June 2014. The conference provided a forum for researchers from around the world with interests in the applications of μSR to study a wide range of topics including condensed matter physics, materials and molecular sciences, chemistry and biology. Polarized muons provide a unique and versatile probe of matter, enabling studies at the atomic level of electronic structure and dynamics in a wide range of systems. The conference was the thirteenth in a series, which began in Rorschach in 1978 and it took place for the third time in Switzerland. The previous conferences were held in Cancun, Mexico (2011), Tsukuba, Japan (2008), Oxford, UK (2005), Williamsburg, USA (2002), Les Diablerets, Switzerland (1999), Nikko, Japan (1996), Maui, USA (1993), Oxford, UK (1990), Uppsala, Sweden (1986), Shimoda, Japan (1983), Vancouver, Canada (1980), and Rorschach, Switzerland (1978). These conference proceedings contain 67 refereed publications from presentations covering magnetism, superconductivity, chemistry, semiconductors, biophysics and techniques. The conference logo, displayed in the front pages of these proceedings, represents both the location of μSR2014 in the Alps and the muon-spin rotation technique. The silhouette represents the famous local mountains Eiger, Mönch and Jungfrau as drawn by the Swiss painter Ferdinand Hodler and the apple with arrow is at the same time a citation of the Wilhelm Tell legend and a remembrance of the key role played by the muon spin and the asymmetric muon decay (which for the highest positron energy has an apple like shape). More than 160 participants (including 32 registered as students and 13 as accompanying persons) from 19 countries

  4. PREFACE: 13th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, H.; Klein, R.; Schwoerer, M.

    1993-01-01

    The 13th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society was held in conjunction with the Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Festkörperphysik der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft from March 29 till April 2, 1993, in Regensburg. The programme comprised 3,134 contributions : 8 Plenary Talks, 171 Invited Talks, 1,480 Contributed Talks, 1,441 Poster Presentations, 1 Public Evening Talk and 33 Exhibitors Reports. The abstracts have been published as Europhysics Conference Abstracts, Volume 17A/Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft 5/1993. The table (see PDF file) shows the distribution of the Plenary and Invited Speakers as well as of the participants according to countries within and outside of Europe. The conference was the largest meeting of physicists held in Germany to date. It was a manifestation of the enormous scientific activity in both basic and applied research in the fields of Condensed Matter Physics in Europe. Most of the research work, which was presented at the conference, was done by young physicists. They represent a large human capital in Europe. Most of the senior physicists and many of our young colleagues maintain scientific cooperations, and also personal friendships, which are and which have been almost independent of national barriers over the past three decades. The latter is to a large extent due to the European Physical Society which always cultivated these contacts, especially between the eastern and western parts of Europe. We would like to express our sincere thanks to the members of the Programme Committee. By their intensive work, which was free from national interests, a scientific programme was prepared, which covered the entire field of Condensed Matter Physics. About 70% of the Plenary and Invited Speakers came from 20 different foreign countries and about 30% from Germany. The meeting therefore has been a truly European Conference. For the young physicists, the number of

  5. PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

    2014-03-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A

  6. PREFACE The 13th International Conference on Rapidly Quenched and Metastable Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ludwig; Eckert, Jürgen; Battezzati, Livio; Stoica, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    The 13th International Conference on Rapidly Quenched and Metastable Materials (RQ13) took place in Dresden, Germany, 24-29 August 2008. It belongs to the triennial series of RQ meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1970 - Brela, 1975 - Boston, 1978 - Brighton, 1981 - Sendai, 1984 - Würzburg, 1987 - Montreal, 1990 - Stockholm, 1993 - Sendai, 1996 - Bratislava, 1999 - Bangalore, 2002 - Oxford, 2005 - Jeju Island. RQ13 was hosted by the Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research, IFW Dresden. Research on rapidly quenched and metastable materials is stimulated by the high demand for new materials with unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties. Topics of RQ13 conference have fallen into three parts: synthesis and processing, materials and properties, and applications of rapidly quenched and metastable materials. These topics cover exiting developments from the traditional field of rapidly quenched metals to newly emerging areas such as bulk metallic glasses and nanostructured materials. As such, the presentations reported on recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the fields of metastable materials, quasicrystals, nanometer-scale materials, magnetic materials, metallic glasses, solid state reaction, undercooling and modeling. As in the previous proceedings (RQ12), the largest number of papers is dedicated to bulk metallic glasses and magnetic materials. With respect to property characterization and applications, there are great attempts for use and application of these materials, particularly for bulk metallic glasses, as well as for further design and optimization of properties. The RQ13 conference attracted a total of 381 abstracts submitted by scientists from 38 different countries. The conference included 8 plenary talks and 25 invited keynote talks. In addition, 163 regular oral contributions were presented and more than 180 posters were presented. It was a particular highlight of the conference that Dr Ho Sou Chen was

  7. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  8. A glimpse into the early origins of medieval anatomy through the oldest conserved human dissection (Western Europe, 13th c. A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Poupon, Joël; Lancelot, Eloïse; Campos, Paula F.; Favier, Dominique; Jeannel, Gaël-François; Bonati, Maurizio Rippa; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Medieval autopsy practice is very poorly known in Western Europe, due to a lack of both descriptive medico-surgical texts and conserved dissected human remains. This period is currently considered the dark ages according to a common belief of systematic opposition of Christian religious authorities to the opening of human cadavers. Material and methods The identification in a private collection of an autopsied human individual dated from the 13th century A.D. is an opportunity for better knowledge of such practice in this chrono-cultural context, i.e. the early origins of occidental dissections. A complete forensic anthropological procedure was carried out, completed by radiological and elemental analyses. Results The complete procedure of this body opening and internal organs exploration is explained, and compared with historical data about forensic and anatomical autopsies from this period. During the analysis, a red substance filling all arterial cavities, made of mercury sulfide (cinnabar) mixed with vegetal oil (oleic and palmitic acids) was identified; it was presumably used to highlight vascularization by coloring in red such vessels, and help in the preservation of the body. Conclusions Of particular interest for the description of early medical and anatomical knowledge, this “human preparation” is the oldest known yet, and is particularly important for the fields of history of medicine, surgery and anatomical practice. PMID:24904674

  9. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (μSR2014) organized by the Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute in collaboration with the University of Zurich and the University of Fribourg, was held in Grindelwald, Switzerland from 1st to 6th June 2014. The conference provided a forum for researchers from around the world with interests in the applications of μSR to study a wide range of topics including condensed matter physics, materials and molecular sciences, chemistry and biology. Polarized muons provide a unique and versatile probe of matter, enabling studies at the atomic level of electronic structure and dynamics in a wide range of systems. The conference was the thirteenth in a series, which began in Rorschach in 1978 and it took place for the third time in Switzerland. The previous conferences were held in Cancun, Mexico (2011), Tsukuba, Japan (2008), Oxford, UK (2005), Williamsburg, USA (2002), Les Diablerets, Switzerland (1999), Nikko, Japan (1996), Maui, USA (1993), Oxford, UK (1990), Uppsala, Sweden (1986), Shimoda, Japan (1983), Vancouver, Canada (1980), and Rorschach, Switzerland (1978). These conference proceedings contain 67 refereed publications from presentations covering magnetism, superconductivity, chemistry, semiconductors, biophysics and techniques. The conference logo, displayed in the front pages of these proceedings, represents both the location of μSR2014 in the Alps and the muon-spin rotation technique. The silhouette represents the famous local mountains Eiger, Mönch and Jungfrau as drawn by the Swiss painter Ferdinand Hodler and the apple with arrow is at the same time a citation of the Wilhelm Tell legend and a remembrance of the key role played by the muon spin and the asymmetric muon decay (which for the highest positron energy has an apple like shape). More than 160 participants (including 32 registered as students and 13 as accompanying persons) from 19 countries

  10. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  11. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Halil Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    Conference photograph The 13th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR2012) was held in Ankara, Turkey at Gazi University in the Architect Kemaleddin historical hall on 2-6 July 2012. The first International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions took place nearly 25 years ago and this conference continued the same tradition by providing an arena for researchers around the world to present their new research findings in these fields, and gave them the opportunity to learn about the latest research and technology and to renew their acquaintances. The meeting brought together scientists and engineers in multidisciplinary areas such as chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science and engineering, physics, chemistry and polymer science and technology, to explore the state-of-art technology, identify key areas to be focused on and discuss their problems/issues. All oral presentations were held in a single session to enhance the interactions between the scientists and engineers. The ERMR2012 Conference included plenary lectures given by prominent leaders in their respective fields. About 130 participants from more than 50 organizations attended the conference and 15 plenary speeches, 64 oral presentations and 57 poster presentations took place in the following areas: (i) synthesis, characterization and processing of novel ER/MR materials, (ii) dynamics, chain and structure formation of ER/MR materials, (iii) ER/MR elastomers, ferrogels and their characterizations, (iv) rheological techniques and measurements of ER/MR materials, (v) modeling and simulations of ER/MR materials, (vi) device development and control techniques and (vii) applications of ER/MR materials. The ERMR2012 International Conference began with Turkish classical music performed by the musicians of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Rector Professor Dr R Ayhan welcomed the participants and the

  12. Residues in Food and Feed Topic Area at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lehotay, Steven J; Riter, Leah S; Saha, Manasi

    2015-05-13

    The organizers of two symposia in the "Residues in Food and Feed" topic area held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry introduce the papers that were contributed to this special section in the Journal. The symposia were titled "Taking Advantage of Advanced Analytical Tools" and "Going from Macro to Micro: The Future of Sample Processing in Residue Analytical Methods". The oral and poster sessions generated much interest and discussion among the attendees, and some highlights are described in this introductory paper. PMID:25660997

  13. Report from the 37th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, 9–13th December 2014, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M; Esposito, E

    2015-01-01

    The 37th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) was held at the Henry B. Gonzalez Conference Centre in San Antonio, Texas, USA between the 9 and 13th of December 2014. It brought together an interaction between basic scientists and clinicians involved in the management of breast cancer. The symposium included six general sessions, poster discussion, and poster sessions. The most important highlights in the fields of advancing endocrine therapy; hormone receptor positive advanced breast cancer and hormonal resistant therapy; targeted therapies; genetics and genomics; supportive (adjunct) care; chemotherapy treatments; breast screening and risk stratification; male breast cancer and future potential directions were included here. PMID:25729421

  14. The Successive CME on 13th; 14th and 15th February 2011 and Forbush decrease on 18 February 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maričić, D.; Bostasyan, N.; Dumbović, M.; Chilingarian, A.; Mailyan, B.; Rostomyan, H.; Arakelyan, K.; Vršnak, B.; Roša, D.; Hržina, D.; Romštajn, I.; Veronig, A.

    2013-02-01

    Aims. We analyze the kinematics of three interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) that occurred on 13th, 14th and 15th February 2011 in the active region AR 11155 and have shown that they appeared at the Earth orbit on February, 18th and caused Forbush decrease (FD). Methods. The solar coordinates of flares are (S19W03), (S20W14) and (S21W18). The kinematic curves were obtained using STEREO (A&B) data. Additionally, we explore the possibility of the CME-CME interaction for these three events. We compare obtained estimates of ICME arrival with the in-situ measurements from WIND satellite at L1 point and with ground-based cosmic ray data obtained from SEVAN network. Results. The acceleration of each CME is highly correlated with the associated SXR flares energy release. CMEs that erupted at 13 and 14 Feb 2011 are not associated with prominence eruption; maximum velocity was vmax550 ± 50 km/s and vmax400 ± 50 km/s, respectively. However, 15 Feb 2011 CME is connected with much more violent eruption associated with a prominence, with maximum velocity of vmax 1400 ± 50 km/s. The last overtakes 13th and 14th Feb CMEs at distances of 32 and 160 Rsolar, respectively.

  15. Plato (428-347 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Philosopher, real name said to be Aristocles, with `Plato' a nickname (`broad') derived either from the breadth of his knowledge, shoulders, or forehead, born in Athens, Greece, taught by Socrates, and travelled in Egypt, Sicily and Italy. Back in Athens, he founded, in 387 BC, a school of learning called the Academy, devoted to research and instruction in philosophy and the sciences, particularl...

  16. BC Jurisdictional Report for CMEC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) was established to facilitate admission, articulation and transfer arrangements among British Columbia (BC) post-secondary institutions. Each year BCCAT prepares a detailed work plan and at the end of the fiscal year prepares an Annual Report that summarizes what was achieved. Each…

  17. First Observation of a Baryonic Bc+ Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H.-M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, RF; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Geraci, A.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.-B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.; LHCb Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    A baryonic decay of the Bc+ meson, Bc+→J/ψpp ¯π+, is observed for the first time, with a significance of 7.3 standard deviations, in pp collision data collected with the LHCb detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 taken at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. With the Bc+→J/ψπ+ decay as the normalization channel, the ratio of branching fractions is measured to be B(Bc+→J/ψpp ¯π+)/B(Bc+→J/ψπ+)=0.143-0.034+0.039(stat)±0.013(syst). The mass of the Bc+ meson is determined as M(Bc+)=6274.0±1.8(stat)±0.4(syst) MeV/c2, using the Bc+→J/ψpp ¯π+ channel.

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Mexican-American Educators, Inc., State of California (13th, San Francisco, California, October 26-28, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Mexican-American Educators, Inc., Redwood City, CA.

    Officially incorporated in 1965 to advocate for equal opportunity for all, especially students of Hispanic ancestry, and greater opportunities for Hispanic professionals at all levels of the teaching field, the Association of Mexican American Educators, Inc., held its 13th annual conference October 26-28, 1978. The five position papers included in…

  19. Muon groups and primary composition at 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budko, E. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Dogujaev, V. A.; Mihelev, A. R.; Padey, V. A.; Petkov, V. A.; Striganov, P. S.; Suvorova, O. V.; Voevodsky, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The data on muon groups observed at Baksan underground scintillation telescope is analyzed. In this analysis we compare the experimental data with calulations, based on a superposition model in order to obtain the effective atomic number of primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV.

  20. DEVELOPMENTS AT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH (13TH) HELD AT RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL ON AUGUST 17-21, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the report is to provide a mechanism whereby current water research developments from around the world as reported at the 13th International Conference on Water Pollution Research of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control can be highl...

  1. Factors Associated with the Persistence of Bullying Victimization From 10th grade to 13th Grade: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Lars; Welander-Vatn, Audun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bullying among adolescents represents a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to map the stability of bullying victimization across the transitional phase from lower to upper secondary school, and to describe the sociodemographic, academic and health-related characteristics of those bullied during the transition. Method: 3674 Norwegian adolescents were followed longitudinally from the age of 15/16 until the age of 18/19, answering questionnaires about health, academic achievements, life events, lifestyle and sociodemography. The 337 participants reporting exposure to bullying victimization at age 15/16 were the target group, as we made comparisons between those reporting victimization only at the age of 15/16 (n=289) with the participants for whom the bullying had continued into later adolescence (n = 48). Results: 14% of those victimized at age 15/16, reported continuation of bullying victimization into upper secondary school. These adolescents were significantly more likely to report having divorced parents, low parental educational level, poor self-perceived economy, muscle and skeletal pain, symptoms of mental distress, lower school marks in Norwegian and higher body-mass index (BMI) when group differences at age 18/19 were assessed through basic inferential statistical tests. However, the multivariate logistic regression analyses only revealed statistically significantly increased adjusted odds ratios for the variables mental distress and school-marks in Norwegian. Conclusion: The persistence of exposure to bullying from 10th grade to 13th grade is associated with mental health complaints and poor school performance. Preventive measures to take care of students being continuously bullied should be in place in secondary schools. PMID:24367391

  2. Privileges of "Universitas Magistrorum et Scolarium" and Their Justification in Charters of Foundation from the 13th to the 21st Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivinen, Osmo; Poikus, Petri

    2006-01-01

    Analysing foundation charters, this article explores the various purposes universities have been said to serve at different periods of time, how the distinction between universities and other educational establishments has been made, and how the actions of the academic community have been justified. The data consist of 225 charters of foundation…

  3. The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers (Oxford, UK, 2011) The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers (Oxford, UK, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibene, G.

    2012-11-01

    The 13th International Workshop on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers, held in Lady Margaret Hall College in Oxford in October 2011 continues the tradition of bi-annual international meetings dedicated to the study of transport barriers in fusion plasmas. The first meeting of this series took place in S Diego (CA, US) in 1987, and since then scientists in the fusion community studying the formation and effects of transport barriers in plasmas have been meeting at this small workshop to discuss progress, new experimental evidence and related theoretical studies. The first workshops were strongly focussed on the characterization and understanding of the H-mode plasma, discovered in ASDEX in 1982. Tokamaks throughout the entire world were able to reproduce the H-mode transition in the following few years and since then the H-mode has been recognised as a pervasive physics feature of toroidally confined plasmas. Increased physics understanding of the H-mode transition and of the properties of H-mode plasmas, together with extensive development of diagnostic capabilities for the plasma edge, led to the development of edge transport barrier studies and theory. The H-mode Workshop reflected this extension in interest, with more and more contributions discussing the phenomenology of edge transport barriers and instabilities (ELMs), L-H transition and edge transport barrier formation theory. In the last 15 years, in response to the development of fusion plasma studies, the scientific scope of the workshop has been broadened to include experimental and theoretical studies of both edge and internal transport barriers, including formation and sustainment of transport barriers for different transport channels (energy, particle and momentum). The 13th H-mode Workshop was organized around six leading topics, and, as customary for this workshop, a lead speaker was selected for each topic to present to the audience the state-of-the-art, new understanding and open issues, as well

  4. Earth's Variable Rotation from 750BC to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Leslie Valentine; Hohenkerk, Catherine; Stephenson, F. Richard

    2015-08-01

    Ancient Babylonian clay tablets buried for centuries beneath the sands of the desert are part of an extensive historical archive that contains vital information about the Earth's rotation from 750BC to the present. These historical observations of solar and lunar eclipses and occultations of stars are re-analysed to determine the error of the Earth's rotational clock, usually designated by ΔT. The diagrams display the individual results for ΔT, together with the best-fitting curve through these data.

  5. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  6. BC Transfer System: New Members Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The mandate of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) includes the responsibility to manage and coordinate the British Columbia (BC) Transfer System. Upon its inception in 1989, the Council inherited a Transfer System that included all BC public institutions, Yukon College, and three private institutions. Since then, new…

  7. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  8. The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve

    2013-12-01

    It is a pleasure to welcome you to The Royal Society in London and the 13th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2013. The objective of PowerMEMS 2013 is to catalyse innovation in miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, and the development of new ideas in the Power MEMS/NEMS field as well as at the meso-scale. It will allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering. The technical program is led by four invited speakers covering inductive power transfer, chip scale power sources, thermal energy harvesting and implantable biofuel cells. We received 177 abstracts and following a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 137 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organised into 16 oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions that have been augmented by 10 late news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are, for the first time, being published by the Institute of Physics. We have made every effort to make PowerMEMS 2013 the busiest yet and have included for the first time the PowerMEMS School. This two-day school held at Imperial College London covered a wide range of power-MEMS topics including technologies for power generation, power transmission, energy storage, power electronics interfaces and metrology. Registrations for the School exceeded our expectations and it was full by early November. We hope this, and other activities such as the Discussion Panel and the inclusion of late news papers, will make PowerMEMS 2013 a memorable success. We have also reached out to new communities, such as those working in wireless power transfer and RF harvesting to broaden the technology remit of

  9. The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve

    2013-12-01

    It is a pleasure to welcome you to The Royal Society in London and the 13th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2013. The objective of PowerMEMS 2013 is to catalyse innovation in miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, and the development of new ideas in the Power MEMS/NEMS field as well as at the meso-scale. It will allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering. The technical program is led by four invited speakers covering inductive power transfer, chip scale power sources, thermal energy harvesting and implantable biofuel cells. We received 177 abstracts and following a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 137 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organised into 16 oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions that have been augmented by 10 late news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are, for the first time, being published by the Institute of Physics. We have made every effort to make PowerMEMS 2013 the busiest yet and have included for the first time the PowerMEMS School. This two-day school held at Imperial College London covered a wide range of power-MEMS topics including technologies for power generation, power transmission, energy storage, power electronics interfaces and metrology. Registrations for the School exceeded our expectations and it was full by early November. We hope this, and other activities such as the Discussion Panel and the inclusion of late news papers, will make PowerMEMS 2013 a memorable success. We have also reached out to new communities, such as those working in wireless power transfer and RF harvesting to broaden the technology remit of

  10. Cytochrome bc1 complexes of microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Trumpower, B L

    1990-01-01

    The cytochrome bc1 complex is the most widely occurring electron transfer complex capable of energy transduction. Cytochrome bc1 complexes are found in the plasma membranes of phylogenetically diverse photosynthetic and respiring bacteria, and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of all eucaryotic cells. In all of these species the bc1 complex transfers electrons from a low-potential quinol to a higher-potential c-type cytochrome and links this electron transfer to proton translocation. Most bacteria also possess alternative pathways of quinol oxidation capable of circumventing the bc1 complex, but these pathways generally lack the energy-transducing, protontranslocating activity of the bc1 complex. All cytochrome bc1 complexes contain three electron transfer proteins which contain four redox prosthetic groups. These are cytochrome b, which contains two b heme groups that differ in their optical and thermodynamic properties; cytochrome c1, which contains a covalently bound c-type heme; and a 2Fe-2S iron-sulfur protein. The mechanism which links proton translocation to electron transfer through these proteins is the proton motive Q cycle, and this mechanism appears to be universal to all bc1 complexes. Experimentation is currently focused on understanding selected structure-function relationships prerequisite for these redox proteins to participate in the Q-cycle mechanism. The cytochrome bc1 complexes of mitochondria differ from those of bacteria, in that the former contain six to eight supernumerary polypeptides, in addition to the three redox proteins common to bacteria and mitochondria. These extra polypeptides are encoded in the nucleus and do not contain redox prosthetic groups. The functions of the supernumerary polypeptides of the mitochondrial bc1 complexes are generally not known and are being actively explored by genetically manipulating these proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Images PMID:2163487

  11. Determination of the angular characteristics of EAS Cerenkov flares with energies greater than 10 to the 13th eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirskii, B. M.; Zyskin, Iu. L.; Neshpor, Iu. I.; Stepanian, A. A.; Fomin, V. P.

    Angular measurements of EAS Cerenkov flares were carried out on an apparatus consisting of GT-48 gamma-telescope elements. The experimental apparatus and measurement techniques are described. Processing and analysis of 3000 flare events, observed during September-October 1982, show that, for vertical showers with energies of about 2 x 10 to the 13th eV, 75 percent of the light from the flare is concentrated in the cone with an aperture angle of 1 deg, 10 + or - 0 deg, 20. Comparison with previous data (obtained with short-focused mirrors) shows that the angular dimensions of Cerenkov flares were significantly exaggerated.

  12. Observation of the decay Bc+/--->J/psipi+/- and measurement of the Bc+/- mass.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giakoumopolou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyria, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2008-05-01

    The Bc+/- meson is observed through the decay Bc+/--->J/psipi+/-, in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.4 fb(-1) recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. A signal of 108+/-15 candidates is observed, with a significance that exceeds 8sigma. The mass of the Bc+/- meson is measured to be 6275.6+/-2.9(stat)+/-2.5(syst) MeV/c2. PMID:18518365

  13. Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C.

    PubMed

    Manning, Sturt W; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Kutschera, Walter; Higham, Thomas; Kromer, Bernd; Steier, Peter; Wild, Eva M

    2006-04-28

    Radiocarbon (carbon-14) data from the Aegean Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C. show that the Santorini (Thera) eruption must have occurred in the late 17th century B.C. By using carbon-14 dates from the surrounding region, cultural phases, and Bayesian statistical analysis, we established a chronology for the initial Aegean Late Bronze Age cultural phases (Late Minoan IA, IB, and II). This chronology contrasts with conventional archaeological dates and cultural synthesis: stretching out the Late Minoan IA, IB, and II phases by approximately 100 years and requiring reassessment of standard interpretations of associations between the Egyptian and Near Eastern historical dates and phases and those in the Aegean and Cyprus in the mid-second millennium B.C. PMID:16645092

  14. Char BC amendments for soil and sediment amelioration: BC quantification and field pilot trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, G.; Braendli, R. C.; Eek, E.; Henriksen, T.; Hartnik, T.; Breedveld, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Background Activated char BC binds organic contaminants and possibly mercury so strongly that their bioaccumulation and transport to other environmental compartments are reduced. The advantages of black carbon amendment over many other remediation methods include i) it can be used as an in situ risk reduction method, ii) the price is low, and iii) it overcomes significant controversies associated with disposal of dredged and excavated materials. In this study BC amendment is used in pilot trials in the field for soil and sediment amelioration. Quantification of amended char BC Two methods for char BC quantification were tested: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. The amount of BC amended to three soils was accurately determined by CTO at 375°C. For two sediments, much of the BC disappeared during combustion at 375°C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects caused by sediment constituents such as metals, mineral oxides and salts. Attempts to avoid these effects through rinsing with acid before combustion did not result in higher char BC recoveries. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350°C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation with potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid proved to effectively function for BC quantification in sediments, since almost complete BC recovery (81-92 %) was observed for both sediments, while the amount of organic carbon remaining was low (5-16 %). Field pilots Earlier, we showed the effectiveness of BC amendment in the laboratory. In the laboratory it was shown that BC amendments (2 %) reduced freely dissolved porewater concentrations (factor of 10-50) and bioaccumulation (factor of 5). This presentation will describe 50 × 50 m pilot field trials in Norway (2007-2008): Trondheim Harbor (sediment) and Drammen (soil). The presentation will focus on physical monitoring (distribution of BC in the

  15. First observation of a baryonic Bc+ decay.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, Rf; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Geraci, A; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani', S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-10-10

    A baryonic decay of the B(c)(+) meson, B(c)(+) → J/ψppπ(+), is observed for the first time, with a significance of 7.3 standard deviations, in pp collision data collected with the LHCb detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) taken at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. With the B(c)(+) → J/ψπ(+) decay as the normalization channel, the ratio of branching fractions is measured to be B(B(c)(+) → J/ψppπ(+))/B(B(c)(+) → J/ψπ(+)) = 0.143(-0.034)(+0.039)(stat) ± 0.013(syst). The mass of the B(c)(+) meson is determined as M(B(c)(+) = 6274.0 ± 1.8(stat) ± 0.4(syst) MeV/c(2), using the B(c)(+) → J/ψppπ(+) channel. PMID:25375705

  16. Recalibrating the BC Transfer System: Approved Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In November 2005, the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer launched a consultation entitled Recalibrating the BC Transfer System with the institutional members of the BC Transfer System and other interested parties. This consultation was motivated in large part by significant changes in the BC post-secondary system over the last decade, and…

  17. Ferro- and antiferro-magnetism in (Np, Pu)BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczuk, T.; Shick, A. B.; Kozub, A. L.; Griveau, J.-C.; Colineau, E.; Falmbigl, M.; Wastin, F.; Rogl, P.

    2015-04-01

    Two new transuranium metal boron carbides, NpBC and PuBC, have been synthesized. Rietveld refinements of powder XRD patterns of {Np,Pu}BC confirmed in both cases isotypism with the structure type of UBC. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data reveal antiferromagnetic ordering for PuBC below TN = 44 K, whereas ferromagnetic ordering was found for NpBC below TC = 61 K. Heat capacity measurements prove the bulk character of the observed magnetic transition for both compounds. The total energy electronic band structure calculations support formation of the ferromagnetic ground state for NpBC and the antiferromagnetic ground state for PuBC.

  18. Mesoscale convective system surface pressure anomalies responsible for meteotsunamis along the U.S. East Coast on June 13th, 2013.

    PubMed

    Wertman, Christina A; Yablonsky, Richard M; Shen, Yang; Merrill, John; Kincaid, Christopher R; Pockalny, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Two destructive high-frequency sea level oscillation events occurred on June 13th, 2013 along the U.S. East Coast. Seafloor processes can be dismissed as the sources, as no concurrent offshore earthquakes or landslides were detected. Here, we present evidence that these tsunami-like events were generated by atmospheric mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) propagating from inland to offshore. The USArray Transportable Array inland and NOAA tide gauges along the coast recorded the pressure anomalies associated with the MCSs. Once offshore, the pressure anomalies generated shallow water waves, which were amplified by the resonance between the water column and atmospheric forcing. Analysis of the tidal data reveals that these waves reflected off the continental shelf break and reached the coast, where bathymetry and coastal geometry contributed to their hazard potential. This study demonstrates that monitoring MCS pressure anomalies in the interior of the U.S. provides important observations for early warnings of MCS-generated tsunamis. PMID:25420958

  19. Mesoscale convective system surface pressure anomalies responsible for meteotsunamis along the U.S. East Coast on June 13th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wertman, Christina A.; Yablonsky, Richard M.; Shen, Yang; Merrill, John; Kincaid, Christopher R.; Pockalny, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Two destructive high-frequency sea level oscillation events occurred on June 13th, 2013 along the U.S. East Coast. Seafloor processes can be dismissed as the sources, as no concurrent offshore earthquakes or landslides were detected. Here, we present evidence that these tsunami-like events were generated by atmospheric mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) propagating from inland to offshore. The USArray Transportable Array inland and NOAA tide gauges along the coast recorded the pressure anomalies associated with the MCSs. Once offshore, the pressure anomalies generated shallow water waves, which were amplified by the resonance between the water column and atmospheric forcing. Analysis of the tidal data reveals that these waves reflected off the continental shelf break and reached the coast, where bathymetry and coastal geometry contributed to their hazard potential. This study demonstrates that monitoring MCS pressure anomalies in the interior of the U.S. provides important observations for early warnings of MCS-generated tsunamis. PMID:25420958

  20. Structural forms of cubic BC2N

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hong; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Roundy, David; Cohen, Marvin L.; Louie, Steven G.

    2001-03-01

    Superhard cubic boron-carbonitrides (c-BC2N) are studied with the use of the ab initio pseudopotential density functional method. The total energy, lattice constant, bulk and shear moduli, and electronic band structures as well as the electron density of states are calculated for all the possible c-BC2N structures in an eight-atom zinc-blende-structured cubic unit cell. The results obtained provide a plausible explanation for recent experimental observations as well as a possible path to synthesis of the materials.

  1. Accountability of the BC Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to provide evidence that the Transfer System in British Columbia (BC) has been effective and therefore accountable for the public funding that supports that system. The paper attempts to show: (1) the multi-faceted nature, breadth and depth of research that has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of the BC…

  2. Bc production in Higgs boson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2016-03-01

    The Bc production rate in Higgs boson decays is evaluated in the nonrelativistic QCD framework. Given that the Higgs total decay width is about 4.20 MeV and the vector Bc* meson decays completely to the ground state, we find that the branching fraction of Bc meson production in Higgs decays is 8.50 ×10-4, where both leading QCD and QED contributions are included. This process is hence detectable in the high-luminosity/-energy LHC. It is found that the coupling of H b b ¯ dominates the processes, and contributions from the triangle top-quark loop and other couplings (H c c ¯, H W W and H Z Z ) are small. In confronting the quarkonia production, we find that the fraction rate of Bc production is more than an order of magnitude bigger than those of charmonium and bottomonium production in Higgs decays. Moreover, various uncertainties and differential distributions of the concerned processes are analyzed carefully.

  3. Diversity in BC Schools: A Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Diversity in BC schools is an overarching concept that reflects a philosophy of equitable participation and an appreciation of the contributions of all people. It is a concept that refers both to our uniqueness as individuals and to our sense of belonging or identification within a group or groups. Diversity refers to the ways in which we differ…

  4. Eight BC Workforce Literacy Initiatives. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy British Columbia, Vancouver.

    Eight work force literacy initiatives were conducted in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The primary objectives and key activities of the initiatives were as follows: (1) alliance development (developing partnerships and linkages promoting and supporting work force literacy); (2) public awareness (conducting presentations and media relations and…

  5. Thales of Miletus (624-546 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The first known Greek philosopher; also a scientist, mathematician and engineer, born in Miletus, Asia Minor (now Turkey), believed to have been the teacher of ANAXIMANDER. Apparently wrote a book on navigation, defining the constellation Ursa Minor and using it as a navigation aid. Credited with the prediction of an eclipse of the Sun in 585 BC, although it is not known how, since the Metonic cy...

  6. Highlights from the 13th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2013. Access to innovation for patients with breast cancer: how to speed it up?

    PubMed Central

    Curigliano, Giuseppe; Criscitiello, Carmen; Andrè, Fabrice; Colleoni, Marco; Di Leo, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The recognition that early breast cancer is a spectrum of diseases each requiring a specific systemic therapy guided the 13th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Consensus Conference [1]. The meeting assembled 3600 participants from nearly 90 countries worldwide. Educational content has been centred on the primary and multidisciplinary treatment approach of early breast cancer. The meeting culminated on the final day, with the St Gallen Breast Cancer Treatment Consensus, established by 40–50 of the world’s most experienced opinion leaders in the field of breast cancer treatment. The major issue that arose during the consensus conference was the increasing gap between what is theoretically feasible in patient risk stratification, in treatment, and in daily practice management. We need to find new paths to access innovations to clinical research and daily practice. To ensure that continued innovation meets the needs of patients, the therapeutic alliance between patients and academic-led research should to be extended to include relevant pharmaceutical companies and drug regulators with a unique effort to bring innovation into clinical practice. We need to bring together major players from the world of breast cancer research to map out a coordinated strategy on an international scale, to address the disease fragmentation, to share financial resources, and to integrate scientific data. The final goal will be to improve access to an affordable, best standard of care for all patients in each country. PMID:23589728

  7. Symmetry Properties of Single-Walled BC2N Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hui; Feng, Yuan Ping; Lin, Jainyi

    2009-06-01

    The symmetry properties of the single-walled BC2N nanotubes were investigated. All the BC2N nanotubes possess nonsymmorphic line groups. In contrast with the carbon and boron nitride nanotubes, armchair and zigzag BC2N nanotubes belong to different line groups, depending on the index n (even or odd) and the vector chosen. The number of Raman- active phonon modes is almost twice that of the infrared-active phonon modes for all kinds of BC2N nanotubes.

  8. Geographic origin and evolutionary history of China's two predominant HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Takebe, Yutaka; Wei, Huamian; He, Xiang; Hsi, Jenny H; Li, Zhenpeng; Xing, Hui; Ruan, Yuhua; Yang, Yao; Li, Fan; Wei, Jing; Li, Xingguang; Shao, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    To determine the origin and evolutionary history of two predominant and closely-related circulating recombinant forms (CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC), recombinant structures and phylogenies of 7 unique recombinant forms comprised of subtypes of B' (Thai B linage) and C (designated URFs_BC) from archival specimens of injection drug users (IDUs) collected in 1996 to 1998 from western Yunnan and 4 circulating recombinant forms with B'/C recombinants recently identified (designated nCRFs_BC) in China were compared with those of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC. The results showed that 5 of 7 URFs_BC and all the nCRFs_BC shared recombination breakpoints with CRF07_BC and/or CRF08_BC. Yunnan URFs_BC consistently occupied the basal branch positions compared with CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC, and nCRFs_BC in phylogenetic trees. The estimated most recent common ancestors (tMRCA) for Yunnan URFs_BC were from ~1987, approximately half a decade earlier than those for CRF07_BC (~1994) and CRF08_BC (~1992). Discrete phylogeographic and spatial diffusion analysis revealed that both CRF07_BC and CRF08 BC came from western Yunnan in the early 1990s. Our results provide compelling evidence for western Yunnan as the geographic origin of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC, which emerged from a swarm of URFs_BC by a series of recombination events in western Yunnan in the early 1990s. PMID:26763952

  9. International Perspectives on Environmental Education: Issues and Actions. Proceedings of the 1st International and 13th Annual Conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education (Banff, Alberta, Canada, October 5-9, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dorothy A., Ed.; Stapp, William B., Ed.

    The proceedings of the first International Conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEE), which was also the 13th annual conference of the National Association of Environmental Education as the NAEE was formerly known, provides as complete a record as possible of the conference activities. Papers and reports are…

  10. Evaluation of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Resistance in BC1, BC2, and BC3 Progenies from an Interspecific Cross between Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Wajad; Tipu, Abdul Latif; Ahmad, Saghir; Mahmood, Khalid; Mahmood, Abid; Zhou, Baoliang

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD) is an important constraint to cotton production. The resistance of G. arboreum to this devastating disease is well documented. In the present investigation, we explored the possibility of transferring genes for resistance to CLCuD from G. arboreum (2n = 26) cv 15-Mollisoni into G. hirsutum (2n = 52) cv CRSM-38 through conventional breeding. We investigated the cytology of the BC1 to BC3 progenies of direct and reciprocal crosses of G. arboreum and G. hirsutum and evaluated their resistance to CLCuD. The F1 progenies were completely resistant to this disease, while a decrease in resistance was observed in all backcross generations. As backcrossing progressed, the disease incidence increased in BC1 (1.7–2.0%), BC2 (1.8–4.0%), and BC3 (4.2–7.0%). However, the disease incidence was much lower than that of the check variety CIM-496, with a CLCuD incidence of 96%. Additionally, the disease incidence percentage was lower in the direct cross 2(G. arboreum)×G. hirsutum than in that of G. hirsutum×G. arboreum. Phenotypic resemblance of BC1 ∼BC3 progenies to G. arboreum confirmed the success of cross between the two species. Cytological studies of CLCuD-resistant plants revealed that the frequency of univalents and multivalents was high in BC1, with sterile or partially fertile plants, but low in BC2 (in both combinations), with shy bearing plants. In BC3, most of the plants exhibited normal bearing ability due to the high frequency of chromosome associations (bivalents). The assessment of CLCuD through grafting showed that the BC1 to BC3 progenies were highly resistant to this disease. Thus, this study successfully demonstrates the possibility of introgressing CLCuD resistance genes from G. arboreum to G. hirsutum. PMID:25372141

  11. 75 FR 16513 - B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ..., Ohio. The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 17, 2009 (74 FR 59253). At the... Employment and Training Administration B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From B&C Services, Inc., Barberton, OH; Amended...

  12. Geographic origin and evolutionary history of China’s two predominant HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yi; Takebe, Yutaka; Wei, Huamian; He, Xiang; Hsi, Jenny H.; Li, Zhenpeng; Xing, Hui; Ruan, Yuhua; Yang, Yao; Li, Fan; Wei, Jing; Li, Xingguang; Shao, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    To determine the origin and evolutionary history of two predominant and closely-related circulating recombinant forms (CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC), recombinant structures and phylogenies of 7 unique recombinant forms comprised of subtypes of B’ (Thai B linage) and C (designated URFs_BC) from archival specimens of injection drug users (IDUs) collected in 1996 to 1998 from western Yunnan and 4 circulating recombinant forms with B’/C recombinants recently identified (designated nCRFs_BC) in China were compared with those of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC. The results showed that 5 of 7 URFs_BC and all the nCRFs_BC shared recombination breakpoints with CRF07_BC and/or CRF08_BC. Yunnan URFs_BC consistently occupied the basal branch positions compared with CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC, and nCRFs_BC in phylogenetic trees. The estimated most recent common ancestors (tMRCA) for Yunnan URFs_BC were from ~1987, approximately half a decade earlier than those for CRF07_BC (~1994) and CRF08_BC (~1992). Discrete phylogeographic and spatial diffusion analysis revealed that both CRF07_BC and CRF08 BC came from western Yunnan in the early 1990s. Our results provide compelling evidence for western Yunnan as the geographic origin of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC, which emerged from a swarm of URFs_BC by a series of recombination events in western Yunnan in the early 1990s. PMID:26763952

  13. Ferro- and antiferro-magnetism in (Np, Pu)BC

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczuk, T.; Kozub, A. L.; Griveau, J.-C.; Colineau, E.; Wastin, F.; Falmbigl, M.; Rogl, P.

    2015-04-01

    Two new transuranium metal boron carbides, NpBC and PuBC, have been synthesized. Rietveld refinements of powder XRD patterns of (Np,Pu)BC confirmed in both cases isotypism with the structure type of UBC. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data reveal antiferromagnetic ordering for PuBC below T{sub N} = 44 K, whereas ferromagnetic ordering was found for NpBC below T{sub C} = 61 K. Heat capacity measurements prove the bulk character of the observed magnetic transition for both compounds. The total energy electronic band structure calculations support formation of the ferromagnetic ground state for NpBC and the antiferromagnetic ground state for PuBC.

  14. The high-pressure semiconducting phase of LiBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meiguang

    2016-04-01

    A high-pressure hexagonal semiconducting phase (space group P63mc , 2f.u./cell) of LiBC stable above 108 GPa was predicted through first-principles calculations combined with unbiased swarm structure searching techniques. This new phase consisted of three-dimensional B-C networks which originate from the dramatic out-of-plane distortions of the graphene-like B-C sublattice in the low-pressure P63/mmc phase under compression. Contrary to the metallizations of LiBC under high pressure previously proposed, the resulting three-dimensional B-C framework lacks the system of π bonds with mobile electrons and has more localized electrons, as a result of the semiconducting nature of this high-pressure LiBC phase.

  15. Report on the 13th symposium on invertebrate neurobiology held 26-30 August 2015 at the Balaton Limnological Institute, MTA Centre for ecological research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Tihany, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Crisford, Anna; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the lectures and posters presented at the International Society for Invertebrate Neurobiology's 13th symposium held 26-30 August 2015, at the Balaton Limnological Institute, MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Tihany, Hungary. The symposium provided an opportunity for scientists working on a range of topics in invertebrate neurobiology to meet and present their research and discuss ways to advance the discipline. PMID:27149972

  16. Recombination-dependent growth in exonuclease-depleted recBC sbcBC strains of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Ryder, L; Sharples, G J; Lloyd, R G

    1996-07-01

    Analysis of the aroLM-sbcCD interval of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome revealed a new gene (rdgC) encoding a function required for growth in recombination-deficient recBC sbcBC strains. Deletion of rdgC does not reduce viability, conjugational recombination, or DNA repair in rec+, recA, recB, recF, or recJ mutants. However, it makes the growth of recBC sbcBC strains reliant on the RecA, RecF, and RuvC proteins and, to a large extent, on RuvAB. The recBC sbcBC delta rdgC ruvAB construct forms colonies, but cell viability is reduced to < 5%. A recBC sbcBC delta rdgC derivative carrying the temperature-sensitive recA200 allele grows at 32 degrees but not 42 degrees. Multicopy rdgC+ plasmids reduce the growth rate of recBC sbcBC strains, while multicopy sbcC+ plasmids that reactivate SbcCD nuclease cannot be maintained without RdgC protein. The data presented are interpreted to suggest that exonuclease-depleted recBC sbcBC strains have difficulty removing the displaced arm of a collapsed replication fork and that this problem is compounded in the absence of RdgC. Recombination then becomes necessary to repair the fork and allow chromosome duplication to be completed. The possibility that RdgC is an exonuclease is discussed. PMID:8807285

  17. Flux and budget of BC in the continental shelf seas adjacent to Chinese high BC emission source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yin; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lin, Tian; Hu, Limin; Huang, Guopei; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-07-01

    This study conducted the first comprehensive investigation of sedimentary black carbon (BC) concentration, flux, and budget in the continental shelves of "Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS)," based on measurements of BC in 191 surface sediments, 36 riverine water, and 2 seawater samples, as well as the reported data set of the atmospheric samples from seven coastal cities in the Bohai Rim. BC concentrations in these matrices were measured using the method of thermal/optical reflectance. The spatial distribution of the BC concentration in surface sediments was largely influenced by the regional hydrodynamic conditions, with high values mainly occurring in the central mud areas where fine-grained particles (median diameters > 6 Φ (i.e., <0.0156 mm)) were deposited. The BC burial flux in the BS and YS ranged from 4 to 1100 µg/cm2 yr, and averaged 166 ± 200 µg/cm2 yr, which was within the range of burial fluxes reported in other continental shelf regimes. The area-integrated sedimentary BC sink flux in the entire BS and YS was ~325 Gg/yr, and the BS alone contributed ~50% (~157 Gg/yr). The BC budget calculated in the BS showed that atmospheric deposition, riverine discharge, and import from the Northern Yellow Sea (NYS) each contributed ~51%, ~47%, and ~2%. Therefore, atmospheric deposition and riverine discharge dominated the total BC influx (~98%). Sequestration to bottom sediments was the major BC output pattern, accounting for ~88% of the input BC. Water exchange between the BS and the NYS was also an important BC transport route, with net BC transport from the BS to the NYS.

  18. Early Human Activity (pre-332 BC) in Alexandria, Egypt: New findings in Eastern Harbor Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, J.; Landau, E. A.

    2005-12-01

    Historians have long postulated that a settlement called Rhakotis was present on Egypt's Mediterranean coast in the area subsequently occupied by the city of Alexandria. To date, however, the precise position of that site has not been located in the immediate area of the city founded by Alexander the Great. Also undefined are the earliest phases of occupation that pre-date Alexandria on Pharos Island and in the harbour area. A geoarchaeological project emphasizing sediment cores in Alexandria's Eastern Harbour now provides evidence of human occupation adjacent to these settings prior to establishment of Greece's great port in 332 BC. A radiocarbon-dated stratigraphic unit, defined as Middle Sand (III) and older than the 4th century BC, includes locally produced ceramics, along with rock fragments of non-local origin, and increased content of sand-sized heavy mineral and organic matter. Together, these date at least to Egypt's Late Dynastic Period (712-332 BC). Moreover, the geographic positions of core sites containing these markers indicate that early habitation occurred both at Pharos Island and on the mainland where the future Alexandria would be built. New findings in cores recovered in this marine environment are adding to knowledge of both natural processes and effects of human activity in early Alexandria.

  19. A serological and histological study of the Egyptian mummy 'Iset Iri Hetes' from the Ptolemaic period III-I B.C.

    PubMed

    Kłys, M; Opolska-Bogusz, B; Próchnicka, B

    1999-01-25

    Serological and histological examinations of the muscles of the calf of an Egyptian mummy dated between the third and first centuries B.C. were performed. Human protein was identified, the ABO phenotype was determined as type B, and morphological disruption of the cells was observed. PMID:10098261

  20. Power and Limitations of Anhydrosugars to Trace Historical Natural and Anthropogenic Inputs of charcoal BC to Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louchouarn, P.; Kuo, L.; Brandenberger, J. M.; Andresen, C. S.; Kjaer, K. H.; Dalton, M.

    2011-12-01

    Plant-derived chars are the solid residues from incomplete combustion of plant materials. They are an important constituent in the black carbon (BC) continuum, an array of diverse pyrogenic organic materials ranging from slightly charred biomass (low temperature) to highly condensed refractory soot (high temperature). The characterization and quantification of plant-derived chars in environmental samples is a challenging process due to the heterogeneous nature of these substances. Most of the BC methods using oxidative approaches that seek to remove non-BC materials are limited in their potential to identify and quantify plant-derived chars because of their relative labilities compared to the condensed BC forms such as soot. Anhydrosugars, such as levoglucosan and its isomers (mannosan and galactosan), have generated considerable interest in recent years in BC research because they are exclusive thermal degradation products of cellulose/hemicellulose and are produced in different proportions in chars and smokes from low temperature combustion of different plant species permitting some source discrimination in environmental samples (e.g. softwoods vs. hardwoods; gymnosperms vs. angiosperms). We show here a synthesis of several years of work using levoglucosan in diverse environments to reconstruct local to large-scale environmental change from climate-driven wildfires to human and accidental fires. For example, in the Hood Canal (WA), the striking consistency between the fluxes of levoglucosan, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) Index, and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), suggests that climate oscillations may play a role in the historical wildfire activities and thus influence the inputs of char-BC to the Puget Sound. Similarly, peaks in anhydrosugars in a sediment core from Lake Copenhagen record large-scale accidental fires in the city of Copenhagen during the early and late 18th Century, and help constrain the geochronology of the core beyond the

  1. 32 CFR Appendixes B-C to Part 636 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true B Appendixes B-C to Part 636 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Appendixes B-C to Part 636...

  2. 32 CFR Appendixes B-C to Part 636 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false B Appendixes B-C to Part 636 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Appendixes B-C to Part 636...

  3. Enabling the BC Transfer System: A Discussion Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This discussion paper outlines processes, as well as opportunities and constraints, for "enabling" BC Transfer System institutions to enhance transfer credit information in the BC Transfer Guide, making it more reflective of institutional practices and student mobility. BCCAT's focus is increasing the availability of transfer credit information…

  4. 2005 Mobility of Transfer Students in BC. Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holubeshen, Moufida; Cowin, Bob; Gaber, Devron

    2006-01-01

    This 8-page document outlines the key findings of research conducted to assess the number and proportion of potential transfer students from Fall 2004 who subsequently registered at BC universities in 2005, as well as the mobility patterns of these students among all public post-secondary institutions in BC. The research was initiated to assist BC…

  5. Search for the Bc meson in hadronic Z0 decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OPAL Collaboration; Ackerstaff, K.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K. J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S. F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A. H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J. R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, A. N.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S. D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bloomer, J. E.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, R. M.; Burckhart, H. J.; Burgard, C.; Bürgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J. E.; Cooke, O. C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R. L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Davis, R.; de Jong, S.; del Pozo, L. A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M. S.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Eatough, D.; Edwards, J. E. G.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Evans, H. G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A. A.; Feld, L.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H. M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D. G.; Foucher, M.; Fürtjes, A.; Futyan, D. I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S. M.; Geddes, N. I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwé, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G. G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C. K.; Hart, P. A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R. J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R. D.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Hobson, P. R.; Hocker, A.; Homer, R. J.; Honma, A. K.; Horváth, D.; Hossain, K. R.; Howard, R.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D. C.; Ingram, M. R.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C. R.; Jones, G.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T. R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P. I.; Keeler, R. K.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D. S.; Kokott, T. P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W. P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S. R.; Layter, J. G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A. M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Long, G. D.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; MacPherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Markus, C.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; McDonald, W. J.; McKenna, J.; McKigney, E. A.; McMahon, T. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Müller, U.; Mihara, S.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H. A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S. W.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H. O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Pálinkás, J.; Pásztor, G.; Pater, J. R.; Patrick, G. N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, D. E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rembser, C.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S. A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J. M.; Rooke, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D. R.; Rylko, R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sang, W. M.; Sarkisyan, E. K. G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, M.; Schultz-Coulon, H. C.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W. G.; Shears, T. G.; Shen, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G. P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Snow, G. A.; Sobie, R.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, R. W.; Sproston, M.; K. Stephens, T.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, D.; Ströhmer, R.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S. D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M. A.; von Törne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trócsányi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A. S.; Turner-Watson, M. F.; Utzat, P.; van Kooten, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E. H.; Voss, H.; Wäckerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; White, J. S.; Wilkens, B.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1998-02-01

    A search for decays of the Bc meson was performed using data collected from 1990-1995 with the OPAL detector on or near the Z0 peak at LEP. The decay channels Bc+-->J/ψπ+, Bc+-->J/ψa1+ and Bc+-->J/ψl+ν were investigated, where l denotes an electron or a muon. Two candidates are observed in the mode Bc+-->J/ψπ+, with an estimated background of (0.63+/-0.20) events. The weighted mean of the masses of the two candidates is (6.32+/-0.06) GeV/c2, which is consistent with the predicted mass of the Bc meson. One candidate event is observed in the mode Bc+-->J/ψl+ν, with an estimated background of (0.82+/-0.19) events. No candidate events are observed in the Bc+-->J/ψa1+ decay mode, with an estimated background of (1.10+/-0.22) events. Upper bounds at the 90% confidence level are set on the production rates for these processes. © 1998

  6. 100-B/C Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Ovink

    2010-03-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-B/C remedial investigation/feasibility study addendum to DOE/RL-2008-46. This report also establishes the analyte exclusion criteria applicable for 100-B/C use and the analytical methods needed to analyze the target analytes.

  7. Mobility of Transfer Students in BC. Research Results, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Dale

    2007-01-01

    In the last two years, the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has conducted research on the number of potential and eligible transfer students in colleges, university colleges, and institutes in the fall of each year and the number that enrolled in a BC public university in the subsequent year with transfer as the basis of admission.…

  8. The fall of a meteorite at Aegos Potami in 467/6 BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E. Th; Niarchos, P. G.; Manimanis, V. N.; Orchiston, W.

    2002-12-01

    Cosmic catastrophes have been associated from time to time with the fall of celestial objects to Earth. From the writings of ancient Greek authors we know that during the second year of the 78th Olympiad, that is the year corresponding to 467/6 BC, a very large meteorite fell at Aegos Potami, in the Gallipoli Peninsula (in Eastern Thrace). This event was predicted by Anaxagoras, and the meteorite was worshipped by the Cherronesites until at least the first Century AD. The fall of the Aegos Potami Meteorite was not associated with any cosmic catastrophe, but it was believed to have foretold the terminal defeat of the Athenians by the Spartans in 405 BC near Aegos Potami, which brought to an end the Peloponnesian War in favour of Sparta. In addition, according to the Latin author Pliny the Elder, during the first century AD the inhabitants of Avydus in Asia Minor worshipped another meteorite that was displayed in the city's sports centre, The fall of this meteorite is also said to have been predicted by Anaxagoras.

  9. Analysis of Neutron and Photon Detection Position for the Calibration of Plastic (BC-420) and Liquid (BC-501) Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, S.A.

    2003-08-27

    This report presents the results of the neutron and photon calibration of a Bicron BC-420 plastic scintillator and a BC-501 liquid scintillator using a set of reference gamma sources and a Cf-252 source. The position of neutron and photon detection inside the scintillators as a function of energy is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation.

  10. Recalibrating the BC Transfer System: Findings from the Consultation. Special Report, June 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In November 2005, the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer launched a consultation, Recalibrating the BC Transfer System, motivated by significant changes in the BC post-secondary system over the last decade and concern that these changes had not resulted in concomitant adjustments in the structure of the BC Transfer System or the BC Transfer…

  11. BC1 RNA motifs required for dendritic transport in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Robeck, Thomas; Skryabin, Boris V.; Rozhdestvensky, Timofey S.; Skryabin, Anastasiya B.; Brosius, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    BC1 RNA is a small brain specific non-protein coding RNA. It is transported from the cell body into dendrites where it is involved in the fine-tuning translational control. Due to its compactness and established secondary structure, BC1 RNA is an ideal model for investigating the motifs necessary for dendritic localization. Previously, microinjection of in vitro transcribed BC1 RNA mutants into the soma of cultured primary neurons suggested the importance of RNA motifs for dendritic targeting. These ex vivo experiments identified a single bulged nucleotide (U22) and a putative K-turn (GA motif) structure required for dendritic localization or distal transport, respectively. We generated six transgenic mouse lines (three founders each) containing neuronally expressing BC1 RNA variants on a BC1 RNA knockout mouse background. In contrast to ex vivo data, we did not find indications of reduction or abolition of dendritic BC1 RNA localization in the mutants devoid of the GA motif or the bulged nucleotide. We confirmed the ex vivo data, which showed that the triloop terminal sequence had no consequence on dendritic transport. Interestingly, changing the triloop supporting structure completely abolished dendritic localization of BC1 RNA. We propose a novel RNA motif important for dendritic transport in vivo. PMID:27350115

  12. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  13. BC1 RNA motifs required for dendritic transport in vivo.

    PubMed

    Robeck, Thomas; Skryabin, Boris V; Rozhdestvensky, Timofey S; Skryabin, Anastasiya B; Brosius, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    BC1 RNA is a small brain specific non-protein coding RNA. It is transported from the cell body into dendrites where it is involved in the fine-tuning translational control. Due to its compactness and established secondary structure, BC1 RNA is an ideal model for investigating the motifs necessary for dendritic localization. Previously, microinjection of in vitro transcribed BC1 RNA mutants into the soma of cultured primary neurons suggested the importance of RNA motifs for dendritic targeting. These ex vivo experiments identified a single bulged nucleotide (U22) and a putative K-turn (GA motif) structure required for dendritic localization or distal transport, respectively. We generated six transgenic mouse lines (three founders each) containing neuronally expressing BC1 RNA variants on a BC1 RNA knockout mouse background. In contrast to ex vivo data, we did not find indications of reduction or abolition of dendritic BC1 RNA localization in the mutants devoid of the GA motif or the bulged nucleotide. We confirmed the ex vivo data, which showed that the triloop terminal sequence had no consequence on dendritic transport. Interestingly, changing the triloop supporting structure completely abolished dendritic localization of BC1 RNA. We propose a novel RNA motif important for dendritic transport in vivo. PMID:27350115

  14. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  15. Effects of diatomic reagent alignment on the A + BC reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattengill, M. D.; Zare, R. N.; Jaffe, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A computational study is reported on the A + BC - AB + C bimolecular exchange reaction in which BC is aligned with respect to the approach direction of atom A so that the initial rotational angular momentum vector of BC is either parallel (or equivalently antiparallel) or perpendicular to the initial velocity vector of A. The calculations employ a modification of the extended LEPS potential, which permits straightforward generation of noncollinear minimum energy reaction paths. The calculations clearly demonstrate that diatomic reagent alignment can markedly affect the nature of reaction product early partitioning; they also demonstrate that diatomic reagent alignment affects reactive cross sections.

  16. Production and cytogenetic analysis of BC1, BC 2, and BC 3 progenies of an intergeneric hybrid between Triticum aestivum (L.) Thell. and tetraploid Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Jahier, J; Cauderon, Y

    1992-08-01

    Intergeneric hybrids between Triticum aestivum cv 'Chinese Spring' and Agropyron cristatum 4x (2n= 5x=35, ABDPP genomes) with a high level of homoeologous meiotic pairing between the wheat chromosomes were backcrossed 3 times to wheat. Pollination of the F1 hybrid with 'Chinese Spring' resulted in 22 BC1 seeds with an average seed set of 1.52%. Five BC1 plants with 39-41 chromosomes were raised using embryo rescue techniques. Chromosome pairing in the BC1 was characterized by a high frequency of multivalent associations, but in spite of this there was no evidence of homoeologous pairing between chromosomes of wheat and those of Agropyron. All of the plants were self sterile. The embryo rescue technique was again essential to produce 39 BC2 plants with chromosome numbers ranging from 37 to 67. The phenomenon of meiotic non-reduction was also observed in the BC3 progenies. In this generation male and female fertility greatly increased, and meiotic pairing was fairly regular. Some monosomic (2n=43) and double monosomic (2n=44) lines were produced. Analysis of these progenies should permit the extraction of the seven possible wheat-Agropyron disomic addition lines including those with the added chromosomes carrying the genes involved in meiotic non-reduction and in suppression of Ph activity. PMID:24201360

  17. Temporal and spatial dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 circulating recombinant forms 08_BC and 07_BC in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tee, Kok Keng; Pybus, Oliver G; Li, Xiao-Jie; Han, Xiaoxu; Shang, Hong; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Takebe, Yutaka

    2008-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CRF08_BC and CRF07_BC are two major recombinants descended from subtypes B' and C. Despite their massive epidemic impact in China, their migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses were performed on 228 HIV-1 sequences representing CRF08_BC, CRF07_BC, and subtype C strains from different locations across China, India, and Myanmar. Genome-specific rates of evolution and divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo framework under various evolutionary models. CRF08_BC originated in 1990.3 (95% credible region [CR], 1988.6 to 1991.9) in Yunnan province before spreading to Guangxi (south) and Liaoning (northeast) around 1995. Inside Guangxi region, the eastward expansion of CRF08_BC continued from Baise city (west) to Binyang (central) between 1997 and 1998 and later spread into Pingxiang around 1999 in the south, mainly through injecting drug users. Additionally, CRF07_BC diverged from its common ancestor in 1993.3 (95% CR, 1991.2 to 1995.2) before crossing the border into southern Taiwan in late 1990s. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that both CRF08_BC and CRF07_BC can trace their origins to Yunnan. The parental Indian subtype C lineage likely entered China around 1981.2 (95% CR, 1976.7 to 1985.9). Using a multiple unlinked locus model, we also showed that the dates of divergence calculated in this study may not be significantly affected by intrasubtype recombination among different lineages. This is the first phylodynamic study depicting the spatiotemporal dynamics of HIV/AIDS in East Asia. PMID:18596096

  18. First-principles study of half-metallicity in semi-hydrogenated BC3, BC5, BC7, and B-doped graphone sheets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Using first principles calculations, we investigate the electronic structures of semi-hydrogenated BC3, BC5, BC7, and B-doped graphone sheets. We find that all the semi-hydrogenated boron-carbon sheets exhibit half-metallic behaviors. The magnetism originates from the non-bonding pz orbitals of carbon atoms, which cause the flat bands to satisfy the Stoner criterion. On the other hand, boron atoms weaken the magnetic moments of nearby carbon atoms and act as holes doped in the sheets. It induces the down shift of the Fermi level and the half-metallicity in semi-hydrogenated sheets. Our studies demonstrate that the semi-hydrogenation is an effective route to achieve half-metallicity in the boron-carbon systems. PMID:21711690

  19. 7. (lr) Arches DE, CD, BC. View southwest Ashton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. (l-r) Arches D-E, C-D, B-C. View southwest - Ashton Viaduct, State Route 116 (Washington Highway) spanning Blackstone River, Blackstone Canal, & Providence & Worcester Railroad, Ashton, Providence County, RI

  20. 5. Railroad tracks, (lr) arches EF, DE, CD, BC. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Railroad tracks, (l-r) arches E-F, D-E, C-D, B-C. View southwest - Ashton Viaduct, State Route 116 (Washington Highway) spanning Blackstone River, Blackstone Canal, & Providence & Worcester Railroad, Ashton, Providence County, RI

  1. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  2. Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry-Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Dorothy; Bauer, Susanne E.; Del Genio, Anthony; Faluvegi, Greg; McConnell, Joseph R.; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ronald L.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew

    2011-01-01

    The authors simulate transient twentieth-century climate in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, with aerosol and ozone chemistry fully coupled to one another and to climate including a full dynamic ocean. Aerosols include sulfate, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, nitrate, sea salt, and dust. Direct and BC snow-albedo radiative effects are included. Model BC and sulfur trends agree fairly well with records from Greenland and European ice cores and with sulfur deposition in North America; however, the model underestimates the sulfur decline at the end of the century in Greenland. Global BC effects peak early in the century (1940s); afterward the BC effects decrease at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but continue to increase at lower latitudes. The largest increase in aerosol optical depth occurs in the middle of the century (1940s-80s) when sulfate forcing peaks and causes global dimming. After this, aerosols decrease in eastern North America and northern Eurasia leading to regional positive forcing changes and brightening. These surface forcing changes have the correct trend but are too weak. Over the century, the net aerosol direct effect is -0.41 Watts per square meter, the BC-albedo effect is -0.02 Watts per square meter, and the net ozone forcing is +0.24 Watts per square meter. The model polar stratospheric ozone depletion develops, beginning in the 1970s. Concurrently, the sea salt load and negative radiative flux increase over the oceans around Antarctica. Net warming over the century is modeled fairly well; however, the model fails to capture the dynamics of the observedmidcentury cooling followed by the late century warming.Over the century, 20% of Arctic warming and snow ice cover loss is attributed to the BC albedo effect. However, the decrease in this effect at the end of the century contributes to Arctic cooling. To test the climate responses to sulfate and BC pollution, two experiments were branched from 1970 that removed

  3. Characterization of Chromosome Inheritance of the Intergeneric BC2 and BC3 Progeny between Saccharum spp. and Erianthus arundinaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Lin, Yanquan; Fu, Cheng; Deng, Zuhu; Wang, Qinnan; Li, Qiwei; Chen, Rukai; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Erianthus arundinaceus (E. arundinaceus) has many desirable agronomic traits for sugarcane improvement, such as high biomass, vigor, rationing ability, tolerance to drought, and water logging, as well as resistance to pests and disease. To investigate the introgression of the E. arundinaceus genome into sugarcane in the higher generations, intergeneric BC2 and BC3 progeny generated between Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus were studied using the genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique. The results showed that the BC2 and BC3 generations resulted from n + n chromosome transmission. Furthermore, chromosome translocation occurred at terminal fragments from the E. arundinaceus chromosome in some progeny of Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus. Notably, the translocated chromosomes could be stably transmitted to their progeny. This study illustrates the characterization of chromosome inheritance of the intergeneric BC2 and BC3 progeny between Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus. This work could provide more useful molecular cytogenetic information for the germplasm resources of E. arundinaceus, and may promote further understanding of the germplasm resources of E. arundinaceus for sugarcane breeders to accelerate its progress in sugarcane commercial breeding. PMID:26196281

  4. Characterization of Chromosome Inheritance of the Intergeneric BC2 and BC3 Progeny between Saccharum spp. and Erianthus arundinaceus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongji; Wu, Jiayun; Wang, Ping; Lin, Yanquan; Fu, Cheng; Deng, Zuhu; Wang, Qinnan; Li, Qiwei; Chen, Rukai; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Erianthus arundinaceus (E. arundinaceus) has many desirable agronomic traits for sugarcane improvement, such as high biomass, vigor, rationing ability, tolerance to drought, and water logging, as well as resistance to pests and disease. To investigate the introgression of the E. arundinaceus genome into sugarcane in the higher generations, intergeneric BC2 and BC3 progeny generated between Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus were studied using the genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique. The results showed that the BC2 and BC3 generations resulted from n + n chromosome transmission. Furthermore, chromosome translocation occurred at terminal fragments from the E. arundinaceus chromosome in some progeny of Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus. Notably, the translocated chromosomes could be stably transmitted to their progeny. This study illustrates the characterization of chromosome inheritance of the intergeneric BC2 and BC3 progeny between Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus. This work could provide more useful molecular cytogenetic information for the germplasm resources of E. arundinaceus, and may promote further understanding of the germplasm resources of E. arundinaceus for sugarcane breeders to accelerate its progress in sugarcane commercial breeding. PMID:26196281

  5. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2011-07-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of its official program, within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial activities. This event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project `Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4', supported by the National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya in 1980, and was followed by: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006) and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss recent progress and outlooks in plasma science, covering fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, plasma applications, etc. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005) and Caracas (2007). The purpose of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is to provide a forum in which the achievements of the Latin American plasma physics communities can be displayed, as well as to foster collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The Program of ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included

  6. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  7. Santorini eruption radiocarbon dated to 1627-1600 B.C.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Walter L; Kromer, Bernd; Friedrich, Michael; Heinemeier, Jan; Pfeiffer, Tom; Talamo, Sahra

    2006-04-28

    Precise and direct dating of the Minoan eruption of Santorini (Thera) in Greece, a global Bronze Age time marker, has been made possible by the unique find of an olive tree, buried alive in life position by the tephra (pumice and ashes) on Santorini. We applied so-called radiocarbon wiggle-matching to a carbon-14 sequence of tree-ring segments to constrain the eruption date to the range 1627-1600 B.C. with 95.4% probability. Our result is in the range of previous, less precise, and less direct results of several scientific dating methods, but it is a century earlier than the date derived from traditional Egyptian chronologies. PMID:16645088

  8. B.C. Hydro-IPC review: Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This report is a review of the activities surrounding the creation of IPC (International Power Corporation) and its joint venture with the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (BC Hydro) for the development of international power projects, including the Raiwind project in Pakistan. The scope of the review included determination of: The process followed in establishing IPC and the structure of corporations associated with the Raiwind project; the process of conducting the IPC share offering; whether the conduct of participants was in accordance with sound public policy and good business practice; what guidelines and checks existed to protect the public interest; and whether there were any system or governance failures either inside or outside BC Hydro. Sections of the review examine the offshore economic development strategies of BC Hydro; the nature and scope of the Raiwind project; the principal participants involved in that project; the choice of a Cayman Islands planning structure; the investment of BC Hydro funds in the project; the private sector component of Raiwind project funding; accounting for funds invested; standards of conduct of government and BC Hydro-related personnel, including conflicts of interest; and governance issues.

  9. Democritus (460-370 BC) on embryology, anatomy and pediatrics: the unknown aspects of the Greek atomic scientist.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Kousoulis, Antonis A; Androutsos, George

    2012-01-01

    Democritus was born in Abdera, Thrace, in the 5th century BC. He travelled to the East while being the student of famous philosophers. His philosophical ideas and the establishment of particles, "the atoms", gave him a leading position in world history. However, his medical knowledge was vast especially in the field of pediatric pharmacology. Numerous are also the reports of his passion for anatomy. Democritus' views regarding the issue of Human Nature and Anatomy are depicted in a letter he sent to Hippocrates of Kos. He died in old age, possibly of infection after having totally neglected his personal hygiene. PMID:23420949

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Bulk BC8 Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haidong; Strobel, Timothy

    Silicon, an essential element for modern industry, has several allotropes existing at ambient conditions. Among them, one of the most important phases is the metastable Si-III (BC8) structure. Although it has been known since 1960s, experimental characterization of its properties is still rare primarily due to lack of large bulk samples. Common methods produce BC8 Si samples with the size of micrometers in dimension, preventing definitive experimental measurements. In this work we report synthesis of phase pure bulk BC8 Si with the size of a few millimeters through the multi-anvil press method. The structure was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and further supported by the Raman spectrum. Its electrical resistance exhibits clear temperature dependence, increasing from 300 K to 2K. A crossover region occurs around 80 K to 100 K, showing a stronger dependence below 80 K. We also report its optical properties, thermal stability and phonon density of states.

  11. Hydrogen storage in polylithiated BC3 monolayer sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunguo; Hussain, Tanveer; De Sarkar, Abir; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2013-09-01

    We perform a detailed study on the stability, electronic structure and hydrogen storage capacity of polylithiated (CLi3 functionalized) boron carbide (BC3) monolayer sheet using first-principles calculations. The binding of the CLi3 radical to the boron carbide (BC3) monolayer sheet is found to be large enough to ensure its uniform distribution without any clustering. The structural stability has been confirmed by molecular dynamics. Each lithium atom is able to accommodate 4 H2 molecules with an average binding energy of 0.21 eV, which is suitable for reversible H2 adsorption/desorption at ambient temperatures. The uptake of H2 is found to reach up to 9.83 wt% in polylithiated BC3 monolayer sheet.

  12. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  13. Plume Delineation in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, Dale F.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2004-11-30

    HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc. and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were contracted by Fluor Hanford Group, Inc. to conduct a geophysical investigation in the area of the BC Cribs and Trenches (subject site) at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The BC Cribs and Trenches are located south of the 200 East Area. This document provides the details of the investigation to identify existing infrastructure from legacy disposal activities and to delineate the edges of a groundwater plume that contains radiological and heavy metal constituents beneath the 216-B-26 and 216-B-52 Trenches, and the 216-B-14 through 216-B-19 Cribs.

  14. Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013) Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.

    2014-10-01

    In magnetic fusion plasmas, a significant fraction of the kinetic pressure is contributed by superthermal charged particles produced by auxiliary heating (fast ions and electrons) and fusion reactions (a-particles). Since these energetic particles are often far away from thermal equilibrium due to their non-Maxwellian distribution and steep pressure gradients, the free energy can excite electromagnetic instabilities to intensity levels well above the thermal fluctuations. The resultant electromagnetic turbulence could induce large transport of energetic particles, which could reduce heating efficiency, degrade overall plasma confinement, and damage fusion devices. Therefore, understanding and predicting energetic particle confinement properties are critical to the success of burning plasma experiments such as ITER since the ignition relies on plasma self-heating by a-particles. To promote international exchanges and collaborations on energetic particle physics, the biannual conference series under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were help in Kyiv (1989), Aspenas (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007), Kyiv (2009), and Austin (2011). The papers in this special section were presented at the most recent meeting, the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was hosted by the Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing, China (17-20 September 2013). The program of the meeting consisted of 71 presentations, including 13 invited talks, 26 oral contributed talks, 30 posters, and 2 summary talks, which were selected by the International Advisory Committee (IAC). The IAC members include H. Berk, L.G. Eriksson, A. Fasoli, W. Heidbrink, Ya. Kolesnichenko, Ph. Lauber, Z. Lin, R. Nazikian, S. Pinches, S. Sharapov, K. Shinohara, K. Toi, G. Vlad, and X.T. Ding. The conference program

  15. Measurement of the lifetime of the Bc+ meson using the Bc+ → J / ψπ+ decay mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R. C. M.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lowdon, P.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.-B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, J. V.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilschut, H. W.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-03-01

    The difference in total widths between the Bc+  and B+ mesons is measured using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0fb-1  collected by the LHCb experiment in 7 and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energy proton-proton collisions at the LHC. Through the study of the time evolution of Bc+ → J / ψπ+ and B+ → J / ψK+ decays, the width difference is measured to be

  16. Improving the BC Transfer Experience: Feedback from Students. Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The BC Council on Admissions and Transfer is always seeking ways to improve the transfer system for the benefit of students. Doing so is often informed by research in one form or another. Questions were added to the 2011 Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) survey to help us gain a better understanding of why some…

  17. Improving the BC Transfer Experience: Feedback from Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The BC Council on Admissions and Transfer is always seeking ways to improve the transfer system for the benefit of students. Doing so is informed by research in one form or another. Questions added to the 2011 Diploma, Associate Degree and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) survey sought to gain a better understanding of why some students are…

  18. Bethe Ansatz for the Ruijsenaars Model of BC_1-Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalykh, Oleg

    2007-02-01

    We consider one-dimensional elliptic Ruijsenaars model of type BC1. It is given by a three-term difference Schrödinger operator L containing 8 coupling constants. We show that when all coupling constants are integers, L has meromorphic eigenfunctions expressed by a variant of Bethe ansatz. This result generalizes the Bethe ansatz formulas known in the A1-case.

  19. Sosigenes of Alexandria (c. 50 or 90 BC-?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Peripatetic Greek philosopher, born in Alexandria, astronomer and mathematician who advised Julius Caesar on calendar reform. He recommended a year of 365.25 days, and inserted extra days into the year 46 BC to bring the calendar back in register with the seasons. His account of Eudoxus's planetary system is the most complete surviving account....

  20. Bacterial Cellulose (BC) as a Functional Nanocomposite Biomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandgaonkar, Avinav Ghanashyam

    Cellulosic is the most abundant biopolymer in the landscape and can be found in many different organisms. It has been already seen use in the medical field, for example cotton for wound dressings and sutures. Although cellulose is naturally occurring and has found a number of applications inside and outside of the medical field, it is not typically produced in its pure state. A lengthy process is required to separate the lignin, hemicelluloses and other molecules from the cellulose in most renewables (wood, agricultural fibers such as cotton, monocots, grasses, etc.). Although bacterial cellulose has a similar chemical structure to plant cellulose, it is easier to process because of the absence of lignin and hemicelluloses which require a lot of energy and chemicals for removal. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is produced from various species of bacteria such as Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Due to its high water uptake, it has the tendency to form gels. It displays high tensile strength, biocompatibility, and purity compared to wood cellulose. It has found applications in fields such as paper, paper products, audio components (e.g., speaker diaphragms), flexible electronics, supercapacitors, electronics, and soft tissue engineering. In my dissertation, we have functionalized and studied BC-based materials for three specific applications: cartilage tissue engineering, bioelectronics, and dye degradation. In our first study, we prepared a highly organized porous material based on BC by unidirectional freezing followed by a freeze-drying process. Chitosan was added to impart additional properties to the resulting BC-based scaffolds that were evaluated in terms of their morphological, chemical, and physical properties for cartilage tissue engineering. The properties of the resulting scaffold were tailored by adjusting the concentration of chitosan over 1, 1.5, and 2 % (by wt-%). The scaffolds containing chitosan showed excellent shape recovery and structural stability after

  1. Drought frequency in central California since 101 B.C. recordered in giant sequoia tree rings

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.K.; Brown, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Well replicated tree-ring width index chronologies have been developed for giant sequoia at three sites in the Sierra Nevada, California. Extreme low-growth events in these chronologies correspond with regional drought events in the twentieth century in the San Joaquin drainage, in which the giant sequoia sites are located. This relationship is based upon comparison of tree-ring indices with August Palmer Drought Severity Indices for California Climate Division 5. Ring-width indices in the lowest decile from each site were compared. The frequency of low-growth events which occurred at all three sites in the same year is reconstructed from 101 B.C. to A.D. 1988. The inferred frequency of severe drought events changes through time, sometimes suddenly. The period from roughly 1850 to 1950 had one of the lowest frequencies of drought of any one hundred year period in the 2089 year record. The twentieth century so far has had a below-average frequency of extreme droughts. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Drought frequency in central California since 101 B.C. recorded in giant sequoia tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Malcolm K.; Brown, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    Well replicated tree-ring width index chronologies have been developed for giant sequoia at three sites in the Sierra Nevada, California. Extreme low-growth events in these chronologies correspond with regional drought events in the twentieth century in the San Joaquin drainage, in which the giant sequoia sites are located. This relationship is based upon comparison of tree-ring indices with August Palmer Drought Severity Indices for California Climate Division 5. Ring-width indices in the lowest decile from each site were compared. The frequency of low-growth events which occurred at all three sites in the same year is reconstructed from 101 B.C. to A.D. 1988. The inferred frequency of severe drought events changes through time, sometimes suddenly. The period from roughly 1850 to 1950 had one of the lowest frequencies of drought of any one hundred year period in the 2089 year record. The twentieth century so far has had a below-average frequency of extreme droughts.

  3. Favored Bc decay modes to search for a Majorana neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sanjoy; Sinha, Nita

    2016-08-01

    Recently, the LHCb collaboration reported the observation of the decay mode Bc-→B¯s 0π- with the largest exclusive branching fraction amongst the known decay modes of all the B mesons. Here we propose a search for a few lepton-number violating (Δ L =2 ) decay modes of Bc which can only be induced by Majorana neutrinos. Distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana nature of neutrinos is an outstanding problem and hence, all possible searches for Majorana neutrinos need to be carried out. Since the lepton number violating modes are expected to be rare, when using meson decay modes for these searches one expects CKM favored modes to be the preferred ones; Bc→Bs is one such transition. With a resonance enhancement of the Majorana neutrino mediating the Bc-→B¯s 0ℓ1-ℓ2-π+ modes one can hope to observe these rare modes, or, even their nonobservation can be used to obtain tight constraints on the mixing angles of the heavy Majorana singlet with the light flavour neutrinos from upper limits of the branching fractions. Using these modes we obtain exclusion curves for the mixing angles which are tighter or compatible with results from earlier studies. However, we find that the relatively suppressed mode Bc-→J /ψ ℓ1- ℓ2-π+ can provide even tighter constraints on |Ve N|2, |Vμ N|2, |Ve NVμ N|, and in a larger range of the heavy neutrino mass. Further, exclusion regions for |Ve NVτ N|, |Vμ NVτ N| can also be obtained for masses larger than those accessible in tau decays. Upper limits on B (Bc-→π+ℓ1- ℓ2-) can also result in stringent exclusion curves for all the mixing elements, including that for |Vτ N|2 in a mass range where it is unconstrained thus far.

  4. Overview of Hydrometeorologic Forecasting Procedures at BC Hydro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollor, D.

    2004-12-01

    Energy utility companies must balance production from limited sources with increasing demand from industrial, business, and residential consumers. The utility planning process requires a balanced, efficient, and effective distribution of energy from source to consumer. Therefore utility planners must consider the impact of weather on energy production and consumption. Hydro-electric companies should be particularly tuned to weather because their source of energy is water, and water supply depends on precipitation. BC Hydro operates as the largest hydro-electric company in western Canada, managing over 30 reservoirs within the province of British Columbia, and generating electricity for 1.6 million people. BC Hydro relies on weather forecasts of watershed precipitation and temperature to drive hydrologic reservoir inflow models and of urban temperatures to meet energy demand requirements. Operations and planning specialists in the company rely on current, value-added weather forecasts for extreme high-inflow events, daily reservoir operations planning, and long-term water resource management. Weather plays a dominant role for BC Hydro financial planners in terms of sensitive economic responses. For example, a two percent change in hydropower generation, due in large part to annual precipitation patterns, results in an annual net change of \\50 million in earnings. A five percent change in temperature produces a \\5 million change in yearly earnings. On a daily basis, significant precipitation events or temperature extremes involve potential profit/loss decisions in the tens of thousands of dollars worth of power generation. These factors are in addition to environmental and societal costs that must be considered equally as part of a triple bottom line reporting structure. BC Hydro water resource managers require improved meteorological information from recent advancements in numerical weather prediction. At BC Hydro, methods of providing meteorological forecast data

  5. Conservation of lipid functions in cytochrome bc complexes.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S Saif; Yamashita, Eiki; Ryan, Christopher M; Whitelegge, Julian P; Cramer, William A

    2011-11-18

    Lipid binding sites and properties are compared in two sub-families of hetero-oligomeric membrane protein complexes known to have similar functions in order to gain further understanding of the role of lipid in the function, dynamics, and assembly of these complexes. Using the crystal structure information for both complexes, we compared the lipid binding properties of the cytochrome b(6)f and bc(1) complexes that function in photosynthetic and respiratory membrane energy transduction. Comparison of lipid and detergent binding sites in the b(6)f complex with those in bc(1) shows significant conservation of lipid positions. Seven lipid binding sites in the cyanobacterial b(6)f complex overlap three natural sites in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algal complex and four sites in the yeast mitochondrial bc(1) complex. The specific identity of lipids is different in b(6)f and bc(1) complexes: b(6)f contains sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, whereas cardiolipin, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidic acid are present in the yeast bc(1) complex. The lipidic chlorophyll a and β-carotene (β-car) in cyanobacterial b(6)f, as well as eicosane in C. reinhardtii, are unique to the b(6)f complex. Inferences of lipid binding sites and functions were supported by sequence, interatomic distance, and B-factor information on interacting lipid groups and coordinating amino acid residues. The lipid functions inferred in the b(6)f complex are as follows: (i) substitution of a transmembrane helix by a lipid and chlorin ring, (ii) lipid and β-car connection of peripheral and core domains, (iii) stabilization of the iron-sulfur protein transmembrane helix, (iv) n-side charge and polarity compensation, and (v) β-car-mediated super-complex with the photosystem I complex. PMID:21978667

  6. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  7. Geomagnetic field variations in Western Europe from 1500 BC to 200 AD. Part II: New intensity secular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, Gwenaël; Chauvin, Annick; Lanos, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    a new Western Europe VGPs and VDMs mean curves. Comparison with the predictions given by the global models points out a possible persistent non-dipole fields effect over Europe between 1000 BC and 600-500 BC. Finally, we note that the strong variations of intensity of the geomagnetic field (with a mean decrease rate per century close to 6 μT) will be useful for archaeomagnetic dating purposes.

  8. Involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases BcPtpA and BcPtpB in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and multi-stress tolerance in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Yu, Fangwei; Yin, Yanni; Ma, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation have emerged as fundamentally important mechanisms of signal transduction and regulation in eukaryotic cells, governing many processes, but little has been known about their functions in filamentous fungi. In this study, we deleted two putative protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) genes (BcPTPA and BcPTPB) in Botrytis cinerea, encoding the orthologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ptp2 and Ptp3, respectively. Although BcPtpA and BcPtpB have opposite functions in conidiation, they are essential for sclerotial formation in B. cinerea. BcPTPA and BcPTPB deletion mutants ΔBcPtpA-10 and ΔBcPtpB-4 showed significantly increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to cell wall damaging agents. Inoculation tests showed that both mutants exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on tomato leaves, apples and grapes. In S. cerevisiae, it has been shown that Ptp2 and Ptp3 negatively regulate the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway and the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. Although both BcPtpA and BcPtpB were able to inactive Hog1 and Mpk1 in S. cerevisiae, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, they positively regulate phosphorylation of BcSak1 (the homologue of Hog1) and BcBmp3 (the homologue of Mpk1) in B. cinerea under stress conditions. These results demonstrated that functions of PTPs in B. cinerea are different from those in S. cerevisiae, and BcPtpA and BcPtpB play important roles in regulation of vegetative development, virulence and in adaptation to oxidative, osmotic and cell-wall damage stresses in B. cinerea. PMID:23585890

  9. Variation of the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field in Portugal in the 1st millennium BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.

    2009-07-01

    The study of magnetization of the ceramic material from 21 archeological monuments of Portugal (the Evora province), dated archeologically from the Bronze Age to the end of the Iron Age has been carried out. For the purpose of more detailed timing of the material from the monuments the method of ceramic age dating on the basis of its porosity has been used. In order to take into account the distorted factors in the determination of the parameters of the ancient geomagnetic field with the aim of the maximal approximation to the actual values the diagnostic features of magnetite weathering have been considered and the level of weathering of the magnetic fraction in the ceramics from archeological monuments has been determined. The data of geomagnetic field-strength variation in the time interval of the 12th century BC to the beginning of the Common Era have been obtained. The field-strength at this time interval varied in the range of 60-90 micro Tesla with the maximal values in the 9th, 8th, and the second half of the 5th to the beginning of the 4th century BC. In addition, the timing of the ceramic material from the urns of the megalithic complex Monte de Tera of the Evora province has been clarified.

  10. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  11. The 13th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Technological areas covered include propulsion, motion compensation, instrument pointing and adjustment, centrifuge testing, bearing design, vehicle braking, and cargo handling. Devices for satellite, missile, and hypersonic-wind-tunnel applications; space shuttle mechanical and thermal protection systems; and techniques for building large space structures are described. In addition, a fluid drop injector device for a Spacelab experiment, a helical grip for cable cars, and applications of rare earth permanent magnets are discussed.

  12. 13th Annual School Construction Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2008-01-01

    School construction completed in 2007--including new buildings, additions to existing buildings, and major retrofit of existing buildings--totaled almost $20.8B, a signifi cant increase over the $20.1B spent on construction completed in 2006. This marks the seventh year in the last eight that annual construction exceeded $20B. During the eight…

  13. The effects of hygroscopicity of fossil fuel BC on mixed-phase and cirrus ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Y.; Penner, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Fossil fuel burning BC aerosols are often emitted together with sulfate, which coats the surface of these BC particles and changes their hygroscopicity. The ice forming capability of the fossil fuel burning BC can differ widely as a result of the amount of soluble coating on their surface. Due to the abundance of fossil fuel burning BC particles, a small change in their activated fraction can produce a large difference in their climate forcing. To better quantify the role of fossil fuel burning BC in climate change, a 3-BC (hydrophobic, hydrophilic and hygroscopic BC) scheme is developed to replace the 1-BC scheme in a coupled climate and aerosol transport model (CAM-IMPACT). The new scheme explicitly calculates the condensation and coagulation of sulfate on BC particles and keeps track of their coating in the 3-BC states. The hygroscopicity of BC is determined by the layers of sulfate coating on their surface according to criteria developed in laboratory observations. The ice formation scheme in mixed-phase and cirrus clouds is also updated to treat the 3 hygroscopicity BC groups separately according to their different ice freezing capabilities. This paper will report the climate forcing associated with the new BC scheme as well as comparison with observations.

  14. Lansoprazole is an antituberculous prodrug targeting cytochrome bc1

    PubMed Central

    Rybniker, Jan; Vocat, Anthony; Sala, Claudia; Busso, Philippe; Pojer, Florence; Benjak, Andrej; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Better antibiotics capable of killing multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis are urgently needed. Despite extensive drug discovery efforts, only a few promising candidates are on the horizon and alternative screening protocols are required. Here, by testing a panel of FDA-approved drugs in a host cell-based assay, we show that the blockbuster drug lansoprazole (Prevacid), a gastric proton-pump inhibitor, has intracellular activity against M. tuberculosis. Ex vivo pharmacokinetics and target identification studies reveal that lansoprazole kills M. tuberculosis by targeting its cytochrome bc1 complex through intracellular sulfoxide reduction to lansoprazole sulfide. This novel class of cytochrome bc1 inhibitors is highly active against drug-resistant clinical isolates and spares the human H+K+-ATPase thus providing excellent opportunities for targeting the major pathogen M. tuberculosis. Our finding provides proof of concept for hit expansion by metabolic activation, a powerful tool for antibiotic screens. PMID:26158909

  15. Exploring distributed leadership in the BC Sepsis Network.

    PubMed

    Gorley, Charlotte; Lindstrom, Ronald R; McKeown, Shari; Krause, Christina; Pamplin, Chantale; Sweet, David; Marsden, Julian; Kennedy, Colleen

    2016-03-01

    Commissioned research was undertaken to explore the role of networks in supporting large-scale change and improvement. Participatory action research and social network analysis were used to study the BC Sepsis Network. Findings of this research include insights into distributed leadership, enablers and barriers within a network approach; the importance of relationships and trust; and the need for meaningful and timely data. Recommendations are made for health leaders who are considering utilizing networks for improving patient quality and safety. PMID:26872797

  16. Maintenance procedures catalogue: BC Hydro International Ltd. , October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    New catalogue lists over 1,000 written procedures developed over the past 25 years by BC Hydro personnel, both in the field and in the company's research and development division that are available for purchase from the Canadian utility. Developed at a cost of an estimated $5 million, the procedure documents cover Apparatus, Protection and Control, Safety, Distribution Standards, Engineering Contracts and Live Line Training. Procedures listed in the catalogue are available in both hard copy and electronic formats.

  17. Klippel-Feil syndrome with other associated anomalies in a medieval Portuguese skeleton (13th–15th century)

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Teresa; Costa, Catarina

    2007-01-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome, or synostosis of the cervical spine, is the result of an abnormal division of somites during embryonic development. This report analyses an adult male (exhumed from a Portuguese graveyard dating from the 13th to the 15th century) with malformations in the cranium and vertebral column. Besides the lesions that are typical of Klippel-Feil syndrome type II, other defects usually linked to this pathology are described (occipito-atlantal fusion, hemivertebrae, butterfly vertebrae, cervical rib, changes in normal number of vertebral segments and a possible Sprengel deformity). PMID:17850283

  18. [Management of patients at the Saint-Jean de Jérusalem hospital in the 12th Century].

    PubMed

    Monier, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The Order of the Hospital Saint John of Jerusalem founded in the Holy Land on the 15th February 1113 was devoted to give the pilgrims board and lodging. Since 1125 the Hospitaliers took in sick and ensured supplies and cares for them as they recruited physicians and surgeons. A hierarchical organization lasted during the 13th century until the fall of Acre and the loss of the Holy Land. The author describes the day of a patient in this lazaret during the years of 1177 to 1187. PMID:21598560

  19. Profile of BC College Transfer Students 2003/04 to 2007/08. Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    This newsletter summarizes the results from five reports commissioned by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) that profiled the academic experiences and demographics of BC college transfer students: those students who transferred from a BC college, university college, or institute to a BC university during the period…

  20. Evolutionary concepts in biobanking - the BC BioLibrary

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Medical research to improve health care faces a major problem in the relatively limited availability of adequately annotated and collected biospecimens. This limitation is creating a growing gap between the pace of scientific advances and successful exploitation of this knowledge. Biobanks are an important conduit for transfer of biospecimens (tissues, blood, body fluids) and related health data to research. They have evolved outside of the historical source of tissue biospecimens, clinical pathology archives. Research biobanks have developed advanced standards, protocols, databases, and mechanisms to interface with researchers seeking biospecimens. However, biobanks are often limited in their capacity and ability to ensure quality in the face of increasing demand. Our strategy to enhance both capacity and quality in research biobanking is to create a new framework that repatriates the activity of biospecimen accrual for biobanks to clinical pathology. Methods The British Columbia (BC) BioLibrary is a framework to maximize the accrual of high-quality, annotated biospecimens into biobanks. The BC BioLibrary design primarily encompasses: 1) specialized biospecimen collection units embedded within clinical pathology and linked to a biospecimen distribution system that serves biobanks; 2) a systematic process to connect potential donors with biobanks, and to connect biobanks with consented biospecimens; and 3) interdisciplinary governance and oversight informed by public opinion. Results The BC BioLibrary has been embraced by biobanking leaders and translational researchers throughout BC, across multiple health authorities, institutions, and disciplines. An initial pilot network of three Biospecimen Collection Units has been successfully established. In addition, two public deliberation events have been held to obtain input from the public on the BioLibrary and on issues including consent, collection of biospecimens and governance. Conclusion The BC Bio

  1. The physiognomist's kidney in the fifteenth century.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Physiognomy, the art of deciphering a person's character and potential behavior by his or her external appearance, is an ancient body of knowledge which was gradually revived in the Latin West in the twelfth and particularly in the thirteenth century. This is a philological study of the scientific discourse about the physiognomy of the kidney in physiognomic sources from Pseudo-Aristotle's Physiognomonics (third century B.C.) through Pietro d'Abano's Liber compilationis phisonomie (ca 1295) to Rolandus Scriptoris's Reductorium phisonomie (ca 1430). Fifteenth-century learned physiognomists devoted specific chapters to the kidney. The physiognomists analyzed the fleshiness of the body-surface outside the kidneys (i.e. the loins and their vicinity). Firm loins denoted boldness, agility, and good fighting capacity and vice versa. The pre-modern kidney was of interest not only to physicians and surgeons wishing to treat kidney conditions and other pathologies arising from the urinary system. There were learned physicians who examined the body not to diagnose diseases, but to decipher their patient's personality. When engaged in this activity the kidneys, that is, the loins or the external area of the kidneys, were one of the body parts that could provide vital physiognomic information. PMID:15372426

  2. Measurements of B(c)+ production and mass with the B(c)+ → J/ψπ+ decay.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Maino, M; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Voss, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of B(c)(+) production and mass are performed with the decay mode B(c)(+)→J/ψπ(+) using 0.37 fb(-1) of data collected in pp collisions at √[s]=7 TeV by the LHCb experiment. The ratio of the production cross section times branching fraction between the B(c)(+)→J/ψπ(+) and the B(+)→J/ψK(+) decays is measured to be (0.68±0.10(stat)±0.03(syst)±0.05(lifetime))% for B(c)(+) and B(+) mesons with transverse momenta p(T)>4 GeV/c and pseudorapidities 2.5<η<4.5. The B(c)(+) mass is directly measured to be 6273.7±1.3(stat)±1.6(syst) MeV/c(2), and the measured mass difference with respect to the B(+) meson is M(B(c)(+))-M(B(+))=994.6±1.3(stat)±0.6(syst) MeV/c(2). PMID:23368183

  3. Voyaging from the Past, to the Present, and into the Future: Knowing Your Heritage. Selected Papers from PIALA 2003, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums Annual Conference (13th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 4-6, 2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 13th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 4-6, 2003. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2003 Planning &…

  4. PIALA 2000: Libraries and Archives--Where Information and Language Literacy Begin [and] Engaged Readers and Writers in Multicultural Island Communities. Selected Papers from the 10th Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference Joint with the 13th Annual Regional Language Arts Conference (Tumon, Guam, November 9-11, 2000)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.; Quan, Clarisa G., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This proceedings combines presentations from the jointly held 10th Annual PIALA 2000 Conference and the 13th Annual Regional Language Arts Conference. The volume begins with the welcoming remarks of Mary L. Silk, Christine Ku Scott-Smith, Antonio R. Umpingco, Delia Munoz Rosal, Lawrence Kasperbauer, Rosie Tainatongo, Richard S. Tom, Mary L.…

  5. Geomagnetic field intensity in the eastern Mediterranean region in the second half of the 1st millennium BC and the beginning of our era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Il'Ina, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    The magnetization of ceramic material manufactured in the eastern Mediterranean is studied. Data on the variation in geomagnetic field intensity in the time interval from the fourth-quarter of the 6th century BC through the 2nd century AD are obtained. The main tendency of the variation in the field intensity until approximately the middle of this interval is its decrease, after which the average intensity level varied insignificantly over the three next centuries. Variations with characteristic times of a few tens to a few hundreds of years are superimposed on the smooth variation in the field intensity approximated by a sinusoid with a period of 1600 yr. The data obtained in this work confirm the previously derived conclusion that short-term intensity variations have been permanently present in the geomagnetic field in the recent millennia.

  6. Regulation of alternative splicing of Bcl-x by BC200 contributes to breast cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Gupta, S C; Peng, W-X; Zhou, N; Pochampally, R; Atfi, A; Watabe, K; Lu, Z; Mo, Y-Y

    2016-01-01

    BC200 is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that has been implicated in the regulation of protein synthesis, yet whether dysregulation of BC200 contributes to the pathogenesis of human diseases remains elusive. In this study, we show that BC200 is upregulated in breast cancer; among breast tumor specimens there is a higher level of BC200 in estrogen receptor (ER) positive than in ER-negative tumors. Further experiments show that activation of estrogen signaling induces expression of BC200. To determine the significance of ER-regulated BC200 expression, we knockout (KO) BC200 by CRISPR/Cas9. BC200 KO suppresses tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo by expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-xS isoform. Mechanistically, BC200 contains a 17-nucleotide sequence complementary to Bcl-x pre-mRNA, which may facilitate its binding to Bcl-x pre-mRNA and recruitment of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1, a known splicing factor. Consequently, hnRNP A2/B1 interferes with association of Bcl-x pre-mRNA with the Bcl-xS-promoting factor Sam68, leading to a blockade of Bcl-xS expression. Together, these results suggest that BC200 plays an oncogenic role in breast cancer. Thus, BC200 may serve as a prognostic marker and possible target for attenuating deregulated cell proliferation in estrogen-dependent breast cancer. PMID:27277684

  7. OPTICAL AND INFRARED ANALYSIS OF TYPE II SN 2006bc

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Joseph S.; Sugerman, B. E. K.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, J. E.; Clem, J. E-mail: ben.sugerman@goucher.edu E-mail: jandrews@phys.lsu.edu; and others

    2012-07-10

    We present nebular phase optical imaging and spectroscopy and near/mid-IR imaging of the Type II SN 2006bc. Observations reveal the central wavelength of the symmetric H{alpha} line profile to be redshifted with respect to the host galaxy H{alpha} emission by day 325. Such a phenomenon has been argued to result from an asymmetric explosion in the iron-peak elements resulting in a larger mass of {sup 56}Ni and higher excitation of hydrogen on the far side of the supernova (SN) explosion. We also observe a gradual blueshifting of this H{alpha} peak which is indicative of dust formation in the ejecta. Although showing a normal peak brightness, V {approx} -17.2, for a core-collapse SN, 2006bc fades by {approx}6 mag during the first 400 days suggesting either a relatively low {sup 56}Ni yield, an increase in extinction due to new dust, or both. A short-duration flattening of the light curve is observed from day 416 to day 541 suggesting an optical light echo. Based on the narrow time window of this echo, we discuss implications on the location and geometry of the reflecting interstellar medium. With our radiative transfer models, we find an upper limit of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} of dust around SN 2006bc. In the event that all of this dust were formed during the SN explosion, this quantity of dust is still several orders of magnitude lower than that needed to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the early universe.

  8. From 200 BC to 2015 AD: an integration of robotic surgery and Ayurveda/Yoga

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Geethakrishnan Gopalakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Background Among the traditional systems of medicine practiced all over the world, Ayurveda and Yoga has a documented history dating back to beyond 200 BC. Robotic and video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is an invention of the 21st century. We aim to quantify the effects of integration of Ayurveda and Yoga on patients undergoing minimally invasive robotic and VATS. Methods Four hundred and fifty-four patients undergoing VATS and robotic thoracic surgery were introduced to a pre and postoperative protocol of Yoga therapy, mediation and oil massages. Yoga exercises included Pranayam, Anulom Vilom, and Oil Massages included Urotarpan. Preoperative and postoperative respiratory functions were recorded. Patient satisfaction questionnaire were noted. Statistical comparison was made to control group undergoing minimally invasive thoracic surgery without integrative medicine. Only one patient refused to undergo Ayurveda therapy and was deleted from the group. Results Acceptability was high among all patients. Preoperative training led to implementation as early as 6 hours post surgery. Pulmonary function test showed significant improvement. All patients suggested an improvement in satisfaction score. Pain score were less in study patients. Quicker mobilization led to early discharge and drain removal. Chronic pain was prevented in patients having oil massages over the healed wound sites. Conclusions Integration of Ayurveda, Yoga and minimally invasive robotic and VATS is acceptable to Indian patients and gives better clinical results and higher patient satisfaction. PMID:26941975

  9. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: a technical study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO3) and Fe (existing as Fe2O3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China. PMID:21703919

  10. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: A technical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO 3) and Fe (existing as Fe 2O 3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

  11. The Merger of White Ovals BC and DE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, A. A.

    1998-09-01

    In early 1998 it was reported by amateur observers, and confirmed by IRTF and Pic-du-Midi observations, that two of Jupiter's classical White Ovals, BC and DE, had merged (IAU circ. #6942). 5 orbits of Hubble Space Telescope Target of Opportunity WFPC2 observations were granted for June 3, 1998 and July 16, 1998 to observe the post-merger state of the oval region. Preliminary analysis of the remaining ovals over a range of incident and emergent light angles sets limits on the morphology, rotational velocities and translation rates and characterizes the surrounding zonal structure. In the context of historical observations, the ovals appear to be behaving in a manner similar to that seen whenever ovals have interacted. There has been an acceleration of the new oval, which is now gradually decelerating as it experiences drag from its surroundings. Qualitatively, the new oval's morphology and structure in a wide range of filters (410 to 953 nm) is similar to the pre-merger structure of BC, indicating that the new oval has a character similar to that of the other White Ovals. The authors wish to acknowledge the observers of the ALPO and the IJW for their diligent efforts in obtaining transit times and images of these events. These results are based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract No. NAS5-26555.

  12. Biases in modeled surface snow BC mixing ratios in prescribed-aerosol climate model runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, S. J.; Bitz, C. M.; Flanner, M. G.

    2014-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) in snow lowers its albedo, increasing the absorption of sunlight, leading to positive radiative forcing, climate warming and earlier snowmelt. A series of recent studies have used prescribed-aerosol deposition flux fields in climate model runs to assess the forcing by black carbon in snow. In these studies, the prescribed mass deposition flux of BC to surface snow is decoupled from the mass deposition flux of snow water to the surface. Here we compare prognostic- and prescribed-aerosol runs and use a series of offline calculations to show that the prescribed-aerosol approach results, on average, in a factor of about 1.5-2.5 high bias in annual-mean surface snow BC mixing ratios in three key regions for snow albedo forcing by BC: Greenland, Eurasia and North America. These biases will propagate directly to positive biases in snow and surface albedo reduction by BC. The bias is shown be due to coupling snowfall that varies on meteorological timescales (daily or shorter) with prescribed BC mass deposition fluxes that are more temporally and spatially smooth. The result is physically non-realistic mixing ratios of BC in surface snow. We suggest that an alternative approach would be to prescribe BC mass mixing ratios in snowfall, rather than BC mass fluxes, and we show that this produces more physically realistic BC mixing ratios in snowfall and in the surface snow layer.

  13. Preparation and characterization of BC/PAM-AgNPs nanocomposites for antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Caixia; Hong, Feng; Yang, Xuexia; Cao, Zhangjun

    2015-01-22

    In this work, a bacterial cellulose/polyacrylamide (BC/PAM) double network composite was prepared to act as the template for in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Effects of reaction conditions of the BC/PAM composite were investigated on its microstructure, mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Both the BC/PAM composite and pure BC were utilized to prepare the corresponding silver impregnated nanocomposites, i.e., BC/PAM-AgNPs and BC-AgNPs, by an environmental friendly method, UV irradiation. The influences of the templates were investigated on the AgNPs formation and the antibacterial activities of the nanocomposites by both the zone of inhibition and dynamic shake flask methods. It was shown that the BC/PAM composite displayed a denser microstructure and higher thermal stabilities than pure BC. The BC/PAM-AgNPs nanocomposite exhibited a bigger particle size and lower mass content of AgNPs than the BC-AgNPs one. For the antibacterial test, two nanocomposites exhibited a close antibacterial effect, with a high log reduction above 3 and killing ratio above 99.9%, respectively. PMID:25439942

  14. Downregulation of BC200 in ovarian cancer contributes to cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance to carboplatin

    PubMed Central

    WU, DI; WANG, TIANZHEN; REN, CHENGCHENG; LIU, LEI; KONG, DAN; JIN, XIAOMING; LI, XIAOBO; ZHANG, GUANGMEI

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve an important role in carcinogenesis. BC200 is a lncRNA that is reportedly associated with ovarian cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate this potential association between BC200 and ovarian cancer, and to subsequently analyze the biological function of BC200 in the disease. BC200 expression was compared in ovarian cancer tissue and normal ovarian tissue samples through the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To allow the biological function of BC200 in ovarian cancer to be analyzed, small interfering RNA was used to knock down the expression of BC200 in SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. The proliferative, invasive and migratory abilities of the cells were identified by means of cell counting kits and Transwell assays. Carboplatin was also used to treat the ovarian cancer cells, and a luminescent cell viability assay was subsequently used to detect the sensitivity of the cells to the carboplatin. The results demonstrated that BC200 expression was reduced in ovarian cancer compared with normal ovarian tissue samples. In the SKOV3 and A2780 cells, BC200 exerted no effect on invasive or migratory ability, however, the inhibition of BC200 was demonstrated to promote cell proliferation. Additionally, it was observed that carboplatin induced BC200 expression in the cell lines, and that the inhibition of BC200 decreased the sensitivity of the cells to the drug. BC200 is therefore likely to have a tumor suppressive function in ovarian cancer by affecting cell proliferation. Furthermore, BC200 appears to serve a role in the mediation of carboplatin-induced ovarian cancer cell death. PMID:26893717

  15. Phase transition in BC[subscript x] system under high-pressure and high-temperature: Synthesis of cubic dense BC[subscript 3] nanostructured phase

    SciTech Connect

    Zinin, P.V.; Ming, L.C.; Ishii, H.A.; Jia, R.; Acosta, T.; Hellebrand, E.

    2012-07-11

    We synthesized a cubic BC{sub 3} (c-BC{sub 3}) phase, by direct transformation from graphitic phases at a pressure of 39 GPa and temperature of 2200 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. A combination of x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements lead us to conclude that the obtained phase is hetero-nano-diamond, c-BC{sub 3}. High-resolution TEM imaging of the c-BC{sub 3} specimen recovered at ambient conditions demonstrates that the c-BC{sub 3} is a single, uniform, nanocrystalline phase with a grain size of about 3-5 nm. The EELS measurements show that the atoms inside the cubic structure are bonded by sp{sup 3} bonds. The zero-pressure lattice parameter of the c-BC{sub 3} calculated from diffraction peaks was found to be a = 3.589 {+-} 0.007 {angstrom}. The composition of the c-BC{sub 3} is determined from EELS measurements. The ratio of carbon to boron, C/B, is approximately 3 (2.8 {+-} 0.7).

  16. Tunable electronic properties induced by a defect-substrate in graphene/BC3 heterobilayers.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-shi; Zhang, Chang-wen; Ji, Wei-xiao; Li, Feng; Wang, Pei-ji

    2014-11-01

    We perform first-principles calculations to study the geometric, energetics and electronic properties of graphene supported on BC3 monolayer. The results show that overall graphene interacts weakly with BC3 monolayer via van der Waals interaction. The energy gap of graphene can be up to ∼0.162 eV in graphene/BC3 heterobilayers (G/BC3 HBLs), which is large enough for the gap opening at room temperature. We also find that the interlayer spacing and in-plane strain can tune the band gap of G/BC3 HBLs effectively. Interestingly, the characteristics of a Dirac cone with a nearly linear band dispersion relationship of graphene can be preserved, accompanied by a small electron effective mass, and thus the higher carrier mobility is still expected. These findings provide a possible way to design effective FETs out of graphene on a BC3 substrate. PMID:25241677

  17. BcCluster: A Bladder Cancer Database at the Molecular Level

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Akshay; Mokou, Marika; Zoidakis, Jerome; Jankowski, Vera; Vlahou, Antonia; Mischak, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bladder Cancer (BC) has two clearly distinct phenotypes. Non-muscle invasive BC has good prognosis and is treated with tumor resection and intravesical therapy whereas muscle invasive BC has poor prognosis and requires usually systemic cisplatin based chemotherapy either prior to or after radical cystectomy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not often used for patients undergoing cystectomy. High-throughput analytical omics techniques are now available that allow the identification of individual molecular signatures to characterize the invasive phenotype. However, a large amount of data produced by omics experiments is not easily accessible since it is often scattered over many publications or stored in supplementary files. Objective: To develop a novel open-source database, BcCluster (http://www.bccluster.org/), dedicated to the comprehensive molecular characterization of muscle invasive bladder carcinoma. Materials: A database was created containing all reported molecular features significant in invasive BC. The query interface was developed in Ruby programming language (version 1.9.3) using the web-framework Rails (version 4.1.5) (http://rubyonrails.org/). Results: BcCluster contains the data from 112 published references, providing 1,559 statistically significant features relative to BC invasion. The database also holds 435 protein-protein interaction data and 92 molecular pathways significant in BC invasion. The database can be used to retrieve binding partners and pathways for any protein of interest. We illustrate this possibility using survivin, a known BC biomarker. Conclusions: BcCluster is an online database for retrieving molecular signatures relative to BC invasion. This application offers a comprehensive view of BC invasiveness at the molecular level and allows formulation of research hypotheses relevant to this phenotype. PMID:27376128

  18. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  19. First-principles prediction of MgB2-like NaBC: A more promising high-temperature superconducting material than LiBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Rende; Huang, Guiqin; Yang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Crystal structure, lattice dynamics, and superconducting properties for sodium borocarbides NaB1+xC1-x are investigated with first-principles calculations. Based on crystal structure analysis by particle swarm optimization methodology, NaBC is predicted to crystallize in the layered P63 / mmc crystal structure as LiBC. However, it is different from LiBC, in that Na atoms are effectively ionized, with no longitudinal covalence exist between Na and B-C layers, just as in the case of MgB2. Therefore, Na1-xBC is more similar to MgB2 than Li1-xBC as a potential high-temperature superconductor. Further more, we suggest that the slight hole doping of NaBC through partial substitution of C by B atoms can also produce cause superconductivity. The phonon spectra for NaBC and NaB1.1C0.9 are obtained within the virtual-crystal approximation treatment. There is a remarkable softening of the in-plane B-C bond-stretching modes for NaB1.1C0.9 in certain regions of the Brillouin zone, while other phonon bands show no obvious softening behavior. This conspicuous softening of the in-plane B-C bond-stretching modes indicates a strong electron-phonon coupling for them. The obtained total electron-phonon coupling strength λ for NaB1.1C0.9 is 0.73, and superconducting transition temperature TC is predicted to be 35 K (μ* = 0.1). This indicates that NaB1+xC1-x is potentially high-temperature superconducting and hole doping of NaBC could produce high-temperature superconductivity. In addition, we conjecture that, to design a MgB2-like high TC superconducting material, the longitudinal covalent bonds between the metal cations and graphite-like layers need be excluded.

  20. Importance of composition and hygroscopicity of BC particles to the effect of BC mitigation on cloud properties: Application to California conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, Ranjit; Russell, Lynn M.; Jacobson, Mark Z.; Prather, Kimberly; Nenes, Athanasios; Adams, Peter; Seinfeld, John H.

    2012-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) has many effects on climate including the direct effect on atmospheric absorption, indirect and semi-direct effects on clouds, snow effects, and others. While most of these are positive (warming), the first indirect effect is negative and quantifying its magnitude in addition to other BC feedbacks is important for supporting policies that mitigate BC. We use the detailed aerosol chemistry parcel model of Russell and Seinfeld (1998), observationally constrained by initial measured aerosol concentrations from five California sites, to provide simulated cloud drop number (CDN) concentrations against which two GCM calculations - one run at the global scale and one nested from the global-to-regional scale are compared. The GCM results reflect the combined effects of their emission inventories, advection schemes, and cloud parameterizations. BC-type particles contributed between 16 and 20% of cloud droplets at all sites even in the presence of more hygroscopic particles. While this chemically detailed parcel model result is based on simplified cloud dynamics and does not consider semi-direct or cloud absorption effects, the cloud drop number concentrations are similar to the simulations of both Chen et al. (2010b) and Jacobson (2010) for the average cloud conditions in California. Reducing BC particle concentration by 50% decreased the cloud droplet concentration by between 6% and 9% resulting in the formation of fewer, larger cloud droplets that correspond to a lower cloud albedo. This trend is similar to Chen et al. (2010b) and Jacobson (2010) when BC particles were modeled as hygroscopic. This reduction in CDN in California due to the decrease in activated BC particles supports the concern raised by Chen et al. (2010a) that the cloud albedo effect of BC particles has a cooling effect that partially offsets the direct forcing reduction if other warming effects of BC on clouds are unchanged. These results suggests that for regions like the California

  1. Changes in Arctic black carbon concentrations, deposition, transport, and sources during recent centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, J. R.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Flanner, M. G.; Fritzsche, D.; Kreutz, K. J.; Lamarque, J.; Lawrence, R.; Maselli, O.; Nolan, M.; Opel, T.; Pasteris, D.; Sigl, M.; Steffensen, J.

    2011-12-01

    Rates of climate change in the Arctic are among the highest on Earth. Warming from increased carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas concentrations is the long-term driver of Arctic climate change, but reductions in short-lived aerosols such as black carbon (BC) that contribute to climate warming offer the possibility of slowing Arctic climate change in the near-term. BC in snow and water is especially important to climate forcing in the Arctic because of its impact on albedo. Detailed understanding of past and present concentrations, deposition rates, sources, and transport pathways of BC to and within the Arctic is critical, however, to the design of effective mitigation policies. With their short lifetimes in the atmosphere, aerosol concentrations and deposition in the Arctic are dominated by regional, rather than global, sources, transport processes, and pathways. Such aerosols consist of continental dust, sea spray, particulates including BC and organic matter from combustion processes, sulfur and trace metals from volcanic emissions, and, during recent centuries, industrial activities. Further, intra- and inter-annual variability of aerosol deposition is large. As a result, spatially distributed measurements of historical, high-time-resolution records with a broad range of analytes are required to understand aerosol concentrations, sources, and variability while providing adequate information for evaluating global circulation, snowpack radiation, and other modeling results. Arrays of ice cores from polar and alpine glaciers and ice sheets offer the potential to provide spatially distributed historical records with very high time resolution and a broad spectrum of aerosols and source tracers, particularly when using a continuous flow analytical system. Here we present and discuss recent findings from measurements of BC and related source tracers in a developing array of ice cores from around the Arctic. We use 1850 to 2000 general circulation modeling to

  2. New Members' Resource Book: A Reference for Institutions New to the BC Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola

    2011-01-01

    This resource book is a reference for new member institutions which are those private institutions admitted to the BC Transfer System by way of having one or more programs reviewed by the Degree Quality Assessment Board and given Minister's Consent. All current BC Transfer System members and prospective members (private institutions contemplating…

  3. Mobility of BC Transfer Students -- Fall 2006 to Calendar Year 2007. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    These research highlights summarize the movement of transfer students from British Columbia (BC) colleges, university colleges, and institutes (sending Institutions) into BC universities from the Fall of 2006 into calendar year 2007. Predictions for 2008 are also provided along with trends from Fall 2003 to the present. Transfer students are…

  4. Mobility of BC Transfer Students--Fall 2006 to Calendar Year 2007. Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This newsletter summarizes the movement of transfer students from British Columbia (BC) colleges, university colleges, and institutes (sending Institutions) into BC universities from the Fall of 2006 into calendar year 2007. Predictions for 2008 are also provided along with trends from Fall 2003 to the present. Transfer students are classified…

  5. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2015-09-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions, and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris, France, plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows for several error sources (e.g., representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion) to be minimized in the model used. The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g., boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g., BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably through sensitivity tests. Large uncertainty values are determined in our results, which limits the usefulness of the method to rather strongly erroneous emission inventories. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained for the TNO BC emissions and the EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as for the BC / NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC / NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests a spatially heterogeneous error in BC emissions over the agglomeration.

  6. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2014-11-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows minimizing several error sources in the model (e.g. representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion). The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory, and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g. boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g. BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably though sensitivity tests. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained on the TNO BC emissions and on EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as on the BC/NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC/NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests potential error compensations in the BC emissions spatial distribution over the agglomeration.

  7. BC measurement activities at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Black carbon (BC)--sometimes referred to as soot, char, or elemental carbon (EC)--is a refractory form of light-absorbing carbon produced from incomplete combustion. Accurate measurement of BC in combustion source emissions is important for understanding anthropogenic climate for...

  8. Bacterial cellulose based hydrogel (BC-g-AA) and preliminary result of swelling behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakam, Adil; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Abdul Rahman, I. Irman

    2013-11-01

    In this study, hydrogel based on Bacterial cellulose (BC) or local known as Nata de Coco, which grafted with monomer: Acrylic acid (AA) is synthesis by using gamma radiation technique. These hydrogel (BC-g-AA) has unique characteristic whereby responsive to pH buffer solution.

  9. Body-centered superhard BC2N phases from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaoguang; Guo, Xiaoju; Xu, Bo; Wu, Qinghua; Hu, Qianku; Liu, Zhongyuan; He, Julong; Yu, Dongli; Tian, Yongjun; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2007-09-01

    Body-centered BC2N deduced from the unit cell of the recently predicted body-centered carbon [F. J. Ribeiro , Phys. Rev. B 74, 172101 (2006)] are studied with first-principles pseudopotential density functional method. The structural, electronic, and mechanical properties are investigated for 11 possible atomic configurations of body-centered BC2N . Our results show that the sp3 -bonded body-centered BC2N phases have lower density than the previously investigated sp3 -bonded zinc-blende BC2N , wurtzite BC2N , and chalcopyrite BC2N . The struc-A and struc-B composed of the maximum numbers of C-C and B-N bonds have the lowest total energy among the investigated body-centered BC2N structures. Their calculated bulk moduli are 305 and 309GPa , respectively. The theoretical Vickers hardness of the body-centered BC2N is over 60GPa , indicating that it is a potential superhard material with the hardness comparable to cubic boron nitride.

  10. P.E.O.P.L.E. 32: B.C. College Region Population Projections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Each year BC Stats, Ministry of Labour and Citizens' Services, projects the population of British Columbia (BC) and its regions. These projections are based on assumptions about future fertility, mortality and migration levels. Assumptions are derived from demographic trends modified to include potential impacts of future economic factors. The…

  11. Opening Minds behind Closed Doors: Literacy in B.C. Corrections. A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Audrey M.

    A project examined perspectives of offenders in adult correctional facilities in British Columbia (B.C.) in relation to their literacy needs and how and where those needs were being met. Information was gathered through a series of questionnaires sent to Directors of Correctional Centers in B.C., adult basic education (ABE) administrators with…

  12. Bacterial cellulose based hydrogel (BC-g-AA) and preliminary result of swelling behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hakam, Adil; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Abdul Rahman, I. Irman

    2013-11-27

    In this study, hydrogel based on Bacterial cellulose (BC) or local known as Nata de Coco, which grafted with monomer: Acrylic acid (AA) is synthesis by using gamma radiation technique. These hydrogel (BC-g-AA) has unique characteristic whereby responsive to pH buffer solution.

  13. 46 CFR 7.150 - Canadian (BC) and United States (AK) Borders to Cape Spencer, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Canadian (BC) and United States (AK) Borders to Cape Spencer, AK. 7.150 Section 7.150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.150 Canadian (BC) and United States (AK) Borders to...

  14. 46 CFR 7.150 - Canadian (BC) and United States (AK) Borders to Cape Spencer, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian (BC) and United States (AK) Borders to Cape Spencer, AK. 7.150 Section 7.150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.150 Canadian (BC) and United States (AK) Borders to...

  15. Long-Term Fluctuations in the Earth's Rotation: 700 BC to AD 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. R.; Morrison, L. V.

    1995-04-01

    Records of solar and lunar eclipses in the period 700 BC to AD 1600, originating from the ancient and medieval civilizations of Babylon, China, Europe and the Arab world, are amassed and critically appraised for their usefulness in answering questions about the long-term variability of the Earth's rate of rotation. Results from previous analyses of lunar occultations in the period AD 1600-1955.5, and from high-precision data in AD 1955.5-1990, are included in the dataset considered in this paper. Using the change in the length of the mean solar day (l.o.d.) in units of milliseconds per century (ms cy-1) as the measure of acceleration in the rate of rotation, it is found that the l.o.d. has increased by (+1.70 ± 0.05) ms cy-1 (equiv (-4.5 ± 0.1) × 10-22 rad s-2) on average over the past 2700 years. Yet an increase of +2.3 ± 0.1 ms cy-1 (equiv (-6.1 ± 0.4) × 10-22 rad s-2) is expected from the tidal braking of the Earth's spin, assuming a value of -26.0' ' cy-2 for the tidal acceleration of the Moon. There is thus an average accelerative component in the Earth's rotation which acts to decrease the l.o.d. by (-0.6 ± 0.1) ms cy-1 (equiv (+1.6 ± 0.4) × 10-22 rad s-2). Moreover, it is shown that besides this accelerative component, there is a fluctuation in the l.o.d. with a semi-amplitude of ~ 4 ms and a period of ~ 1500 yr.

  16. Climatic changes and social transformations in the Near East and North Africa during the 'long' 4th millennium BC: A comparative study of environmental and archaeological evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Joanne; Brooks, Nick; Banning, Edward B.; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Campbell, Stuart; Clare, Lee; Cremaschi, Mauro; di Lernia, Savino; Drake, Nick; Gallinaro, Marina; Manning, Sturt; Nicoll, Kathleen; Philip, Graham; Rosen, Steve; Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich; Tafuri, Mary Anne; Weninger, Bernhard; Zerboni, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the possible links between rapid climate change (RCC) and social change in the Near East and surrounding regions (Anatolia, central Syria, southern Israel, Mesopotamia, Cyprus and eastern and central Sahara) during the 'long' 4th millennium (∼4500-3000) BC. Twenty terrestrial and 20 marine climate proxies are used to identify long-term trends in humidity involving transitions from humid to arid conditions and vice versa. The frequency distribution of episodes of relative aridity across these records is calculated for the period 6300-2000 BC, so that the results may be interpreted in the context of the established arid episodes associated with RCC around 6200 and 2200 BC (the 8.2 and 4.2 kyr events). We identify two distinct episodes of heightened aridity in the early-mid 4th, and late 4th millennium BC. These episodes cluster strongly at 3600-3700 and 3100-3300 BC. There is also evidence of localised aridity spikes in the 5th and 6th millennia BC. These results are used as context for the interpretation of regional and local archaeological records with a particular focus on case studies from western Syria, the middle Euphrates, southern Israel and Cyprus. Interpretation of the records involves the construction of plausible narratives of human-climate interaction informed by concepts of adaptation and resilience from the literature on contemporary (i.e. 21st century) climate change and adaptation. The results are presented alongside well-documented examples of climatically-influenced societal change in the central and eastern Sahara, where detailed geomorphological studies of ancient environments have been undertaken in tandem with archaeological research. While the narratives for the Near East and Eastern Mediterranean remain somewhat speculative, the use of resilience and adaptation frameworks allows for a more nuanced treatment of human-climate interactions and recognises the diversity and context-specificity of human responses to climatic

  17. Hexagonal BC3 as a Robust Electrode Material for Li, Na, and K Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Rajendra; Ozdemir, Burak; Peralta, Juan; Barone, Veronica

    We propose hexagonal BC3 as a robust electrode material for Li, Na, and K ion batteries based on first-principles density functional theory calculations. We show that, by intercalating Li, Na, and K in BC3, it is possible to form Li1.5BC3, Na1BC3, and K1.5BC3 which correspond to a high theoretical capacity of 858 mA h/g, 572 mA h/g, 858 mA h/g, respectively. In addition, this material presents small open circuit voltage variations of 0.49, 0.12, and 0.16 V when used as electrode for Li, Na, and K ion batteries, respectively. NSF CBET-1335944, NSF DMR-0906617, DOE DE-FG02-10ER16203.

  18. Genome sequences of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC and K601(T)

    SciTech Connect

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J.; Veuskens, Teun; Plugge, Caroline M.; Langenhoff, A. M.; Gerritse, Jan; Van Berkel, Willem J. H.; Pieper, Dietmar; Junca, Howard; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC and A. denitrificans strain K601T degrade cyclic hydrocarbons. These strains have been isolated from a mixture of wastewater treatment plant material and benzene-polluted soil and from a wastewater treatment plant, respectively, suggesting their role in bioremediation of soil and water. Although the strains are phylogenetically closely related, there are some clear physiological differences. The hydrocarbon cyclohexanol, for example, can be degraded by strain K601T but not by strain BC. Furthermore, both strains can use nitrate and oxygen as an electron acceptor, but only strain BC can use chlorate as electron acceptor. To better understand the nitrate and chlorate reduction mechanisms coupled to the oxidation of cyclic compounds, the genomes of A. denitrificans strains BC and K601T were sequenced. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of A. denitrificans strains BC and K601T.

  19. Response of BC418 Plastic Scintillator to Low Energy Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daub, B. H.; Henzl, V.; Kovash, M. A.; Matthews, J. L.; Miller, Z. W.; Shoniyozov, K.; Yang, H.

    2012-10-01

    The response of fast plastic scintillators is unknown for proton energies below approximately 300 keV. The response of BC418 plastic scintillator to protons from 100 keV to 3.6 MeV was measured using elastic scattering of neutrons at the University of Kentucky and at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. At Kentucky, protons of precise energies from a Van de Graaff accelerator impinged on a thin LiF target to produce neutrons in narrow energy bands. At Los Alamos, neutrons were produced from a tungsten spallation source and their energies determined by time of flight. In both experiments a coincidence was detected between the recoiling proton in the plastic scintillator and the elastically scattered neutron in a liquid scintillator. The energy of the recoil proton is determined by the elastic scattering kinematics, with the scattered neutron energy precisely determined by time of flight. The results are compared with previous measurements of the response of similar plastic scintillators in the energy region where they overlap.

  20. Antikythera Calculator advances modern science of 19 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    The Greek astronomic calculator, discovered in the depth of the sea in a naval wreckage of the 1st century B.C. in front of the island of Antikythera, is the most amazing among the archaeological discoveries of last century. The mechanism immediately appeared like a device out of its time. After years of study this devise is still provoking a discussion between scientists and archaeologists because of the complexity and the modernity of the scientific knowledge the work presupposes. Its epicyclical gearings show the high level of the scientific culture reached in that period of history. The knowledge of the planetary motion, necessary to the design of the epicyclic gearing of the Calculator of Antikythera, presumes that ancient Greek scientists knew the planetary motion of the celestial bodies and had already achieved the same results that have been attributed to scientists 19 centuries later. The scientific value of this gear mechanism is indisputable because the inventor of the Calculator of Antikythera had the knowledge that was "re-discovered" centuries later as the heliocentric theory proposed by Niccolò Copernicus in 1543 ( De revolutionibus orbium coelestium), the universal gravitation law formulated by Isaac Newton in 1687 ( Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica), and the kinematic study of the epicyclical gearings published by Robert Willis in 1841 ( Principles of mechanism).

  1. Eight sages over five centuries share oxygen's discovery.

    PubMed

    Severinghaus, John W

    2016-09-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color. Michael Sendivogius (1566-1636) in Poland called a part of air "the food of life" and identified it as the gas made by heating saltpetre. John Mayow (1641-1679) in Oxford found that one-fifth of air was a special gas he called "spiritus nitro aereus." Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) in Uppsala generated a gas he named "fire air" by heating several metal calcs. He asked Lavoisier how it fit the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier never answered. In 1744, Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) in England discovered how to make part of air by heating red calc of mercury. He found it brightened a flame and supported life in a mouse in a sealed bottle. He called it "dephlogisticated air." He published and personally told Lavoisier and other chemists about it. Lavoisier never thanked him. After 9 years of generating and studying its chemistry, he couldn't understand whether it was a new element. He still named it "principe oxigene." He was still not able to disprove phlogiston. Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) made an inflammable gas in 1766. He and Priestley noted that its flame made a dew. Cavendish proved the dew was pure water and published this in 1778, but all scientists called it impossible to make water, an element. In 1783, on June 24th, Lavoisier was urged to try it, and, when water appeared, he realized that water was not an element but a compound of two gases, proving that oxygen was an element. He then demolished phlogiston and began the new chemistry revolution. PMID:27458241

  2. The Human Capital Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Reviews public education in the United States during the 20th century through an exploration of the "virtues" of mass education, such as public funding, a practical curriculum, and secular control of schools. Argues that many of these virtues were situational and may now be considered vices. (Contains three graphs.) (WFA)

  3. The Chemical Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Ralph E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses present and future problems of producing clean energy. Graphically presents the changing patterns of fuel use in the United States over the past century, and predicts population growth and energy sources and consumption up to the year 2100 for the United States and the world. (JR)

  4. Suidas (tenth century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek encyclopedist. In the course of reading Suidas's Lexicon, EDMOND HALLEY mistakenly connected the naming of the Saros cycle of 223 synodic months by the tenth century Greek lexicographer Suidas with the eclipse cycle of the same period. The solar eclipse cycle is thus now known by the name that Suidas used for another phenomenon. Halley's mistake accounts for the historical confusion that th...

  5. Genome Analysis and Physiological Comparison of Alicycliphilus denitrificans Strains BC and K601T

    PubMed Central

    Talarico Saia, Flávia; Weelink, Sander A. B.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Bruce, David C.; Detter, John C.; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff S.; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren J.; Langenhoff, Alette A. M.; Gerritse, Jan; van Berkel, Willem J. H.; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Junca, Howard; Smidt, Hauke; Schraa, Gosse; Davids, Mark; Schaap, Peter J.; Plugge, Caroline M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The genomes of the Betaproteobacteria Alicycliphilus denitrificans strains BC and K601T have been sequenced to get insight into the physiology of the two strains. Strain BC degrades benzene with chlorate as electron acceptor. The cyclohexanol-degrading denitrifying strain K601T is not able to use chlorate as electron acceptor, while strain BC cannot degrade cyclohexanol. The 16S rRNA sequences of strains BC and K601T are identical and the fatty acid methyl ester patterns of the strains are similar. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of predicted open reading frames of both strains showed most hits with Acidovorax sp. JS42, a bacterium that degrades nitro-aromatics. The genomes include strain-specific plasmids (pAlide201 in strain K601T and pAlide01 and pAlide02 in strain BC). Key genes of chlorate reduction in strain BC were located on a 120 kb megaplasmid (pAlide01), which was absent in strain K601T. Genes involved in cyclohexanol degradation were only found in strain K601T. Benzene and toluene are degraded via oxygenase-mediated pathways in both strains. Genes involved in the meta-cleavage pathway of catechol are present in the genomes of both strains. Strain BC also contains all genes of the ortho-cleavage pathway. The large number of mono- and dioxygenase genes in the genomes suggests that the two strains have a broader substrate range than known thus far. PMID:23825601

  6. Genome analysis and physiological comparison of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strains BC and K601T

    SciTech Connect

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J.; Veuskens, Teun; Saia, Flavia Talarico; Weelink, Sander A.B.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Langenhoff, A. M.; Gerritse, Jan; Van Berkel, Willem J. H.; Pieper, Dietmar; Junca, Howard; Smidt, Hauke; Schraa, Gosse; Davids, Mark; Schaap, Peter J; Plugge, Caroline M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The genomes of the Betaproteobacteria Alicycliphilus denitrificans strains BC and K601T have been sequenced to get insight into the physiology of the two strains. Strain BC degrades benzene with chlorate as electron acceptor. The cyclohexanol-degrading denitrifying strain K601T is not able to use chlorate as electron acceptor, while strain BC cannot degrade cyclohexanol. The 16S rRNA sequences of strains BC and K601T are identical and the fatty acid methyl ester patterns of the strains are similar. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of predicted open reading frames of both strains showed most hits with Acidovorax sp. JS42, a bacterium that degrades nitro-aromatics. The genomes include strain-specific plasmids (pAlide201 in strain K601T and pAlide01 and pAlide02 in strain BC). Key genes of chlorate reduction in strain BC were located on a 120 kb megaplasmid (pAlide01), which was absent in strain K601T. Genes involved in cyclohexanol degradation were only found in strain K601T. Benzene and toluene are degraded via oxygenase-mediated pathways in both strains. Genes involved in the meta-cleavage pathway of catechol are present in the genomes of both strains. Strain BC also contains all genes of the ortho-cleavage pathway. The large number of mono- and dioxygenase genes in the genomes suggests that the two strains have a broader substrate range than known thus far.

  7. Report on Modifications to the BX12 and BX13 BC1 Dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, James; DeBarge, S.; Emma, P.; Fisher, A.; Li, N.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2010-11-23

    Emittance growth seen during the last commissioning run in the bunch compressor optics section, BC1, was blamed on inadequate dipole field quality. The significant linear and nonlinear field non-uniformities generated large horizontal dispersion errors beyond BC1. The linear dispersion after BC1 was corrected using two small 'corrector' quadrupoles placed in BC1 for this purpose, but the remaining nonlinear field caused growth of the normalized horizontal emittance of 40% or more. At best {gamma}{epsilon}{sub x} went from 1.2 {micro}m before BC1 up to 1.7 {micro}m after BC1. The problem was magnified by the larger-than-design energy spread in BC1 due to a long initial bunch length. To improve the field quality we decided to modify the two 'inner dipoles', BX12 and BX13, of the four magnet chicane during the four month down time in the Fall of 2007. Only the two inner dipoles were chosen because of the limited time available and the fact that the beam is particularly sensitive to field quality of the inner dipoles due to its very large transverse size when going through them. The modifications were completed in November and included new poles and a new pinning scheme. The outer dipoles were left unchanged.

  8. The production and preclinical characterization of a chimeric anti-breast-cancer antibody, cBC2.

    PubMed

    Sutton, V R; Burgess, J; Pietersz, G A; Li, W J; McKenzie, I F; Trapani, J A

    1994-04-01

    A chimeric (mouse-human) BC2 antibody (cBC2) was produced which may be used in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. The BC2 variable region genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using oligonucleotide primers homologous to the framework sequences of mouse VH and V kappa genes. The PCR products were used to create cBC2 expression vectors containing the mouse BC2 VH and V kappa and human constant region (IgG1 and K) genes. Chimeric antibody was produced following transfection of these constructs into Sp2/0 myeloma cells. Binding assays in vitro demonstrated that cBC2 had the same specificity for human milk fat globule membrane (HMFGM) and MUC1+ cells as mBC2, and bound antigen with a similar affinity (cBC2, Ka 5.53 +/- 2.09 x 10(8); mBC2, Ka 1.44 +/- 0.98 x 10(9)). Functionally, only cBC2 (5-25 micrograms ml-1), was able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) with human effector cells, with 25% maximal specific lysis of MUC1+ cells at an E/T ratio of 100:1. Human complement-mediated lysis was minimal (10-15% specific lysis) with both mBC2 and cBC2. Neither cBC2 nor mBC2 was able to inhibit tumour growth in vivo in the absence of covalently coupled anticancer drugs. However, biodistribution studies demonstrated that both antibodies preferentially targeted MUC1+ tumour cells, with 17% of the injected dose of cBC2, as compared to 27% of mBC2, localized to the MUC1+ tumour at 24 h (less than 6% detected in any other tissue). PMID:7584487

  9. Simulation of Arctic Black Carbon using Hemispheric CMAQ: Role of Russia's BC Emissions, Transport, and Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Fu, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon plays a unique role in the Arctic climate system due to its multiple effects. It causes Arctic warming by directly absorbing sunlight from space and by darkening the surface albedo of snow and ice, which indirectly leads to further warming and melting, thus inducing an Arctic amplification effect. BC depositions over the Arctic are more sensitive to regions in close proximity. In this study, we reconstruct BC emissions for Russian Federation, which is the country that occupies the largest area in the Arctic Circle. Local Russia information such as activity data, emission factors and other emission source data are used. In 2010, total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia is estimated to be around 254 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a dominant 43.9% of Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 22.0%, 17.8%, 11.5%, and 4.8%, respectively. BC simulations were conducted using the hemispheric version of CMAQ with polar projection. Emission inputs are from a global emissions database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulations using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 46 - 61% of the Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AAOD) measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four air monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert, and Tiksi) in the Arctic Circle, surface BC simulations are improved the most during the Arctic haze periods (October - March). Emission perturbation studies show that Russia's BC emissions contribute over 50% of the surface BC concentrations over the Arctic during the cold seasons. This study demonstrates the good capability of H-CMAQ in

  10. Synthesis of new Diamond-like B-C Phases under High Pressure and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, L. C.; Zinin, P. V.; Sharma, S. K.

    2014-04-22

    A cubic BC3 (c-BC3) phase was synthesized by direct transformation from graphitic phases at a pressure of 39 GPa and temperature of 2200 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements lead us to conclude that the obtained phase is hetero-nano-diamond, c-BC3. The EELS measurements show that the atoms inside the cubic structure are bonded by sp3 bonds.

  11. Volume of Courses Students Carry among Central Data Warehouse (CDW) Institutions: Implications for Recalibration of the BC Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has undertaken, in the last couple of years, a review of the BC Transfer System. Preliminary findings indicate that the current structure of the BC Transfer Guide (BCTG), which designates institutions as either "sending" institutions or "receiving" institutions, based upon their…

  12. Study of the B+c → J/ΨD+s and B+c → J/ΨD*s+ decays with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; et al

    2016-01-05

    The decays B+c → J/ΨD+s and B+c → J/ΨD*s+ are studied with the ATLAS detector at the LHC using a dataset corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9 and 20.6 fb–1 of pp collisions collected at centre-of-mass energies √s = 7 TeV and 8 TeV, respectively. Furthermore, signal candidates are identified through J/ψ → μ+μ- and D(*)+s → Φπ+(γ/π0) decays.

  13. Some physics from 550 BC to AD 1948.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines terminology and its origins. It traces the development of physics ideas from Thales of Miletus, via Isaac Newton, to the nuclear physics investigations at the beginning of the twentieth century. It also outlines the evolving technology required to make the discoveries that would form the basis of radiosurgery. Up to the 1920s, all experiments on atomic structure and radioactivity had involved the use of vacuum tubes and naturally occurring radioactive substances. There was a need to make useable subatomic particles to obtain better understanding of the interior structure of atoms. Because of this, machines that could make atoms move at high speed were invented, known as particle accelerators. A new era had dawned. There is a brief mention of the effect of radiation on living tissue and of the units used to measure it. PMID:25376565

  14. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  15. Laplace method for the evolution of the fragmentation function of Bc mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroun, G. R.; Zarrin, S.; Dadfar, S.

    2016-09-01

    In high-energy processes, the predominant mechanism for b bar c bound states is the production of a high-energy b bar or c quark, which fragments into the b bar c state. An approximate approach for the evolution of the fragmentation functions for the production of the S-wave states of Bc and Bc* is presented using Laplace transform technique in the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO) analyses. The cross sections, as a function of the transverse momentum for the direct hadro-production b bar (c) →Bc and b bar (c) →Bc* based on the nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (QCD) factorization, are determined and compared with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data at the 1S-wave state.

  16. Microstructures of A 4(BC)4 star copolymers and the influence of architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Peng, J.; Cheng, M. F.; Fang, J. H.

    2016-07-01

    The self-consistent field theory is used to investigate the microstructures of A 4(BC)4 star copolymers. The phase diagram is mapped out to show different phase regions. Compared with A(BC)4 star copolymers, several microstructures are lost, and more lamellar structures are found due to the stronger topological constraint of the junction. The results may be helpful to understand the influence of molecular architectures on microstructures and provide an effective way to design controllable microstructures.

  17. The ϒ(1S)→Bcρ decay with perturbative QCD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junfeng; Yang, Yueling; Li, Qingxia; Lu, Gongru; Huang, Jinshu; Chang, Qin

    2016-08-01

    With the potential prospects of the ϒ (1 S) data samples at the running LHC and upcoming SuperKEKB, the ϒ (1 S) →Bc ρ weak decay is studied with the pQCD approach. It is found that (1) the lion's share of branching ratio comes from the longitudinal polarization helicity amplitudes; (2) branching ratio for the ϒ (1 S) →Bc ρ decay can reach up to O (10-9), which might be hopefully measurable.

  18. Synthesis of models of the BC ring systems of MPC1001 and MPC1001F.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuai; Indukuri, Kiran; Clive, Derrick L J; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Piperazinedione 13, representing the BC rings of the anti-prostate cancer fungal metabolite MPC1001, was prepared by a route in which a sulfur-stabilized carbanion derived from 22 cyclizes onto the terminal ester of the pendant chain attached to N(1). Another model, 14, was synthesized by cyclization of an α-ketoamide nitrogen onto an ester; 14 represents the BC rings of MPC1001F. PMID:27284641

  19. Mapping genes for liability to exencephaly in SELH/Bc mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, T.M.; Juriloff, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    Exencephaly occurs in 6-20% of SELH/Bc strain mouse embryos. Liability to the cranial neural tube closure defect in SELH/Bc is multigenic, making it a good animal model for the study of the common human homolog, anencephaly. Our previous studies showed that the exencephaly-liability in SELH/Bc is caused by 2 or 3 loci. We have undertaken to map these genes. We crossed SELH/Bc to the normal strain, LM/Bc, and are using the F{sub 2}generation to map the segregating liability loci. 100 F{sub 2} males are being testcrossed to SELH/Bc to determine their genetic liability to exencephaly (based on frequency produced in their offspring, 100 scoreable embryos each). 83 males have been tested to date, producing exencephaly frequencies of between 0% and 16%. 26 have produced 0% exencephaly; 10 have produced at least 6%. These frequencies indicate that fewer than four exencephaly-liability loci are segregating. DNA from the 10 F{sub 2} males that produce the highest frequency of exencephaly and 10 that produce no exencephaly are being typed for microsatellite markers covering the 19 autosomes at 20 cM (or less) intervals. Of the 221 markers typed to date, 94 (43%) are detectably different between SELH/Bc and LM/Bc. Preliminary data based on five 0% males and five {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} males has excluded several chromosomal regions for the presence of an exencephaly-liability locus; e.g., most of chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 7, 12, 15, 17, and 19. The preliminary data suggest that there may be an exencephaly-liability locus on chromosome 13.

  20. Black carbon (BC) of urban topsoil of steel industrial city (Anshan), Northeastern China: Concentration, source identification and environmental implication.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yutong; Xiao, Qing; Lu, Shenggao

    2016-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) and total carbon (TC) concentrations in urban topsoils and vertical profiles from steel industrial city, Anshan, Northeastern China, were determined. A total of 115 topsoil samples and 4 soil profiles were collected, in which the BC concentrations were determined using chemical oxidation technique. The BC concentrations in urban topsoils are in the range of 1.86 to 246.46gkg(-1) with an average of 33.86gkg(-1). Both BC and TC concentrations decrease sharply with soil depth, whereas BC/TC ratio shows a little variation with depth. The spatial distribution of BC in urban topsoils reveals that the BC concentration is much higher in the northern part of the city, which is consistent with the steel production. The distribution factors (DF) of BC are the highest in 1000-500 and 500-250μm size fractions, while the lowest in 50-2μm fraction. The mass loading of BC in 250-50 and 50-2μm size fractions accounts for 76.2% of bulk soil, indicating these two size fractions responsible for BC accumulation in soils. Enrichment factor (EF) of BC in urban topsoils ranges from 0.92 to 122.01 with an average of 16.76, indicating that the urban topsoils studied are moderately or severely accumulated by the BC. Strong correlation is found between BC and pollution load index (PLI) of heavy metals, indicating the possibility of similar sources of BC and heavy metals in soils. The BC/TC ratio in soils ranges from 0.45 to 0.97, with an average of 0.75. The BC/TC ratio shows the mixed sources of BC derived from fossil fuel combustion and vehicle emissions. The BC concentration and BC/TC ratio may reflect the degree of industrial activities and pollution sources in urban soils. The study demonstrated that BC is an effective indicator of degree and "hotspots" of heavy metals pollution in urban soils. PMID:27450257

  1. Identification of Ubiquinol Binding Motifs at the Qo-Site of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes of the bc1 complex family power the biosphere through their central role in respiration and photosynthesis. These enzymes couple the oxidation of quinol molecules by cytochrome c to the transfer of protons across the membrane, to generate a proton-motive force that drives ATP synthesis. Key for the function of the bc1 complex is the initial redox process that involves a bifurcated electron transfer in which the two electrons from a quinol substrate are passed to different electron acceptors in the bc1 complex. The electron transfer is coupled to proton transfer. The overall mechanism of quinol oxidation by the bc1 complex is well enough characterized to allow exploration at the atomistic level, but details are still highly controversial. The controversy stems from the uncertain binding motifs of quinol at the so-called Qo active site of the bc1 complex. Here we employ a combination of classical all atom molecular dynamics and quantum chemical calculations to reveal the binding modes of quinol at the Qo-site of the bc1 complex from Rhodobacter capsulatus. The calculations suggest a novel configuration of amino acid residues responsible for quinol binding and support a mechanism for proton-coupled electron transfer from quinol to iron–sulfur cluster through a bridging hydrogen bond from histidine that stabilizes the reaction complex. PMID:25372183

  2. Observation of an excited Bc(±) meson state with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baas, A; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Bartsch, V; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernat, P; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, T T; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borri, M; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boutouil, S; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brelier, B; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; 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Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, A; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wright, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yao, W-M; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2014-11-21

    A search for excited states of the Bc(±) meson is performed using 4.9  fb(-1) of 7 TeV and 19.2  fb(-1) of 8 TeV pp collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. A new state is observed through its hadronic transition to the ground state, with the latter detected in the decay Bc(±)→J/ψπ(±). The state appears in the m(Bc(±)π(+)π(-))-m(Bc(±))-2m(π(±)) mass difference distribution with a significance of 5.2 standard deviations. The mass of the observed state is 6842±4±5  MeV, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. The mass and decay of this state are consistent with expectations for the second S-wave state of the Bc(±) meson, Bc(±)(2S). PMID:25479491

  3. BcIEB1, a Botrytis cinerea secreted protein, elicits a defense response in plants.

    PubMed

    Frías, Marcos; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; Brito, Nélida

    2016-09-01

    BcIEB1 is a very abundant protein in the secretome of Botrytis cinerea but it has no known function and no similarity to any characterized protein family. Previous results suggested that this protein is an elicitor of the plant defense system. In this work we have generated loss-of-function B. cinerea mutants lacking BcIEB1 and we have expressed the protein in yeast to assay its activity on plants. Analysis of the Δbcieb1 mutants did not result in any observable phenotype, including no difference in the virulence on a variety of hosts. However, when BcIEB1 was applied to plant tissues it produced necrosis as well as a whole range of symptoms: inhibition of seedling growth in Arabidopsis and tobacco, ion leakage from tobacco leaf disks, a ROS burst, cell death and autofluorescence in onion epidermis, as well as the expression of defense genes in tobacco. Moreover, tobacco plants treated with BcIEB1 showed an increased systemic resistance to B. cinerea. A small 35-amino acids peptide derived from a conserved region of BcIEB1 is almost as active on plants as the whole protein. These results clearly indicate that BcIEB1 elicits plant defenses, probably as a consequence of its recognition as a pathogen associated molecular pattern. PMID:27457989

  4. Biogenesis of the cytochrome bc(1) complex and role of assembly factors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pamela M; Fox, Jennifer L; Winge, Dennis R

    2012-02-01

    The cytochrome bc(1) complex is an essential component of the electron transport chain in most prokaryotes and in eukaryotic mitochondria. The catalytic subunits of the complex that are responsible for its redox functions are largely conserved across kingdoms. In eukarya, the bc(1) complex contains supernumerary subunits in addition to the catalytic core, and the biogenesis of the functional bc(1) complex occurs as a modular assembly pathway. Individual steps of this biogenesis have been recently investigated and are discussed in this review with an emphasis on the assembly of the bc(1) complex in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Additionally, a number of assembly factors have been recently identified. Their roles in bc(1) complex biogenesis are described, with special emphasis on the maturation and topogenesis of the yeast Rieske iron-sulfur protein and its role in completing the assembly of functional bc(1) complex. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biogenesis/Assembly of Respiratory Enzyme Complexes. PMID:22138626

  5. Reprint of: Biogenesis of the cytochrome bc(1) complex and role of assembly factors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pamela M; Fox, Jennifer L; Winge, Dennis R

    2012-06-01

    The cytochrome bc(1) complex is an essential component of the electron transport chain in most prokaryotes and in eukaryotic mitochondria. The catalytic subunits of the complex that are responsible for its redox functions are largely conserved across kingdoms. In eukarya, the bc(1) complex contains supernumerary subunits in addition to the catalytic core, and the biogenesis of the functional bc(1) complex occurs as a modular assembly pathway. Individual steps of this biogenesis have been recently investigated and are discussed in this review with an emphasis on the assembly of the bc(1) complex in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Additionally, a number of assembly factors have been recently identified. Their roles in bc(1) complex biogenesis are described, with special emphasis on the maturation and topogenesis of the yeast Rieske iron-sulfur protein and its role in completing the assembly of functional bc(1) complex. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biogenesis/Assembly of Respiratory Enzyme Complexes. PMID:22564912

  6. Structural analysis of substrate binding by the TatBC component of the twin-arginine protein transport system.

    PubMed

    Tarry, Michael J; Schäfer, Eva; Chen, Shuyun; Buchanan, Grant; Greene, Nicholas P; Lea, Susan M; Palmer, Tracy; Saibil, Helen R; Berks, Ben C

    2009-08-11

    The Tat system transports folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. In Escherichia coli substrate proteins initially bind to the integral membrane TatBC complex which then recruits the protein TatA to effect translocation. Overproduction of TatBC and the substrate protein SufI in the absence of TatA led to the accumulation of TatBC-SufI complexes that could be purified using an affinity tag on the substrate. Three-dimensional structures of the TatBC-SufI complexes and unliganded TatBC were obtained by single-particle electron microscopy and random conical tilt reconstruction. Comparison of the structures shows that substrate molecules bind on the periphery of the TatBC complex and that substrate binding causes a significant reduction in diameter of the TatBC part of the complex. Although the TatBC complex contains multiple copies of the signal peptide-binding TatC protomer, purified TatBC-SufI complexes contain only 1 or 2 SufI molecules. Where 2 substrates are present in the TatBC-SufI complex, they are bound at adjacent sites. These observations imply that only certain TatC protomers within the complex interact with substrate or that there is a negative cooperativity of substrate binding. Similar TatBC-substrate complexes can be generated by an alternative in vitro reconstitution method and using a different substrate protein. PMID:19666509

  7. Astronomy in Ireland from earliest times to the eighteenth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan M. P.

    Evidence that the builders of Irish passage graves and stone circles may have possessed some knowledge of basic celestial cycles is discussed. The introduction of Celtic culture to Ireland circa 600 B.C. is next described and an account of the astronomical learning of the Celts provided based on classical documentation and Irish vernacular sources. Following on the coming of Christianity to Ireland in the fifth century, the necessity to construct Easter tables led Irish monks to such related activities as establishing collections of computi, compiling Annals and undertaking studies of available astronomical material. In particular, through exposure to Helenistic writings, they understood celestial motions in terms of the Ptolemaic model and were recognised authorities in Europe in the eighth and ninth centuries on astronomical matters. The influence of the Viking and Norman invasions in disrupting the intellectual life of the country is then outlined and the circumstances relating to the creation of conditions leading to the brilliant flowering of Irish astronomy in the eighteenth century are elucidated.

  8. Plague: the dreadful visitation occupying the human mind for centuries.

    PubMed

    Khan, Iqbal Akhtar

    2004-05-01

    Plague is one of mankind's greatest scourges, which has swept away millions of people over the centuries. The first available record of the occurrence of this calamity, in humans, is from the Bible, in 1000 bc, in the city of Ashdod. The first definitely identified pandemic originated in Egypt in ad 542 (the Justinian Plague) and is estimated to have caused 100 million deaths. The second one, lasting for three centuries and claiming over 25 million lives appeared in 1334 in China spreading to many spots on the globe. The third pandemic occurred in Europe from the fifteenth to eighteenth century. The current pandemic began around 1860, in the Chinese province Yunnan; it reached Hong Kong in 1894 killing 100 000 individuals. Within 20 years the disease spread from southern Chinese ports throughout the world resulting in more than 10 million deaths. Since the discovery of the causative agent in 1894, there have been remarkable advancements in immunoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis. However, the disease is still active in Africa, in Asia and in Americas and has been classified as a currently re-emerging disease. A 'Plague-free World' will probably remain a dream for an indefinite period. PMID:15109549

  9. BcMF26a and BcMF26b Are Duplicated Polygalacturonase Genes with Divergent Expression Patterns and Functions in Pollen Development and Pollen Tube Formation in Brassica campestris

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Meiling; Yu, Youjian; Jiang, Jingjing; Song, Limin; Liang, Ying; Ma, Zhiming; Xiong, Xingpeng; Cao, Jiashu

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) is one of the cell wall hydrolytic enzymes involving in pectin degradation. A comparison of two highly conserved duplicated PG genes, namely, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 26a (BcMF26a) and BcMF26b, revealed the different features of their expression patterns and functions. We found that these two genes were orthologous genes of At4g33440, and they originated from a chromosomal segmental duplication. Although structurally similar, their regulatory and intron sequences largely diverged. QRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of BcMF26b was higher than that of BcMF26a in almost all the tested organs and tissues in Brassica campestris. Promoter activity analysis showed that, at reproductive development stages, BcMF26b promoter was active in tapetum, pollen grains, and pistils, whereas BcMF26a promoter was only active in pistils. In the subcellular localization experiment, BcMF26a and BcMF26b proteins could be localized to the cell wall. When the two genes were co-inhibited, pollen intine was formed abnormally and pollen tubes could not grow or stretch. Moreover, the knockout mutants of At4g33440 delayed the growth of pollen tubes. Therefore, BcMF26a/b can participate in the construction of pollen wall by modulating intine information and BcMF26b may play a major role in co-inhibiting transformed plants. PMID:26153985

  10. BcMF26a and BcMF26b Are Duplicated Polygalacturonase Genes with Divergent Expression Patterns and Functions in Pollen Development and Pollen Tube Formation in Brassica campestris.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Meiling; Yu, Youjian; Jiang, Jingjing; Song, Limin; Liang, Ying; Ma, Zhiming; Xiong, Xingpeng; Cao, Jiashu

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) is one of the cell wall hydrolytic enzymes involving in pectin degradation. A comparison of two highly conserved duplicated PG genes, namely, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 26a (BcMF26a) and BcMF26b, revealed the different features of their expression patterns and functions. We found that these two genes were orthologous genes of At4g33440, and they originated from a chromosomal segmental duplication. Although structurally similar, their regulatory and intron sequences largely diverged. QRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of BcMF26b was higher than that of BcMF26a in almost all the tested organs and tissues in Brassica campestris. Promoter activity analysis showed that, at reproductive development stages, BcMF26b promoter was active in tapetum, pollen grains, and pistils, whereas BcMF26a promoter was only active in pistils. In the subcellular localization experiment, BcMF26a and BcMF26b proteins could be localized to the cell wall. When the two genes were co-inhibited, pollen intine was formed abnormally and pollen tubes could not grow or stretch. Moreover, the knockout mutants of At4g33440 delayed the growth of pollen tubes. Therefore, BcMF26a/b can participate in the construction of pollen wall by modulating intine information and BcMF26b may play a major role in co-inhibiting transformed plants. PMID:26153985

  11. Second century megadrought in the Rio Grande headwaters, Colorado: How unusual was medieval drought?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routson, Cody C.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.

    2011-11-01

    A new tree-ring record from living and remnant bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) wood from the headwaters region of the Rio Grande River, Colorado is used in conjunction with other regional records to evaluate periods of unusually severe drought over the past two millennia (B.C. 268 to A.D. 2009). Our new record contains a multi-century period of unusual dryness between 1 and 400 A.D., including an extreme drought during the 2nd century. Characterized by almost five decades of drought (below average ring width), we hypothesize this megadrought is equally, if not more severe than medieval period megadroughts in this region. Published paleoclimate time series help define the spatial extent, severity, and potential causes of the 2nd century megadrought. Furthermore, this early period of unusual dryness has intriguing similarities to later medieval period aridity. Our findings suggest we should anticipate similar severe drought conditions in an even warmer and drier future.

  12. Synthetic approaches to borocarbonitrides, BC{sub x}N (x=1-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nitesh; Raidongia, Kalyan; Mishra, Abhishek K.; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Sundaresan, A.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2011-11-15

    In order to synthesize borocarbonitrides of the general formula BC{sub x}N where x varies between 1 and 2, we have carried out high-temperature gas phase reaction of BBr{sub 3} with a mixture of ethylene and ammonia. The composition of the product was close to BC{sub 1.6}N as shown by x-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The products were further characterized by infra-red, Raman and other spectroscopic techniques. The borocarbonitrides obtained from the gas phase reaction have low surface areas, in contrast to those of similar compositions prepared by the urea method. First principles calculations show that the most stable structures of the compositions BCN and BC{sub 2}N contain BN-rich and carbon-rich domains where BN{sub 3} and NB{sub 3} units are present. - Graphical abstract: Vapor phase synthesis of BC{sub x}N (x=1-2) by the reaction of BBr{sub 3}, ethylene and ammonia leads to the formation of pan-like structure. Highlights: > We have carried out vapor phase reaction of BBr{sub 3}, ethylene and ammonia to synthesize BC{sub x}N (x=1-2). > HRTEM and AFM show the formation of pan-like structures with the central region formed of single layer of BC{sub x}N. > Borocarbonitrides formed by vapor phase synthesis show limited adsorption properties as compared to the urea route. > First principles calculations show that the most stable structure of the compositions BCN and BC{sub 2}N contain BN-rich and carbon-rich domains where BN{sub 3} and NB{sub 3} units are present.

  13. The management century.

    PubMed

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it. PMID:23155998

  14. The Beginning of Metallurgy in the Southern Levant: A Late 6th Millennium CalBC Copper Awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, Yosef; Klimscha, Florian; Shalev, Sariel; Rosenberg, Danny

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC. This paper examines the chemical composition of this item and reviews its context. The results indicate that it was exported from a distant source, probably in the Caucasus, and that the location where it was found is indicative of the social status of the buried individual. This rare finding indicates that metallurgy was first defused to the southern Levant through exchange networks and only centuries later involved local production. This copper awl, the earliest metal artifact found in the southern Levant, indicates that the elaborate Late Chalcolithic metallurgy developed from a more ancient tradition. PMID:24671185

  15. The beginning of metallurgy in the southern Levant: a late 6th millennium CalBC copper awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Yosef; Klimscha, Florian; Shalev, Sariel; Rosenberg, Danny

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC. This paper examines the chemical composition of this item and reviews its context. The results indicate that it was exported from a distant source, probably in the Caucasus, and that the location where it was found is indicative of the social status of the buried individual. This rare finding indicates that metallurgy was first diffused [corrected] to the southern Levant through exchange networks and only centuries later involved local productionThis copper awl, the earliest metal artifact found in the southern Levant, indicates that the elaborate Late Chalcolithic metallurgy developed from a more ancient tradition. PMID:24671185

  16. BcMtg2 is required for multiple stress tolerance, vegetative development and virulence in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wenyong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jin; Lv, Chiyuan; Chen, Changjun

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mtg2 gene encodes the Obg protein, which has an important function in assembling ribosomal subunits. However, little is known about the role of the Obg GTPase in filamentous fungi. In this study, we identified an Mtg2 ortholog, BcMtg2, in B. cinerea. The BcMtg2 deletion mutant showed a defect in spore production, conidial germination and sclerotial formation. Additionally, the mutant increased sensitivity to various environmental stresses. The BcMtg2 mutant exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on host plant tissues. BcMtg2 mutant showed increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to Congo red (cell wall stress agent). In the yeast complement assay, growth defects of yeast BY4741ΔMTG2 mutant were partly restored by genetic complementation of BcMtg2 under these environmental stresses. Additionally, compared with the parental strain and complement strain, the BcMtg2 deletion mutant displayed a minor glycerol response to osmosis stress. These defective phenotypes were recovered in the complement strain ΔBcMtg2C, which was created by adding the wild-type BcMtg2 gene to the ΔBcMtg2 mutant. The results of this study indicate that BcMtg2 has a necessary role in asexual development, environmental stress response and pathogenicity in B. cinerea. PMID:27346661

  17. BcMtg2 is required for multiple stress tolerance, vegetative development and virulence in Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wenyong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jin; Lv, Chiyuan; Chen, Changjun

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mtg2 gene encodes the Obg protein, which has an important function in assembling ribosomal subunits. However, little is known about the role of the Obg GTPase in filamentous fungi. In this study, we identified an Mtg2 ortholog, BcMtg2, in B. cinerea. The BcMtg2 deletion mutant showed a defect in spore production, conidial germination and sclerotial formation. Additionally, the mutant increased sensitivity to various environmental stresses. The BcMtg2 mutant exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on host plant tissues. BcMtg2 mutant showed increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to Congo red (cell wall stress agent). In the yeast complement assay, growth defects of yeast BY4741ΔMTG2 mutant were partly restored by genetic complementation of BcMtg2 under these environmental stresses. Additionally, compared with the parental strain and complement strain, the BcMtg2 deletion mutant displayed a minor glycerol response to osmosis stress. These defective phenotypes were recovered in the complement strain ΔBcMtg2C, which was created by adding the wild-type BcMtg2 gene to the ΔBcMtg2 mutant. The results of this study indicate that BcMtg2 has a necessary role in asexual development, environmental stress response and pathogenicity in B. cinerea. PMID:27346661

  18. Classification of Babesia canis strains in Europe based on polymorphism of the Bc28.1-gene from the Babesia canis Bc28 multigene family.

    PubMed

    Carcy, B; Randazzo, S; Depoix, D; Adaszek, L; Cardoso, L; Baneth, G; Gorenflot, A; Schetters, T P

    2015-07-30

    The vast majority of clinical babesiosis cases in dogs in Europe is caused by Babesia canis. Although dogs can be vaccinated, the level of protection is highly variable, which might be due to genetic diversity of B. canis strains. One of the major merozoite surface antigens of B. canis is a protein with a Mr of 28 kDa that belongs to the Bc28 multigene family, that comprises at least two genes, Bc28.1 and a homologous Bc28.2 gene. The two genes are relatively conserved but they are very distinct in their 3' ends, enabling the design of specific primers. Sequencing of the Bc28.1 genes from 4 genetically distinct B. canis laboratory strains (A8, B, 34.01 and G) revealed 20 mutations at conserved positions of which three allowed the classification of B. canis strains into three main groups (A, B and 34.01/G) by RFLP. This assay was subsequently used to analyze blood samples of 394 dogs suspected of clinical babesiosis from nine countries in Europe. All blood samples were first analyzed with a previously described assay that allowed detection of the different Babesia species that infect dogs. Sixty one percent of the samples contained detectable levels of Babesia DNA. Of these, 98.3% were positive for B. canis, the remaining cases were positive for B. vogeli. Analysis of the Bc28.1 gene, performed on 178 of the B. canis samples, revealed an overall dominance of genotype B (62.4%), followed by genotypes A (37.1%) and 34 (11.8%). Interestingly, a great variation in the geographical distribution and prevalence of the three B. canis genotypes was observed; in the North-East genotype A predominated (72.1% A against 27.9% B), in contrast to the South-West where genotype B predominated (10.3% A against 89.7% B). In the central part of Europe intermediate levels were found (26.0-42.9% A against 74.0-57.1% B, from West to East). Genotype 34 was only identified in France (26.9% among 78 samples) and mostly as co-infection with genotypes A or B (61.9%). A comparative analysis of

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sorption process to the "black carbon" (BC) component in river sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Narres, Hans-Dieter; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    The importance of BC for the long term sequestration of organic carbon is actually discussed for mitigating climate change. In this context, the role of BC as a filter or source of nutrients or toxic chemicals is questioned. The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is especially concerned. In this study, we have investigated the binding of PAH compounds, pyrene and phenanthrene, to Yangtze River sediments. For this purpose, the PAHs sorption to pristine and preheated sediments at 375°C was studied, which allow discriminating the contributions of amorphous organic carbon (AOC) and black carbon (BC) fractions to the PAH sorption extent. An analytical procedure for the determination of PAHs in the solution phase of the batch experiments has been developed with fluorescence spectroscopy. The PAHs sorption isotherms to pristine sediments were fitted by Freundlich and composite models as linear Langmuir model (LLM) and linear Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model (LPDMM). The sequential application of composite models LLM and LPDMM to the sorption isotherms allows assessing the partition of PAHs into AOC and its nonlinear adsorption in the porous structure of BC. The modelling results indicate that the PAHs sorption to minor BC component of sediments (< 0.2 % TOC) is more effective than that to the major AOC component (< 1.3 % TOC). A similar sorption capacity of BC in pristine and preheated sediments is also calculated at high PAHs concentrations, which indicates that the AOC fraction does not block the micropore filling of BC. The microporous structure and the hydrophobic nature of BC component in sediments are thus factors, which create favourable energetic sites for the sorption of PAHs in the river sediments. It can also be shown that a BC molecular sieving plays an important role in the competitive PAHs sorption in a multi-solute system. J. Zhang, Ph.D. Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, Germany, 2010 J. Zhang et al., Effects of organic carbon and clay fractions on the

  20. Three-Dimensional BC/PEDOT Composite Nanofibers with High Performance for Electrode-Cell Interface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuntao; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qi; Feng, Zhangqi; Zhu, Chunlin; Yu, Yalin; Li, Kangming; Zhao, Mengyao; Yang, Jiazhi; Liu, Jian; Sun, Dongping

    2015-12-30

    There is an increasing need to synthesize biocompatible nanofibers with excellent mechanical and electrical performance for electrochemical and biomedical applications. Here we report a facile approach to prepare electroactive and flexible 3D nanostructured biomaterials with high performance based on bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers. Our approach can coat BC nanofibers with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) by in situ interfacial polymerization in a controllable manner. The PEDOT coating thickness is adjustable by the monomer concentration or reaction time during polymerization, producing nanofibers with a total diameter ranging from 30 to 200 nm. This fabrication process also provides a convenient method to tune different parameters such as the average pore size and electrical conductivity on the demands of actual applications. Our experiments have demonstrated that the 3D BC/PEDOT nanofibers exhibit high specific surface area, excellent mechanical properties, electroactive stability, and low cell cytotoxicity. With electrical stimulation, calcium imaging of PC12 neural cells on BC/PEDOT nanofibers has revealed a significant increase in the percentage of cells with higher action potentials, suggesting an enhanced capacitance effect of charge injection. As an attractive solution to the challenge of designing better electrode-cell interfaces, 3D BC/PEDOT nanofibers promise many important applications such as biosensing devices, smart drug delivery systems, and implantable electrodes for tissue engineering. PMID:26550840

  1. Crystal Structure of the GerBC Component of a Bacillus Subtilis Spore Germinant Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Setlow, B; Setlow, P; Hao, B

    2010-01-01

    The nutrient germinant receptors (nGRs) of spores of Bacillus species are clusters of three proteins that play a critical role in triggering the germination of dormant spores in response to specific nutrient molecules. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C protein of the GerB germinant receptor, so-called GerBC, of Bacillus subtilis spores at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. The GerBC protein adopts a previously uncharacterized type of protein fold consisting of three distinct domains, each of which is centered by a beta sheet surrounded by multiple alpha helices. Secondary-structure prediction and structure-based sequence alignment suggest that the GerBC structure represents the prototype for C subunits of nGRs from spores of all Bacillales and Clostridiales species and defines two highly conserved structural regions in this family of proteins. GerBC forms an interlocked dimer in the crystalline state but is predominantly monomeric in solution, pointing to the possibility that GerBC oligomerizes as a result of either high local protein concentrations or interaction with other nGR proteins in spores. Our findings provide the first structural view of the nGR subunits and a molecular framework for understanding the architecture, conservation, and function of nGRs.

  2. RecBC enzyme overproduction affects UV and gamma radiation survival of Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Nivedita P; Kamble, Vidya A; Misra, Hari S

    2008-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans recovering from the effect of acute dose of gamma (gamma) radiation shows a biphasic mechanism of DNA double strands breaks repair that involves an efficient homologous recombination. However, it shows higher sensitivity to near-UV (NUV) than Escherichia coli and lacks RecBC, a DNA strand break (DSB) repair enzyme in some bacteria. Recombinant Deinococcus expressing the recBC genes of E. coli showed nearly three-fold improvements in near-UV tolerance and nearly 2 log cycle reductions in wild type gamma radiation resistance. RecBC over expression effect on radiation response of D. radiodurans was independent of indigenous RecD. Loss of gamma radiation tolerance was attributed to the enhanced rate of in vivo degradation of radiation damaged DNA and delayed kinetics of DSB repair during post-irradiation recovery. RecBC expressing cells of Deinococcus showed wild type response to Far-UV. These results suggest that the overproduction of RecBC competes with the indigenous mechanism of gamma radiation damaged DNA repair while it supports near-UV tolerance in D. radiodurans. PMID:17720630

  3. Limited field investigation report for the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-BC-5 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-BC-5 Operable Unit is one of three operable units associated with the 100 B/C Area. Operable units 1 and 2 address contaminant sources while 100-BC-5 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of investigation used during this LFI was the installation of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all first round and 10% of the subsequent rounds of data associated with the LFI were validated. The screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration constituents that were below background. Constituents considered nontoxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Inconsistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). Tritium and strontium-90 were identified as contaminants of concern at 100-BC-5 because the concentrations exceeded potential applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. The QRA determined that the risk is low for all of the site contaminants.

  4. Single-Particle Composition Measured in an Alpine Valley: Wood Smoke, EC and BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liepmann, C.; Gross, D. S.; Benzaid, S.; Christensen, J.; Turetsky, E.; Musicant, D.; Sandradewi, J.; Prevot, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2007-12-01

    Particulate pollution is an issue of concern in today's society. Current regulations focus on the mass of particulate matter (PM) per volume of air, and not the source or chemical composition of the PM. Here we will present results from the AEROWOOD campaign in Roveredo, Switzerland where we investigated the PM composition measured using a single-particle mass spectrometer (TSI 3800 ATOFMS) to identify the sources of ambient particles. The goal was to differentiate wood smoke particles from diesel emissions. Roveredo is located in a deep alpine valley with strong wintertime thermal inversions, trapping the emissions. Local homes are predominantly heated by wood fires, and the village is located along a motorway that crosses the Swiss alps, providing two distinct particle sources. The particles sampled with the ATOFMS have been analyzed in a variety of ways with a focus on the temporal trends of the different particle types identified. Of particular interest is the distinction made between elemental carbon (EC) and black carbon (BC). During AEROWOOD, EC was measured chemically using real- time thermo/optical methods. BC was recorded directly by absorption, using an aethalometer. Regression models have been constructed to predict the EC and BC values using the single-particle mass spectra, providing chemical insight into the differences in these quantities. Additionally, comparing the timeline plots of EC, BC and the particle types found from the ATOFMS data should provide an idea as to the sources of EC and BC in this location.

  5. Flux, Budget and Sources of Black Carbon (BC) in the Continental Shelf of the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Tian, C.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) derived from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has received increasing attention due to their potential importance in a wide range of biogeochemical processes. China has been generally considered as the world's largest BC emitter. Due to a combination of the prevailing East Asia monsoon and large amounts of riverine outflow, BC released from China can be transported to the adjacent continental shelf seas, the Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS). Based on measurements of BC in 191 surface sediments, 36 riverine water, and 2 seawater samples, as well as the reported BC data set of the aerosol samples in the Bohai Rim, the concentration, flux, and budget of BC in the BS and YS were investigated. The spatial distribution of the BC concentration in surface sediments was largely influenced by the regional hydrodynamic conditions, with high values mainly occurring in the central mud areas. The BC burial flux in the BS and YS ranged from 4 to 1100 μg/cm2/yr, and averaged 166 ± 200 μg/cm2/yr. The area-integrated sedimentary BC sink flux in the entire BS and YS was ~325 Gg/yr. The BC budget calculated in the BS showed that atmospheric deposition and riverine discharge played comparable importance in delivering BC to the BS, and sequestration to bottom sediments was the major BC output pattern, accounting for ~88% of the total input BC. Besides, we attempted to apportion the BC sources in the BS and YS surface sediments using PAHs (organic molecular proxies cogenerated with BC) and BC as an input data to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Results showed that ~83% of the sediment BC was attributed to the combustion of fossil fuels, and the remaining ~17% was from biomass burning. Due to the differences in their production mechanisms and therefore physicochemical properties, the above distinction and quantification would help us better understand their different environmental behaviors in the complex continental shelf

  6. Measurement of the branching fraction ratio B (Bc+→ψ (2 S )π+)/B (Bc+→J /ψ π+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthieu, K.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Using p p collision data collected by LHCb at center-of-mass energies √{s } =7 TeV and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 , the ratio of the branching fraction of the Bc+→ψ (2 S ) π+ decay relative to that of the Bc+→J /ψ π+ decay is measured to be 0.268 ±0.032 (stat ) ±0.007 (syst ) ±0.006 (BF ) . The first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainties on the branching fractions of the J /ψ →μ+μ- and ψ (2 S ) →μ+μ- decays. This measurement is consistent with the previous LHCb result, and the statistical uncertainty is halved.

  7. Reconstructing the epidemic history of HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC in East Asia: the relevance of genetic diversity and phylodynamics for vaccine strategies.

    PubMed

    Takebe, Yutaka; Liao, Huanan; Hase, Saiki; Uenishi, Rie; Li, Yue; Li, Xiao-Jie; Han, Xiaoxu; Shang, Hong; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Yamamoto, Naoki; Pybus, Oliver G; Tee, Kok Keng

    2010-05-26

    HIV-1 CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC are closely related circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) with serious public health consequences in China. The temporal and spatial dynamics of these CRFs were determined by estimating their times of divergence, using phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent methods. Studies of the timelines of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC trace the expansion of these strains back their origins to Yunnan province. The present study highlights the relevance of incorporating evolutionary and molecular epidemiological analyses into an in-depth understanding of the genesis of HIV epidemic, providing information for determining regional and global public health policies, including future vaccine strategies. PMID:20510742

  8. Characterization of liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system

    SciTech Connect

    Lombigit, L. Yussup, N. Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rawi, M. Z. M.

    2015-04-29

    A digital n/γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system is currently under development at Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This system aims at simultaneous detection of fast neutron and gamma ray in mixed radiations environment. This work reports the system characterization performed on the liquid scintillation detector (BC-501A) and digital pulse shape discrimination (DPSD) system. The characterization involves measurement of electron light output from the BC-501A detector and energy channels calibration of the pulse height spectra acquired with DPSD system using set of photon reference sources. The main goal of this experiment is to calibrate the ADC channel of our DPSD system, characterized the BC-501 detector and find the position of Compton edge which later could be used as threshold for the n/γ PSD experiment. The detector resolution however is worse as compared to other published data but it is expected as our detector has a smaller active volume.

  9. Search for Bc+ decays to the p p ‾π+ final state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hongming, L.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-08-01

    A search for the decays of the Bc+ meson to p p bar π+ is performed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. No signal is found and an upper limit, at 95% confidence level, is set, fc/fu × B (Bc+ → p p ‾π+) < 3.6 ×10-8 in the kinematic region m (p p ‾) < 2.85 GeV /c2, pT (B) < 20 GeV / c and 2.0 < y (B) < 4.5, where B is the branching fraction and fc (fu) is the fragmentation fraction of the b quark into a Bc + (B+) meson.

  10. Development of an improved optical transmission technique for black carbon (BC) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballach, J.; Hitzenberger, R.; Schultz, E.; Jaeschke, W.

    A new optical transmission technique for black carbon (BC) analysis was developed to minimize interferences due to scattering effects in filter samples. A standard thermal analysis method (VDI, 1999) is used to link light attenuation by the filter samples to elemental carbon (EC) concentration. Scattering effects are minimized by immersion of the filters in oil of a similar refractive index, as is often done for microscopy purposes. Light attenuation was measured using both a white light source and a red LED of 650 nm. The usual increase in overestimation of BC concentrations with decreasing BC amount in filter samples was found considerably reduced. Some effects of BC properties (e.g. fractal dimension, microstructure and size distribution) on the specific attenuation coefficient BATN, however, are still present for the treated samples. BATN was found close to 1 m 2 g -1 for dry-dispersed industrial BC and 7 m 2 g -1 for nebulized BC. Good agreement was found between the oil immersion, integrating sphere and a polar photometer technique and Mie calculations. The average specific attenuation coefficient of ambient samples in oil varied between 7 and 11 m 2 g -1 for white light and 6 and 9 m 2 g -1 for red light (LED). BATN was found to have much less site variation for the treated than for the untreated samples. The oil immersion technique improved also the correlation with thermally analyzed EC. This new immersion technique therefore presents a considerable improvement over conventional optical transmission techniques and may therefore serve as a simple, fast and cost-effective alternative to thermal methods.

  11. Ascochlorin is a novel, specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Edward A.; Huang, Li-shar; Lee, Dong-Woo; Daldal, Fevzi; Nagai, Kazuo; Minagawa, Nobuko

    2009-01-01

    Ascochlorin is an isoprenoid antibiotic that is produced by the phytopathogenic fungus Ascochyta viciae. Similar to ascofuranone, which specifically inhibits trypanosome alternative oxidase by acting at the ubiquinol binding domain, ascochlorin is also structurally related to ubiquinol. When added to the mitochondrial preparations isolated from rat liver, or the yeast Pichia (Hansenula) anomala, ascochlorin inhibited the electron transport via CoQ in a fashion comparable to antimycin A and stigmatellin, indicating that this antibiotic acted on the cytochrome bc1 complex. In contrast to ascochlorin, ascofuranone had much less inhibition on the same activities. On the one hand, like the Qi site inhibitors antimycin A and funiculosin, ascochlorin induced in H. anomala the expression of nuclear-encoded alternative oxidase gene much more strongly than the Qo site inhibitors tested. On the other hand, it suppressed the reduction of cytochrome b and the generation of superoxide anion in the presence of antimycin A3 in a fashion similar to the Qo site inhibitor myxothiazol. These results suggested that ascochlorin might act at both the Qi and the Qo sites of the fungal cytochrome bc1 complex. Indeed, the altered electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line shape of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein, and the light-induced time resolved cytochrome b and c reduction kinetics of Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome bc1 complex in the presence of ascochlorin demonstrated that this inhibitor can bind to both the Qo and Qi sites of the bacterial enzyme. Additional experiments using purified bovine cytochrome bc1 complex showed that ascochlorin inhibits reduction of cytochrome b by ubiquinone through both Qi and Qo sites. Moreover, crystal structure of chicken cytochrome bc1 complex treated with excess ascochlorin revealed clear electron densities that could be attributed to ascochlorin bound at both the Qi and Qo sites. Overall findings clearly show that ascochlorin is an unusual

  12. Cap Snatching in Yeast L-BC Double-stranded RNA Totivirus*

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Yeast L-A double-stranded RNA virus furnishes its transcript with a 5′ cap structure by a novel cap-snatching mechanism in which m7Gp from a host mRNA cap structure is transferred to the 5′-diphosphate terminus of the viral transcript. His-154 of the coat protein Gag forms an m7Gp adduct, and the H154R mutation abolishes both m7Gp adduct formation and cap snatching. Here we show that L-BC, another totivirus closely related to L-A, also synthesizes 5′-diphosphorylated transcripts and transfers m7Gp from mRNA to the 5′ termini of the transcripts. L-BC Gag also covalently binds to the cap structure and the mutation H156R, which corresponds to H154R of L-A Gag, abolishes cap adduct formation. Cap snatching of the L-BC virus is very similar to that of L-A; N7 methylation of the mRNA cap is essential for cap donor activity, and only 5′-diphosphorylated RNA is used as cap acceptor. L-BC cap snatching is also activated by viral transcription. Furthermore, both viruses require Mg2+ and Mn2+ for cap snatching. These cations are not only required for transcription activation but also directly involved in the cap transfer process. These findings support our previous proposal that the cap-snatching mechanism of the L-A virus is shared by fungal totiviruses closely related to L-A. Interestingly, L-A and L-BC viruses accept either viral transcript as cap acceptor in vitro. Because L-A and L-BC viruses cohabit in many yeast strains, it raises the possibility that their cohabitation in the same host may be beneficial for their mutual cap acquisition. PMID:23824187

  13. Cap snatching in yeast L-BC double-stranded RNA totivirus.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa

    2013-08-16

    Yeast L-A double-stranded RNA virus furnishes its transcript with a 5' cap structure by a novel cap-snatching mechanism in which m(7)Gp from a host mRNA cap structure is transferred to the 5'-diphosphate terminus of the viral transcript. His-154 of the coat protein Gag forms an m(7)Gp adduct, and the H154R mutation abolishes both m(7)Gp adduct formation and cap snatching. Here we show that L-BC, another totivirus closely related to L-A, also synthesizes 5'-diphosphorylated transcripts and transfers m(7)Gp from mRNA to the 5' termini of the transcripts. L-BC Gag also covalently binds to the cap structure and the mutation H156R, which corresponds to H154R of L-A Gag, abolishes cap adduct formation. Cap snatching of the L-BC virus is very similar to that of L-A; N7 methylation of the mRNA cap is essential for cap donor activity, and only 5'-diphosphorylated RNA is used as cap acceptor. L-BC cap snatching is also activated by viral transcription. Furthermore, both viruses require Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) for cap snatching. These cations are not only required for transcription activation but also directly involved in the cap transfer process. These findings support our previous proposal that the cap-snatching mechanism of the L-A virus is shared by fungal totiviruses closely related to L-A. Interestingly, L-A and L-BC viruses accept either viral transcript as cap acceptor in vitro. Because L-A and L-BC viruses cohabit in many yeast strains, it raises the possibility that their cohabitation in the same host may be beneficial for their mutual cap acquisition. PMID:23824187

  14. The structure of the avian mitochondrial cytochrome bc(sub 1) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Edward A.; Huang, Li-Shar; Zhang, Zhaolei; Kim, Sung-Hou

    1999-05-12

    There are now four structures of vertebrate mitochondrial bc1 complexes available in the protein databases, and structures from yeast and bacterial sources are expected soon. This review summarizes the new information with emphasis on the avian cytochrome bc1 complex (PDB entries 1BCC and 3BCC). The Rieske ironsulfur protein is mobile, and this has been proposed to be important for catalysis. The binding sites for quinone have been located based on structures containing inhibitors and, in the case of the quinone reduction site Qi, the quinone itself.

  15. A century of antenna development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olver, A. D.

    The paper describes a century of antenna development as part of a century of radio communications. This historical review examines, chronologically, the pre-Hertz period, Hertz antennas, the microwave optics period, the Marconi era, short waves, theoretical design before and after computers, and radar. Consideration is also given to mobile antennas, microwave comunications, radio astronomy, and satellite comunications.

  16. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  17. Fueling the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Sheindlin, A.E. ); Zaleski, P. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses fueling of the 21st century. Topics include: Basic World Energy Problems at the Turn of the 21st Century, Natural Gas at the Present Stage of Development of Power Engineering, and Biomass-Powered Ice- Making Machine.

  18. [The main sources of medieval Islamic medicine and the medical books translated into Turkish in the 10th century texts. Muslim scientists produced original medical works].

    PubMed

    Seşen, R

    1993-01-01

    Medieval Islamic medicine in the late Omeyad and early Abbasid periods was based on works translated from the Greek, Sanskrit, Persian, Nabatean and Syriac languages, combining their own experiences in medical practice with the knowledge obtained from these. The majority of sources translated were Greek works; among them, those of Hippocrates and Galen were used prominently. From the theoretical standpoint, medieval Islamic medicine was based on the principles determined by Hippocrates. On the other hand, translations in different fields of medicine were done by specialists in those fields, who also authored their own works. Among them are such well-known figures as Abu Bakr el-Razi, Ibn Sina and Ibn el-Nafis. Islamic medicine saw a brilliant development during the Ayyubid period: with the establishment of many hospitals, clinical medicine and practical experience gained importance. these hospitals were at the same time centres of medical education and training. It is also in this period that the first medical school of the Muslim world was set up in Damascus by Mühezzebüddin el-Dahvar (d. 1231). Medical literature in Turkish originated in the framework of Islamic culture, as was in other fields of science. Early medical works in Turkish were translated from Arabic and Persian in the beginning of the 13th century. Original works in Turkish started to be produced from the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th centuries. The volume of Turkish medical literature increased considerably throughout the Ottoman period. This experience and the accumulation of references facilitated the acquisition of modern medical knowledge. This paper is an overview of thirteen major works on medicine which were translated into Turkish in the middle of the 15th century. PMID:11624884

  19. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  20. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2006-06-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  1. Black Carbon Aging from SOA Coatings and Coagulation with Diesel BC Emissions during SAAS at the PNNL Environmental Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Dubey, M. K.; Zaveri, R. A.; Shilling, J. E.; Gourihar, K.; Pekour, M. S.; Subramanian, R.; Zelenyuk, A.; Wilson, J. M.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.; Sharma, N.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is considered to be potentially the 2nd most important global warming factor behind CO2 (Bond et al., 2013). Uncertainties exist due to BC morphology and mixing state on the extent of the warming that it causes, e.g. Cappa et al., 2012. Core-shell BC is expected to enhance absorption by up to a factor of 2, but has yet to be observed to this extent from ambient data. Experiments were conducted during the Soot Aerosol Aging Study (SAAS) Laboratory Campaign at Pactific Northwest National Laboratory's Environmental Chamber in the winter of 2013-2014 to investigate the relationship between coatings and enhancements from diesel emissions. Direct on-line measurements were made with the single particle soot photometer (SP2) from fresh and aged BC from coating and coagulation experiments with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the chamber. BC measurements are coupled with photoactoustic measurements spanning the visible region to probe BC enhancements when mixed with SOA. Here we focus on the enhancements at 781 nm, that are tracked throughout SOA growth on BC, as determined from SP2 coating thicknesses. Thermal denuder (TD) experiments are conducted and enhancements are calculated from two different methods that agree well with each other, confirming the observed results. BC measurements are also compared with co-located measurements from SPLAT-II and filter analysis using SEM and TEM. BC coagulated with SOA produces minimal absorption enhancement values, whereas coatings are observed to have significant enhancement values at 300 degrees C, e.g. 1.3 for thickly coated BC. BC particles were coagulated with SOA in the chamber since this morphology has been observed in wildfire emissions (Sedlacek et al., 2012). Since we did not observe appreciable enhancements for the coagulated BC, we expect that ambient emissions dominated by this particle type to have enhancements due to other sources, such as brown carbon (BrC) that is often co-emitted (Saleh et

  2. Credit Transfer: Models and Systems in BC, North America and beyond. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola

    2009-01-01

    Many jurisdictions have implemented new models of transfer, building on the bedrock of course-to-course articulation, in attempts to address mobility issues and ease transfer for students. The British Columbia (BC) postsecondary system has in the past considered proposals for new models of transfer. System-wide consultations have resulted in the…

  3. IQs Predict Differences in the Technological Development of Nations from 1000 BC through 2000 AD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    National IQs and measures of technological development given by Comin, Easterly and Gong (2010) are presented for 133 nations for the year 1000 BC, for 134 nations for 0 AD, for 120 nations for 1500 AD and for 133 nations for 2000 AD. It is shown that national IQs are significantly correlated with national differences in technological development…

  4. Research Results: Mobility of BC Transfer Students. Fall 2007 to Calendar Year 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    This newsletter highlights research results on the Mobility of Transfer Students (MTS), a branch of research conducted under the auspices of the Student Transitions Project (STP). In this annual study, students enrolled in the Fall of 2007 in BC colleges, university colleges, and institutes were followed into calendar year 2008 to identify those…

  5. 47 CFR 52.12 - North American Numbering Plan Administrator and B&C Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false North American Numbering Plan Administrator and...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.12 North American Numbering Plan Administrator and B&C Agent. The North American Numbering Plan Administrator (“NANPA”) and the associated...

  6. BC International Student Revenue Grows Again. BCTF Research Report. Section V. 2012-EF-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Larry

    2011-01-01

    After two years of decline, the tuition from international students increased in 2010-11 and reached more than $129 million. The revenue from international students has more than doubled in a decade, from $55.5 million in 2001-02. This revenue is the most significant source of funding for K-12 education in BC outside of direct grants from the…

  7. Immediate and Delayed Transitions from Secondary School Graduation to Public Post-Secondary Education in BC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the Ministry of Advanced Education on behalf of the 22 Central Data Warehouse (CDW) participating institutions, the Ministry of Education, and the BC Universities signed an agreement to establish a formal mechanism that protects individual privacy while enabling the exchange of personal information between the parties for…

  8. English Proficiency Requirements at BC Post-Secondary Institutions: Challenges Posed for Students. Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This newsletter presents key observations from a review of BC post-secondary institutional websites undertaken to assess any differences in admission requirements for entry into standard First Year English courses and in institutional English admission requirements. Recommendations are made on possible actions that could be taken to clarify…

  9. The Comet Of 44 B.C. and Caesar's Funeral Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, John T.; Licht, A. Lewis

    1997-05-01

    Using insights from physics and classics, this book explores the social and cultural implications of the spectacular, daylight comet that was observed in 44 B.C. during the games that the future emperor Augustus gave in honor of the late Julius Caesar.

  10. The inducible elongin A elongation activation domain: structure, function and interaction with the elongin BC complex.

    PubMed Central

    Aso, T; Haque, D; Barstead, R J; Conaway, R C; Conaway, J W

    1996-01-01

    The elongin (SIII) complex strongly stimulates the rate of elongation by RNA polymerase II by suppressing transient pausing by polymerase at many sites along the DNA. Elongin (SIII) is composed of a transcriptionally active A subunit and two small regulatory B and C subunits, which bind stably to each other to form a binary complex that interacts with elongin A and strongly induces its transcriptional activity. The elongin (SIII) complex is a potential target for negative regulation by the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein, which is capable of binding stably to the elongin BC complex and preventing it from activating elongin A. Here, we identify an elongin A domain sufficient for activation of elongation and demonstrate that it is a novel type of inducible activator that targets the RNA polymerase II elongation complex and is evolutionarily conserved in species as distantly related as Caenorhabditis elegans and man. In addition, we demonstrate that both the elongin A elongation activation domain and the VHL tumor suppressor protein interact with the elongin BC complex through a conserved elongin BC binding site motif that is essential for induction of elongin A activity by elongin BC and for tumor suppression by the VHL protein. Images PMID:8896449

  11. Structural Basis of Resistance to Anti-Cytochrome bc1 Complex Inhibitors: Implication for Drug Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Lothar; Yu, Chang-An; Xia, Di

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistance has devastating economic and social consequences, a testimonial of which is the rise and fall of inhibitors against the respiratory component cytochrome bc1 complex, a time tested and highly effective target for disease control. Unfortunately, the mechanism of resistance is a multivariate problem, including primarily mutations in the gene of the cytochrome b subunit but also activation of alternative pathways of ubiquinol oxidation and pharmacokinetic effects. There is a considerable interest in designing new bc1 inhibitors with novel modes of binding and lower propensity to induce the development of resistance. The accumulation of crystallographic data of bc1 complexes with and without inhibitors bound provides the structural basis for rational drug design. In particular, the cytochrome b subunit offers two distinct active sites that can be targeted for inhibition - the quinol oxidation site and the quinone reduction site. This review brings together available structural information of inhibited bc1 by various quinol oxidation- and reduction-site inhibitors, the inhibitor binding modes, conformational changes upon inhibitor binding of side chains in the active site and large scale domain movements of the iron-sulfur protein subunit. Structural data analysis provides a clear understanding of where and why existing inhibitors fail and points towards promising alternatives. PMID:23688079

  12. Synthetic Studies on the Bryostatins: Preparation of a Truncated BC-Ring Intermediate by Pyran Annulation

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Gary E.; Truong, Anh P.

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis of a potential BC-ring subunit (C9–C27) for bryostatin 1, a remarkably potent anticancer agent, has been developed in 16 steps and 18% overall yield. The key features of this route include a BITIP-catalyzed asymmetric allylation reaction, chelation-controlled allylations, a hydroformylation reaction, and a pyran annulation reaction. PMID:15901156

  13. Presenting Computer Literacy for the B.C. Generation at the Smithsonian Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, C. Dianne; Heller, Rachelle S.

    1984-01-01

    Though computer literacy has become a key educational issue of the 1980s, little attention has been paid to adults over the age of 25 who received their formal education Before Computers (B.C.). One-day seminars (developed at the request of the Smithsonian Institution) designed to satisfy this need are described. (JN)

  14. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on microperoxidase-11 immobilized on flexible MWCNTs-BC nanocomposite film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingyan; Zhou, Jianhai; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiaofan; Huang, Dekang; He, Yahui; Wang, Mingkui; Yang, Guang; Shen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we report on an experimental study of flexible nanocomposite film for electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in combination with microperoxidase-11 (MP-11). MWCNTs are used to functionalize BC and provide a flexible conductive film. On the other hand, BC can improve MWCNTs׳ biocompatibility. The investigation shows that MP-11 immobilized on the flexible film of MWCNTs-BC can easily present a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible redox peaks, revealing a direct electrochemistry of MP-11 on the nanocomposite film. The apparent heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant ks is estimated to be 11.5s(-1). The resulting flexible electrode presents appreciated catalytic properties for electrochemical detection of H2O2, comparing to traditional electrodes (such as gold, glassy carbon electrode) modified with MP-11. The proposed biosensor exhibits a low detection limit of 0.1 µM (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) with a linear range of 0.1-257.6 µM, and acquires a satisfactory stability. PMID:25281099

  15. The BC Provincial Education Number (PEN): Considerations for Assigning the PEN to Post-Secondary Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The BC Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) has had a long-standing interest in measures of student mobility and the potential of the Provincial Education Number (PEN) being applied in post-secondary institutions at the applicant stage. The Admissions Committee of BCCAT included a project in its 2004/05 Work Plan to conduct a thorough…

  16. When Does Rank(ABC)= Rank(AB) + Rank(BC) - Rank(B) Hold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Yongge; Styan, George P. H.

    2002-01-01

    The well-known Frobenius rank inequality established by Frobenius in 1911 states that the rank of the product ABC of three matrices satisfies the inequality rank(ABC) [greater than or equal]rank(AB) + rank(BC) - rank(B) A new necessary and sufficient condition for equality to hold is presented and then some interesting consequences and…

  17. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  18. Rolling-element bearings in China: From ancient times to the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lie; Li, Ang

    2016-03-01

    The development of rolling-element bearings in China has spanned a long period. Based on several typical and important cases, the present article reconstructs the history of rolling-element bearings in China by dividing it into four stages according to the various characteristics of the bearings. The first stage represents the origin of rolling bearings in China, which remains controversial because of several suspected races and cages that were likely the components of bearings more than a millennium ago. At the second stage, a type of simple roller bearing was used for astronomical instruments not later than the 13th century based on clear philological and physical evidence. A similar bearing was also applied to an abridged armillary in the 17th century. Another type of spherical thrust bearings with rolling elements, which is a key component of a traditional Chinese windmill, could support a rotating shaft that moves rotationally and at an angle. At the third stage, the Chinese began studying and using the so-called Europeanstyle bearing since the 17th century. Moreover, over the last 100 years, the modern rolling bearing industry was gradually established in China, particularly because of the technology transfer from the Soviet Union in the 1950s. At the fourth stage, the Chinese government initiated the relatively rapid development of bearing technology. The government launched the "bearing movement" from the 1950s to the 1960s to establish the modern bearing industry and to promote rolling bearings as replacement for traditional sliding bearings. Furthermore, a number of large professional factories and institutions in China have continually introduced advanced technology and equipment. At present, these companies and institutions play a significant role in the international bearing industry.

  19. Premature deaths attributed to source-specific BC emissions in six urban US regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Matthew D.; Henze, Daven K.; Capps, Shannon L.; Hakami, Amir; Zhao, Shunliu; Resler, Jaroslav; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Stanier, Charles O.; Baek, Jaemeen; Sandu, Adrian; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios; Pinder, Rob W.; Napelenok, Sergey L.; Bash, Jesse O.; Percell, Peter B.; Chai, Tianfeng

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to particulate black carbon (BC) has significant adverse health effects and may be more detrimental to human health than exposure to PM2.5 as a whole. Mobile source BC emission controls, mostly on diesel-burning vehicles, have successfully decreased mobile source BC emissions to less than half of what they were 30 years ago. Quantification of the benefits of previous emissions controls conveys the value of these regulatory actions and provides a method by which future control alternatives could be evaluated. In this study we use the adjoint of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to estimate highly-resolved spatial distributions of benefits related to emission reductions for six urban regions within the continental US. Emissions from outside each of the six chosen regions account for between 7% and 27% of the premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC within the region. While we estimate that nonroad mobile and onroad diesel emissions account for the largest number of premature deaths attributable to exposure to BC, onroad gasoline is shown to have more than double the benefit per unit emission relative to that of nonroad mobile and onroad diesel. Within the region encompassing New York City and Philadelphia, reductions in emissions from large industrial combustion sources that are not classified as EGUs (i.e., non-EGU) are estimated to have up to triple the benefits per unit emission relative to reductions to onroad diesel sectors, and provide similar benefits per unit emission to that of onroad gasoline emissions in the region. While onroad mobile emissions have been decreasing in the past 30 years and a majority of vehicle emission controls that regulate PM focus on diesel emissions, our analysis shows the most efficient target for stricter controls is actually onroad gasoline emissions.

  20. Ancient Skeletal Evidence for Leprosy in India (2000 B.C.)

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Gwen; Tripathy, V. Mushrif; Misra, V. N.; Mohanty, R. K.; Shinde, V. S.; Gray, Kelsey M.; Schug, Malcolm D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects almost 250,000 people worldwide. The timing of first infection, geographic origin, and pattern of transmission of the disease are still under investigation. Comparative genomics research has suggested M. leprae evolved either in East Africa or South Asia during the Late Pleistocene before spreading to Europe and the rest of the World. The earliest widely accepted evidence for leprosy is in Asian texts dated to 600 B.C. Methodology/Principal Findings We report an analysis of pathological conditions in skeletal remains from the second millennium B.C. in India. A middle aged adult male skeleton demonstrates pathological changes in the rhinomaxillary region, degenerative joint disease, infectious involvement of the tibia (periostitis), and injury to the peripheral skeleton. The presence and patterning of lesions was subject to a process of differential diagnosis for leprosy including treponemal disease, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, and non-specific infection. Conclusions/Significance Results indicate that lepromatous leprosy was present in India by 2000 B.C. This evidence represents the oldest documented skeletal evidence for the disease. Our results indicate that Vedic burial traditions in cases of leprosy were present in northwest India prior to the first millennium B.C. Our results also support translations of early Vedic scriptures as the first textual reference to leprosy. The presence of leprosy in skeletal material dated to the post-urban phase of the Indus Age suggests that if M. leprae evolved in Africa, the disease migrated to India before the Late Holocene, possibly during the third millennium B.C. at a time when there was substantial interaction among the Indus Civilization, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. This evidence should be impetus to look for additional skeletal and molecular evidence of leprosy in India and Africa to confirm the African origin of

  1. Link between local scale BC emissions and large scale atmospheric solar absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, P. S.; Ahmed, T.; Kar, A.; Rehman, I. H.; Ramanathan, V.

    2011-07-01

    Project Surya has documented indoor and outdoor concentrations of black carbon (BC) from traditional biomass burning cook stoves in a rural village located in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region of N. India from November 2009- September 2010. In this paper, we systematically document the link between local scale aerosol properties and column averaged regional aerosol optical properties and atmospheric radiative forcing. We report observations from the first phase of Project Surya to estimate the source dependent (biomass and fossil fuels) aerosol optical properties from local to regional scale. Data were collected using surface based observations of BC, organic carbon (OC), aerosol light absorption, scattering coefficient at the Surya village (SVI_1) located in IGP region, and satellite and AERONET observations at the regional scale (IGP). The daily mean BC concentrations at SVI1 showed the large increase of BC during the dry season (December to February) with values reaching 35 μg m-3. Space based LIDAR data reveal how the biomass smoke is trapped within the first kilometre during the dry season and its extension to above 5 km during the pre-monsoon season. As a result during the dry season, the variance in the daily mean SSA and column aerosol optical properties at the local IGP site correlated (with slopes in the range of 0.85 to 1.06 and R2>0.4) well with the "IGP_AERONET" (mean of six AERONET sites), thus suggesting in-situ observations at few locations can be used to infer spatial mean forcing. The atmospheric forcing due to BC and OC exceeded 20 W m-2 during all months from November to May, leading to the deduction that elimination of cook stove smoke emissions through clean cooking technologies will likely have a major positive impact on health and the regional climate.

  2. Identification of a new HIV-1 BC circulating recombinant form (CRF60_BC) in Italian young men having sex with men.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Francesco Roberto; Lai, Alessia; Monno, Laura; Binda, Francesca; Brindicci, Gaetano; Punzi, Grazia; Bozzi, Giorgio; Violin, Michela; Galli, Massimo; Zazzi, Maurizio; Angarano, Gioacchino; Balotta, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    HIV-1 recombination, reverse transcriptase (RT) low fidelity and high replication rate are the drivers of variability and evolution on the global scale. Only few of these HIV-1 chimeric forms have been characterized in Europe, despite 20% of infections are due to unique or circulating recombinant forms worldwide. An outbreak of BC recombinants has been recently described in a southern region of Italy, Apulia, in men having sex with men (MSM) seeking sexual partners on-line. We analyzed the full length genome of HIV-1 BC recombinants harbored by three recently infected subjects, two MSM and a heterosexual woman, with no evidence of epidemiological link. The recombination analysis showed a unique recombination pattern of a subtype C genome with 3 subtype B fragments corresponding to HXB2 positions: [1-463] in the 5'LTR , [2804-3037] in RT and [8662-9548] corresponding to the C-terminal segment of gp41, nef and most of 3'LTR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the South American origin of the C subtype parental strain. A research conducted in an Italian nationwide database provided six additional similar sequences from other Italian regions with identical recombination pattern in pol gene; a further BLAST search retrieved one full length genome isolated in France with the same mosaic pattern, except an additional B subtype short fragment in the integrase region. These recombinant isolates, designated CRF60_BC, led to the identification of the first Italian circulating recombinant form, which gave rise to an epidemic burst mainly involving MSM. PMID:24602697

  3. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to Simon Fraser University 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jacy; Chan, Liny; Chuang, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data and analysis about students admitted to Simon Fraser University (SFU) who have BC College experience in the period 2003/04 to 2007/08. The first and second sections of the report focus on the profile of students admitted to SFU on the basis of BC College transfer including number of credits transferred, institution…

  4. Movement of All Registrants among B.C. Public Post-Secondary Institutions. Research Results from the Student Transitions Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the Student Transitions Project (STP) examined the movement of all British Columbia (BC) pubic post-secondary registrants between post-secondary institutions from 2003/03 to the Fall of 2007. This is an expansion of STP's previous research focusing on the movement and outcomes of a cohort of BC secondary school graduates. (Contains…

  5. Studies on Inhibition of Respiratory Cytochrome bc1 Complex by the Fungicide Pyrimorph Suggest a Novel Inhibitory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yu-Mei; Esser, Lothar; Zhou, Fei; Li, Chang; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Yu, Chang-An; Qin, Zhao-Hai; Xia, Di

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory chain cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1) is a major target of numerous antibiotics and fungicides. All cyt bc1 inhibitors act on either the ubiquinol oxidation (QP) or ubiquinone reduction (QN) site. The primary cause of resistance to bc1 inhibitors is target site mutations, creating a need for novel agents that act on alternative sites within the cyt bc1 to overcome resistance. Pyrimorph, a synthetic fungicide, inhibits the growth of a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi, though little is known concerning its mechanism of action. In this study, using isolated mitochondria from pathogenic fungus Phytophthora capsici, we show that pyrimorph blocks mitochondrial electron transport by affecting the function of cyt bc1. Indeed, pyrimorph inhibits the activities of both purified 11-subunit mitochondrial and 4-subunit bacterial bc1 with IC50 values of 85.0 μM and 69.2 μM, respectively, indicating that it targets the essential subunits of cyt bc1 complexes. Using an array of biochemical and spectral methods, we show that pyrimorph acts on an area near the QP site and falls into the category of a mixed-type, noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ubiquinol. In silico molecular docking of pyrimorph to cyt b from mammalian and bacterial sources also suggests that pyrimorph binds in the vicinity of the quinol oxidation site. PMID:24699450

  6. 2008 Key Student Outcomes Indicators for BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Programs: Survey Results by Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey) collects and disseminates information about former students' post-secondary experiences and their subsequent labour market and further education experiences. The survey is administered annually to former…

  7. BC4707 Is a Major Facilitator Superfamily Multidrug Resistance Transport Protein from Bacillus cereus Implicated in Fluoroquinolone Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Roger; Vörös, Aniko; Ekman, Jaakko V.; Sødring, Marianne; Nes, Ingerid; Kroeger, Jasmin K.; Saidijam, Massoud; Bettaney, Kim E.; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling highlighted a subset of genes encoding putative multidrug transporters in the pathogen Bacillus cereus that were up-regulated during stress produced by bile salts. One of these multidrug transporters (BC4707) was selected for investigation. Functional characterization of the BC4707 protein in Escherichia coli revealed a role in the energized efflux of xenobiotics. Phenotypic analyses after inactivation of the gene bc4707 in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 suggested a more specific, but modest role in the efflux of norfloxacin. In addition to this, transcriptional analyses showed that BC4707 is also expressed during growth of B. cereus under non-stressful conditions where it may have a role in the normal physiology of the bacteria. Altogether, the results indicate that bc4707, which is part of the core genome of the B. cereus group of bacteria, encodes a multidrug resistance efflux protein that is likely involved in maintaining intracellular homeostasis during growth of the bacteria. PMID:22615800

  8. BC200 LncRNA a potential predictive marker of poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui-Hua; Zhu, Cai-hua; Li, Xiang-Ke; Cao, Wei; Zong, Hong; Cao, Xin-Guang; Hu, Hai-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression and prognosis significance of BC200 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients who received radical resection. Methods We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the expression level of BC200 in cancer tissue and paired adjacent normal tissue samples from 70 ESCC patients who received radical surgical resection and analyzed the correlation of the relative expression level of BC200 with clinical-pathological features and prognosis. Results We found that the relative expression of BC200 was significantly higher in ESCC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissue samples (P=0.023). But the expression of BC200 were not related to clinical-pathological features, such as age, TNM stages, and histological grade (P>0.05). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that high expression levels of BC200 were correlated with poor prognosis in ESCC patients. Patients with a high level of BC200 had a shorter disease-free survival and overall survival than those with low BC200 expression (P=0.034 and P=0.031, respectively). On multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) of BC200 expression was 2.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.12–4.19, P=0.022) for disease-free survival and 2.24 (95% CI=1.12–4.49, P=0.023) for overall survival. Conclusion Our results indicate that high expression of BC200 reflects poor prognosis and could serve as a novel predictive marker for ESCC patients who received radical resection. PMID:27143917

  9. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-2 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This work plan and attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-2 operable unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The 100 Area is one of four areas at the Hanford Site that are on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) National Priorities List under CERCLA. The 100-BC-2 operable unit is one of two source operable units in the 100-B/C Area (Figure ES-1). Source operable units are those that contain facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. The 100-BC-2 source operable unit contains waste sites that were formerly in the 100-BC-2, 100-BC-3, and 100-BC-4 operable units. Because of their size and geographic location, the waste sites from these two operable units were added to 100-BC-2. This allows for a more efficient and effective investigation of the remaining 100-B/C Reactor area waste sites. The investigative approach to waste sites associated with the 100-BC-2 operable unit are listed in Table ES-1. The waste sites fall into three general categories: high priority liquid waste disposal sites, low priority liquid waste disposal sites, and solid waste burial grounds. Several sites have been identified as candidates for conducting an IRM. Two sites have been identified as warranting additional limited field sampling. The two sites are the 116-C-2A pluto crib, and the 116-C-2C sand filter.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC, which grows on benzene with chlorate as the electron acceptor.

    PubMed

    Weelink, Sander A B; Tan, Nico C G; ten Broeke, Harm; van den Kieboom, Corné; van Doesburg, Wim; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Gerritse, Jan; Junca, Howard; Stams, Alfons J M

    2008-11-01

    A bacterium, strain BC, was isolated from a benzene-degrading chlorate-reducing enrichment culture. Strain BC degrades benzene in conjunction with chlorate reduction. Cells of strain BC are short rods that are 0.6 microm wide and 1 to 2 microm long, are motile, and stain gram negative. Strain BC grows on benzene and some other aromatic compounds with oxygen or in the absence of oxygen with chlorate as the electron acceptor. Strain BC is a denitrifying bacterium, but it is not able to grow on benzene with nitrate. The closest cultured relative is Alicycliphilus denitrificans type strain K601, a cyclohexanol-degrading nitrate-reducing betaproteobacterium. Chlorate reductase (0.4 U/mg protein) and chlorite dismutase (5.7 U/mg protein) activities in cell extracts of strain BC were determined. Gene sequences encoding a known chlorite dismutase (cld) were not detected in strain BC by using the PCR primers described in previous studies. As physiological and biochemical data indicated that there was oxygenation of benzene during growth with chlorate, a strategy was developed to detect genes encoding monooxygenase and dioxygenase enzymes potentially involved in benzene degradation in strain BC. Using primer sets designed to amplify members of distinct evolutionary branches in the catabolic families involved in benzene biodegradation, two oxygenase genes putatively encoding the enzymes performing the initial successive monooxygenations (BC-BMOa) and the cleavage of catechol (BC-C23O) were detected. Our findings suggest that oxygen formed by dismutation of chlorite can be used to attack organic molecules by means of oxygenases, as exemplified with benzene. Thus, aerobic pathways can be employed under conditions in which no external oxygen is supplied. PMID:18791031

  11. Point defects in hexagonal BN, BC{sub 3} and BC{sub x}N compounds studied by x-ray absorption near-edge structure

    SciTech Connect

    Caretti, Ignacio; Jimenez, Ignacio

    2011-07-15

    The generation of point defects in highly oriented pyrolytic boron nitride (HOPBN) after Ar{sup +} ion bombardment in ultrahigh vacuum and subsequent exposure to air was studied by angle-resolved x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The pristine HOPBN showed well-oriented boron nitride (BN) basal planes parallel to the surface, with a negligible amount of defects. Amorphization of the BN structure took place after Ar{sup +} sputtering, as indicated by the broadening of the XANES spectra and significant decrease of the characteristic {pi}* states. Following air exposure, the XANES analysis revealed a spontaneous reorganization of the sample structure. The appearance of four new B1s {pi}* excitonic peaks indicates an oxygen decoration process of the nitrogen vacancies created by ion bombardment. A core-level shift model is presented to support this statement. This model is successfully extended to the case of oxygen substitutional defects in hexagonal BC{sub 3} and BC{sub x}N (0 < x < 4) materials, which can be applied to any B-based sp{sup 2}-bonded honeycomb structure.

  12. Was the 19th Century end of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T. H.; Flanner, M.; Marzeion, B.; Kaser, G.; VanCuren, R. A.; Abdalati, W.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers in the European Alps began to retreat abruptly from their mid 19th century maximum, marking what appeared to be the end of the Little Ice Age. Alpine temperature and precipitation records suggest that glaciers should instead have continued to grow until circa 1910. Our current knowledge of the Alpine climate, climatologists consider the climatic end of the LIA to have come markedly later than the glaciological end, resulting in a paradox. Simulations of glacier length variations using glacier flow and mass balance models forced with instrumental and proxy temperature and precipitation fail to match the timing and magnitude of the observed late 19th century retreat. Matches between simulations and observations have only been achieved when additional glacier mass loss is imposed after 1865 or when precipitation signals are generated that would fit the glacier retreat rather than using actual precipitation records. A known transition however did occur across that half century and into the 20th century that may have held powerful potential consequences for absorption of solar radiation, earlier melt of snow cover, and, in turn, the retreat of glaciers. That transition was the dramatic rise in a byproduct of industrialization: black carbon. Ice cores indicate that BC concentrations increased abruptly at mid 19th century and largely continued to increase into the 20th century, consistent with known increases in BC emissions from the industrialization of Western Europe. We estimate the radiative forcings by these changes in BC loading and whether they were of sufficient magnitude to produce the pronounced negative glacier mass balance that began mid 19th century. Inferred annual surface radiative forcings increased stepwise to 13-17 W m-2 between 1850 and 1880, and to 9-22 W m-2 in the early 1900s, with snowmelt season (April/May/June) forcings reaching greater than 35 W m-2 by the early 1900s. These snowmelt season radiative forcings would have resulted in

  13. Proceedings - annual offshore technology conference, 13th, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Anon

    1981-01-01

    The four volumes contain 183 papers presented at the meeting, all of which are indexed separately. Among the subjects covered are floating structure response, fatigue considerations in offshore systems, structural analysis and design, wave forces and hydroelastic response, offshore pipelines, ocean mining, tension leg platforms, oil terminals, geophysical data processing, seafloor surveying and mapping, subsea production systems, wind forces, towage of offshore structures, foundation performance, mooring and anchoring, and others.

  14. The 13th Tihany Symposium on Radiation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, László; Takács, Erzsébet

    2016-07-01

    The Symposium was held in Balatonalmádi, a beautiful city by the Lake Balaton, Hungary, between August 29 and September 3, 2015. This time - to meet the expectations of many colleagues and friends - a place close to the village Tihany was selected, where the first Tihany Symposium was organized in 1962. The participants beside the excellent lectures could also enjoy the panorama of the Lake from the rooms and from the terrace of Hotel Ramada. The number of participants was close to 170 from about 33 countries. The highest number of participants arrived from Poland (14), followed by France (11), Turkey (9) and China (9). The Symposium had 6-6 colleagues from Brazil, Israel, and Romania. Beside China, Asia was represented by a few scientists from the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and from Saudi Arabia.

  15. THE 13TH ADVANCED ACCELERATOR CONCEPTS WORKSHOP (AAC'8)

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, Wim; Schroder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric

    2008-07-15

    The Thirteenth Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) was held from July 27 to August 2, 2008 at the Chaminade Conference Center in Santa Cruz, California, USA, organized by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California at Berkeley. There were unprecedented levels of interest in the 2008 AAC Workshop, and participation was by invitation, with 215 workshop attendees, including 58 students. Reflecting the world-wide growth of the advanced accelerator community, there was significant international participation, with participants from twelve countries attending.

  16. 13th annual meeting of the ALS Users' Association

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art

    2000-11-21

    A complement of 266 users, staff, and vendors descended upon the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) from Monday through Wednesday, October 16-18, 2000 for the thirteenth edition of the annual Advanced Light Source (ALS) users meeting. In a departure from previous practice, the meeting featured an increased emphasis on workshops with the result that the proceedings were equally divided between oral and poster presentations and the workshops. After the traditional welcomes and facility updates on the first morning, science dominated the first day and a half comprising the formal meeting with a session of highlights from young researchers, three sessions of scientific highlights from the ALS and elsewhere, and a poster session that included a student poster competition. A set of seven workshops covering research areas of current or growing interest at the ALS rounded out the final day and a half of the meeting.

  17. Proceedings, 13th Annual Conference on Manual Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of manual control theory are discussed. Specific topics covered include: tracking; performance, attention allocation, and mental load; surface vehicle control; monitoring behavior and supervisory control; manipulators and prosthetics; aerospace vehicle control; motion and visual cues; and displays and controls.

  18. Proceedings of the 13th Project integration meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Progress made by the Low Cost Solar Array Project during the period April through August 1979 is presented. Reports are given on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering and operations, and a discussion of the steps taken to integrate these efforts. A report on, and copies of viewgraphs presented at the Project Integration Meeting held August 22-23, 1979 are presented.

  19. Room To Grow. 13th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data from an annual survey of residence hall construction, including the fact that while the total cost and overall size of newly constructed housing facilities remained steady compared with last year's survey, the cost and square footage per resident dropped considerably. Also discusses the focus on amenities in construction. (EV)

  20. [The saga of aspirin: centuries-old ancestors of an old lady who doesn't deserve to die].

    PubMed

    Queneau, P

    2001-01-01

    Where do analgics come from? If their ancestors are many centuries old, we observe that the four main drugs of modern analgesia, morphine (1816), codeine (1832), paracetamol (1893) and aspirin (1897) were discovered during the 19th century. And through what 'sagas'! The first known prescriptions, written on earthenware shelves in Mesopotamia 3 centuries BC, already mentioned medications derived from willow to cure headaches. The Greeks dedicated to Asclepios, god of therapeutics, a statue carved in a willow trunk as a symbol! Thus, before becoming a drug, aspirin was born from the willow, which grows with its feet in water 'without suffering', as the ancestors put it. But before it walked on the moon with Neil Armstrong in 1969, the discovery of aspirin as a drug was the consequence of the filial love of a young researcher, Felix Hoffmann, who wanted to decrease the resistant pain of his rheumatic old father. PMID:11878097

  1. New archaeomagnetic data recovered from the study of celtiberic remains from central Spain (Numancia and Ciadueña, III-I BC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osete, María Luisa; Chauvin, Annick; Catanzariti, Gianluca; Jimeno, Alfredo; Campuzano, Saioa A.; Benito-Batanero, Juan Pedro; Roperch, Pierrick

    2016-04-01

    Variation of geomagnetic field changes in the Iberian Peninsula between prior to roman times remain very poorly constrained. Here we report results from the archeomagnetic study carried out on four set of ceramics and one combustion structure recovered in two pre-roman (celtiberic) archeological sites in central Spain. Rock magnetic experiments indicate the ChRM is carried by magnetite. Archaeointensity determinations were carried out by using the classical Thellier-Thellier experiment including tests and corrections for magnetic anisotropy and magnetic cooling rate dependency. Well heated specimens (red ceramic fragments and well heated samples from the kiln) show one single well defined component of magnetisation going through the origin and a linear arai plot providing successful archaeointensity determinations. The effect of anisotropy of the termoremanent magnetization (ATRM) on paleointensity analysis was specially investigated obtaining very high ATRM corrections on fine pottery specimens. With differences between the uncorrected and ATRM corrected paleointensity values that reached up to 80-100%. Mean intensity values obtained from three selected groups were 61.1 ±5.9μT; 57.6±3.3 and 56.4± 4.7μT which allows delineate the evolution of the paleofield intensity in central Iberia during the III-I centuries BC. The new archaeointensity data disagrees with previous results from Iberian ceramics which were not corrected by the ATRM effect. But they are in agreement with the most recent French paleointensity curve and latest European intensity model. Both based on a selection of high quality paleointensity data. This result reinforces the idea that the puzzling scatter often observed in the global paleointensity database is likely due to differences in the laboratory protocol. Further data from well contrasted laboratory protocols are still necessary to delineate confidently the evolution of the geomagnetic paleofield during the first millennium BC.

  2. Mono-layer BC2 a high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardikar, Rahul; Samanta, Atanu; Han, Sang Soo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Singh, Abhishek

    2015-04-01

    Mono-layer of graphene with high surface area compared to the bulk graphite phase, shows less Li uptake. The Li activity or kinetics can be modified via defects and/or substitutional doping. Boron and Nitrogen are the best known dopants for carbonaceous anode materials. In particular, boron doped graphene shows higher capacity and better Li adsorption compared to Nitrogen doped graphene. Here, using first principles density functional theory calculations, we study the spectrum of boron carbide (BCx) mono-layer phases in order to estimate the maximum gravimetric capacity that can be achieved by substitutional doping in graphene. Our results show that uniformly boron doped BC2 phase shows a high capacity of? 1400 mAh/g, much higher than previously reported capacity of BC3. Supported by Korea Institute of Science and Technology.

  3. Flow fields within Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Oval BC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. L.; Garneau, G. W.; Beebe, R. F.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 1 high-resolution images of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and White Oval BC are used to map flow fields within these two areas. The relative vorticity is computed as a function of semi-major axis length and position angle in a coordinate system consisting of concentric ellipses of equal eccentricity. Wind speeds of 110-120 m/s are observed near the outer edge of both features, and along their minor axes relative vorticity profiles reach a maximum of 0.00006/s. Maximum Rossby numbers of 0.36 are computed for flows within both features, and are found to be low, indicating geostrophic constraints on the flow. The difference in streamline curvature within the GRS and the Oval BC is found to compensate for the difference in planetary vorticity at the respective latitudes of the features. Finally, motions within the central region of the GRS are slower and more random than around the spot's outer portion.

  4. High-Pressure and Electronic Band Structure Studies on MoBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconi, R.; de la Mora, P.; Morales, F.; Escamilla, R.; Camacho, C. O.; Acosta, M.; Escudero, R.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, high-pressure electrical resistivity measurements and electronic structure analysis on the intermetallic MoBC system are presented. Electrical resistivity measurements up to about 5 GPa using a diamond anvil cell on MoBC revealed that decreases in a non-monotonic way. Using Linearized Augmented Plane Wave method based on Density Functional Theory, we investigate the changes in the electronic structure of this compound as a function of pressure. The states at the Fermi level mainly come from the d orbitals of molybdenum atoms. As the pressure increases, the band width is enhanced and the total density of states at the Fermi level decreases. The Fermi surface for this compound possesses a two-dimensional character which prevails under an applied pressure of about 10 GPa. The results are compared with the chemical pressure effects on induced by the gradual and non-simultaneous elimination of B and C in the compound.

  5. Cytotoxic responses in BC3H1 myoblast cell lines exposed to 1-desulfoyessotoxin.

    PubMed

    Korsnes, Mónica Suárez; Espenes, Arild; Hermansen, Lene C; Loader, Jared I; Miles, Christopher O

    2013-09-01

    1-Desulfoyessotoxin (1-dsYTX) is a desulfated polyether compound belonging to the yessotoxin group of marine toxins. This analogue has been detected in mussels. There are so far no reports on the mechanisms of action of 1-dsYTX in in vitro cell systems. This work evaluates cytotoxic responses in BC3H1 cells exposed to 100 nM 1-dsYTX. The toxicity of 1-dsYTX seems to be similar to that of yessotoxin (YTX). 1-Desulfoyessotoxin induced morphological and biochemical traits typical of a non-apoptotic form of cell death resembling paraptosis. Treated BC3H1 cells showed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation, enlargement of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and lack of DNA fragmentation. Western blotting analysis revealed phosphorylation of the protein kinase p38 and involvement of the heat shock protein Hsp70. This activation suggests involvement of different signalling pathways for programmed cell death. PMID:23851005

  6. Targeting the Cytochrome bc1 Complex of Leishmania Parasites for Discovery of Novel Drugs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Diana; Forquer, Isaac; Boitz, Jan; Soysa, Radika; Elya, Carolyn; Fulwiler, Audrey; Nilsen, Aaron; Polley, Tamsen; Riscoe, Michael K; Ullman, Buddy; Landfear, Scott M

    2016-08-01

    Endochin-like quinolones (ELQs) are potent and specific inhibitors of cytochrome bc1 from Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii and show promise for novel antiparasitic drug development. To determine whether the mitochondrial electron transport chain of Leishmania parasites could be targeted similarly for drug development, we investigated the activity of 134 structurally diverse ELQs. A cohort of ELQs was selectively toxic to amastigotes of Leishmania mexicana and L. donovani, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the low micromolar range, but the structurally similar hydroxynaphthoquinone buparvaquone was by far the most potent inhibitor of electron transport, ATP production, and intracellular amastigote growth. Cytochrome bc1 is thus a promising target for novel antileishmanial drugs, and further improvements on the buparvaquone scaffold are warranted for development of enhanced therapeutics. PMID:27297476

  7. Identification and validation of tetracyclic benzothiazepines as Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome bc1 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Carolyn; Urgaonkar, Sameer; Cortese, Joseph F.; Gamo, F. Javier; Garcia-Bustos, Jose F.; Lafuente, Maria J.; Patel, Vishal; Ross, Leila; Coleman, Bradley I.; Derbyshire, Emily R.; Clish, Clary B.; Serrano, Adelfa E.; Cromwell, Mandy; Barker, Robert H.; Dvorin, Jeffrey D.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Wirth, Dyann F.; Clardy, Jon; Mazitschek, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Summary Here we report the discovery of tetracyclic benzothiazepines (BTZ) as highly potent and selective antimalarials along with the identification of the Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome bc1 complex as the primary functional target of this novel compound class. Investigation of the structure activity relationship within this previously unexplored chemical scaffold has yielded inhibitors with low nanomolar activity. A combined approach employing genetically modified parasites, biochemical profiling, and resistance selection validated inhibition of cytochrome bc1 activity, an essential component of the parasite respiratory chain and target of the widely used antimalarial drug atovaquone, as the mode of action of this novel compound class. Resistance to atovaquone is eroding the efficacy of this widely used antimalarial drug. Intriguingly, BTZ-based inhibitors retain activity against atovaquone resistant parasites, suggesting this chemical class may provide an alternative to atovaquone in combination therapy. PMID:22195562

  8. White Macael marble: a key element in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia for over 25 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sol Cruz, Ana; Arriaga, Lourdes; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Marble from Macael (Andalusia) is one of the most important natural stones in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia; in particular the variety commercially known as "White Macael". This natural stone has been used outdoors as well as indoors for decorative, ornamental or structural purposes. During the 7th century (B.C.) the Phoenicians began to systematically extract these quarries to be used in their more social important elements such as sarcophagus. During the Roman period this rock had a greater importance in construction; we find columns, pavements, tombstones… in many historical buildings such as the Roman amphitheatre in Mérida (1st century B.C.) and the city of Itálica in Seville (3rd century B.C.). But it is during the Muslim period when marble from Macael is more widely used: the Mosque of Córdoba (8th century), the Lions Court in the Alhambra palace, the Alcazaba in Almería, the Medina-Azahara palace in Córdoba (10th century). Other important buildings using the white marble are: Carlos V palace or the Royal Chapel in Granada (15th century), the Almería cathedral or El Escorial monastery in Madrid (16th century), San Telmo palace in Seville (17th century) or The Royal Palace in Madrid (18th century). Uncountable number of buildings, both historical and contemporary, show different elements made of this marble. From a geological point of view, the quarries are located in the upper part of the Nevado-Filábride Complex, the lowest nappe of the Internal Zones of the Betic Chains. Under the "White Macael" name is also possible to include another commercial denominations such "White Macael Río" or "White Macael Río Veteado". It is a clear white coloured, calcitic marble (up than 97% calcite), with average grain size between 0,16 y 3,2 mm in a mosaic texture with a very homogenous aspect. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity value between 0,1-0,6%, bulk density 2,50-2,75 g/cm3, water absorption at

  9. BcGs1, a glycoprotein from Botrytis cinerea, elicits defence response and improves disease resistance in host plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yunhua; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei; Guo, Lihua; Yang, Xiufen

    2015-02-20

    In this study, a necrosis-inducing protein was purified from the culture filtrate of the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea BC-98 strain. Secreted proteins were collected and fractionated by liquid chromatography. The fraction with the highest necrosis-inducing activity was further purified. A glycoprotein named BcGs1 was identified by 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The BcGs1 protein consisted of 672 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 70.487 kDa. Functional domain analysis indicated that BcGs1 was a glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase, a cell wall-degrading enzyme, with a Glyco_hydro_15 domain and a CBM20_glucoamylase domain. The BcGs1 protein caused necrotic lesions that mimicked a typical hypersensitive response and H2O2 production in tomato and tobacco leaves. BcGs1-treated plants exhibited resistance to B. cinerea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and tobacco mosaic virus in systemic leaves. In addition, BcGs1 triggered elevation of the transcript levels of the defence-related genes PR-1a, TPK1b and Prosystemin. This is the first report of a Botrytis glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase triggering host plant immunity as an elicitor. These results lay a foundation for further study of the comprehensive interaction between plants and necrotrophic fungi. PMID:25613865

  10. Involvement of BcStr2 in methionine biosynthesis, vegetative differentiation, multiple stress tolerance and virulence in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wenyong; Yang, Yalan; Zhang, Yu; Lv, Chiyuan; Ren, Weichao; Chen, Changjun

    2016-04-01

    The Str2 gene encodes a cystathionine γ-synthase that is a key enzyme in methionine (Met) biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Met plays a critical role in protein synthesis and diverse cellular processes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In this study, we characterized the Str2 orthologue gene BcStr2 in Botrytis cinerea. The BcStr2 mutant was unable to grow on minimal medium (MM). In addition, conidia of the mutant were unable to germinate in water-agar medium within 15 h of incubation. Supplementation with 1 mm Met or 0.5 mg/mL homocysteine, but not 1 mm cysteine or 0.5 mg/mL glutathione, rescued the defect in mycelial growth of the BcStr2 deletion mutant. These results indicate that the enzyme encoded by BcStr2 is involved in the conversion of cysteine into homocysteine. The mutant exhibited decreased conidiation and impaired sclerotium development. In addition, the BcStr2 mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, cell wall-damaging agents and thermal stress. The mutant demonstrated dramatically decreased virulence on host plant tissues. All of the defects were restored by genetic complementation of the mutant with wild-type BcStr2. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that BcStr2 plays a critical role in the regulation of various cellular processes in B. cinerea. PMID:26176995

  11. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P < 0.01). The phagocytic activity in the coelomocytes of sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P < 0.05). In addition, 105 and 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 significantly enhanced lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P < 0.01). Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  12. Identification of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF62_BC) in western Yunnan of China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Huamian; His, Jenny; Feng, Yi; Xing, Hui; He, Xiang; Liao, Lingjie; Duan, Song; Ning, Chuanyi; Wang, Nidan; Takebe, Yutaka; Shao, Yiming

    2014-04-01

    We report here a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF62_BC) that was isolated from three epidemiologically unlinked individuals [one from an injecting drug user (IDU); two from heterosexuals] in Dehong prefecture of western Yunnan province. CRF62_BC harbored two subtype B segments in the pol and vpu-env regions in a subtype C backbone. Subregion tree analysis demonstrated that subtype B regions originated from a Thai-B (subtype B') lineage and the subtype C region was from an India C lineage. CRF62_BC is the fourth CRF composed of subtypes B' and C known to date after CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC, and CRF57_BC, which were originally found among IDUs in China. The emergence of CRF62_BC may indicate the continual generation of new recombinant strains in various high-risk populations in western Yunnan. This may complicate the development of effective vaccines to limit the HIV-1 epidemic and increase the difficulty of AIDS prevention and control in China. PMID:24164474

  13. Radiocarbon-based source apportionment of black carbon (BC) in PM 10 aerosols from residential area of suburban Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Masao; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Koike, Yasuyo; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Uchida, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Kitao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2010-04-01

    The AMS technique was applied to analyse black carbon (BC), total organic carbon (TOC), and previously reported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 10 aerosols from a residential area, suburban Tokyo, to determine natural abundance of radiocarbon ( 14C), an ideal tracer to distinguish fossil fuel ( 14C-free) from modern biomass combustion sources of pyrolytic products. The 14C concentrations in BC, isolated using the CTO-375 method, were 42% and 30% pMC (in terms of percent Modern Carbon: pMC) in summer and winter, respectively. The 14C concentrations in BC were also compared with those of compound-class specific 14C content of PAHs previously reported for the same samples: they were 45% and 33% pMC in summer and winter, respectively. The 14C signals of BC were identical to those of high molecular weight (MW ⩾ 226, 5-6 rings) PAHs. The resemblance between 14C signals of BC and PAHs can be referred as a 'certificate' for the validity of the BC isolation method employed in this study. Also, it suggests that 14C-BC approach can be a surrogate for PAHs specific 14C analyses to monitor seasonal source variation of combustion-derived pyrolytic products. On the other hand, 14C contents of total organic carbon in 2004 were 61% and 42% pMC in summer and winter, respectively. This is likely attributed to higher contribution of plant activity in summer.

  14. PqsBC, a Condensing Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Steffen Lorenz; Li, Chan; Prasetya, Fajar; Saleem, Muhammad; Dreveny, Ingrid; Williams, Paul; Hennecke, Ulrich; Emsley, Jonas; Fetzner, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a number of alkylquinolone-type secondary metabolites best known for their antimicrobial effects and involvement in cell-cell communication. In the alkylquinolone biosynthetic pathway, the β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthase III (FabH)-like enzyme PqsBC catalyzes the condensation of octanoyl-coenzyme A and 2-aminobenzoylacetate (2-ABA) to form the signal molecule 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone. PqsBC, a potential drug target, is unique for its heterodimeric arrangement and an active site different from that of canonical FabH-like enzymes. Considering the sequence dissimilarity between the subunits, a key question was how the two subunits are organized with respect to the active site. In this study, the PqsBC structure was determined to a 2 Å resolution, revealing that PqsB and PqsC have a pseudo-2-fold symmetry that unexpectedly mimics the FabH homodimer. PqsC has an active site composed of Cys-129 and His-269, and the surrounding active site cleft is hydrophobic in character and approximately twice the volume of related FabH enzymes that may be a requirement to accommodate the aromatic substrate 2-ABA. From physiological and kinetic studies, we identified 2-aminoacetophenone as a pathway-inherent competitive inhibitor of PqsBC, whose fluorescence properties could be used for in vitro binding studies. In a time-resolved setup, we demonstrated that the catalytic histidine is not involved in acyl-enzyme formation, but contributes to an acylation-dependent increase in affinity for the second substrate 2-ABA. Introduction of Asn into the PqsC active site led to significant activity toward the desamino substrate analog benzoylacetate, suggesting that the substrate 2-ABA itself supplies the asparagine-equivalent amino function that assists in catalysis. PMID:26811339

  15. Production of inositol trisphosphates upon. cap alpha. -adrenergic stimulation in BC3H-1 muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ambler, S.K.; Thompson, B.; Brown, J.H.; Taylor, P.

    1986-05-01

    Activation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors in BC3H-1 muscle cells rapidly mobilizes intracellular and results in a paradoxically slower accumulation of inositol trisphosphate. A possible explanation for this discrepancy may be provided by the recent findings of Irvine et al. of additional Ins P3 isomers besides the Ca/sup + +/-mobilizing isomer, Ins 1,4,5-P3. They have eluted and separated the inositol phosphates of BC3H-1 cells with an NH/sub 4//sup +/ x HCO/sub 2//sup -//H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ gradient on a Whatman Partisil 10SAX column using Hewlett-Packard HPLC. Commercial (/sup 3/H)Ins 1,4,5-P3 and (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates from carbachol-stimulated parotid glands were used as standards. Little or no Ins 1,3,4-P3 could be detected in control or phenylephrine-treated BC3H-1 cells. Ins 1,4,5-P3 followed the pattern of agonist stimulation observed previously. As a positive control, Ins P3 isomers were also measured in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Muscarinic stimulation of 1321N1 cells results in both the rapid accumulation of Ins P3 and Ca/sup + +/ mobilization. There is no detectable basal Ins 1,3,4-P3, but carbachol stimulates a rapid production of this compound in 1321N1 cells. Agonist activation also results in a rapid increase in Ins 1,4,5-P3 above basal values. These studies indicate that Ins 1,3,4-P3 does not contribute to the InsP3 signal in BC3H-1 cells and multiple mechanisms may exist for the coupling of receptors to PI turnover.

  16. Observations concerning the quinol oxidation site of the cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Edward A.; Huang, Li-Shar

    2003-09-07

    A direct hydrogen bond between ubiquinone/quinol bound at the QO site and a cluster-ligand histidine of the iron-sulfur protein (ISP) is described as a major determining factor explaining much experimental data on position of the ISP ectodomain, EPR lineshape and midpoint potential of the iron-sulfur cluster, and the mechanism of the bifurcated electron transfer from ubiquinol to the high and low potential chains of the bc1 complex.

  17. Oh Canada! B.C. ratifies North America's first carbon tax

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-08-15

    British Columbia began collecting increased tax revenue on fossil fuels on July 1 with a promise to rebate those taxes through reduced income and business tax rates. This 'revenue recycling' plan makes little progress toward the province's goal to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions 33% by 2020, yet it is hailed by proponents as a legislative milestone. Others believe BC residents are victims of another governmental 'bait and switch' program. This paper examines the legislation. 2 figs.

  18. Capabilities, limitations, and use of BC SAT-R2 conference software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. F.

    1983-01-01

    The computer software developed for the BC SAT-R2 Conference has certain capabilities and limitations which are described. Capabilities of each major program element are addressed with respect to providing the required functions for planning and output reporting. Limitations arise from the inability to exactly represent certain systems that may be examined. Expected use of the software package during the Conference is outlined.

  19. Draft Genome Assembly of a Filamentous Euendolithic (True Boring) Cyanobacterium, Mastigocoleus testarum Strain BC008

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Brandon S.

    2016-01-01

    Mastigocoleus testarum strain BC008 is a model organism used to study marine photoautotrophic carbonate dissolution. It is a multicellular, filamentous, diazotrophic, euendolithic cyanobacterium ubiquitously found in marine benthic environments. We present an accurate draft genome assembly of 172 contigs spanning 12,700,239 bp with 9,131 annotated genes with an average G+C% of 37.3. PMID:26823575

  20. BcMF9, a novel polygalacturonase gene, is required for both Brassica campestris intine and exine formation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Ye, Yiqun; Zhang, Yuchao; Zhang, Aihong; Liu, Tingting; Cao, Jiashu

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The polygalacturonase (PG) gene family has been found to be enriched in pollen of several species; however, little is currently known about the function of the PG gene in pollen development. To investigate the exact role that the PG gene has played in pollen development and about this family in general, one putative PG gene, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 9 (BcMF9), was isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) and characterized. Methods RT-PCR, northern blotting and in situ hybridization were used to analyse the expression pattern of BcMF9, and antisense RNA technology was applied to study the function of this gene. Key Results BcMF9 is expressed in particular in the tapetum and microspore during the late stages of pollen development. Antisense RNA transgenic plants that displayed decreased expression of BcMF9 showed pollen morphological defects that resulted in reduced pollen germination efficiency. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the homogeneous pectic exintine layer of pollen facing the exterior was over-developed and predominantly occupied the intine, reversing the normal proportional distribution of the internal endintine layer and the external exintine in transgenic pollen. Inhibition of BcMF9 also resulted in break-up of the previously formed tectum and baculae from the beginning of the binucleate stage, as a result of premature degradation of tapetum. Conclusions Several lines of evidence, including patterns of BcMF9 expression and phenotypic defects, suggest a sporophytic role in exine patterning, and a gametophytic mode of action of BcMF9 in intine formation. BcMF9 might act as a co-ordinator in the late stages of tapetum degeneration, and subsequently in the regulation of wall material secretion and, in turn, exine formation. BcMF9 might also play a role in intine formation, possibly via regulation of the dynamic metabolism of pectin. PMID:19815569

  1. Podocalyxin Is a Glycoprotein Ligand of the Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Specific Probe rBC2LCN

    PubMed Central

    Tateno, Hiroaki; Matsushima, Asako; Hiemori, Keiko; Onuma, Yasuko; Ito, Yuzuru; Hasehira, Kayo; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Takayasu, Satoko; Nakanishi, Mahito; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Nakanishi, Mio; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi; Chan, Techuan; Toyoda, Masashi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Umezawa, Akihiro; Asashima, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    In comprehensive glycome analysis with a high-density lectin microarray, we have previously shown that the recombinant N-terminal domain of the lectin BC2L-C from Burkholderia cenocepacia (rBC2LCN) binds exclusively to undifferentiated human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells but not to differentiated somatic cells. Here we demonstrate that podocalyxin, a heavily glycosylated type 1 transmembrane protein, is a glycoprotein ligand of rBC2LCN on human iPS cells and ES cells. When analyzed by DNA microarray, podocalyxin was found to be highly expressed in both iPS cells and ES cells. Western and lectin blotting revealed that rBC2LCN binds to podocalyxin with a high molecular weight of more than 240 kDa in undifferentiated iPS cells of six different origins and four ES cell lines, but no binding was observed in either differentiated mouse feeder cells or somatic cells. The specific binding of rBC2LCN to podocalyxin prepared from a large set of iPS cells (138 types) and ES cells (15 types) was also confirmed using a high-throughput antibody-overlay lectin microarray. Alkaline digestion greatly reduced the binding of rBC2LCN to podocalyxin, indicating that the major glycan ligands of rBC2LCN are presented on O-glycans. Furthermore, rBC2LCN was found to exhibit significant affinity to a branched O-glycan comprising an H type 3 structure (Ka, 2.5 × 104 M−1) prepared from human 201B7 iPS cells, indicating that H type 3 is a most probable potential pluripotency marker. We conclude that podocalyxin is a glycoprotein ligand of rBC2LCN on human iPS cells and ES cells. PMID:23526252

  2. Identification of BC005512 as a DNA Damage Responsive Murine Endogenous Retrovirus of GLN Family Involved in Cell Growth Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanfeng; Qi, Xinming; Gong, Likun; Xing, Guozhen; Chen, Min; Miao, Lingling; Yao, Jun; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Furihata, Chie; Luan, Yang; Ren, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Genotoxicity assessment is of great significance in drug safety evaluation, and microarray is a useful tool widely used to identify genotoxic stress responsive genes. In the present work, by using oligonucleotide microarray in an in vivo model, we identified an unknown gene BC005512 (abbreviated as BC, official full name: cDNA sequence BC005512), whose expression in mouse liver was specifically induced by seven well-known genotoxins (GTXs), but not by non-genotoxins (NGTXs). Bioinformatics revealed that BC was a member of the GLN family of murine endogenous retrovirus (ERV). However, the relationship to genotoxicity and the cellular function of GLN are largely unknown. Using NIH/3T3 cells as an in vitro model system and quantitative real-time PCR, BC expression was specifically induced by another seven GTXs, covering diverse genotoxicity mechanisms. Additionally, dose-response and linear regression analysis showed that expression level of BC in NIH/3T3 cells strongly correlated with DNA damage, measured using the alkaline comet assay,. While in p53 deficient L5178Y cells, GTXs could not induce BC expression. Further functional studies using RNA interference revealed that down-regulation of BC expression induced G1/S phase arrest, inhibited cell proliferation and thus suppressed cell growth in NIH/3T3 cells. Together, our results provide the first evidence that BC005512, a member from GLN family of murine ERV, was responsive to DNA damage and involved in cell growth regulation. These findings could be of great value in genotoxicity predictions and contribute to a deeper understanding of GLN biological functions. PMID:22514700

  3. Uncoupling of the recBC ATPase from DNase by DNA Crosslinked with Psoralen

    PubMed Central

    Karu, Alexander E.; Linn, Stuart

    1972-01-01

    Exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA by the recBC DNase is accompained by a DNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis that ceases when the DNA that has been digested to a limit. On the other hand, DNA that has been crosslinked by 4,5′,8-trimethylpsoralen in the presence of 360-nm light remains an effective cofactor in the ATPase reaction, but is resistant to digestion by the enzyme. Psoralentreated DNA is degraded by pancreatic DNase, micrococcal nuclease, and Escherichia coli B restriction enzyme, but not by Neurospora crassa nuclease, suggesting that crosslinking did not grossly distort the duplex structure of the DNA. The psoralen-DNA is not a potent inhibitor, but competes with single-stranded DNA from bacteriophage fd for the recBC DNase to roughly the same extent as does normal duplex DNA. DNA treated with psoralen in the dark, exposed to 360-nm light in the absence of psoralen, or treated with the intercalating agents ethidium bromide, 9-aminoacridine, ICR-191, or actinomycin D, responds to the enzyme no differently from untreated DNA. However, DNA crosslinked with mitomycin C or nitrogen mustard behaves similarly to psoralen-treated DNA. The relationship of these findings to models for the function and control of the recBC ATPase and nuclease, and the advantages of psoralen as a DNA crosslinking agent, are discussed. PMID:4263506

  4. New Numismatic Evidence about the Comets of Mithradates the Great of Pontus (134 and 119 BC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, M. R.

    1997-12-01

    The historian, Justinus, tells us that the life of Mithradates the Great of Pontus (ca. 134 - 63 BC) was marked by two unusually large comets: one at his birth in ca. 134 BC and another at his coronation ca. 119 BC. Often these comets are cited as proof that sometimes comets heralded great, good events (such as the Star of Bethlehem.) We now have evidence that counters that notion. Mithradates struck some bronze coins that depict a foreboding hippeus (horse) comet. Pliny, the Roman naturalist, tells us that this kind of comet had plumes much like horses manes in very rapid motion and moving in a circle. The evidence is that the horses mains are synchronic bands. The visibility of these bands indicates that the hippeus comet is a class of comets that had a close encounter with the earth, perhaps on the order of a million kilometers. Hephaistion of Thebes tells us that the hippeus comet foretold the quick fall of kings and tyrants and rapid changes in the affairs of these countries. It is likely that the comet was interpreted as an omen of violent revolution, but Mithradates apparently altered the focus of the portent, namely that the comet signified his struggle to evict the Romans from Asia Minor.

  5. Performance comparison of plasma spray and physical vapor deposition BC23 coatings in the LM2500

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, D.J.

    1985-11-01

    Operation of US Navy Component Improvement Program LM2500 engines on the GTS Callaghan has provided an at-sea test bed for evaluation of hot corrosion on gas turbine engine components. In a presentation at a previous International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, (ICMC), comparison of several coatings applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques were compared after LM2500 service. A three-step coating BC23 consisting of PVD CoCrAl followed by codeposition of hafnium and aluminum and an electroplated platinum layer was identified as the most corrosion-resistant coating of several PVD coatings tested. In this paper, a plasma sprayed version of BC23 is compared to the three-step BC23 coating on LM2500 Stage 2 HPT blades from the GTS Callaghan. The plasma sprayed coating PBC23 was produced by an argon-shrouded plasma spray process using prealloyed CoCrAlHfPt powder. The results showed that in this application, where low temperature hot corrosion (type 2) is the predominant mode of corrosion, the plasma sprayed coatings had less attack. These results are compared to laboratory hot corrosion tests and microprobe analysis to explain the improved corrosion resistance of PBC23.

  6. Smart Oceans BC: Supporting Coastal and Ocean Natural Hazards Mitigation for British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K.; Insua, T. L.; Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; McLean, S.

    2014-12-01

    Smart Oceans BC is a new multi-faceted program to support decision-makers faced with responding to natural disasters and hazards in Canada's Province of British Columbia. It leverages the unique capabilities of Ocean Networks Canada's cabled ocean observatories, NEPTUNE and VENUS to enhance public safety, marine safety and environmental monitoring. Smart Oceans BC combines existing and new marine sensing technology with its robust data management and archive system, Oceans 2.0, to deliver information and science for good ocean management and responsible ocean use. Smart Oceans BC includes new ocean observing infrastructure for: public safety, through natural hazard detection for earthquake groundshaking and near-field tsunamis; marine safety, by monitoring and providing alerts on sea state, ship traffic, and marine mammal presence; and environmental protection, by establishing baseline data in critical areas, and providing real-time environmental observations. Here we present the elements of this new ocean observing initiative that are focused on tsunami and earthquake early warning including cabled and autonomous sensor systems, real-time data delivery, software developments that enable rapid detection, analytics used in notification development, and stakeholder engagement plans.

  7. Sensitivity to Majorana neutrinos in Δ L =2 decays of Bc meson at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanés, Diego; Quintero, Néstor; Vera, Carlos E.

    2016-05-01

    The possible existence of Majorana neutrinos can be tested through the study of processes where the total lepton number L is violated by two units (Δ L =2 ). In this work, the production of an on-shell Majorana neutrino with a mass around ˜0.2 GeV to a few GeV is studied in Δ L =2 decays of the Bc meson. We focus on the same-sign di-muon channels: three-body Bc-→π+μ-μ- and four-body Bc-→J /ψ π+μ-μ- and their experimental sensitivity at the LHCb. In both channels, we find that sensitivities on the branching fraction of the order ≲10-7(10-8) might be accessible at the LHC run 2 (future LHC run 3), allowing us to set additional and complementary constraints on the parameter space associated with the mass and mixings of the Majorana neutrino. In particular, bounds can be obtained on the mixing |Vμ N|2˜O (10-5- 10-4) that are similar or better that the ones obtained from heavy meson Δ L =2 decays: D(s) -→π+μ-μ- and B-→π+μ-μ-(D0π+μ-μ-) .

  8. TatBC-Independent TatA/Tat Substrate Interactions Contribute to Transport Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Taubert, Johannes; Hou, Bo; Risselada, H. Jelger; Mehner, Denise; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Grubmüller, Helmut; Brüser, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Tat system can transport folded, signal peptide-containing proteins (Tat substrates) across energized membranes of prokaryotes and plant plastids. A twin-arginine motif in the signal peptide of Tat substrates is recognized by TatC-containing complexes, and TatA permits the membrane passage. Often, as in the model Tat systems of Escherichia coli and plant plastids, a third component – TatB – is involved that resembles TatA but has a higher affinity to TatC. It is not known why most TatA dissociates from TatBC complexes in vivo and distributes more evenly in the membrane. Here we show a TatBC-independent substrate-binding to TatA from Escherichia coli, and we provide evidence that this binding enhances Tat transport. First hints came from in vivo cross-linking data, which could be confirmed by affinity co-purification of TatA with the natural Tat substrates HiPIP and NrfC. Two positions on the surface of HiPIP could be identified that are important for the TatA interaction and transport efficiency, indicating physiological relevance of the interaction. Distributed TatA thus may serve to accompany membrane-interacting Tat substrates to the few TatBC spots in the cells. PMID:25774531

  9. Cluster analysis of diurnal variations in BC concentration from Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; KIM, C.; Park, J.; Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is emitted from incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels, such as fossil fuels (diesel and coal) and biomass burning (forest fires and burning of agricultural waste). We have measured BC concentration using MAAP (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer, Model 5012, Thermo Scientific) during the past few years. The measurement site is on the rooftop of the five-story building on the hill (37.02 °N, 127.16 °E, 167 m above sea level), about 35 km southeast of Seoul; there are no major emission sources nearby except a 4-lane road running about 1.4 km to the west. Previous studies reveal that the effects of vehicle emissions are not as direct as urban sites but those of biomass burning are general. Diurnal variations of BC concentration are classified using cluster analysis. Typical patterns are determined to identify the primary emissions and their effects on the concentration level. High concentration episodes are discriminated and major factors that influence the evolution of the episodes are investigated.

  10. Wind Vanes in Ancient Mesopotamia, About 2000-1500 B.C..

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, J.; Parpola, S.

    1983-10-01

    A search made of the Sumerian and Akkadian literature for indications of the possible existence of wind vanes in the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations resulted in two discoveries. First, in one Akkadian fable, originally written between about 1800 and 1600 B.C., mention was made of a wind vane. It follows from the context of the fable that the vane was made of wood, while the name of the vane suggests that it was in the shape of a bird. Second, three Sumero-Akkadian vocabularies of this period give three different Sumerian names for the single Akkadian name for vane. The Sumerian names appear to be genuine Sumerian terms and not translations of the Akkadian term. All three Sumerian names suggest that the vanes were made of wood; one of the three may possibly indicate that the vane was made in the form of either a fish (shark?) or a mythological water monster. Since the Sumerian culture flourished before about 2000 B.C. (the Ur III dynasty ruled from about 2100to 2000 B.C.), it seems that in the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations there were wind vanes about 4000 years ago, i.e., about 2000 years earlier than reported in ancient China and classical Greece.

  11. Antimalarial 4(1H)-pyridones bind to the Qi site of cytochrome bc1

    PubMed Central

    Capper, Michael J.; O’Neill, Paul M.; Fisher, Nicholas; Strange, Richard W.; Moss, Darren; Ward, Stephen A.; Berry, Neil G.; Lawrenson, Alexandre S.; Hasnain, S. Samar; Biagini, Giancarlo A.; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome bc1 is a proven drug target in the prevention and treatment of malaria. The rise in drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the organism responsible for malaria, has generated a global effort in designing new classes of drugs. Much of the design/redesign work on overcoming this resistance has been focused on compounds that are presumed to bind the Qo site (one of two potential binding sites within cytochrome bc1) using the known crystal structure of this large membrane-bound macromolecular complex via in silico modeling. Cocrystallization of the cytochrome bc1 complex with the 4(1H)-pyridone class of inhibitors, GSK932121 and GW844520, that have been shown to be potent antimalarial agents in vivo, revealed that these inhibitors do not bind at the Qo site but bind at the Qi site. The discovery that these compounds bind at the Qi site may provide a molecular explanation for the cardiotoxicity and eventual failure of GSK932121 in phase-1 clinical trial and highlight the need for direct experimental observation of a compound bound to a target site before chemical optimization and development for clinical trials. The binding of the 4(1H)-pyridone class of inhibitors to Qi also explains the ability of this class to overcome parasite Qo-based atovaquone resistance and provides critical structural information for future design of new selective compounds with improved safety profiles. PMID:25564664

  12. Observation of the decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0)π+.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-11-01

    The result of a search for the decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0) π+ is presented, using the B(s)(0) → D(s)(-)π+ and B(s)(0) → J/ψ Ø channels. The analysis is based on a data sample of pp collisions collected with the LHCb detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb(-1) taken at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, and 2 fb(-1) taken at 8 TeV. The decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0)π+ is observed with significance in excess of 5 standard deviations independently in both decay channels. The measured product of the ratio of cross sections and branching fraction is [σ(B(c)(+))/σ(B(s)(0))] × B(B(c)(+)→ B(s)(0)π+) = [2.37 ± 0.31 (stat)± 0.11 (syst)(-0.13)(+0.17)(τ(B)(c)(+)))] × 10(-3), in the pseudorapidity range 2<η(B)<5, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainty on the B(c)(+) lifetime. This is the first observation of a B meson decaying to another B meson via the weak interaction. PMID:24237507

  13. Bc exclusive decays to charmonium and a light meson at next-to-leading order accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Cong-Feng; Sun, Peng; Yang, Deshan; Zhu, Rui-Lin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we study the Bc-meson exclusive decays to S-wave charmonia and light pseudoscalar or vector mesons, i.e., π, K, ρ, and K* at the next-to-leading order (NLO) in the QCD coupling. The nonfactorizable contribution is included, which is absent in traditional naive factorization. Numerical results show that NLO QCD corrections markedly enhance the branching ratio with a K factor of 1.75 for Bc±→ηcπ ± and 1.31 for Bc±→J/ψπ± using certain input parameters. And the theoretical uncertainties for their branching ratios are reduced compared with that of direct tree-level calculation. In order to investigate the asymptotic behavior, the analytic form is obtained in the heavy quark limit, i.e., mb→∞. We note that annihilation topologies contribute trivia in this limit, and the corrections at leading order in z=mc/mb expansion come from form factors and hard spectator interactions. At last, some related phenomenologies are also discussed.

  14. Computational discovery of picomolar Q(o) site inhibitors of cytochrome bc1 complex.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ge-Fei; Wang, Fu; Li, Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Wen-Chao; Huang, Li-Shar; Wu, Jia-Wei; Berry, Edward A; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2012-07-11

    A critical challenge to the fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is its low-throughput nature due to the necessity of biophysical method-based fragment screening. Herein, a method of pharmacophore-linked fragment virtual screening (PFVS) was successfully developed. Its application yielded the first picomolar-range Q(o) site inhibitors of the cytochrome bc(1) complex, an important membrane protein for drug and fungicide discovery. Compared with the original hit compound 4 (K(i) = 881.80 nM, porcine bc(1)), the most potent compound 4f displayed 20 507-fold improved binding affinity (K(i) = 43.00 pM). Compound 4f was proved to be a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate cytochrome c, but a competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ubiquinol. Additionally, we determined the crystal structure of compound 4e (K(i) = 83.00 pM) bound to the chicken bc(1) at 2.70 Å resolution, providing a molecular basis for understanding its ultrapotency. To our knowledge, this study is the first application of the FBDD method in the discovery of picomolar inhibitors of a membrane protein. This work demonstrates that the novel PFVS approach is a high-throughput drug discovery method, independent of biophysical screening techniques. PMID:22690928

  15. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 is associated with the homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) play a central role in potyviral infection. Accordingly, mutations in the gene encoding eIF4E have been identified as a source of recessive resistance in several plant species. In common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, four recessive genes, bc-1, bc-2, bc-3...

  16. BC University Outcomes for Direct Entry and Transfer Students: Comparison of the Class of 2000 and Class of 1996 Five Years after Graduation. Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlinski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The University of British Columbia's Planning and Institutional Research office prepared a research report for the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) on the BC university graduating class of 1996 five years later. The report compared the outcomes for those students who were admitted to SFU, UBC, UNBC, and UVic as BC direct entry with…

  17. Structure and Proposed Activity of a Member of the VapBC Family of Toxin-Antitoxin Systems: VapBC-5 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Miallau, L.; Faller, M.; Chiang, J.; Arbing, M.; Guo, F.; Cascio, D.; Eisenberg, D.

    2009-03-02

    In prokaryotes, cognate toxin-antitoxin pairs have long been known, but no three-dimensional structure has been available for any given complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we report the crystal structure and activity of a member of the VapBC family of complexes from M. tuberculosis. The toxin VapC-5 is a compact, 150 residues, two domain {alpha}/{beta} protein. Bent around the toxin is the VapB-5 antitoxin, a 33-residue {alpha}-helix. Assays suggest that the toxin is an Mg-enabled endoribonuclease, inhibited by the antitoxin. The lack of DNase activity is consistent with earlier suggestions that the complex represses its own operon. Furthermore, analysis of the interactions in the binding of the antitoxin to the toxin suggest that exquisite control is required to protect the bacteria cell from toxic VapC-5.

  18. Drastic Aridification Caused the Decline of Oasis Civilizations on the Silk Route during the Eighth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, K.; Song, S.; Huang, C.

    2003-12-01

    Availability of water, and response to shortage of it, plays an important role in shaping human history. Near a century ago, Ellsworth Huntington (1907) suggested that the developments of ancient civilizations in Inner Asian and their invasions into China and Europe were pulsed by climatic changes. In revisiting this proposition, here we present a paleoclimatic record of the past 5000 years deduced from carbon isotopic ratio of organic carbon and percentage of aragonite in bulk sediments of a radiometrically dated sedimentary core of Lake Bosten, Xinjiang, China. Together the two proxies of aridity provide a detailed record of climatic fluctuation of the Inner Asia. The arid periods are well characterized by high content of authigenic aragonite and heavier values of carbon isotopic ratio of organic carbon in the bulk sediments (implying dominance of C4 plants which thrived under arid condition). Conversely, the humid/wet periods are marked by lighter carbon isotopic values (indicating presence of C3 plants of humid climateœcand absence of aragonite. The Western Region (Xi-Y"1) area of China enjoyed a long period of stable and humid condition from 2nd century B.C. to the 8th century when many oasis city-states were established and Buddhism spread from India. A drastic deterioration of climate during the eighth century appears to cause the decline of those once strived ancient civilizations in the eastern side of the Tarim Basin along the Silk Routes.

  19. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  20. Selenography in the seventeenth century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, E. A.

    Contents: 1. Pre-telescopic observations. 2. The first telescopic observations. 3. Galileo's lunar observations. 4. Two new selenographical programmes. 5. A flurry of activity. 6. Hevelius and his Selenographia. 7. Riccioli, Grimaldi, and nomenclature. 8. Robert Hooke and selenology. 9. Cassini and La Hire. 10. Other seventeenth-century selenography. 11. Conclusion.

  1. Twenty-first-century science.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, M R

    1995-01-01

    Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

  2. Physics in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskopf, Victor F.

    1970-01-01

    Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

  3. Three Centuries of American Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

  4. The measure for black carbon (BC) and dust in the glaciers of China: a review and prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, J.; Xiao, C.; Qin, D.

    2008-12-01

    During 2004-2006, black carbon concentrations were measured in the snow and ice sampled from the glaciers in west China. The investigated regions could be aligned as follows based on the BC concentrations in the surface snow for the glaciers: the Tianshan Mountains > the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) > the Pamirs > the Qilian Mountians > the Himalayas. This distribution could be attributed to the elevations of the glaciers (higher concentration at lower altitude), the topography of the TP, strong melting in some glaciers, and more regional emissions. Probably significant impacts on the albedos of the glacier surfaces could be caused by heavy BC deposits, and the estimated reduced albedos on the glaciers are 9.8% (Zhadang glacier), 8.7% (Miao'ergou Riverhead No.3 glacier), and 6.8% (Haxilegen River No.48 glacier), and 6.2% (Dongkemadi glacier), and 5.3% (La'nong glacier), and 4.2% (Muztagata glacier), and etc. The East Rongbuk glacier was located on the central part of the Himalayas with a mean elevation higher than 6300 m, and in 2002 a shallow ice core was drilled on it. BC concentrations were measured throughout the ice core. In the past 50 yrs, BC concentrations showed fluctuations in the earlier 40 yrs, whereas showed a dramatic increasing tread in the most recent decade (since the 1990s) and exceeded 50 μg kg-1 in the summer of 2001. Trajectory analysis indicated BC was dominantly transported by monsoons in summers and by westerlies in other seasons, and BC emitted from South Asia in summers dominated the varying trend of concentrations in the ice core and caused higher concentration in summer than that in other season. Significant increasing BC concentration caused increasing radiative forcing since the 1990s, which exceeded 4.5 W m-2 in the summer of 2001 as calculated by a Snow-Ice-Aerosol Radiative (SNICAR) model. During the summer and fall of 2008, a plan of sampling snow in the snow pits on the nine glaciers distributed on a transection from the north

  5. [Mercury (and...) through the centuries].

    PubMed

    Kłys, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products

  6. Inhibition of cytochrome bc1 as a strategy for single-dose, multi-stage antimalarial therapy.

    PubMed

    Stickles, Allison M; Ting, Li-Min; Morrisey, Joanne M; Li, Yuexin; Mather, Michael W; Meermeier, Erin; Pershing, April M; Forquer, Isaac P; Miley, Galen P; Pou, Sovitj; Winter, Rolf W; Hinrichs, David J; Kelly, Jane X; Kim, Kami; Vaidya, Akhil B; Riscoe, Michael K; Nilsen, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Single-dose therapies for malaria have been proposed as a way to reduce the cost and increase the effectiveness of antimalarial treatment. However, no compound to date has shown single-dose activity against both the blood-stage Plasmodium parasites that cause disease and the liver-stage parasites that initiate malaria infection. Here, we describe a subset of cytochrome bc1 (cyt bc1) inhibitors, including the novel 4(1H)-quinolone ELQ-400, with single-dose activity against liver, blood, and transmission-stage parasites in mouse models of malaria. Although cyt bc1 inhibitors are generally classified as slow-onset antimalarials, we found that a single dose of ELQ-400 rapidly induced stasis in blood-stage parasites, which was associated with a rapid reduction in parasitemia in vivo. ELQ-400 also exhibited a low propensity for drug resistance and was active against atovaquone-resistant P. falciparum strains with point mutations in cyt bc1. Ultimately, ELQ-400 shows that cyt bc1 inhibitors can function as single-dose, blood-stage antimalarials and is the first compound to provide combined treatment, prophylaxis, and transmission blocking activity for malaria after a single oral administration. This remarkable multi-stage efficacy suggests that metabolic therapies, including cyt bc1 inhibitors, may be valuable additions to the collection of single-dose antimalarials in current development. PMID:25918204

  7. Inhibition of Cytochrome bc1 as a Strategy for Single-Dose, Multi-Stage Antimalarial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stickles, Allison M.; Ting, Li-Min; Morrisey, Joanne M.; Li, Yuexin; Mather, Michael W.; Meermeier, Erin; Pershing, April M.; Forquer, Isaac P.; Miley, Galen P.; Pou, Sovitj; Winter, Rolf W.; Hinrichs, David J.; Kelly, Jane X.; Kim, Kami; Vaidya, Akhil B.; Riscoe, Michael K.; Nilsen, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Single-dose therapies for malaria have been proposed as a way to reduce the cost and increase the effectiveness of antimalarial treatment. However, no compound to date has shown single-dose activity against both the blood-stage Plasmodium parasites that cause disease and the liver-stage parasites that initiate malaria infection. Here, we describe a subset of cytochrome bc1 (cyt bc1) inhibitors, including the novel 4(1H)-quinolone ELQ-400, with single-dose activity against liver, blood, and transmission-stage parasites in mouse models of malaria. Although cyt bc1 inhibitors are generally classified as slow-onset antimalarials, we found that a single dose of ELQ-400 rapidly induced stasis in blood-stage parasites, which was associated with a rapid reduction in parasitemia in vivo. ELQ-400 also exhibited a low propensity for drug resistance and was active against atovaquone-resistant P. falciparum strains with point mutations in cyt bc1. Ultimately, ELQ-400 shows that cyt bc1 inhibitors can function as single-dose, blood-stage antimalarials and is the first compound to provide combined treatment, prophylaxis, and transmission blocking activity for malaria after a single oral administration. This remarkable multi-stage efficacy suggests that metabolic therapies, including cyt bc1 inhibitors, may be valuable additions to the collection of single-dose antimalarials in current development. PMID:25918204

  8. Genetic Control of L-a and L-(Bc) Dsrna Copy Number in Killer Systems of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Steven G.; Tirtiaux, Catherine; Wickner, Reed B.

    1984-01-01

    M dsRNA in yeast encodes a toxin precursor and immunity protein, whereas L-A dsRNA encodes the 81,000-dalton major protein of the intracellular particles in which both L-A and M are found. L-(BC) dsRNA(s) are found in particles with different coat proteins. We find that M dsRNA lowers the copy number of L-A, but not L-(BC). The SKI gene products lower the copy number of L-(BC), L-A, M1 and M2. This is the first known interaction of L-(BC) with any element of the killer systems. The MAK3, MAK10 and PET18 gene products are necessary for L-A maintenance and replication, but mutations in these genes do not affect L-(BC) copy number. Mutations in MAK1, MAK4, MAK7, MAK17 and MAK24 do not detectably affect copy number of L-(BC) or L-A. PMID:17246214

  9. Detection of intra-brain cytoplasmic 1 (BC1) long noncoding RNA using graphene oxide-fluorescence beacon detector

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee Young; Hwang, Do Won; Li, Fangyuan; Choi, Yoori; Byun, Jung Woo; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Jee-Eun; Char, Kookheon; Lee, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Detection of cellular expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) was elusive due to the ambiguity of exposure of their reactive sequences associated with their secondary/tertiary structures and dynamic binding of proteins around lncRNAs. Herein, we developed graphene-based detection techniques exploiting the quenching capability of graphene oxide (GO) flakes for fluorescent dye (FAM)-labeled single-stranded siRNAs and consequent un-quenching by their detachment from GO by matching lncRNAs. A brain cytoplasmic 1 (BC1) lncRNA expression was significantly decreased by a siRNA, siBC1–1. GO quenched the FAM-labeled siBC1–1 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe, and this quenching was recovered by BC1. While FAM-siBC1–1-PNA-GO complex transfected spontaneously mouse or human neural stem cells, fluorescence was recovered only in mouse cells having high BC1 expression. Fluorescent dye-labeled single-stranded RNA-GO probe could detect the reactive exposed nucleic acid sequence of a cytoplasmic lncRNA expressing in the cytoplasm, which strategy can be used as a detection method of lncRNA expression. PMID:26997297

  10. The structure, stability, and electronic properties of ultra-thin BC2N nanotubes: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Juan; Huang, Gang; Yao, Xinhua; Shao, Qingyi

    2014-12-01

    Rapid developments of the silicon electronics industry have close to the physical limits and nanotube materials are the ideal materials to replace silicon for the preparation of next generation electronic devices. Boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes (BCNNT) can be formed by joining carbon nanotube (CNT) and boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) segments, and BC2N nanotubes have been widely and deeply studied. Here, we employed first-principles calculations based on density function theory (DFT) to study the structure, stability, and electronic properties of ultra thin (4 Å diameter) BC2N nanotubes. Our results showed that the cross sections of BC2N nanotubes can transform from round to oval when CNT and BNNT segments are parallel to the tube axis. It results when the curvature of BNNT segments become larger than CNT segments. Further, we found the stability of BC2N nanotubes is sensitive to the number of B-N bonds, and the phase segregation of BNNT and CNT segments is energetically favored. We also obtained that all (3,3) BC2N nanotubes are semiconductor, whereas (5,0) BC2N nanotubes are conductor when CNT and BNNT segments are perpendicular to the tube axis; and semiconductor when CNT and BNNT segments are parallel to the tube axis. These electronic properties are abnormal when compared to the relative big ones. PMID:25451142

  11. Detection of intra-brain cytoplasmic 1 (BC1) long noncoding RNA using graphene oxide-fluorescence beacon detector.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mee Young; Hwang, Do Won; Li, Fangyuan; Choi, Yoori; Byun, Jung Woo; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Jee-Eun; Char, Kookheon; Lee, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Detection of cellular expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) was elusive due to the ambiguity of exposure of their reactive sequences associated with their secondary/tertiary structures and dynamic binding of proteins around lncRNAs. Herein, we developed graphene-based detection techniques exploiting the quenching capability of graphene oxide (GO) flakes for fluorescent dye (FAM)-labeled single-stranded siRNAs and consequent un-quenching by their detachment from GO by matching lncRNAs. A brain cytoplasmic 1 (BC1) lncRNA expression was significantly decreased by a siRNA, siBC1-1. GO quenched the FAM-labeled siBC1-1 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe, and this quenching was recovered by BC1. While FAM-siBC1-1-PNA-GO complex transfected spontaneously mouse or human neural stem cells, fluorescence was recovered only in mouse cells having high BC1 expression. Fluorescent dye-labeled single-stranded RNA-GO probe could detect the reactive exposed nucleic acid sequence of a cytoplasmic lncRNA expressing in the cytoplasm, which strategy can be used as a detection method of lncRNA expression. PMID:26997297

  12. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; et al

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly valuesmore » from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of

  13. EDITORIAL: `Bridging Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Observational Astrophysics', Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13) (San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009), sponsored by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, The University of Texas at Brownsville and The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center `Bridging Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Observational Astrophysics', Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13) (San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009), sponsored by the Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, The University of Texas at Brownsville and The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Mario; Jenet, Fredrick; Mohanty, Soumya

    2009-10-01

    The 13th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop took place in San Juan, Puerto Rico on the 19-22 January 2009. This annual event has become the established venue for presenting and discussing new results and techniques in this crucial subfield of gravitational wave astronomy. A major attraction of the event is that scientists working with all possible instruments gather to discuss their projects and report on the status of their observations. The Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy at the University of Texas at Brownsville, USA (a National Aeronautics and Space Administration University Research Center and a National Science Foundation Center for Research Excellence in Science and Technology) jointly with the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (which operates the Arecibo Observatory) were the proud sponsors of the gathering this time. As in previous years, GWDAW13 was well attended by more than 100 participants from over 10 countries worldwide As this issue is going to press GEO, LIGO and VIRGO are undergoing new scientific runs of their instruments with the LIGO detectors holding the promise of increasing their operational sensitivity twofold as compared with the observations finished a couple of years ago. This new cycle of observations is a major milestone compared to the previous observations which have been accomplished. Gravitational waves have not been observed yet, but the instrumental sensitivity achieved has started producing relevant astrophysical results. In particular, very recently (Nature, 20 August 2009) a letter from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration http://www.ligo.org and the VIRGO Collaboration http://www.virgo.infn.it has set the most stringent limits yet on the amount of gravitational waves that could have come from the Big Bang in the gravitational wave frequency band where current gravitational wave detectors can observe. These results have put new constraints on the physical characteristics of the early universe. The proximity

  14. Direct evidence for the existence of dairying farms in prehistoric Central Europe (4th millennium BC).

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Jorge E; Matuschik, Irenaus; Jacomet, Stephanie; Schibler, Joerg

    2008-06-01

    The molecular and isotopic chemistry of organic residues from archaeological potsherds was used to obtain further insight into the dietary trends and economies at the Constance lake-shore Neolithic settlements. The archaeological organic residues from the Early Late Neolithic (3922-3902 BC) site Hornstaad-Hornle IA/Germany are, at present, the oldest archaeological samples analysed at the Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the University of Lausanne. The approach includes 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of the bulk organic residues, fatty acids distribution and 13C/12C ratios of individual fatty acids. The results are compared with those obtained from the over 500 years younger Neolithic (3384-3370 BC) settlement of Arbon Bleiche 3/Switzerland and with samples of modern vegetable oils and fat of animals that have been fed exclusively on C3 forage grasses. The overall fatty acid composition (C9 to C24 range, maximizing at C14 and C16), the bulk 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios (delta13C, delta15N) and the 13C/12C ratios of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and oleic acids (C18:1) of the organic residues indicate that most of the studied samples (25 from 47 samples and 5 from 41 in the delta13C18:0 vs. delta13C16:0 and delta13C18:0 vs. delta13C18:1 diagrams, respectively) from Hornstaad-Hornle IA and Arbon Bleiche 3 sherds contain fat residues of pre-industrial ruminant milk, and young suckling calf/lamb adipose. These data provide direct proof of milk and meat (mainly from young suckling calves) consumption and farming practices for a sustainable dairying in Neolithic villages in central Europe around 4000 BC.dagger. PMID:18569190

  15. A Trick to Improve the Efficiency of Generating Unweighted $B_c$ Events from BCVEGPY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xian-You; Wu, Xing-Gang; /Chongqing U. /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    In the present paper, we provide an addendum to improve the efficiency of generating unweighted events within PYTHIA environment for the generator BCVEGPY2.1 [C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang, X.G. Wu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174 (2006) 241]. This trick is helpful for experimental simulation. Moreover, the BCVEGPY output has also been improved, i.e. one Les Houches Event common block has been added so as to generate a standard Les Houches Event file that contains the information of the generated Bc meson and the accompanying partons, which can be more conveniently used for further simulation.

  16. Harm-reduction strategies weapon of choice in BC's battle with drug addiction.

    PubMed Central

    Kent, H

    1996-01-01

    British Columbia, which holds the dubious distinction of being the country's heroin capital, has introduced a number of programs in an attempt to reduce the number of drug-overdose deaths. A BC coroner who headed a provincial government task force into overdose fatalities in 1994 has recommended a number of harm-reduction strategies such as needle exchanges to reduce the negative consequences associated with illicit drug use. In addition, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia is a world leader in methadone maintenance, with 1800 patients and 250 physicians registered in the program. PMID:8804264

  17. OPS MCC level B/C formulation requirements: Area targets and space volumes processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, M. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The level B/C mathematical specifications for the area targets and space volume processor (ATSVP) as well as the characteristics of the system are provided. The mathematical equation necessary to determine whether the spacecraft lies within the area target or space volume is presented. A semianalytical technique for predicting the acquisition of signal (AOS) and loss of signal (LOS) time periods is discussed. A functional overview of the ATSVP which includes an outline of the process required to determine precise AOS and LOS times are given.

  18. Is QSO 1146 + 111B,C due to lensing by a cosmic string?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. R., III

    1986-01-01

    A newly discovered lens candidate, QSO 1146 + 111B,C, is discussed which appears to consist of two images of equal brightness of a quasar at redshift 1.01 separated by 2.6 arcmin. If this is produced by a cosmic string, its mass per unit length is about 4.0 x 10 to the 23rd g/cm or more. This value is large enough to be interesting for string-assisted galaxy formation and near the upper limits implied by the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background and constraints on gravitational radiation.

  19. First observation of the decay B(c)+ → J/ψπ(+) π- π+.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-06-22

    The decay B(c)(+) → J/ψπ(+) π(-) π(+) is observed for the first time, using 0.8 fb(-1) of pp collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV collected by the LHCb experiment. The ratio of branching fractions B(B(c)(+) → J/ψπ(+) π(-) π(+))/B(B(c)(+)→J/ψπ^{+}) is measured to be 2.41 ± 0.30 ± 0.33, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The result is in agreement with theoretical predictions. PMID:23004586

  20. The History of Medical Libraries from 2000 B.C. to 1900 A.D

    PubMed Central

    Birchette, Kathleen P.

    1973-01-01

    Tablets said to date back to 2000 b.c. represent the earliest medical writings so far discovered. The history of the medical library (defined as a place where a collection of medical writings is kept) is traced through ancient and medieval civilizations, and the dependence of advancement or decline on the attitude toward learning and knowledge is demonstrated. The change in structure of medical libraries that took place around the 1500s with the development of scientific societies is discussed. Medical libraries of Colonial America are described and the history is brought forward to the era of public library collections of medical material in the early 1900s. PMID:4579768

  1. Interaction of Jovian White Ovals BC and DE in 1998 from Earth-Based Observations in the Visual Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Rojas, J. F.; Hueso, R.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Acarreta, J. R.; Miyazaki, I.; Parker, D.

    1999-11-01

    During the 1998 Jupiter-Sun conjunction, the 60-year-old white ovals BC and DE at 33° south latitude merged into a larger oval "BE" at the same latitude (J. Lecacheux, P. Drossart, F. Colas, G. S. Orton, B. Fisher, A. Sanchez-Lavega, R. Hueso, J. F. Rojas, and I. Miyazaki, IAU Circular No. 6942). Here we report our study of the motions, morphology, and reflectivity changes pre and postmerger of the ovals based on extensive and continuous Earth-based CCD imaging (April 1997-September 1998) in the visual range (400-800 nm) and in the methane band at 890 nm. In late August 1997, BC and DE started their mutual approach with a relative zonal velocity of 1 m/s. The longitude drift curves of BC, DE, and new BE suggest that a merger of BC and DE took place in February 1998 in the position of BC. A smaller apparently cyclonic oval called O1 was seen in the northwest side of BE at latitude -31°. BE is about 12% larger than BC or DE as measured in the blue, red, and 890-nm methane band filters. However, if O1 is assumed to be a by-product of the merger, the sum of the areas of BC and DE is about that of BE and O1. The motion of BE is similar to that of the classic white oval spots. No significant center-to-limb reflectivity changes in the white oval spots at the 890-nm wavelength (sensitive to upper hazes and clouds) were noted before and after the merger. However the area-integrated blue-red color index changed slightly, with BE being bluer than BC or DE probably because the particles in BE have a higher single-scattering blue albedo. Using a radiative transfer model, the 890-nm data suggest that the upper cloud and haze (above 600 mbar) in BE are similar to those of BC and DE. In the limit, the upper cloud in BE could be higher (cloudtop at 110 mbar instead of 150 mbar) or have slightly larger optical depths (3.5 instead of 2.85) than that of BC or DE.

  2. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  3. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  4. [The role of mental health in Greece from the 5th century B.C. to the end of the era].

    PubMed

    Dieckhöfer, K

    1982-12-01

    The article gives a survey of the psychohygienic ideas and conceptions appearing during this period, which were closely connected with a range of philosophical thoughts, by means of contemporary texts. From the epoch of the Greek comedy as reflection of the everyday-life of the Polis, Aristophanes has been quoted. The importance of the Epicurean philosophy and the spiritual guidance throughout the post-Epicurean stoa with its representatives Zenon, Chrysipp, Panaitios, Poseidonios and finally Epiktet, the latter being the most important representative of the fashionable philosophy during the Roman imperial reign, has been emphasised and analysed. The available sources show that eudaimonia, happiness, namely freedom from anxiety, menace and feelings of hatred, and furthermore the surveying of worldly wisdom, the control of one's impulses through Logos and education, harmony to compensate the contrasts, helpfulness towards one's fellow-men as well as the education of the individual to gain inner freedom, represent the most important antique directives of the mind in the sense of a rudimental psychohygiene and psychoprophylaxis. PMID:6187511

  5. CRF07_BC Strain Dominates the HIV-1 Epidemic in Injection Drug Users in Liangshan Prefecture of Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wei, Daying; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Li, Tianyi; Gui, Tao; Wood, Charles; Liu, Yongjian; Li, Hanping; Bao, Zuoyi; Liu, Siyang; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Jingyun

    2015-05-01

    The Liangshan prefecture in Sichuan province is an area in China severely affected by the HIV epidemic, with intravenous drug use (IDU) as the main risk factor. No reports on HIV subtypes prevalent in IDUs in Liangshan prefecture could be found. In this study, we have characterized the genotypes of HIV-1 in the IDU population in Liangshan prefecture and further determined the phylogenetic relationship of the CRF07_BC strains to HIV-1 sequences from the other regions of China, including Xinjiang and Yunnan provinces, to explore the pattern and possible diffusion pathway of HIV-1 in these regions. HIV-1-seropositive drug-naive IDUs identified in Liangshan prefecture, Sichuan province were enrolled in 2009. Full-length gag and pol genes were amplified by reverse transcription and nested PCR and then sequenced. All of the sequences were subtyped. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods. Divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian molecular clock approach. CRF07_BC was found to be the predominant strain in IDUs in Liangshan prefecture (95.5%). The CRF07_BC strains from Liangshan prefecture were found to be intermixed with those from Yunnan province in phylogenetic trees. The CRF07_BC sequences from Xinjiang province can be grouped into several clusters, suggesting that the expansion of the CRF07_BC epidemic in Xinjiang province was the result of a local epidemic driven by multiple independent introductions in the late 1990s. Only low-level drug-resistant viruses were found in the IDU population. CRF07_BC strains from Liangshan prefecture were more similar to those from Yunnan province than those from Xinjiang province. This finding will contribute to our understanding of the distribution, the evolution, and the potential source of CRF07_BC founder strains, and will also provide useful information for the development of strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25560398

  6. CRF07_BC Strain Dominates the HIV-1 Epidemic in Injection Drug Users in Liangshan Prefecture of Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Wei, Daying; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Li, Tianyi; Gui, Tao; Wood, Charles; Liu, Yongjian; Li, Hanping; Bao, Zuoyi; Liu, Siyang; Wang, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Liangshan prefecture in Sichuan province is an area in China severely affected by the HIV epidemic, with intravenous drug use (IDU) as the main risk factor. No reports on HIV subtypes prevalent in IDUs in Liangshan prefecture could be found. In this study, we have characterized the genotypes of HIV-1 in the IDU population in Liangshan prefecture and further determined the phylogenetic relationship of the CRF07_BC strains to HIV-1 sequences from the other regions of China, including Xinjiang and Yunnan provinces, to explore the pattern and possible diffusion pathway of HIV-1 in these regions. HIV-1-seropositive drug-naive IDUs identified in Liangshan prefecture, Sichuan province were enrolled in 2009. Full-length gag and pol genes were amplified by reverse transcription and nested PCR and then sequenced. All of the sequences were subtyped. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods. Divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian molecular clock approach. CRF07_BC was found to be the predominant strain in IDUs in Liangshan prefecture (95.5%). The CRF07_BC strains from Liangshan prefecture were found to be intermixed with those from Yunnan province in phylogenetic trees. The CRF07_BC sequences from Xinjiang province can be grouped into several clusters, suggesting that the expansion of the CRF07_BC epidemic in Xinjiang province was the result of a local epidemic driven by multiple independent introductions in the late 1990s. Only low-level drug-resistant viruses were found in the IDU population. CRF07_BC strains from Liangshan prefecture were more similar to those from Yunnan province than those from Xinjiang province. This finding will contribute to our understanding of the distribution, the evolution, and the potential source of CRF07_BC founder strains, and will also provide useful information for the development of strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25560398

  7. Novel spin-electronic properties of BC{sub 7} sheets induced by strain

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lei; Dai, ZhenHong Sui, PengFei; Sun, YuMing; Wang, WeiTian

    2014-11-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, the authors have investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of BC{sub 7} sheets with different planar strains. It is found that metal–semiconductor transition appears at the biaxial strain of 15.5%, and the sheets are characteristic of spin-polarized semiconductor with a zero band-gap. The band-gap rapidly increases with strain, and reaches a maximum value of 0.60 eV at the strain of 20%. Subsequently, the band-gap decreases until the strain reaches up to 22% and shows a semiconductor-half metal transformation. It will further present metal properties until the strain is up to the maximum value of 35%. The magnetic moments also have some changes induced by biaxial strain. The numerical analysis shows that the two-dimensional distortions have great influences on the magnetic moments. The novel spin-electronic properties make BC{sub 7} sheets have potential applications in future spintronic nanodevices.

  8. Pertussis toxin treatment attenuates some effects of insulin in BC3H-1 murine myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, L.M.; Hewlett, E.L.; Romero, G.; Rogol, A.D.

    1988-05-05

    The effects of pertussis toxin (PT) treatment on insulin-stimulated myristoyl-diacylglycerol (DAG) generation, hexose transport, and thymidine incorporation were studied in differentiated BC3H-1 mycocytes. Insulin treatment caused a biphasic increase in myristoyl-DAG production which was abolished in myocytes treated with PT. There was no effect of PT treatment on basal (nonstimulated) myristoyl-DAG production. Insulin-stimulated hydrolysis of a membrane phosphatidylinositol glycan was blocked by PT treatment. ADP-ribosylation of BC3H-1 plasma membranes with (/sup 32/P)NAD revealed a 40-kDa protein as the major PT substrate in vivo and in vitro. The time course and dose dependence of the effects of PT on diacylglycerol generation correlated with the in vivo ADP-ribosylation of the 40-kDa substrate. Pertussis toxin treatment resulted in a 71% attenuation of insulin-stimulated hexose uptake without effect on either basal or phorbol ester-stimulated uptake. The stimulatory effects of insulin and fetal calf serum on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into quiescent myocytes were attenuated by 61 and 59%, respectively, when PT was added coincidently with the growth factors. Nonstimulated and EGF-stimulated (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation was unaffected by PT treatment. These data suggest that a PT-sensitive G protein is involved in the cellular signaling mechanisms of insulin.

  9. The archaeology of drill hole U20bc, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, A.R.; Hemphill, M.L.; Livingston, S.J.; Pippin, L.C.; Walsh, L.A.

    1992-12-31

    Impacts to four sites near drill hole U20bc on Pahute Mesa in the northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site were mitigated through data recovery. The work was done during 1988 by the Desert Research Institute for the Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV)- The four sites that warranted data recovery were 26NY3171, 26NY3173, 26NY5561 and 26NY5566. These sites had previously been determined eligible to the National Register of Historic Places. They were temporary camps that contained lithic debitage, projectile points, milling stones and pottery, and therefore contributed significant information concerning the prehistory of the area. The study of the archaeological remains shows that the prehistoric people subsisted on plant foods and game animals as determined by the artifacts including manos, metates, pottery, lithic scrapers, and projectile points. The time sensitive arfifacts (pottery and diagnostic points) suggest that the region was used from about 12,000 B.P. to just before the historic period, possibly 150 years ago. DOE/NV has met its obligation to mitigate adverse impacts to the cultural resources at U20bc. Therefore, it is recommended that this project proceed as planned.

  10. The archaeology of drill hole U20bc, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, A.R.; Hemphill, M.L.; Livingston, S.J.; Pippin, L.C.; Walsh, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Impacts to four sites near drill hole U20bc on Pahute Mesa in the northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site were mitigated through data recovery. The work was done during 1988 by the Desert Research Institute for the Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV)- The four sites that warranted data recovery were 26NY3171, 26NY3173, 26NY5561 and 26NY5566. These sites had previously been determined eligible to the National Register of Historic Places. They were temporary camps that contained lithic debitage, projectile points, milling stones and pottery, and therefore contributed significant information concerning the prehistory of the area. The study of the archaeological remains shows that the prehistoric people subsisted on plant foods and game animals as determined by the artifacts including manos, metates, pottery, lithic scrapers, and projectile points. The time sensitive arfifacts (pottery and diagnostic points) suggest that the region was used from about 12,000 B.P. to just before the historic period, possibly 150 years ago. DOE/NV has met its obligation to mitigate adverse impacts to the cultural resources at U20bc. Therefore, it is recommended that this project proceed as planned.

  11. Translocation step size and mechanism of the RecBC DNA helicase.

    PubMed

    Bianco, P R; Kowalczykowski, S C

    2000-05-18

    DNA helicases are ubiquitous enzymes that unwind double-stranded DNA. They are a diverse group of proteins that move in a linear fashion along a one-dimensional polymer lattice--DNA--by using a mechanism that couples nucleoside triphosphate hydrolysis to both translocation and double-stranded DNA unwinding to produce separate strands of DNA. The RecBC enzyme is a processive DNA helicase that functions in homologous recombination in Escherichia coli; it unwinds up to 6,250 base pairs per binding event and hydrolyses slightly more than one ATP molecule per base pair unwound. Here we show, by using a series of gapped oligonucleotide substrates, that this enzyme translocates along only one strand of duplex DNA in the 3'-->5' direction. The translocating enzyme will traverse, or 'step' across, single-stranded DNA gaps in defined steps that are 23 (+/-2) nucleotides in length. This step is much larger than the amount of double-stranded DNA that can be unwound using the free energy derived from hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP, implying that translocation and DNA unwinding are separate events. We propose that the RecBC enzyme both translocates and unwinds by a quantized, two-step, inchworm-like mechanism that may have parallels for translocation by other linear motor proteins. PMID:10830968

  12. Regulatory interactions in the dimeric cytochrome bc1 complex: The advantages of being a twin

    PubMed Central

    Covian, Raul; Trumpower, Bernard L.

    2008-01-01

    The dimeric cytochrome bc1 complex catalyzes the oxidation-reduction of quinol and quinone at sites located in opposite sides of the membrane in which it resides. We review the kinetics of electron transfer and inhibitor binding that reveal functional interactions between the quinol oxidation site at center P and quinone reduction site at center N in opposite monomers in conjunction with electron equilibration between the cytochrome b subunits of the dimer. A model for the mechanism of the bc1 complex has emerged from these studies in which binding of ligands that mimic semiquinone at center N regulates half-of-the-sites reactivity at center P and binding of ligands that mimic catalytically competent binding of ubiquinol at center P regulates half-of-the-sites reactivity at center N. An additional feature of this model is that inhibition of quinol oxidation at the quinone reduction site is avoided by allowing catalysis in only one monomer at a time, which maximizes the number of redox acceptor centers available in cytochrome b for electrons coming from quinol oxidation reactions at center P and minimizes the leakage of electrons that would result in the generation of damaging oxygen radicals. PMID:18471987

  13. Molecular characterization of the gene for human interleukin-1[beta] converting enzyme (IL1BC)

    SciTech Connect

    Cerretti, D.P.; Hollingsworth, L.T.; Kozlosky, C.J.; Nelson, N. ); Valentine, M.B. ); Shapiro, D.N.; Morris, S.W. Univ. of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN )

    1994-04-01

    Interleukin-1[beta] (IL-1[beta]) mediates a wide range of immune and inflammatory responses. The active cytokine is generated by proteolytic cleavage of an inactive precursor by a protease called the IL-1[beta] converting enzyme (ICE). A cDNA encoding this protease was recently isolated. A human genomic clone containing the ICE gene (IL1BC) was isolated using the cDNA as a probe. The gene consists of 10 exons spanning at least 10.6 kb. 5[prime]-anchored polymerase chain reaction indicated a single transcription start site [approximately]33 bp upstream of the initiator Met codon. The 5[prime]-flanking region does not have an apparent TATA box but may contain an initiator (Inr) promotor element. However, transcriptional activity could not be detected with a fusion gene containing the 5[prime]-flanking region linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (CAT) when transfected into the human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Using the genomic IL1BC clone, the authors have confirmed the localization of the gene to chromosome 11 band q22.2-q22.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. 34 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Engineered Mononuclear Variants in Bacillus cereus Metallo-β-lactamase BcII Are Inactive†

    PubMed Central

    Abriata, Luciano A.; González, Lisandro J.; Llarrull, Leticia I.; Tomatis, Pablo E.; Myers, William K.; Costello, Alison L.; Tierney, David L.; Vila, Alejandro J.

    2008-01-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) are zinc enzymes able to hydrolyze almost all β-lactam antibiotics, rendering them inactive, at the same time endowing bacteria high levels of resistance. The design of inhibitors active against all classes of MβLs has been hampered by their structural diversity and by the heterogeneity in metal content in enzymes from different sources. BcII is the metallo-β-lactamase from Bacillus cereus, which is found in both the mononuclear and dinuclear forms. Despite extensive studies, there is still controversy about the nature of the active BcII species. Here we have designed two mutant enzymes in which each one of the metal binding sites was selectively removed. Both mutants were almost inactive, despite preserving most of the structural features of each metal site. These results reveal that neither site isolated in the MβL scaffold is sufficient to render a fully active enzyme. This suggests that only the dinuclear species is active or that the mononuclear variants can be active only if aided by other residues that would be metal ligands in the dinuclear species. PMID:18652482

  15. Thermal evolution of the metastable r8 and bc8 polymorphs of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Haberl, Bianca; Guthrie, Malcolm; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Shen, Guoyin; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-28

    The kinetics of two metastable polymorphs of silicon under thermal annealing was investigated. These phases with body-centered cubic bc8 and rhombohedral r8 structures can be formed upon pressure release from metallic silicon.We study these metastable polymorphs were formed by two different methods, via point loading and in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Upon thermal annealing different transition pathways were detected. In the point loading case, the previously reported Si-XIII formed and was confirmed as a new phase with an as-yet-unidentified structure. In the DAC case, bc8-Si transformed to the hexagonal-diamond structure at elevated pressure, consistent with previous studies at ambient pressure. In contrast, r8-Si transformed directly to diamond-cubic Si at a temperature of 255⁰C. In conclusion, these data were used to construct diagrams of the metastability regimes of the polymorphs formed in a DAC and may prove useful for potential technological applications of these metastable polymorphs.

  16. Thermal evolution of the metastable r8 and bc8 polymorphs of silicon

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Haberl, Bianca; Guthrie, Malcolm; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Shen, Guoyin; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-28

    The kinetics of two metastable polymorphs of silicon under thermal annealing was investigated. These phases with body-centered cubic bc8 and rhombohedral r8 structures can be formed upon pressure release from metallic silicon.We study these metastable polymorphs were formed by two different methods, via point loading and in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Upon thermal annealing different transition pathways were detected. In the point loading case, the previously reported Si-XIII formed and was confirmed as a new phase with an as-yet-unidentified structure. In the DAC case, bc8-Si transformed to the hexagonal-diamond structure at elevated pressure, consistent with previous studies at ambientmore » pressure. In contrast, r8-Si transformed directly to diamond-cubic Si at a temperature of 255⁰C. In conclusion, these data were used to construct diagrams of the metastability regimes of the polymorphs formed in a DAC and may prove useful for potential technological applications of these metastable polymorphs.« less

  17. Release of arachidonic acid from oligodendrocytes by terminal complement proteins, C5b-C9

    SciTech Connect

    Shirazi, Y.; Imagawa, D.K.; Shin, M.L.

    1986-03-01

    Activation of C5b-C9 on monocytes, macrophages, platelets and neutrophils induces membrane lipid hydrolysis and generates arachidonic acid (AA) and its oxygenated derivatives. Additionally, activation of C5b-C9 and myelin lipid hydrolysis has been observed in demyelination. The authors have investigated the modulatory effect of C5b-9 on membrane lipid hydrolysis of oligodendrocytes (OLG), the myelin producing cells in the central nervous system. Antibody-sensitized rat OLG, prelabeled with /sup 14/C AA were treated with excess C6-deficient rabbit serum reconstituted with limiting doses of C6. Qualitative analysis of the supernatants by HPLC revealed the presence of both cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase products. Prostaglandin E/sub 2/, leukotriene (LT) E/sub 4/, LTB/sub 4/ and free AA were the major radiolabeled products. The kinetics and dose response of LTB/sub 4/ release with respect to the cytolytic dose of C5b-9 were quantitated by radioimmunoassay. LTB/sub 4/ release approached maximum in 1 hr and higher amounts were detected with fewer C5b-9 channels. Addition of C8 to OLG bearing C5b-7 intermediates induced maximum LTB/sub 4/ release without further enhancement by C9 in contrast to the absolute requirement of C9 in mediator release from rat neutrophils. Thus, the requirement of C5b-8 or C5b-9 in mediator release appears to be cell-type dependent.

  18. Molecular Modeling Analysis of the Inhibition of Mitochondrial Cytochrome BC1 Complex Activity by Tocol Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Awantika; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Compadre, Cesar M.; Kumar, K. Sree

    2011-06-01

    The biological functions of vitamin E related compounds have been of interest in biomedical research for several decades. Among those compounds, α-, β-, δ-, and γ-tocopherols and their oxidation products, α-, β-, δ-, γ-tocopherylquinone and their analogs α-TQo, γ-TQo, TMC20 and TMC40 were recently shown to inhibit the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex. In this investigation the effects of the structural variation on the inhibition of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex were analyzed using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA). CoMFA performed using steric and electrostatic molecular fields produced a very good correlation. The best CoMFA models were obtained using the manual alignment of 12 compounds with 5 components (q2 = 0.589, SPRESS = 0.515, r2 = 0.992, s = 0.068 and F value = 156.520). The resulting contour maps produced by the best CoMFA model were helpful in identifying the structural features required for the biological activity of compounds under study. These results would be helpful for predicting the activity of new compounds, and they could be used for guiding the design, synthesis and development of new and more effective agents.

  19. Early (300-100 B.C.) temple precinct in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Elsa M; Spencer, Charles S

    2013-05-01

    Archaeological investigations during the past two decades in Mexico's Valley of Oaxaca have documented the appearance of key public buildings, such as the royal palace and multiroom temple, associated with the rise of an archaic state at ca. 300-100 B.C. A fuller picture is now emerging from the site of El Palenque, where recent excavations have defined a temple precinct on the east side of the site's plaza. This precinct exhibits characteristics similar to those of the temple precincts of later Mesoamerican states described by Colonial period sources. The excavation data document a walled enclosure containing three multiroom temples, two special residences identified as priests' residences, and an array of ritual features and activity areas. The temple precinct's components are interpreted as comprising a hierarchy of temples staffed by a specialized priesthood. A series of radiocarbon dates indicate that the precinct's differentiated components were all in use during the 300-100 B.C. period of archaic state emergence. The El Palenque temple precinct is the earliest temple precinct excavated thus far in the Valley of Oaxaca. PMID:23610387

  20. Vertical profiles of BC direct radiative effect over Italy: high vertical resolution data and atmospheric feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Močnik, Griša; Ferrero, Luca; Castelli, Mariapina; Ferrini, Barbara S.; Moscatelli, Marco; Grazia Perrone, Maria; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rovelli, Grazia; D'Angelo, Luca; Moroni, Beatrice; Scardazza, Francesco; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Petitta, Marcello; Cappelletti, David

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), and its vertical distribution, affects the climate. Global measurements of BC vertical profiles are lacking to support climate change research. To fill this gap, a campaign was conducted over three Italian basin valleys, Terni Valley (Appennines), Po Valley and Passiria Valley (Alps), to characterize the impact of BC on the radiative budget under similar orographic conditions. 120 vertical profiles were measured in winter 2010. The BC vertical profiles, together with aerosol size distribution, aerosol chemistry and meteorological parameters, have been determined using a tethered balloon-based platform equipped with: a micro-Aethalometer AE51 (Magee Scientific), a 1.107 Grimm OPC (0.25-32 μm, 31 size classes), a cascade impactor (Siuotas SKC), and a meteorological station (LSI-Lastem). The aerosol chemical composition was determined from collected PM2.5 samples. The aerosol absorption along the vertical profiles was measured and optical properties calculated using the Mie theory applied to the aerosol size distribution. The aerosol optical properties were validated with AERONET data and then used as inputs to the radiative transfer model libRadtran. Vertical profiles of the aerosol direct radiative effect, the related atmospheric absorption and the heating rate were calculated. Vertical profile measurements revealed some common behaviors over the studied basin valleys. From below the mixing height to above it, a marked concentration drop was found for both BC (from -48.4±5.3% up to -69.1±5.5%) and aerosol number concentration (from -23.9±4.3% up to -46.5±7.3%). These features reflected on the optical properties of the aerosol. Absorption and scattering coefficients decreased from below the MH to above it (babs from -47.6±2.5% up to -71.3±3.0% and bsca from -23.5±0.8% up to -61.2±3.1%, respectively). Consequently, the Single Scattering Albedo increased above the MH (from +4.9±2.2% to +7.4±1.0%). The highest aerosol absorption was

  1. A Half Century of Sounding Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J.

    2015-09-01

    One of the earliest and most successful sounding rocket activities in Europe, was the development of the Skylark system. The requirement for high altitude space research and the approaching International Geophysical Year in 1957-58, motivated the British to develop a sounding rocket system. After considerable investigation of the requirements for the propulsion system, the Raven motor and the necessary basic components and instrumentation of a payload system were developed. The first Skylark was launched on the 13th of February, 1957. This paper describes the development of the Skylark system, the advances in technology of its payload systems and their application in solar and stellar astronomy, upper atmosphere and microgravity research and technological proving of space systems.

  2. Black carbon over Mexico: The effect of atmospheric transport on mixing state, mass absorption cross-section, and BC/CO ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, R.; Kok, G. L.; Baumgardner, Darrel; Clarke, A. D.; Shinozuka, Y.; Campos, Teresa; Heizer, CG; Stephens, Britton; de Foy, B.; Voss, Paul B.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2010-01-13

    A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was operated on the NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE campaign (part of MILAGRO), sampling black carbon (BC) over Mexico. The highest BC concentrations were measured over Mexico City (sometimes as much as 2 Fg/m34 ) and over hill fires to the south of the city. The age of plumes outside of Mexico City was determined using a combination of HYSPLIT trajectories, WRF-FLEXPART modeling and CMET balloon tracks. As expected, older, diluted air masses had lower BC concentrations. A comparison of carbon monoxide (CO) and BC suggests a CO background of around 65 ppbv, and a backgroundcorrected BC/COnet ratio of 2.89±0.89 (ng/m39 -STP)/ppbv (average ± standard deviation). This ratio is similar for fresh emissions over Mexico City, as well as for aged airmasses. Comparison of light absorption measured with a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and the SP2 BC suggests a BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) of 10.9±2.1 m212 /g at 660 nm (or 13.1 m213 /g @ 550 nm, assuming MAC is inversely dependent on wavelength). This appears independent of aging and similar to the expected absorption cross-section for aged BC, but values, particularly in fresh emissions, could be biased high due to instrument artifacts. SP2-derived BC coating indicators show a prominent thinly-coated BC mode over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), while older air masses show both thinly-coated and thickly-coated BC. Some 2-day-old plumes do not show a prominent thickly-coated BC mode, possibly due to preferential wet scavenging of the likely-hydrophilic thickly-coated BC.

  3. MicroRNA-34b/c suppresses uveal melanoma cell proliferation and migration through multiple targets

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed, small noncoding RNAs that inhibit gene expression by binding to target mRNAs. Recent studies have revealed that miRNAs function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. In the present study, we investigated the role of miRNA-34b/c in uveal melanoma. Methods Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression level of miR-34b/c in uveal melanoma cells and primary samples. Subsequently, uveal melanoma cell proliferation was examined by the MTS (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-5-[3-carboxymethoxyphenyl]-2-[4-sulfophenyl] -2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) assay, clone formation assay, and flow cytometry. Cell apoptosis was measured by caspase3/7 assay. Cell migration was evaluated by transwell migration assay. The target of miR-34b/c was predicted by bioinformatics and validated by luciferase assay. In addition, the effect of miR-34b/c on c-Met, cell cycle-related proteins, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway was determined by western blotting. Results miR-34b/c expression, which was dramatically decreased in uveal melanoma cells and clinical samples, can be upregulated by doxorubicin and epigenetic drugs. The transfection of miR-34b/c into uveal melanoma cells leads to a significant reduction in cell growth and migration. miR-34b/c caused cell cycle G1 arrest rather than the induction of apoptosis. Met proto-oncogene (c-Met) was identified as a target of miR-34b/c in uveal melanoma cells. Furthermore, miR-34b/c was confirmed to downregulate the expression of c-Met, p-Akt, and cell cycle–related proteins by western blotting. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that both miR-34b and miR-34c act as tumor suppressors in uveal melanoma cell proliferation and migration through the downregulation of multiple targets. PMID:22419847

  4. Differences between magnitudes and health impacts of BC emissions across the United States using 12 km scale seasonal source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Turner, Matthew D; Henze, Daven K; Hakami, Amir; Zhao, Shunliu; Resler, Jaroslav; Carmichael, Gregory R; Stanier, Charles O; Baek, Jaemeen; Sandu, Adrian; Russell, Armistead G; Nenes, Athanasios; Jeong, Gill-Ran; Capps, Shannon L; Percell, Peter B; Pinder, Rob W; Napelenok, Sergey L; Bash, Jesse O; Chai, Tianfeng

    2015-04-01

    Recent assessments have analyzed the health impacts of PM2.5 from emissions from different locations and sectors using simplified or reduced-form air quality models. Here we present an alternative approach using the adjoint of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, which provides source-receptor relationships at highly resolved sectoral, spatial, and temporal scales. While damage resulting from anthropogenic emissions of BC is strongly correlated with population and premature death, we found little correlation between damage and emission magnitude, suggesting that controls on the largest emissions may not be the most efficient means of reducing damage resulting from anthropogenic BC emissions. Rather, the best proxy for locations with damaging BC emissions is locations where premature deaths occur. Onroad diesel and nonroad vehicle emissions are the largest contributors to premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC, while onroad gasoline emissions cause the highest deaths per amount emitted. Emissions in fall and winter contribute to more premature deaths (and more per amount emitted) than emissions in spring and summer. Overall, these results show the value of the high-resolution source attribution for determining the locations, seasons, and sectors for which BC emission controls have the most effective health benefits. PMID:25729920

  5. Australian human and parrot Chlamydia psittaci strains cluster within the highly virulent 6BC clade of this important zoonotic pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Branley, James; Bachmann, Nathan L.; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S. A.; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen and zoonotic agent of atypical pneumonia. The most pathogenic C. psittaci strains cluster into the 6BC clade, predicted to have recently emerged globally. Exposure to infected parrots is a risk factor with limited evidence also of an indirect exposure risk. Genome sequencing was performed on six Australian human and a single avian C. psittaci strain isolated over a 9 year period. Only one of the five human patients had explicit psittacine contact. Genomics analyses revealed that the Australian C. psittaci strains are remarkably similar, clustering tightly within the C. psittaci 6BC clade suggested to have been disseminated by South America parrot importation. Molecular clock analysis using the newly sequenced C. psittaci genomes predicted the emergence of the 6BC clade occurring approximately 2,000 years ago. These findings reveal the potential for an Australian natural reservoir of C. psittaci 6BC strains. These strains can also be isolated from seriously ill patients without explicit psittacine contact. The apparent recent and global spread of C. psittaci 6BC strains raises important questions over how this happened. Further studies may reveal whether the dissemination of this important zoonotic pathogen is linked to Australian parrot importation rather than parrots from elsewhere. PMID:27488134

  6. Australian human and parrot Chlamydia psittaci strains cluster within the highly virulent 6BC clade of this important zoonotic pathogen.

    PubMed

    Branley, James; Bachmann, Nathan L; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S A; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen and zoonotic agent of atypical pneumonia. The most pathogenic C. psittaci strains cluster into the 6BC clade, predicted to have recently emerged globally. Exposure to infected parrots is a risk factor with limited evidence also of an indirect exposure risk. Genome sequencing was performed on six Australian human and a single avian C. psittaci strain isolated over a 9 year period. Only one of the five human patients had explicit psittacine contact. Genomics analyses revealed that the Australian C. psittaci strains are remarkably similar, clustering tightly within the C. psittaci 6BC clade suggested to have been disseminated by South America parrot importation. Molecular clock analysis using the newly sequenced C. psittaci genomes predicted the emergence of the 6BC clade occurring approximately 2,000 years ago. These findings reveal the potential for an Australian natural reservoir of C. psittaci 6BC strains. These strains can also be isolated from seriously ill patients without explicit psittacine contact. The apparent recent and global spread of C. psittaci 6BC strains raises important questions over how this happened. Further studies may reveal whether the dissemination of this important zoonotic pathogen is linked to Australian parrot importation rather than parrots from elsewhere. PMID:27488134

  7. Canada's Fraser River Basin transitioning from a nival to a hybrid system in the late 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, D. H.; Gao, H.; Shi, X.; Dery, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Fraser River Basin (FRB) is the largest river draining to the Pacific Ocean in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and it provides the world's most abundant salmon populations. With recent climate change, the shifting hydrologic regime of the FRB is evaluated using hydrological modeling results over the period 1949 to 2006. To quantify the contribution of snowmelt to runoff generation, the ratio RSR, defined as the division of the sum of the snowmelt across the watershed by the integrated runoff over the water year, is employed. Modeled results for RSR at Hope, BC — the furthest downstream hydrometric station of the FRB — show a significant decrease (from 0.80 to 0.65) in the latter part of the 20th century. RSR is found to be mainly suppressed by a decrease of the snowmelt across the FRB with a decline with 107 mm by 26 % along the simulation period. There is also a prominent shift in the timing of streamflow, with the spring freshet at Hope, BC advancing 30 days followed by reduced summer flows for over two months. The timing of the peak spring freshet becomes even earlier when moving upstream of the FRB owing to short periods of time after melting from the snow source to the rivers.

  8. The Architecture of the Qo Site of Cytochrome bc1 Complex Probed by Superoxide Production

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Florian L.; Roberts, Arthur G.; Bowman, Michael K.); Kramer, David M.

    2003-06-03

    Although several X-ray structures have been solved for the mitochondrial cytochrome (cyt) bc1 complex, none yet shows the position of substrate, ubiquinol, in the quinol oxidase (Qo) site. In the present study, the interaction of molecular oxygen with the reactive intermediate Qo semiquinone is used to probe Qo site. It has been known for some time that partial turnover of the cyt bc1 complex in the presence of antimycin A, a Qi site inhibitor, results in accumulation of a semiquinone at the Qo site, which can reduce O2 to superoxide (O2?-). It was more recently shown that myxothiazol, which binds close to the cyt bL heme in the proximal Qo niche, also induces O2?- production. In this work we show that, in addition to myxothiazol, a number of other proximal Qo inhibitors (including E-b-methoxyacrylate-stilbene, mucidin and famoxadone) also induce O2?- production in isolated yeast cyt bc1 complex, at about 50% the Vmax observed in the presence of antimycin A. We propose that proximal Qo site inhibitors induce O2?- production because they allow formation, but not oxidation of the semiquinone at the distal niche of the Qo site pocket. The apparent Km for ubiquinol at the Qo site in the presence of Qo proximal inhibitors suggests that the distal niche of the Qo pocket can act as a fully independent quinol binding and oxidation site. Together with the X-ray structures these results suggest substrate ubiquinol binds in essentially the same position as stigmatellin with H-bonds between H161 of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein and E272 of the cyt b protein. When modeled in this way, mucidin, and ubiquinol can bind simultaneously to the Qo site with virtually no steric hindrance, whereas progressively bulkier inhibitors show increasing overlap. The fact that partial turnover of the Qo site is possible even with bound proximal Qo site inhibitors is consistent with the participation of two separate functional Qo binding niches, occupied simultaneously or sequentially.

  9. Study of the B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^+ and B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^{*+} decays with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Childers, J. T.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikematsu, K.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Inamaru, Y.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Ivarsson, J.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansky, R.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jiggins, S.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. 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M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-01-01

    The decays B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^+ and B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^{*+} are studied with the ATLAS detector at the LHC using a dataset corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9 and 20.6 fb^{-1} of pp collisions collected at centre-of-mass energies √{s} = 7 TeV and 8 TeV, respectively. Signal candidates are identified through J/ψ → μ ^+μ ^- and D_s^{(*)+}→ φ π ^+(γ /π ^0) decays. With a two-dimensional likelihood fit involving the B_c^+ reconstructed invariant mass and an angle between the μ ^+ and D_s^+ candidate momenta in the muon pair rest frame, the yields of B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^+ and B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^{*+}, and the transverse polarisation fraction in B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^{*+} decay are measured. The transverse polarisation fraction is determined to be Γ _{± ± }(B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^{*+})/Γ (B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^{*+}) = 0.38 ± 0.23 ± 0.07, and the derived ratio of the branching fractions of the two modes is {B}_{B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^{*+}}/{B}_{B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^+} = 2.8 ^{+1.2}_{-0.8} ± 0.3, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Finally, a sample of B_c^+→ J/ψ π ^+ decays is used to derive the ratios of branching fractions {B}_{B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^+}/{B}_{B_c^+ → J/ψ π ^+} = 3.8 ± 1.1 ± 0.4 ± 0.2 and {B}_{B_c^+ → J/ψ D_s^{*+}}/{B}_{B_c^+ → J/ψ π ^+} = 10.4 ± 3.1 ± 1.5 ± 0.6, where the third error corresponds to the uncertainty of the branching fraction of D_s^+→ φ (K^+K^-)π ^+ decay. The available theoretical predictions are generally consistent with the measurement.

  10. Two Centuries of Solar Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.

    2015-10-01

    In 1811, François Arago observed the disk of the Sun with his "lunette polariscopique". From the absence of detectable polarization compared with his laboratory observations of glowing solids, liquids, and flames he concluded that the Sun's visible surface is an incandescent gas. From this beginning, thanks to orders of magnitude technology improvements, a remarkable amount of what we know about the physics of the Sun has continued to flow from solar polarimetry. This short review compares some selected polarimetric discoveries with subsequent recent observations to illustrate the tremendous progress of solar polarimetry during the last two centuries.

  11. Effect of an ntrBC mutation on the posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity in Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Cummings, A D; Burris, R H; Ludden, P W; Roberts, G P

    1995-01-01

    Homologs of ntrB and ntrC genes from Rhodospirillum rubrum were cloned and sequenced. A mutant lacking ntrBC was constructed, and this mutant has normal nitrogenase activity under nif-derepressing conditions, indicating that ntrBC are not necessary for the expression of the nif genes in R. rubrum. However, the post-translational regulation of nitrogenase activity by ADP-ribosylation in response to NH4+ was partially abolished in this mutant. More surprisingly, the regulation of nitrogenase activity in response to darkness was also affected, suggesting a physiological link between the ntr system and energy signal transduction in R. rubrum. The expression of glutamine synthetase, as well as its posttranslational regulation, was also altered in this ntrBC mutant. PMID:7665521

  12. Development and validation of the Female Sexual Function Index adaptation for breast cancer patients (FSFI-BC).

    PubMed

    Bartula, Iris; Sherman, Kerry A

    2015-08-01

    Sexual dysfunction following breast cancer treatment is common and screening for this is recommended. This study determined the reliability, validity, and acceptability of a breast cancer-specific adaptation of the Female Sexual Function Index, the FSFI-BC. This new measure addresses limitations in the FSFI when assessing sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer regarding applicability to non-sexually active women, measuring distress and changes after cancer. Female breast cancer survivors (n = 596; 429 sexually active, 166 non-sexually active) completed an online survey including demographic/medical information, the FSFI-BC, and scales measuring sexual functioning, fatigue, body image, physical and mental health, and relationship adjustment (Time 1). Three weeks later, 326 women (245 sexually active; 81 non-sexually active) completed the Time 2 survey including the FSFI-BC, and questions regarding its acceptability and perceived change in sexual functioning. Reliability, construct validity, and acceptability were examined using standard scale validation techniques. Exploratory factor analysis delineated seven factors: Changes after cancer, desire/arousal, lubrication, orgasm, pain, satisfaction, and distress, accounting for 79.98 % (sexually active) and 77.19 % (non-active) variance in responses. Acceptable internal consistencies (non-active: α = 0.71-0.96; sexually active: α = 0.89-0.96) and test-retest reliabilities (non-active: r = 0.63-0.86; sexually active: r = 0.71-0.88) were evident. Inter-scale correlations provided evidence for convergent and divergent validities of the FSFI-BC. Both sexually active and non-active women provided positive feedback about the FSFI-BC. The optional partner questions demonstrated clinical utility. With desirable psychometric properties and acceptability to participants, the FSFI-BC is suitable for screening for sexual dysfunction in women with breast cancer. PMID:26198992

  13. Stochastic parameterization for light absorption by internally mixed BC/dust in snow grains for application to climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; He, C.; Yang, P.; Leung, L. R.; Gu, Y.; Lee, W. L.

    2014-06-01

    A stochastic approach has been developed to model the positions of BC (black carbon)/dust internally mixed with two snow grain types: hexagonal plate/column (convex) and Koch snowflake (concave). Subsequently, light absorption and scattering analysis can be followed by means of an improved geometric-optics approach coupled with Monte Carlo photon tracing to determine BC/dust single-scattering properties. For a given shape (plate, Koch snowflake, spheroid, or sphere), the action of internal mixing absorbs substantially more light than external mixing. The snow grain shape effect on absorption is relatively small, but its effect on asymmetry factor is substantial. Due to a greater probability of intercepting photons, multiple inclusions of BC/dust exhibit a larger absorption than an equal-volume single inclusion. The spectral absorption (0.2-5 µm) for snow grains internally mixed with BC/dust is confined to wavelengths shorter than about 1.4 µm, beyond which ice absorption predominates. Based on the single-scattering properties determined from stochastic and light absorption parameterizations and using the adding/doubling method for spectral radiative transfer, we find that internal mixing reduces snow albedo substantially more than external mixing and that the snow grain shape plays a critical role in snow albedo calculations through its forward scattering strength. Also, multiple inclusion of BC/dust significantly reduces snow albedo as compared to an equal-volume single sphere. For application to land/snow models, we propose a two-layer spectral snow parameterization involving contaminated fresh snow on top of old snow for investigating and understanding the climatic impact of multiple BC/dust internal mixing associated with snow grain metamorphism, particularly over mountain/snow topography.

  14. Measurements of Refractory Black Carbon (rBC) Aerosols in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A. L.; McMeeking, G. R.; Lyons, W. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Welch, K. A.; McKnight, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of light absorbing particles in the boundary layer of the high southern latitudes are scarce. During the 2013-2014 austral summer field season refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosols were quantified by a single particle soot photometer (SP2) in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The dark rBC particles absorb more radiation thereby increasing atmospheric heating, as well as reducing surface albedo and enhancing hydrologic melt when deposited on highly reflective surfaces such as snow and ice. Quantifying both local and long-range atmospheric transport of rBC to this region of a remote continent mostly covered by ice and snow would be useful in understanding meltwater generation as climate changes. Although the Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region of Antarctica, they contain many alpine glaciers, some of which are fed from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Continuous rBC measurements were collected at Lake Hoare Camp in the Taylor Valley for two months, along with shorter periods at more remote locations within the Dry Valleys. Conditions at the Lake Hoare Camp were dominated by up-valley winds from McMurdo Sound, however, winds also brought air down-valley from the EAIS polar plateau. Here we investigated periods dominated by both up and down-valley winds to explore differences in rBC concentrations, size distributions, and scattering properties. The average background rBC mass concentration was 1ng/m3, though concentrations as high as 50 ng/m3 were observed at times, likely due to local sources.

  15. Characterization of black pigment used in 30 BC fresco wall paint using instrumental methods and chemometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Several standard powdered black pigments were characterized by means of thermogravimetry TG-DTG and allied techniques. These pigments were used to make standard plaster frescoes at this purpose prepared. The latter ones were subjected to Raman and reflectance analysis. The results obtained, together with TG data, were chemometrically processed and used to identify an analogous standard fresco fabricated by an unknown commercial black pigment, obtaining excellent results. Results The same colorimetric and reflectometric techniques, coupled with suitable chemometric techniques, were then successfully used to identify the type of black pigment present in an ancient roman fresco of the Imperial Age (30 B.C.). Conclusion TG-DTG resulted useful techniques to autenticate powdered black pigments.Colorimetry and Raman, but also the only colorimetry, were useful to identify an ancient black pigment in situ. PMID:22594437

  16. Response of BC-418 plastic scintillator to low-energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daub, B. H.; Henzl, V.; Kovash, M. A.; Matthews, J. L.; Miller, Z. W.; Shoniyozov, K.; Yang, H.

    2013-02-01

    The response of fast plastic scintillators to protons is unknown for energies below approximately 300 keV. The response of BC-418 plastic scintillator to protons from 100 keV to 1 MeV was measured using elastic scattering of neutrons at the University of Kentucky. Protons of precise energies from a Van de Graaff accelerator impinged on a thin LiF target to produce neutrons in narrow energy bands. A coincidence was detected between the recoiling proton in the plastic scintillator and the elastically scattered neutron in a liquid scintillator. The energy of the recoil proton was determined by the elastic scattering kinematics, with the scattered neutron energy precisely determined by time of flight. The results are compared with previous measurements of the response of similar plastic scintillators in the energy region where they overlap.

  17. Ab Initio and Phenomenological Modeling of the Phonon Spectrum of Superhard cp-BC2N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basalaev, Yu. M.; Kopytov, A. V.; Pavlova, T. Yu.; Poplavnoi, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    The phonon spectrum of hypothetical superhard cp-BC2N is calculated based on ab initio method of density functional in the center of the Brillouin zone and interpolated over the entire Brillouin zone using the Keating phenomenological model. The interaction parameters are determined by optimization of the IR- and Ramanactive frequencies for a phenomenological model by their comparison with the results of ab initio calculations. Numerical values of short-range interaction constants and charges are in agreement with the characteristics of the chemical bond calculated ab initio. These parameters have transparent physical meaning and chemical nature and can further be used for both qualitative estimations of any physical and physico-chemical quantities and quantitative calculations of the phonon spectra of a number of isostructural compounds. The Keating phenomenological model is used to study the genesis of the phonon spectrum from the spectra of sublattices.

  18. Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism in Clostridium sp. BC1

    SciTech Connect

    Yarlagadda V. N.; Francis A.; Gupta, A.; Dodge, C. J.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the influence exogenous electron shuttles on the growth and glucose fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. BC1 was investigated. Bicarbonate addition to mineral salts (MS) medium accelerated growth and glucose fermentation which shifted acidogenesis (acetic- and butyric-acids) towards solventogenesis (ethanol and butanol). Addition of ferrihydrite, anthraquinone disulfonate, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in bicarbonate to growing culture showed no significant influence on fermentative metabolism. In contrast, methyl viologen (MV) enhanced ethanol- and butanol-production by 28- and 12-fold, respectively with concomitant decrease in hydrogen, acetic- and butyric-acids compared to MS medium. The results show that MV addition affects hydrogenase activity with a significant reduction in hydrogen production and a shift in the direction of electron flow towards enhanced production of ethanol and butanol.

  19. Pectus excavatum in relief from Ancient Egypt (dating back to circa 2400 BC).

    PubMed

    Bialas, Adam J; Kaczmarski, Jacek; Kozak, Jozef; Kempinska-Miroslawska, Bogumila

    2015-04-01

    Pectus excavatum is one of the most common congenital deformities of the chest wall. The aim of the study was to analyse 621 artefacts (reliefs, sculptures, paintings) from Ancient Egypt in terms of anatomical defects of the chest. The team which analysed artefacts consisted of historians of medicine and thoracic surgeons. The researchers found a relief, depicting a man with an abnormal shape of the chest. The relief was from Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep mastaba and dates back to circa 2400 BC. The authors think it is possible that the relief may represent a pectus excavatum deformity and believe the image will open up debate on the occurrence of this deformity in ancient times. PMID:25564580

  20. Effect of edge modification on the zigzag BC2N nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiang; Li, Hong; Tie, Jun; Lu, Jing

    2016-08-01

    We use first principles calculations to investigate the effects of edge modification with nonmetal species on zigzag-edged BC2N nanoribbons (ZBC2NNRs). These ZBC2NNRs show either semiconducting or metallic behaviors depending on the edge modifications and ribbon widths. We find that the O-modification induces a ferromagnetic ground state with a metallic behavior for all the ribbon widths investigated. And when the ribbon width is more than 3.32 nm (NZ ⩾ 16), an antiferromagnetic ground state with a half-metallic behavior is realized in the H-passivated ZBC2NNRs. These versatile electronic properties render the ZBC2NNRs a promising candidate material in nanoelectronics and nanospintronics.

  1. Decipher the short-distance component of X(3872) in Bc decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    A foremost task in understanding the nature of the X (3872) involves the discrimination of the two-quark and multiquark configurations. In this work, we propose a method to probe the short-distance component of the X (3872) by measuring the ratio between the Bc semileptonic and nonleptonic decays into the X (3872). We demonstrate that if the X (3872) production mechanism is through the c bar c component, the ratios would be universal and could be reliably predicted in theory. Measurements of these ratios at LHC and the next-generation electron-positron colliders are capable of validating/invalidating this production mechanism and providing deeper insights into the nature of the X (3872).

  2. OPS MCC level B/C formulation requirements: Area targets and space volumes processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, M. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The level B/C mathematical specifications for the area targets and space volumes processor (ATSVP) are described. The processor is designed to compute the acquisition-of-signal (AOS) and loss-of-signal (LOS) times for area targets and space volumes. The characteristics of the area targets and space volumes are given. The mathematical equations necessary to determine whether the spacecraft lies within the area target or space volume are given. These equations provide a detailed model of the target geometry. A semianalytical technique for predicting the AOS and LOS time periods is disucssed. This technique was designed to bound the actual visibility period using a simplified target geometry model and unperturbed orbital motion. Functional overview of the ATSVP is presented and it's detailed logic flow is described.

  3. bcRep: R Package for Comprehensive Analysis of B Cell Receptor Repertoire Data.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Julia; Ibrahim, Saleh M

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulins, as well as T cell receptors, play a key role in adaptive immune responses because of their ability to recognize antigens. Recent advances in next generation sequencing improved also the quality and quantity of individual B cell receptors repertoire sequencing. Unfortunately, appropriate software to exhaustively analyze repertoire data from NGS platforms without limitations of the number of sequences are lacking. Here we introduce a new R package, bcRep, which offers a platform for comprehensive analyses of B cell receptor repertoires, using IMGT/HighV-QUEST formatted data. Methods for gene usage statistics, clonotype classification, as well as diversity measures, are included. Furthermore, functions to filter datasets, to do summary statistics about mutations, as well as visualization methods, are available. To compare samples in respect of gene usage, diversity, amino acid proportions, similar sequences or clones, several functions including also distance measurements, as well as multidimensional scaling methods, are provided. PMID:27551775

  4. bcRep: R Package for Comprehensive Analysis of B Cell Receptor Repertoire Data

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Saleh M.

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulins, as well as T cell receptors, play a key role in adaptive immune responses because of their ability to recognize antigens. Recent advances in next generation sequencing improved also the quality and quantity of individual B cell receptors repertoire sequencing. Unfortunately, appropriate software to exhaustively analyze repertoire data from NGS platforms without limitations of the number of sequences are lacking. Here we introduce a new R package, bcRep, which offers a platform for comprehensive analyses of B cell receptor repertoires, using IMGT/HighV-QUEST formatted data. Methods for gene usage statistics, clonotype classification, as well as diversity measures, are included. Furthermore, functions to filter datasets, to do summary statistics about mutations, as well as visualization methods, are available. To compare samples in respect of gene usage, diversity, amino acid proportions, similar sequences or clones, several functions including also distance measurements, as well as multidimensional scaling methods, are provided. PMID:27551775

  5. Direct evidence for the atovaquone action on the Plasmodium cytochrome bc1 complex.

    PubMed

    Siregar, Josephine E; Kurisu, Genji; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Watanabe, Yoh-ichi; Hirai, Makoto; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Syafruddin, Din; Marzuki, Sangkot; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Atovaquone, a coenzyme Q analogue has been indicated to specifically target the cytochrome bc1 complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the malarial parasite and other protozoan. Various mutations in the quinone binding site of the cytochrome b gene of Plasmodium spp. such as M133I, L144S, L271V, K272R, Y268C, Y268S, Y268N, and V284F are suggesting to associate with resistance to atovaquone. There is no direct evidence of relation between the mutations and resistance to atovaquone in Plasmodium parasite that has been available. Technical difficulties in isolating active assayable mitochondria in the malarial parasite hinder us to obtain direct biochemical evidence to support the relation between the mutations and drug resistance. The establishment of a mitochondrial isolation method for the malaria parasite has allowed us to test the degree of resistance of Plasmodium berghei isolates to atovaquone directly. We have tested the activity of dihydroorotate (DHO)-cytochrome c reductase in various P. berghei atovaquone resistant clones in the presence of a wide concentration range of atovaquone. Our results show the IC(50) of P. berghei atovaquone resistant clones is much higher (1.5 up to 40 nM) in comparison to the atovaquone sensitive clones (0.132-0.465 nM). The highest IC(50) was revealed in clones carrying Y268C and Y268N mutations (which play an important role in atovaquone resistance in Plasmodium falciparum), with an approximately 100-fold increase. The findings indicate the importance of the mutation in the quinone binding site of the cytochrome b gene and that provide a direct evidence for the atovaquone inhibitory mechanism in the cytochrome bc1 complex of the parasite. PMID:25264100

  6. THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORDS CLEANUP PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2005-11-17

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50-acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity. and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy.

  7. THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORDS CLEANUP PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE, MN.W.

    2006-02-22

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50 acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity, and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy. It is

  8. Dissociation of insulin receptor phosphorylation and stimulation of glucose transport in BC3H-1 myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojsilovic, L.P.; Standaert, M.L.; Rosic, N.K.; Pollet, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated insulin receptor phosphorylation in differentiated cultured BC3H-1 myocytes. As for other insulin-responsive cell systems in partially purified wheat germ agglutinin receptor preparations, insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of its own receptor (95K ..beta..-subunits) in a dose dependent manner (0-400 nM), as identified by immunoprecipitation with antiinsulin receptor antibodies and SDS-PAGE. In the same preparations they show that 12-0-tetradecanyl phorbol acetate (TPA), which in many respect ..beta..-subunits in the same dose dependent manner (0-5 ..mu..M). In addition, antiinsulin receptor antibodies (B-10) also induced phosphorylation of mimics insulin action, also induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and HPLC tryptic maps of the /sup 32/P-labeled ..beta..-subunit were identical to those for insulin-induced receptor phosphorylation. However, while insulin and TPA are potent stimulators of glucose transport in these muscle cells, the antireceptor antibodies alone failed to provoke glucose transport at any concentration. The specificity and activity of these antibodies were confirmed in their system by their ability to inhibit insulin binding and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in a concentration-dependent manner. Their results indicate that phosphorylation of insulin receptor is not a crucial event in mediating insulin action, at least with respect to glucose transport. While the effects of the B-10 antibody in the BC3H-1 myocyte differ from those in the adipocyte, their results provide independent confirmation of their essential conclusion that phosphorylation of the insulin receptor may not be necessary nor sufficient for its acute action in promoting glucose transport.

  9. Potential vorticity and layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Oval BC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1988-01-01

    Using Voyager images, layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and White Oval BC were investigated by treating potential vorticity as a conserved tracer. Fluid trajectories around the GRS and the White Oval BC were calculated assuming the flow to be frictionless, adiabatic, hydrostatic, and steady in the reference frame of the vortex. The data obtained constitute a useful diagnostic which will help to differentiate between models of Jovian vortices. Implications of the observations were studied in the context of a one-layer quasi-geostrophic model in which a thin upper weather layer, which contains the vortex, is supported hydrostatically by a much deeper lower layer.

  10. Potential vorticity and layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red SPOT and White Oval BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, T. E.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    1988-04-01

    Using Voyager images, layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and White Oval BC were investigated by treating potential vorticity as a conserved tracer. Fluid trajectories around the GRS and the White Oval BC were calculated assuming the flow to be frictionless, adiabatic, hydrostatic, and steady in the reference frame of the vortex. The data obtained constitute a useful diagnostic which will help to differentiate between models of Jovian vortices. Implications of the observations were studied in the context of a one-layer quasi-geostrophic model in which a thin upper weather layer, which contains the vortex, is supported hydrostatically by a much deeper lower layer.

  11. Scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping for climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Davis, S. J.; Zender, C. S.; Smith, L. C.

    2013-12-01

    Receding Arctic sea ice coupled with increased resource demand in east Asia have recast the Arctic as an international trade space facilitating export of petroleum and minerals and offering potential alternative pathways for global maritime trade. Several studies have examined the future impact of increased vessel traffic in the Arctic on emissions of greenhouse gases and black carbon (BC); however, the net impact of these emissions on climate forcing in the region is not well understood. Here we present several scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping for climate studies. Vessel transits between 5 east Asian ports (Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Tokyo/Yokohama, Busan) and 2 European ports (Rotterdam, Hamburg) are estimated from 2010-2050 according to projected sea ice concentration and thickness, trends in cargo export volumes, and vessel ice class and cargo capacity. Sea ice data are represented by a 7-model ensemble mean from CMIP5 under two forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5/8.5). Emissions presented (CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, SOx, BC) are obtained by convolving projected transits with trends in emissions factors. Results illustrate a range of emissions inventories for the Arctic owing to differences in vessel accessibility, trade volume, routes, and fuel mixtures.

  12. BC1-FMRP interaction is modulated by 2′-O-methylation: RNA-binding activity of the tudor domain and translational regulation at synapses

    PubMed Central

    Lacoux, Caroline; Di Marino, Daniele; Pilo Boyl, Pietro; Zalfa, Francesca; Yan, Bing; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Falconi, Mattia; Urlaub, Henning; Achsel, Tilmann; Mougin, Annie; Caizergues-Ferrer, Michèle; Bagni, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The brain cytoplasmic RNA, BC1, is a small non-coding RNA that is found in different RNP particles, some of which are involved in translational control. One component of BC1-containing RNP complexes is the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) that is implicated in translational repression. Peptide mapping and computational simulations show that the tudor domain of FMRP makes specific contacts to BC1 RNA. Endogenous BC1 RNA is 2′-O-methylated in nucleotides that contact the FMRP interface, and methylation can affect this interaction. In the cell body BC1 2′-O-methylations are present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, but they are virtually absent at synapses where the FMRP–BC1–mRNA complex exerts its function. These results strongly suggest that subcellular region-specific modifications of BC1 affect the binding to FMRP and the interaction with its mRNA targets. We finally show that BC1 RNA has an important role in translation of certain mRNAs associated to FMRP. All together these findings provide further insights into the translational regulation by the FMRP–BC1 complex at synapses. PMID:22238374

  13. High altitude balloon measurements of free tropospheric black carbon: Do BC aerosol layers build "their own homes" up in the atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, S. Suresh; Manchanda, R. K.; Shankarnarayan, Sreenivasan; Sinha, P. R.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Prasad Vajja, Dinakar; Arunkumar, V. H.; Satheesh, S. K.

    2012-07-01

    First ever high altitude balloon measurements of the vertical profiles of the mass concentration of aerosol black carbon (BC) concurrently with the atmospheric thermodynamical parameters were made in the troposphere ( up to 9 km) from the National Balloon Facility at Hyderabad as a part of the Regional Aerosol warming Experiment (RAWEX) of ARFI Project (ISRO-GBP) during March 2010. The altitude distribution of BC showed multiple peaks, at ˜ 4.5 km and above 8 km. Associated with these, rapid decrease in the environmental lapse rate and a sharp increase in the atmospheric stability were observed, probably caused by the atmospheric warming by the BC layers. Estimation of the heating rate profile using the altitude distribution of BC and the vertical profile of extinction coefficient from the CALIPSO, which had an over pass over the region on the day of BC profiling, revealed very large heating (˜ 2.8 K day-1) at ˜ 4.5 km. This experiment provided the first experimental evidence and quantification of the effects of BC absorption on the stability of the atmosphere. The elevated BC layers in the free troposphere absorb solar radiation leading to warming of the local ambient, which increases the atmospheric stability. The stable layer, thus created, is conducive for maintaining the BC layer longer, without dissipation (by inhibiting turbulent mixing) and thus increases its lifetime leading to further enhanced absorption. Thus raises an interesting question: Do BC layers build `their own homes' up in the atmosphere?

  14. [The Original Formulation for Toso-shu (Tusujiu), Created by the 3rd Century Chinese Physician, Hua Tuo].

    PubMed

    Mouri, Chika; Mikage, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The original formulation for "Tusujiu," which Japanese people still consume on the morning of January 1st, was created by Hua Tuo, but has not been studied in detail. The book Huatuo Shenyi Bizhuan, found in 1918, describes a concoction, "Biyijiu," that shows great similarity to the current Tusujiu; the ingredients for Biyijiu being rhubarb, atractylodes rhizome, cinnamon bark, platycodon root, zanthoxylum fruit, processed aconite root and smilax rhizome. The procedures for preparing and drinking it are to "pound the ingredients and then put them into a silk bag dyed with madder. During the daytime of the last day of the year, hang the bag in a well to soften the powder. Take the bag out early in the morning of the next day, the first day of the year. Heat the bag in fermented liquor until simmering. Drink the liquid with all family members, doing so while facing east. If one person drinks it, there will be no disease in the family. If the whole family drinks it, there will be no disease in their neighborhood in an area of one square 'li'. In this study, to determine the original formulation for Tusujiu, we examined a number of ancient medical texts from the 3rd to the 13th century that discuss Biyijiu and Tusujiu. As a result, we concluded that "Biyijiu" is likely to be the original formulation developed by Hua Tuo. PMID:26427101

  15. Developing Global Leaders for Research, Regulation, and Stewardship of Crop Protection Chemistry in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, John B; Corsi, Camilla; Van Emon, Jeanette M; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Hamilton, Denis J; Howard, Cody J; Hunter, Robert; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Kleter, Gijs A; Kookana, Rai S; Lalah, Joseph O; Leggett, Michael; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Peranginangin, Natalia; Rubin, Baruch; Saha, Bipul; Shakil, Najam A

    2016-01-13

    To provide sufficient food and fiber to the increasing global population, the technologies associated with crop protection are growing ever more sophisticated but, at the same time, societal expectations for the safe use of crop protection chemistry tools are also increasing. The goal of this perspective is to highlight the key issues that face future leaders in crop protection, based on presentations made during a symposium titled "Developing Global Leaders for Research, Regulation and Stewardship of Crop Protection Chemistry in the 21st Century", held in conjunction with the IUPAC 13th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry in San Francisco, CA, USA, during August 2014. The presentations highlighted the fact that leaders in crop protection must have a good basic scientific training and understand new and evolving technologies, are aware of the needs of both developed and developing countries, and have good communication skills. Concern is expressed over the apparent lack of resources to meet these needs, and ideas are put forward to remedy these deficiencies. PMID:25855233

  16. Teaching health in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Lee-Ann

    2015-01-01

    School nurses have a broad scope of practice, including direct clinical care, as well as teaching health lessons. Students in the 21st century require educators who understand the current global needs of these learners. Effective health teaching meets these 21st-century needs. This article presents a background of 21st-century learning, with specific recommendations for teaching this generation of students. PMID:25626242

  17. Urbanization in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Altarejos, R G

    1990-01-01

    Due to a combination of rapid population growth and high levels of rural-urban migration, overcrowding will be common in many cities around the world in the 21st century. Currently at 5.3 billion, the global population is expected to increase to 6 billion by the year 2000, and to 9 billion by 2025. Experts predict that urban centers will bear the brunt of the population growth. Rural areas have seen declines in the standard of living, partly due to natural disasters, civil war, and economic policies favoring urban centers. In search of jobs, better access to education, and health services, rural populations will flock to cities. But the rapid growth of cities will inevitably lead to the creation of slums, which will hamper urban development. Urban demographers predict that by the end of the century, 1/2 of the world's population will be urban, and 1/5 of these people will be concentrated in "mega cities," populations of 4 million or more. International migration will play a significant role, as people cross borders in search of opportunity. But contrary to the traditional model of urban growth, much of it will take place in developing countries. According to a 1985 study, developed nations had an urbanization level of 71%, compared to 31% in developing countries. However, experts calculate that by 2025, these levels will practically even out, with an urbanization level of 74% for developing countries and 77% for developed countries. By 2025, 25 cities will have populations of over 9 million, including Mexico City (25.8), Sao Paulo (24.0), Tokyo (20.2), Calcutta (16.5), Greater Bombay (16.0), and New York (15.8). PMID:12343167

  18. BEEC: An event generator for simulating the Bc meson production at an e+e- collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Xing-Gang; Wang, Xian-You

    2013-12-01

    The Bc meson is a doubly heavy quark-antiquark bound state and carries flavors explicitly, which provides a fruitful laboratory for testing potential models and understanding the weak decay mechanisms for heavy flavors. In view of the prospects in Bc physics at the hadronic colliders such as Tevatron and LHC, Bc physics is attracting more and more attention. It has been shown that a high luminosity e+e- collider running around the Z0-peak is also helpful for studying the properties of Bc meson and has its own advantages. For this purpose, we write down an event generator for simulating Bc meson production through e+e- annihilation according to relevant publications. We name it BEEC, in which the color-singlet S-wave and P-wave (cb¯)-quarkonium states together with the color-octet S-wave (cb¯)-quarkonium states can be generated. BEEC can also be adopted to generate the similar charmonium and bottomonium states via the semi-exclusive channels e++e-→|(QQ¯)[n]>+Q+Q¯ with Q=b and c respectively. To increase the simulation efficiency, we simplify the amplitude as compact as possible by using the improved trace technology. BEEC is a Fortran program written in a PYTHIA-compatible format and is written in a modular structure, one may apply it to various situations or experimental environments conveniently by using the GNU C compiler make. A method to improve the efficiency of generating unweighted events within PYTHIA environment is proposed. Moreover, BEEC will generate a standard Les Houches Event data file that contains useful information of the meson and its accompanying partons, which can be conveniently imported into PYTHIA to do further hadronization and decay simulation. Catalogue identifier: AEQC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEQC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in

  19. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of Victoria 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Jim; Wilson, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the population of college transfer students who entered the University of Victoria (UVic) from 2003/04 to 2007/08, updating a June 2004 report. Section A provides a general profile of the 6,917 British Columbia (BC) college transfer students who first registered and commenced studies at UVic in any session between summer 2003…

  20. Following Their Footsteps: What Happens to Students Who Move from Research Universities to Other BC Public Post-Secondary Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    British Columbia has a differentiated post-secondary system in which different kinds of institutions provide students with a wide range of educational program options and numerous opportunities for credential completion. As a result of the many education choices and pathways available to students in BC, they tend to navigate their way through the…

  1. A Survey of Movers: Students Who Move between BC Public Post-Secondary Institutions. A Summary of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several years, there has been a wealth of new data on student mobility in British Columbia's postsecondary system. Quantitative information from the Student Transitions Project (STP) has allowed current and prospective students, the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT), public post-secondary institutions, the Ministry…

  2. Inhibitor-complexed Structures of the Cytochrome bc[subscript 1] from the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    SciTech Connect

    Esser, Lothar; Elberry, Maria; Zhou, Fei; Yu, Chang-An; Yu, Linda; Xia, Di

    2008-06-30

    The cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex (bc{sub 1}) is a major contributor to the proton motive force across the membrane by coupling electron transfer to proton translocation. The crystal structures of wild type and mutant bc{sub 1} complexes from the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Rsbc{sub 1}), stabilized with the quinol oxidation (Q{sub P}) site inhibitor stigmatellin alone or in combination with the quinone reduction (Q{sub N}) site inhibitor antimycin, were determined. The high quality electron density permitted assignments of a new metal-binding site to the cytochrome c1 subunit and a number of lipid and detergent molecules. Structural differences between Rsbc{sub 1} and its mitochondrial counterparts are mostly extra membranous and provide a basis for understanding the function of the predominantly longer sequences in the bacterial subunits. Functional implications for the bc{sub 1} complex are derived from analyses of 10 independent molecules in various crystal forms and from comparisons with mitochondrial complexes.

  3. Determination of the energy dependence of the BC-408 plastic scintillation detector in medium energy x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, H.; Çubukçu, Ş.; Uyar, E.; Engin, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The energy dependence of the response of BC-408 plastic scintillator (PS), an approximately water-equivalent material, has been investigated by employing standardized x-ray beams. IEC RQA and ISO N series x-ray beam qualities, in the range of 40-100 kVp, were calibrated using a PTW-type ionization chamber. The energy response of a thick BC-408 PS detector was measured using the multichannel pulse height analysis method. The response of BC-408 PS increased gradually with increasing energy in the energy range of 40-80 kVp and then showed a flat behavior at about 80 to 120 kVp. This might be due to the self-attenuation of scintillation light by the scintillator itself and may also be partly due to the ionization quenching, leading to a reduction in the intensity of the light output from the scintillator. The results indicated that the sensitivity drop in BC-408 PS material at lower photon energies may be overcome by adding some high-Z elements to its polyvinyltoluene (PVT) base. The material modification may compensate for the drop in the response at lower photon energies. Thus plastic scintillation dosimetry is potentially suitable for applications in diagnostic radiology.

  4. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia's Vancouver campus on the basis of a minimum 24 transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2003/04 through 2007/08 academic years. The report mines familiar ground--similar…

  5. Neural Tube Defect Induction by Fumonisin B1 in LM/Bc Mice Fed Folate Deficient or Folate Replete Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. FB1 is found in corn-based foods and evidence suggests that it is a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTD). The mechanism(s) underlying NTD induction by FB1 in the sensitive LM/Bc mouse model is not well...

  6. Part 2: the Earliest World Map, Babylonia, c. 500 B.C. European Cartography on the Eve of the Discoveries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a cuneiform Babylonian tablet from about 500 B.C., the earliest extant world map. Explores bases for contemporary interpretation of the map. Observes that the map contains representations found in later maps. Suggests that modern views of the world are no less culturally laden than much earlier perspectives were. (SG)

  7. Genome Sequence of Radiation-Resistant Modestobacter marinus Strain BC501, a Representative Actinobacterium That Thrives on Calcareous Stone Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Philippe; Gury, Jérôme; Pujic, Petar; Chouaia, Bessem; Crotti, Elena; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Daffonchio, Daniele; Vacherie, Benoit; Barbe, Valérie; Médigue, Claudine; Calteau, Alexandra; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Essoussi, Imen; Nouioui, Imen; Abbassi-Ghozzi, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Modestobacter marinus strain BC501, an actinobacterial isolate that thrives on stone surfaces. The generated chromosome is circular, with a length of 5.57 Mb and a G+C content of 74.13%, containing 5,445 protein-coding genes, 48 tRNAs, and 3 ribosomal operons. PMID:22887672

  8. The QseBC Quorum Sensing System is Involved in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Colonization of the Swine Gastrointestinal Tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of bacteria to hormone-like, chemical molecules is termed quorum sensing, a mechanism for cell-to-cell communication that includes sensing the host environment. In the gastrointestinal tract, at least two quorum sensing molecules are present that activate the bacterial QseBC quorum sen...

  9. The Origins of Greek Civilization: From the Bronze Age to the Polis ca. 2500-600 B.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmell, Rhoda; And Others

    This document consists of three units in which students study and compare the two civilizations of ancient Greece, that of the Greek kingdoms of the second millennium B.C. and the city states of historical Greece, and learn how historians use archaeological evidence to reconstruct the history of Mycenaean Greece. Suggestions are included for…

  10. BcNoxD, a putative ER protein, is a new component of the NADPH oxidase complex in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Ulrike; Marschall, Robert; Tudzynski, Paul

    2015-03-01

    NADPH oxidases (Nox) are major enzymatic producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In fungi these multi-enzyme complexes are involved in sexual differentiation and pathogenicity. However, in contrast to mammalian systems, the composition and recruitment of the fungal Nox complexes are unresolved. Here we introduce a new Nox component, the membrane protein NoxD in the grey mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. It has high homology to the ER protein Pro41 from Sordaria macrospora, similar functions to the catalytic Nox subunit BcNoxA in differentiation and pathogenicity, and shows similarities to phagocytic p22phox. BcNoxA and BcNoxD interact with each other. Both proteins are involved in pathogenicity, fusion of conidial anastomosis tubes (CAT) and formation of sclerotia and conidia. These data support our earlier view based on localization studies, for an ER-related function of the Nox complex. We present the first evidence that some functions of the BcNoxA complex are indeed linked to the ER, while others clearly require export from the ER. PMID:25402961

  11. A catalogue of auroral observations from China, Korea and Japan (193 B.C. - A.D. 170)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, K. K. C. (Compiler); Stephenson, F. R. (Compiler); Willis, D. M. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive catalogue of auroral records from East Asia to be published in a European language. The catalogue, which extends from 193B.C. to A.D. 1770, contains nearly 850 separate entries. Observations are compiled from the histories of China, Korea and Japan.

  12. C11orf83, a mitochondrial cardiolipin-binding protein involved in bc1 complex assembly and supercomplex stabilization.

    PubMed

    Desmurs, Marjorie; Foti, Michelangelo; Raemy, Etienne; Vaz, Frédéric Maxime; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Bairoch, Amos; Lane, Lydie

    2015-04-01

    Mammalian mitochondria may contain up to 1,500 different proteins, and many of them have neither been confidently identified nor characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that C11orf83, which was lacking experimental characterization, is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein facing the intermembrane space. This protein is specifically associated with the bc1 complex of the electron transport chain and involved in the early stages of its assembly by stabilizing the bc1 core complex. C11orf83 displays some overlapping functions with Cbp4p, a yeast bc1 complex assembly factor. Therefore, we suggest that C11orf83, now called UQCC3, is the functional human equivalent of Cbp4p. In addition, C11orf83 depletion in HeLa cells caused abnormal crista morphology, higher sensitivity to apoptosis, a decreased ATP level due to impaired respiration and subtle, but significant, changes in cardiolipin composition. We showed that C11orf83 binds to cardiolipin by its α-helices 2 and 3 and is involved in the stabilization of bc1 complex-containing supercomplexes, especially the III2/IV supercomplex. We also demonstrated that the OMA1 metalloprotease cleaves C11orf83 in response to mitochondrial depolarization, suggesting a role in the selection of cells with damaged mitochondria for their subsequent elimination by apoptosis, as previously described for OPA1. PMID:25605331

  13. C11orf83, a Mitochondrial Cardiolipin-Binding Protein Involved in bc1 Complex Assembly and Supercomplex Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Michelangelo; Raemy, Etienne; Vaz, Frédéric Maxime; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Bairoch, Amos

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian mitochondria may contain up to 1,500 different proteins, and many of them have neither been confidently identified nor characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that C11orf83, which was lacking experimental characterization, is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein facing the intermembrane space. This protein is specifically associated with the bc1 complex of the electron transport chain and involved in the early stages of its assembly by stabilizing the bc1 core complex. C11orf83 displays some overlapping functions with Cbp4p, a yeast bc1 complex assembly factor. Therefore, we suggest that C11orf83, now called UQCC3, is the functional human equivalent of Cbp4p. In addition, C11orf83 depletion in HeLa cells caused abnormal crista morphology, higher sensitivity to apoptosis, a decreased ATP level due to impaired respiration and subtle, but significant, changes in cardiolipin composition. We showed that C11orf83 binds to cardiolipin by its α-helices 2 and 3 and is involved in the stabilization of bc1 complex-containing supercomplexes, especially the III2/IV supercomplex. We also demonstrated that the OMA1 metalloprotease cleaves C11orf83 in response to mitochondrial depolarization, suggesting a role in the selection of cells with damaged mitochondria for their subsequent elimination by apoptosis, as previously described for OPA1. PMID:25605331

  14. Unbiased identification of signal-activated transcription factors by barcoded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM).

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Pauline; Rando, Gianpaolo; Fleury-Olela, Fabienne; Schibler, Ueli

    2016-08-15

    The discovery of transcription factors (TFs) controlling pathways in health and disease is of paramount interest. We designed a widely applicable method, dubbed barcorded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM), to identify signal-activated TFs without any a priori knowledge about their properties. The BC-STAR-PROM library consists of ∼3000 luciferase expression vectors, each harboring a promoter (composed of six tandem repeats of synthetic random DNA) and an associated barcode of 20 base pairs (bp) within the 3' untranslated mRNA region. Together, the promoter sequences encompass >400,000 bp of random DNA, a sequence complexity sufficient to capture most TFs. Cells transfected with the library are exposed to a signal, and the mRNAs that it encodes are counted by next-generation sequencing of the barcodes. This allows the simultaneous activity tracking of each of the ∼3000 synthetic promoters in a single experiment. Here we establish proof of concept for BC-STAR-PROM by applying it to the identification of TFs induced by drugs affecting actin and tubulin cytoskeleton dynamics. BC-STAR-PROM revealed that serum response factor (SRF) is the only immediate early TF induced by both actin polymerization and microtubule depolymerization. Such changes in cytoskeleton dynamics are known to occur during the cell division cycle, and real-time bioluminescence microscopy indeed revealed cell-autonomous SRF-myocardin-related TF (MRTF) activity bouts in proliferating cells. PMID:27601530

  15. Hybrid fusions show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly supports cytochrome bc{sub 1} function in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Ekiert, Robert; Czapla, Monika; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • We used hybrid fusion bc{sub 1} complex to test inter-monomer electron transfer in vivo. • Cross-inactivated complexes were able to sustain photoheterotrophic growth. • Inter-monomer electron transfer supports catalytic cycle in vivo. • bc{sub 1} dimer is functional even when cytochrome b subunits come from different species. - Abstract: Electronic connection between Q{sub o} and Q{sub i} quinone catalytic sites of dimeric cytochrome bc{sub 1} is a central feature of the energy-conserving Q cycle. While both the intra- and inter-monomer electron transfers were shown to connect the sites in the enzyme, mechanistic and physiological significance of the latter remains unclear. Here, using a series of mutated hybrid cytochrome bc{sub 1}-like complexes, we show that inter-monomer electron transfer robustly sustains the function of the enzyme in vivo, even when the two subunits in a dimer come from different species. This indicates that minimal requirement for bioenergetic efficiency is to provide a chain of cofactors for uncompromised electron flux between the catalytic sites, while the details of protein scaffold are secondary.

  16. Bacillus cereus efflux protein BC3310 – a multidrug transporter of the unknown major facilitator family, UMF-2

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Jasmin K.; Hassan, Karl; Vörös, Aniko; Simm, Roger; Saidijam, Massoud; Bettaney, Kim E.; Bechthold, Andreas; Paulsen, Ian T.; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic classification divides the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) into 82 families, including 25 families that are comprised of transporters with no characterized functions. This study describes functional data for BC3310 from Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, a member of the “unknown major facilitator family-2” (UMF-2). BC3310 was shown to be a multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to ethidium bromide, SDS and silver nitrate when heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α ΔacrAB. A conserved aspartate residue (D105) in putative transmembrane helix 4 was identified, which was essential for the energy dependent ethidium bromide efflux by BC3310. Transport proteins of the MFS comprise specific sequence motifs. Sequence analysis of UMF-2 proteins revealed that they carry a variant of the MFS motif A, which may be used as a marker to distinguish easily between this family and other MFS proteins. Genes orthologous to bc3310 are highly conserved within the B. cereus group of organisms and thus belong to the core genome, suggesting an important conserved functional role in the normal physiology of these bacteria. PMID:26528249

  17. Seven Destructive Seismic Crises in 12th Century Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoboni, E.; Bernardini, F.

    2002-12-01

    Between 1114 and 1170 Syria was struck by 7 seismic crises: 5 were great earthquakes (August and November 1114, November 1115, June 1117, June 1170), amongst which that of 29th June 1170 represents one of the most destructive events of the Middle-Eastern and Mediterranean area. Instead 2 were long and violent tremor sequences without a real main shock: the first one went on from October 1138 to June 1139, the second from September 1156 to May 1159. Until now all of these seismic events had been known mostly through Arab sources. However, owing to the particular political and military situation in the Syria of that period, such sources could not provide a complete frame of reference. Indeed, in those years in the territories of Syria and present-day Lebanon, some Latin States had been formed due to the military invasion of the Frankish Crusades. Furthermore, Syria was a privileged territory of travellers from various countries heading towards Palestine. Hence, basing ourselves on complex and diversified types of sources, precious new data have emerged written in Latin, Frankish, Greek, Armenian and Syrian. At the same time, the contribution of the Arab sources has been broadened. The overall picture that has emerged offers a new observational basis that has allowed us to date, differentiate, localise and thoroughly evaluate the elements of at least 5 of these earthquakes (the best documented ones: November 1114, 1115, 1138-39, 1156-59 and 1170). Overall nearly 90 hit locations have been identified, about 30 of which new and unknown to the previous studies. It has thus been possible for the first time to shed light on the intense seismic activity that affected this region in the dark ages. In just less than 60 years all of the vast territory that includes present-day Lebanon, north-eastern Syria and south-eastern Turkey was repeatedly struck. The earthquakes of 13th November 1114 and 29th November 1115 (until today often muddled up), and the sequence in 1138-39 hit

  18. Tracing the 5000-year recorded history of inorganic thin films from ˜3000 BC to the early 1900s AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Gold is very likely the first metal discovered by man, more than 11 000 years ago. However, unlike copper (˜9000 BC), bronze (˜3500 BC), and wrought iron (˜2500-3000 BC), gold is too soft for fabrication of tools and weapons. Instead, it was used for decoration, religious artifacts, and commerce. The earliest documented inorganic thin films were gold layers, some less than 3000 Å thick, produced chemi-mechanically by Egyptians approximately 5000 years ago. Examples, gilded on statues and artifacts (requiring interfacial adhesion layers), were found in early stone pyramids dating to ˜2650 BC in Saqqara, Egypt. Spectacular samples of embossed Au sheets date to at least 2600 BC. The Moche Indians of northern Peru developed electroless gold plating (an auto-catalytic reaction) in ˜100 BC and applied it to intricate Cu masks. The earliest published electroplating experiments were ˜1800 AD, immediately following the invention of the dc electrochemical battery by Volta. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal films was reported in 1649, atmospheric arc deposition of oxides (Priestley) in the mid-1760s, and atmospheric plasmas (Siemens) in 1857. Sols were produced in the mid-1850s (Faraday) and sol-gel films synthesized in 1885. Vapor phase film growth including sputter deposition (Grove, 1852), vacuum arc deposition ("deflagration," Faraday, 1857), plasma-enhanced CVD (Barthelot, 1869) and evaporation (Stefan, Hertz, and Knudsen, 1873-1915) all had to wait for the invention of vacuum pumps whose history ranges from ˜1650 for mechanical pumps, through ˜1865 for mercury pumps that produce ballistic pressures in small systems. The development of crystallography, beginning with Plato in 360 BC, Kepler in 1611, and leading to Miller indices (1839) for describing orientation and epitaxial relationships in modern thin film technology, was already well advanced by the 1780s (Haüy). The starting point for the development of heterogeneous thin film nucleation theory was

  19. Confort 15 model of conduit dynamics: applications to Pantelleria Green Tuff and Etna 122 BC eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnola, S.; Romano, C.; Mastin, L. G.; Vona, A.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations are useful tools to illustrate how flow parameters and physical processes may affect eruption dynamics of volcanoes. In this paper, we present an updated version of the Conflow model, an open-source numerical model for flow in eruptive conduits during steady-state pyroclastic eruptions (Mastin and Ghiorso in A numerical program for steady-state flow of magma-gas mixtures through vertical eruptive conduits. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 00-209, 2000). In the modified version, called Confort 15, the rheological constraints are improved, incorporating the most recent constitutive equations of both the liquid viscosity and crystal-bearing rheology. This allows all natural magma compositions, including the peralkaline melts excluded in the original version, to be investigated. The crystal-bearing rheology is improved by computing the effect of strain rate and crystal shape on the rheology of natural magmatic suspensions and expanding the crystal content range in which rheology can be modeled compared to the original version ( Conflow is applicable to magmatic mixtures with up to 30 vol% crystal content). Moreover, volcanological studies of the juvenile products (crystal and vesicle size distribution) of the investigated eruption are directly incorporated into the modeling procedure. Vesicle number densities derived from textural analyses are used to calculate, through Toramaru equations, maximum decompression rates experienced during ascent. Finally, both degassing under equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions are considered. This allows considerations on the effect of different fragmentation criteria on the conduit flow analyses, the maximum volume fraction criterion ("porosity criterion"), the brittle fragmentation criterion and the overpressure fragmentation criterion. Simulations of the pantelleritic and trachytic phases of the Green Tuff (Pantelleria) and of the Plinian Etna 122 BC eruptions are performed to test the upgrades in

  20. Confort 15 model of conduit dynamics: applications to Pantelleria Green Tuff and Etna 122 BC eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnola, S.; Romano, C.; Mastin, L. G.; Vona, A.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations are useful tools to illustrate how flow parameters and physical processes may affect eruption dynamics of volcanoes. In this paper, we present an updated version of the Conflow model, an open-source numerical model for flow in eruptive conduits during steady-state pyroclastic eruptions (Mastin and Ghiorso in A numerical program for steady-state flow of magma-gas mixtures through vertical eruptive conduits. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 00-209, 2000). In the modified version, called Confort 15, the rheological constraints are improved, incorporating the most recent constitutive equations of both the liquid viscosity and crystal-bearing rheology. This allows all natural magma compositions, including the peralkaline melts excluded in the original version, to be investigated. The crystal-bearing rheology is improved by computing the effect of strain rate and crystal shape on the rheology of natural magmatic suspensions and expanding the crystal content range in which rheology can be modeled compared to the original version ( Conflow is applicable to magmatic mixtures with up to 30 vol% crystal content). Moreover, volcanological studies of the juvenile products (crystal and vesicle size distribution) of the investigated eruption are directly incorporated into the modeling procedure. Vesicle number densities derived from textural analyses are used to calculate, through Toramaru equations, maximum decompression rates experienced during ascent. Finally, both degassing under equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions are considered. This allows considerations on the effect of different fragmentation criteria on the conduit flow analyses, the maximum volume fraction criterion ("porosity criterion"), the brittle fragmentation criterion and the overpressure fragmentation criterion. Simulations of the pantelleritic and trachytic phases of the Green Tuff (Pantelleria) and of the Plinian Etna 122 BC eruptions are performed to test the upgrades in

  1. A High Density Ground-Level Ozone Sensor Network in the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, M.; Ainslie, B.; Alavi, M.; Henshaw, G.; McKendry, I.; Reid, K.; Salmond, J. A.; Steyn, D.; Williams, D.

    2012-12-01

    Ozone can have a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and the environment. To quantify these impacts, tropospheric chemistry models are often employed, which are continually increasing in complexity and resolution. In order to validate these sophisticated models and provide good quality parameterisation and initialisation data, complementary measurements are often made. However, these measurements can often be difficult to perform, expensive and time consuming to make. A low cost sensor network can overcome some of these limitations, by making spatially dense measurements for a fraction of the cost of traditional measurements. Since the mid-1980s, when reliable observations from the fixed monitoring network began, high ozone concentrations have been a health concern in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV), BC, Canada and numerous studies have been carried out in the LFV previously [1-4]. In the summer of 2012 we embarked on a programme to advance these studies by deploying the world's first ultra-dense fully automated ozone measurement network. The network consisted of approximately 60 high quality tungsten oxide semi-conductor ozone sensors integrated with low-cost cellular telephone modems and GPS receivers, returning data to a webserver in real-time at 1 minute temporal resolution. This ultra-dense network of sensors has enabled us to perform a detailed study of ozone formation and dispersal in the LFV and associated tributary valleys. Peak ozone production areas have been mapped out, particularly in the surrounding region where ozone is not routinely monitored. This has provided a detailed understanding of small scale variability and ozone transport phenomena, with particular emphasis placed on the previously unknown role of tributary valleys to the south of the LFV, Howe Sound, and Hope. Data quality was routinely checked by co-locating sensors with the local authority, MetroVancouver, reference ozone analysers. A statistical method to check data

  2. Link between local scale BC emissions in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and large scale atmospheric solar absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, P. S.; Ahmed, T.; Kar, A.; Rehman, I. H.; Ramanathan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Project Surya has documented indoor and outdoor concentrations of black carbon (BC) from traditional biomass burning cook stoves in a rural village located in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region of N. India from November 2009-September 2010. In this paper, we systematically document the link between local scale aerosol properties and column averaged regional aerosol optical properties and atmospheric radiative forcing. We document observations from the first phase of Project Surya and estimate the source dependent (biomass and fossil fuels) aerosol optical properties from local to regional scale. Data were collected using surface based observations of BC, organic carbon (OC), aerosol light absorption, scattering coefficient at the Surya village (SVI_1) located in IGP region and integrated with satellite and AERONET observations at the regional scale (IGP). The daily mean BC concentrations at SVI1 showed a large increase of BC during the dry season (December to February) with values reaching 35 μg m-3. Space based LIDAR data revealed how the biomass smoke was trapped within the first kilometer during the dry season and extended to above 5 km during the pre-monsoon season. As a result, during the dry season, the variance in the daily mean single scattering albedo (SSA), the ratio of scattering to extinction coefficient, and column aerosol optical properties at the local IGP site correlated (with slopes in the range of 0.85 to 1.06 and R2>0.4) well with the "IGP_AERONET" (mean of six AERONET sites). The statistically significant correlation suggested that in-situ observations can be used to derive spatial mean forcing, at least for the dry season. The atmospheric forcing due to BC and OC exceeded 20 Wm-2 during all months from November to May, supporting the deduction that elimination of cook stove smoke emissions through clean cooking technologies will likely have a major positive impact not only on human health but also on regional climate.

  3. Synthesis and supercapacitor electrode of VO2(B)/C core-shell composites with a pseudocapacitance in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifu; Zheng, Jiqi; Hu, Tao; Tian, Fuping; Meng, Changgong

    2016-05-01

    VO2(B)/C core-shell composites were successfully prepared using commercial V2O5, glucose and water as the starting materials by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The composition of the products was characterized by the techniques including X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer and elemental analysis. The morphology of the products was observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy tests. The results showed the products consisted of the crystal VO2(B) phase and the amorphous carbon phase. The amorphous carbon contained lots of organic groups, such as sbnd OH, Csbnd H, Cdbnd O and Cdbnd C, etc., which suggested that the carbon here was organic carbon. The morphology of the as-obtained VO2(B)/C composites was well-defined nanobelts, and each VO2(B) core was encapsulated into carbon. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of VO2(B)/C core-shell composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results showed the measured capacitance of VO2(B)/C composites was mainly based on the pseudocapacitance. VO2(B)/C composites displayed the specific capacitance of 203, 190, 182, 173, 164, and 147 F g-1 at the current density of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 20 A g-1, respectively. They also showed an excellent energy density of 198.9 W h kg-1 at a power density of 504.5 W kg-1 and a rapidly reversible redox Faraday response.

  4. Atovaquone and ELQ-300 Combination Therapy as a Novel Dual-Site Cytochrome bc1 Inhibition Strategy for Malaria.

    PubMed

    Stickles, Allison M; Smilkstein, Martin J; Morrisey, Joanne M; Li, Yuexin; Forquer, Isaac P; Kelly, Jane X; Pou, Sovitj; Winter, Rolf W; Nilsen, Aaron; Vaidya, Akhil B; Riscoe, Michael K

    2016-08-01

    Antimalarial combination therapies play a crucial role in preventing the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium parasites. Although artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) comprise the majority of these formulations, inhibitors of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1) are among the few compounds that are effective for both acute antimalarial treatment and prophylaxis. There are two known sites for inhibition within cyt bc1: atovaquone (ATV) blocks the quinol oxidase (Qo) site of cyt bc1, while some members of the endochin-like quinolone (ELQ) family, including preclinical candidate ELQ-300, inhibit the quinone reductase (Qi) site and retain full potency against ATV-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains with Qo site mutations. Here, we provide the first in vivo comparison of ATV, ELQ-300, and combination therapy consisting of ATV plus ELQ-300 (ATV:ELQ-300), using P. yoelii murine models of malaria. In our monotherapy assessments, we found that ATV functioned as a single-dose curative compound in suppressive tests whereas ELQ-300 demonstrated a unique cumulative dosing effect that successfully blocked recrudescence even in a high-parasitemia acute infection model. ATV:ELQ-300 therapy was highly synergistic, and the combination was curative with a single combined dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight. Compared to the ATV:proguanil (Malarone) formulation, ATV:ELQ-300 was more efficacious in multiday, acute infection models and was equally effective at blocking the emergence of ATV-resistant parasites. Ultimately, our data suggest that dual-site inhibition of cyt bc1 is a valuable strategy for antimalarial combination therapy and that Qi site inhibitors such as ELQ-300 represent valuable partner drugs for the clinically successful Qo site inhibitor ATV. PMID:27270285

  5. New Evidence for a Substellar Luminosity Problem: Dynamical Mass for the Brown Dwarf Binary Gl 417BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.; Ireland, Michael J.

    2014-08-01

    We present new evidence for a problem with cooling rates predicted by substellar evolutionary models that implies that model-derived masses in the literature for brown dwarfs and directly imaged planets may be too high. Based on our dynamical mass for Gl 417BC (L4.5+L6) and a gyrochronology system age from its young, solar-type host star, commonly used models predict luminosities 0.2-0.4 dex lower than we observe. This corroborates a similar luminosity-age discrepancy identified in our previous work on the L4+L4 binary HD 130948BC, which coincidentally has nearly identical component masses (≈50-55 M Jup) and age (≈800 Myr) as Gl 417BC. Such a luminosity offset would cause systematic errors of 15%-25% in model-derived masses at this age. After comparing different models, including cloudless models that should not be appropriate for mid-L dwarfs like G